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Sample records for high-power supercontinuum sources

  1. Noise reduction of high-power supercontinuum sources by back seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter Morten; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, Carsten L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate noise reduction in seeded supercontinuum generation at powers above the supercontinuum generation threshold and show that seeding of supercontinuum is also beneficial at high pump powers.......We investigate noise reduction in seeded supercontinuum generation at powers above the supercontinuum generation threshold and show that seeding of supercontinuum is also beneficial at high pump powers....

  2. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .uk. Abstract. The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump ...

  3. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

  4. Highly Stable, All-fiber, High Power ZBLAN Supercontinuum Source Reaching 4.75 µm used for Nanosecond mid-IR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Leick, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate compact all-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum generation up to 4.75 μm with 1.2 W output power during hundreds of hours. This source is applied to upconversion spectroscopy using the energy corresponding to a single pulse.......We demonstrate compact all-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum generation up to 4.75 μm with 1.2 W output power during hundreds of hours. This source is applied to upconversion spectroscopy using the energy corresponding to a single pulse....

  5. High power supercontinuum generation in tapered photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers has proven to be an effective way of blueshifting the dispersive wavelength edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. In this contribution we will discuss the underlying mechanisms of supercontinuum generation in tapers. We show, by introducing t...... at the spectral edges of the generated supercontinuum is at a constant level independent on the pump power in both tapered and uniform fibers....

  6. Single-mode pumped high air-fill fraction photonic crystal fiber taper for high-power deep-blue supercontinuum sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Simon T; Larsen, Casper; Jakobsen, Christian; Thomsen, Carsten L; Bang, Ole

    2014-02-15

    Dispersion control with axially nonuniform photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) permits supercontinuum (SC) generation into the deep-blue from an ytterbium pump laser. In this Letter, we exploit the full degrees of freedom afforded by PCFs to fabricate a fiber with longitudinally increasing air-fill fraction and decreasing diameter directly on the draw-tower. We demonstrate SC generation extending down to 375 nm in one such monolithic fiber device that is single-mode at 1064 nm at the input end.

  7. Single-mode pumped high air-fill fraction photonic crystal fiber taper for high-power deep-blue supercontinuum sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Jakobsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion control with axially nonuniform photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) permits supercontinuum (SC) generation into the deep-blue from an ytterbium pump laser. In this Letter, we exploit the full degrees of freedom afforded by PCFs to fabricate a fiber with longitudinally increasing air-fill fr......-fill fraction and decreasing diameter directly on the draw-tower. We demonstrate SC generation extending down to 375 nm in one such monolithic fiber device that is single-mode at 1064 nm at the input end....

  8. Noise Characterization of Supercontinuum Sources for Low Coherence Interferometry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J.; Kim, Sanghoon; Wax, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We examine the noise properties of supercontinuum light sources when used in low coherence interferometry applications. The first application is a multiple-scattering low-coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) system where high power and long image acquisition times are required to image deep into tissue. For this system we compare the noise characteristics of two supercontinuum sources from different suppliers. Both sources have long term drift that limits the amount of time over which signal averaging is advantageous for reducing noise. The second application is a high resolution optical coherence tomography system where broadband light is needed for high axial resolution. For this system we compare the noise performance of the two supercontinuum sources and a light source based on four superluminescent diodes (SLDs) using imaging contrast as a comparative metric. We find that the NKT SuperK has superior noise performance compared to the Fianium SC-450-4 but neither meets the performance of the SLDs. PMID:25606759

  9. IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune; Petersen, Christian; Thøgersen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    . The supercontinuum light source has a high brightness and spans the infrared region from 1400 nm to 4000 nm. This combination allows contact free high resolution hyper spectral infrared microscopy. The microscope is demonstrated by imaging an oil/water sample with 20 μm resolution.......Combining the molecular specificity of the infrared spectral region with high resolution microscopy has been pursued by researchers for decades. Here we demonstrate infrared supercontinuum radiated from an optical fiber as a promising new light source for infrared microspectroscopy...

  10. Numerical investigation on high power mid-infrared supercontinuum fiber lasers pumped at 3 µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Zhu, Xiushan; Norwood, Robert A; Song, Feng; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-12-02

    High power mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) laser sources in the 3-12 µm region are of great interest for a variety of applications in many fields. Although various mid-IR SC laser sources have been proposed and investigated experimentally and theoretically in the past several years, power scaling of mid-IR SC lasers beyond 3 μm with infrared edges extending beyond 7 μm are still challenges because the wavelengths of most previously used pump sources are below 2 μm. These problems can be solved with the recent development of mode-locked fiber lasers at 3 μm. In this paper, high power mid-IR SC laser sources based on dispersion engineered tellurite and chalcogenide fibers and pumped by ultrafast lasers at 3 µm are proposed and investigated. Our simulation results show that, when a W-type tellurite fiber with a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of 2.7 µm is pumped at 2.78 μm, the power proportion of the SC laser beyond 3 µm can exceed 40% and the attainable SC output power of the proposed solid-cladding tellurite fiber is one order of magnitude higher than that of existing microstructured tellurite fibers. Our calculation also predicts that a very promising super-broadband mid-IR SC fiber laser source covering two atmospheric windows and molecules' "fingerprint" region can be obtained with a microstructured As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber pumped at 2.78 μm.

  11. Long-pulse Supercontinuum Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.

    A Supercontinuum (SC) is a broad spectrum generated from a narrow light source through non-linear effects. This thesis describes SC generation based on 1064 nm ps pulses in PCF fibres. We investigate how the SC spectrum can be modified and intensity noise reduced by feeding back part of the SC...

  12. All fiber based supercontinuum light source utilized for IR microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune; Petersen, Christian; Thøgersen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    An all fiber based supercontinuum light source is demonstrated for infrared microscopy. The high brightness and spatial coherence of the source facilitate fast high resolution measurements.......An all fiber based supercontinuum light source is demonstrated for infrared microscopy. The high brightness and spatial coherence of the source facilitate fast high resolution measurements....

  13. Supercontinuum light sources for food analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    . One track of Light & Food will target the mid-infrared spectral region. To date, the limitations of mid-infraredlight sources, such as thermal emitters, low-power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation, have precluded mid-IR applications where the spatial coherence, broad......In Light & Food, a 30M DKK project funded by Innovationsfonden where DTU Fotonik has joined forces with University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University, FOSS and NKT, the vision is to develop a platform of analytical solutions to optimization of sustainable food production, both in the field...... and in the factory. These solutions will combine bright and broadband infrared light sources, so-called supercontinuum light sources,with spectroscopy, chemometrics and processing expertise and thereby contribute to increased food quality through faster and more precise analysis of grains, soils and dairy products...

  14. 2-10 μm Mid-infrared Supercontinuum Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    Spectroscopy is the study of how light interacts with molecules, which can be used to identify various substances in for example foods and medicine, by observing which parts of the light is absorbed after interaction with the sample. Especially infrared light, more precisely the mid infrared part...... and using the light in different applications. This dissertation presents the past three years of my work with developing an alternative light source that has the broad spectral bandwidth of a lamp, and high power focused in a tight spot similar to a laser. Such a mid‐infrared light source can be achieved...... through a process known as supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is a spectacular process in which an intense single color laser line can generate new colors by propagation in a nonlinear medium, such as a glass optical fiber. The theory of supercontinuum generation is therefore presented...

  15. STED microscopy with a supercontinuum laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildanger, Dominik; Rittweger, Eva; Kastrup, Lars; Hell, Stefan W

    2008-06-23

    We report on a straightforward yet powerful implementation of stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy providing subdiffraction resolution in the far-field. Utilizing the same super-continuum pulsed laser source both for excitation and STED, this implementation of STED microscopy avoids elaborate preparations of laser pulses and conveniently provides multicolor imaging. Operating at pulse repetition rates around 1 MHz, it also affords reduced photobleaching rates by allowing the fluorophore to relax from excitable metastable dark states involved in photodegradation. The imaging of dense nanoparticles and of the microtubular network of mammalian cells evidences a spatial resolution of 30-50 nm in the focal plane, i.e. by a factor of 8-9 beyond the diffraction barrier.

  16. Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy Using a Broadband Prism Cavity and a Supercontinuum Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul S.; Lehmann, Kevin K.

    2009-06-01

    The multiplex advantage of current cavity enhanced spectrometers is limited by the high reflectivity bandwidth of the mirrors used to construct the high finesse cavity. Previously, we reported the design and construction of a new spectrometer that circumvents this limitation by utilizing Brewster^{,}s angle prism retroreflectors. The prisms, made from fused silica and combined with a supercontinuum source generated by pumping a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber, yields a spectral window ranging from 500 nm to 1750 nm. Recent progress in the instruments development will be discussed, including work on modeling the prism cavity losses, alternative prism material for use in the UV and mid-IR spectral regions, and a new high power supercontinuum source based on mode-locked picosecond laser.

  17. Supercontinuum as a light source for miniaturized endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M K; Lin, H Y; Hsieh, C C; Kao, F J

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have successfully implemented supercontinuum based illumination through single fiber coupling. The integration of a single fiber illumination with a miniature CMOS sensor forms a very slim and powerful camera module for endoscopic imaging. A set of tests and in vivo animal experiments are conducted accordingly to characterize the corresponding illuminance, spectral profile, intensity distribution, and image quality. The key illumination parameters of the supercontinuum, including color rendering index (CRI: 72%~97%) and correlated color temperature (CCT: 3,100K~5,200K), are modified with external filters and compared with those from a LED light source (CRI~76% & CCT~6,500K). The very high spatial coherence of the supercontinuum allows high luminosity conduction through a single multimode fiber (core size~400μm), whose distal end tip is attached with a diffussion tip to broaden the solid angle of illumination (from less than 10° to more than 80°).

  18. Noise characterization of supercontinuum sources for low-coherence interferometry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J; Kim, Sanghoon; Wax, Adam

    2014-12-01

    We examine the noise properties of supercontinuum light sources when used in low-coherence interferometry applications. The first application is a multiple-scattering low-coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) system, where high power and long image acquisition times are required to image deep into tissue. For this system, we compare the noise characteristics of two supercontinuum sources from different suppliers. Both sources have long-term drift that limits the amount of time over which signal averaging is advantageous for reducing noise. The second application is a high-resolution optical coherence tomography system, where broadband light is needed for high axial resolution. For this system, we compare the noise performance of the two supercontinuum sources and a light source based on four superluminescent diodes (SLD) using imaging contrast as a comparative metric. We find that the NKT SuperK has superior noise performance compared with the Fianium SC-450-4, but neither meets the performance of the SLD.

  19. Broadband supercontinuum light source seeded by random distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R.; Rao, Y. J.; Zhang, W. L.; Wu, H.; Zeng, X.

    2017-04-01

    A novel broadband light source based on supercontinuum (SC) generation seeded by random distributed feedback fiber laser (RFL) is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. A half-opened fiber cavity formed by FBG and TrueWave fiber is used to generate random lasing and SC simultaneously. Experimental results indicate that RFL can be used as an effective pump for generation of SC. SC with 20-dB bandwidth of >250 nm was obtained. Such a broadband SC light source seeded by RFL may pave a way to generate high power broadband RFLs for use in optical sensing and measurement.

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE Blue extension of optical fibre supercontinuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, J. C.

    2010-11-01

    Supercontinuum generation in optical fibres pumped with high power pulse sources in the modulation instability regime is reviewed. The physical mechanisms and supercontinuum dynamics are described in detail. Routes to optimized output in terms of spectral flatness and particularly blue and ultraviolet spectral extent are presented, including the use of cascaded and tapered photonic crystal fibres.

  1. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Boyce

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  2. Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers has proven to be an effective way of blueshifting the dispersive wavelength edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. In this article we will review the state-of-the-art in fiber tapers, and discuss the underlying mechanisms of supercontinuum...... generation in tapers. We show, by introducing the concept of a group-acceleration mismatch, that for a given taper length, the downtapering section should be as long as possible to enhance the amount of blueshifted light. We also discuss the noise properties of supercontinuum generation in uniform...

  3. Supercontinuum as a light source for miniaturized endoscopes

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, M. K.; Lin, H. Y.; Hsieh, C C; Kao, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have successfully implemented supercontinuum based illumination through single fiber coupling. The integration of a single fiber illumination with a miniature CMOS sensor forms a very slim and powerful camera module for endoscopic imaging. A set of tests and in vivo animal experiments are conducted accordingly to characterize the corresponding illuminance, spectral profile, intensity distribution, and image quality. The key illumination parameters of the supercontinuum, inclu...

  4. Deep-blue supercontinuum light sources based on tapered photonic crystal bres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft

    of the noise across the spectrum. We further investigate the possibilities of reducing the spectral noise by modulating the pump with a weak seed, which makes the broadening dynamics increasingly deterministic rather than driven by noisy modulation instability. Particular attention is paid to the commercially......The nonlinear pulse broadening phenomenon of supercontinuum generation in optical fibres is appreciated as one of the most striking in nonlinear physics. Thanks to the unique combination of high brightness and octavespanning spectra, modern “white-light” supercontinuum lasers have found numerous...... in the deep-blue by optimising the fibre structure. To this end, we fabricate the first single-mode high air-fill fraction photonic crystal fibre for blue-extended supercontinuum sources. The mechanisms of supercontinuum broadening are highly sensitive to noise, and the inherent shot-to-shot variations...

  5. Supercontinuum Light Sources for Hyperspectral Subsurface Laser Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    A materials structural and chemical composition influences its optical scattering properties. In this paper we investigate the use of subsurface laser scattering (SLS) for inferring structural and chemical information of food products. We have constructed a computer vision system based on a super......A materials structural and chemical composition influences its optical scattering properties. In this paper we investigate the use of subsurface laser scattering (SLS) for inferring structural and chemical information of food products. We have constructed a computer vision system based...... on a supercontinuum laser light source and an Acousto- Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) to provide a collimated light source, which can be tuned to any wavelength in the range from 480 to 900 nm. We present the newly developed hyperspectral vision system together with a proof-of-principle study of its ability...... to discriminate between dairy products with either similar chemical or structural composition. The combined vision system is a new way for industrial food inspection allowing non-intrusive online process inspection of parameters that is hard with existing technology....

  6. Soliton filtering from a supercontinuum: a tunable femtosecond pulse source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licea-Rodriguez, Jacob; Rangel-Rojo, Raul [Centro de Investigacion CientIfica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, Ensenada B.C., 22860 (Mexico); Garay-Palmett, Karina, E-mail: rrangel@cicese.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico DF. 04510 (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report experimental results related with the generation of a supercontinuum in a microstructured fiber, from which the soliton with the longest wavelength is filtered out of the continuum and is used to construct a tunable ultrashort pulses source by varying the pump power. Pulses of an 80 fs duration (FWHM) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator were input into a 2 m long fiber to generate the continuum. The duration of the solitons at the fiber output was preserved by using a zero dispersion filtering system, which selected the longest wavelength soliton, while avoiding temporal spreading of the solitons. We present a complete characterization of the filtered pulses that are continuously tunable in the 850-1100 nm range. We also show that the experimental results have a qualitative agreement with theory. An important property of the proposed near-infrared pulsed source is that the soliton pulse energies obtained after filtering are large enough for applications in nonlinear microscopy.

  7. New horizons for Supercontinuum light sources: from UV to mid-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Carsten L.; Nielsen, Frederik Donbæk; Johansen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available supercontinuum sources continue to experience a strong growth in a wide range of industrial and scientific applications. In addition, there is a significant research effort focused on extending the wavelength coverage both towards UV and Mid-IR. Broadband sources covering...... these wavelength regions have received significant attention from potential users, as there is a wide array of applications for which there are few suitable alternative light sources – if any. Our developments in the field of Mid-IR supercontinuum sources have been based on radical approaches; such as soft glasses...

  8. High energy supercontinuum sources using tapered photonic crystal fibers for multispectral photoacoustic microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondu, Magalie; Brooks, Christopher; Jakobsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a record bandwidth high energy supercontinuum source suitable for multispectral photoacoustic microscopy. The source has more than 150  nJ/10  nm150  nJ/10  nm bandwidth over a spectral range of 500 to 1600 nm. This performance is achieved using a carefully designed fiber taper...... with large-core input for improved power handling and small-core output that provides the desired spectral range of the supercontinuum source....

  9. Compact high-power terahertz radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator on the return leg, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated and not stored, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding exceptionally high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes, limits the charge-per-bunch possible in such a device.

  10. Noise analysis of a white-light supercontinuum light source for multiple wavelength confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Gail [Centre for Biophotonics, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow, G4 0NR (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-07

    Intensity correlations of a Ti : sapphire, Kr/Ar and a white-light supercontinuum were performed to quantify the typical signal amplitude fluctuations and hence ascertain the comparative output stability of the white-light supercontinuum source for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Intensity correlations across a two-pixel sample (n = 1000) of up to 98%, 95% and 94% were measured for the Ti : sapphire, Kr/Ar and white-light supercontinuum source, respectively. The white-light supercontinuum noise level is therefore acceptable for CLSM, with the added advantage of wider wavelength flexibility over traditional CLSM excitation sources. The relatively low-noise white-light supercontinuum was then used to perform multiple wavelength sequential CLSM of guinea pig detrusor to confirm the reliability of the system and to demonstrate system flexibility.

  11. High-power laser source evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Dipeso, G.J.; Gerassimenko, M.; Managan, R.A.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Simonson, G.F.; Suter, L.J.

    1997-07-01

    This document reports progress in these areas: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM NOVA: TAMPED XENON UNDERDENSE X-RAY EMITTERS; MODELING MULTI-KEV RADIATION PRODUCTION OF XENON-FILLED BERYLLIUM CANS; MAPPING A CALCULATION FROM LASNEX TO CALE; HOT X RAYS FROM SEEDED NIF CAPSULES; HOHLRAUM DEBRIS MEASUREMENTS AT NOVA; FOAM AND STRUCTURAL RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR NIF NEUTRON EXPOSURE SAMPLE CASE ASSEMBLY DESIGN; NON-IGNITION X-RAY SOURCE FLUENCE-AREA PRODUCTS FOR NUCLEAR EFFECTS TESTING ON NIF. Also appended are reprints of two papers. The first is on the subject of ``X-Ray Production in Laser-Heated Xe Gas Targets.`` The second is on ``Efficient Production and Applications of 2- to 10-keV X Rays by Laser-Heated Underdense Radiators.``

  12. Chalcogenide based rib waveguide for compact on-chip supercontinuum sources in mid-infrared domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Than Singh; Tiwari, Umesh Kumar; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2017-08-01

    We have designed and analysed a rib waveguide structure in recently reported Ga-Sb-S based highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass for nonlinear applications. The proposed waveguide structure possesses a very high nonlinear coefficient and can be used to generate broadband supercontinuum in mid-infrared domain. The reported design of the chalcogenide waveguide offers two zero dispersion values at 1800 nm and 2900 nm. Such rib waveguide structure is suitable to generate efficient supercontinuum generation ranging from 500 - 7400 μm. The reported waveguide can be used for the realization of the compact on-chip supercontinuum sources which are highly applicable in optical imaging, optical coherence tomography, food quality control, security and sensing.

  13. Supercontinuum Source for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing in Square Photonic Crystal Fiber via Fluidic Infiltration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saghaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a square-lattice photonic crystal fiber based on optofluidic infiltration technique is proposed for supercontinuum generation. Using this approach, without nano-scale variation in the geometry of the photonic crystal fiber, ultra-flattened near zero dispersion centered about 1500 nm will be achieved. By choosing the suitable refractive index of the liquid to infiltrate into the air-holes of the fiber, the supercontinuum will be generated for 50 fs input optical pulse of 1550 nm central wavelength with 20 kW peak power. We numerically demonstrate that this approach allows one to obtain more than two-octave spanning of supercontinuum from 800 to 2000 nm. The spectral slicing of this spectrum has also been proposed as a simple way to create multi-wavelength optical sources for dense wavelength division multiplexing.

  14. Telecom to mid-infrared spanning supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides using a Thulium doped fiber laser pump source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Utsav D; Uvin, Sarah; Kuyken, Bart; Selvaraja, Shankar; Leo, Francois; Roelkens, Gunther

    2013-12-30

    A 1,000 nm wide supercontinuum, spanning from 1470 nm in the telecom band to 2470 nm in the mid-infrared is demonstrated in a 800 nm x 220 nm 1 cm long hydrogenated amorphous silicon strip waveguide. The pump source was a picosecond Thulium doped fiber laser centered at 1950 nm. The real part of the nonlinear parameter of this waveguide at 1950 nm is measured to be 100 ± 10 W -1m-1, while the imaginary part of the nonlinear parameter is measured to be 1.2 ± 0.2 W-1m-1. The supercontinuum is stable over a period of at least several hours, as the hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides do not degrade when exposed to the high power picosecond pulse train.

  15. Fiber Based Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Source for Spectroscopic Analysis in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Keiding, Søren Rud

    Optimization of sustainable food production is a worldwide challenge that is undergoing continuous development as new technologies emerge. Applying solutions for food analysis with novel bright and broad mid-infrared (MIR) light sources has the potential to meet the increasing demands for food...... quality and production optimization. By combining a new MIR supercontinuum source with spectroscopy and chemometrics, we seek to enable faster and more precise analysis of grains, soils and dairy products....

  16. The Supercontinuum Laser Source Fundamentals with Updated References

    CERN Document Server

    Alfano, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Photonics and nonlinear optics are important areas of science, engineering and technology. One of the most important ultrafast nonlinear optical processes is the supercontinuum (SC) – the production of intense white light pulses covering: uv, visible, NIR, MIR, and IR. It is produced using ultrashort laser pulses (ps/fs) to produce the ultrabroad band of frequencies. This book covers the fundamental principles and surveys research of current thinkers and experts in the field with updated references of the key breakthroughs over the past decade and a half. The application of SC are time-resolved pump-SC probe absorption and excitation spectroscopy for chemistry, biology and physics fundamental processes; optical coherence tomography; ultrashort pulse generation in femtosecond and attosecond regions; frequency clocks; phase stabilization; optical communication; atmospheric science; lightning control; optical medical imaging; biological cell imaging; and metrology standards.

  17. Two-channel hyperspectral LiDAR with a supercontinuum laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuwei; Räikkönen, Esa; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Suomalainen, Juha; Hakala, Teemu; Hyyppä, Juha; Chen, Ruizhi

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in nonlinear fiber optics and compact pulsed lasers have resulted in creation of broadband directional light sources. These supercontinuum laser sources produce directional broadband light using cascaded nonlinear optical interactions in an optical fibre framework. This system is used to simultaneously measure distance and reflectance to demonstrate a technique capable of distinguishing between a vegetation target and inorganic material using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameters, while the range can be obtained from the waveform of the echoes. A two-channel, spectral range-finding system based on a supercontinuum laser source was used to determine its potential application of distinguishing the NDVI for Norway spruce, a coniferous tree, and its three-dimensional parameters at 600 nm and 800 nm. A prototype system was built using commercial components.

  18. Soliton transmission and supercontinuum generation in holey fiber using a diode pumped ytterbium fiber source

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Jonathan H.V.; Belardi, W.; Monro, T.M.; Malinowski, A.; Piper, A.; Richardson, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We report linear dispersion compensation, soliton pulse formation, soliton compression, and ultra-broad supercontinuum generation in a holey fiber with anomalous dispersion at wavelengths above 800nm. The holey fiber was seeded with ultrashort pulses from a diode pumped, Ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber source operating at 1.06µm. The results highlight the compatibility of the rapidly developing holey fiber technology with short pulse Yb-doped fiber lasers for wide application.

  19. High-power extreme ultraviolet source based on gas jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, G.D.; Bernardez, L.J.; Krenz, K.

    1998-03-01

    The authors report on the development of a high power laser plasma Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) source for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. The source is based on the plasma emission of a recycled jet beam of large Xe clusters and produces no particulate debris. The source will be driven by a pulsed laser delivering 1,500 W of focused average power to the cluster jet target. To develop condensers and to optimize source performance, a low power laboratory cluster jet prototype has been used to study the spectroscopy, angular distributions, and EUV source images of the cluster jet plasma emission. In addition, methods to improve the reflectance lifetimes of nearby plasma facing condenser mirrors have been developed. The resulting source yields EUV conversion efficiencies up to 3.8% and mirror lifetimes of 10{sup 9} plasma pulses.

  20. ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dr. Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources, the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE, serving  two free electron lasers, sources for intense coherent THz radiation, mono-energetic positrons, electrons, γ-rays, a neutron time-of-flight system as well as two synchronized ultra-short pulsed Petawatt laser systems are collocated. The characteristics of these beams make the ELBE center a unique research instrument for a variety of external users in fields ranging from material science over nuclear physics to cancer research, as well as scientists of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR.

  1. Absolute detector-based spectrally tunable radiant source using digital micromirror device and supercontinuum fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Yuquan; Li, Futian

    2017-06-10

    High-accuracy absolute detector-based spectroradiometric calibration techniques traceable to cryogenic absolute radiometers have made progress rapidly in recent decades under the impetus of atmospheric quantitative spectral remote sensing. A high brightness spectrally tunable radiant source using a supercontinuum fiber laser and a digital micromirror device (DMD) has been developed to meet demands of spectroradiometric calibrations for ground-based, aeronautics-based, and aerospace-based remote sensing instruments and spectral simulations of natural scenes such as the sun and atmosphere. Using a supercontinuum fiber laser as a radiant source, the spectral radiance of the spectrally tunable radiant source is 20 times higher than the spectrally tunable radiant source using conventional radiant sources such as tungsten halogen lamps, xenon lamps, or LED lamps, and the stability is better than ±0.3%/h. Using a DMD, the spectrally tunable radiant source possesses two working modes. In narrow-band modes, it is calibrated by an absolute detector, and in broad-band modes, it can calibrate for remote sensing instrument. The uncertainty of the spectral radiance of the spectrally tunable radiant source is estimated at less than 1.87% at 350 nm to 0.85% at 750 nm, and compared to only standard lamp-based calibration, a greater improvement is gained.

  2. Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy using a Prism Cavity and Supercontinuum Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Kevin K.; Johnston, Paul S.

    2010-03-01

    The multiplex advantage of current cavity enhanced spectrometers is limited by the limited high reflectivity bandwidth of the dielectric mirrors used to construct the high finesse cavity. We report on our development of a spectrometer that uses Brewster's angle retroreflectors that is excited with supercontinuum radiation generated by a 1.06 μm pumped photonic crystal fiber, which covers the 500-1800 nm spectral range. Recent progress will be discussed including modeling of the prism cavity losses, alternative prism materials for use in the UV and mid-IR, and a new higher power source pumped by a mode-locked laser.

  3. Supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    The advent of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) has paved the road for commercial high-power supercontinuum light sources. The air-hole structuring in the PCF manipulates the properties of light and gives a tremendous degree of design freedom, which has enabled pushing the properties of PCFs to limi...

  4. Spallation Neutron Source High Power RF Installation and Commissioning Progress

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Michael P; Bradley, Joseph T; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Hardek, Thomas; Kang, Yoon W; Rees, Daniel; Roybal, William; Young, Karen A

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac will provide a 1 GeV proton beam for injection into the accumulator ring. In the normal conducting (NC) section of this linac, the Radio Frequency Quadupole (RFQ) and six drift tube linac (DTL) tanks are powered by seven 2.5 MW, 402.5 MHz klystrons and the four coupled cavity linac (CCL) cavities are powered by four 5.0 MW, 805 MHz klystrons. Eighty-one 550 kW, 805 MHz klystrons each drive a single cavity in the superconducting (SC) section of the linac. The high power radio frequency (HPRF) equipment was specified and procured by LANL and tested before delivery to ensure a smooth transition from installation to commissioning. Installation of RF equipment to support klystron operation in the 350-meter long klystron gallery started in June 2002. The final klystron was set in place in September 2004. Presently, all RF stations have been installed and high power testing has been completed. This paper reviews the progression of the installation and testing of the HPRF Sys...

  5. Terahertz radiation source using a high-power industrial electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose that high-power electron beam from such an industrial linac can first pass through an undulator to generate useful terahertz (THz) radiation, and the spent electron beam coming out of the undulator can still be used for the intended industrial applications. This will enhance the utilization of a high-power industrial ...

  6. Photoacoustic and nephelometric spectroscopy of aerosol optical properties with a supercontinuum light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N.; Arnold, I. J.; Moosmüller, H.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2013-12-01

    A novel multi-wavelength photoacoustic-nephelometer spectrometer (SC-PNS) has been developed for the optical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles. This instrument integrates a white light supercontinuum laser with photoacoustic and nephelometric spectroscopy to measure aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients at five wavelength bands (centered at 417, 475, 542, 607, and 675 nm). These wavelength bands are selected from the continuous spectrum of the laser (ranging from 400-2200 nm) using a set of optical interference filters. Absorption and scattering measurements on laboratory-generated aerosol samples were performed sequentially at each wavelength band. To test the instrument we measured the wavelength dependence of absorption and scattering coefficients of kerosene soot and common salt aerosols. Results were favorably compared to those obtained with a commercial 3-wavelength photoacoustic and nephelometer instrument demonstrating the utility of the SC light source for studies of aerosol optical properties at selected wavelengths. Here, we discuss instrument design, development, calibration, performance and experimental results.

  7. Tunable supercontinuum fiber laser source for BRDF measurements in the STARR II gonioreflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather J.; Zarobila, Clarence J.; Germer, Thomas A.; Ying, Victor A.; Cooksey, Catherine A.; Tsai, Benjamin K.

    2012-10-01

    STARR II is a planned NIST facility for spectral measurements of specular reflectance and diffuse bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) that is the follow-on to the current NIST STARR (Spectral Tri-function Automated Reference Reflectometer) facility. STARR II will improve and expand on the measurement capabilities of STARR, increasing spectral coverage in the short-wave infrared spectral region and adding out-of-plane BRDF measurement capability. We present characteristics of a tunable light source constructed for STARR II, which is based upon a supercontinuum fiber laser and has a tuning range from 500 nm to 2450 nm, alongside those of the current lampbased system in STARR. We then discuss considerations for measuring BRDF using this source. The STARR II goniometer will employ an articulated robotic arm to center and orient the sample, and we calculate the transformations from orientation of the sample and receiver to incident and scattering angles for measurements of in-plane and out-ofplane BRDF. We also present, for the first time, an analytic expression for the correction of measured BRDF to true BRDF due to the finite illumination area and collection aperture, and to the effects of uniformity of illumination. Finally, we present exploratory BRDF measurements on a diffuse sample made using the tunable supercontinnum source.

  8. Filling the THz Gap - High Power Sources and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn Williams

    2006-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves centered at a frequency of 1 THz lie between photonics on the one hand and electronics on the other, and are very hard to generate and detect. However, since the THz part of the spectrum is energetically equivalent to many important physical, chemical and biological processes including superconducting gaps and protein dynamical processes, it is of great interest to facilitate experimental research in this region. This has stimulated major steps in the past decade for filling this gap in the usable spectrum. In this review paper we describe the evolution of a new generation of sources that boost the average power available in the THz region by more than a million-fold, making this region routinely accessible for the first time. This is achieved using two enhancement factors, namely relativistic electrons and super-radiance. We will also point to the scientific potential for discovery that is now enabled in this region.

  9. Quasi-supercontinuum source in the extreme ultraviolet using multiple frequency combs from high-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsche, Martin; Fuchs, Silvio; Aull, Stefan; Nathanael, Jan; Möller, Max; Rödel, Christian; Paulus, Gerhard G

    2017-03-20

    A quasi-supercontinuum source in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) is demonstrated using a table-top femtosecond laser and a tunable optical parametric amplifier (OPA) as a driver for high-harmonic generation (HHG). The harmonic radiation, which is usually a comb of odd multiples of the fundamental frequency, is generated by near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses from the OPA. A quasi-continuous XUV spectrum in the range of 30 to 100 eV is realized by averaging over multiple harmonic comb spectra with slightly different fundamental frequencies and thus different spectral spacing between the individual harmonics. The driving laser wavelength is swept automatically during an averaging time period. With a total photon flux of 4×109 photons/s in the range of 30 eV to 100 eV and 1×107photons/s in the range of 100 eV to 200 eV, the resulting quasi-supercontinuum XUV source is suited for applications such as XUV coherence tomography (XCT) or near-edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS).

  10. Photoacoustic and nephelometric spectroscopy of aerosol optical properties with a supercontinuum light source

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, N; I. J. Arnold; H. Moosmüller; W. P. Arnott; Mazzoleni, C.

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-wavelength photoacoustic-nephelometer spectrometer (SC-PNS) has been developed for the optical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles. This instrument integrates a white light supercontinuum laser with photoacoustic and nephelometric spectroscopy to measure aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients at five wavelength bands (centered at 417, 475, 542, 607, and 675 nm). These wavelength bands were selected from the continuous spectrum of the laser (ranging f...

  11. Photoacoustic and nephelometric spectroscopy of aerosol optical properties with a supercontinuum light source

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, N; I. J. Arnold; H. Moosmüller; W. P. Arnott; Mazzoleni, C.

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-wavelength photoacoustic-nephelometer spectrometer (SC-PNS) has been developed for the optical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles. This instrument integrates a white light supercontinuum laser with photoacoustic and nephelometric spectroscopy to measure aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients at five wavelength bands (centered at 417, 475, 542, 607, and 675 nm). These wavelength bands are selected from the continuous spectrum of the laser ...

  12. Novel coherent supercontinuum light sources based on all-normal dispersion fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidt, Alexander

    2011-07-05

    The concept of broadband coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation in all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fibers in the near-infrared, visible and ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions is introduced and investigated in detail. In numerical studies, explicit design criteria are established for ANDi photonic crystal fiber (PCF) designs that allow the generation of flat and smooth ultrabroad spectral profiles without significant fine structure and with excellent stability and coherence properties. The key benefit of SC generation in ANDi fibers is the conservation of a single ultrashort pulse in the time domain with smooth and recompressible phase distribution. In the numerical investigation of the SC generation dynamics self-phase modulation and optical wave breaking are identified as the dominant nonlinear effects responsible for the nonlinear spectral broadening. It is further demonstrated that coherence properties, spectral bandwidth and temporal compressibility are independent of input pulse duration for constant peak power. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental results obtained in two realizations of ANDi PCF optimized for the near-infrared and visible spectral region. In these experiments, the broadest SC spectrum generated in the normal dispersion regime of an optical fiber to date is achieved. The exceptional temporal properties of the generated SC pulses are verified experimentally and their applicability for the time-resolved study of molecular dynamics in ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated. In an additional nonlinear pulse compression experiment, the SC pulses obtained in a short piece of ANDi PCF could be temporally recompressed to sub-two cycle durations by linear chirp compensation. Numerical simulations show that even shorter pulse durations with excellent quality can be achieved by full phase compensation. The concept is further extended into the UV spectral regime by considering tapered optical fibers with

  13. Comparison between a supercontinuum source and a titanium sapphire laser in achieving ultrahigh resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caujolle, S.; Unterhuber, A.; Feuchter, T.; Podoleanu, A.; Werkmeister, R. M.

    2017-07-01

    Corneal B-scan images and signal-to-noise ratio measurements using ultra-high resolution Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) are reported. A comparison of results is obtained using a Ti:Sa laser and a supercontinuum optical source, is performed. Beside some differences in the SNR, the images are strikingly similar.

  14. Development of a high-power THz radiation source for plasma diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegrist, M. R.; Bindslev, H.; Brazis, R.; Guyomarc' h, D.; Hogge, J. P.; Moreau, P.; Raguotis, R.

    1999-01-01

    A high power radiation source in the THz range with long pulse and narrow line width is required for diagnosing fusion type plasmas by collective Thomson scattering. Gyrotrons currently meet the requirements concerning power, pulse length and line width when operating in the 50-150 GHz range. They

  15. Study of the general plasma characteristics of a high power multifilament ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1979-09-01

    A general assessment of the steady state and time dependent plasma properties which characterize a high power multifilament ion source is presented. Steady state measurements, obtained via a pulsed electrostatic probe data acquisition system, are described. Fluctuation measurements, obtained via a broadband digital spectral analysis system, are also given.

  16. Novel, High-power, Mid-infrared Optical Source for the 5-12 Micron Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    for the visible and ultraviolet ”, Advanced Solid- State Photonics, Denver, Colorado, USA, February 2009 3. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Tunable, high...power, solid-state sources for the blue and ultraviolet ”, Lasers and applications in science and engineering (LASE 2009), Photonics West, San Jose, USA...XXIVth International Conference on Photochemistry , ICP 2009, Toledo, Spain, July 2009 9. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Advances in laser wavelength conversion

  17. All-fiber broadband supercontinuum source with high efficiency in a step-index high nonlinear silica fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiqing; Liao, Meisong; Yang, Lingzhen; Yan, Xin; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2012-03-10

    We demonstrate an all-fiber broadband supercontinuum (SC) source with high efficiency in a step-index high nonlinear silica fiber, which was pumped by a 1557 nm subpicosecond-pulse laser in the normal dispersion region. The broad SC spectrum covers the spectral range from 840 to 2390 nm, and the 10 dB bandwidth from 1120 nm to 2245 nm of the SC covers one octave, assuming the peaks near 1550 nm were filtered. The SC source system is constructed by all-fiber components, which can be fusion-spliced together directly with low loss, less than 0.1 dB. Thus the SC source has high energy transfer efficiency from the pump source. The maximum SC average power of 332 mW is obtained, including the peaks near 1550 nm. The spectral density for the 10 dB bandwidth is in the range from -17.3 to -7.3 dBm/nm.

  18. Supercontinuum noise in tapered photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Moselund, Peter Morten

    Supercontinuum generation (SCG) in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (PCF) has drawn a lot of attention for the last decade. Pumping such PCFs with high-power picosecond laser pulses enables the creation of broadband and intense light. Picosecond SCG is initiated by modulation instability...

  19. Rib waveguide in Ga-Sb-S chalcogenide glass for on-chip mid-IR supercontinuum sources: Design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Than Singh; Tiwari, Umesh Kumar; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Recently, highly nonlinear Ga-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses have been reported for promising mid-infrared applications such as thermal imaging, nonlinear optics, and infrared lasers. However, the nonlinear optical fiber and waveguide geometries in Ga-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses have not been reported to date. In this paper, we numerically investigate the design of the dual zero dispersion engineered rib waveguide in Ga8Sb32S60 chalcogenide glass by employing MgF2 glass as a lower and upper cladding material. The waveguide structure possesses nonlinearity as high as 24 100 W-1 Km-1 and 14 000 W-1 Km-1 at 2050 and 2800 nm, respectively. The reported waveguide is able to generate a mid-infrared supercontinuum spectrum spanning from 1000 to 7800 nm when it pumped with 97 femtosecond laser pulses of a peak power of 1 kW at 2050 nm. We have also showed that the supercontinuum spectrum can be extended to the spectral range of 1000-9700 nm using pumping with 497 fs pulses of a peak power of 6.4 kW at 2800 nm. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed rib waveguide structure in Ga8Sb32S60 chalcogenide glass has been reported first time for nonlinear applications. Such a dispersion engineered rib waveguide structure has potential applications for the low-cost, power efficient, and compact on-chip mid-infrared supercontinuum sources and other nonlinear photonic devices.

  20. High power laser pulse circulation experiment for compact quasi-monochromatic tunable X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, De [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)]. E-mail: dmou@nuclear.jp; Sakamoto, Fumito [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tomohiko [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Dobashi, Katsuhiro [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Nose, Hiroyuki [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toyosu Ihi Building, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan); Ishida, Daisuke [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toyosu Ihi Building, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan); Kaneko, Namio [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toyosu Ihi Building, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan); Sakai, Yasuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toyosu Ihi Building, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Laser electron Compton scattering monochromatic tunable X-ray source using X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser is under construction at Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo. To enhance the X-ray intensity, we installed a laser circulation system. Now, we are performing the circulation experiment by using a high power laser (1.4 J, 532 nm). We confirmed the laser pulse circulated in the optical circuit more than 15 times and the laser intensity is enhanced about 3.5 times.

  1. Near infrared spectroscopy of food systems using a supercontinuum laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine

    Mid-infrared and particularly near-infrared spectroscopy is extremely useful for food analysis because they measure chemical and physical properties fast and non-destructively. The advancement of a supercontinuum light source covering the near-infrared and parts of the ultraviolet and mid......)) can be obtained, (c) that the supercontinuum light is fiber compatible i.e. it can couple directly to fibers, and (d) that the fast repetition rate of the supercontinuum pulses makes it possible to do very fast measurements. For these reasons, the supercontinuum light stands out from the commonly...... applied near- and mid-infrared incandescent light bulbs. This thesis aim to explore the utility of using a supercontinuum source in two food applications. (1) The supercontinuum light was applied for the first time to barley seeds in transmission mode in the long wavelength near-infrared region from 2260...

  2. High power microwave source with a three dimensional printed metamaterial slow-wave structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Albuquerque, New Mexico 871117 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    For over the last decade, the concept of metamaterials has led to new approaches for considering the interaction of radiation with complex structures. However, practical manifestations of such a device operating at high power densities have proven difficult to achieve due to the resonant nature of metamaterials and the resultant high electric fields, which place severe constraints on manufacturing the slow wave structures. In this paper, we describe the first experimental manifestation of a high power microwave device utilizing a metallic slow wave structure (metamaterial-like) fabricated using additive manufacturing. The feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing as a technique for building these relatively complicated structures has thus been demonstrated. The MW class microwave source operates in the C-band and shows frequency tunablility with electron beam voltage. The basic electromagnetic characteristics of this device, the construction using additive manufacturing, and the basic performance as a microwave oscillator are considered. Due to the tunable nature of the device, it shows promise not only as an oscillator but also as a microwave amplifier. Therefore, the dispersive characteristics and a discussion of the anticipated gain is included as it relates to an amplifier configuration.

  3. High power microwave source with a three dimensional printed metamaterial slow-wave structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David M; Shiffler, Don

    2016-05-01

    For over the last decade, the concept of metamaterials has led to new approaches for considering the interaction of radiation with complex structures. However, practical manifestations of such a device operating at high power densities have proven difficult to achieve due to the resonant nature of metamaterials and the resultant high electric fields, which place severe constraints on manufacturing the slow wave structures. In this paper, we describe the first experimental manifestation of a high power microwave device utilizing a metallic slow wave structure (metamaterial-like) fabricated using additive manufacturing. The feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing as a technique for building these relatively complicated structures has thus been demonstrated. The MW class microwave source operates in the C-band and shows frequency tunablility with electron beam voltage. The basic electromagnetic characteristics of this device, the construction using additive manufacturing, and the basic performance as a microwave oscillator are considered. Due to the tunable nature of the device, it shows promise not only as an oscillator but also as a microwave amplifier. Therefore, the dispersive characteristics and a discussion of the anticipated gain is included as it relates to an amplifier configuration.

  4. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, D V; Parson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  5. Design of a compact high-power neutron source-The EURISOL converter target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samec, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)], E-mail: karel.samec@psi.ch; Milenkovic, R.Z.; Dementjevs, S.; Ashrafi-Nik, M.; Kalt, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-07-21

    The EURISOL project, a multi-lateral initiative supported by the EU, aims to develop a facility to achieve high yields of isotopes in radioactive beams and extend the variety of these isotopes towards more exotic types. The neutron source at the heart of the projected facility is designed to generate isotopes by fissioning uranium carbide (UC) targets arranged around a 4 MW neutron source. For reasons of efficiency, it is essential that the neutron source be as compact as possible, to avoid losing neutrons by absorption whilst maximising the escaping neutron flux, thus increasing the number of fissions in the UC targets. The resulting configuration presents a challenge in terms of absorbing heat deposition rates of up to 8 kW/cm{sup 3} in the neutron source; it has led to the selection of liquid metal for the target material. The current paper presents the design of a compact high-power liquid-metal neutron source comprising a specially optimised beam window concept. The design is based on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations for thermal hydraulics and hydraulic aspects, as well as finite-element method (FEM) for assessing thermo-mechanical stability. The resulting optimised design was validated by a dedicated hydraulic test under realistic flow conditions. A full-scale mock-up was built at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and was tested at the Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia (IPUL)

  6. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. M., E-mail: jared.johnson@ttu.edu; Reale, D. V.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Krile, J. T. [Department of Electromagnetics and Sensor Systems, Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division, Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  7. A Series-LC-Filtered Active Trap Filter for High Power Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Passive trap filters are widely used in high power Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) for the switching harmonic attenuation. The usage of the passive trap filters requires clustered and fixed switching harmonic spectrum, which is not the case for low pulse-ratio or Variable Switching Frequency (VSF...... current control of the auxiliary converter, which can be challenging considering that the switching harmonics have very high orders. In this paper, an Active Trap Filter (ATF) based on output impedance shaping is proposed. It is able to bypass the switching harmonics by providing nearly zero output...... impedance. A series-LC-filter is used to reduce the power rating and synthesize the desired output impedance of the ATF. Compared with the existing approaches, the compensated frequency range is greatly enlarged. Also, the current reference is simply set to zero, which reduces the complexity of the control...

  8. Special Section Guest Editorial:Selected Topics in Biophotonics: Photoacoustic Tomography and Fiber-Based Lasers and Supercontinuum Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Andersen, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    The present special section entitled “Selected Topics in Biophotonics: Photoacoustic Tomography and Fiber-Based Lasers and Supercontinuum Sources” comprises two invited papers and several contributed papers from the summer school Biophotonics ’15, as well as contributed papers within this general...

  9. Disposal strategy of proton irradiated mercury from high power spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriki, Suresh

    2010-07-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL: nuclear physics research facility and ESS: European Spallation Source). These facilities would accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Liquid waste cannot be tolerated in European repositories. As part of this work on safety/decommissioning of high-power spallation sources, our investigations were focused mainly to study experimentally and theoretically the solidification of liquid mercury waste (selection of an adequate solid mercury form and of an immobilization matrix, chemical engineering process studies on solidification/stabilization and on encapsulating in a matrix). Based on experimental results and supported by literature Hg-chalcogens (HgS, HgSe) will be more stable in repositories than amalgams. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in possible accidents with water ingress in a repository. Additionally immobilization of mercury in a cement matrix and polysiloxane matrix were tested. HgS formation from liquid target mercury by a wet process is identified as a suitable formation procedure. These investigations reveal that an almost 99.9% elementary Hg conversion can be achieved and that wet process can be reasonably handled under hot cell conditions. (orig.)

  10. [Diagnosis and analysis of high power YAG laser and MAG arc hybrid source with spectral information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xu-you; Li, Huan

    2010-11-01

    High power YAG laser and MAG are hybrid source is a promising material processing heat source for future industry application Diagnosis of the plasma state is critical for better understanding of the coupling effect, application of the source and optimization of the hybrid parameters. Through establishing a hollow probe spectral collecting system, Avaspec-Ft-2 high speed digital spectrometer was applied for collecting the spectral information of hybrid are plasma. The hollow probe scans the plasma body to acquire the spatial distribution of the YAG laser-MAG hybrid are spectrum. The radiation intensity in specific spectral zone was acquired for analysis of the radiation variation when the laser beam was hybrid with the MAG arc. High speed photo was also applied for comparison of the plasma with and without laser beam coupling. Furthermore, line spectra of Fe I were selected for calculating the electronic temperature of the hybrid plasma with Boltzmann plot method. The results show that energy of the hybrid plasma focused on the weld plate with high intensity and wider acting zone. The electronic temperature increased in the center of the hybrid plasma.

  11. A high-power incoherent light source for ultra-precise optical trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittko, Robert; Mazurenko, Anton; Greiner, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The ability to engineer arbitrary optical potentials using spatial light modulation has opened up exciting possibilities in ultracold quantum gas experiments. Yet, despite the high trap quality currently achievable, interference-induced distortions caused by scattering along the optical path continue to impede more sensitive measurements. We present a design of a high-power, spatially and temporally incoherent light source that dramatically reduces the impact of such distortions. The device is based on an array of non-lasing semiconductor emitters mounted on a single chip, whose optical output is coupled into a multi-mode fiber. The fiber is used to populate a large number of transverse modes, each of which experiences a different optical path length. This effect, combined with the small coherence length of the light, dramatically reduces the spatial coherence of the output. In addition to theoretical calculations showcasing the feasibility of this approach, we present various experimental measurements verifying the low degree of spatial coherence exhibited by the source, including a detailed analysis of the speckle contrast at the fiber end.

  12. A high-power fiber-coupled semiconductor light source with low spatio-temporal coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittko, Robert; Mazurenko, Anton; Tai, M. Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Menke, Tim; Kaufman, Adam M.; Greiner, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Interference-induced distortions pose a significant challenge to a variety of experimental techniques, ranging from full-field imaging applications in biological research to the creation of optical potentials in quantum gas microscopy. Here, we present a design of a high-power, fiber-coupled semiconductor light source with low spatio-temporal coherence that bears the potential to reduce the impact of such distortions. The device is based on an array of non-lasing semiconductor emitters mounted on a single chip whose optical output is coupled into a multi-mode fiber. By populating a large number of fiber modes, the low spatial coherence of the input light is further reduced due to the differing optical path lengths amongst the modes and the short coherence length of the light. In addition to theoretical calculations showcasing the feasibility of this approach, we present experimental measurements verifying the low degree of spatial coherence achievable with such a source, including a detailed analysis of the speckle contrast at the fiber end. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation's EPiQS Initiative, an Air Force Office of Scientific Research MURI program and an Army Research Office MURI program.

  13. Modernization of high-power (5 kW) broad ion beam source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlin, D. R.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Tretnikov, P. V.; Nasyrov, V. F.; Timerbaev, A. Z.

    2017-05-01

    In the course of the long-term performance (during 5 years) of a high-power source of gas ions (25 keV, 0.2 A, 600 cm2) with a plasma emitter based on cold cathode discharge, the character and rate of key constructive elements faults were determined, which allowed to calculate the inter-repair time, complexity and cost of the repair. The peculiarities of the gas-discharge system and the ion beam forming system limiting the effectiveness of ion beam treatment were revealed as well. Conditions favorable for the decrease in the discharge voltage by 50-200 V and igniting voltage up to 1.5-2 times are determined. The possibilities of lowering the minimal flow of working gas are demonstrated. The design of the discharge system with reduced sputtering rate of local areas of the hollow cathode is offered. The changes added to ion source design aimed to enhance the lifetime of the plasma chamber that is exposed to cyclic heating by the back electron beam leading to the development of through cracks, and to enlarge the rupture life of glow discharge hollow cathode by optimizing its configuration and the conditions of discharge ignition and burning, are described. The upgraded design of a multislit ion-optical system with enhanced performance ensures uniform surface distribution of ion fluence.

  14. Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouawad, O.; Béjot, P.; Billard, F.; Mathey, P.; Kibler, B.; Désévédavy, F.; Gadret, G.; Jules, J.-C.; Faucher, O.; Smektala, F.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the generation of multiple-octave supercontinuum laser source spanning from 0.5 μm to 11 μm induced by multi-filamentation in a ZnSe crystal. The generated supercontinuum is both spatially and spectrally characterized. It is then exploited in a proof-of-principle experiment for methane spectroscopy measurements by means of the supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy technique. The entire absorption spectrum is successfully recorded within the whole spectral bandwidth of the supercontinuum. Experimental results are in fairly good agreement with the HITRAN database, confirming the reliability and stability over several hours of the generated supercontinuum.

  15. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopyanov, A V; Golubev, S V; Khizhnyak, V I; Mansfeld, D A; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

    2008-02-01

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 micros, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  16. Toward realizing high power semiconductor terahertz laser sources at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-05-01

    The terahertz (THz) spectral range offers promising applications in science, industry, and military. THz penetration through nonconductors (fabrics, wood, plastic) enables a more efficient way of performing security checks (for example at airports), as illegal drugs and explosives could be detected. Being a non-ionizing radiation, THz radiation is environment-friendly enabling a safer analysis environment than conventional X-ray based techniques. However, the lack of a compact room temperature THz laser source greatly hinders mass deployment of THz systems in security check points and medical centers. In the past decade, tremendous development has been made in GaAs/AlGaAs based THz Quantum Cascade Laser (QCLs), with maximum operating temperatures close to 200 K (without magnetic field). However, higher temperature operation is severely limited by a small LO-phonon energy (~ 36 meV) in this material system. With a much larger LO-phonon energy of ~ 90 meV, III-Nitrides are promising candidates for room temperature THz lasers. However, realizing high quality material for GaN-based intersubband devices presents a significant challenge. Advances with this approach will be presented. Alternatively, recent demonstration of InP based mid-infrared QCLs with extremely high peak power of 120 W at room temperature opens up the possibility of producing high power THz emission with difference frequency generation through two mid-infrared wavelengths.

  17. The EURISOL Multi Megawatt Target Station, a liquid metal target for a High Power spallation source.

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Blumenfeld, L; Milenkovich, R; Wagner, W; Thomsen, K; Dementjevs, S; Platacis, E; Kravalis, K; Zik, A

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2013.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This presentation summarises the work carried out for the Multi Megawatt target station of the EURISOL Design Study with particular attention to the coupled neutronic of the liquid converter and the overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutr...

  18. Testing a high-power LED based light source for hyperspectral imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomkaew, Phiwat; Mayes, Sam A.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Our lab has worked to develop high-speed hyperspectral imaging systems that scan the fluorescence excitation spectrum for biomedical imaging applications. Hyperspectral imaging can be used in remote sensing, medical imaging, reaction analysis, and other applications. Here, we describe the development of a hyperspectral imaging system that comprised an inverted Nikon Eclipse microscope, sCMOS camera, and a custom light source that utilized a series of high-power LEDs. LED selection was performed to achieve wavelengths of 350-590 nm. To reduce scattering, LEDs with low viewing angles were selected. LEDs were surface-mount soldered and powered by an RCD. We utilized 3D printed mounting brackets to assemble all circuit components. Spectraradiometric calibration was performed using a spectrometer (QE65000, Ocean Optics) and integrating sphere (FOIS-1, Ocean Optics). Optical output and LED driving current were measured over a range of illumination intensities. A normalization algorithm was used to calibrate and optimize the intensity of the light source. The highest illumination power was at 375 nm (3300 mW/cm2), while the lowest illumination power was at 515, 525, and 590 nm (5200 mW/cm2). Comparing the intensities supplied by each LED to the intensities measured at the microscope stage, we found there was a great loss in power output. Future work will focus on using two of the same LEDs to double the power and finding more LED and/or laser diodes and chips around the range. This custom hyperspectral imaging system could be used for the detection of cancer and the identification of biomolecules.

  19. Terahertz radiation source using a high-power industrial electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkal, Yashvir; Kumar, Vinit

    2017-04-01

    High-power (˜ 100 kW) industrial electron linear accelerators (linacs) are used for irradiations, e.g., for pasteurization of food products, disinfection of medical waste, etc. We propose that high-power electron beam from such an industrial linac can first pass through an undulator to generate useful terahertz (THz) radiation, and the spent electron beam coming out of the undulator can still be used for the intended industrial applications. This will enhance the utilization of a high-power industrial linac. We have performed calculation of spontaneous emission in the undulator to show that for typical parameters, continuous terahertz radiation having power of the order of μW can be produced, which may be useful for many scientific applications such as multispectral imaging of biological samples, chemical samples etc.

  20. A comparative study of noise in supercontinuum light sources for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria J., Sanjuan-Ferrer,; Bravo Gonzalo, Ivan; Bondu, Magalie

    2017-01-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) light is a well-established technology, which finds applications in several domains ranging from chemistry to material science and imaging systems [1-2]. More specifically, its ultra-wide optical bandwidth and high average power make it an ideal tool for Optical Coherence...... illustrate the different noise measurements and their impact on a state of the art UHR-OCT system producing images of skin. The sensitivity of the system was higher than 95 dB, with an axial resolution below 4μm....

  1. Design of a High-Power White Light Source with Colloidal Quantum Dots and Non-Rare-Earth Phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Kristopher T.

    This thesis describes the design process of a high-power white light source, using novel phosphor and colloidal quantum dot materials. To incorporate multiple light emitters, we generalized and extended a down-converting layer model. We employed a phosphor mixture comprising of YAG:Ce and K2TiF 6:Mn4+ powders to illustrate the effectiveness of the model. By incorporating experimental photophysical results from the phosphors and colloidal quantum dots, we modeled our system and chose the design suitable for high-power applications. We report a reduction in the correlated color temperature by 600K for phosphor and quantum dot systems, enabling the creation of a warm white light emission at power densities up to 5 kW/cm 2. Furthermore, at this high-power, their emission achieves the digital cinema initiative (DCI) requirements with a luminescence efficacy improvement up to 32% over the stand-alone ceramic YAG:Ce phosphor.

  2. Free-electron masers vs. gyrotrons prospects for high-power sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Thumm, M K

    2002-01-01

    The possible applications of high-power millimeter (mm) and sub-mm waves from free-electron masers (FEMs) and gyro-devices span a wide range of technologies. The plasma physics community has already taken advantage of recent advances in applying high-power mm waves generated by long pulse or continuous wave (CW) gyrotron oscillators and short pulse very high-power FEMs in the areas of RF-plasma production, heating, non-inductive current drive, plasma stabilization and active plasma diagnostics for magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion research, such as electron cyclotron resonance heating (28-170 GHz), electron cyclotron current drive , collective Thomson scattering , microwave transmission and heat-wave propagation experiments. Continuously frequency tunable FEMs could widen these fields of applications. Another important application of CW gyrotrons is industrial materials processing, e.g. sintering of high-performance functional and structural nanostructured ceramics. Sub-mm wave sources are employed in...

  3. The Nanophysics of Electron Emission and Breakdown for High Power Microwave Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-21

    coaxial anode/collector. 3.1.2. Formation of  plasma  filaments during w‐band microwave breakdown  Regular, two-dimensional plasma ...Injection Gun ," IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices (May, 2005). 2. Booske, John H., “ Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-to-terahertz and...high power microwave (HPM) device technologies by establishing new physical understanding of electron emission/absorption and plasma breakdown

  4. Compact ring FEL as a source of high-power infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, O. A.; Matveenko, A. N.; Vinokurov, N. A.

    2009-05-01

    Ring FELs [N.A. Vinokurov, O.A. Shevchenko, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. A 528 (2004) 491] were proposed mainly to improve the quality of radiation of X-ray FELs. Their main advantage is the absence of mirrors. It appears that this advantage is also useful for high-power FELs. Another reason to build infrared ring FEL is the proof of principle for shorter wavelength FELs. Therefore, we considered the scheme of infrared ring FEL which requires ERL with beam energy 50 MeV. Using extensive simulations we developed requirements for electron beam parameters and magnetic system of ring FEL. In spite of rather compact design such FEL may provide more than 10 kW average power.

  5. High-power LED light sources for optical measurement systems operated in continuous and overdriven pulsed modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasicki, Bolesław; Schröder, Andreas; Boden, Fritz; Ludwikowski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    The rapid progress of light emitting diode (LED) technology has recently resulted in the availability of high power devices with unprecedented light emission intensities comparable to those of visible laser light sources. On this basis two versatile devices have been developed, constructed and tested. The first one is a high-power, single-LED illuminator equipped with exchangeable projection lenses providing a homogenous light spot of defined diameter. The second device is a multi-LED illuminator array consisting of a number of high-power LEDs, each integrated with a separate collimating lens. These devices can emit R, G, CG, B, UV or white light and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. Using an external trigger signal they can be easily synchronized with cameras or other devices. The mode of operation and all parameters can be controlled by software. Various experiments have shown that these devices have become a versatile and competitive alternative to laser and xenon lamp based light sources. The principle, design, achieved performances and application examples are given in this paper.

  6. All solid-state high power microwave source with high repetition frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, J.-W. B.; Sullivan, W. W.; Mauch, D.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    An all solid-state, megawatt-class high power microwave system featuring a silicon carbide (SiC) photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and a ferrimagnetic-based, coaxial nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) is presented. A 1.62 cm2, 50 kV 4H-SiC PCSS is hard-switched to produce electrical pulses with 7 ns full width-half max (FWHM) pulse widths at 2 ns risetimes in single shot and burst-mode operation. The PCSS resistance drops to sub-ohm when illuminated with approximately 3 mJ of laser energy at 355 nm (tripled Nd:YAG) in a single pulse. Utilizing a fiber optic based optical delivery system, a laser pulse train of four 7 ns (FWHM) signals was generated at 65 MHz repetition frequency. The resulting electrical pulse train from the PCSS closely follows the optical input and is utilized to feed the NLTL generating microwave pulses with a base microwave-frequency of about 2.1 GHz at 65 MHz pulse repetition frequency (prf). Under typical experimental conditions, the NLTL produces sharpened output risetimes of 120 ps and microwave oscillations at 2-4 GHz that are generated due to damped gyromagnetic precession of the ferrimagnetic material's axially pre-biased magnetic moments. The complete system is discussed in detail with its output matched into 50 Ω, and results covering MHz-prf in burst-mode operation as well as frequency agility in single shot operation are discussed.

  7. High-power ns-pulse fiber laser sources for remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Teodoro, Fabio; Belden, Paul; Ionov, Pavel; Werner, Nicolette

    2014-12-01

    The development of fiber-based laser sources for space-borne remote sensors must meet many concurrent requirements including high pulse energy/peak power, excellent beam quality, narrow spectral linewidth, simple thermal management, small volume and mass, low power consumption, rugged packaging, and long-term reliability. To address these requirements, many aspects of pulse fiber laser technology must be advanced beyond the state of the art of traditional optical sources used in telecommunications and materials processing. In this article, we discuss component and solutions that enable pulsed fiber laser sources to support remote sensing from space. We also describe several examples of such sources and characterize their performance.

  8. Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; van Gils, C. A. J.; W. J. Goedheer,; van der Meiden, H. J.; D.C. Schram,; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and

  9. High-power FDML laser for swept source-OCT at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel frequency-swept light source working at 1060nm that utilizes a tapered amplifier as gain medium. These devices feature significantly higher saturation power than conventional semiconductor optical amplifiers and can thus improve the limited output power of swept sources in this...... an axial resolution of 15 μm in air (~11μm in tissue) for OCT applications can be achieved....

  10. Pressure and stress waves in a spallation neutron source mercury target generated by high-power proton pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Conrad, H; Stechemesser, H

    2000-01-01

    The international ASTE collaboration has performed a first series of measurements on a spallation neutron source target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) in Brookhaven. The dynamic response of a liquid mercury target hit by high-power proton pulses of about 40 ns duration has been measured by a laser Doppler technique and compared with finite elements calculations using the ABAQUS code. It is shown that the calculation can describe the experimental results for at least the time interval up to 100 mu s after the pulse injection. Furthermore, it has been observed that piezoelectric pressure transducers cannot be applied in the high gamma-radiation field of a spallation target.

  11. Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccio D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present supercontinuum generation pumped by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses in a bulk homogeneous material. The spectrum extends from 450 nm into the midinfrared, and carries high spectral energy density (3 pJ/nm–10 nJ/nm. The supercontinuum has high shot-to-shot reproducibility and preserves the carrier-to-envelope phase. Our result paves the way for compact supercontinuum sources with unprecedented bandwidth.

  12. Experimental demonstration of a compact epithermal neutron source based on a high power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Raspino, D.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, L. A.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Kelleher, J.; Murphy, C. D.; Notley, M.; Rusby, D. R.; Schooneveld, E.; Borghesi, M.; McKenna, P.; Rhodes, N. J.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Epithermal neutrons from pulsed-spallation sources have revolutionised neutron science allowing scientists to acquire new insight into the structure and properties of matter. Here, we demonstrate that laser driven fast (˜MeV) neutrons can be efficiently moderated to epithermal energies with intrinsically short burst durations. In a proof-of-principle experiment using a 100 TW laser, a significant epithermal neutron flux of the order of 105 n/sr/pulse in the energy range of 0.5-300 eV was measured, produced by a compact moderator deployed downstream of the laser-driven fast neutron source. The moderator used in the campaign was specifically designed, by the help of MCNPX simulations, for an efficient and directional moderation of the fast neutron spectrum produced by a laser driven source.

  13. Compact Power Conditioning and RF Systems for a High Power RF Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    inductors LS1, LS2, and LS3 are saturating magnetic cores that sequentially switch the parallel inductors into the circuit . The MU simulator is...the high voltage stages of load operation. The capacitor charged to -190 kV before the oil spark gap closed to form an underdamped RLC circuit with...fuse. The RF source consists of a high voltage, low inductance capacitor and a low inductance closing switch and shunt. An antenna in parallel with

  14. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.

    2005-07-19

    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  15. Discharge Characteristics of Large-Area High-Power RF Ion Source for Positive and Negative Neutral Beam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Doo-Hee; Jeong, Seung Ho; Park, Min; Kim, Tae-Seong; Jung, Bong-Ki; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang Ryul

    2016-12-01

    A large-area high-power radio-frequency (RF) driven ion source was developed for positive and negative neutral beam injectors at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The RF ion source consists of a driver region, including a helical antenna and a discharge chamber, and an expansion region. RF power can be transferred at up to 10 kW with a fixed frequency of 2 MHz through an optimized RF matching system. An actively water-cooled Faraday shield is located inside the driver region of the ion source for the stable and steady-state operations of high-power RF discharge. Plasma ignition of the ion source is initiated by the injection of argon-gas without a starter-filament heating, and the argon-gas is then slowly exchanged by the injection of hydrogen-gas to produce pure hydrogen plasmas. The uniformities of the plasma parameter, such as a plasma density and an electron temperature, are measured at the lowest area of the driver region using two RF-compensated electrostatic probes along the direction of the short-and long-dimensions of the driver region. The plasma parameters will be compared with those obtained at the lowest area of the expansion bucket to analyze the plasma expansion properties from the driver region to the expansion region. supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of the Republic of Korea under the ITER Technology R&D Program, and National R&D Program Through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014M1A7A1A03045372)

  16. Wavelength-agile high-power sources via four-wave mixing in higher-order fiber modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, J; Prabhakar, G; He, T; Ramachandran, S

    2017-04-03

    Frequency doubling of conventional fiber lasers in the near-infrared remains the most promising method for generating integrated high-peak-power lasers in the visible, while maintaining the benefits of a fiber geometry; but since the shortest wavelength power-scalable fiber laser sources are currently restricted to either the 10XX nm or 15XX nm wavelength ranges, accessing colors other than green or red remains a challenge with this schematic. Four-wave mixing using higher-order fiber modes allows for control of dispersion while maintaining large effective areas, thus enabling a power-scalable method to extend the bandwidth of near-infrared fiber lasers, and in turn, the bandwidth of potential high-power sources in the visible. Here, two parametric sources using the LP0,7 and LP0,6 modes of two step-index multi-mode fibers are presented. The output wavelengths for the sources are 880, 974, 1173, and 1347 nm with peak powers of 10.0, 16.2, 14.7, and 6.4 kW respectively, and ~300-ps pulse durations. The efficiencies of the sources are analyzed, along with a discussion of wavelength tuning and further power scaling, representing an advance in increasing the bandwidth of near-infrared lasers as a step towards high-peak-power sources at wavelengths across the visible spectrum.

  17. Testing quantum mechanics in non-Minkowski space-time with high power lasers and 4(th) generation light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, B J B; Bingham, R; Evans, R G; Gericke, D O; Landen, O L; Murphy, C D; Norreys, P A; Rose, S J; Tschentscher, Th; Wang, C H-T; Wark, J S; Gregori, G

    2012-01-01

    A common misperception of quantum gravity is that it requires accessing energies up to the Planck scale of 10¹⁹ GeV, which is unattainable from any conceivable particle collider. Thanks to the development of ultra-high intensity optical lasers, very large accelerations can be now the reached at their focal spot, thus mimicking, by virtue of the equivalence principle, a non Minkowski space-time. Here we derive a semiclassical extension of quantum mechanics that applies to different metrics, but under the assumption of weak gravity. We use our results to show that Thomson scattering of photons by uniformly accelerated electrons predicts an observable effect depending upon acceleration and local metric. In the laboratory frame, a broadening of the Thomson scattered x ray light from a fourth generation light source can be used to detect the modification of the metric associated to electrons accelerated in the field of a high power optical laser.

  18. A new circuit topology using Z-source resonant inverter for high power contactless power transfer applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Prabhat Chandra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new circuit topology using a Z-source resonant inverter (ZSRI for high power applications in large-air-gap contactless power transfer (CPT systems, has been investigated. The main shortcoming of a large-air-gap CPT system is the poor power transfer efficiency due to low magnetic coupling. In order to minimize this shortcoming and to improve the overall performance of the system by boosting the power transfer capability, in this paper a CPT system with the newly developed circuit topology using high frequency Z-source resonant inverter has been proposed. Using the newly developed circuit topology for the CPT system, it has been observed that the overall performance of the system has been improved to a reasonable level with a purely sinusoidal resonant current flowing through the primary side. Therefore, no harmonics will be injected into the source. The proposed CPT system with an air gap of 16 cm and a misalignment of 3 cm has been simulated using the Maxwell finite element tool and Simplorer circuit simulation software for an output power of 2 kW.

  19. Measurement and analysis of turbulent liquid metal flow in a high-power spallation neutron source-EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Blumenfeld, L; Kharoua, C; Dementjevs, S; Milenkovic, R Z

    2011-01-01

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line (EURISOL) design study completed in 2009 examined means of producing exotic nuclei for fundamental research. One of the critical components identified in the study was a high-power neutron spallation source in which a target material is impacted by a proton beam producing neutrons by a process known as spallation. Due to the high heat power deposition, liquid metal, in this case mercury, is the only viable choice as target material. Complex issues arise from the use of liquid metal. It is characterised by an unusually low Prandtl number and a higher thermal expansivity than conventional fluids. The turbulence structure in LM is thereby affected and still an object of intense research, hampered in part by measurement difficulties. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allowed a satisfactory design for the neutron source to be found rapidly with little iteration. However it was feared that the development of the boundary layer and associated turbulence would not b...

  20. Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune; Agger, Christian; Bang, Ole; Keiding, Søren R.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained developing our market leading visible spectrum supercontinuum sources NKT Photonics has built the first mid-infrared supercontinuum source based on modelocked picosecond fiber lasers. The source is pumped by a ~ 2 um laser based on a combination of erbium and thulium and use ZBLAN fibers to generate a 1.75-4.4 μm spectrum. We will present results obtained by applying the source for mid-infrared microscopy where absorption spectra can be used to identify the chemical nature of different parts of a sample. Subsequently, we discuss the possible application of a mid-IR supercontinuum source in other areas including infrared countermeasures.

  1. Hole-Size Increasing PCFs for Blue-Extended Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Jakobsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) sources with spectra extending into the deep-blue region below 400 nm are highly desirable in areas such as fluorescent microscopy [1]. Tapering of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with high air-fill fractions has proven an effective way of extending the spectra into the deep......-blue [1-4]. This facilitates the ideal combination of (1) an initial fiber section to allow a pulse break-up in the vicinity of the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) and an efficient energy transfer into the visible, and (2) a subsequent fiber section with group-velocity match (GVM) from the long...... (highly) multi moded at the pump, which complicates coupling and interfacing. In [5] this was overcome by increasing the air-hole size in a short section of a single mode PCF using a post processing technique, but only to enhance the visible power. Here we present the first high-power SC generation...

  2. Coherent multi-octave spanning supercontinuum in tapered sulphide fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Mägi, Eric; Hu, Tomonori

    A novel frequency comb design is proposed based on a newly developed ultrafast 3µm mid-infrared laser in conjunction with micro-taper chalcogenide fibre. The novel design allows for an all-fibre laser source yielding up to three octave coherent supercontinuum. The design is the first step...

  3. Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soliton fission; photonic crystal fibre; supercontinuum generation; optical coherence tomography. PACS Nos 42.81. ... out in PCF for various applications, generating broadband sources and ultrashort pulses using SCG technique finds .... where T0 is the pulse width. Figure 1 gives an idea about the broadening of pulse in a.

  4. Supercontinuum white light lasers for flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William G.; Subach, Fedor V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2009-01-01

    Excitation of fluorescent probes for flow cytometry has traditionally been limited to a few discrete laser lines, an inherent limitation in our ability to excite the vast array of fluorescent probes available for cellular analysis. In this report, we have used a supercontinuum (SC) white light laser as an excitation source for flow cytometry. By selectively filtering the wavelength of interest, almost any laser wavelength in the visible spectrum can be separated and used for flow cytometric analysis. The white light lasers used in this study were integrated into a commercial flow cytometry platform, and a series of high-transmission bandpass filters used to select wavelength ranges from the blue (~480 nm) to the long red (>700 nm). Cells labeled with a variety of fluorescent probes or expressing fluorescent proteins were then analyzed, in comparison with traditional lasers emitting at wavelengths similar to the filtered SC source. Based on a standard sensitivity metric, the white light laser bandwidths produced similar excitation levels to traditional lasers for a wide variety of fluorescent probes and expressible proteins. Sensitivity assessment using fluorescent bead arrays confirmed that the SC laser and traditional sources resulted in similar levels of detection sensitivity. Supercontinuum white light laser sources therefore have the potential to remove a significant barrier in flow cytometric analysis, namely the limitation of excitation wavelengths. Almost any visible wavelength range can be made available for excitation, allowing access to virtually any fluorescent probe, and permitting “fine-tuning” of excitation wavelength to particular probes. PMID:19072836

  5. [Study on the Supercontinuum Generation with Femtosecond Pulse in Photonic Crystal Fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan-fei; Zhao, Fu-li; Shen, Peng-gao; Wu, Shi-qiang

    2015-12-01

    Physical mechanism of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber by femtosecond laser pulse has been investigated experimentally. In this study, we used the tunable output wavelength Ti: sapphire optical parametric amplifier as the pump source and the fiber spectrometer acquired the spectrogram of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber under different power and wavelength conditions, then we normalized the spectrograms and make a comparison of them. PCF supercontinuum differences affected by physical mechanisms were analyzed. We found that when increasing the incident pump pulse power, the spectral width will be gradually widened, there are more peaks, part of the energy will transfer in to the short-wave- length region; as long as it reaches a certain intensity, width of supercontinuum finally saturated, the shape of supercontinuum was also stabilized. As the incident power was settled at 300 milliwatt and the length of PCF was settled at 105 millimeter, experimental results show that width and shape of supercontinuum are affected by the wavelength of pump pulse, in the range of 760 to 840 nm, there appears more and more peaks with the increase of incident wavelength; at anomalous dispersion the spectrogram of supercontinuum generation will be more flat and more wider as the wavelength of pump pulse closer to zero point.

  6. Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source

    OpenAIRE

    Gioux, Sylvain; Lomnes, Stephen J.; Choi, Hak Soo; Frangioni, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLi) could potentially improve exogenous near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging, because it offers the capability of discriminating a signal of interest from background, provides real-time monitoring of a chemical environment, and permits the use of several different fluorescent dyes having the same emission wavelength. We present a high-power, LED-based, NIR light source for the clinical translation of wide-field (larger than 5 cm in diameter) FLi at frequenc...

  7. Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, David R.; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Lind, Alex; Olson, Judith B.; Fox, Richard W.; Brown, Roger C.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Li, Qing; Westly, Daron; Leopardi, Holly; Fortier, Tara M.; Srinivasan, Kartik; Diddams, Scott A.; Papp, Scott B.

    2017-07-01

    We explore a photonic-integrated-circuit platform that implements optical-frequency measurements and timekeeping with a perspective towards next-generation portable and spaceborne frequency references and optical-clock networks. The stoichiometric-silicon-nitride waveguides we create provide an efficient and low-noise medium for nonlinear spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation with fiber-based optical-frequency combs. In particular, we demonstrate detailed control over supercontinuum emission to target specific atomic-transition wavelengths and perform an optical-clock comparison using on-chip supercontinuum sources. We report a clock-limited relative frequency instability of 3.8 ×10-15 at τ =2 s between a 1550-nm cavity-stabilized reference laser and NIST's calcium atomic-clock laser at 657 nm using a two-octave waveguide-supercontinuum frequency comb.

  8. High power laser source for atom cooling based on reliable telecoms technology with all fibre frequency stabilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Thomas; Farries, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Cold atom interferometers are emerging as important tools for metrology. Designed into gravimeters they can measure extremely small changes in the local gravitational field strength and be used for underground surveying to detect buried utilities, mineshafts and sinkholes prior to civil works. To create a cold atom interferometer narrow linewidth, frequency stabilised lasers are required to cool the atoms and to setup and measure the atom interferometer. These lasers are commonly either GaAs diodes, Ti Sapphire lasers or frequency doubled InGaAsP diodes and fibre lasers. The InGaAsP DFB lasers are attractive because they are very reliable, mass-produced, frequency controlled by injection current and simply amplified to high powers with fibre amplifiers. In this paper a laser system suitable for Rb atom cooling, based on a 1560nm DFB laser and erbium doped fibre amplifier, is described. The laser output is frequency doubled with fibre coupled periodically poled LiNbO3 to a wavelength of 780nm. The output power exceeds 1 W at 780nm. The laser is stabilised at 1560nm against a fibre Bragg resonator that is passively temperature compensated. Frequency tuning over a range of 1 GHz is achieved by locking the laser to sidebands of the resonator that are generated by a phase modulator. This laser design is attractive for field deployable rugged systems because it uses all fibre coupled components with long term proven reliability.

  9. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  10. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  11. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su; Shikhovtsev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5–1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  12. Enhanced two-channel nonlinear imaging by a highly polarized supercontinuum light source generated from a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Bao, Hongchun; Gu, Min

    2011-05-01

    Real-time monitoring the variation of chlorophyll distributions and cellular structures in leaves during plant growth provides important information for understanding the physiological statuses of plants. Two-photon-excited autofluorescence imaging and second harmonic generation imaging of leaves can be used for monitoring the nature intrinsic fluorophores distribution and cellular structures of leaves by the use of the near-infrared region of light which has minimal light absorption by endogenous molecules and thus increases tissue penetration. However, the two-photon absorption peak of intrinsic fluorophores of a ficus benjamina leaf is 50 nm away from the second harmonic generation excitation wavelength, which cannot be effectively excited by a femtosecond laser beam with one central wavelength. This paper shows that a highly polarized supercontinuum light generated from a birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths can effectively excite two-photon autofluorescence as well as second harmonic generation signals for simultaneously monitoring intrinsic fluorophore distributions and non-centrosymmetric structures of leaves.

  13. Decommissioning and safety issues of liquid-mercury waste generated from high power spallation sources with particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Chiriki, S; Odoj, R; Moormann, R; Hinssen, H. K; Bukaemskiy, A

    2009-01-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL nuclear physics facility and ESS-European Spallation Source). These facilities accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Because solids are the only appropriate (immobile) form for this radiotoxic and toxic type of waste solidification is required for irradiated mercury. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in assumed accidents with water ingress in a repository compared to amalgams. For preparation of mercury sulfide a wet process is more suitable than a dry one. It is easier to perform under hot cell conditions and allows complete Hg-conversion. Embedding HgS in a cementitious matrix increases its stability.

  14. Wideband and high-power light sources for in-line interferometric diagnostics of laser structuring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Pavel; Todorov, Filip; KašÎ¯k, Ivan; Matějec, Vlastimil; Podrazký, Ondřej; Šašek, Ladislav; Mallmann, Guilherme; Schmitt, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Laser structuring is rapidly developing manufacturing technique for broad spectrum of industrial branches, e.g. aerospace, power engineering, tool- and mould making, and automotive. It enables to prepare work pieces and products with very fine micro structures achieving a far better degree of details than conventional structuring techniques like etching or eroding. However, the state of art in laser structuring shows a crucial deficit. Used systems contain no metrology setup to detect the shape geometry (depth and length) and contour accuracy during the process. Therefore, an innovative in-line metrology technique based on low coherence interferometry for laser structuring systems has been investigated and described in the paper. In this contribution we present our results in the research of wideband and highpower light sources for the proposed low-coherence interferometric measurement system. The system can be incorporated into a structuring workplace equipped with a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser at 1064 nm for material processing. In the paper we focus on two wideband sources for such a measurement system. The first source is based on a superluminescent diode and the second one is based on an amplified spontaneous emission in a double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber. An example of results measured with the proposed in-line metrology system is presented.

  15. High Power, High Energy Cyclotrons for Decay-At-Rest Neutrino Sources: The DAEdALUS Project

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino physics is a forefront topic of today's research. Large detectors installed underground study neutrino properties using neutrino beams from muons decaying in flight. DAEdALUS looks at neutrinos from stopped muons, "decay at rest" (DAR) neutrinos. The DAR neutrino spectrum has effectively no electron antineutrinos (essentially all pi- are absorbed), so a detector with free protons is sensitive to appearance of nu-e-bar oscillating from nu-mu-bar via inverse-beta-decay (IBD). Oscillations are studied using sources relatively near the detector, but which explore the same physics as the high-energy neutrino beams from Long Baseline experiments. As the DAR spectrum is fixed, the baseline is varied: plans call for 3 accelerator-based neutrino sources at 1.5, 8 and 20 km with staggered beam-on times. Compact, cost-effective superconducting ring cyclotrons accelerating molecular hydrogen ions (H2+) to 800 MeV/n with stripping extraction are being designed by L. Calabretta and his group. This revolutionary de...

  16. Multimode supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide glass fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation is considered in chalcogenide fibres when taking into account both polarisations and the necessary higher order modes. In particular we focus on high pulse energy supercontinuum generation with long pump pulses. The modeling indicates that when only a single...

  17. Supercontinuum - broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune

    2012-01-01

    Based on the experience gained developing our market leading visible spectrum supercontinuum sources NKT Photonics has built the first mid-infrared supercontinuum source based on modelocked picosecond fiber lasers. The source is pumped by a ≈ 2 um laser based on a combination of erbium and thulium...... and use ZBLAN fibers to generate a 1.75-4.4 μm spectrum. We will present results obtained by applying the source for mid-infrared microscopy where absorption spectra can be used to identify the chemical nature of different parts of a sample. Subsequently, we discuss the possible application of a mid...

  18. Dispersive-wave-based octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in InGaP membrane waveguides on a silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Utsav D; Ciret, Charles; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Combrie, Sylvain; De Rossi, Alfredo; Raineri, Fabrice; Roelkens, Gunther; Kuyken, Bart

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an octave-spanning supercontinuum in InGaP membrane waveguides on a silicon substrate pumped by a 1550-nm femtosecond source. The broadband nature of the supercontinuum in these dispersion-engineered high-index-contrast waveguides is enabled by dispersive wave generation on both sides of the pump as well as by the low nonlinear losses inherent to the material. We also measure the coherence properties of the output spectra close to the pump wavelength and find that the supercontinuum is highly coherent at least in this wavelength range.

  19. X-Ray Detected Magnetic Resonance at Sub-THz Frequencies Using a High Power Gyrotron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalev, Andrei; Goulon, José; Goujon, Gérard; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka

    2012-07-01

    X-ray Detected Magnetic Resonance (XDMR) is a novel spectroscopy which makes use of X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) to probe the resonant precession of local magnetization components in a strong microwave pump field. In Sections 1 and 2, we briefly review the conceptual bases of XDMR and the potential interest of increasing the pumping frequency up to the THz frequency range. In Sections 3-5, we discuss the feasibility of such challenging experiments. Starting from a comparison of experiments carried out either in the transverse (TRD) or longitudinal (LOD) detection geometries, we show that XDMR measurements at sub-THz frequencies require a substantial increase in pumping power: this is where a gyrotron source looks most appropriate. It is the aim of this paper to discuss how to conduct such experiments, emphasis being laid on feasibility tests recently carried out at the ESRF using a refurbished version of Gyrotron FU-II built at the FIR-FU. In this context, we propose a new detection scheme of sub-THz XDMR spectra based on the concept of frequency-mixing in LOD geometry.

  20. Wavelength tunable parametric mid-IR source pumped by a high power picosecond thin-disk laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyvlečka, Michal; Novák, Ondřej; Smrž, Martin; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš

    2017-05-01

    High average power wavelength tunable picosecond mid-IR source based on parametric down-conversion is being developed. The conversion system is pumped by a Yb:YAG thin-disk laser delivering 100 W of average power at 100 kHz repetition rate, 1030 nm wavelength, and 3 ps pulse width. First, part of the beam pumps an optical parametric generator (OPG) consisting of a PPLN crystal. The generated wavelength is determined by PPLN's poling period and temperature. Signal beam covered wavelength range between 1.46 mμ and 1.95 mμ. The corresponding idler wavelengths are 3.5 mμ and 2.18 mμ, respectively. Signal beam of about 20 mW was generated at 2 W pumping and double pass arrangement of the OPG stage. The signal pulse energy is further boosted in an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) consisting of two KTP crystals. The signal beam was amplified to 2 W at pumping of 38 W. The idler beam is taken out of the OPA stage as well. Wavelength tuning by KTP crystals' phase-matching angle change was achieved in ranges and 1.7 - 1.95 μm and 2.18 - 2.62 mμ for signal and idler beam, respectively.

  1. High power operation of the polyphase resonant converter modulator system for the spallation neutron source linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Reass, W A; Baca, D M; Doss, J D; Gonzáles, J M; Gribble, R F; Trujillo, P G

    2003-01-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) is a new 1.4 MW average power beam, 1 GeV accelerator being built at Oak Ridge national laboratory. The accelerator requires 15 "long-pulse" converter-modulator stations each providing a maximum of 11 MW pulses with a 1.1 MW average power. Two variants of the converter-modulator are utilized, an 80 kV and a 140 kV design, the voltage dependant on the type of klystron load. The converter-modulator can be described as a resonant zero-voltage- switching polyphase boost inverter. As noted in Figure 1, each converter modulator derives its buss voltage from a standard 13.8 kV to 2100 Y (1.5 MVA) substation cast-core transformer. The substation also contains harmonic traps and filters to accommodate IEEE 519 and 141 regulations. Each substation is followed by an SCR preregulator to accommodate system voltage changes from no load to full load, in addition to providing a soft-start function. Energy storage and filtering is provided by special low inductance self-clearing metallized ...

  2. High power coaxial ubitron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkcum, Adam J.

    In the ubitron, also known as the free electron laser, high power coherent radiation is generated from the interaction of an undulating electron beam with an electromagnetic signal and a static periodic magnetic wiggler field. These devices have experimentally produced high power spanning the microwave to x-ray regimes. Potential applications range from microwave radar to the study of solid state material properties. In this dissertation, the efficient production of high power microwaves (HPM) is investigated for a ubitron employing a coaxial circuit and wiggler. Designs for the particular applications of an advanced high gradient linear accelerator driver and a directed energy source are presented. The coaxial ubitron is inherently suited for the production of HPM. It utilizes an annular electron beam to drive the low loss, RF breakdown resistant TE01 mode of a large coaxial circuit. The device's large cross-sectional area greatly reduces RF wall heat loading and the current density loading at the cathode required to produce the moderate energy (500 keV) but high current (1-10 kA) annular electron beam. Focusing and wiggling of the beam is achieved using coaxial annular periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stacks without a solenoidal guide magnetic field. This wiggler configuration is compact, efficient and can propagate the multi-kiloampere electron beams required for many HPM applications. The coaxial PPM ubitron in a traveling wave amplifier, cavity oscillator and klystron configuration is investigated using linear theory and simulation codes. A condition for the dc electron beam stability in the coaxial wiggler is derived and verified using the 2-1/2 dimensional particle-in-cell code, MAGIC. New linear theories for the cavity start-oscillation current and gain in a klystron are derived. A self-consistent nonlinear theory for the ubitron-TWT and a new nonlinear theory for the ubitron oscillator are presented. These form the basis for simulation codes which, along

  3. High power single frequency 780nm laser source generated from frequency doubling of a seeded fiber amplifier in a cascade of PPLN crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R; Tu, M; Aveline, D; Lundblad, N; Maleki, L

    2003-07-14

    We report on the generation of over 900 mW of tunable cw light at 780 nm by single pass frequency doubling of a high power fiber amplifier in a cascade of two periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystals. Over 500 mW is generated in the first crystal. In the limit of low pump power, we observe an efficiency of 4.6 mW/W2-cm for a single crystal, and 5.6 mW/W2-cm for a combination of two crystals, with an enhancement of the doubling efficiency observed with two crystals due to the presence of second harmonic light from the first crystal acting as a seed for the second. We have frequency locked this laser source relative to a rubidium D2 hyperfine line and demonstrated its utility in a sophisticated laser cooling apparatus.

  4. Broadband, high-power, continuous-wave, mid-infrared source using extended phase-matching bandwidth in MgO:PPLN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ritwick; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Samanta, G K; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2009-12-15

    We report a compact and viable source of broadband, high-power, cw, mid-IR radiation based on a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) pumped by a wide-bandwidth cw Yb fiber laser centered at 1060 nm. By exploiting the extended phase-matching bandwidth in a 50 mm crystal of MgO:PPLN and a ring SRO cavity, we obtain 5.3 W of broadband idler output for 25.5 W of pump at >80% depletion, transferring a pump bandwidth of 73.9 cm(-1) to an idler spectrum spread across an equal bandwidth centered at 3454 nm. By deploying output coupling of the signal, we generate 11.2 W of total power at 44% extraction efficiency with a pump depletion of >73% at the maximum available pump power. Measurements of transverse modal power confirm Gaussian distribution of signal and idler beams.

  5. Channeling of high-power radio waves under conditions of strong anomalous absorption in the presence of an averaged electron heating source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas'kov, V. V.; Ryabova, N. A.

    2010-02-01

    Strong anomalous absorption of a high-power radio wave by small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the Earth’s ionosphere can lead to the formation of self-consistent channels (solitons) in which the wave propagates along the magnetic field, but has a soliton-like intensity distribution across the field. The structure of a cylindrical soliton as a function of the wave intensity at the soliton axis is analyzed. Averaged density perturbations leading to wave focusing were calculated using the model proposed earlier by Vas’kov and Gurevich (Geomagn. Aéron. 16, 1112 (1976)), in which an averaged electron heating source was used. It is shown that, under conditions of strong electron recombination, the radii of individual solitons do not exceed 650 m.

  6. Compression of fiber supercontinuum pulses to the Fourier-limit in a high-numerical-aperture focus

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    A multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan (MIIPS) adaptively and automatically compensates the combined phase distortion from a fiber supercontinuum source, a spatial light modulator pulse shaper, and a high-NA microscope objective, allowing Fourier-transform-limited compression of the supercontinuum pulses at the focus of the objective. A second-harmonic-generation-based method is employed to independently validate the transform-limited compression. The compressed pulses at the focus ...

  7. Atomic Beam Merging and Suppression of Alkali Contaminants in Multi Body High Power Targets: Design and Test of Target and Ion Source Prototypes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquerel, Elian J A; Lettry, J; Stora, T

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of high power ISOL-facilities will deliver intense and pure radioactive ion beams. Two key issues of developments mandatory for the forthcoming generation of ISOL target-ion source units are assessed and demonstrated in this thesis. The design and production of target and ion-source prototypes is described and dedicated measurements at ISOLDE-CERN of their radioisotope yields are analyzed. The purity of short lived or rare radioisotopes suffer from isobaric contaminants, notably alkalis which are highly volatile and easily ionized elements. Therefore, relying on their chemical nature, temperature controlled transfer lines were equipped with a tube of quartz that aimed at trapping these unwanted elements before they reached the ion source. The successful application yields high alkali-suppression factors for several elements (ie: 80, 82mRb, 126, 142Cs, 8Li, 46K, 25Na, 114In, 77Ga, 95, 96Sr) for quartz temperatures between 300ºC and 1100ºC. The enthalpies of adsorption on quartz were measu...

  8. Generation and applications of high average power Mid-IR supercontinuum in chalcogenide fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum with up to 54.8 mW average power, and maximum bandwidth of 1.77-8.66 μm is demonstrated as a result of pumping tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers with a MHz parametric source at 4 μm.......Mid-infrared supercontinuum with up to 54.8 mW average power, and maximum bandwidth of 1.77-8.66 μm is demonstrated as a result of pumping tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers with a MHz parametric source at 4 μm....

  9. Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioux, Sylvain; Lomnes, Stephen J; Choi, Hak Soo; Frangioni, John V

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLi) could potentially improve exogenous near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging, because it offers the capability of discriminating a signal of interest from background, provides real-time monitoring of a chemical environment, and permits the use of several different fluorescent dyes having the same emission wavelength. We present a high-power, LED-based, NIR light source for the clinical translation of wide-field (larger than 5 cm in diameter) FLi at frequencies up to 35 MHz. Lifetime imaging of indocyanine green (ICG), IRDye 800-CW, and 3,3(')-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (DTTCI) was performed over a large field of view (10 cm by 7.5 cm) using the LED light source. For comparison, a laser diode light source was employed as a gold standard. Experiments were performed both on the bench by diluting the fluorescent dyes in various chemical environments in Eppendorf tubes, and in vivo by injecting the fluorescent dyes mixed in Matrigel subcutaneously into CD-1 mice. Last, measured fluorescence lifetimes obtained using the LED and the laser diode sources were compared with those obtained using a state-of-the-art time-domain imaging system and with those previously described in the literature. On average, lifetime values obtained using the LED and the laser diode light sources were consistent, exhibiting a mean difference of 3% from the expected values and a coefficient of variation of 12%. Taken together, our study offers an alternative to laser diodes for clinical translation of FLi and explores the use of relatively low frequency modulation for in vivo imaging.

  10. Energy spectrum measurement of high power and high energy(6 and 9 MeV) pulsed x-ray source for industrial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki [Hitachi, Ltd. Power Systems Company, Ibaraki (Japan); Murata, Isao [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Industrial X-ray CT system is normally applied to non-destructive testing (NDT) for industrial product made from metal. Furthermore there are some special CT systems, which have an ability to inspect nuclear fuel assemblies or rocket motors, using high power and high energy (more than 6 MeV) pulsed X-ray source. In these case, pulsed X-ray are produced by the electron linear accelerator, and a huge number of photons with a wide energy spectrum are produced within a very short period. Consequently, it is difficult to measure the X-ray energy spectrum for such accelerator-based X-ray sources using simple spectrometry. Due to this difficulty, unexpected images and artifacts which lead to incorrect density information and dimensions of specimens cannot be avoided in CT images. For getting highly precise CT images, it is important to know the precise energy spectrum of emitted X-rays. In order to realize it we investigated a new approach utilizing the Bayesian estimation method combined with an attenuation curve measurement using step shaped attenuation material. This method was validated by precise measurement of energy spectrum from a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In this study, to extend the applicable X-ray energy range we tried to measure energy spectra of X-ray sources from 6 and 9 MeV linear accelerators by using the recently developed method. In this study, an attenuation curves are measured by using a step-shaped attenuation materials of aluminum and steel individually, and the each X-ray spectrum is reconstructed from the measured attenuation curve by the spectrum type Bayesian estimation method. The obtained result shows good agreement with simulated spectra, and the presently developed technique is adaptable for high energy X-ray source more than 6 MeV.

  11. Simple open-cavity pulsed Brillouin fiber laser with broadband supercontinuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xing; Xu, Zhongwei; Peng, Jinggang; Yang, Luyun; Dai, Nengli; Li, Haiqing; Li, Jinyan

    2017-10-01

    A simple open-cavity laser is proposed for supercontinuum generation. Broadband supercontinuum covering the wavelength from 630 to 1700 nm with low multimode LD pump power ( 1.7 W) is demonstrated. Giant nanosecond pulse generation can be realized by pumping a piece of Yb-doped double cladding fiber combined with two pieces of long passive fibers. There are no reflectors or modulators included in this laser. It is confirmed that the process of the passive self-Q-switch is mainly based on the stimulated Brillouin scattering effect. The peak power of the giant nanosecond pulses is high enough to generate supercontinuum with over 1000 nm bandwidth even in standard single-mode fiber, which makes this supercontinuum laser source low-cost and compact. Replacing the standard single-mode fiber with a piece of high nonlinear photonic crystal fiber, broader and flatter supercontinuum can be obtained because of the high nonlinear coefficient and the blue-shift of the zero-dispersion wavelength.

  12. Multimode supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide glass fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation is considered in chalcogenide fibres when taking into account both polarisations and the necessary higher order modes. In particular we focus on high pulse energy supercontinuum generation with long pump pulses. The modeling indicates that when only a single...... polarisation in the fundamental mode is considered the obtainable supercontinuum bandwidth is substantially exaggerated compared to when both polarisations are taken into account. Our modeling shows that if the pump pulse is short enough (≤ 10ps) then higher order modes are not important because of temporal...... walk-off. In contrast long pump pulses (≥ 40ps) will efficiently excite higher order modes through Raman scattering, which will deplete the fundamental mode of energy and limit the possibility of obtaining a broadband supercontinuum....

  13. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Multiple Quantum Well Nanostructures under Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Borgohain, Nitu; Konar, S

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectral broadening is of great scientific and technological interest, which till date is mainly achieved using non-silica glass fibers, primarily made of tellurite, fluoride and chalcogenide glasses. We investigate broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation at very low power in semiconductor multiple quantum well (MQW) systems facilitated by electromagnetically induced transparency. 100 femto-seconds pulses of peak power close to a Watt have been launched in the electromagnetically induced transparency window of a 30 period 1.374 {\\mu}m long MQW system. Broadband supercontinuum spectra, attributed to self phase modulation and modulation instability, is achievable at the end of the MQW system. The central part of the spectra is dominated by several dips and the far infra-red part of the spectra is more broadened in comparison to the infra-red portion. Key advantage of the proposed scheme is that the supercontinuum source could be easily integrated with other semiconductor devices.

  14. High-Power ZBLAN Glass Fiber Lasers: Review and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiushan Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF, considered as the most stable heavy metal fluoride glass and the excellent host for rare-earth ions, has been extensively used for efficient and compact ultraviolet, visible, and infrared fiber lasers due to its low intrinsic loss, wide transparency window, and small phonon energy. In this paper, the historical progress and the properties of fluoride glasses and the fabrication of ZBLAN fibers are briefly described. Advances of infrared, upconversion, and supercontinuum ZBLAN fiber lasers are addressed in detail. Finally, constraints on the power scaling of ZBLAN fiber lasers are analyzed and discussed. ZBLAN fiber lasers are showing promise of generating high-power emissions covering from ultraviolet to mid-infrared considering the recent advances in newly designed optical fibers, beam-shaped high-power pump diodes, beam combining techniques, and heat-dissipating technology.

  15. High Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sameer

    High Power Electronics Future Trends: New process, circuit and packaging technologies over the last 5 years have led to significant innovation and technological developments in high power electronics. In this topic, the trends and performance improvements achieved in the industry will be discussed with focus on gallium-nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC). Both GaN and SiC technologies have been around for many years but have seen limited adoption and proliferation in high power systems. With the improved transistor performance, power conversion efficiencies and densities previously unrealizable are now available leading to new applications and new system. Trends in these technologies will also be reviewed and remaining challenges to overcome before true mass market adoption can be expected.

  16. Efficient Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Tapered Large Mode Area Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source....

  17. High Power Vanadate lasers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, HJ

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation aims at the following: to develop new techniques to mount laser crystals; compare the laser properties of two equally doped, high power Nd:YVO4 and Nd: GdVO4 lasers; build a 1um vanadate laser with average output power exceeding...

  18. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser at 675 nm as a pump source for UV generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Erbert, Gotz

    2011-01-01

    High-power narrow-spectrum diode laser systems based on tapered gain media in external cavity are demonstrated at 675 nm. Two 2-mm-long amplifiers are used, one with a 500-µm-long ridge-waveguide section (device A), the other with a 750-µm-long ridge-waveguide section (device B). The laser system...

  19. Dispersion-flattened supercontinuum light source design at 1.0 μm center wavelength for high resolution optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. A.; Namihira, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Optimal wavelength light sources are designed for medical imaging to overcome the effects of the dispersion of the sampling medium of biological tissues which contain about 60% water in normal tissues and 90% water in anatomic structures such as in the eye. Based on highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF), two light sources are designed at 1.0 μm center wavelength as the influences of the dispersion of the main component of biological tissues on the resolution of optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be eliminated. Using finite element method with a circular perfectly matched boundary layer, it is shown through simulations that the proposed HNL-PCFs offer efficient SC generation for such applications at 1.0 μm. By propagating sech2 picoseconds optical pulses having 1.0 ps pulse width at a full width at half maximum through the proposed HNL-PCFs, output optical pulses are analyzed by the split-step Fourier method to obtain the spectral properties. Simulation results show that 270 m of the proposed HNL-PCF can produce highest 95 nm spectrum (10 dB bandwidth) or 62 nm spectrum (3 dB bandwidth). Therefore, the highest longitudinal resolutions in the depth direction for medical OCT imaging is found about 3.3 μm (using 10 dB bandwidth) or 5.1 μm (using 3 dB bandwidth), respectively, for biological tissues.

  20. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  1. Power scaling of supercontinuum seeded megahertz-repetition rate optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, R; Stephanides, A; Prandolini, M J; Gronloh, B; Jungbluth, B; Mans, T; Tavella, F

    2014-03-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers with high average power are possible with novel high-power Yb:YAG amplifiers with kW-level output powers. We demonstrate a compact wavelength-tunable sub-30-fs amplifier with 11.4 W average power with 20.7% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency. For parametric amplification, a beta-barium borate crystal is pumped by a 140 W, 1 ps Yb:YAG InnoSlab amplifier at 3.25 MHz repetition rate. The broadband seed is generated via supercontinuum generation in a YAG crystal.

  2. Ultrafast Nonlinear Fibre Optics and Supercontinuum Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, John M.; Cherif, Rim; Coen, Stephane; Genty, Goery

    This chapter presents a concise overview of nonlinear fibre optics, focusing particularly on the physics of supercontinuum generation in optical fibre for different regimes of pulse duration and for propagation in dispersion varying fibre. Soliton dynamics and their influence are emphasized, and basic numerical code is provided allowing higher-order soliton effects to be studied within a nonlinear Schrodinger equation model.

  3. High power switching and other high power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Martin

    1992-09-01

    High power thyratrons and devices such as high power microwave sources have cathode-related performance limits. Research is described of a simple, robust 'super-emissive' cathode that produces greater than 10,000 A/sq cm from a macroscopic area (approx. 1 sq cm), and operates with a low pressure (approx. 0.1 torr), spatially uniform glow plasma (density greater than 1015 cu cm). The cathode also can operate as a hollow cathode, and is at the heart of the operation of the pseudospark and back-lighted thyratron. The physics of this hollow and super-emissive cathode is very rich. The hollow cathode geometry traps electrons in the hollow cathode backspace. The lifetime of these electrons enables them to ionize a spatially homogeneous high density glow, and this hollow cathode mode of operation is responsible for certain types of electron and ion beam behavior. A plasma cathode sheath that is formed during this phase leads to super-emissive behavior, which is responsible for high current emission. Super-emissive cathode thyratron-type switches (with higher peak current, voltage, di/dt) being developed for pulsed power switching of lasers, accelerators, high current and high coulomb transfer, Marx bank operation, transfer of technology to commercial applications, high current electron beams, and millimeter wave generation (1 to 100 GHz) are described.

  4. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silica fibres based on cost-effective fibre amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Díaz, J. E.; Jarabo, S.; Salgado-Remacha, F. J.

    2016-09-01

    We report a simple method for supercontinuum generation. The set-up consists of an Er-doped mode-locked fibre laser, used as seed, and a highly nonlinear fibre with zero dispersion at 1550 nm. Thus, all the components are easily attainable. With this novel system the requirements in terms of control of dispersion are reduced. In addition, the spectral width is optimized using fibres with positive and negative dispersion. The supercontinuum emission is characterized by means of an optical spectrum analyser and a PbS photodetector, showing an octave-spanning spectral width, with a flat profile from 1100 nm up to 2100 nm. Compared to other supercontinuum sources, this new proposal results in a very competitive and attainable system, particularly in the 1500-2100 nm region.

  5. Influence of Phase Coherence on Seeded Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    The noise properties of supercontinuum (SC) generation have attracted a lot of attention due to a large application demand for low noise SC sources and in the more fundamental context of clarifying links with instabilities in other systems. In typical commercial SC sources the pulse break......-up is initiated by noise-driven modulational instability (MI). The resulting large spectral shot-to-shot fluctuations can be significantly reduced by modulating the pump with a phase coherent seed [1-2], which leads to a coherent pulse break-up through the amplification of a cascade of four-wave mixing (FWM) side......-bands. We demonstrate that the noise properties of the generated SC are highly sensitive to the degree of phase noise of the seed and that a nearly coherent seed pulse is needed to achieve a coherent pulse break-up and low noise SC [3]. This limits the mechanisms that can be used to generate the seed, which...

  6. Intensity Noise of Normal-Pumped Picosecond Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Bang, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The noise properties of supercontinuum (SC) sources are of importance in many applications. This intensity noise of the SC arises from nonlinear amplification of the input-pulse shot noise and the spontaneous Raman scattering down the fiber [1]. Low noise femtosecond SC generation (SCG) has...... previously been demonstrated [2]. However, in commercial SC sources, the SC is generated by pumping with picosecond to nanosecond pulses and the SCG is thus initiated by modulation instability (MI). Therefore, the SC is characterized by low coherence and high shot-to-shot fluctuations, in particular...... at the spectral edges [3–5]. However, the influence of the noise properties when pumping in the normal dispersion regime has so far not been investigated for long pulse pumping. In this work we have measured and compared the relative intensity noise (RIN) properties of long-pulse MI initiated SCG in three...

  7. Increased mid-infrared supercontinuum bandwidth and average power by tapering large-mode-area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The trade-off between the spectral bandwidth and average output power from chalcogenide fiber-based mid-infrared supercontinuum sources is one of the major challenges towards practical application of the technology. In this paper we address this challenge through tapering of large-mode-area chalc...

  8. Visible-to-near-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a silicon nitride waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haolan; Kuyken, Bart; Clemmen, Stéphane; Leo, François; Subramanian, Ananth; Dhakal, Ashim; Helin, Philippe; Severi, Simone; Brainis, Edouard; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel

    2015-05-15

    The generation of an octave spanning supercontinuum covering 488-978 nm (at -30  dB) is demonstrated for the first time on-chip. This result is achieved by dispersion engineering a 1-cm-long Si3N4 waveguide and pumping it with an 100-fs Ti:Sapphire laser emitting at 795 nm. This work offers a bright broadband source for biophotonic applications and frequency metrology.

  9. Tunable supercontinuum light vector vortex beam generator using a q-plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumala, Yisa S; Milione, Giovanni; Nguyen, Thien An; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Hossain, Zabir; Nolan, Daniel; Slussarenko, Sergei; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Alfano, Robert R

    2013-12-01

    Spatially coherent multicolored optical vector vortex beams were created using a tunable liquid crystal q-plate and a supercontinuum light source. The feasibility of the q-plate as a tunable spectral filter (switch) was demonstrated, and the polarization topology of the resulting vector vortex beam was mapped. Potential applications include multiplexing for broadband high-speed optical communication, ultradense data networking, and super-resolution microscopy.

  10. High power evaluation of X-band high power loads

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Syratchev, Igor; Riddone, Germana; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Several types of X-band high power loads developed for several tens of MW range were designed, fabricated and used for high power tests at X-band facility of KEK. Some of them have been used for many years and few units showed possible deterioration of RF performance. Recently revised-design loads were made by CERN and the high power evaluation was performed at KEK. In this paper, the main requirements are recalled, together with the design features. The high power test results are analysed and presented

  11. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-intensive. Here, we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic-crystal fibre source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate the collection of optical signatures of the tumour microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumour cell migration and (lymph-) angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  12. The role of phase coherence in seeded supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    supercontinuum are highly sensitive to the degree of phase noise of the seed and that a nearly coherent seed pulse is needed to achieve a coherent pulse break-up and low noise supercontinuum. The specific maximum allowable linewidth of the seed laser is found to decrease with increasing pump power....

  13. Vacuum-UV to IR supercontinuum in hydrogen-filled photonic crystal fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, Federico; Chang, Wonkeun; Travers, John C; Russell, Philip St J

    2015-01-01

    Although supercontinuum sources are readily available for the visible and near infrared, and recently also for the mid-IR, many areas of biology, chemistry and physics would benefit greatly from the availability of compact, stable and spectrally bright deep ultraviolet (DUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) supercontinuum sources. Such sources have however not yet been developed. Here we report the generation of a bright supercontinuum, spanning more than three octaves from 124 nm to beyond 1200 nm, in hydrogen-filled kagom\\'e-style hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (kagom\\'e-PCF). Few-{\\mu}J, 30 fs pump pulses at wavelength 805 nm are launched into the fiber, where they undergo self-compression via the Raman-enhanced Kerr effect. Modeling indicates that before reaching a minimum sub-cycle pulse duration of ~1 fs, much less than one period of molecular vibration (8 fs), nonlinear reshaping of the pulse envelope, accentuated by self-steepening and shock formation, creates an ultrashort feature that causes impulsi...

  14. High power, widely tunable, narrowband superfluorescent source at 2 μm based on a monolithic Tm-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong; Jin, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin

    2015-02-09

    We present a widely tunable narrowband superfluorescent source near 2 μm employing a monolithic Tm-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA), and the output power exceeds 250 W. A broadband superfluorescent source with a narrowband tunable band pass filter was used as the seed source. The spectra of the seed source can be tuned in a range of ~1930-2030 nm with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~1.7 nm. The Tm-doped fiber amplifier scales up the power of the seed source to a level of more than 250 W with a tuning range of ~35 nm (1966-2001 nm) and a FWHM of ~1.5-2.0 nm, and the slope efficiency is about 0.50. The output power is limited by the available pump power, and the tuning range is limited by the amplifier spontaneous emission at other wavelengths. Higher output power can be achieved if launching more pump power into the amplifier, and the tuning range can be further improved by optimizing the parameters of the TDFA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration on a widely tunable narrowband superfluorescent source at 2 μm with average output power exceeding 250 W.

  15. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in hybrid silver metaphosphate/silica step-index fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Mario; Wei, Jingxuan; Jain, Chhavi; Rodrigues, Bruno P; Wieduwilt, Torsten; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Lothar; Schmidt, Markus A

    2016-08-01

    We reveal the potential of step-index fibers consisting of a metaphosphate glass core and a silica cladding as an ultrafast octave-spanning supercontinuum source. The hybrid waveguide was fabricated by pressure-assisted melt filling and possesses a sophisticated dispersion behavior with two zero-dispersion points in the proximity of the Erbium laser bands. The fiber generates an octave-spanning supercontinuum from 0.7 to 2.4 μm if pumped at 1.56 μm with 30 fs pulses and energies as low as 300 pJ. Numerical simulations reveal soliton fission and double dispersive wave generation as the dominant broadening effect. This study highlights phosphate glasses as a promising new candidate for the next generation of broadband photonic devices, as they allow for high rare earth-doping levels and dispersion posttuning via plasmonic nanoparticle growth.

  16. high power facto high power factor high power factor hybrid rectifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    compact and efficient new devices, it noted increase in the number of electrical loads that some kind of electronic ... in electric machines and capacitors,. HIGH POWER FACTOR. HIGH POWER FACTOR HYBRID ...... Auxiliary DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Vehicles ”,. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics vol. 23, no. 6, pp.

  17. Invited Article: Multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR, and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal is pumped in the mid-IR. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed. The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS2 pumped in the 3-4 μm range with 85 fs 50 μJ pulse energy, with the broadest supercontinuum covering 1.6-7.0 μm. We measured up 30 μJ energy in the supercontinuum, and the energy promises to scale favorably with an increased pump energy. Other mid-IR crystals can readily be used as well to cover other pump wavelengths and target other supercontinuum wavelength ranges.

  18. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  19. Impact of high power interference sources in planning and deployment of wireless sensor networks and devices in the 2.4 GHz frequency band in heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri, Peio López; Nazábal, Juan Antonio; Azpilicueta, Leire; Rodriguez, Pablo; Beruete, Miguel; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Falcone, Francisco

    2012-11-12

    In this work, the impact of radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens and its effect on 802.15.4 ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor networks operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band is analyzed. By means of a novel radioplanning approach, based on electromagnetic field simulation of a microwave oven and determination of equivalent radiation sources applied to an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, estimation of the microwave oven’s power leakage is obtained for the complete volume of an indoor scenario. The magnitude and the variable nature of the interference is analyzed and the impact in the radio link quality in operating wireless sensors is estimated and compared with radio channel measurements as well as packet measurements. The measurement results reveal the importance of selecting an adequate 802.15.4 channel, as well as the Wireless Sensor Network deployment strategy within this type of environment, in order to optimize energy consumption and increase the overall network performance. The proposed method enables one to estimate potential interference effects in devices operating within the 2.4 GHz band in the complete scenario, prior to wireless sensor network deployment, which can aid in achieving the most optimal network topology.

  20. Impact of High Power Interference Sources in Planning and Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks and Devices in the 2.4 GHz Frequency Band in Heterogeneous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Falcone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the impact of radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens and its effect on 802.15.4 ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor networks operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM band is analyzed. By means of a novel radioplanning approach, based on electromagnetic field simulation of a microwave oven and determination of equivalent radiation sources applied to an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, estimation of the microwave oven’s power leakage is obtained for the complete volume of an indoor scenario. The magnitude and the variable nature of the interference is analyzed and the impact in the radio link quality in operating wireless sensors is estimated and compared with radio channel measurements as well as packet measurements. The measurement results reveal the importance of selecting an adequate 802.15.4 channel, as well as the Wireless Sensor Network deployment strategy within this type of environment, in order to optimize energy consumption and increase the overall network performance. The proposed method enables one to estimate potential interference effects in devices operating within the 2.4 GHz band in the complete scenario, prior to wireless sensor network deployment, which can aid in achieving the most optimal network topology.

  1. Compression of fiber supercontinuum pulses to the Fourier-limit in a high-numerical-aperture focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    A multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan (MIIPS) adaptively and automatically compensates the combined phase distortion from a fiber supercontinuum source, a spatial light modulator pulse shaper, and a high-NA microscope objective, allowing Fourier-transform-limited compression...... power of 18–70mW, and a repetition rate of 76MHz, permitting the application of this source to nonlinear optical microscopy and coherently controlled microspectroscopy....

  2. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  3. High-power downhole motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C.; Evans, C.R. [Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Westcott, P.A. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    New high power motors are being developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in an attempt to reduce drilling costs in deep gas wells. Conventional 2 3/8-in. (60-mm) and 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motors operated in overpowered conditions (i.e., high flow rates and high differential pressures) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. A new high-power 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor is being developed that utilizes additional stages and tighter interference between the rotor and stator to increase motor pressure drop, torque, and power output. This new high-power motor delivers up to 238 hp (177 kW) compared to 50 hp (37 kW) for a conventional 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor operating at rated operating conditions. Temperature probes showed that temperatures in different stages of motors vary considerably, showing that some sections do more work than others. A better understanding of temperatures within the stators is needed because thermal degradation and ``chunking`` of the rubber is a leading cause of failures in motors operating at high power levels. These tests were very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of developing reliable, high-power motors.

  4. Towards supercontinuum-driven hyperspectral microscopy in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindsay, I. D.; Valle, S.; Ward, J.

    2016-01-01

    The extension of supercontinuum (SC) sources into the mid-infrared, via the use of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibers, potentially offers the high radiance of a laser combined with spectral coverage far exceeding that of typical tunable lasers and comparable to traditional black-body emitters....... Together with advances in mid-IR imaging detectors and novel tunable filter designs, such supercontinua hold considerable potential as sources of illumination for spectrally-resolved microscopy targeting applications such as rapid histological screening. The ability to rapidly and arbitrarily select...

  5. Ultrabroadband, Midinfrared Supercontinuum Generation in Dispersion Engineered As2Se3-Based Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Cherif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small core As2Se3-based photonic crystal fibers (PCFs are accurately characterized for compact, high power, ultrabroadband, and coherent supercontinuum generation within few millimeters fiber length. Bandwidths of ~5.3 μm, 5 μm, and 3.2 μm were calculated for hole-to-hole spacings Λ= 3.5 μm, 4.5 μm, and 5.5 μm, respectively. The spectral broadening in the chalcogenide PCF is mainly caused by self-phase modulation and Raman-induced soliton self-frequency shift. The results show that small core As2Se3 PCFs are a promising candidate for mid-IR SCG up to ~8 μm.

  6. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  7. Optimization of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers for Blue-Enhanced Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the dispersive wavelength edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the dispersive wavelength edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation....

  8. Enhanced Supercontinuum Generation through Dispersion-Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, J. Nathan; Lyngå, C.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2005-05-01

    We show in theory and simulation that the supercontinuum generation from an initial continuous wave field in a highly nonlinear fiber operating near the zero-dispersion point can be significantly enhanced with the aid of dispersion management. We characterize the spectral broaden-ing as a process initiated by modulational instability, but driven by the zero-dispersion dynamics of an N-soliton interacting with the asymmetric phase profile generated by the Raman effect, self-steepening effect, and/or higher-order dispersion. Higher N-soliton values lead to shorter pulses and a broader spectrum. This insight allows us to use dispersion management in conjunction with modulational instability to effectively increase the N value and greatly enhance the supercontiuum generation process.

  9. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  10. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  11. A tunable single-monochromator Raman system based on the supercontinuum laser and tunable filters for resonant Raman profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.-L.; Liu, H.-N.; Tan, P.-H.

    2017-08-01

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy requires that the wavelength of the laser used is close to that of an electronic transition. A tunable laser source and a triple spectrometer are usually necessary for resonant Raman profile measurements. However, such a system is complex with low signal throughput, which limits its wide application by scientific community. Here, a tunable micro-Raman spectroscopy system based on the supercontinuum laser, transmission grating, tunable filters, and single-stage spectrometer is introduced to measure the resonant Raman profile. The supercontinuum laser in combination with transmission grating makes a tunable excitation source with a bandwidth of sub-nanometer. Such a system exhibits continuous excitation tunability and high signal throughput. Its good performance and flexible tunability are verified by resonant Raman profile measurement of twisted bilayer graphene, which demonstrates its potential application prospect for resonant Raman spectroscopy.

  12. A tunable single-monochromator Raman system based on the supercontinuum laser and tunable filters for resonant Raman profile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X-L; Liu, H-N; Tan, P-H

    2017-08-01

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy requires that the wavelength of the laser used is close to that of an electronic transition. A tunable laser source and a triple spectrometer are usually necessary for resonant Raman profile measurements. However, such a system is complex with low signal throughput, which limits its wide application by scientific community. Here, a tunable micro-Raman spectroscopy system based on the supercontinuum laser, transmission grating, tunable filters, and single-stage spectrometer is introduced to measure the resonant Raman profile. The supercontinuum laser in combination with transmission grating makes a tunable excitation source with a bandwidth of sub-nanometer. Such a system exhibits continuous excitation tunability and high signal throughput. Its good performance and flexible tunability are verified by resonant Raman profile measurement of twisted bilayer graphene, which demonstrates its potential application prospect for resonant Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Protection Related to High-power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Target protection is an important part of machine protection. The beam power in high-intensity accelerators is high enough that a single wayward pulse can cause serious damage. Today's high-power targets operate at the limit of available technology, and are designed for a very narrow range of beam parameters. If the beam pulse is too far off centre, or if the beam size is not correct, or if the beam density is too high, the target can be seriously damaged. We will start with a brief introduction to high-power targets and then move to a discussion of what can go wrong, and what are the risks. Next we will discuss how to control the beam-related risk, followed by examples from a few different accelerator facilities. We will finish with a detailed example of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source target tune up and target protection.

  14. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ikegami, K; Namekawa, Y; Ohkoshi, K; Tokuchi, A

    2010-02-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB(6)) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 microH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 A x 140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5% (600 micros x 25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H(-) ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 micros and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  15. High power gas laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  16. An introduction to high power microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, James; Swegle, John

    1992-02-01

    The area of high power microwaves has emerged in recent years as a new technology allowing new applications and offering innovative approaches to existing applications. The great leap in microwave power levels has been driven by a mix of sources that either push conventional microwave device physics in new directions or employ altogether new interaction mechanisms. Running counter to the trend in conventional microwave electronics toward miniaturization with solid-state devices intrinsically limited in their peak power capability, high power microwave generation taps the immense power and energy reservoirs of modern intense relativistic electron beam technology. The term high power microwaves (HPM) is used to denote devices that exceed 100 MW in peak power and span the cm- and mm-wave range of frequencies between 1 and 300 GHz. This definition is arbitrary, but does cleanly divide the conventional microwave devices, which do not exceed 100 MW, from a collection of microwave-generating devices that have now reached powers as high as 15 GW.

  17. Mid infrared supercontinuum generation from chalcogenide glass waveguides and fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luther-Davies, Barry; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    I report work on mid-infrared super-continuum generation in chalcogenide fibers and waveguides pumped by 320fsec pulses at 21MHz in the 3-4.6µm range. Average powers of ≈20mW were produced with spectral coverage from <2µm to >11µm.......I report work on mid-infrared super-continuum generation in chalcogenide fibers and waveguides pumped by 320fsec pulses at 21MHz in the 3-4.6µm range. Average powers of ≈20mW were produced with spectral coverage from 11µm....

  18. Compressible octave spanning supercontinuum generation by two-pulse collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Ayhan; Amiranashvili, Shalva; Brée, Carsten; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2013-06-07

    We demonstrate a novel method for supercontinuum generation in an optical fiber based on two-color pumping with a delay and a group velocity matching. The scheme relies on the enhanced cross-phase-modulation at an intensity induced refractive index barrier between a dispersive wave and a soliton. The generation mechanism neither incorporates soliton fission nor a modulation instability and therefore exhibits extraordinary coherence properties, enabling the temporal compression of octave bandwidth into a short pulse. Moreover, the properties of the supercontinuum are adjustable over a wide range in the frequency domain by suitable choice of the dispersive wave.

  19. The Study on the Reliability of High Power LED Streetlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Ge, Yao; Jian-Xin, Chen

    2011-02-01

    This paper was about a reliable research on high-power LED lighting. Based on the samples of the self-developed high-power LED streetlights, an electrical stress ageing test was carried out and thermocouple method was used in the temperature test. The ageing test showed that the initial flux reduction was mainly due to the absorption of the light lamp or the block by some parts of the lighting. And the late light decling was mainly caused by the decay of the high-power LED light source itself. Some suggestions on improving the design of streetlights will be given according to my research.

  20. Photonic crystal fiber-generated coherent supercontinuum for fast stain-free histopathology and intraoperative multiphoton imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; You, Sixian; Sun, Yi; Spillman, Darold R.; Ray, Partha S.; Liu, George; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    In contrast to a broadband Ti:sapphire laser that mode locks a continuum of emission and enables broadband biophotonic applications, supercontinuum generation moves the spectral broadening outside the laser cavity into a nonlinear medium, and may thus improve environmental stability and more readily enable clinical translation. Using a photonic crystal fiber for passive spectral broadening, this technique becomes widely accessible from a narrowband fixed-wavelength mode-locked laser. Currently, fiber supercontinuum sources have benefited single-photon biological imaging modalities, including light-sheet or confocal microscopy, diffuse optical tomography, and retinal optical coherence tomography. However, they have not fully benefited multiphoton biological imaging modalities with proven capability for high-resolution label-free molecular imaging. The reason can be attributed to the amplitude/phase noise of fiber supercontinuum, which is amplified from the intrinsic noise of the input laser and responsible for spectral decoherence. This instability deteriorates the performance of multiphoton imaging modalities more than that of single-photon imaging modalities. Building upon a framework of coherent fiber supercontinuum generation, we have avoided this instability or decoherence, and balanced the often conflicting needs to generate strong signal, prevent sample photodamage, minimize background noise, accelerate imaging speed, improve imaging depth, accommodate different modalities, and provide user-friendly operation. Our prototypical platforms have enabled fast stain-free histopathology of fresh tissue in both laboratory and intraoperative settings to discover a wide variety of imaging-based cancer biomarkers, which may reduce the cost and waiting stress associated with disease/cancer diagnosis. A clear path toward intraoperative multiphoton imaging can be envisioned to help pathologists and surgeons improve cancer surgery.

  1. Nanoengineering of photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum spectral shaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Sørensen, Thorkild; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation using picosecond pulses pumped into cobweb photonic crystal fibers is investigated. Dispersion profiles are calculated for several fiber designs and used to analytically investigate the influence of the fiber structural parameters (core size and wall thickness) on the lo...

  2. Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-17

    Oct 17, 2015 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 5 ... We present a practical design of novel photonic crystal fibre (PCF) to investigate the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses for the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on supercontinuum generation (SCG) ...

  3. Broadband supercontinuum laser absorption spectrometer for multiparameter gas phase combustion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göran Blume, Niels; Wagner, Steven

    2015-07-01

    We report on the development and application of a broadband absorption spectrometer utilizing a pulsed supercontinuum laser light source and dispersion compensating fiber with a single-pass absorption path to obtain absolute methane mole fractions in a laminar nonpremixed CH(4)/air flame supported on a Wolfhard-Parker burner. The basic principle of supercontinuum broadband absorption spectroscopy (SCLAS) provides advantageous means of combustion diagnostics since the broad spectral coverage allows for use in high-pressure high-temperature environments. Furthermore, a previously validated tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy fitting algorithm was applied to the recorded spectra and found to be applicable to SCLAS measurements as well, by comparison of fitted methane gas concentrations to reference measurements on the Wolfhard-Parker burner. The spectrometer reached spectral resolutions of up to 0.152  cm(-1), while providing a spectral coverage of over 110  cm(-1), with an absorption path length of only 41 mm. First measurements of absolute CH(4) mole fractions showed the suitability of SCL-based spectroscopy for combustion diagnostics with short absorption path lengths in the nIR spectral region. Here, we achieved in-flame methane mole fraction resolutions of 3%(Vol.) (1210 ppm·m) and optical resolutions of up to 1.1×10(-2). Based on this first validation, this method can now be extended to other species and combustion parameters such as temperature and pressure.

  4. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  5. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  6. Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, T; Wetzel, B; Sylvestre, T; Larger, L; Kudlinski, A; Mussot, A; Ben Salem, A; Zghal, M; Genty, G; Dias, F; Dudley, J M

    2013-07-29

    We use dispersive Fourier transformation to measure shot-to-shot spectral instabilities in femtosecond supercontinuum generation. We study both the onset phase of supercontinuum generation with distinct dispersive wave generation, as well as a highly-unstable supercontinuum regime spanning an octave in bandwidth. Wavelength correlation maps allow interactions between separated spectral components to be identified, even when such interactions are not apparent in shot-to-shot or average measurements. Experimental results are interpreted using numerical simulations. Our results show the clear advantages of dispersive Fourier transformation for studying spectral noise during supercontinuum generation.

  7. Combined temporal and spectral measurement of infrared supercontinuum performed by up-conversion in a non-linear crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Johansen, Mikkel

    Up-converting infrared supercontinuum allows a direct measurement of its temporal and spectral properties. The resulting spectrogram reveals that higher order spatial modes play an important role in supercontinuum generation in step index fibres....

  8. Supercontinuum generation in fibers infiltrated with liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bang, Ole; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation in a capillary tube infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal is investigated theoretically in the near infrared region. A liquid crystal with a high electronic nonlinearity is chosen, which makes it possible to generate 100 nm wide supercontinua using IO ps pulses...... with peak power 1.5 kW in a 10 cm long waveguide. The possibility of tuning the spectrum of the generated Supercontinuum by changing the dispersion of the waveguide is also considered. It is found that the broadening of the spectrum in both the normal and anomalous regime is mainly due to self phase...... modulation, and therefore the dispersion of the waveguide is only of minor importance. The tuning of the dispersion is achieved by varying the temperature of the liquid crystal inside the capillary...

  9. Coherent fiber supercontinuum laser for nonlinear biomedical imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear biomedical imaging has not benefited from the well-known techniques of fiber supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, low spectral power intensity, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few techniques involving...... nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond fiber laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. These techniques pave the way for conducting point-of-care nonlinear biomedical imaging by a low-maintenance cost-effective coherent fiber supercontinuum laser, which covers a broad emission...... wavelength of 350-1700 nm. A prototype of this laser has been demonstrated in label-free multimodal nonlinear imaging of cell and tissue samples.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  10. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in uniform and tapered ZBLAN step-index fibers by direct pumping at 1064 or 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Agger, Christian; Moselund, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical design optimization of step-index ZBLAN fibers for developing mid-infrared (IR) supercontinuum sources with spectra covering the 1–4.5 μm regime using direct pumping with 10 ps pulses (FWHM) from mode-locked Yb (12.5 kW peak power) and Er lasers (10 kW peak power). Even...

  11. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-10-07

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced.

  12. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    -phase geological medium. Numerical analysis of generation of mechanical pressure in the geological medium due to action of high-power electric was carried out. It was shown that calculation of impulse of mechanical pressure due to high-power electrical current in the porous two-phase medium may be performed neglecting thermal conductance by solving the non-stationary equation of piezo-conductivity with Joule heat generation. For calculation of heat generation the known solution of the task of current spreading from spherical or elliptic electrode submerged into unbounded medium is used. Pressure increase due to electric current is determined by voltage of the current source and the medium parameters, and it does not depend on the electrode radius. The pressure increase is proportional to viscosity factor, electric conductivity of fluid in the pores, and inverse proportional to squared average radius of capillaries. These parameters may vary for different rocks and fluids in the pores by many orders of magnitude. The pressure increase for water is insignificant. If a high-mineralized fluid (e.g. sludge) is injected into the fault, the pressure may be increased by several orders and may obtain tens kilobars that is sufficient for triggering the seismic event. An estimation of parameters of portable pulsed power system for electric processing of the fault was performed, when the current is injected into the fault through two casing pipes of deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault between the wells. The work is supported by grant No. 09-05-12059-ofim of Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  13. Absolute calibration of optical streak cameras on picosecond time scales using supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, S; Gumbrell, E T; Robinson, T S; Floyd, E; Stuart, N H; Moore, A S; Skidmore, J W; Smith, R A

    2017-08-20

    We report a new method using high-stability, laser-driven supercontinuum generation in a liquid cell to calibrate the absolute photon response of fast optical streak cameras as a function of wavelength when operating at fastest sweep speeds. A stable, pulsed white light source based around the use of self-phase modulation in a salt solution was developed to provide the required brightness on picosecond time scales, enabling streak camera calibration in fully dynamic operation. The measured spectral brightness allowed for absolute photon response calibration over a broad spectral range (425-650 nm). Calibrations performed with two Axis Photonique streak cameras using the Photonis P820PSU streak tube demonstrated responses that qualitatively follow the photocathode response. Peak sensitivities were one photon/count above background. The absolute dynamic sensitivity is less than the static by up to an order of magnitude. We attribute this to the dynamic response of the phosphor being lower.

  14. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  15. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  16. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  17. Packaging of high power semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingsheng; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The characteristics and challenges of the design and various packaging, processing, and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies, in particular thermal technologies, current applications, and trends in high power semiconductor laser packaging are described at length and assessed.

  18. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  19. Upconversion imaging using an all-fiber supercontinuum source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huot, Laurent; Moselund, Peter Morten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . The infrared signal is used to probe a sample and mixed with a synchronized 1550 nm laser pulse inside a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystal. The signal is thus upconverted to the 860-970 nm range and acquired on a standard silicon CCD array at a rate of 22 frames per second. In our implementation, spatial...... features in the sample plane as small as 55 mu m could be resolved. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  20. Heatsink Design of High Power Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Ki [Chungang University (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Various ways of designing heat sink are available for commercial high power converters and among them, the method of air cooling is the most popular and practical method than any other ones. In this paper, a practical method of cooling high power converter, which includes a method of reducing noise and vibration caused by the fan and a method of estimating the gap and contact resistances existing between the thyristor and heat sink, is presented. Finally, the heat transfer analysis and implementation methods of heat sink for high power converter is presented. (author). 14 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Piezoelectric Transformers for a High Power Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezaki, T

    2003-01-01

    .... Here, in order to obtain compact and high-power AC-DC adaptors, we explored suitable designs for a multi-layered piezoelectric transformer, by taking into account the effect of the mechanical quality...

  2. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to develop and optimize an electrode-less plasma propulsion system that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) that is being developed...

  3. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new thruster has been conceived and tested that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) plasma wave. In this new method of propulsion, an antenna generates and...

  4. High Power Fiber Laser Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility, unique within DoD, power-combines numerous cutting-edge fiber-coupled laser diode modules (FCLDM) to integrate pumping of high power rare earth-doped...

  5. High Power Performance of Rod Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Michieletto, Mattia; Kristensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W.......An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W....

  6. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  7. Supercontinuum Generation in Uniform and Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Larsen, Casper

    be manipulated by air-hole structuring. SCG is inherently linked to the fundamental field of soliton physics and due to the striking efficiency of SCG in PCFs, researchers have been able to reveal numerous new and important fundamental effects and surprising links with other physical systems. In this work, we...... describe the underlying mechanisms responsible for SCG in PCFs, and show how the position and power in the spectral edges can be manipulated by tapering the fiber to achieve, e.g., spectra extending into the ultraviolet. This is motivated by the huge commercial potential of blue-extended supercontinuum...

  8. Ion energy characteristics downstream of a high power helicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Ziemba, Tim; Roberson, B Race; Quetin, Gregory [University of Washington, Johnson Hall 070, Box 351310, 4000 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)], E-mail: jprager@u.washington.edu

    2008-05-01

    The High Power Helicon eXperiment operates at higher powers (37 kW) and lower background neutral pressure than other helicon experiments. The ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) has been measured at multiple locations downstream of the helicon source and a mach 3-6 flowing plasma was observed. The helicon antenna has a direct effect in accelerating the plasma downstream of the source. Also, the IVDF is affected by the cloud of neutrals from the initial gas puff, which keeps the plasma speed low at early times near the source.

  9. High-power, narrow-band, high-repetition-rate, 5.9 eV coherent light source using passive optical cavity for laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omachi, J; Yoshioka, K; Kuwata-Gonokami, M

    2012-10-08

    We demonstrate a scheme for efficient generation of a 5.9 eV coherent light source with an average power of 23 mW, 0.34 meV linewidth, and 73 MHz repetition rate from a Ti: sapphire picosecond mode-locked laser with an output power of 1 W. Second-harmonic light is generated in a passive optical cavity by a BiB(3)O(6) crystal with a conversion efficiency as high as 67%. By focusing the second-harmonic light transmitted from the cavity into a β-BaB(2)O(4) crystal, we obtain fourth-harmonic light at 5.9 eV. This light source offers stable operation for at least a week. We discuss the suitability of the laser light source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy by comparing it with other sources (synchrotron radiation facilities and gas discharge lamp).

  10. A rapid excitation-emission matrix fluorometer utilizing supercontinuum white light and acousto-optic tunable filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenbo [Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Research Center, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, 835 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E8 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of British Columbia, KAIS 5500, 2332 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Wu, Zhenguo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan, E-mail: hzeng@bccrc.ca [Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Research Center, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, 835 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E8 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Scanning speed and coupling efficiency of excitation light to optic fibres are two major technical challenges that limit the potential of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrometer for on-line applications and in vivo studies. In this paper, a novel EEM system, utilizing a supercontinuum white light source and acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), was introduced and evaluated. The supercontinuum white light, generated by pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with an 800 nm femtosecond laser, was efficiently coupled into a bifurcated optic fiber bundle. High speed EEM spectral scanning was achieved using AOTFs both for selecting excitation wavelength and scanning emission spectra. Using calibration lamps (neon and mercury argon), wavelength deviations were determined to vary from 0.18 nm to −0.70 nm within the spectral range of 500–850 nm. Spectral bandwidth for filtered excitation light broadened by twofold compared to that measured with monochromatic light between 650 nm and 750 nm. The EEM spectra for methanol solutions of laser dyes were successfully acquired with this rapid fluorometer using an integration time of 5 s.

  11. High Power Diode Lasers Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2007-01-01

    In a very comprehensive way this book covers all aspects of high power diode laser technology for materials processing. Basics as well as new application oriented results obtained in a government funded national German research project are described in detail. Along the technological chain after a short introduction in the second chapter diode laser bar technology is discussed regarding structure, manufacturing technology and metrology. The third chapter illuminates all aspects of mounting and cooling, whereas chapter four gives wide spanning details on beam forming, beam guiding and beam combination, which are essential topics for incoherently coupled multi-emitter based high power diode lasers. Metrology, standards and safety aspects are the theme of chapter five. As an outcome of all the knowledge from chapter two to four various system configurations of high power diode lasers are described in chapter six; not only systems focussed on best available beam quality but especially also so called "modular" set...

  12. High-power optics lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the basics, realization and materials for high power laser systems and high power radiation interaction with  matter. The physical and technical fundamentals of high intensity laser optics and adaptive optics and the related physical processes in high intensity laser systems are explained. A main question discussed is: What is power optics? In what way is it different from ordinary optics widely used in cameras, motion-picture projectors, i.e., for everyday use? An undesirable consequence of the thermal deformation of optical elements and surfaces was discovered during studies of the interaction with powerful incident laser radiation. The requirements to the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications are also covered. The high-power laser performance is generally governed by the following: (i) the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms), (ii) followed by a temperature ...

  13. Germanate Glass Fiber Lasers for High Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0020 Germanate glass fiber lasers for high power David Lancaster THE UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE Final Report 01/04/2016...COVERED (From - To) 01-07-2014 to 30-06-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Germanate glass fiber lasers for high power 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER...germanate based glasses with a specific focus on glass stability during thermal-cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped

  14. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund

    have used for infrared microscopy where substance recognition is obtained in addition to magnification. Choosing a specific wavelength images showing only one substance can consequently be generated. More simple light sources are already used in such infrared microscopes to investigate tissue assays...

  15. Higher-Order Moment Characterisation of Rogue Wave Statistics in Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Bang, Ole; Wetzel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The noise characteristics of supercontinuum generation are characterized using higherorder statistical moments. Measures of skew and kurtosis, and the coefficient of variation allow quantitative identification of spectral regions dominated by rogue wave like behaviour....

  16. Seeded Supercontinuum Generation - Modulation Instability Gain, Coherent and Incoherent Rogue Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2012-01-01

    Deterministic supercontinuum can be generated by seeding the modulation instability-induced pulse break-up. We investigate the influence of the modulation instability gain on seeding and demonstrate the generation of coherent and incoherent rogue waves.......Deterministic supercontinuum can be generated by seeding the modulation instability-induced pulse break-up. We investigate the influence of the modulation instability gain on seeding and demonstrate the generation of coherent and incoherent rogue waves....

  17. Estimation of photonic crystal fiber dispersion by means of supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengelis, Julius; Jarutis, Vygandas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas

    2017-05-01

    We present a technique for photonic crystal fiber dispersion measurement. We demonstrate that investigating supercontinuum using cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating (XFROG) technique can be used for quantitatively characterizing dispersion and observing orthogonal polarization modes in polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers. In addition, an XFROG trace of supercontinuum generated in a polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber reveals complex behavior of orthogonal polarization modes that is different in normal and anomalous dispersion regions of the photonic crystal fiber.

  18. Development of a high power femtosecond laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neethling, PH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Laser Research Institute and the CSIR National Laser Centre are developing a high power femtosecond laser system in a joint project with a phased approach. The laser system consists of an fs oscillator and a regenerative amplifier. An OPCPA...

  19. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  20. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzer, Kevin A.

    1991-01-01

    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  1. High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nanxi; Purnawirman, P; Su, Zhan; Salih Magden, E; Callahan, Patrick T; Shtyrkova, Katia; Xin, Ming; Ruocco, Alfonso; Baiocco, Christopher; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Watts, Michael R

    2017-03-15

    Mid-infrared laser sources are of great interest for various applications, including light detection and ranging, spectroscopy, communication, trace-gas detection, and medical sensing. Silicon photonics is a promising platform that enables these applications to be integrated on a single chip with low cost and compact size. Silicon-based high-power lasers have been demonstrated at 1.55 μm wavelength, while in the 2 μm region, to the best of our knowledge, high-power, high-efficiency, and monolithic light sources have been minimally investigated. In this Letter, we report on high-power CMOS-compatible thulium-doped distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflector lasers with single-mode output powers up to 267 and 387 mW, and slope efficiencies of 14% and 23%, respectively. More than 70 dB side-mode suppression ratio is achieved for both lasers. This work extends the applicability of silicon photonic microsystems in the 2 μm region.

  2. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in concatenated fluoride and chalcogenide glass fibers covering more than three octaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2014-01-01

    Supercontinuum is generated in concatenated ZBLAN and As2Se3 fibers. Initially, a 0.9-4.1mm supercontinuum is obtained by pumping the ZBLAN fiber with a Tm laser, which then continues to broaden to 0.9-9um in As2Se3 fiber......Supercontinuum is generated in concatenated ZBLAN and As2Se3 fibers. Initially, a 0.9-4.1mm supercontinuum is obtained by pumping the ZBLAN fiber with a Tm laser, which then continues to broaden to 0.9-9um in As2Se3 fiber...

  3. A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D.

    2007-04-01

    This article discusses the development of a lemon cell battery for high-power applications. The target application is the power source of a dc electric motor for a model car constructed by first-year engineering students as part of their introductory course design project and competition. The battery is composed of a series of lemon juice cells made from UV vis cuvets that use a magnesium anode and copper cathode. Dilution of the lemon juice to reduce the rate of corrosion of the magnesium anode and the addition of table salt to reduce the internal resistance of the cell are examined. Although our specific interest is the use of this lemon cell battery to run an electric dc motor, high-power applications such as radios, portable cassette or CD players, and other battery-powered toys are equally appropriate for demonstration and laboratory purposes using this battery.

  4. Ultra-flat and ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber pumped by noise-like pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yewang; Ruan, Shuangchen; Wu, Xu; Guo, Chunyu; Liu, Weiqi; Yu, Jun; Luo, Ruoheng; Ren, Xikui; Zhu, Yihuai

    2017-02-01

    An ultra-flat and ultra-broadband supercontinuum (SC) is demonstrated in a 4-m photonic crystal fiber (PCF) pumped by an Yb-doped all-fiber noise-like pulses (NLP) laser. The Yb-doped fiber laser is seeded by a SESAM mode-locked fiber laser, and amplified by cascaded fiber amplifiers, with its center wavelength, repetition frequency and the average noise-like bunch duration of 1064.52 nm, 50.18 MHz, 9.14 ps, respectively. Pumped by this NLP laser, the SC source has a 3 dB bandwidth and a 7 dB bandwidth (ignore the pump residue) of 1440 nm and 1790 nm at the maximum average output power of 6.94 W. To the best of our knowledge, this flatness is significantly prominent for the performance of PCF-based SC sources.

  5. Methods for High Power EM Pulse Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiala

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some suitable methods for the measurement of ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses that can be generated by high power pulsed generators. The measurement methods properties have to correspond to the fact whether we want to measure pulses of voltage, current or free-space electromagnetic wave. The need for specific measurement methods occurred by the development of high power microwave pulse generator. Applicable methods are presented in this paper. The method utilizing Faraday's induction law allows the measurement of generated current. For the same purpose the magneto-optic method can be utilized, with its advantages. For measurement of output microwave pulse of the generator the calorimetric method was designed and realized.

  6. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  7. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in in situ tapered As₂S₃ fiber pumped by a thulium-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Charles W; Marandi, Alireza; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Byer, Robert L

    2013-08-01

    We report a supercontinuum spanning well over an octave of measurable bandwidth from about 1 to 3.7 μm in a 2.1 mm long As₂S₃ fiber taper using the in situ tapering method. A sub-100-fs mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser system with ~300 pJ of pulse energy was used as the pump source. Third-harmonic generation was observed and currently limits the pump pulse energy and achievable spectral bandwidth.

  8. Using high-power light emitting diodes for photoacoustic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Skov

    The preliminary result of using a high-power light emitting diode, LED, for photoacoustic imaging is presented. The pulsed light source is created by a 1Watt red Luxeon LED. The LED delivers light pulses with 25W peak power when supplied by 40A peak, 60ns wide current pulses. The phantom used...... for the experiment consists of a 3mm high x 5mm wide slice of green colored gelatine overlaid by a 3cm layer of colorless gelatine. The light pulses from the LED is focused on the green gelatine. The photoacoustic response from the green gelatine is detected by a single transducer on the opposite (top) surface...

  9. Photonic crystal fibers used in a multi-wavelength source and as transmission fiber in a WDM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas; Zsigri, Beata; Peucheret, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    We present a WDM system based entirely on photonic crystal fibers. It includes a novel dispersion flattened highly nonlinear PCF to generate supercontinuum used in a multiwavelength pulse source and a 5.6 km transmission PCF.......We present a WDM system based entirely on photonic crystal fibers. It includes a novel dispersion flattened highly nonlinear PCF to generate supercontinuum used in a multiwavelength pulse source and a 5.6 km transmission PCF....

  10. High power compatible internally sensed optical phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Francis, Samuel P; Sibley, Paul G; Fleddermann, Roland; Sutton, Andrew J; Smith, Craig; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2016-06-13

    The technical embodiment of the Huygens-Fresnel principle, an optical phased array (OPA) is an arrangement of optical emitters with relative phases controlled to create a desired beam profile after propagation. One important application of an OPA is coherent beam combining (CBC), which can be used to create beams of higher power than is possible with a single laser source, especially for narrow linewidth sources. Here we present an all-fiber architecture that stabilizes the relative output phase by inferring the relative path length differences between lasers using the small fraction of light that is back-reflected into the fiber at the OPA's glass-air interface, without the need for any external sampling optics. This architecture is compatible with high power continuous wave laser sources (e.g., fiber amplifiers) up to 100 W per channel. The high-power compatible internally sensed OPA was implemented experimentally using commercial 15 W fiber amplifiers, demonstrating an output RMS phase stability of λ/194, and the ability to steer the beam at up to 10 kHz.

  11. High Power Argon, Nitrogen Plasma Torches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, A.; Kashapov, N.; Sadikov, K.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes a high power supply for Argon and Nitrogen plasma torches. A high frequency was used in order to drive the pulse width modulation circuit. The average output current consumption (AOCC) was modified from 20A up to 80A by increasing the pulse width from 2μsec up to 3μsec for Argon gas plasma torches. The (AOCC) was reduced from 70A down to 25A by increasing the pulse width from 6μsec up to 8μsec in the case of Nitrogen gas plasma torches.

  12. Liquid state DNP using a 260 GHz high power gyrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denysenkov, Vasyl; Prandolini, Mark J; Gafurov, Marat; Sezer, Deniz; Endeward, Burkhard; Prisner, Thomas F

    2010-06-14

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at high magnetic fields (9.2 T, 400 MHz (1)H NMR frequency) requires high microwave power sources to achieve saturation of the EPR transitions. Here we describe the first high-field liquid-state DNP results using a high-power gyrotron microwave source (20 W at 260 GHz). A DNP enhancement of -29 on water protons was obtained for an aqueous solution of Fremy's Salt; in comparison the previous highest value was -10 using a solid-state microwave power source (maximum power 45 mW). The increased enhancements are partly due to larger microwave saturation and elevated sample temperature. These experimentally observed DNP enhancements, which by far exceed the predicted values extrapolated from low-field DNP experiments, demonstrate experimentally that DNP is possible in the liquid state also at high magnetic fields.

  13. Harnessing rogue wave for supercontinuum generation in cascaded photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Saili; Yang, Hua; Zhao, Chujun; Xiao, Yuzhe

    2017-04-03

    Based on induced modulation instability, we present a numerical study on harnessing rogue wave for supercontinuum generation in cascaded photonic crystal fibers. By selecting optimum modulation frequency, we achieve supercontinuum with a great improvement on spectrum stability when long-pulse is used as the pump. In this case, rogue wave can be obtained in the first segmented photonic crystal fiber with one zero dispersion wavelength in a controllable manner. Numerical simulations show that spectral range and flatness can be regulated in an extensive range by cascading a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths. Some novel phenomena are observed in the second segmented photonic crystal fiber. When the second zero dispersion wavelength is close to the first one, rogue wave is directly translated into dispersion waves, which is conducive to the generation of smoother supercontinuum. When the second zero dispersion wavelength is far away from the first one, rogue wave is translated into the form of fundamental soliton steadily propagating in the vicinity of the second zero dispersion wavelength. Meanwhile, the corresponding red-shifted dispersion wave is generated when the phase matching condition is met, which is beneficial to the generation of wider supercontinuum. The results presented in this work provide a better application of optical rogue wave to generate flat and broadband supercontinuum in cascaded photonic crystal fibers.

  14. Optimized VCSELs for high-power arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Kolb, Johanna S.; Engelhardt, Andreas P.; Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, Roland; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Weichmann, Ulrich; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    High-power VCSEL systems with multi kilowatt output power require a good electro-optical efficiency at the point of operation i.e. at elevated temperature. The large number of optimization parameters can be structured in a way that separates system and assembly considerations from the minimization of electrical and optical losses in the epitaxially grown structure. Temperature dependent functions for gain parameters, internal losses and injection efficiency are derived from a fit to experimental data. The empirical description takes into account diameter dependent effects like current spreading or temperature dependent ones like voltage drops over hetero-interfaces in the DBR mirrors. By evaluating experimental measurements of the light output and voltage characteristics over a large range of temperature and diameter, wafer-characteristic parameters are extracted allowing to predict the performance of VCSELs made from this material in any array and assembly configuration. This approach has several beneficial outcomes: Firstly, it gives a general description of a VCSEL independent of its geometry, mounting and detuning, secondly, insights into the structure and the underlying physics can be gained that lead to the improvement potential of the structure and thirdly the performance of the structure in arrays and modules can be predicted. Experimental results validate the approach and demonstrate the significantly improved VCSEL efficiency and the benefit in high power systems.

  15. Hybrid Antenna Amplifier: A Controllable High Power Microwave Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    16813 <lOHz ReOB 10OmV 500,us 20-Oct-04 16:14 ᝺Hz RefB 10OmV 500,ou 20-Oct-04 16:15 ᝺Hz Tek JL + Acq Complete M Pos: 150,Ons Tek J, 0 Acq...CH2 5.00V M 100cN CH2 \\X RefB 100mV 500oUS 20-Oct-04 16:17 ᝺Hz ReOB 100mV 500,os 20-Oct-04 16:18 ᝺Hz Ref0 1OOmV 500,ou 20-Oct-04 16:13 ᝺Hz Tek

  16. Terahertz radiation source using a high-power industrial electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-27

    Mar 27, 2017 ... from such an industrial linac can first pass through an undulator to generate useful terahertz (THz) radiation, and the spent electron ..... speed and the speed of ponderomotive wave, requiring. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. 120. 140. 1.0. 1.5. 2.0. 2.5. 3.0. 3.5. 4.0. 4.5. 5.0. Normalized emittance εn. (mm−mrad). P cen.

  17. High Power Broadband Multispectral Source on a Hybrid Silicon Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    It is extracted from two similar lasers with different gain (g1 and g2), different gain-region lengths L1 and L2 , and a passive waveguide loss (αSi...process flow of the DFB QCLs following the grating and silicon waveguide definition . Figure 12. Simplified fabrication process flow: (a) Bond III

  18. Workshop: Research and development plans for high power spallation neutron testing at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-05

    This report consists of vugraphs from presentations at the meeting. The papers covered the following topics: (1) APS as a proton source; (2) target status for NSNS (National Spallation Neutron Source); (3) spallation neutron source in Japan; (4) liquid LiBi flow loop; and (5) research and development plans for high power tests at the AGS.

  19. Increasing the blue-shift of a supercontinuum by modifying the fiber glass composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Moselund, Peter Morten; Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    the group-velocity profile of the nonlinear fiber in which the supercontinuum is generated, so that red-shifted solitons are group-velocity matched to dispersive waves in the desired ultraviolet-visible wavelength region. The group-velocity profile of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) can be engineered through...... the structure of the PCF, but this mostly modifies the group-velocity in the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. In this work, we first consider how the group-velocity profile can be engineered more directly in the short-wavelength part of the spectrum through alternative choices of the glass material from...... which the PCF is made. We then make simulations of supercontinuum generation in PCFs made of alternative glass materials. It is found that it is possible to increase the blue-shift of the generated supercontinuum by about 20 nm through a careful choice of glass composition, provided that the alternative...

  20. On-chip two-octave supercontinuum generation by enhancing self-steepening of optical pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yan, Yan; Yue, Yang; Lin, Qiang; Painter, Oskar; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Willner, Alan E

    2011-06-06

    Dramatic advances in supercontinuum generation have been made recently using photonic crystal fibers, but it is quite challenging to obtain an octave-spanning supercontinuum on a chip, partially because of strong dispersion in high-index-contrast nonlinear integrated waveguides. We show by simulation that extremely flat and low dispersion can be achieved in silicon nitride slot waveguides over a wavelength band of 500 nm. Different from most of previously reported supercontinua that were generated either by higher-order soliton fission in anomalous dispersion regime or by self-phase modulation in normal dispersion regime, a two-octave supercontinuum from 630 to 2650 nm (360 THz in total) can be generated by enhancing self-steepening in pulse propagation in nearly zero dispersion regime, when an optical shock as short as 3 fs is formed.

  1. Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in a silicon nitride waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrea R; Mayer, Aline S; Klenner, Alexander; Luke, Kevin; Lamb, Erin S; Lamont, Michael R E; Joshi, Chaitanya; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Wise, Frank W; Lipson, Michal; Keller, Ursula; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum spanning more than 1.4 octaves in a silicon nitride waveguide using sub-100-fs pulses at 1 μm generated by either a 53-MHz, diode-pumped ytterbium (Yb) fiber laser or a 1-GHz, Yb:CaAlGdO(4) (Yb:CALGO) laser. Our numerical simulations show that the broadband supercontinuum is fully coherent, and a spectral interference measurement is used to verify that the supercontinuum generated with the Yb:CALGO laser possesses a high degree of coherence over the majority of its spectral bandwidth. This coherent spectrum may be utilized for optical coherence tomography, spectroscopy, and frequency metrology.

  2. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  3. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, Alberto; Berkovits, Dan; Yamane, Isao; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.10.091001

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw) proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line adioactive Ion Beam Facility) design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kWof proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fractionof the main H- beam, magnetic splitting of H- and H0, and stripping of H0 to H+. The method allowsslow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  4. Design of the Trap Filter for the High Power Converters with Parallel Interleaved VSCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    The power handling capability of the state-of-the-art semiconductor devices is limited. Therefore, the Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel to realize high power converter. The switching frequency semiconductor devices, used in the high power VSCs, is also limited...... to sink the dominant harmonic frequency components. The design procedure of the line filter is illustrated and the filter performance is also verified by performing the simulation and the experimental study....

  5. High Average Power Mid-infrared Supercontinuum Generation in a Suspended Core Chalcogenide Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 2.0 to 6.1 μm is generated in a 9 cm suspended core chalcogenide fiber by pumping close to the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength at 3.5 μm with an OPA system......Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 2.0 to 6.1 μm is generated in a 9 cm suspended core chalcogenide fiber by pumping close to the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength at 3.5 μm with an OPA system...

  6. Broadband telecom to mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a dispersion-engineered silicon germanium waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettabib, Mohamed A; Xu, Lin; Bogris, Adonis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Belal, Mohammad; Lorent, Emerick; Labeye, Pierre; Nicoletti, Sergio; Hammani, Kamal; Syvridis, Dimitris; Shepherd, David P; Price, Jonathan H V; Richardson, David J; Petropoulos, Periklis

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate broadband supercontinuum generation (SCG) in a dispersion-engineered silicon-germanium waveguide. The 3 cm long waveguide is pumped by femtosecond pulses at 2.4 μm, and the generated supercontinuum extends from 1.45 to 2.79 μm (at the -30  dB point). The broadening is mainly driven by the generation of a dispersive wave in the 1.5-1.8 μm region and soliton fission. The SCG was modeled numerically, and excellent agreement with the experimental results was obtained.

  7. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a silicon-rich nitride waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Pu, Minhao; Zhou, Binbin; Krückel, Clemens J; Fülöp, Attila; Torres-Company, Victor; Bache, Morten

    2016-06-15

    We experimentally show octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a nonstoichiometric silicon-rich nitride waveguide when pumped by femtosecond pulses from an erbium fiber laser. The pulse energy and bandwidth are comparable to results achieved in stoichiometric silicon nitride waveguides, but our material platform is simpler to manufacture. We also observe wave-breaking supercontinuum generation by using orthogonal pumping in the same waveguide. Additional analysis reveals that the waveguide height is a powerful tuning parameter for generating mid-infrared dispersive waves while keeping the pump in the telecom band.

  8. Octave-Spanning Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation with Ultrafast Cascaded Nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Liu, Xing

    2014-01-01

    An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation.......An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation....

  9. Observation of an octave-spanning supercontinuum in the mid-infrared using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin

    2014-01-01

    An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. ©OSA 2014.......An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. ©OSA 2014....

  10. Super-flat supercontinuum generation from a Tm-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Mengmeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Zhenbao; Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Yanlong; Feng, Guobin; Ye, Xisheng

    2016-03-29

    Super-flat supercontinua are generated from a double clad Tm-doped fiber amplifier. Two different laser configurations are investigated and compared. In the direct-output configuration, the long-wavelength edge of the supercontinuum spectra is extended to beyond 2.65 μm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 740 nm. In the passive pigtail configuration, the generated supercontinuum features excellent flatness with an intensity difference smaller than 1 dB in the wide central spectral range from 1.98 μm to 2.41 μm.

  11. Special microstructured fibers with irregular and regular claddings for supercontinuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, Vladimir P.; Vaca Pereira G., M.; Villatoro, Joel; Sotsky, Alexander B.; Illarramendi, Maria Asunción; Zubia, Joseba

    2017-08-01

    In this report, we inform in detail on fabrication of a special (3 rings of air-holes) index-giuding air-silica microstructured optical fiber (IG MOF) with different air-hole diameters in the cladding (irregular cladding) and its application for a broadband supercontinuum (SC) generation by femtosecond laser pulses. For comparison, supercontinuum generation in a special nonlinear air-silica IG MOF with regular cladding is also investigated. Dispersion properties of the investigated fibers were numerically predicted and experimentally verified. Broadband SC generation from visual wavelengths up to 1600 nm in such fibers, both with the length of 1 m, was observed.

  12. Supercontinuum Generation in AlGaAs-On-Insulator Nano-Waveguide at Telecom Wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ji, Hua; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We characterize pulse spectral broadening in an AlGaAs-on-insulator nano-waveguide at telecom wavelengths. We obtain a supercontinuum over 500 nm (30-dB bandwidth) with 410-fs pulses and self-phase modulation broadening covering the C-band with 1.1-ps pulses.......We characterize pulse spectral broadening in an AlGaAs-on-insulator nano-waveguide at telecom wavelengths. We obtain a supercontinuum over 500 nm (30-dB bandwidth) with 410-fs pulses and self-phase modulation broadening covering the C-band with 1.1-ps pulses....

  13. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a silicon-rich nitride waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin; Krückel, Clemens J; Fülöp, Attila; Torres-Company, Victor; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally show octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a non-stoichiometric silicon-rich nitride waveguide when pumped by femtosecond pulses from an erbium fiber laser. The pulse energy and bandwidth are comparable to results achieved in stoichiometric silicon nitride waveguides, but our material platform is simpler to manufacture. We also observe wave-breaking supercontinuum generation by using orthogonal pumping in the same waveguide. Additional analysis reveals that the waveguide height is a powerful tuning parameter for generating mid-infrared dispersive waves while keeping the pump in the telecom band.

  14. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  15. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian

    2015-10-07

    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  16. Laminar composite structures for high power actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobosyan, M. A.; Martinez, P. M.; Zakhidov, A. A.; Haines, C. S.; Baughman, R. H.; Martirosyan, K. S.

    2017-05-01

    Twisted laminar composite structures for high power and large-stroke actuators based on coiled Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) composite yarns were crafted by integrating high-density Nanoenergetic Gas Generators (NGGs) into carbon nanotube sheets. The linear actuation force, resulting from the pneumatic force caused by expanding gases confined within the pores of laminar structures and twisted carbon nanotube yarns, can be further amplified by increasing NGG loading and yarns twist density, as well as selecting NGG compositions with high energy density and large-volume gas generation. Moreover, the actuation force and power can be tuned by the surrounding environment, such as to increase the actuation by combustion in ambient air. A single 300-μm-diameter integrated MWNT/NGG coiled yarn produced 0.7 MPa stress and a contractile specific work power of up to 4.7 kW/kg, while combustion front propagated along the yarn at a velocity up to 10 m/s. Such powerful yarn actuators can also be operated in a vacuum, enabling their potential use for deploying heavy loads in outer space, such as to unfold solar panels and solar sails.

  17. Test of a High Power Target Design

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS343 :\\\\ \\\\ A high power tantalum disc-foil target (RIST) has been developed for the proposed radioactive beam facility, SIRIUS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The yield and release characteristics of the RIST target design have been measured at ISOLDE. The results indicate that the yields are at least as good as the best ISOLDE roll-foil targets and that the release curves are significantly faster in most cases. Both targets use 20 -25 $\\mu$m thick foils, but in a different internal geometry.\\\\ \\\\Investigations have continued at ISOLDE with targets having different foil thickness and internal geometries in an attempt to understand the release mechanisms and in particular to maximise the yield of short lived isotopes. A theoretical model has been developed which fits the release curves and gives physical values of the diffusion constants.\\\\ \\\\The latest target is constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick tantalum foils (mass only 10 mg) and shows very short release times. The yield of $^{11}$Li (half-life of ...

  18. High-Power Helicon Double Gun Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao

    While chemical propulsion is necessary to launch a spacecraft from a planetary surface into space, electric propulsion has the potential to provide significant cost savings for the orbital transfer of payloads between planets. Due to extended wave particle interactions, a plasma thruster that can operate in the 100 kW to several MW power regime can only be attained by increasing the size of the thruster, or by using an array of plasma thrusters. The High-Power Helicon (HPH) Double Gun thruster experiment examines whether firing two helicon thrusters in parallel produces an exhaust velocity higher than the exhaust velocity of a single thruster. The scaling law that relates the downstream plasma velocity with the number of helicon antennae is derived, and compared with the experimental result. In conjunction with data analysis, two digital filtering algorithms are developed to filter out the noise from helicon antennae. The scaling law states that the downstream plasma velocity is proportional to square root of the number of helicon antennae, which is in agreement with the experimental result.

  19. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  20. Temperature measurements of high power LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalan (Draghici), Niculina; Svasta, Paul; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of a LED junction temperature is very important in designing a LED lighting system. Depending on the junction temperature we will be able to determine the type of cooling system and the size of the lighting system. There are several indirect methods for junction temperature measurement. The method used in this paper is based on the thermal resistance model. The aim of this study is to identify the best device that would allow measuring the solder point temperature and the temperature on the lens of power LEDs. For this purpose four devices for measuring temperature on a high-power LED are presented and compared according to the acquired measurements: an infrared thermal camera from FLIR Systems, a multimeter with K type thermocouple (Velleman DVM4200), an infrared-spot based noncontact thermometer (Raynger ST) and a measurement system based on a digital temperature sensor (DS1821 type) connected to a PC. The measurements were conducted on an 18W COB (chip-on-board) LED. The measurement points are the supply terminals and the lens of the LED.

  1. Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, Bart; Liu, Xiaoping; Osgood, Richard M; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Günther; Green, William M J

    2011-10-10

    We demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum in a 2 cm long silicon wire by pumping the wire with mid-infrared picosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion regime. The supercontinuum extends from 1535 nm up to 2525 nm for a coupled peak power of 12.7 W. It is shown that the supercontinuum originates primarily from the amplification of background noise. A detailed analysis of the spectral components which are generated through phase-matched processes is applied to extract the group velocity dispersion and fourth-order dispersion coefficient of the silicon wire waveguide.

  2. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a silicon-rich nitride waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We generate supercontinuum (817–2250 nm at −30dB) in a dispersion-engineered silicon-rich nitride waveguide by pumping fs pulses with 82 pJ from an erbium-fiber oscillator. Spectral broadening mechanisms include soliton fission and dispersive wave generation....

  3. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a silicon-rich nitride waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xing; Pu, Minhao; Zhou, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally show octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a nonstoichiometric silicon-rich nitride waveguide when pumped by femtosecond pulses from an erbium fiber laser. The pulse energy and bandwidth are comparable to results achieved in stoichiometric silicon nitride waveguides...

  4. High-spectral-flatness mid-infrared supercontinuum generated from a Tm-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jihong; Wang, Qing; Jiang, Shibin

    2012-03-01

    Broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum pulses were generated directly from a short piece of active fiber in a single-mode Tm-doped fiber amplifier. The broadband mid-infrared pulses have an extremely high spectral flatness with ~600 nm FWHM bandwidth (from 1.9 μm to 2.5 μm), >15 kW peak power, and >20 GW/cm(2) laser peak intensity. This new approach exhibits a significantly different physical mechanism from other supercontinuum generation demonstrations in the literature, in which usually a piece of passive fiber was used for nonlinear spectral broadening. The physical mechanism for the broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in this approach has been attributed to a combined effect of two superradiative processes of Tm(3+) ions (i.e., the (3)F(4)-(3)H(6) transition covering the 1.8~2.1  μm spectral region and the (3)H(4)-(3)H(5) transition covering the 2.2~2.5  μm spectral region), and also nonlinear optical processes as well in the Tm-doped gain fiber. The spectra of the mid-infrared supercontinuum pulses were further broadened in a 2 m chalcogenide fiber with 20 dB bandwidth ~1100 nm and a 3 m fluoride fiber with 20 dB bandwidth ~2600 nm. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  5. Describing supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics using higher-order moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Bang, Ole; Wetzel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We show that the noise properties of fiber supercontinuum generation and the appearance of long-tailed “rogue wave” statistics can be accurately quantified using statistical higher-order central moments. Statistical measures of skew and kurtosis, as well as the coefficient of variation provide im...

  6. Prospects for high-power radioactive beam facilities worldwide

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, Jerry A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in accelerators, targets, ion sources, and experimental instrumentation are making possible ever more powerful facilities for basic and applied research with short-lived radioactive isotopes. There are several current generation facilities, based on a variety of technologies, operating worldwide. These include, for example, those based on the in-flight method such as the recently upgraded National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, the facility at RIKEN in Japan, GANIL in Caen, France, and GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Present facilities based on the Isotope-Separator On-Line method include, for example, the ISOLDE laboratory at CERN, HRIBF at Oak Ridge, and the new high-power facility ISAC at TRIUMF in Vancouver. Next-generation facilities include the Radioactive-Ion Factory upgrade of RIKEN to higher energy and intensity and the upgrade of ISAC to a higher energy secondary beam; both of these projects are in progress. A new project, LINAG, to upgrade the capabilities at...

  7. High-power diode lasers and their direct industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosen, Peter; Treusch, Hans-Georg; Haas, C. R.; Gardenier, U.; Weck, Manfred; Sinnhoff, V.; Kasperowski, S.; vor dem Esche, R.

    1995-04-01

    The paper summarizes activities of the two Fraunhofer-Institutes ILT and IPT concerning the development of high-power laser-diode stacks and their direct industrial applications. With microchannel coolers in copper technology and ultra-precision machined micro-optics a stack of 330 - 400 W total power with a maximum intensity of the focused beam of 2 104 W/cm2 has been built and tested in first applications. By further improvements of the lens-fabrication and -alignment technology as well as increase of the number of stacked diodes an output power in the kW-range and intensities up to about 105 W/cm2 shall be achieved in the near future. Applications of such laser sources in surface technology, in the processing of plastics, in laser-assisted machining and in brazing are discussed.

  8. Innovations in high power fiber laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Eckhard; Mahrle, Achim; Lütke, Matthias; Standfuss, Jens; Brückner, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Diffraction-limited high power lasers represent a new generation of lasers for materials processing, characteristic traits of which are: smaller, cost-effective and processing "on the fly". Of utmost importance is the high beam quality of fiber lasers which enables us to reduce the size of the focusing head incl. scanning mirrors. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a lot of new applications. In the field of remote cutting and welding the beam quality is the key parameter. By reducing the size of the focusing head including the scanning mirrors we can reach scanning frequencies up to 1.5 kHz and in special configurations up to 4 kHz. By using these frequencies very thin and deep welding seams can be generated experienced so far with electron beam welding only. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a high potential for developing new applications from deep penetration welding to high speed cutting. Highly dynamic cutting systems with maximum speeds up to 300 m/min and accelerations up to 4 g reduce the cutting time for cutting complex 2D parts. However, due to the inertia of such systems the effective cutting speed is reduced in real applications. This is especially true if complex shapes or contours are cut. With the introduction of scanner-based remote cutting systems in the kilowatt range, the effective cutting speed on the contour can be dramatically increased. The presentation explains remote cutting of metal foils and sheets using high brightness single mode fiber lasers. The presentation will also show the effect of optical feedback during cutting and welding with the fiber laser, how those feedbacks could be reduced and how they have to be used to optimize the cutting or welding process.

  9. Facet engineering of high power single emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanson, Dan; Levi, Moshe; Shamay, Moshe; Tesler, Renana; Rappaport, Noam; Don, Yaroslav; Karni, Yoram; Schnitzer, Itzhak; Sicron, Noam; Shusterman, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    The ever increasing demand for high-power, high-reliability operation of single emitters at 9xx nm wavelengths requires the development of laser diodes with improved facet regions immune to both catastrophic and wear-out failure modes. In our study, we have evaluated several laser facet definition technologies in application to 90 micron aperture single emitters in asymmetric design (In)GaAs/AlGaAs based material emitting at 915, 925 and 980nm. A common epitaxy and emitter design makes for a straightforward comparison of the facet technologies investigated. Our study corroborates a clear trend of increasing difficulty in obtaining reliable laser operation from 980nm down to 915nm. At 980nm, one can employ dielectric facet passivation with a pre-clean cycle delivering a device lifetime in excess of 3,000 hours at increasing current steps. At 925nm, quantum-well intermixing can be used to define non-absorbing mirrors giving good device reliability, albeit with a large efficiency penalty. Vacuum cleaved emitters have delivered excellent reliability at 915nm, and can be expected to perform just as well at 925 and 980nm. Epitaxial regrowth of laser facets is under development and has yet to demonstrate an appreciable reliability improvement. Only a weak correlation between start-of-life catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) levels and reliability was established. The optimized facet design has delivered maximum powers in excess of 19 MW/sq.cm (rollover limited) and product-grade 980nm single emitters with a slope efficiency of >1 W/A and a peak efficiency of >60%. The devices have accumulated over 1,500 hours of CW operation at 11W. A fiber-coupled device emits 10W ex-fiber with 47% efficiency.

  10. Polarization extinction ratio and polarization dependent intensity noise in long-pulse supercontinuum generation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Catherine; Dybbro Engelsholm, Rasmus; Moselund, Peter Morten; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian; Bang, Ole

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the polarization of supercontinuum generated in nominally non-birefringent silica photonic crystal fibers over the entire spectrum of the source (450-2400 nm). We demonstrate that the degree of polarization varies over the spectrum but that some parts of the spectrum show stable polarization extinction ratios (PER) of over 10 dB. We experimentally demonstrate how the spectrally resolved polarization develops with increasing power and along the length of the nonlinear fiber. The experimental results are compared to numerical simulations of coupled polarization states mimicking the experimental conditions. Subsequently, a single-shot pulse-to-pulse polarization dependent relative intensity noise (PD-RIN) was measured and the noise characteristics were analyzed using long-tailed and rogue wave statistics. To do this, we used a range of 10 nm narrow bandpass filters (BPF) between 550 nm to 2200 nm, and fast photo detectors, to record 800 consecutive pulses. Peaks from these pulses are first extracted, then distribution of their pulse height histogram (PHH) is constructed. Analysis using higher-order moments about the mean (variance, skewness and kurtosis) showed that: (1) around the pump wavelength of 1064nm, the PD-RIN is lowest, PHH exhibits a Gaussian distribution, and higher order moments are zero, (2) further away from pump, PD-RIN increases in parabolic fashion, PHH follows a left-skewed long-tailed Gamma distribution, and higher-order moments increase. Spectrally, the difference of the PD-RIN in the two orthogonal axes increases with PER.

  11. Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe; Kubat, Irnis; Zhou, Binbin; Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Benson, Trevor; Sujecki, Slawomir; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil; Tang, Zhuoqi; Furniss, David; Seddon, Angela; Bang, Ole

    2014-11-01

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. To date, the limitations of mid-infrared light sources such as thermal emitters, low-power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation have precluded mid-infrared applications where the spatial coherence, broad bandwidth, high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses with a central wavelength of either 4.5 μm or 6.3 μm into short pieces of ultra-high numerical-aperture step-index chalcogenide glass optical fibre generates a mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning 1.5 μm to 11.7 μm and 1.4 μm to 13.3 μm, respectively. This is the first experimental demonstration to truly reveal the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular ‘fingerprint region’, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics, gas sensing and food quality control.

  12. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-07

    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  13. An Evaluation of the Cutting Potential of Different Types of High Power Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2006-01-01

    based upon the historical development, the available cutting mechanisms understanding and the critical parameters involved in high power laser cutting. From the theoretical point of view, the new laser sources, the Disc-laser and the Fibre laser possess a potential of changing dramatically the limits......Laser cutting is a widespread industrial process. The boundaries for the performance of the lasers in terms of cutting capabilities is steadily moving towards higher cutting rates and thicker section cutting. In this paper the potential of different high power laser sources in cutting is evaluated...

  14. Design and characterization of a novel power over fiber system integrating a high power diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsein; Zahuranec, Terry

    2017-02-01

    High power 9xx nm diode lasers along with MH GoPower's (MHGP's) flexible line of Photovoltaic Power Converters (PPCs) are spurring high power applications for power over fiber (PoF), including applications for powering remote sensors and sensors monitoring high voltage equipment, powering high voltage IGBT gate drivers, converters used in RF over Fiber (RFoF) systems, and system power applications, including powering UAVs. In PoF, laser power is transmitted over fiber, and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells (packaged into Photovoltaic Power Converters, or PPCs) which efficiently convert the laser light. In this research, we design a high power multi-channel PoF system, incorporating a high power 976 nm diode laser, a cabling system with fiber break detection, and a multichannel PPC-module. We then characterizes system features such as its response time to system commands, the PPC module's electrical output stability, the PPC-module's thermal response, the fiber break detection system response, and the diode laser optical output stability. The high power PoF system and this research will serve as a scalable model for those interested in researching, developing, or deploying a high power, voltage isolated, and optically driven power source for high reliability utility, communications, defense, and scientific applications.

  15. Asymmetric Draw-Tower Tapers for Supercontinuum Generation and Verification of the Novel Concept of Group-Acceleration Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Møller, Uffe; Moselund, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first short asymmetrical draw-tower photonic crystal fiber taper for maximizing the power in the blue edge of a supercontinuum. The results clearly emphasize the importance of the taper shape on the spectrum.......We present the first short asymmetrical draw-tower photonic crystal fiber taper for maximizing the power in the blue edge of a supercontinuum. The results clearly emphasize the importance of the taper shape on the spectrum....

  16. Multiple pulse electron beam converter design for high power radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincosy, P. A.; Back, N.; Bergstrom, P. M.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Poulsen, P.

    2001-06-01

    The typical response of the x-ray converter material to the passage of a high-powered relativistic electron beam is vaporization and rapid dispersal. The effect of this dispersal on subsequent pulses for multi-pulse radiography is the collective effects on the propagation of the electron beam through the expanding plasma and the reduced number of electron to photon interactions. Thus, for the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility, the converter material must either be replaced or confined long enough to accommodate the entire pulse train. Typically the 1-mm-thick high Z and full density converter material is chosen to give peak dose and minimum radiographic spot. For repeated pulses we propose a modified converter, constructed of either low density, high Z material in the form of foam or of foils spaced over ten times the axial thickness of the standard 1 mm converter. The converter material is confined within a tube to impede outward motion in radius outside the beam interaction region. We report single-pulse experiments which measure the dose and spot size produced by the modified converter and compare them to similar measurements made by the standard converter. For multiple pulses over a microsecond time scale, we calculate the radial and axial hydrodynamic flow to study the material reflux into the converter volume and the resultant density decrease as the electron beam energy is deposited. Both the electron transport through the expanding low density plasma and beam in the higher density material are modeled. The x-ray source dose and spot size are calculated to evaluate the impact of the changing converter material density distribution on the radiographic spot size and dose. The results indicate that a multiple-pulse converter design for three or four high-power beam pulses is feasible.

  17. High-power femtosecond Raman frequency shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carlo; Shalaby, Mostafa; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr; Losev, Leonid; Hauri, Christoph P

    2016-10-15

    We report on the generation of broadband, high-energy femtosecond pulses centered at 1.28 μm by stimulated Raman scattering in a pressurized hydrogen cell. Stimulated Raman scattering is performed by two chirped and delayed pulses originating from a multi-mJ Ti:sapphire amplifier. The Stokes pulse carries record-high energy of 4.4 mJ and is recompressed down to 66 fs by a reflective grating pair. We characterized the short-wavelength mid-infrared source in view of energy stability, beam profile, and conversion efficiency at repetition rates of 100 and 10 Hz. The demonstrated high-energy frequency shifter will benefit intense THz sources based on highly nonlinear organic crystals.

  18. High power beta electron device - Beyond betavoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, William M; Gentile, Charles A

    2018-01-01

    Developing watt level power sources with beta emitting radioisotopes has been limited by the inability to utilize high energy (> 100KeV) beta emitters at high radioisotope loadings without damaging the energy conversion materials. A new type of beta electron power source is described that removes those restrictions. The approach contains the radioisotope in a beta transparent titanium tube and confines beta electrons emitted through the tube wall to spiral trajectories around the tube with an axial magnetic field. The confined beta electrons dissipate energy though multiple interactions with surrounding excimer precursor gas atoms to efficiently generate photons. Photovoltaic cells convert the photons to electrical power. Since the beta electrons dissipate energy in the excimer precursor gas, the device can be loaded with more than 1013Bq of radioisotope to generate 100 milliwatt to watt levels of electrical power without damaging the device materials or degrading its performance. The power source can use a variety of beta radioisotopes and scales by stacking the devices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. High-power random distributed feedback fiber laser: From science to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xueyuan [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Naval Academy of Armament, Beijing 100161 (China); Zhang, Hanwei; Xiao, Hu; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-10-15

    A fiber laser based on random distributed feedback has attracted increasing attention in recent years, as it has become an important photonic device and has found wide applications in fiber communications or sensing. In this article, recent advances in high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser are reviewed, including the theoretical analyses, experimental approaches, discussion on the practical applications and outlook. It is found that a random distributed feedback fiber laser can not only act as an information photonics device, but also has the feasibility for high-efficiency/high-power generation, which makes it competitive with conventional high-power laser sources. In addition, high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser has been successfully applied for midinfrared lasing, frequency doubling to the visible and high-quality imaging. It is believed that the high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser could become a promising light source with simple and economic configurations. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Broadband Measurement of Black Carbon Absorption and Scattering Coefficients using a Supercontinuum Integrated Photoacoustic and Nephelometer Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    sharma, N.; Arnold, I. J.; Moosmuller, H.; Arnott, P.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2012-12-01

    The study of light absorbing and scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols is necessary for predicting the effects of aerosols on the climate. Integrated photoacoustic-nephelometer spectrometers are commonly used for simultaneous measurement of light absorption and scattering from atmospheric aerosol particles. Commercially available photoacoustic-nephelometer instruments use one to three discrete operating wavelengths. The optical properties of some aerosol particles vary with the aerosol composition, and exhibit unique wavelength dependencies, especially for biomass burning and mineral dust aerosols. Additionally, atmospheric processes like mixing and aging change the aerosol optical properties. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the aerosol optical properties at more than a few discrete wavelengths. Using a light source which spans a wide and continuous wavelength range in combination with photoacoustic spectrometer and nephelometer techniques would facilitate the study of the optical behavior of aerosols over the solar spectrum. In the environmental optics laboratory at Michigan Technological University and in collaboration with the Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada, we are developing a new integrated photoacoustic-nephelometer spectrometer that uses a supercontinuum laser as light source. The emission of the supercontinuum laser continuously covers the entire visible spectrum and part of the infrared spectrum (i.e., from 400nm to 2200nm) and should therefore allow characterizing the aerosol optical properties over almost the entire solar spectrum. Currently, our focus is on studying the aerosol optical properties of combustion aerosol in the visible part of the spectrum (i.e., 400-700nm). The current prototype uses a filter wheel with bandpass optical filters of wavelength 417nm (bandwidth 60nm), 475nm (bandwidth 64nm), 542nm (bandwidth 50nm), 607nm (bandwidth 70nm) and 675nm (bandwidth 67nm). In July 2012 we performed a laboratory study at

  1. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  2. Spectral, spatial and temporal control of high-power diode lasers through nonlinear optical feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    A high-power diode laser offers multi-Watt output power from a small and efficient device, which makes them an interesting source for numerous applications. The spatial and spectral output however, are of reduced quality which limits the applicability. This limited quality is connected to the design

  3. Three-phase multilevel inverter configuration for open-winding high power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2015-01-01

    This paper work exploits a new dual open-winding three-phase multilevel inverter configuration suitable for high power medium-voltage applications. Modular structure comprised of standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) along with one additional bi-directional semiconductor device (MOSF...

  4. High power target developments at ISAC

    CERN Document Server

    Bricault, P G; Dowling, A; Lane, M

    2003-01-01

    TRIUMF, Canada's national research facility for particle and nuclear physics is currently operating the ISAC facility. A high-energy proton beam from the H sup - TRIUMF cyclotron is used to generate short-lived radioactive species in a thick target. An ion source at the target creates a radioactive beam, which is then injected into the ISAC beam lines and accelerator system. The ISAC facility is designed to accept proton beam intensity up to 100 mu A at 500 MeV. At present our target design can only sustains 40 mu A at maximum. Beyond this point the target has to be cooled. A new target equipped with fins has been developed that may sustain proton beam up to 100 mu A. The fined target has been tested off-line and a thermal simulation using ANSYS[reg] has been conducted and the results are reported here.

  5. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  6. High power UV and VUV pulsed excilamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V.; Erofeev, M.; Lomaev, M.; Rybka, D.

    2008-07-01

    Emission characteristics of a nanosecond discharge in inert gases and its halogenides without preionization of the gap from an auxiliary source have been investigated. A volume discharge, initiated by an avalanche electron beam (VDIAEB) was realized at pressures up to 12 atm. In xenon at pressure of 1.2 atm, the energy of spontaneous radiation in the full solid angle was sim 45 mJ/cm^3, and the FWHM of a radiation pulse was sim 110 ns. The spontaneous radiation power rise in xenon was observed at pressures up to 12 atm. Pulsed radiant exitance of inert gases halogenides excited by VDIAEB was sim 4.5 kW/cm^2 at efficiency up to 5.5 %.

  7. Linear and nonlinear filters under high power microwave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brauer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of protection circuits against a variety of electromagnetic disturbances is important to assure the immunity of an electronic system. In this paper the behavior of linear and nonlinear filters is measured and simulated with high power microwave (HPM signals to achieve a comprehensive protection against different high power electromagnetic (HPEM threats.

  8. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  9. Generation of ultra broadband supercontinuum in dispersion managed silicon nanophotonic waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Ciret, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion managed (DM) silicon nanophotonic waveguides are investigated for the generation of optimal ultra broadband supercontinuum (SC). DM waveguides are made of a longitudinally dependent group velocity dispersion resulting from the variation of the waveguide width with the propagation distance. For the generation of optimal SC, a genetic algorithm has been used to find the best dispersion map. This allows for the generation of a highly coherent supercontinuum spanning from 1100~nm to 2950~nm at -40~dB level for 2\\,$\\mu$m, 200 fs and 6.4 pJ input pulse. The comparison with optimal fixed width and tapered waveguides shows that the SC is 300\\,nm broader in the DM waveguide, while the high coherence is ensured by the varying dispersion.

  10. Two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As-Se suspended core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    2015-01-01

    A more than two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum with an average output power of 15.6 mW covering 1.7-7.5 μm (1,333-5,900 cm-1) is generated in a low-loss As38Se62 suspended core fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm.......A more than two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum with an average output power of 15.6 mW covering 1.7-7.5 μm (1,333-5,900 cm-1) is generated in a low-loss As38Se62 suspended core fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm....

  11. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in multimode As2 Se3 chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ameni Ben; Salem, Amine Ben; Cherif, Rim

    2017-05-20

    We rigorously investigated the mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a multimode As2Se3 chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We studied the impact of the intermodal nonlinear effects on the nonlinear propagation of the fundamental and high-order modes. By solving the multimode generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we have predicted the generation of a very broadband supercontinuum in both polarizations of the fundamental mode spanning from 2 to 11 μm at -20  dB in only 5 cm PCF length. The proposed study confirms that the energy transfer occurs only between the optical degenerate modes when propagating in the multimode chalcogenide PCF in the mid-infrared region.

  12. The SPES High Power ISOL production target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.

    2016-11-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  13. Numerical investigation of enhanced femtosecond supercontinuum via a weak seed in noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanor, C; Ensley, T; Hagan, D J; Van Stryland, E W; Wright, E M; Kolesik, M

    2016-06-27

    Numerical simulations are employed to elucidate the physics underlying the enhanced femtosecond supercontinuum generation previously observed during optical filamentation in noble gases and in the presence of a weak seed pulse. Simulations based on the metastable electronic state approach are shown not only to capture the qualitative features of the experiment, but also reveal the relation of the observed enhancement to recent developments in the area of sub-cycle engineering of filaments.

  14. Multi-milliwatt mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended core chalcogenide fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Kubat, Irnis

    2015-01-01

    A low-loss suspended core As38Se62 fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm and a zero-dispersion wavelength of 3.5 μm was used for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. The dispersion of the fiber was measured from 2.9 to 4.2 μm and was in good correspondence with the calculated dispersion. An optical...

  15. Radiation of long and high power arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressault, Y.; Bauchire, J. M.; Hong, D.; Rabat, H.; Riquel, G.; Sanchez, F.; Gleizes, A.

    2015-10-01

    The operators working on electrical installations of low, medium and high voltages can be accidentally exposed to short-circuit arcs ranging from a few kA to several tens of kA. To protect them from radiation, according to the exposure limits, we need to characterize the radiation emitted by the powerful arc. Therefore, we have developed a general experimental and numerical study in order to estimate the spectral irradiance received at a given distance from the arc. The experimental part was based on a very long arc (up to 2 m) with high ac current (between 4 and 40 kA rms, duration 100 ms) using 3 kinds of metallic contacts (copper, steel and aluminium). We measured the irradiance received 10m from the axis of the arc, and integrated on 4 spectral intervals corresponding to the UV, visible, IRA  +  B and IRC. The theoretical part consisted of calculating the radiance of isothermal plasmas in mixtures of air and metal vapour, integrated over the same spectral intervals as defined in the experiments. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental results has allowed the defining of three isothermal radiation sources whose combination leads to a spectral irradiation equivalent to the experimental one. Then the calculation allowed the deduction of the spectral description of the irradiance over all the wavelength range, between 200 nm and 20 μm. The final results indicate that the influence of metal is important in the visible and UVA ranges whereas the IR radiation is due to the air plasma and surrounding hot gas and fumes.

  16. High Power Amplifier and Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Johnny; Stride, Scot; Harvey, Wayne; Haque, Inam; Packard, Newton; Ng, Quintin; Ispirian, Julie Y.; Waian, Christopher; Janes, Drew

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the creation of a high-voltage power supply (HVPS) that is able to contain voltages up to -20 kV, keep electrical field strengths to below 200 V/mil (approximately equal to 7.87 kV/mm), and can provide a 200-nanosecond rise/fall time focus modulator swinging between cathode potential of 16.3 kV and -19.3 kV. This HVPS can protect the 95-GHz, pulsed extended interaction klystron (EIK) from arcs/discharges from all sources, including those from within the EIK fs vacuum envelope. This innovation has a multi-winding pulse transformer design, which uses new winding techniques to provide the same delays and rise/fall times (less than 10 nanoseconds) at different potential levels ranging from -20 kV to -16 kV. Another feature involves a high-voltage printed-wiring board that was corona-free at -20 kV DC with a 3- kV AC swing. The corona-free multilayer high-voltage board is used to simulate fields of less than 200 V/mil (approximately equal to 7.87 kV/mm) at 20 kV DC. Drive techniques for the modulator FETs (field-effect transistors) (four to 10 in a series) were created to change states (3,000-V swing) without abrupt steps, while still maintaining required delays and transition times. The packing scheme includes a potting mold to house a ten-stage modulator in the space that, in the past, only housed a four-stage modulator. Problems keeping heat down were solved using aluminum oxide substrate in the high-voltage section to limit temperature rise to less than 10 while withstanding -20 kV DC voltage and remaining corona-free.

  17. High power x-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J.; Ma, Qing

    1999-01-01

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10.sup.4 watts/cm.sup.2 and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  18. Supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear fibers using amplified noise-like optical pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Shian; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2014-02-24

    Supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is investigated. To generate ultrabroad spectra, a fiber amplifier is used to boost the power launched into the highly nonlinear fiber. After amplification, not only the average power of the noise-like pulses is enhanced but the spectrum of the pulses is also broadened due to nonlinear effects in the fiber amplifier. This leads to a reduction of the peak duration in their autocorrelation trace, suggesting a similar extent of pulse compression; by contrast, the pedestal duration increases only slightly, suggesting that the noise-like characteristic is maintained. By controlling the pump power of the fiber amplifier, the compression ratio of the noise-like pulse duration can be adjusted. Due to the pulse compression, supercontinuum generation with a broader spectrum is therefore feasible at a given average power level of the noise-like pulses launched into the highly nonlinear fiber. As a result, supercontinuum generation with an optical spectrum spanning from 1208 to 2111 nm is achieved using a 1-m nonlinear fiber pumped by amplified noise-like pulses of 15.5 MHz repetition rate at an average power of 202 mW.

  19. Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S. A.; Trunov, V. I.; Leshchenko, V. E.; Pestryakov, E. V.

    2016-05-01

    Supercontinuum generation from the near to far IR during radiation filamentation in solid-state media in an anomalous dispersion region is theoretically investigated. The initial search for appropriate media with the use of an interference model showed that the widest IR spectrum is generated in media with high values of zero group velocity dispersion wavelength with the pump wavelength located not far from it. Halides belong to one of such media groups. The possibility of generation of a very wide supercontinuum in calcium fluoride (0.52-3.35 μm, which corresponds to 2.7 octaves), sodium chloride (0.7-7.6 μm, 3.5 octaves), and potassium iodide (0.66-22 μm, 5.1 octaves) is demonstrated by numerical simulation. Also, pulse self-compression down to 13 fs at the 5-μm central wavelength (about single period) has been observed in potassium iodide. The mechanisms of multi-octave supercontinuum generation are discussed.

  20. High-power converters for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. N.; Cooper, Randy

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 was a concept definition effort to extend space-type dc/dc converter technology to the megawatt level with a weight of less than 0.1 kg/kW (220 lb./MW). Two system designs were evaluated in Phase 1. Each design operates from a 5 kV stacked fuel cell source and provides a voltage step-up to 100 kV at 10 A for charging capacitors (100 pps at a duty cycle of 17 min on, 17 min off). Both designs use an MCT-based, full-bridge inverter, gaseous hydrogen cooling, and crowbar fault protection. The GE-CRD system uses an advanced high-voltage transformer/rectifier filter is series with a resonant tank circuit, driven by an inverter operating at 20 to 50 kHz. Output voltage is controlled through frequency and phase shift control. Fast transient response and stability is ensured via optimal control. Super-resonant operation employing MCTs provides the advantages of lossless snubbing, no turn-on switching loss, use of medium-speed diodes, and intrinsic current limiting under load-fault conditions. Estimated weight of the GE-CRD system is 88 kg (1.5 cu ft.). Efficiency of 94.4 percent and total system loss is 55.711 kW operating at 1 MW load power. The Maxwell system is based on a resonance transformer approach using a cascade of five LC resonant sections at 100 kHz. The 5 kV bus is converted to a square wave, stepped-up to a 100 kV sine wave by the LC sections, rectified, and filtered. Output voltage is controlled with a special series regulator circuit. Estimated weight of the Maxwell system is 83.8 kg (4.0 cu ft.). Efficiency is 87.2 percent and total system loss is 146.411 kW operating at 1 MW load power.

  1. A safe, high-power-density lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F.

    1985-03-01

    The Li/SOCl2 battery has received attention because of its high theoretical energy/power density. However, practical Li/SOCl2 cells have not provided the desired power density and have suffered from concerns with cell safety on discharge. In previous work, ECO has shown that the use of a TAA-type catalyst significantly improves the safety of the Li/S0Cl2 cell at high rate. The objective of this Phase 1 program was to determine whether a stacked disk electrode configuration with TAA-catalyzed cathodes would meet a high power-density design goal. Under the program, the effects of cathode thickness, preparation pressure, electrolyte gap and solute concentration on stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity were measured. The results of the Phase 1 program included the demonstration of stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity at levels suitable to meet a design goal of 400 W/kg with high energy density. Further work in a Phase 2 program will be required to demonstrate in laser-sealed fully-packaged cells that the results of Phase 1 can be practically applied to provide a safe high-rate, energy-dense power source for military applications.

  2. Radiation safety with high power operation of EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Ridikas, D

    2007-01-01

    The European Community has launched the design study for a next generation RIB facility able to increase by a few orders of magnitude, the exotic beam intensity and availability in Europe. Forty institutes and laboratories within Europe, North America and Asia are taking part in this consortium, named EURISOL DS project (European Isotope Separation On Line Design Study). In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW (MMW) target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this MMW station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. The envisaged increase in RIB intensities at EURISOL means a drastic increase of the radioactive inventory and corresponding radioprotection related issues. Safety aspects of the future RIB production targets (aiming at a few ~1015 fissions/s) will become decisive in li...

  3. Supercontinuum laser based double-integrating-sphere system for measuring optical properties of highly dense turbid media in the 1300-2350nm region with high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Sharma, Sandeep; Aernouts, Ben; Ramon, Herman; Saeys, Wouter

    2012-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of turbid media in the light path is important in NIR absorption spectroscopy of biological tissues where multiple scattering complexes the collected light signals due to the non-uniform tissue architecture. Several approaches such as time resolved spectroscopy and spatially resolved spectroscopy have been proposed to measure the bulk optical properties of turbid media. Among them, double integrating sphere (DIS) measurements are recognized as the "golden standard" for in vitro optical properties measurement of turbid media because of its high accuracy and robustness in different conditions. A DIS system is convenient to measure the in vitro optical properties of turbid media like intralipid solutions and biological tissues, since it measures the diffuse reflectance and transmittance simultaneously. However, DIS measurements have been mostly limited to the optical window region (400-1000 nm) or suffered from low signal levels on the detectors due to the absorption by water in the NIR region. In this study, we developed a DIS system for optical property measurement in the 1300-2350 nm region based on a novel wavelength tunable spectroscopic setup which incorporates a high power broadband supercontinuum laser and a high precision monochromator. With this system, optical properties of intralipid solutions were measured in the wavelength region of 1300-2350nm.

  4. Living matter observations with a novel hyperspectral supercontinuum confocal microscope for VIS to near-IR reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Francesca R; Ferrari, Luisa; Mussi, Valentina; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio; Selci, Stefano

    2013-10-25

    A broad range hyper-spectroscopic microscope fed by a supercontinuum laser source and equipped with an almost achromatic optical layout is illustrated with detailed explanations of the design, implementation and data. The real novelty of this instrument, a confocal spectroscopic microscope capable of recording high resolution reflectance data in the VIS-IR spectral range from about 500 nm to 2.5 μm wavelengths, is the possibility of acquiring spectral data at every physical point as defined by lateral coordinates, X and Y, as well as at a depth coordinate, Z, as obtained by the confocal optical sectioning advantage. With this apparatus we collect each single scanning point as a whole spectrum by combining two linear spectral detector arrays, one CCD for the visible range, and one InGaAs infrared array, simultaneously available at the sensor output channel of the home made instrument. This microscope has been developed for biomedical analysis of human skin and other similar applications. Results are shown illustrating the technical performances of the instrument and the capability in extracting information about the composition and the structure of different parts or compartments in biological samples as well as in solid statematter. A complete spectroscopic fingerprinting of samples at microscopic level is shown possible by using statistical analysis on raw data or analytical reflectance models based on Abelés matrix transfer methods.

  5. Solitonic supercontinuum of femtosecond mid-IR pulses in W-type index tellurite fibers with two zero dispersion wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedenburg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed experimental parameter study on mid-IR supercontinuum generation in W-type index tellurite fibers, which reveals how the core diameter, pump wavelength, fiber length, and pump power dramatically influence the spectral broadening. As pump source, we use femtosecond mid-IR pulses from a post-amplified optical parametric oscillator tunable between 1.7 μm and 4.1 μm at 43 MHz repetition rate. We are able to generate red-shifted dispersive waves up to a wavelength of 5.1 μm by pumping a tellurite fiber in the anomalous dispersion regime between its two zero dispersion wavelengths. Distinctive soliton dynamics can be identified as the main broadening mechanism resulting in a maximum spectral width of over 2000 nm with output powers of up to 160 mW. We experimentally demonstrated that efficient spectral broadening with considerably improved power proportion in the important first atmospheric transmission window between 3 and 5 μm can be achieved in robust W-type tellurite fibers pumped at long wavelengths by ultra-fast lasers.

  6. Measurement of Gas and Aerosol Phase Absorption Spectra across the Visible and Near-IR Using Supercontinuum Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radney, James G; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2015-07-21

    We demonstrate a method to measure the absorption spectra of gas and aerosol species across the visible and near-IR (500 to 840 nm) using a photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer and a pulsed supercontinuum laser source. Measurements of gas phase absorption spectra were demonstrated using H2O(g) as a function of relative humidity (RH). The measured absorption intensities and peak shapes were able to be quantified and compared to spectra calculated using the 2012 High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN2012) database. Size and mass selected nigrosin aerosol was used to measure absorption spectra across the visible and near-IR. Spectra were measured as a function of aerosol size/mass and show good agreement to Mie theory calculations. Lastly, we measured the broadband absorption spectrum of flame generated soot aerosol at 5% and 70% RH. For the high RH case, we are able to quantifiably separate the soot and water absorption contributions. For soot, we observe an enhancement in the mass specific absorption cross section ranging from 1.5 at 500 nm (p < 0.01) to 1.2 at 840 nm (p < 0.2) and a concomitant increase in the absorption Ångström exponent from 1.2 ± 0.4 (5% RH) to 1.6 ± 0.3 (70% RH).

  7. Experimental investigation on supercontinuum generation by single, dual, and triple wavelength pumping in a silica photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiqing; Xu, Qiang; Li, Xue; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Jigang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Xiangdong; Yuan, Zijun; Liao, Meisong; Cheng, Tonglei; Xue, Xiaojie; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2016-11-20

    We investigate the supercontinuum (SC) generation in an 1 cm long silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) pumped by the pulse sources with single, dual, and triple wavelengths, respectively. The silica PCF has two zero-dispersion wavelengths at 900 and 2620 nm, respectively. When pumped by a single wavelength, the SC spectral range covers about 1000 nm. When pumped by dual and triple wavelengths, the SC spectral range covers wider than 2000 nm. Both the SC spectral range and the flatness are improved obviously when pumped by triple wavelengths. The maximum SC spectral range is obtained when the silica PCF is pumped by the triple wavelengths at 800, 1450, and 1785 nm. The SC spectral range covers 2810 nm from 350 to 3160 nm wider than three octaves. The 10 dB bandwidth covers 2280 nm from 450 to 2730 nm wider than two octaves. This is the first investigation on comparison of the SCs generated by different pump wavelengths up to three experimentally. The generated SC spectra have covered the full transmission window of silica fiber.

  8. Living Matter Observations with a Novel Hyperspectral Supercontinuum Confocal Microscope for VIS to Near-IR Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca R. Bertani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A broad range hyper-spectroscopic microscope fed by a supercontinuum laser source and equipped with an almost achromatic optical layout is illustrated with detailed explanations of the design, implementation and data. The real novelty of this instrument, a confocal spectroscopic microscope capable of recording high resolution reflectance data in the VIS-IR spectral range from about 500 nm to 2.5 μm wavelengths, is the possibility of acquiring spectral data at every physical point as defined by lateral coordinates, X and Y, as well as at a depth coordinate, Z, as obtained by the confocal optical sectioning advantage. With this apparatus we collect each single scanning point as a whole spectrum by combining two linear spectral detector arrays, one CCD for the visible range, and one InGaAs infrared array, simultaneously available at the sensor output channel of the home made instrument. This microscope has been developed for biomedical analysis of human skin and other similar applications. Results are shown illustrating the technical performances of the instrument and the capability in extracting information about the composition and the structure of different parts or compartments in biological samples as well as in solid statematter. A complete spectroscopic fingerprinting of samples at microscopic level is shown possible by using statistical analysis on raw data or analytical reflectance models based on Abelés matrix transfer methods.

  9. Multi-focus beam shaping of high power multimode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Volpp, Joerg; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2017-08-01

    Beam shaping of powerful multimode fiber lasers, fiber-coupled solid-state and diode lasers is of great importance for improvements of industrial laser applications. Welding, cladding with millimetre scale working spots benefit from "inverseGauss" intensity profiles; performance of thick metal sheet cutting, deep penetration welding can be enhanced when distributing the laser energy along the optical axis as more efficient usage of laser energy, higher edge quality and reduction of the heat affected zone can be achieved. Building of beam shaping optics for multimode lasers encounters physical limitations due to the low beam spatial coherence of multimode fiber-coupled lasers resulting in big Beam Parameter Products (BPP) or M² values. The laser radiation emerging from a multimode fiber presents a mixture of wavefronts. The fiber end can be considered as a light source which optical properties are intermediate between a Lambertian source and a single mode laser beam. Imaging of the fiber end, using a collimator and a focusing objective, is a robust and widely used beam delivery approach. Beam shaping solutions are suggested in form of optics combining fiber end imaging and geometrical separation of focused spots either perpendicular to or along the optical axis. Thus, energy of high power lasers is distributed among multiple foci. In order to provide reliable operation with multi-kW lasers and avoid damages the optics are designed as refractive elements with smooth optical surfaces. The paper presents descriptions of multi-focus optics as well as examples of intensity profile measurements of beam caustics and application results.

  10. Thermal design and analysis of high power star sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirement for the temperature stability is very high in the star sensors as the high precision needs for the altitude information. Thermal design and analysis thus is important for the high power star sensors and their supporters. CCD, normally with Peltier thermoelectric cooler (PTC, is the most important sensor component in the star sensors, which is also the main heat source in the star sensors suite. The major objective for the thermal design in this paper is to design a radiator to optimize the heat diffusion for CCD and PTC. The structural configuration of star sensors, the heat sources and orbit parameters were firstly introduced in this paper. The influences of the geometrical parameters and coating material characteristics of radiators on the heat diffusion were investigated by heat flux analysis. Carbon–carbon composites were then chosen to improve the thermal conductivity for the sensor supporters by studying the heat transfer path. The design is validated by simulation analysis and experiments on orbit. The satellite data show that the temperatures of three star sensors are from 17.8 °C to 19.6 °C, while the simulation results are from 18.1 °C to 20.1 °C. The temperatures of radiator are from 16.1 °C to 16.8 °C and the corresponding simulation results are from 16.0 °C to 16.5 °C. The temperature variety of each star sensor is less than 2 °C, which satisfies the design objectives.

  11. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  12. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    . A detailed analysis of dominant loss factors in high power converters for low voltage applications is presented. The analysis concludes that: • Power transformers for low voltage high power, if properly designed, will have extremely low leakage inductance. • If optimally designed, boost converters......The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, if a converter is properly designed, primary side voltage clamp circuits will not even work in low voltage high power converters. • Very high conversion efficiency can be achieved. Peak efficiency of 98% and worst case minimum efficiency of 96.8% are demonstrated on a 1.5 kW converter. The ability...

  13. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    and maximum output power. In chapter 3, a detailed analysis of dominant loss factors in high power converters for low voltage applications is presented. The analysis concludes that: • Power transformers for low voltage high power, if properly designed, will have extremely low leakage inductance......The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based....... • If optimally designed, boost converters will be much more efficient than comparable buck type converters for high power low voltage applications. • The use of voltage clamp circuits to protect primary switches in boost converters is no longer needed for device protection. On the other hand...

  14. High Power Room Temperature Terahertz Local Oscillator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a high-power, room temperature compact continuous wave terahertz local oscillator for driving heterodyne receivers in the 1-5 THz frequency...

  15. Present and Future Trends in High Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijster, R.M.E.M. van; Schouten, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Modern warfare requires high levels of microwave power for various applications. Semiconductors are only suitable for low and medium power levels, for high power generation microwave tubes are still the most effective solution.

  16. Advanced Capacitors for High-Power Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the consumer and industrial requirements for compact, high-power-density, electrical power systems grow substantially over the next decade; there will be a...

  17. High power laser workover and completion tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-10-28

    Workover and completion systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser workover and completion of a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform laser workover and completion operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  18. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  19. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  20. Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling in high power fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.

    2013-01-01

    Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling leads to transverse mode instability (TMI) in high power fiber amplifiers. A numerical model including altering mode profiles from thermal effects and waveguide perturbations predicts a TMI threshold of ~200W.......Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling leads to transverse mode instability (TMI) in high power fiber amplifiers. A numerical model including altering mode profiles from thermal effects and waveguide perturbations predicts a TMI threshold of ~200W....

  1. High-sensitivity supercontinuum-based parallel line-field optical coherence tomography with 1 million A-lines/s (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Jessica; Doblas, Ana; Sears, Patrick R.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2017-02-01

    While traditional, flying-spot, spectral domain OCT systems can achieve MHz linerates, they are limited by the need for mechanical scanning to produce a B-mode image. Line-field OCT (LF OCT) removes the need for mechanical scanning by simultaneously recording all A-lines on a 2D CMOS sensor. Our LF OCT system operates at the highest A-line rate of any spectral domain (SD) LF OCT system reported to date (1,024,000 A-lines/s). This is comparable with the fastest flying-spot SDOCT system reported. Additionally, all OCT systems face a tradeoff between imaging speed and sensitivity. Long exposure times improve sensitivity but can lead to undesirable motion artifacts. LF OCT has the potential to relax this tradeoff between sensitivity and imaging speed because all A-lines are exposed during the entire frame acquisition time. However, this advantage has not yet been realized due to the loss of power-per-A-line by spreading the illumination light across all A-lines on the sample. Here we use a supercontinuum source to illuminate the sample with 500mW of light in the 605-950 nm wavelength band, effectively providing 480 µW of power-per-A-line, with axial and lateral resolutions of 1.8 µm and 14 µm, respectively. With this system we achieve the highest reported sensitivity (113 dB) of any LF OCT system. We then demonstrate the capability of this system by capturing the rapidly beating cilia of human bronchial-epithelial cells in vitro. The combination of high speed and high sensitivity offered by supercontinuum-based LF SD OCT offers new opportunities for studying cell and tissue dynamics.

  2. High power mid-IR OPCPA system pumped by a femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, P.; Van de Walle, A.; Hanna, M.; Forget, N.; Guichard, F.; Zaouter, Y.; Guesmi, K.; Druon, F.; Georges, P.

    2017-02-01

    We describe an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) architecture built around a state of the art Yb-doped fiber femtosecond pump source delivering 300 fs 400 μ pulses at a repetition rate 125 kHz (50 W average power) and a central wavelength of 1030 nm. The short pump pulse duration compared to bulk Yb:YAG or Nd:YVO4 based systems results in a number of important advantages. First, it allows efficient seeding at 1550 nm using supercontinuum generation directly from the pump pulses in a bulk YAG crystal, resulting in extremely robust passive pump-signal synchronization. The short pump pulse duration also allows the use of millimeter to centimeter lengths of bulk materials to provide stretching and compression for the signal and idler, which minimizes the accumulation of higher-order spectral phase. Finally, the shorter pump pulse duration increases the damage peak intensity, permitting the use of shorter nonlinear crystals to perform the amplification, which increases the spectral bandwidth of the parametric process. Additional experiments are performed to sort out the phenomena that limit power scaling in MgO:PPLN crystals. The OPCPA stages are all operated in collinear geometry, allowing the use of both signal and idler without the introduction of angular chirp on the latter. These points result in the dual generation of 70 fs 23 μJ signal pulses at 1550 nm and 60 fs 10 μJ idler pulses at 3070 nm from a simple setup, with the added benefit of inherent CEP stability of the idler pulses.

  3. Threshold energies for filamentation and spectral characteristics of supercontinuum generation in THEOS-based nanocomposite organosilicon media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kul' chin, Yu N; Mayor, A Yu; Proschenko, D Yu; Chekhlenok, A A; Golik, S S [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Postnova, I V; Shchipunov, Yu A [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Bukin, O A [G.I. Nevelskoi Maritime State University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    We have experimentally determined the threshold energy for filamentation in THEOS-based hybrid silicate nanocomposite materials containing polysaccharides and hyperbranched polyglycidols and the conversion efficiency from the 800-nm femtosecond Ti : sapphire laser output to a supercontinuum in the range 420 – 700 nm. The addition of sodium hyaluronate (polysaccharide) and low concentrations of Au nanoparticles or CdS quantum dots with an average diameter of 3 – 5 nm has been shown to considerably reduce the threshold energy for filamentation and improve the laser output to supercontinuum conversion efficiency. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  4. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette Marie; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kinds of hollow core band gap fibers. The light source for this experiment consists of ytterbium-doped double clad fiber aeroGAIN-ROD-PM85 in a high power amplifier...... setup. It provided 22ps pulses with a maximum average power of 95W, 40MHz repetition rate at 1032nm (~2.4μJ pulse energy), with M2 power output for a 5 meters fiber. The damage...... threshold for a 19-cell hollow core photonic bandgap fiber exceeded the maximum power provided by the light source and up to 76W average output power was demonstrated for a 1m fiber. In both cases, no special attention was needed to mitigate bend sensitivity. The fibers were coiled on 8 centimeters radius...

  5. Atmospheric propagation and combining of high-power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W; Sprangle, P; Davis, C C

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze beam combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications. The large linewidths inherent in high-power fiber and slab lasers cause random phase and intensity fluctuations that occur on subnanosecond time scales. Coherently combining these high-power lasers would involve instruments capable of precise phase control and operation at rates greater than ∼10  GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this technology does not currently exist. This presents a challenging problem when attempting to phase lock high-power lasers that is not encountered when phase locking low-power lasers, for example, at milliwatt power levels. Regardless, we demonstrate that even if instruments are developed that can precisely control the phase of high-power lasers, coherent combining is problematic for DE applications. The dephasing effects of atmospheric turbulence typically encountered in DE applications will degrade the coherent properties of the beam before it reaches the target. Through simulations, we find that coherent beam combining in moderate turbulence and over multikilometer propagation distances has little advantage over incoherent combining. Additionally, in cases of strong turbulence and multikilometer propagation ranges, we find nearly indistinguishable intensity profiles and virtually no difference in the energy on the target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams. Consequently, we find that coherent beam combining at the transmitter plane is ineffective under typical atmospheric conditions.

  6. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE11 mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE11 mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup.

  7. High Power Fiber Lasers and Applications to Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin; McComb, Timothy; Sudesh, Vikas

    2008-09-01

    We summarize recent developments in high power fiber laser technologies and discuss future trends, particularly in their current and future use in manufacturing technologies. We will also describe our current research programs in fiber laser development, ultra-fast and new lasers, and will mention the expectations in these areas for the new Townes Laser Institute. It will focus on new core laser technologies and their applications in medical technologies, advanced manufacturing technologies and defense applications. We will describe a program on large mode area fiber development that includes results with the new gain-guiding approach, as well as high power infra-red fiber lasers. We will review the opportunities for high power fiber lasers in various manufacturing technologies and illustrate this with applications we are pursuing in the areas of femtosecond laser applications, advanced lithographies, and mid-IR technologies.

  8. Octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon nanowaveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ryan K W; Lamont, Michael R E; Griffith, Austin G; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2014-08-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of octave-spanning supercontinuum generation (SCG) on a silicon chip, spanning from the telecommunications c-band near 1.5 μm to the mid-infrared region beyond 3.6 μm. The SCG presented here is characterized by soliton fission and dispersive radiation across two zero group-velocity dispersion wavelengths. In addition, we numerically investigate the role of multiphoton absorption and free carriers, confirming that these nonlinear loss mechanisms are not detrimental to SCG in this regime.

  9. Higher order moment description of supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Bang, Ole; Dudley, John M.

    We quantify the noise properties of supercontinuum (SC) generation in optical fibers using higher-order central moments. The higher-order moments quantify not only the mean and variance of a distribution, but also the asymmetry and the presence of long tails, and are thus particularly useful...... for identifying regions of long-tailed rogue wave like behaviour. By carrying out multiple numerical simulations in the presence of noise, we demonstrate that the statistical moments of Coefficient of Variation, Skew and Kurtosis provide the necessary rigorous measure of the SC histograms to yield a clear means...

  10. Rigorous study of supercontinuum generation by high-order optical modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Amine; Trichili, Abderrahmen; Cherif, Rim; Zghal, Mourad

    2016-09-01

    We numerically study the supercontinuum (SC) generation in a six modes photonic crystal fiber (PCF). By solving the multimode generalised Schrdinger equation, we demonstrate the generation of SC by initially exciting the fundamental mode or one of the higher order modes and then observe the energy transfer to the other high order modes. We analyze the energy transfer between degenerate modes during propagation through the few mode PCF. A detailed investigation of the nonlinear effects on the SC process through linear and nonlinear coupling is provided which confirms the energy transfer between optical degenerate modes during propagation inside the few- mode fiber.

  11. Octave-spanning infrared supercontinuum generation in robust chalcogenide nanotapers using picosecond pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabahang, Soroush; Marquez, Michael P; Tao, Guangming; Piracha, Mohammad U; Nguyen, Dat; Delfyett, Peter J; Abouraddy, Ayman F

    2012-11-15

    We report on infrared supercontinuum generation extending over more than one octave of bandwidth, from 850 nm to 2.35 μm, produced in a single spatial mode from a robust, compact, composite chalcogenide glass nanotaper. A picosecond laser at 1.55 μm pumps a high-index-contrast, all-solid nanotaper that strongly confines the field to a 480 nm diameter core, while a thermally compatible built-in polymer jacket lends the nanotaper mechanical stability.

  12. Thrust stand for high-power electric propulsion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new high-power thrust stand developed for use with high-power (up to 250 kW) magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, which is installed in a high-vacuum MPD facility at Lewis Research Center. The design of the stand is based on inverted pendulum configuration, with the result of large displacements and high resolution. Calibration results showed that thrust measurements were linear and repeatable to within a fraction of 1 percent. The thrust stand was used for testing water-cooled MPD thrusters at power levels up to 125 kW. The thruster, however, is quite well suited for testing other types of electric propulsion devices.

  13. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Jakobsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power......-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  14. Flyer acceleration experiments using high-power laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadono T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Flyer acceleration technique using high-power lasers has several advantages such as the achieved velocities higher than 10 km/s and non-contamination to the products generated by impacts. In this study, we show that a high-power laser can achieve flyer velocities higher than 10 km/s up to 60 km/s using spherical projectiles with a diameter of 0.1 − 0.3mm. We discuss the projectile condition during the flight based on the results of numerical simulations.

  15. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping

    2002-01-01

    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  16. Energy Efficient and Compact RF High-Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvillo Cortés, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to improve the energy efficiency and physical form-factor of high-power amplifiers in base station applications. As such, the focus of this dissertation is placed on the outphasing amplifier concept, which can offer high-efficiency, good linearity and excellent

  17. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) ...

  18. High Powered Rocketry: Design, Construction, and Launching Experience and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Pryce; Curtis, Jarret; Bartel, Evan; Cyr, Waycen Owens; Lamsal, Chiranjivi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the nuts and bolts of designing and building a high powered rocket have been presented. A computer simulation program called RockSim was used to design the rocket. Simulation results are consistent with time variations of altitude, velocity, and acceleration obtained in the actual flight. The actual drag coefficient was determined…

  19. Resonance tracking and vibration stablilization for high power ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Y; Jin, Y; Cochran, S; Huang, Z

    2014-01-01

    Resonant frequency shift and electrical impedance variation are common phenomena in the application of high power ultrasonic transducers, e.g. in focused ultrasound surgery and in cutting. They result in low power efficiency and unstable vibration amplitude. To solve this problem, a driving and measurement system has been developed to track the resonance of high power transducers and to stabilise their vibration velocity. This has the ability to monitor the operating and performance parameters of the ultrasonic transducers in real time. The configuration of the system, with its control algorithm implemented in LabVIEW (National Instruments, Newbury, UK), ensures flexibility to suit different transducers and load conditions. In addition, with different programs, it can be utilised as a high power impedance analyser or an instantaneous electrical power measurement system for frequencies in the MHz range. The effectiveness of this system has been demonstrated in detailed studies. With it, high transducer performance at high power can be achieved and monitored in real time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. High Power Factor Hybrid Rectifier | Odeh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the analysis of a new single-phase hybrid rectifier with high power factor (PF) and low harmonic distortion current. The proposed rectifier structure is composed of an ordinary single-phase diode rectifier with parallel connection of a switched converter. It is outlined that the switched converter is capable of ...

  1. A high power, tunable free electron maser for fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, W. H.; Bratman, V. L.; Bongers, W. A.; Caplan, M.; Denisov, G. G.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Manintveld, P.; Militsyn, B.; Oomens, A. A. M.; Poelman, A. J.; Plomp, J.; Pluygers, J.; Savilov, A. V.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Sterk, A. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The Fusion-FEM experiment, a high-power, electrostatic free-electron maser being built at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', is operated at various frequencies. So far, experiments were done without a depressed collector, and the pulse length was limited to 12 mus.

  2. Functionally graded materials produced with high power lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JTM; Ocelík, Vašek; Chandra, T; Torralba, JM; Sakai, T

    2003-01-01

    In this keynote paper two examples will be present of functionally graded materials produced with high power Nd:YAG lasers. In particular the conditions for a successful Laser Melt Injection (LMI) of SiC and WC particles into the melt pool of A18Si and Ti6Al4V alloys are presented. The formation of

  3. Ignition studies in support of the European High Power Laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) project is one of a number of large-scale scientific infrastructure projects supported by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Part of this project involves the development of a target area for the exploration of inertial fusion ...

  4. High-power lasers for directed-energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman; Ting, Antonio; Fischer, Richard

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we review and discuss the research programs at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications in the atmosphere. Physical processes affecting propagation include absorption/scattering, turbulence, and thermal blooming. The power levels needed for DE applications require combining a number of lasers. In atmospheric turbulence, there is a maximum intensity that can be placed on a target that is independent of the initial beam spot size and laser beam quality. By combining a number of kW-class fiber lasers, scientists at the NRL have successfully demonstrated high-power laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere and wireless recharging. In the NRL experiments, four incoherently combined fiber lasers having a total power of 5 kW were propagated to a target 3.2 km away. These successful high-power experiments in a realistic atmosphere formed the basis of the Navy's Laser Weapon System. We compare the propagation characteristics of coherently and incoherently combined beams without adaptive optics. There is little difference in the energy on target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams for multi-km propagation ranges and moderate to high levels of turbulence. Unlike incoherent combining, coherent combining places severe constraints on the individual lasers. These include the requirement of narrow power spectral linewidths in order to have long coherence times as well as polarization alignment of all the lasers. These requirements are extremely difficult for high-power lasers.

  5. In-situ strain observation in high power laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Bosgra, J.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2009-01-01

    The modern experimental technique - so called Digital Image Correlation - is applied during high power laser surface treatments for in-situ observation of displacements and strains near the processing area during and a short time after laser processing. An experimental setup has been designed and

  6. Possibilities of production of nanopowders with high power ELV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 34; Issue 4. Possibilities of production of nanopowders with high power ELV electron accelerator. Vladimir Ivanovich Lysenko Sergey Bardakhanov Alexey Korchagin Nikolay Kuksanov Alexander Lavrukhin Rustam Salimov Sergey Fadeev Vladislav Cherepkov Mikhail ...

  7. High Power Wind Generator Designs with Less or No PMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    synchronous generators, by doubly-fed (wound rotor) induction and cage induction generators and by introducing new topologies with pertinent costs for high power (MW range) wind energy conversion units. The present overview attempts, based on recent grid specifications, an evaluation of commercial and novel...

  8. Rapid heating of matter using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Woosuk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-08

    This slide presentation describes motivation (uniform and rapid heating of a target, opportunity to study warm dense matter, study of nuclear fusion reactions), rapid heating of matter with intense laser-driven ion beams, visualization of the expanding warm dense gold and diamond, and nuclear fusion experiments using high power lasers (direct heating of deuterium spheres (radius ~ 10nm) with an intense laser pulse.

  9. Ultra-broadband Supercontinuum Generation at Telecommunication Wavelengths in Dispersion Engineered Stoichiometric Si3N4 Waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Garcia Porcel, M.A.; Epping, J.P.; Hellwig, T.; Hoekman, M.; Mateman, R.; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, R.G.; van Rees, A.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Lee, Christopher James; Schmidt, R.; Bratschitsch, R.; Boller, Klaus J.; Fallnich, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of ultra-broadband supercontinua in Si3N4 waveguides at a pump wavelength of 1560nm. The supercontinuum extends to beyond 2.6µm wavelength in the infrared and has a spectral width of more then 453THz.

  10. Intensity noise in normal-pumped picosecond supercontinuum generation, where higher-order Raman lines cross into anomalous dispersion regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Bang, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The relative intensity noise (RIN) properties at different wavelengths and power levels for picosecond supercontinuum (SC) generated by pumping a PCF in its normal dispersion regime is investigated. For low power levels the all-normal SC is generated while the generated SC extends beyond the zero...

  11. Progress on high-power 808nm VCSELs and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Delai; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Kovsh, Alexey; Ghosh, Chuni

    2017-02-01

    High power 808nm semiconductor lasers are widely used for pumping neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) crystal to produce high-brightness lasing at 1064nm. In addition, there are growing interest to use such high power 808nm lasers in the field of automotive infra-red (IR) illumination and medical aesthetic treatment. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have emerged as a promising candidate and attracted increased interests for those applications, due to their combined advantages of high efficiency, low diverging circular beam, narrow emission spectrum with reduced temperature sensitivity, low-cost manufacturability, simpler coupling optics, and increased reliability, especially at high temperatures. They can emit very high power with very high power density as they can be conveniently configured into large two-dimensional arrays and modules of arrays. We report recent development on such high-power, high-efficiency 808nm VCSELs with industrial leading 55% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Top emitting VCSELs were grown by MOCVD and processed into single devices and 2D arrays using selective wet oxidation process and substrate removal technique for efficient current confinement and heat removal. Peak PCE of 51% and peak power of 800W were achieved from 5x5mm array, corresponding to peak power density of 4kW/cm2. Pumped with new generation of 2.3kW VCSEL module, Q-switched laser pulse energy at 1064nm reached 46.9mJ, more than doubled from previously reported results.

  12. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  13. High-power CSI-fed induction motor drive with optimal power distribution based control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, S.-S.

    2011-11-01

    In this article, a current source inverter (CSI) fed induction motor drive with an optimal power distribution control is proposed for high-power applications. The CSI-fed drive is configured with a six-step CSI along with a pulsewidth modulated voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) and capacitors. Due to the PWM-VSI and the capacitor, sinusoidal motor currents and voltages with high quality as well as natural commutation of the six-step CSI can be obtained. Since this CSI-fed drive can deliver required output power through both the six-step CSI and PWM-VSI, this article shows that the kVA ratings of both the inverters can be reduced by proper real power distribution. The optimal power distribution under load requirements, based on power flow modelling of the CSI-fed drive, is proposed to not only minimise the PWM-VSI rating but also reduce the six-step CSI rating. The dc-link current control of the six-step CSI is developed to realise the optimal power distribution. Furthermore, a vector controlled drive for high-power induction motors is proposed based on the optimal power distribution. Experimental results verify the high-power CSI-fed drive with the optimal power distribution control.

  14. Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres with core filled with toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Lanh Chu; Anuszkiewicz, Alicja; Ramaniuk, Aliaksandr; Kasztelanic, Rafal; Dinh Xuan, Khoa; Cao Long, Van; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2017-12-01

    A photonic crystal fibre with hollow core filled with toluene is considered as a new system for coherent supercontinuum generation. The dispersion characteristics are studied for various geometrical parameters of photonic crystal fibres. Two structures with lattice constant 2 μm, filling factors d/Λ 0.3 and 0.35 and toluene core of diameters of 3.34 and 3.23 μm have flat dispersion in the near infrared range. The structure with d/Λ = 0.3 has all-normal dispersion characteristics in whole near-infrared wavelength range, while the second structure (d/Λ = 0.35) has anomalous dispersion for wavelengths longer than 1.5 μm. Although confinement losses in the considered structures are as high as 0.4 dB cm‑1, we show that the generation of coherent supercontinuum in the range 1.0–1.7 μm with the pulse energy conversion of 16% is feasible in 4 cm long fibre samples with standard fibre femtosecond lasers.

  15. Two Octaves Supercontinuum Generation in Lead-Bismuth Glass Based Photonic Crystal Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, Ryszard; Bookey, Henry; Klimczak, Mariusz; Pysz, Dariusz; Stepien, Ryszard; Martynkien, Tadeusz; McCarthy, John E; Waddie, Andrew J; Kar, Ajoy K; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R

    2014-06-19

    In this paper we report a two octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a bandwidth of 700-3000 nm in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-gallate glass. To our knowledge this is the broadest supercontinuum reported in heavy metal oxide glass based fibers. The fiber was fabricated using an in-house synthesized glass with optimized nonlinear, rheological and transmission properties in the range of 500-4800 nm. The photonic cladding consists of 8 rings of air holes. The fiber has a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) at 1460 nm. Its dispersion is determined mainly by the first ring of holes in the cladding with a relative hole size of 0.73. Relative hole size of the remaining seven rings is 0.54, which allows single mode performance of the fiber in the infrared range and reduces attenuation of the fundamental mode. The fiber is pumped into anomalous dispersion with 150 fs pulses at 1540 nm. Observed spectrum of 700-3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of fiber with pulse energy below 4 nJ. A flatness of 5 dB was observed in 950-2500 nm range.

  16. Two Octaves Supercontinuum Generation in Lead-Bismuth Glass Based Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Buczynski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a two octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a bandwidth of 700–3000 nm in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-gallate glass. To our knowledge this is the broadest supercontinuum reported in heavy metal oxide glass based fibers. The fiber was fabricated using an in-house synthesized glass with optimized nonlinear, rheological and transmission properties in the range of 500–4800 nm. The photonic cladding consists of 8 rings of air holes. The fiber has a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW at 1460 nm. Its dispersion is determined mainly by the first ring of holes in the cladding with a relative hole size of 0.73. Relative hole size of the remaining seven rings is 0.54, which allows single mode performance of the fiber in the infrared range and reduces attenuation of the fundamental mode. The fiber is pumped into anomalous dispersion with 150 fs pulses at 1540 nm. Observed spectrum of 700–3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of fiber with pulse energy below 4 nJ. A flatness of 5 dB was observed in 950–2500 nm range.

  17. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  18. High-power fiber-coupled 100W visible spectrum diode lasers for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Andreas; Küster, Matthias; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2013-02-01

    Diode lasers in the blue and red spectral range are the most promising light sources for upcoming high-brightness digital projectors in cinemas and large venue displays. They combine improved efficiency, longer lifetime and a greatly improved color space compared to traditional xenon light sources. In this paper we report on high-power visible diode laser sources to serve the demands of this emerging market. A unique electro-optical platform enables scalable fiber coupled sources at 638 nm with an output power of up to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber. For the blue diode laser we demonstrate scalable sources from 5 W to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber.

  19. Supercontinuum based mid-IR imaging spectroscopy for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR) spectral region is of significant technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinct spectral fingerprints. To date, the limitations of mid-IR light sources, such as thermal emitters, low...... cancer detection with mid-IR imaging spectroscopy....

  20. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Soft-glass Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian

    sources. A novel SC system, incorporating a fluor based (ZBLAN) step-index fiber (SIF), has been developed by an industrial collaborator. Numerical simulations show good agreement with measurements of fs-pumped SC generation stretching above 4 μm in a ZBLAN fiber. Furthermore, a design parameter, useful...

  1. 4.5 W mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a ZBLAN fiber pumped by a Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+- doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneis, C.; Donelan, B.; Berrou, A.; Manek-Hönninger, I.; Cadier, B.; Robin, T.; Poulain, M.; Joulain, F.; Eichhorn, M.; Kieleck, C.

    2015-02-01

    The generation of mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) radiation, ranging from 2 - 5 μm, is subject of intense research due to its wide range of applications. A very popular host media for mid-IR SC generation are soft glass fibers owing to their low-loss transmission in the mid-IR wavelength regime, particularly fluoride fibers are very attractive for high-power operation. In this research study, a diode-pumped Q-switched mode-locked (QML) thulium (Tm3+)-doped double-clad silica fiber laser is used to pump a ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fiber for mid-IR SC generation. The QML regime of the fiber laser is actively generated by two acousto-optic modulators. The Tm3+-fiber laser provided up to 23.5 W (26 W) of average output power in QML (continuous wave) regime with a slope efficiency of 36 % (32 %). The measured beam quality has been close to the diffraction-limit in QML regime. The system delivered mode-locked pulses with a duration of 7.5 ps, measured with a commercial autocorrelator system, at a repetition rate of 46 MHz. The Q-switched envelopes had a width between 50 and 150 ns depending on the output power level and the adjustable repetition rate. Mid-IR SC with an average output power in all spectral bands of 4.5 W have been achieved with more than 3 W/ 1.7 W/ 1 W/ 0.36 W after a long-wave-pass filter with a 3 dB-edge at 2.15 μm/ 2.65 μm/ 3.1 μm/ 3.5 μm.

  2. Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the switching speed limits of high power IGBT modules are investigated. The limitation of turn-on and turn-off switching speeds of the IGBTs are experimentally detected in a pulse tester. Different dc-bus stray inductances are considered, as well as the worst case scenario for the b......In this paper the switching speed limits of high power IGBT modules are investigated. The limitation of turn-on and turn-off switching speeds of the IGBTs are experimentally detected in a pulse tester. Different dc-bus stray inductances are considered, as well as the worst case scenario...... for the blocking dc-link voltage. Switching losses are analyzed upon a considerable variation of resistor value from turn-on gate driver side. Short circuit operations are investigated along with safe operating area for entire module to validate electrical capabilities under extreme conditions....

  3. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covrig, Silviu D. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 {micro}A rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 {micro}A beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  4. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covrig, S. D. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 μA rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 μA beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  5. Website Design Guidelines: High Power Distance and High Context Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the question of offering a culturally adapted website for a local audience. So far, in the website design arena the vast majority of studies examined mainly Western and the American (low power distance and low context culture disregarding possible cultural discrepancies. This study fills this gap and explores the key cultural parameters that are likely to have an impact on local website design for Asian-Eastern culture high power distance and high context correlating with both Hofstede’s and Hall’s cultural dimensions. It also reviews how website localisation may be accomplished more effectively by extracting the guidelines from two different yet compatible cultural dimensions: high power distance and high context.

  6. Iron loss in high-power arc steelmaking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Karasyov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is considered the power operating mode of a high-power arc steelmaking furnaces (ASMF in the period of the flat bath. It is revealed that electric energy is mainly spent for heating and overheating the foamed slag. Heat transferring from slag to metal is carried out by the convective agitation of the bath. For agitation there is used intensive purging of the bath with oxygen that causes increased iron losses with the running foamed slag. There are noted the negative points of working with the foamed slag. It is recommended to expand R&D in the field of optimizing the power operating mode of high-power ASMF.

  7. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H

    2016-06-03

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  8. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    , 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation......This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  9. CAS Accelerator Physics (High-Power Hadron Machines) in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and ESS-Bilbao jointly organised a specialised course on High-Power Hadron Machines, held at the Hotel Barceló Nervión in Bilbao, Spain, from 24 May to 2 June, 2011.   CERN Accelerator School students. After recapitulation lectures on the essentials of accelerator physics and review lectures on the different types of accelerators, the programme focussed on the challenges of designing and operating high-power facilities. The particular problems for RF systems, beam instrumentation, vacuum, cryogenics, collimators and beam dumps were examined. Activation of equipment, radioprotection and remote handling issues were also addressed. The school was very successful, with 69 participants of 22 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the participants w...

  10. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Ronald J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-08-14

    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  11. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  12. Deep-blue supercontinnum sources with optimum taper profiles – verification of GAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Møller, Uffe; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    We use an asymmetric 2 m draw-tower photonic crystal fiber taper to demonstrate that the taper profile needs careful optimisation if you want to develop a supercontinuum light source with as much power as possible in the blue edge of the spectrum. In particular we show, that for a given taper...

  13. Multiple-pass amplifiers for high-power laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackel, S.; Givon, M.; Ludmirsky, A.; Eliezer, S.; Borowitz, J.L.; Arad, B.; Zigler, A.; Gazit, Y.

    1987-02-01

    Multiple-pass amplifiers were configured from Nd:glass rods using polarization and angular coupling techniques. Very high gain (>600) single beam triple-pass booster stages and high gain (30 or 15) single or double-beam double-pass amplifiers were combined to construct a very cost effective high-power (50 GW) pulsed laser system. These techniques were also effectively applied to smaller compact high repetition-rate systems.

  14. High power operational experience with the LANSCE Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The heart of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a pulsed linear accelerator that is used to simultaneously provide H+ and H- beams to several user facilities. This accelerator contains two Cockcroft-Walton style injectors, a 100-MeV drift tube linac and an 800-MeV coupled cavity linac. This presentation will touch on various aspects of the high power operation including performance, tune-up strategy, beam losses and machine protection.

  15. Development of adaptive resonator techniques for high-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, J; Brase, J; Carrano, C; Dane, C B; Flath, L; Fochs, S; Hurd, R; Kartz, M; Sawvel, R

    1999-07-12

    The design of an adaptive wavefront control system for a high-power Nd:Glass laser will be presented. Features of this system include: an unstable resonator in confocal configuration, a multi-module slab amplifier, and real-time intracavity adaptive phase control using deformable mirrors and high-speed wavefront sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the adaptive correction of an aberrated passive resonator (no gain).

  16. Transmission grating stretcher for contrast enhancement of high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunxin; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Hawkes, Steve; Collier, John; Rajeev, P P

    2014-12-01

    We propose, for the first time, a transmission grating stretcher for high power lasers and demonstrate its superiority over conventional, reflective gold grating stretchers in terms of pulse temporal quality. We show that, compared to a conventional stretcher with the same stretching factor, the transmission-grating based stretcher yields more than an order of magnitude improvement in the contrast pedestal. We have also quantitatively characterized the roughness of the grating surfaces and estimated its impact on the contrast pedestal.

  17. Recent results in mirror based high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Elvang, Mads

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, recent results in high power laser cutting, obtained in reseach and development projects are presented. Two types of mirror based focussing systems for laser cutting have been developed and applied in laser cutting studies on CO2-lasers up to 12 kW. In shipyard environment cutting...... speed increase relative to state-of-the-art cutting of over 100 % has been achieved....

  18. Graphene supercapacitor with both high power and energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Pandian, Amaresh S.; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Yun Sung; Lu, Wu

    2017-11-01

    Supercapacitors, based on fast ion transportation, are specialized to provide high power, long stability, and efficient energy storage using highly porous electrode materials. However, their low energy density excludes them from many potential applications that require both high energy density and high power density performances. Using a scalable nanoporous graphene synthesis method involving an annealing process in hydrogen, here we show supercapacitors with highly porous graphene electrodes capable of achieving not only a high power density of 41 kW kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.5%, but also a high energy density of 148.75 Wh kg-1. A high specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitance (306.03 F g-1 and 64.27 F cm-3) are demonstrated. The devices can retain almost 100% capacitance after 7000 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 8 A g-1. The superior performance of supercapacitors is attributed to their ideal pore size, pore uniformity, and good ion accessibility of the synthesized graphene.

  19. Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, M.M.J.W. van; Bisson, S.E.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new singly resonant, single-frequency optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has been developed for the 2.6-4.7 mum infrared wavelength region, using a high power (>20 W), widely tunable (1024-1034 nm) Yb:YAG pump source. With the OPO frequency stabilized with an intracavity etalon, the OPO achieved

  20. Investigation of the delay time distribution of high power microwave surface flashover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.; Krompholz, H.; Neuber, A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing and modeling the statistics associated with the initiation of gas breakdown has proven to be difficult due to a variety of rather unexplored phenomena involved. Experimental conditions for high power microwave window breakdown for pressures on the order of 100 to several 100 torr are complex: there are little to no naturally occurring free electrons in the breakdown region. The initial electron generation rate, from an external source, for example, is time dependent and so is the charge carrier amplification in the increasing radio frequency (RF) field amplitude with a rise time of 50 ns, which can be on the same order as the breakdown delay time. The probability of reaching a critical electron density within a given time period is composed of the statistical waiting time for the appearance of initiating electrons in the high-field region and the build-up of an avalanche with an inherent statistical distribution of the electron number. High power microwave breakdown and its delay time is of critical importance, since it limits the transmission through necessary windows, especially for high power, high altitude, low pressure applications. The delay time distribution of pulsed high power microwave surface flashover has been examined for nitrogen and argon as test gases for pressures ranging from 60 to 400 torr, with and without external UV illumination. A model has been developed for predicting the discharge delay time for these conditions. The results provide indications that field induced electron generation, other than standard field emission, plays a dominant role, which might be valid for other gas discharge types as well.

  1. Advanced injection seeder for various applications: form LIDARs to supercontinuum sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzes, Pawel

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an injection seeder driver (prototype) for a directly modulated semiconductor laser diode. The device provides adjustable pulse duration and repetition frequency to shape an output signal. A temperature controller stabilizes a laser diode spectrum. Additionally, to avoid a back oscillation, redundant power supply holds a generation until next stages shut down. Low EMI design and ESD protection guarantee stable operation even in a noisy environment. The controller is connected to the PC via USB and parameters of the pulse are digitally controlled through a graphical interface. The injection seeder controller can be used with a majority of commercially available laser diodes. In the experimental setup a telecommunication DFB laser with 4 GHz bandwidth was used. It allows achieving subnanosecond pulses generated at the repetition rate ranging from 1 kHz to 50 MHz. The developed injection seeder controller with a proper laser diode can be used in many scientific, industrial and medical applications.

  2. Supercontinuum comb sources for broadband communications based on AlGaAs-on-insulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Pu, Minhao; Da Ros, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated 10 GHz frequency comb spectral broadening in an AlGaAsOI nano-waveguide with the peak power of only several watts. The spectral broadened 10 GHz frequency comb has high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at the output of the nano-waveguide. As far as we know, it i...

  3. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  4. Review of high-power pulsed systems at the Institute of High Current Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of some most powerful pulsed systems developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics (HCEI, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, and describe latest achievements of the teams dealing with these installations. Besides the presented high-power systems, HCEI performs numerous investigations using much less powerful generators. For instance, last year much attention was paying to the research and development of the intense low-energy (<200 kV high-current electron and ion beam and plasma sources, and their application in the technology [1–3].

  5. Experimental and theoretical analysis of an optical current sensor for high power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigida, A. C. S.; Nascimento, I. M.; Mendonça, S.; Costa, J. C. W. A.; Martinez, M. A. G.; Baptista, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.

    2013-03-01

    A magneto-optical sensor, using a dual quadrature polarimetric processing scheme, was evaluated for current metering and protection applications in high voltage lines. Sensor calibration and resolution were obtained in different operational conditions using illumination in the 1550-nm band. Results obtained indicated the feasibility of interrogating such sensor via the optical ground wire (OPGW) link installed in standard high power grids. The polarimetric bulk optical current sensor also was theoretically studied, and the effects of different sources of error considering practical deployment were evaluated. In particular, the interference from external magnetic fields in a tree-phase system was analyzed.

  6. Precise Model Analysis for 3-phase High Power Converter using the Harmonic State Space Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents about the generalized multi-frequency modeling and analysis methodology, which can be used in control loop design and stability analysis. In terms of the switching frequency of high power converter, there can be harmonics interruption if the voltage source converter has a low....... The modeling procedure shows the precision in the analysis of the stability as well as the controller design. The overall results are validated by using not only the non-linear time domain simulation, but also the analytical model....

  7. Utilization of recently developed codes for high power Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    Two recently developed FORTRAN computer codes for high power Brayton and Rankine thermodynamic cycle analysis for space power applications are presented. The codes were written in support of an effort to develop a series of subsystem models for multimegawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion, but their use is not limited just to nuclear heat sources or to electric propulsion. Code development background, a description of the codes, some sample input/output from one of the codes, and state future plans/implications for the use of these codes by NASA's Lewis Research Center are provided.

  8. Simulation of octave spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in dispersion-varying planar waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K

    2015-04-10

    A dispersion-varying tapered planar waveguide is designed to generate supercontinuum efficiently in the mid-infrared region. The rib waveguide of lead-silicate glass on silica is 1.8 cm long, consisting of a segment with longitudinally increasing etch depth. The mechanism involves nonlinear soliton dynamics. The dispersion profile is shifted along the propagation distance, leading to continuous modification of the phase-matching condition for dispersive wave (DW) emission and enhancement of energy transfer efficiency between solitons and DWs. With low input pulse energy of 45 pJ, simulation demonstrates the generation of both broadband and flat near-octave spectrum spanning 1.3-2.5 μm at the -20  dB level.

  9. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W [Danville, CA; Palmer, Todd A [Livermore, CA; Teruya, Alan T [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  10. Self-commutating converters for high power applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arrillaga, Jos; Watson, Neville R; Murray, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    For very high voltage or very high current applications, the power industry still relies on thyristor-based Line Commutated Conversion (LCC), which limits the power controllability to two quadrant operation. However, the ratings of self-commutating switches such as the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT), are reaching levels that make the technology possible for very high power applications. This unique book reviews the present state and future prospects of self-commutating static power converters for applications requiring either ultr

  11. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binford, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  12. High power test of a 30 GHz planar accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich; Henke, H; Wuensch, Walter; Yu, D

    2001-01-01

    A 30-GHz muffin-tin, traveling-wave accelerating structure consisting of 37 cells was tested at high power using the CTF2 at CERN. The structure was fabricated with conventional milling and brazing, including tuning holes at cavity roofs. No special surface preparation or treatment was done to the structure. A maximum peak power in excess of 100 MW at a pulse width of 4 ns was transported through the structure before electron bursts were initiated. A maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m was achieved with a peak RF power of 40 MW at a pulse width of 8 ns.

  13. Novel design for a high power superconducting delay line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.J.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1997-05-08

    Potential designs for a high power superconducting delay line of approximately 10ms duration are described. The transmitted signal should have low dispersion and little attenuation to recapture the original signal. Such demands cannot be met using conventional metal conductors. This paper outlines a proposal for a new transmission line design using low temperature superconducting material which meets system specifications. The 25W line is designed to carry pulsed signals with an approximate rise time of 8 nsec and a maximum voltage of 25kV. Predicted electrical design and performance of the line is presented.

  14. Designs for a high power superconducting delay line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.J.; Caporaso, G.

    1997-06-26

    Potential designs for a high power superconducting delay line of approximately 10 microsecs duration are described. The transmitted signal should have low dispersion and little attenuation to recapture the original signal. Such demands cannot be met using conventional metal conductors. This paper outlines a proposal for a new transmission line design using low temperature superconducting material which meets system specifications. The 25 omega line is designed to carry pulsed signals with an approximate rise time of 8 nsec and a maximum voltage magnitude of 25 kV. Predicted electrical design and performance of the line will be presented.

  15. High-power green diode laser systems for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André

    in conjunction with optical coherence tomography, two-photon microscopy or coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In order to provide high-power green diode laser emission, nonlinear frequency conversion of state-of-the-art near-infrared diode lasers represents a necessary means. However, the obtained....... The underlying principle is spectral beam combining of multiple, comparable diode lasers with subsequent nonlinear frequency conversion. In the former approach multiple lasers are incoherently combined with an external optical component. With two 1062 nm tapered diode lasers and a reflecting volume Bragg grating...

  16. Discharge current modes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhen Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the production and disappearance of ions and electrons in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma near the target, the expression of the discharge current is derived. Depending on the slope, six possible modes are deduced for the discharge current and the feasibility of each mode is discussed. The discharge parameters and target properties are simplified into the discharge voltage, sputtering yield, and ionization energy which mainly affect the discharge plasma. The relationship between these factors and the discharge current modes is also investigated.

  17. Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodno, G. D.; Komine, H.; McNaught, S. J.; Weiss, S. B.; Redmond, S.; Long, W.; Simpson, R.; Cheung, E. C.; Howland, D.; Epp, P.; Weber, M.; McClellan, M.; Sollee, J.; Injeyan, H.

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrate a scalable architecture for a high-power, high-brightness, solid-state laser based on coherent combinations of master oscillator power amplifier chains. A common master oscillator injects a sequence of multikilowatt Nd:YAG zigzag slab amplifiers. Adaptive optics correct the wavefront of each amplified beamlet. The beamlets are tiled side by side and actively phase locked to form a single output beam. The laser produces 19 kW with beam quality <2× diffraction limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the brightest cw solid-state laser demonstrated to date.

  18. Highly-efficient high-power pumps for fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapontsev, V.; Moshegov, N.; Berezin, I.; Komissarov, A.; Trubenko, P.; Miftakhutdinov, D.; Berishev, I.; Chuyanov, V.; Raisky, O.; Ovtchinnikov, A.

    2017-02-01

    We report on high efficiency multimode pumps that enable ultra-high efficiency high power ECO Fiber Lasers. We discuss chip and packaged pump design and performance. Peak out-of-fiber power efficiency of ECO Fiber Laser pumps was reported to be as high as 68% and was achieved with passive cooling. For applications that do not require Fiber Lasers with ultimate power efficiency, we have developed passively cooled pumps with out-of-fiber power efficiency greater than 50%, maintained at operating current up to 22A. We report on approaches to diode chip and packaged pump design that possess such performance.

  19. Microfabricated Millimeter-Wave High-Power Vacuum Electronic Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    colin.joye@nrl.navy.mil Microfabricated Millimeter-Wave High-Power Vacuum Electronic Amplifiers Figure 2. Results from the 220 GHz TWT . (a) Small signal...Completed tube under hot test. 220 GHz TWT Demonstration The 220 GHz TWT device was based on spare parts from a commercially available CPI VKY2444T G...existing parts, our TWT bested this COTS EIK performance by a factor of 12x in power and 50x in bandwidth for the same size, weight and prime power

  20. High power composite cavity fiber laser oscillator at 1120 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianming; Li, Cheng; Yan, Dapeng

    2017-12-01

    A high power composite cavity fiber laser oscillator at 1120 nm is demonstrated experimentally. Performances of the 1120 nm single fiber laser oscillator and the composite cavity are investigated and compared, and the parasitic oscillation created by the strong amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) can be suppressed effectively in the composite cavity scheme. 2.04-kW 1120-nm signal light with a good beam quality (M2=1.15) is obtained, and the optical conversion efficiency of the composite cavity fiber laser oscillator is about 63% in the experiment. The compact architecture of composite cavity provides an effective scheme for power scaling of long wavelength lasers.

  1. Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusinovich, Gregory Semeon [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-29

    This report summarized results of the work performed at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics of the University of Maryland (College Park, MD) in the framework of the DOE Grant “Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons”. The report covers the work performed in 2011-2014. The research work was performed in three directions: - possibilities of stable gyrotron operation in very high-order modes offering the output power exceeding 1 MW level in long-pulse/continuous-wave regimes, - effect of small imperfections in gyrotron fabrication and alignment on the gyrotron efficiency and operation, - some issues in physics of beam-wave interaction in gyrotrons.

  2. Active Photonic crystal fibers for high power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    . This plays an important role in high power lasers and ampliers with respect to efficiency, packaging, and thermal handling. The third part of the work has involved developing tools for characterizing the mode quality and stability of large core bers. Stable, single-mode bers with larger cores are essential...... records have been set using this ber. An output power of 167 W has been achieved, which, at the time of writing, is the highest output power generated from ytterbium bers in this wavelength region and from photonic bandgap bers in general. The 1178 nm light has subsequently been frequency doubled to 589...

  3. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  4. Charging-discharging system with high power factor, high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Joe, Kee Yeon; Byun, Young Bok; Koo, Heun Hoi [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents equipment for charging and discharging with high power factor and high efficiency. This equipment is consisted of 3{Phi} SPWM AC/DC converter for improving input current waveform and input power factor, and bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric isolation in the DC link Part. Therefore, Input power factor and the total efficiency in the proposed system can be increased more than in the conventional phase-controlled thyristor charging-discharging System. (author). 7 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...... of acoustic energy by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power gas-jet acoustic wave generator (101), where said ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said plasma (104) so that at least a part of said predetermined amount of acoustic energy...

  6. Highly coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in CS2-filled photonic crystal fiber with strong slow nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyun; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Kang, Zhe; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Chongxiu; Yan, Binbin

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the supercontinuum (SC) generation in a carbon disulfide (CS2)-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with strong slow nonlinearity is investigated. When the PCF is pumped at 1.55 μm in the anomalous dispersion region, we obtain highly coherent SC spanning from 0.99 to 2.32 μm, at -40 dB level. Moreover, the influences of the slow nonlinearity, the input pulse width, the pulse peak power, the fiber length, and the temperature on the supercontinuum generation (SCG) are studied. The role of the slow nonlinearity in enhancing the coherence of SC is proved. To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration on generating the octave-spanning SC with high coherence using the slow nonlinearity of CS2. CS2 is a material that has high nonlinearity coefficient and well transparency in infrared. What's more, the slow nonlinearity is very strong in this material.

  7. Towards quantitative simulations of high power proton cyclotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Bi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a large scale simulation effort using Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library, that leads to a better quantitative understanding of the existing Paul Scherrer Institut high power proton cyclotron facility. The 1.3 MW of beam power on target poses stringent constraints on the controlled and uncontrolled beam losses. We present initial conditions for the Ring simulation, obtained from the new time-structure measurement and the many profile monitors of the 72 MeV transfer line. A trim coil model is developed, including trim coil TC15, which is needed to avoid the dangerous ν_{r}=2ν_{z} resonance. By properly selecting the injection position and angle (eccentric injection, the flattop voltage, and phase, very good agreement between simulations and measurements at the radial probe RRE4 is obtained. We report on 3–4 orders of magnitude in dynamic range when comparing simulations with measurements. The relation between beam intensity, rms beam size, and accelerating voltage is studied and compared with measurement. The demonstrated capabilities are mandatory in the design and operation of the next generation high power proton drivers. In an outlook we discuss our future plans to include more physics into the model, which eventually leads to an even larger dynamic range in the simulation.

  8. Active beam integrator for high power coherent lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguarta, F.; Armengol, J.; Vega, F.; Lupon, N. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. d`Optica i Optometria

    1996-12-31

    In laser materials processing applications it is often necessary to work with uniform intensity distributions. This goal is quite difficult to achieve when dealing with high power laser beams, and becomes critical for a successful application involving surface heat treatment of non-metallic materials. The authors have designed and tested a very simple beam shaper for transforming the initial intensity distribution of a CO{sub 2} laser beam mode into a more uniform intensity profile. The beam shaper is a two-faceted mirror for active integration of high power coherent laser beams. After reflection in the faceted mirror, a TEM00 or TEM01 CO{sub 2} laser beam is divided into two beamlets that overlap to give a more uniform intensity distribution. A sharp interference pattern due to the high spatial coherence of the incident beam appears. This interference pattern is actively integrated by a high-frequency longitudinal displacement of one of the facets. This provides a change in the relative phase of the two beamlets, and consequently the interference pattern vibrates and its contribution to the intensity distribution averages out. When sweeping this distribution over a sample, a uniform amount of energy is deposited at every point of its surface. It must be emphasized that unlike multifaceted mirrors, the two-facet integrator may provide uniform intensity profiles over any working distance. Finally, as in other integration devices an imaging system may be used to obtain a spot of the shape and the size desired for a particular application.

  9. Reliability of high-power multimode pump modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflueger, Silke; Duesterberg, Richard L.; Rossin, Victor V.; Strite, Toby; Tai, Kuochou; Wolak, Edmund L.; Wong, Andre W.; Xu, Lei; Zucker, Erik

    2004-10-01

    Developers building high-power fiber lasers and diode pumped solid state lasers can receive significant benefits in thermal management and reliability by using single emitter multi-mode diodes in distributed pump architectures. This proposed distributed architecture relies on independent single emitter pump lasers and a modest level of pump redundancy. Driving the remaining diodes slightly harder componensates individual diode failures. A model of the ensemble lifetime based on module failure rates and power-scaling factors demonstrates that the distributed pump architecture requires random failure rates corresponding to better than 200,000h mean time between failure (MTBF), which meets typical industrial requirements. A high power, pigtailed, multi-mode pump module suitable for commercial applications is created through this model. Critical elements are based on telecom architectures, including the optical train and the fiber alignment. The module has a low thermal resistance of 4°C/W from the chip-on-sub-mount to the external heat sink, coupling efficiency of over 80% into 0.2 NA, and demonstrated reliable output power of over 5W cw with peak wavelengths near 915 nm. Individual pump modules are predicted to produce 5W cw output power with an MTBF of more than 400,000h. The relationship between anticipated MTBF requirements, test duration and test population is shown.

  10. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2011-03-28

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  11. Numerical simulation of high power LED heat-dissipating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Jeh; Hsu, Hsiang-Chen; Fu, Shen-Li; Yeh, Jiam-Nan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, thermal analysis of the heat dissipation under different heat sink for high-power white Light Emitting Diode (LED) is presented. Junction temperature of LED is elevated as the power of LED increases, which brings up deterioration of light efficiency and other side effects. Heat dissipation is another design concern other than material and illumination efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cooling of high-power LED chips and modules for design of heat sinks. Three types of heat sinks are designed for a tandem 12-chip module and an extensive numerical investigation of the heat sink design performance is conducted by Computational Fluid Dynamics software Fluent. The effects of heat sink geometry and adhesive material are also investigated. Design variables are the thickness of sink base, number, thickness and length of fins. The total wetted area is the dominant factor to the junction temperature. The objective of design regarding the junction temperatures around 50°C is easily achieved. However, its effect is limited at high values of these parameters, furthermore an excessive number of fins incurs reverse consequence due to problem of ventilation also waste of material.

  12. High power density proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Manko, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells use a perfluorosulfonic acid solid polymer film as an electrolyte which simplifies water and electrolyte management. Their thin electrolyte layers give efficient systems of low weight, and their materials of construction show extremely long laboratory lifetimes. Their high reliability and their suitability for use in a microgravity environment makes them particularly attractive as a substitute for batteries in satellites utilizing high-power, high energy-density electrochemical energy storage systems. In this investigation, the Dow experimental PEM (XUS-13204.10) and unsupported high platinum loading electrodes yielded very high power densities, of the order of 2.5 W cm(exp -2). A platinum black loading of 5 mg per cm(exp 2) was found to be optimum. On extending the three-dimensional reaction zone of fuel cell electrodes by impregnating solid polymer electrolyte into the electrode structures, Nafion was found to give better performance than the Dow experimental PEM. The depth of penetration of the solid polymer electrolyte into electrode structures was 50-70 percent of the thickness of the platinum-catalyzed active layer. However, the degree of platinum utilization was only 16.6 percent and the roughness factor of a typical electrode was 274.

  13. High-power CO lasers for materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averin, A.; Erofeev, E.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Malysh, M.

    1994-08-01

    Two high-power CO laser installations for industrial applications are being developed now in Russia within the framework of the Eureka Project EU113 (`CO-Eurolaser'). The electron- beam-controlled-discharge (EBCD) method for pumping those lasers is used. The first one, EBCD 10 kW CO laser, operates in continuous wave and `gentle' repetitively pulsed (RP) (peak power 20 kW, laser pulse duration 0.5 - 1 ms, pulse repetition rate 500 - 1,000 Hz) modes. The second laser, EBCD 5 - 10 kW CO laser will operate in `tough' RP mode (peak power 0.2 - 1.0 MW, single pulse energy 100 J, pulse duration 0.1 - 0.5 ms, repetition rate 50 - 100 Hz). A detander-compressor device, the main characteristics of which are reported, will be used for cooling the laser mixture of the second CO laser. Those high-power CO laser installations are supposed to be used for investigation of different laser materials processing methods on 5 micrometers wavelength for deep penetration welding, cutting, and surface treatment and also for comparative materials processing studies on CO and CO2 laser wavelengths.

  14. High-Power Lasers for Science and Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haefner, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Since the first demonstration of the laser in 1960 by Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, the principal defining characteristic of lasers has been their ability to focus unprecedented powers of light in space, time, and frequency. High-power lasers have, over the ensuing five and a half decades, illuminated entirely new fields of scientific endeavor as well as made a profound impact on society. While the United States pioneered lasers and their early applications, we have been eclipsed in the past decade by highly effective national and international networks in both Europe and Asia, which have effectively focused their energies, efforts, and resources to achieve greater scientific and societal impact. This white paper calls for strategic investment which, by striking an appropriate balance between distributing our precious national funds and establishing centers of excellence, will ensure a broad pipeline of people and transformative ideas connecting our world-leading universities, defining flagship facilities stewarded by our national laboratories, and driving innovation across industry, to fully exploit the potential of high-power lasers.

  15. Optical Fiber for High-Power Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kurokawa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined optical fibers suitable for avoiding such problems as the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input. We found that the threshold power for fiber fuse propagation in photonic crystal fiber (PCF and hole-assisted fiber (HAF can exceed 18 W, which is more than 10 times that in conventional single-mode fiber (SMF. We considered this high threshold power in PCF and HAF to be caused by a jet of high temperature fluid penetrating the air holes. We showed examples of two kinds of failures at bends in conventional SMF when the input power was 9 W. We also observed the generation of a fiber fuse under a condition that caused a bend-loss induced failure. We showed that one solution for the failures at bends is to use optical fibers with a low bending loss such as PCF and HAF. Therefore, we consider PCF and HAF to be attractive solutions to the problems of the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input.

  16. High-power 95 GHz pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, W.; Earle, K. A.; Dunnam, C. R.; Moscicki, J. K.; Freed, J. H.

    2004-05-01

    High-field/high-frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) offers improved sensitivity and resolution compared to ESR at conventional fields and frequencies. However, most high-field/high-frequency ESR spectrometers suffer from limited mm-wave power, thereby requiring long mm-wave pulses. This precludes their use when relaxation times are short, e.g., in fluid samples. Low mm-wave power is also a major factor limiting the achievable spectral coverage and thereby the multiplex advantage of Fourier transform ESR (FTESR) experiments. High-power pulses are needed to perform two-dimensional (2D) FTESR experiments, which can unravel the dynamics of a spin system in great detail, making it an excellent tool for studying spin and molecular dynamics. We report on the design and implementation of a high-power, high-bandwidth, pulsed ESR spectrometer operating at 95 GHz. One of the principal design goals was the ability to investigate dynamic processes in aqueous samples at physiological temperatures with the intent to study biological systems. In initial experiments on aqueous samples at room temperature, we achieved 200 MHz spectral coverage at a sensitivity of 1.1×1010√s spins and a dead time of less than 50 ns. 2D-electron-electron double resonance experiments on aqueous samples are discussed to demonstrate the practical application of such a spectrometer.

  17. BBO sapphire compound for high-power frequency conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Carolin; Rothhardt, Jan; Klenke, Arno; Peschel, Thomas; Eberhardt, Ramona; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Lasers used for diverse applications from industry to fundamental science tend to increasing output powers. Some applications require frequency conversion via nonlinear optical crystals, which suffer from the formation of temperature gradients at high power operation which causes thermal lensing or destruction of the crystal due to tensile stresses. To avoid these unwanted effects we joined a beta barium borate (BBO) crystal with sapphire disks serving as effective heat spreaders due to their high thermal conductivity (thermal conductivity κ = 42 W/Km). Therefore, smooth and flat crystal surfaces were joined by plasma-activated bonding. The joining relies on covalent bonds, which are formed via a condensation reaction of the surfaces which are first connected by Van der Waals forces. The cleaned surfaces are activated by plasma and brought into contact, pressed together and heat treated at a temperature of about 100°C. Special attention has been paid to the cleaning of the surfaces. Therefor the surfaces have been evaluated before and after treatment by means of atomic force microscopy. A stable connection has been formed successfully, which has been tested in a proof of principle experiment and demonstrated efficient second harmonic generation at up to 253 W of input power. Compared to a bare single BBO crystal it could be shown that the temperature within the crystal compound is significantly reduced. Such hybrid structures pave the way for frequency conversion at kilowatts of average power for future high power lasers.

  18. High-power disk lasers based on dilute nitride heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, M.; Leinonen, T.; Härkönen, A.; Pessa, M.

    2009-12-01

    We report the development of InGaAsN-based gain mirrors for high-power optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers with direct emission at wavelengths around 1180 nm. The gain mirrors were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. They consist of 10 dilute nitride quantum wells, which were placed within a GaAs micro-cavity on top of a GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector. We demonstrated laser operation at ~1180 nm with record high output power (~7 W). The differential efficiency was ~30% for operation at 5 °C and ~28% when operating at 15 °C. The lasers exhibited excellent tuning characteristics, delivering an output power of more than 5 W in a narrow spectrum and providing over 30 nm tuning band. These features represent significant progress towards demonstration of practical high-power lasers with frequency-doubled yellow emission required for laser guide stars, life sciences and spectroscopy. At the same time the results emphasize the importance of dilute nitride heterostructures in the development of novel optoelectronic devices.

  19. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  20. Test Facilities in Support of High Power Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Thomas; Dickens, Ricky; Martin, James J.; Salvail, Patrick; Carter, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Successful development of space fission systems requires an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through non-nuclear testing. Through demonstration of systems concepts (designed by DOE National Laboratories) in relevant environments, this philosophy has been demonstrated through hardware testing in the High Power Propulsion Thermal Simulator (HPPTS). The HPPTS is designed to enable very realistic non-nuclear testing of space fission systems. Ongoing research at the HPPTS is geared towards facilitating research, development, system integration, and system utilization via cooperative efforts with DOE labs, industry, universities, and other NASA centers. Through hardware based design and testing, the HPPTS investigates High Power Electric Propulsion (HPEP) component, subsystem, and integrated system design and performance.

  1. High power 1060-nm super large vertical cavity semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shaoyang; Zhai, Teng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruikang; Lu, Dan; Ji, Chen

    2014-11-01

    High power single-mode ridge waveguide 1060-nm semiconductor lasers are reported. The lasers consist of compressively strained double InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and a GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement vertical structure. A super large vertical optical cavity is employed to have a low internal loss, large optical spot size and low vertical optical divergence angle. The material composition and thickness of waveguide layers and claddings layer are optimized systematically. The active layer is detuned from center of the waveguide and thickness of cladding layers is optimized to guaranty single mode lasing of the large optical cavity. The large vertical cavity laser structure with thickness of 4 μm allows the lasers have a low internal loss of less than 0.6 /cm, a large optical spot size about 1μm and a vertical divergence angle about 20 degree. For lateral optical confinement, a double trench ridge waveguide is employed to maintain single-lateral-mode operation. Based on the optimization, 1.5 W continue wave optical power is achieved for broad area lasers with 1mm longitude cavity length. Narrow stripe ridge waveguide lasers of 1mm cavity length with single mode current and optical power of 700 mA and 340 mW is obtained. Suggestions for further improvements in terms of single mode power and applications of the high power semiconductors are discussed.

  2. Enhanced stability of magnetoelectric gyrators under high power conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Zhuang, Xin; Gao, Min; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Junran; Li, Jiefang; Zhang, Jitao; Srinivasan, G.; Viehland, D.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, three different coil-based magnetoelectric (ME) gyrators of different geometries, including gyrators with high power output, have been designed and characterized. These included two magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/magnetostrictive (M-P-M) and one piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric (P-M-P) type ME gyrators, which consisted of nickel zinc ferrite (NZFO) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic plates. Compared with M-P-M ME gyrators, the P-M-P ones exhibited a higher power efficiency (η) of 85% when operated at resonance under an optimal magnetic bias field (HBias) of 40 Oe at low power conditions. It retained a relatively high efficiency of η = 79% under a high input power density of 2.87 W/cm3. A low reduction in the magnetomechanical coupling and mechanical quality (k33,m and Qm) factors of the NZFO ferrite layer in the ME gyrator explains the resilience of the P-M-P type structure with increasing power drive. The findings open the possibility of using ME gyrators in high power applications.

  3. Single-stage electronic ballast with high-power factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun-Yoon; Kwon, Jung-Min; Kwon, Bong-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    This article proposes a single-stage electronic ballast circuit with high-power factor. The proposed circuit was derived by sharing the switches of the power factor correction (PFC) and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter. This integration of switches forms the proposed single-stage electronic ballast, which provides an almost unity power factor and a ripple-free input current by using a coupled inductor without increasing the voltage stress. In addition, it realises zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) by employing the self-oscillation technique. The saturable transformer constituting the self-oscillating drive limits the lamp current and dominates the switching frequency of the ballast. Therefore, the proposed single-stage ballast has the advantage of high-power factor, high efficiency, low cost and high reliability. Steady-state analysis of the PFC and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter are described. The results of experiments performed using a 30 W fluorescent lamp are also presented to confirm the performance of the proposed ballast.

  4. Material Processing with High Power CO2-Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowsky, Lothar

    1986-10-01

    After a period of research and development lasertechnique now is regarded as an important instrument for flexible, economic and fully automatic manufacturing. Especially cutting of flat metal sheets with high power C02-lasers and CNC controlled two or three axes handling systems is a wide spread. application. Three dimensional laser cutting, laser-welding and -heat treatment are just at the be ginning of industrial use in production lines. The main. advantages of laser technology. are - high. accuracy - high, processing velocity - law thermal distortion. - no tool abrasion. The market for laser material processing systems had 1985 a volume of 300 Mio S with growth rates between, 20 % and 30 %. The topic of this lecture are hiTrh. power CO2-lasers. Besides this systems two others are used as machining tools, Nd-YAG- and Eximer lasers. All applications of high. power CO2-lasers to industrial material processing show that high processing velocity and quality are only guaranteed in case of a stable intensity. profile on the workpiece. This is only achieved by laser systems without any power and mode fluctuations and by handling systems of high accuracy. Two applications in the automotive industry are described, below as examples for laser cutting and laser welding of special cylindrical motor parts.

  5. High Power, Repetitive, Stacked Blumlein Pulse Generators Commuted by a Single Switching Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawalkar, Jayant Dilip

    In this work, the stacked Blumlein pulsers developed at the University of Texas at Dallas were characterized and shown to be versatile sources of pulse power for a variety of applications. These devices consisted of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines were charged in parallel and synchronously commuted repetitively with a single switching element at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages were multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load without the need for complex Marx bank circuitry. Several pulser parameters such as the number of stacked Blumlein lines, line configuration, type of switching element, and the length of the lines, were varied and the waveform characteristics were observed and analyzed. It was shown that these devices are capable of generating fast rising waveforms with a wide range of peak voltage and current values. The generation of high power waveforms with pulse durations in the range of 80-600 ns was demonstrated without degradation of the voltage gains. The results of this work indicated that unlike generators based on stacked transmission lines, the effects of parasitic modes were not appreciable for the stacked Blumlein pulsers. Opportunities for tactically packaging these pulsers were also investigated and a significant reduction in their size and weight was demonstrated. For this, dielectric lifetime and Blumlein spacing studies were performed on small scale prototypes. In addition to production of intense X-ray pulses, the possible applications for these novel pulsers include driving magnetrons for high power microwave generation, pumping laser media, or powering e-beam diodes. They could also serve as compact, tabletop sources of high power pulses for various research experiments.

  6. Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum by Raman-assisted four-wave mixing in single-crystal diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Hsuan; Yang, Li-Fan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V; Yang, Shang-Da; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Kung, A H

    2014-02-24

    An octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum is generated by non-collinear Raman-assisted four-wave mixing in single-crystal diamond using 7.7 fs laser pulses that have been chirped to about 420 fs in duration. The use of ultrabroad bandwidth pulses as input results in substantial overlap of the generated spectrum of the anti-Stokes sidebands, creating a phase-locked supercontinuum when all the sidebands are combined to overlap in time and space. The overall bandwidth of the generated supercontinuum is sufficient to support its compression to isolated few-to-single cycle attosecond transients. The significant spectral overlap of adjacent anti-Stokes sidebands allows the utilization of straight-forward spectral interferometry to test the relative phase coherence of the anti-Stokes outputs and is demonstrated here for two adjacent pairs of sidebands. The method can subsequently be employed to set the relative phase of the sidebands for pulse compression and for the synthesis of arbitrary field transients.

  7. High-power and highly reliable 638-nm band BA-LD for CW operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Takehiro; Kuramoto, Kyosuke; Abe, Shinji; Kusunoki, Masatsugu; Miyashita, Motoharu; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2017-10-01

    High-power laser diodes (LDs) are strongly demanded as light sources of display applications. In multiple spatial light modulator-type projectors or liquid crystal displays, the light source LDs are operated under CW condition. The high-power 638-nm band broad-area LD for CW operation was newly developed. The LD consisted of two stripes with each width of 75 μm to reduce both an optical power density at a front facet and a threshold current. The newly improved epitaxial technology was also applied to the LD to suppress an electron overflow from an active layer. The LD showed superior output characteristics, such as output of 1.77 W at case temperature of 55 °C with wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 23%, which was improved by 40% compared with the current product. The peak WPE at 25 °C reached 40.6% under the output power of 2.37 W, CW, world highest.

  8. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, T; Kiessling, T; Ossau, W; Molenkamp, L W; Biermann, K; Santos, P V

    2013-12-01

    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast "white light" supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  9. Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. To date, the limitations of mid-infrared light sources such as thermal emitters, low......-power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation have precluded mid-infrared applications where the spatial coherence, broad bandwidth, high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular ‘fingerprint region’, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics3, gas sensing and food quality control....

  10. High power continuous-wave dual-wavelength alexandrite laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Shirin; Major, Arkady

    2017-10-01

    A high power dual-wavelength alexandrite (Cr:BeAl2O4) laser using a single plate birefringent filter (BRF) was demonstrated. Using a 6 mm thick BRF, dual-wavelength output at 745.2 nm and 756.2 nm (5.9 THz of frequency difference) with 850 mW of average output power was achieved as well as with 16.8% optical-to-optical and 24.2% slope efficiency. The tunability of dual-wavelength separation was also demonstrated by employing the 4 mm and 2 mm thick BRFs with similar output powers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a dual-wavelength alexandrite laser.

  11. High-power laser experiments to study collisionless shock generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakawa Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A collisionless Weibel-instability mediated shock in a self-generated magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation [Kato and Takabe, Astophys. J. Lett. 681, L93 (2008]. It is predicted that the generation of the Weibel shock requires to use NIF-class high-power laser system. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas using Gekko XII laser system [Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011]. A NIF facility time proposal is approved to study the formation of the collisionless Weibel shock. OMEGA and OMEGA EP experiments have been started to study the plasma conditions of counter-streaming plasmas required for the NIF experiment using Thomson scattering and to develop proton radiography diagnostics.

  12. High Power Operation of the JLab IR FEL Driver Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Beard; Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Christopher Gould; Albert Grippo; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; J. Hovater; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Rui Li; Steven Moore; George Neil; Benard Poelker; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Robert Rimmer; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Gwyn Williams; Shukui Zhang

    2007-08-01

    Operation of the JLab IR Upgrade FEL at CW powers in excess of 10 kW requires sustained production of high electron beam powers by the driver ERL. This in turn demands attention to numerous issues and effects, including: cathode lifetime; control of beamline and RF system vacuum during high current operation; longitudinal space charge; longitudinal and transverse matching of irregular/large volume phase space distributions; halo management; management of remnant dispersive effects; resistive wall, wake-field, and RF heating of beam vacuum chambers; the beam break up instability; the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (both on beam quality and the performance of laser optics); magnetic component stability and reproducibility; and RF stability and reproducibility. We discuss our experience with these issues and describe the modus vivendi that has evolved during prolonged high current, high power beam and laser operation.

  13. High-power pump diodes for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Chris; Guiney, Tina; Braker, Joe; Stapleton, Dean; Alegria, Kim; Irwin, David

    2017-05-01

    DILAS offers a variety of high power pump diode lasers, optimized for different gain media. Systems optimized for DPAL pumping at 766nm will be discussed, including results demonstrating precise wavelength and spectral width control necessary to optimal overlap with atomic lines. In addition, pump modules optimized at 793 nm for Tm fiber laser pumping have been demonstrated, including a low SWaP module targeted for airborne applications. Lastly, DILAS' line of high-efficiency/low-SWaP pump at 976nm for Yb fiber laser will be presented. Starting with the 330W IS46 module, DILAS has demonstrated >53% efficiency, and has now increased brightness up to 625W from a 225 um/ 0.22 NA fiber. Developments towards a module with >900W output power will also be shown.

  14. High power RF window deposition apparatus, method, and device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Lawrence R.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Zeller, Daniel

    2017-07-04

    A process for forming a coating for an RF window which has improved secondary electron emission and reduced multipactor for high power RF waveguides is formed from a substrate with low loss tangent and desirable mechanical characteristics. The substrate has an RPAO deposition layer applied which oxygenates the surface of the substrate to remove carbon impurities, thereafter has an RPAN deposition layer applied to nitrogen activate the surface of the substrate, after which a TiN deposition layer is applied using Titanium tert-butoxide. The TiN deposition layer is capped with a final RPAN deposition layer of nitridation to reduce the bound oxygen in the TiN deposition layer. The resulting RF window has greatly improved titanium layer adhesion, reduced multipactor, and is able to withstand greater RF power levels than provided by the prior art.

  15. Thermal management methods for compact high power LED arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Adam; Ha, Minseok; Graham, Samuel

    2007-09-01

    The package and system level temperature distributions of a high power (>1W) light emitting diode (LED) array has been investigated using numerical heat flow models. For this analysis, a thermal resistor network model was combined with a 3D finite element submodel of an LED structure to predict system and die level temperatures. The impact of LED array density, LED power density, and active versus passive cooling methods on device operation were calculated. In order to help understand the role of various thermal resistances in cooling such compact arrays, the thermal resistance network was analyzed in order to estimate the contributions from materials as well as active and passive cooling schemes. An analysis of thermal stresses and residual stresses in the die are also calculated based on power dissipation and convection heat transfer coefficients. Results show that the thermal stress in the GaN layer are compressive which can impact the band gap and performance of the LEDs.

  16. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  17. Simulation of High Power Amplifier Calculation in VSAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Neforawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Arithmatical simulation of High Power Amplifier (HPA on VSAT system is a program which used to calculate the capacity of HPA as a working test of maximum power on each remote station of the VSAT network system, afterward can be obtained the available capacity value and power capacity used, therefore able to reallocate residual power below its available power spare. VSAT system can be used for several telecommunication application such as video broadcast, data broadcast,audio broadcast, banking operation, ATM and others. Due to the easy operational, maintanance and its instalment, VSAT system is more prifitable compare to ordinary terestrial band, its capability for multiservice application become more flexible in using its network. The software used is Visual Basic 6.0 version and database Microsoft Access. These software take a role as visualization and planning for remote station development and also power capasity needed for each remote in the calculation of HPA.

  18. High power and single mode quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuto, Alfredo; Bidaux, Yves; Blaser, Stéphane; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Rochat, Michel; Muller, Antoine; Bonzon, Christopher; Faist, Jerome

    2016-05-16

    We present a single mode quantum cascade laser with nearly 1 W optical power. A buried distributed feedback reflector is used on the back section for wavelength selection. The laser is 6 mm long, 3.5 μm wide, mounted episide-up and the laser facets are left uncoated. Laser emission is centered at 4.68 μm. Single-mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of more than 30 dB is obtained in whole range of operation. Farfield measurements prove a symmetric, single transverse-mode emission in TM00-mode with typical divergences of 41° and 33° in the vertical and horizontal direction respectively. This work shows the potential for simple fabrication of high power lasers compatible with standard DFB processing.

  19. High power optical transmitter package for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, U.; Menke, B.; Wiesmann, Th.; Ohm, G.

    1990-07-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of a new concept involving high-power laser diode (HPLD) arrays which are able to emit up to 1000 mW of optical output power but which suffer from poor far-field pattern and poor optical quality, related to the gain guiding mechanism used in such devices. Methods are proposed for improving the optical quality of HPLDs. These include the use of apertured AM scheme for HPLDs and the use of a graded-index lens and a stripe mirror to stabilize the HPLD. A HPLD optical transmitter is designed which will have the capability of operating the HPLD in the 180 deg phase alternating mode under modulation.

  20. High powered rocketry: design, construction, and launching experience and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Pryce; Curtis, Jarret; Bartel, Evan; Owens Cyr, Waycen; Lamsal, Chiranjivi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the nuts and bolts of designing and building a high powered rocket have been presented. A computer simulation program called RockSim was used to design the rocket. Simulation results are consistent with time variations of altitude, velocity, and acceleration obtained in the actual flight. The actual drag coefficient was determined by using altitude back-tracking method and found to be 0.825. Speed of the exhaust determined to be 2.5 km s‑1 by analyzing the thrust curve of the rocket. Acceleration in the coasting phase of the flight, represented by the second-degree polynomial of a small leading coefficient, have been found to approach ‘-g’ asymptotically.

  1. The interaction of high-power lasers with plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, Shalom

    2002-01-01

    The Interaction of High-Power Lasers with Plasmas provides a thorough self-contained discussion of the physical processes occurring in laser-plasma interactions, including a detailed review of the relevant plasma and laser physics. The book analyzes laser absorption and propagation, electron transport, and the relevant plasma waves in detail. It also discusses the physics of the electric and magnetic fields in a laser-induced plasma medium, laser-induced shock waves, rarefaction waves, heat waves, and the related hydrodynamic instabilities (Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and Kelvin-Helmholtz).A pedagogical presentation, the book addresses the basic physics issues from first principles, using simple models wherever appropriate. The coverage provides a foundation on which the graduate student can build an understanding of the past and present research in this field. For the experienced researcher, the book is a comprehensive and useful presentation of laser-plasma interactions.

  2. High power diode laser Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier (MOPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John R.; Mouroulis, P.; Wicks, G.

    1994-01-01

    High power multiple quantum well AlGaAs diode laser master oscillator - power amplifier (MOPA) systems were examined both experimentally and theoretically. For two pass operation, it was found that powers in excess of 0.3 W per 100 micrometers of facet length were achievable while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality. Internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies as high as 25 percent were observed at an internal amplifier gain of 9 dB. Theoretical modeling of multiple quantum well amplifiers was done using appropriate rate equations and a heuristic model of the carrier density dependent gain. The model gave a qualitative agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the model allowed exploration of a wider design space for the amplifiers. The model predicted that internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies in excess of 50 percent should be achievable with careful system design. The model predicted that no global optimum design exists, but gain, efficiency, and optical confinement (coupling efficiency) can be mutually adjusted to meet a specific system requirement. A three quantum well, low optical confinement amplifier was fabricated using molecular beam epitaxial growth. Coherent beam combining of two high power amplifiers injected from a common master oscillator was also examined. Coherent beam combining with an efficiency of 93 percent resulted in a single beam having diffraction-limited characteristics. This beam combining efficiency is a world record result for such a system. Interferometric observations of the output of the amplifier indicated that spatial mode matching was a significant factor in the less than perfect beam combining. Finally, the system issues of arrays of amplifiers in a coherent beam combining system were investigated. Based upon experimentally observed parameters coherent beam combining could result in a megawatt-scale coherent beam with a 10 percent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency.

  3. MULTIPULSE - high resolution and high power in one TDEM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianyou; Hodges, Greg; Miles, Philip

    2015-09-01

    An airborne time domain electromagnetic (TEM) system with high resolution and great depth of exploration is desired for geological mapping as well as for mineral exploration. The MULTIPULSE technology enables an airborne TEM system to transmit a high power pulse (a half-sine, for instance) and one or multiple low power pulse(s) (trapezoid or square) within a half-cycle. The high power pulse ensures good depth of exploration and the low power pulse allows a fast transmitter current turn off and earlier off-time measurement thus providing higher frequency signals, which allows higher near-surface resolution and better sensitivity to weak conductors. The power spectrum of the MULTIPULSE waveform comprising a half-sine and a trapezoid pulse clearly shows increased power in the higher frequency range (> ~2.3 kHz) compared to that of a single half-sine waveform. The addition of the low power trapezoid pulse extends the range of the sensitivity 10-fold towards the weak conductors, expanding the geological conductivity range of a system and increasing the scope of its applications. The MULTIPULSE technology can be applied to standard single-pulse airborne TEM systems on both helicopter and fixed-wing. We field tested the HELITEM MULTIPULSE system over a wire-loop in Iroquois Falls, demonstrating the different sensitivity of the high and low power pulses to the overburden and the wire-loop. We also tested both HELITEM and GEOTEM MULTIPULSE systems over a layered oil sand geologic setting in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The results show comparable shallow geologic resolution of the MULTIPULSE to that of the RESOLVE system while maintaining superior depth of exploration, confirming the increased geological conductivity range of a system employing MULTIPULSE compared to the standard single-pulse systems.

  4. Coherent beam combining architectures for high power tapered laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, G.; Janicot, S.; Hanna, M.; Decker, J.; Crump, P.; Erbert, G.; Witte, U.; Traub, M.; Georges, P.; Lucas-Leclin, G.

    2017-02-01

    Coherent beam combining (CBC) aims at increasing the spatial brightness of lasers. It consists in maintaining a constant phase relationship between different emitters, in order to combine them constructively in one single beam. We have investigated the CBC of an array of five individually-addressable high-power tapered laser diodes at λ = 976 nm, in two architectures: the first one utilizes the self-organization of the lasers in an interferometric extended-cavity, which ensures their mutual coherence; the second one relies on the injection of the emitters by a single-frequency laser diode. In both cases, the coherent combining of the phase-locked beams is ensured on the front side of the array by a transmission diffractive grating with 98% efficiency. The passive phase-locking of the laser bar is obtained up to 5 A (per emitter). An optimization algorithm is implemented to find the proper currents in the five ridge sections that ensured the maximum combined power on the front side. Under these conditions we achieve a maximum combined power of 7.5 W. In the active MOPA configuration, we can increase the currents in the tapered sections up to 6 A and get a combined power of 11.5 W, corresponding to a combining efficiency of 76%. It is limited by the beam quality of the tapered emitters and by fast phase fluctuations between emitters. Still, these results confirm the potential of CBC approaches with tapered lasers to provide a high-power and high-brightness beam, and compare with the current state-of-the-art with laser diodes.

  5. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-05-09

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  6. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-01-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material. PMID:28486438

  7. Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

    1979-01-01

    A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

  8. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, Eunmi

    2017-05-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  9. Small high-power electron-beam device for manufacturing work and physical experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, B. E.; Sheliagin, V. D.; Nazarenko, O. K.; Lankin, Iu. N.; Mokhnach, V. K.

    The paper examines the design of a high-power electron-beam device with an autonomous dc-voltage source that was used for electron-beam injection in the Araks experiment and can be used for electron-beam welding in the context of space manufacturing. The design principle is described, and the specifications of the main units of the device are presented, including the units responsible for the conversion of the dc voltage of the primary source to ac voltage, the rectification of the high voltage, and electron-beam injection. Also considered are the units for electron-beam control and for the conversion of the telemetered parameters of the device into analog voltage. A block diagram is presented along with an oscillogram of the beam current and a cyclogram of device operation.

  10. High power fiber coupled diode lasers for display and lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovs, Simon; Unger, Andreas; Dürsch, Sascha; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2017-02-01

    The performance of diode lasers in the visible spectral range has been continuously improved within the last few years, which was mainly driven by the goal to replace arc lamps in cinema or home projectors. In addition, the availability of such high power visible diode lasers also enables new applications in the medical field, but also the usage as pump sources for other solid state lasers. This paper summarizes the latest developments of fiber coupled sources with output power from 1.4 W to 120 W coupled into 100 μm to 400 μm fibers in the spectral range around 405 nm and 640 nm. New developments also include the use of fiber coupled multi single emitter arrays at 450 nm, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power.

  11. Advances in High-Power, Ultrashort Pulse DPSSL Technologies at HiLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Smrž

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of kW-class diode-pumped picosecond laser sources emitting at various wavelengths started at the HiLASE Center four years ago. A 500-W Perla C thin-disk laser with a diffraction limited beam and repetition rate of 50–100 kHz, a frequency conversion to mid-infrared (mid-IR, and second to fifth harmonic frequencies was demonstrated. We present an updated review on the progress in the development of compact picosecond and femtosecond high average power radiation sources covering the ultraviolet (UV to mid-IR spectral range at the HiLASE Center. We also report on thin-disk manufacturing by atomic diffusion bonding, which is a crucial technology for future high-power laser development.

  12. State of the art in high-power microwaves: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swegle, J.; Benford, J.

    1993-12-01

    In the two decades since the presentation of the first experimental results, the study of high-power microwaves (HPM) has aimed at the production of microwave pulses with ever higher peak power and ever larger energy content. Drawing on the electrical pulsed power and relativistic electron beam technologies, a mix of sources have produced power levels in excess of 1 GW and pulse energies of ten to a thousand joules in both the centimeter and millimeter wavelength ranges. The potential for military applications of such powerful bursts became a major driving force for substantial research programs, and considerable advancements, in the United States and the former Soviet Union. The end of the Cold War and a reexamination of national priorities has diminished the momentum of military HPM development in these countries. Nevertheless, the field hasn't reached its limits, in capability or applicability, and one sees at present a diffusion of the technology across national borders. As examples, one sees commitments in the UK, France, and China to national programs aimed at the exploration of the defensive capabilities of HPM. The purpose of this paper will be to examine the state of the art in HPM at this juncture. We will look at: (1) Peak power production; (2) Pulse energy production and the phenomenon of pulse shortening at high peak power levels; (3) Coherent phasing of multiple high-power sources; (4) Compact HPM source development; and (5) Repetitive operation of sources. We will also briefly mention some emerging applications and offer some concluding thoughts.

  13. High power compatible internally sensed optical phased array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Francis, Samuel P; Sibley, Paul G; Fleddermann, Roland; Sutton, Andrew J; Smith, Craig; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    .... One important application of an OPA is coherent beam combining (CBC), which can be used to create beams of higher power than is possible with a single laser source, especially for narrow linewidth sources...

  14. Radial current high power dummy load for characterizing the high power laser triggered transformer-type accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Liu, Jin-Liang; Ren, He-Ming; Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Hong, Zhi-qiang

    2010-09-01

    A radial-current aqueous resistive solution load was applied to characterize a laser triggered transformer-type accelerator. The current direction in the dummy load is radial and is different from the traditional load in the axial. Therefore, this type of dummy load has smaller inductance and fast response characteristic. The load was designed to accommodate both the resistance requirement of accelerator and to allow optical access for the laser. Theoretical and numerical calculations of the load's inductance and capacitance are given. The equivalent circuit of the dummy load is calculated in theory and analyzed with a PSPICE code. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis. At last, experiments of the dummy load applied to the high power spiral pulse forming line were performed; a quasisquare pulse voltage is obtained at the dummy load.

  15. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...

  16. High-Power Fiber Lasers Using Photonic Band Gap Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Leo; Dowling, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers (HPFLs) would be made from photonic band gap (PBG) materials, according to the proposal. Such lasers would be scalable in the sense that a large number of fiber lasers could be arranged in an array or bundle and then operated in phase-locked condition to generate a superposition and highly directed high-power laser beam. It has been estimated that an average power level as high as 1,000 W per fiber could be achieved in such an array. Examples of potential applications for the proposed single-fiber lasers include welding and laser surgery. Additionally, the bundled fibers have applications in beaming power through free space for autonomous vehicles, laser weapons, free-space communications, and inducing photochemical reactions in large-scale industrial processes. The proposal has been inspired in part by recent improvements in the capabilities of single-mode fiber amplifiers and lasers to produce continuous high-power radiation. In particular, it has been found that the average output power of a single strand of a fiber laser can be increased by suitably changing the doping profile of active ions in its gain medium to optimize the spatial overlap of the electromagnetic field with the distribution of active ions. Such optimization minimizes pump power losses and increases the gain in the fiber laser system. The proposal would expand the basic concept of this type of optimization to incorporate exploitation of the properties (including, in some cases, nonlinearities) of PBG materials to obtain power levels and efficiencies higher than are now possible. Another element of the proposal is to enable pumping by concentrated sunlight. Somewhat more specifically, the proposal calls for exploitation of the properties of PBG materials to overcome a number of stubborn adverse phenomena that have impeded prior efforts to perfect HPFLs. The most relevant of those phenomena is amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which causes saturation of gain and power

  17. DOE HIGH-POWER SLIM-HOLE DRILLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. William C. Maurer; John H. Cohen; J. Chris Hetmaniak; Curtis Leitko

    1999-09-01

    This project used a systems approach to improve slim-hole drilling performance. A high power mud motor, having a double-length power section, and hybrid PDC/TSP drill bit were developed to deliver maximum horsepower to the rock while providing a long life down hole. This high-power slim-hole drilling system drills much faster than conventional slim-hole motor and bit combinations and holds significant potential to reduce slim-hole drilling costs. The oil and gas industries have been faced with downward price pressures since the 1980s. These pressures are not expected to be relieved in the near future. To maintain profitability, companies have had to find ways to reduce the costs of producing oil and gas. Drilling is one of the more costly operations in the production process. One method to reduce costs of drilling is to use smaller more mobile equipment. Slim holes have been drilled in the past using this principle. These wells can save money not only from the use of smaller drilling equipment, but also from reduced tubular costs. Stepping down even one casing size results in significant savings. However, slim holes have not found wide spread use for three reasons. First, until recently, the price of oil has been high so there were no forces to move the industry in this direction. Second, small roller bits and motors were not very reliable and they drilled slowly, removing much of the economic benefit. The third and final reason was the misconception that large holes were needed everywhere to deliver the desired production. Several factors have changed that will encourage the use of slim holes. The industry now favors any method of reducing the costs of producing oil and gas. In addition, the industry now understands that large holes are not always needed. Gas, in particular, can have high production rates in smaller holes. New materials now make it possible to manufacture improved bits and motors that drill for long periods at high rates. All that remains is to

  18. A scheme for a high-power, low-cost transmitter for deep space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, L. K.

    2005-10-01

    Applications such as planetary radars and spacecraft communications require transmitters with extremely high effective isotropic radiated power. Until now, this has been done by combining a high-power microwave source with a large reflective antenna. However, this arrangement has a number of disadvantages. It is costly, since the steerable reflector alone is quite expensive, and for spacecraft communications, the need to transmit hurts the receive performance. For planetary radars, the utilization is very low since the antenna must be shared with other applications such as radio astronomy or spacecraft communications. This paper describes a potential new way of building such transmitters with lower cost, greater versatility, higher reliability, and potentially higher power. The basic idea is a phased array with a very large number of low-power elements, built with mass production techniques that have been optimized for consumer markets. The antennas are built en mass on printed circuit boards and are driven by chips, built with consumer complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, that adjust the phase of each element. Assembly and maintenance should be comparatively inexpensive since the boards need only be attached to large, flat, unmoving, ground-level infrastructure. Applications to planetary radar and spacecraft communications are examined. Although we would be unlikely to use such a facility in this way, an implication for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is that high-power beacons are easier to build than had been thought.

  19. Control system for high power laser drilling workover and completion unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Makki, Siamak; Faircloth, Brian O; DeWitt, Ronald A; Allen, Erik C; Underwood, Lance D

    2015-05-12

    A control and monitoring system controls and monitors a high power laser system for performing high power laser operations. The control and monitoring system is configured to perform high power laser operation on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  20. Design of a compact high-power neutron source—The EURISOL converter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samec, K.; Milenković, R. Ž.; Dementjevs, S.; Ashrafi-Nik, M.; Kalt, A.

    2009-07-01

    The EURISOL project, a multi-lateral initiative supported by the EU, aims to develop a facility to achieve high yields of isotopes in radioactive beams and extend the variety of these isotopes towards more exotic types. The neutron source at the heart of the projected facility is designed to generate isotopes by fissioning uranium carbide (UC) targets arranged around a 4 MW neutron source. For reasons of efficiency, it is essential that the neutron source be as compact as possible, to avoid losing neutrons by absorption whilst maximising the escaping neutron flux, thus increasing the number of fissions in the UC targets. The resulting configuration presents a challenge in terms of absorbing heat deposition rates of up to 8 kW/cm3 in the neutron source; it has led to the selection of liquid metal for the target material. The current paper presents the design of a compact high-power liquid-metal neutron source comprising a specially optimised beam window concept. The design is based on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations for thermal hydraulics and hydraulic aspects, as well as finite-element method (FEM) for assessing thermo-mechanical stability. The resulting optimised design was validated by a dedicated hydraulic test under realistic flow conditions. A full-scale mock-up was built at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and was tested at the Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia (IPUL).

  1. Advanced high-power pulsed light device to decontaminate food from pathogens: effects on Salmonella typhimurium viability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Z; Gudelis, V; Buchovec, I; Raudeliuniene, J

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an advanced high-power pulsed light device for decontamination of food matrix and to evaluate its antibacterial efficiency. Key parameters of constructed device-emitted light spectrum, pulse duration, pulse power density, frequency of pulses, dependence of emitted spectrum on input voltage, irradiation homogenicity, possible thermal effects as well as antimicrobial efficiency were evaluated. Antimicrobial efficiency of high-power pulsed light technique was demonstrated and evaluated by two independent methods - spread plate and Miles-Misra method. Viability of Salmonella typhimurium as function of a given light dose (number of pulses) and pulse frequency was examined. According to the data obtained, viability of Salmonella typhimurium reduced by 7 log order after 100 light pulses with power density 133 W cm(-2). In addition, data indicate, that the pulse frequency did not influence the outcome of pathogen inactivation in the region 1-5 Hz. Moreover, no hyperthermic effect was detected during irradiation even after 500 pulses on all shelves with different distance from light source and subsequently different pulse power density (0-252 W cm(-2)). Newly constructed high-power pulsed light technique is effective nonthermal tool for inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium even by 7 log order in vitro. Novel advanced high-power pulsed light device can be a useful tool for development of nonthermal food decontamination technologies.

  2. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  3. High-Power Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, David; Hack, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    NASA has sought to utilize high-power solar electric propulsion as means of improving the affordability of in-space transportation for almost 50 years. Early efforts focused on 25 to 50 kilowatt systems that could be used with the Space Shuttle, while later efforts focused on systems nearly an order of magnitude higher power that could be used with heavy lift launch vehicles. These efforts never left the concept development phase in part because the technology required was not sufficiently mature. Since 2012 the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has had a coordinated plan to mature the requisite solar array and electric propulsion technology needed to implement a 30 to 50 kilowatt solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. Multiple solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission concepts have been developed based on these maturing technologies with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission. If implemented, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle will form the basis for a capability that can be cost-effectively evolved over time to provide solar electric propulsion transportation for a range of follow-on mission applications at power levels in excess of 100 kilowatts.

  4. Plasma characteristics of a high power helicon discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemba, T; Euripides, P; Slough, J; Winglee, R; Giersch, L; Carscadden, J; Schnackenberg, T; Isley, S [Box 351310, University of Washington, Seattle WA, 98195 (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A new high power helicon (HPH) plasma system has been designed to provide input powers of several tens of kilowatts to produce a large area (0.5 m{sup 2}) of uniform high-density, of at least 5 x 10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, plasma downstream from the helicon coil. Axial and radial plasma characteristics show that the plasma is to a lesser extent created in and near the helicon coil and then is accelerated into the axial and equatorial regions. The bulk acceleration of the plasma is believed to be due to a coupling of the bulk of the electrons to the helicon field, which in turn transfers energy to the ions via ambipolar diffusion. The plasma beta is near unity a few centimetres away from the HPH system and Bdot measurements show {delta}B perturbations in the order of the vacuum magnetic field magnitude. In the equatorial region, a magnetic separatrix is seen to develop roughly at the mid-point between the helicon and chamber wall. The magnetic perturbation develops on the time scale of the plasma flow speed and upon the plasma reaching the chamber wall decays to the vacuum magnetic field configuration within 200 {mu}s.

  5. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  6. High power, higher order ultrafast hollow Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apurv Chaitanya, N.; Amrit Chaitanya, Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2017-05-01

    We report on linear and nonlinear generation of ultrafast hollow Gaussian beams (HGBs). Using only two spiral phase plates (SPPs) having phase variation corresponding to vortex orders, l = 1 and 2, and an experimental scheme, we have generated high power, ultrafast HGBs of orders up to 3 at 1064 nm. Based on single-pass, frequency doubling of the HGBs in a 5 mm long, MgO doped, periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN) crystal, we have produced HGBs of average output power in excess of 250 mW at 532 nm and order as high as 6. Experimentally, we verified that the frequency doubled HGBs have orders twice those of the pump HGBs. Like the Gaussian beams, the HGBs of all orders have an optimum focusing condition for the highest conversion efficiency. On the contrary to previous reports, we observed that the propagation of the vortex beam of order, l, through a SPP corresponding to the vortex order of, -l, results in HGBs of the same order, | l | .

  7. The Challenges of High-Power Plasma Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    2004-11-01

    Our future space explorers face many challenges but three loom high above the rest: physiological debilitation, radiation and psychological stress. Counter-measures are presently being considered to ameliorate these difficulties; however, two new developments are required: abundant space power and advanced propulsion. Also, electric propulsion, long relegated to low-power thrusters, has been reinvigorated by interest in multi-megawatt plasma propulsion. One rapidly evolving concept, the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR,) borrows heavily from magnetic fusion research, particularly on RF plasma generation and heating in mirror-like geometries. Axial momentum is obtained by expansion of the plasma in a magnetic nozzle. The configuration could enable thrust and specific impulse variation, at constant power, allowing in-flight mission performance optimization. VASIMR technology, and similar others, could be validated, in the near term, on the International Space Station, where they can benefit from a container-less environment and virtually infinite vacuum. The experiments could also help re-boost the orbital facility. This paper describes the advantages and operational motivation for high-power plasma rockets, illustrated through the VASIMR research effort.

  8. Vacuum Window Design for High-Power Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Shaftan, T V

    2005-01-01

    One of the problems in the high-power lasers design is in outcoupling of a powerful laser beam out of a vacuum volume into atmosphere. Usually the laser device is located inside a vacuum tank. The laser radiation is transported to the outside world through the transparent vacuum window. While considered transparent, some of the light passing through the glass is absorbed and converted to heat. For most applications, these properties are academic curiosities; however, in multi-kilowatt lasers, the heat becomes significant and can lead to a failure. The absorbed power can result in thermal stress, reduction of light transmission and, consequently, window damage. Modern optical technology has developed different types of glass (Silica, BK7, diamond, etc.) that have high thermal conductivity and damage threshold. However, for kilo- and megawatt lasers the issue still remains open. In this paper we present a solution that may relieve the heat load on the output window. We discuss advantages and issues of this part...

  9. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2010-10-13

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of ?gasless? self-sputtering.

  10. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  11. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yoon W; Campisi, Isidoro E; Champion, Mark; Crofford, Mark; Davis, Kirk; Drury, Michael A; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; McCarthy, Michael P; Powers, Tom; Shajedul Hasan, S M; Stirbet, Mircea; Stout, Daniel; Tang, Johnny Y; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V; Wezensky, Mark

    2005-01-01

    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducti...

  12. Fiber facet gratings for high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Martin; Vanis, Jan; Baravets, Yauhen; Todorov, Filip; Ctyroky, Jiri; Honzatko, Pavel

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigated the properties of diffraction gratings designated for fabrication on the facet of an optical fiber. The gratings are intended to be used in high-power fiber lasers as mirrors either with a low or high reflectivity. The modal reflectance of low reflectivity polarizing grating has a value close to 3% for TE mode while it is significantly suppressed for TM mode. Such a grating can be fabricated on laser output fiber facet. The polarizing grating with high modal reflectance is designed as a leaky-mode resonant diffraction grating. The grating can be etched in a thin layer of high index dielectric which is sputtered on fiber facet. We used refractive index of Ta2O5 for such a layer. We found that modal reflectance can be close to 0.95 for TE polarization and polarization extinction ratio achieves 18 dB. Rigorous coupled wave analysis was used for fast optimization of grating parameters while aperiodic rigorous coupled wave analysis, Fourier modal method and finite difference time domain method were compared and used to compute modal reflectance of designed gratings.

  13. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Bass, Isaac L.; Hackel, Richard P.; Jenkins, Sherman L.; Kanz, Vernon K.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator (10) is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors (11-16) form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:Sapphire rod (17) is disposed between the second and third mirrors (12,13) and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:Sapphire rod (18) is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors (14,15) at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:Sapphire rod (17,18) is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers (21-22, 23-24). For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter (36) and an etalon (37) are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors (101, 192) are disposed between the first and second mirrors (11, 12) to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:Sapphire rod (103) is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors (101, 102) at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers (104, 105).

  14. High-power lasers for directed-energy applications: comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Weyrauch, Thomas

    2016-12-10

    Sprangle et al. [Appl. Opt.54, F201 (2015)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.54.00F201] recently concluded that our experiments on coherent combining of laser beams over an atmospheric path [Opt. Lett.36, 4455 (2011)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.36.004455] were "effective only because at these low-power levels the linewidth of the lasers was very narrow… and the level of atmospheric turbulence was low…." These conclusions are inaccurate, not relevant to practical high-power coherently combined laser systems, and contradict our most recent experiments with coherent combining of 21 laser beams with a linewidth of about 1 GHz over 7 km distance. In this comment we also challenge the major conclusion of Sprangle et al. [Appl. Opt.54, F201 (2015)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.54.00F201] and the more recently published paper by Nelson et al. [Appl. Opt.55, 1757 (2016)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.55.001757] regarding inefficiency of coherent beam combining under typical atmospheric conditions.

  15. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc. captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  16. Adaptive metal mirror for high-power CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Uwe-Klaus

    1996-08-01

    Spherical mirrors with a variable radius of curvature are used inside laser resonators as well as in the beam path between the laser and the workpiece. Commercially-available systems use piezoelectric actuators, or the pressure of the coolant, to deform the mirror surface. In both cases, the actuator and the cooling system influence each other. This interaction is avoided through the integration of the cooling system with the flexible mirror membrane. A multi- channel design leads to an optimized cooling effect, which is necessary for high power applications. The contour of the variable metal mirror depends on the mounting between the membrane and the mirror body and on the distribution of forces. Four cases of deformation can be distinguished for a circular elastic membrane. The realization of an adaptive metal mirror requires a technical compromise to be made. A mechanical construction is presented which combines an elastic hinge with the inlet and outlet of the coolant. For the deformation of the mirror membranes two actuators with different character of deformation are used. The superposition of the two deformations results in smaller deviations from the spherical surface shape than can be achieved using a single actuator. DC proportional magnets have been introduced as cheap and rigid actuators. The use of this adaptive mirror, either in a low pressure atmosphere of a gas laser resonator, or in an extra-cavity beam path is made possible through the use of a ventilation system.

  17. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation spanning from 1.9 to 5.7 μm in a chalcogenide fiber taper with ultra-high NA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Dai, Shixun; Peng, Xuefeng; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Xunsi; You, Chenyang

    2018-01-01

    We report a broadband supercontinuum generation in a chalcogenide fiber taper with an ultra-high numerical aperture. The chalcogenide step-index fiber consisting of As2Se3 core and As2S3 cladding was fabricated by using the isolated stacked extrusion method. The fiber taper with a core diameter of 1.75 μm was prepared by employing a homemade tapering setup. By pumping the fiber taper with a femtosecond laser pulses at 3.3 μm, a broadband supercontinuum generation spanning from 1.9 to 5.7 μm was achieved.

  18. A highly non-linear tellurite microstructure fiber with multi-ring holes for supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meisong; Yan, Xin; Qin, Guanshi; Chaudhari, Chitrarekha; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2009-08-31

    We have fabricated a highly nonlinear complex microstructure tellurite fiber with a 1.8 micron core surrounded by four rings of holes. The cane for the fiber was prepared by combining the methods of cast rod in tube and stacking. In the process of fiber-drawing a positive pressure was pumped into the holes of cane to overcome the collapse of holes and reshape the microstructure. The correlations among pump pressure, hole size, surface tension and temperature gradient were investigated. The temperature gradient at the bottom of the preform's neck region was evaluated quantitatively by an indirect method. The chromatic dispersion of this fiber was compared with that of a step-index air-clad fiber. It was found that this fiber has a much more flattened chromatic dispersion. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report about a soft glass microstructure fiber which has such a small core together with four rings of holes for the dispersion engineering. The SC generation from this fiber was investigated under the pump of a 1557 nm femtosecond fiber laser. Infrared supercontinuum generation, free of fine structure, together with visible third harmonic generation was obtained under the pump of a femtosecond fiber laser with a pulse energy of several hundred pJ.

  19. Supercontinuum generation at 800 nm in all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoivanov, Igor A; Iakushev, Sergii O; Shulika, Oleksiy V; AndradeLucio, Jose Amparao; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    We have numerically investigated the supercontinuum generation and pulse compression in a specially designed all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber with a flat-top dispersion curve, pumped by typical pulses from state of the art Ti:Sapphire lasers at 800 nm. The optimal combination of pump pulse parameters for a given fiber was found, which provides a wide octave-spanning spectrum with superb spectral flatness (a drop in spectral intensity of ~1.7 dB). With regard to the pulse compression for these spectra, multiple-cycle pulses (~8 fs) can be obtained with the use of a simple quadratic compressor and nearly single-cycle pulses (3.3 fs) can be obtained with the application of full phase compensation. The impact of pump pulse wavelength-shifting relative to the top of the dispersion curve on the generated SC and pulse compression was also investigated. The optimal pump pulse wavelength range was found to be 750 nm fiber fabrication errors on the SC generation and pulse compression were investigated systematically. We propose that the spectral shape distortions generated by fiber fabrication errors can be significantly attenuated by properly manipulating the pump.

  20. Femtosecond hole-burning spectroscopy with stimulated emission pumping and supercontinuum probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, S. A.; Ruthmann, J.; Ernsting, N. P.

    1998-08-01

    A novel broadband femtosecond version of the stimulated emission pumping (SEP) technique is demonstrated. A nonstationary ground state of a molecular sample in the condensed phase is prepared by two optical pulses. The first picosecond PUMP pulse resonantly excites the sample. The second femtosecond DUMP pulse, which is tuned to the molecular fluorescence band, is applied after relaxation in the excited state and creates a "particle" in the ground state and a "hole" in the excited state. The relaxation of this system is probed by a femtosecond supercontinuum. An advantage of the proposed scheme is that the hole contribution is constant for certain conditions, and hence, the transient absorption spectrum of the particle may be isolated. As an application of the technique, the ground-state evolution of coumarin 102 in acetonitrile is studied. Intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR), with a characteristic time τIVR˜10 fs, is observed in the frequency domain. Subsequently, the absorption band shifts to the blue and shows isosbestic points in the course of relaxation.

  1. Identification of Langmuir wave turbulence-supercontinuum transition by application of von Neumann entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou

    2017-09-01

    A transition from Langmuir wave turbulence (LWT) to coherent Langmuir wave supercontinuum (LWSC) is identified in one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations as the emergence of a broad frequency band showing significant temporal coherence of a wave field accompanied by a decrease in the von Neumann entropy of classical wave fields. The concept of the von Neumann entropy is utilized for evaluation of the phase-randomizing degree of the classical wave fields, together with introduction of the density matrix of the wave fields. The transition from LWT to LWSC takes place when the energy per one plasmon (one wave quantum) exceeds a certain threshold. The coherent nature, which Langmuir wave systems acquire through the transition, is created by four wave mixings of the plasmons. The emergence of temporal coherence and the decrease in the phase randomization are considered as the development of long-range order and spontaneous symmetry breaking, respectively, indicating that the LWT-LWSC transition is a second order phase transition phenomenon.

  2. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  3. The interaction of high-power lasers with plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, S

    2003-02-12

    This book deals with the fundamental physics of numerous plasma processes that occur during laser plasma interactions. The subject matter is related to both basic plasma physics and applied physics. The author starts with the essentials of high power lasers whose duration ranges from nanoseconds to femtoseconds, and then builds up an introduction to plasma physics by describing ionization, well known transport coefficients (electrical and thermal conductivities, diffusion, viscosity, energy transport etc), Debye length, plasma oscillations and the properties of the laser induced plasma medium. The book contains plasma dynamical equations for describing the hydrodynamic and kinetic phenomena, and treating particle dynamics by computer simulation. The ponderomotive force is discussed for small amplitude electromagnetic fields in an unmagnetized plasma. However, for intense laser beams one should obtain new expressions for the relativistic ponderomotive force, which are totally absent from this book. Furthermore, in laser plasma interactions strong magnetic fields are produced which will drastically modify the relativistic ponderomotive force expressions. The physics of collisional absorption of electromagnetic waves and their propagation in a nonuniform unmagnetized plasma has been elegantly described. The phenomena of the resonance absorption of laser light is also discussed. Simple models for the parametric processes are developed, while there are no discussions of cavitons/envelope solitons. The latter are usually regarded as possible nonlinear states of the modulational/filamentational instabilities. Rather, the author presents a description of a K-dV equation for nonlinear ion-acoustic waves without the laser field. The description of a non-envelope ion-acoustic soliton has already appeared in many plasma physics textbooks. The book contains a short chapter on the self-similar plasma expansion in vacuum, double layers, and charged particle acceleration. However

  4. Gyrotrons for High-Power Terahertz Science and Technology at FIR UF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idehara, Toshitaka; Sabchevski, Svilen Petrov

    2017-01-01

    In this review paper, we present the recent progress in the development of a series of gyrotrons at the Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, that have opened the road to many novel applications in the high-power terahertz science and technology. The current status of the research in this actively developing field is illustrated by the most representative examples in which the developed gyrotrons are used as powerful and frequency-tunable sources of coherent radiation operating in a continuous-wave regime. Among them are high-precision spectroscopic techniques (most notably dynamic nuclear polarization-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, X-ray detected magnetic resonance, and studies of the hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of positronium), treatment and characterization of advanced materials, and new medical technologies.

  5. Line filter design of parallel interleaved VSCs for high power wind energy conversion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    The Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel in a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) to match the high power rating of the modern wind turbines. The effect of the interleaved carriers on the harmonic performance of the parallel connected VSCs is analyzed in this paper....... In order to achieve low switching losses, the 60 clamp Discontinuous PulseWidth Modulation (DPWM1) is used to modulate the VSCs. A step-by-step design procedure of the line filter, which ensures the desired harmonic performance under all operating conditions, is presented. The analytical harmonic solution...... limit. In order to achieve the desired filter performance with optimal values of the filter parameters, the use of a LC trap branch with the conventional LCL filter is proposed. The expressions for the resonant frequencies of the proposed line filter are derived and used in the design to selectively...

  6. Injection locking of a low cost high power laser diode at 461 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagett, C J H; Moriya, P H; Celistrino Teixeira, R; Shiozaki, R F; Hemmerling, M; Courteille, Ph W

    2016-05-01

    Stable laser sources at 461 nm are important for optical cooling of strontium atoms. In most existing experiments, this wavelength is obtained by frequency doubling infrared lasers, since blue laser diodes either have low power or large emission bandwidths. Here, we show that injecting less than 10 mW of monomode laser radiation into a blue multimode 500 mW high power laser diode is capable of slaving at least 50% of the power to the desired frequency. We verify the emission bandwidth reduction by saturation spectroscopy on a strontium gas cell and by direct beating of the slave with the master laser. We also demonstrate that the laser can efficiently be used within the Zeeman slower for optical cooling of a strontium atomic beam.

  7. High power Raman-converter based on H2-filled inhibited coupling HC-PCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, A.; Beaudou, B.; Debord, B.; Gerome, F.; Benabid, F.

    2017-02-01

    We report on high power Raman-converter frequency stage based on hydrogen-filled inhibited-coupling hollow-core photonic crystal fibers pumped by an Yb-fiber picosecond laser. This fiber Raman-convertor can operate in two SRS emission regimes by simply controlling the fiber length or the gas pressure. It can set to either generate favorably single laser line or to generate an extremely wide Raman comb. Based on this we demonstrate a pico-second pulse Raman source of 9.3 W average-power at 1.8 μm, and an ultra-wide Raman comb spanning over more than five octaves from UV to mid-infrared, containing around 70 laser lines.

  8. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB, continuous wave (CW 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF, a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA coefficient of 1.8 × 10−5 cm−1W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  9. Nontraditional principles of designing high-power lasers with nonlinear converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. G.

    1993-05-01

    A review is presented of Raman lasers based on liquid nitrogen, methane gas, and hydrogen gas as active media. It is shown that, under certain conditions, Raman lasers not only can provide considerable gain in brightness, but also serve as high-power sources of coherent radiation in new wavelength regions. In addition, for cases where the characteristics of a neodymium pump laser are close to the ultimate ones and there is no need to increase its brightness, the use of a Raman laser as an end cascade makes it possible to increase the efficiency of the whole laser system by several times. This opens new perspectives for creating laser systems with output energies 1 kJ and higher.

  10. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Tong, Yao; He, Ying; Yu, Xin; Tittel, Frank K

    2018-01-04

    A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO) trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB), continuous wave (CW) 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF), a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.8 × 10-5 cm-1W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  11. High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV40 Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    TIAX has developed long-life lithium-ion cells that can meet and exceed the energy and power targets (200Wh/kg and 800W/kg pulse power) set out by DOE for PHEV40 batteries. To achieve these targets, we selected and scaled-up a high capacity version of our proprietary high energy and high power CAM-7® cathode material. We paired the cathode with a blended anode containing Si-based anode material capable of delivering high capacity and long life. Furthermore, we optimized the anode blend composition, cathode and anode electrode design, and selected binder and electrolyte compositions to achieve not only the best performance, but also long life. By implementing CAM-7 with a Si-based blended anode, we built and tested prototype 18650 cells that delivered measured specific energy of 198Wh/kg total energy and 845W/kg at 10% SOC (projected to 220Wh/kg in state-of-the-art 18650 cell hardware and 250Wh/kg in 15Ah pouch cells). These program demonstration cells achieved 90% capacity retention after 500 cycles in on-going cycle life testing. Moreover, we also tested the baseline CAM-7/graphite system in 18650 cells showing that 70% capacity retention can be achieved after ~4000 cycles (20 months of on-going testing). Ultimately, by simultaneously meeting the PHEV40 power and energy targets and providing long life, we have developed a Li-ion battery system that is smaller, lighter, and less expensive than current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  12. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2013-09-24

    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  13. High-power IR laser in SMT package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsch, Benedikt; Behringer, Martin; Arzberger, Markus; Wiesner, Christoph; Fehse, Robin; Heerlein, Jörg; Maric, Josip; Giziewicz, Wojciech

    2009-02-01

    Laser dies in an optical power range of 1-3 Watts are widely assembled in popular TO- packages. TO-packages suffer from high thermal resistance and limited output power. Bad thermal contact between circuit boards and TO-devices can cause overheating of laser chips, significantly reducing the operating life time. We developed a compact high heat-load SMT package for an optical power up to 7 Watts in CW operation with good life time results. The new package for high power laser chips combines highly efficient heat dissipation with Surface-mount technology. A Direct-Bonded-Copper (DBC) substrate acts as a base plate for the laser chip and heat sink. The attached frame is used for electrical contacting and acts as beam reflector where the laser light is reflected at a 45° mirror. In the application the DBC base plate of the SMT-Laser is directly soldered to a Metal-Core-PCB by reflow soldering. The overall thermal resistance from laser chip to the bottom of a MC-PCB was measured as low as 2.5 K/W. The device placement process can be operated by modern high-speed mounting equipment. The direct link between device and MC-PCB allows CW laser operation up to 6-7 watts at wavelengths of 808nm to 940nm without facing any overheating symptom like thermal roll over. The device is suitable for CW and QCW operation. In pulsed operation short rise and fall times of <2ns have been demonstrated. New application fields like infrared illumination for sensing purposes in the automotive industry and 3D imaging systems could be opened by this new technology.

  14. Predicting High-Power Performance in Professional Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dajo; Heijboer, Mathieu; Akubat, Ibrahim; Meijer, Kenneth; Hesselink, Matthijs K

    2017-03-01

    To assess if short-duration (5 to ~300 s) high-power performance can accurately be predicted using the anaerobic power reserve (APR) model in professional cyclists. Data from 4 professional cyclists from a World Tour cycling team were used. Using the maximal aerobic power, sprint peak power output, and an exponential constant describing the decrement in power over time, a power-duration relationship was established for each participant. To test the predictive accuracy of the model, several all-out field trials of different durations were performed by each cyclist. The power output achieved during the all-out trials was compared with the predicted power output by the APR model. The power output predicted by the model showed very large to nearly perfect correlations to the actual power output obtained during the all-out trials for each cyclist (r = .88 ± .21, .92 ± .17, .95 ± .13, and .97 ± .09). Power output during the all-out trials remained within an average of 6.6% (53 W) of the predicted power output by the model. This preliminary pilot study presents 4 case studies on the applicability of the APR model in professional cyclists using a field-based approach. The decrement in all-out performance during high-intensity exercise seems to conform to a general relationship with a single exponential-decay model describing the decrement in power vs increasing duration. These results are in line with previous studies using the APR model to predict performance during brief all-out trials. Future research should evaluate the APR model with a larger sample size of elite cyclists.

  15. Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    2012-10-01

    At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.

  16. Benefits of open and high-powered research outweigh costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBel, Etienne P; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    Several researchers recently outlined unacknowledged costs of open science practices, arguing these costs may outweigh benefits and stifle discovery of novel findings. We scrutinize these researchers' (a) statistical concern that heightened stringency with respect to false-positives will increase false-negatives and (b) metascientific concern that larger samples and executing direct replications engender opportunity costs that will decrease the rate of making novel discoveries. We argue their statistical concern is unwarranted given open science proponents recommend such practices to reduce the inflated Type I error rate from .35 down to .05 and simultaneously call for high-powered research to reduce the inflated Type II error rate. Regarding their metaconcern, we demonstrate that incurring some costs is required to increase the rate (and frequency) of making true discoveries because distinguishing true from false hypotheses requires a low Type I error rate, high statistical power, and independent direct replications. We also examine pragmatic concerns raised regarding adopting open science practices for relationship science (preregistration, open materials, open data, direct replications, sample size); while acknowledging these concerns, we argue they are overstated given available solutions. We conclude benefits of open science practices outweigh costs for both individual researchers and the collective field in the long run, but that short term costs may exist for researchers because of the currently dysfunctional academic incentive structure. Our analysis implies our field's incentive structure needs to change whereby better alignment exists between researcher's career interests and the field's cumulative progress. We delineate recent proposals aimed at such incentive structure realignment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. GaAs Substrates for High-Power Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Georg; Berwian, Patrick; Buhrig, Eberhard; Weinert, Berndt

    GaAs substrate crystals with low dislocation density (Etch-Pit Density (EPD) ~10^18,^-3) are required for the epitaxial production of high-power diode-lasers. Large-size wafers (= 3 mathrm{in} -> >=3,) are needed for reducing the manufacturing costs. These requirements can be fulfilled by the Vertical Bridgman (VB) and Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) techniques. For that purpose we have developed proper VB/VGF furnaces and optimized the thermal as well as the physico-chemical process conditions. This was strongly supported by extensive numerical process simulation. The modeling of the VGF furnaces and processes was made by using a new computer code called CrysVUN++, which was recently developed in the Crystal Growth Laboratory in Erlangen.GaAs crystals with diameters of 2 and 3in were grown in pyrolytic Boron Nitride (pBN) crucibles having a small-diameter seed section and a conical part. Boric oxide was used to fully encapsulate the crystal and the melt. An initial silicon content in the GaAs melt of c (melt) = 3 x10^19,^-3 has to be used in order to achieve a carrier concentration of n = (0.8- 2) x10^18,^-3, which is the substrate specification of the device manufacturer of the diode-laser. The EPD could be reduced to values between 500,^-2 and 50,^-2 with a Si-doping level of 8 x10^17 to 1 x10^18,^-3. Even the 3in wafers have rather large dislocation-free areas. The lowest EPDs ( <100,^-2) are achieved for long seed wells of the crucible.

  18. Development of High Power Lasers for Materials Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, L A

    2003-04-11

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a long history of developing high power lasers for use in basic science and applications. The Laser Science and Technology Program (LS&T) at LLNL supports advanced lasers and optics development both for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as well as for high power lasers and optics technology for a broader range of government, military and industrial applications. The NIF laser is currently under construction with the first of the 192 beamlines being activated. When finished NIF will have an output energy of 2 MJ at 351 nm. This system will be used for studies of high energy density physics, equation of state and inertial confinement fusion. It is now generally acknowledged that the future of laser missile defense lies with solid state lasers. The leading laser technology for theater missile defense is under development within the LS&T and funded by the US Army SMDC. This high average power technology is based on a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity mode. In the concept the heat producing lasing cycle is separated in time from the cooling cycle thus reducing thermal gradients and allowing significantly greater average output power. Under the current program, an LLNL developed laser has achieved a record setting 13 kW of average power in 20 second duration bursts. We have also performed target lethality experiments showing a previously unrecognized advantage of a pulsed laser format. The LLNL work is now focused on achieving improved output beam quality and in developing a 100 kW output with diode pumping of a large aperture crystal gain medium on a compact mobile platform. The Short Pulse Laser Group of LS&T has been developing high power short pulse laser systems for a number of applications. Of great importance is petawatt (10{sup 12} Watt) and greater power output to support experiments on the NIF. We are developing a system of 5 M class output and 5 to 10 ps pulse duration for generating intense

  19. High Power Room Temperature Terahertz Local Oscillator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The motivation of the proposed SBIR is to develop, demonstrate and commercialize a compact, low-mass, high output power (1-10 milliwatt), tunable source of CW THz...

  20. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sources Fondation Pablo Iglesias. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Archives privées de Manuel ArijaArchives extérieuresArchives FNJS de EspañaPrensa Archives Générales de l’Administration. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Opposition au franquismeSig. 653 Sig TOP 82/68.103-68.602.Índice de las cartas colectivas, Relaciones, Cartas al Ministro de Información de Marzo de 1965. c.662. Sources cinématographiques Filmothèque Nationale d’Espagne.NO.DO. N° 1157C. 08/03/1965.aguirre Javier, Blanco vertical....