WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-power strained-layer ingaas

  1. Cleaved-edge overgrowth of aligned quantum dots on strained layers of InGaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, D.; Lyon, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strain aligned InAs quantum dots were grown on the cleaved edges of first growth samples containing strained In x Ga (1-x) As layers of varying thickness and indium fraction. The formation of the cleaved-edge quantum dots was observed by means of atomic force microscopy. 100% linear alignment of InAs quantum dots over the InGaAs strain layers of the first growth sample is demonstrated. Linear density of the aligned dots was found to depend on the properties of the underlying InGaAs strain layers. Vertical alignment of an additional InAs quantum dot layer over the buried, linearly aligned, initial dot layer was observed for thin GaAs spacer layers

  2. Lateral surface superlattices in strained InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.

    2000-08-01

    Lateral Surface Superlattices were fabricated by etching in strained InGaAs layers above a GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG channel. These were etched both by dry plasma wet chemical etching to produce periods of 100nm, 200nm and 300nm. These superlattices were fabricated on Hall bars to allow four terminal measurement and a blanket gate was placed on top, to allow variations in the carrier concentration. The magnetoresistance effects of these superlattices were studied at varying values of gate voltage, which varies the carrier concentration and the electrostatic periodic potential and at temperatures down to 45mK in a dilution refrigerator. From the oscillations observed in the magnetoresistance trace's it is possible to calculate the magnitude of the periodic potential. This showed that the etched, strained InGaAs was producing an anisotropic piezoelectric potential, along with an isotropic electrostatic potential. The variation in period allowed a study of the change of this piezoelectric potential with the period as well as a study of the interactions between the electrostatic and piezoelectric potentials. Further, at the lowest temperatures a strong interaction was observed between the Commensurability Oscillations, caused by the periodic potential, and the Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations due to the Landau. Levels. This interaction was studied as it varied with temperature and carrier concentration. (author)

  3. Electrical characterization of InAs/InP self-assembled quantum dots with InGaAs strain-relief layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, E. K.; Hwang, H.; Park, K.; Yoon, E.; Park, I. W.; Park, Y. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the energy levels of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in various barrier layers such as InP, InGaAs and GaAs by using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurement. The apparent activation energy of 0.56 eV below the conduction band edge of barrier layers in the InAs/InP QD system was higher than 0.32 eV in the InAs/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As QD system or 0.29 eV in the InAs/GaAs/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As QD system, which was inserted in 10 mono-layers (MLs) GaAs between InAs QDs and the InGaAs barrier. The capture barrier heights of InAs QDs in the InAs/InP system was measured at more than about 0.18 eV, showing the existence of strain between QDs and barrier layers. The InAs/GaAs(10 MLs)/InGaAs system also showed about 0.12 eV capture barrier, but the InAs/InGaAs system has a very small barrier. This result might originate from the strain-relief effect due to InGaAs layers.

  4. Effects of a GaSb buffer layer on an InGaAs overlayer grown on Ge(111) substrates: Strain, twin generation, and surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nishigaichi, M.; Tenma, S.; Kato, K.; Katsube, S.

    2018-04-01

    InGaAs layers were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on nominal and vicinal Ge(111) substrates with inserting GaSb buffer layers. High-resolution X-ray diffraction using symmetric 333 and asymmetric 224 reflections was employed to analyze the crystallographic properties of the grown layers. By using the two reflections, we determined the lattice constants (the unit cell length a and the angle α between axes) of the grown layers with taking into account the rhombohedral distortion of the lattices of the grown layers. This allowed us the independent determination of the strain components (perpendicular and parallel components to the substrate surface, ε⊥ and ε//) and the composition x of the InxGa1-xAs layers by assuming the distortion coefficient D, which is defined as the ratio of ε⊥ against ε//. Furthermore, the twin ratios were determined for the GaSb and the InGaAs layers by comparing asymmetric 224 reflections from the twin domain with that from the normal domain of the layers. As a result, it has been shown that the twin ratio in the InGaAs layer can be decreased to be less than 0.1% by the use of the vicinal substrate together with annealing the GaSb buffer layer during the growth interruption before the InGaAs overgrowth.

  5. Defect characterization in compositionally graded InGaAs layers on GaAs(001) grown by MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu; Norman, Andrew G.; Romero, Manuel J.; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Defect characterization in molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) compositionally-graded In x Ga 1-x As layers on GaAs substrates consisting different thickness of overshooting (OS) layers was carried out using cathodoluminescence (CL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that the thickness of the OS layer influences not only stress but also lattice defects generated in a top InGaAs layer. While the top InGaAs layer with a thin OS layer is under compression and has mainly threading dislocations, the top layer with a thick OS layer is under tension and exhibits inhomogeneous strain associating with phase separation. We will discuss the mechanisms of defect generation and their in-plane distribution based on strain relaxation at the top and OS layers. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. MOVPE grown InGaAs quantum dots of high optical quality as seed layer for low-density InP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D; Hafenbrak, R; Joens, K D; Schulz, W-M; Eichfelder, M; Rossbach, R; Jetter, M; Michler, P

    2010-01-01

    To achieve a low density of optically active InP-quantum dots we used InGaAs islands embedded in GaAs as a seed layer. First, the structural InGaAs quantum dot properties and the influence of the annealing technique was investigated by atomic force microscope measurements. High-resolution micro-photoluminescence spectra reveal narrow photoluminescence lines, with linewidths down to 11 μeV and fine structure splittings of 25 μeV. Furthermore, using these InGaAs quantum dots as seed layer reduces the InP quantum dot density of optically active quantum dots drastically. InP quantum dot excitonic photoluminescence emission with a linewidth of 140 μeV has been observed.

  7. Increasing the critical thickness of InGaAs quantum wells using strain-relief technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Marquis

    The advantages of optical communication through silica fiber have made long-distance electrical communication through copper wire obsolete. The two windows of operation for long-haul optical communication are centered around the wavelengths of 1.3 mum and 1.55 mum, which have minimal amounts of signal attenuation and dispersion. Benefits of optical communications within these windows include low system costs, high bandwidth, and high system reliability which have encouraged the development of emitters and receivers at these relatively long wavelengths. Long-wavelength semiconductor lasers are typically fabricated on InP substrates, but their performance suffers greatly with increases in operating temperature. Laser diodes on GaAs substrates are not as sensitive to operating temperature due to quantum-well active regions with relative deep potential barriers, but critical thickness limits the wavelength ceiling to 1.1 mum. Strain-relief technologies are currently being investigated to enable long-wavelength lasers with deeper potential wells leading to a corresponding increase in characteristic temperatures. Having a larger lattice constant than GaAs enables ternary InGaAs substrates to increase the 1.1-mum wavelength ceiling. Extending this ceiling to one of the optical communication windows could enable high-characteristic-temperature, long-wavelength lasers. Broad-area and buried-heterostructure lasers have demonstrated the potential of ternary substrates to increase characteristic temperatures and emission wavelengths. Wavelengths as long as 1.15 mum and characteristic temperatures as high as 145 K have been achieved. Reduced-area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition involves the deposition of strained materials on isolated islands. Due to the discontinuous nature of reduced-area epitaxy, strained materials are allowed to expand near the mesa edges, decreasing the overall strain in the structure. Laser diodes using this technology have been successfully

  8. AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs double pulse doped pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor structures on InGaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, W. E.; Lyman, P. S.; Mosca, J. J.; McTaggart, R. A.; Lemonias, P. J.; Beaudoin, R. M.; Torabi, A.; Bonner, W. A.; Lent, B.; Chou, L.-J.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1997-10-01

    Double pulse doped AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) structures have been grown on InxGa1-xAs (x=0.025-0.07) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. A strain compensated, AlGaInAs/GaAs superlattice was used for improved resistivity and breakdown. Excellent electrical and optical properties were obtained for 110-Å-thick InGaAs channel layers with indium concentrations up to 31%. A room temperature mobility of 6860 cm2/V s with 77 K sheet density of 4.0×1012cm-2 was achieved. The InGaAs channel photoluminescence intensity was equivalent to an analogous structure on a GaAs substrate. To reduce strain PHEMT structures with a composite InGaP/AlGaAs Schottky layer were also grown. The structures also exhibited excellent electrical and optical properties. Transmission electron micrographs showed planar channel interfaces for highly strained In0.30Ga0.70As channel layers.

  9. Comprehensive growth and characterization study on highly n-doped InGaAs as a contact layer for quantum cascade laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ilkay; Altuntas, Ismail; Bulut, Baris; Ezzedini, Maher; Ergun, Yuksel; Elagoz, Sezai

    2018-05-01

    We present growth and characterization studies of highly n-doped InGaAs epilayers on InP substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy to use as an n-contact layer in quantum cascade laser applications. We have introduced quasi two-dimensional electrons between 10 s pulsed growth n-doped InGaAs epilayers to improve both carrier concentration and mobility of structure by applying pulsed growth and doping methods towards increasing the Si dopant concentration in InGaAs. Additionally, the V/III ratio optimization under fixed group III source flow has been investigated with this new method to understand the effects on both crystalline quality and electrical properties of n-InGaAs epilayers. Finally, we have obtained high crystalline quality of n-InGaAs epilayers grown by 10 s pulsed as a contact layer with 2.8 × 1019 cm‑3 carrier concentration and 1530 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 mobility.

  10. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence characterization of InGaAs strained quantum wires on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Byoung Rho; Torii, Satoshi; Ota, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Maehashi, Kenzo; Nakashima, Hisao; Lee, Sang Yun

    1999-01-01

    We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) to study InGaAs/AlGaAs strained quantum wires (QWRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates. The cross-sectional TEM image reveals that InGaAs QWRs structures are naturally formed on AlGaAs giant steps. In the plan-view TEM images, the fringe pattern in the giant-step region is observed for In x Ga 1-x As layers with x≤ 0.4 We measured the separation of the fringe in the plan-view TEM images and compared the result with the calculated fringe separation. From this result, we conclude that the fringes observed in the plan-view TEM images are moire fringes. PL spectra of the InGaAs QWRs samples reveal 80-meV shifts to lower energy with respect to the spectrum of a quantum well (QWL) grown on a (001) substrate under the same conditions. We also measured the polarization anisotropy of the PL spectra from the QWRs. The PL peak shifts systematically toward higher energy with decreasing InGaAs thickness. The degree of polarization for the InGaAs QWRs was about 0.29. The PL observation evidences the carrier confinement in the QWRs. These results indicate that locally thick InGaAs strained QWRs were successfully formed at the edge of AlGaAs giant steps

  11. Strain-driven alignment of In nanocrystals on InGaAs quantum dot arrays and coupled plasmon-quantum dot emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczyk, A.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Noetzel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the alignment of In nanocrystals on top of linear InGaAs quantum dot (QD) arrays formed by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on GaAs (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. The alignment is independent of a thin GaAs cap layer on the QDs revealing its origin is due to local strain recognition. This enables nanometer-scale precise lateral and vertical site registration between the QDs and the In nanocrystals and arrays in a single self-organizing formation process. The plasmon resonance of the In nanocrystals overlaps with the high-energy side of the QD emission leading to clear modification of the QD emission spectrum.

  12. InGaAs GRINSCH-SQW lasers with novel carbon delta doped contact layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu, Y.; Li, Gang; Tan, H.H.; Jagadish, C.; Karouta, F.

    1996-01-01

    In conclusion, we have demonstrated the use of novel carbon delta doped layers in the contact layer of InGaAs SQW GRINSCH lasers and compared with lasers consisting of Zn bulk doped contact layers. These carbon delta doped contact layer lasers are of interest for post growth tuning of the laser

  13. Comparison of MOVPE grown GaAs, InGaAs and GaAsSb covering layers for different InAs/GaAs quantum dot applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Markéta; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, Apr (2017), s. 59-63 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MOVPE * quantum dot * strain reducing layer * InAs * GaAsSb * InGaAs Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  14. Structure of highly perfect semiconductor strained-layer superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements of strained-layer superlattices (SLS's) have been carried out using a four-crystal monochromator. A wide asymmetric range of sharp higher-order x-ray satellite peaks is observed indicating well-defined periodic structures. Using a kinematical diffraction step model very good agreement between measured and simulated x-ray satellite patterns could be achieved. These results show that this x- ray method is a powerful tool to evaluate the crystal quality of SLS's

  15. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence characterization of InGaAs strained quantum wires on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, B R; Ota, T; Kobayashi, K; Maehashi, K; Nakashima, H; Lee, S Y

    1999-01-01

    We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) to study InGaAs/AlGaAs strained quantum wires (QWRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates. The cross-sectional TEM image reveals that InGaAs QWRs structures are naturally formed on AlGaAs giant steps. In the plan-view TEM images, the fringe pattern in the giant-step region is observed for In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layers with x<= 0.4 We measured the separation of the fringe in the plan-view TEM images and compared the result with the calculated fringe separation. From this result, we conclude that the fringes observed in the plan-view TEM images are moire fringes. PL spectra of the InGaAs QWRs samples reveal 80-meV shifts to lower energy with respect to the spectrum of a quantum well (QWL) grown on a (001) substrate under the same conditions. We also measured the polarization anisotropy of the PL spectra from the QWRs. The PL peak shifts systematically toward higher energy with decreasing...

  16. Broadband light sources using InAs quantum dots with InGaAs strain-reducing layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Megumi; Inoue, Tomoya; Kita, Takashi; Wada, Osamu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    We fabricated broadband superluminescent diodes (SLDs) for optical coherence tomography (OCT). We used three kinds of quantum dot (QD) layers with different emission peak wavelengths in the active region of SLD. The emission wavelength was controlled by reducing the strain in QDs; by using the In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9} As strain-reducing layer, the peak wavelength shifted toward the longer-wavelength side, and the photoluminescence peak intensity becomes strong in contrast to QDs on GaAs. By stacking these strain-controlled QD layers, the SLD device shows a broad electroluminescence spectrum with the center wavelength of 1130 nm and the spectral linewidth of approximately 240 nm at the injection of 1A caused by the increased emission intensity from the excited states. This corresponds to an resolution of 2.3 {mu}m in OCT. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Extended wavelength InGaAs SWIR FPAs with high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Li, Tao; Yu, Chunlei; Tang, Hengjing; Deng, Shuangyan; Shao, Xiumei; Zhang, Yonggang; Gong, Haimei

    2017-09-01

    The extended InGaAs short wavelength infrared (SWIR) detector covers 1.0-2.5 μm wavelength, which plays an important role in weather forecast, resource observation, low light level systems, and astronomical observation and so on. In order to fabricate the high performance extended InGaAs detector, materials structure and parameters were characterized with Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM), Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM), the spreading of minority carriers and lattice quality were obtained. Mesa etching process, etching damage restoration technique and low temperature passivation technique were used in the fabrication of the extended InGaAs detector. The improvement of material structure and device process was studied by fabricating and measuring different perimeter-to-area (P/A) photodiodes and singledevice, respectively. The dark current density of the extended InGaAs detector obviously was reduced, about 2 nA/cm2 at 170 K. The 512×256 FPAs were fabricated, the peak detectivity and the quantum efficiency of which are 5×1011 cmHz1/2/W and 80%, respectively. The staring image yielded of the 512×256 FPAs is shown, which demonstrates very good imaging quality.

  18. Effect of InGaAs interlayer on the properties of GaAs grown on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Lei; Gao, Fangliang; Li, Jingling; Guan, Yunfang; Wang, Wenliang; Zhou, Shizhong; Lin, Zhiting; Zhang, Xiaona; Zhang, Shuguang; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    High-quality GaAs films have been epitaxially grown on Si (111) substrates by inserting an In x Ga 1−x As interlayer with proper In composition by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The effect of In x Ga 1−x As (0 < x < 0.2) interlayers on the properties of GaAs films grown on Si (111) substrates by MBE has been studied in detailed. Due to the high compressive strain between InGaAs and Si, InGaAs undergoes partial strain relaxation. Unstrained InGaAs has a larger lattice constant than GaAs. Therefore, a thin InGaAs layer with proper In composition may adopt a close lattice constant with that of GaAs, which is beneficial to the growth of high-quality GaAs epilayer on top. It is found that the proper In composition in In x Ga 1−x As interlayer of 10% is beneficial to obtaining high-quality GaAs films, which, on the one hand, greatly compensates the misfit stress between GaAs film and Si substrate, and on the other hand, suppresses the formation of multiple twin during the heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs film. However, when the In composition does not reach the proper value (∼10%), the In x Ga 1−x As adopts a lower strain relaxation and undergoes a lattice constant smaller than unstrained GaAs, and therefore introduces compressive stress to GaAs grown on top. When In composition exceeds the proper value, the In x Ga 1−x As will adopt a higher strain relaxation and undergoes a lattice constant larger than unstrained GaAs, and therefore introduces tensile stress to GaAs grown on top. As a result, In x Ga 1−x As interlayers with improper In composition introduces enlarged misfit stress to GaAs epilayers grown on top, and deteriorates the quality of GaAs epilayers. This work demonstrates a simple but effective method to grow high-quality GaAs epilayers and brings up a broad prospect for the application of GaAs-based optoelectronic devices on Si substrates

  19. Formation of columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots on GaAs(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.; Noetzel, R.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gong, Q.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) with homogeneous composition and shape in the growth direction are realized by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates. The columnar (In,Ga)As QDs are formed on InAs seed QDs by alternating deposition of thin GaAs intermediate layers and monolayers of InAs with extended growth interruptions after each layer. The height of the columnar (In,Ga)As QDs is controlled by varying the number of stacked GaAs/InAs layers. The structural and optical properties are studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. With increase of the aspect ratio of the columnar QDs, the emission wavelength is redshifted and the linewidth is reduced

  20. Comparative study on stained InGaAs quantum wells for high-speed optical-interconnect VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jia, Xiaowei

    2018-05-01

    The gain-carrier characteristics of InGaAs quantum well for 980 nm high-speed, energy-efficient vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are investigated. We specially studied the potentially InGaAs quantum well designs can be used for the active region of energy-efficient, temperature-stable 980-nm VCSEL, which introduced a quantum well gain peak wavelength-to-cavity resonance wavelength offset to improve the dynamic performance at high operation temperature. Several candidate quantum wells are being compared in theory and measurement. We found that ∼5 nm InGaAs QW with ∼6 nm barrier thickness is suitable for the active region of high-speed optical interconnect 980 nm VCSELs, and no significant improvement in the 20% range of In content of InGaAs QWs. The results are useful for next generation green photonic device design.

  1. Comparison of different grading schemes in InGaAs metamorphic buffers on GaAs substrate: Tilt dependence on cross-hatch irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Bag, Ankush; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Das, Subhashis; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • InGaAs graded MBs with different grading scheme has been grown by MBE on GaAs. • Continuously graded MB exhibits smoother surface morphology. • Grading scheme has been found to have little impact on lattice relaxation. • Grading schemeaffects the lattice tilt significantly. • Cross-hatch surface irregularities affect the crystallographic tilt. - Abstract: InGaAs graded metamorphic buffers (MBs) with different grading strategies have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate. A detailed comparative analysis of surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and bulk properties using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) of grown MBs have been presented to comprehend the effectiveness of different grading scheme on InGaAs MBs. Conventional, statistical and fractal analysis on measured AFM data has been performed for in-depth investigation of these surfaces. The grading scheme has been found to have little impact on residual strain while it affects the epitaxial tilt significantly. Moreover, the tilt has been found to depend on growth front irregularities. Tilt magnitude in a graded MB has been found to vary with composition while tilt azimuth has been found to be almost same in the graded layers. PL Intensity and a shift in the PL peaks have been used to study the quality of the MB and residual strain comparatively.

  2. Comparison of different grading schemes in InGaAs metamorphic buffers on GaAs substrate: Tilt dependence on cross-hatch irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rahul, E-mail: rkp203@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bag, Ankush [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Partha [Rajendra Mishra School of Engineering Entrepreneurship, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Subhashis [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Biswas, Dhrubes [Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • InGaAs graded MBs with different grading scheme has been grown by MBE on GaAs. • Continuously graded MB exhibits smoother surface morphology. • Grading scheme has been found to have little impact on lattice relaxation. • Grading schemeaffects the lattice tilt significantly. • Cross-hatch surface irregularities affect the crystallographic tilt. - Abstract: InGaAs graded metamorphic buffers (MBs) with different grading strategies have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate. A detailed comparative analysis of surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and bulk properties using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) of grown MBs have been presented to comprehend the effectiveness of different grading scheme on InGaAs MBs. Conventional, statistical and fractal analysis on measured AFM data has been performed for in-depth investigation of these surfaces. The grading scheme has been found to have little impact on residual strain while it affects the epitaxial tilt significantly. Moreover, the tilt has been found to depend on growth front irregularities. Tilt magnitude in a graded MB has been found to vary with composition while tilt azimuth has been found to be almost same in the graded layers. PL Intensity and a shift in the PL peaks have been used to study the quality of the MB and residual strain comparatively.

  3. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  4. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  5. Thermal stability studies on atomically clean and sulphur passivated InGaAs surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit; Hughes, Greg [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-03-15

    High resolution synchrotron radiation core level photoemission measurements have been used to study the high temperature stability of sulphur passivated InGaAs surfaces and comparisons made with atomically clean surfaces subjected to the same annealing temperatures. Sulphur passivation of clean InGaAs surfaces prepared by the thermal removal of an arsenic capping layer was carried out using an in situ molecular sulphur treatment in ultra high vacuum. The elemental composition of the surfaces of these materials was measured at a series of annealing temperatures up to 530 C. Following a 480 C anneal In:Ga ratio was found to have dropped by 33% on sulphur passivated surface indicating a significant loss of indium, while no drop in indium signal was recorded at this temperature on the atomically InGaAs surface. No significant change in the As surface concentration was measured at this temperature. These results reflect the reduced thermal stability of the sulphur passivated InGaAs compared to the atomically clean surface which has implications for device fabrication. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Highly strained InGaAs oxide confined VCSELs emitting in 1.25 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.J.; Yu, H.C.; Su, Y.K.; Chen, I.L.; Lee, T.D.; Lu, C.M.; Chiou, C.H.; Lee, Z.H.; Yang, H.P.; Sung, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Highly strained GaAs-based all-epitaxial oxide confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting in 1.25 μm were fabricated. Compared with the designed cavity resonance, it was found that lasing wavelength blue shifted by 29 nm when the driving current was small. The observation of such oxide mode is attributed to the effective optical thickness shrinkage of the oxide layer, and large detuning between the gain peak and cavity resonance

  7. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru, E-mail: kamiya@toyota-ti.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Koto 1-1-1, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-14

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures.

  8. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2015-01-01

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures

  9. Negative differential resistance of InGaAs dual channel transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, T; Yamane, T; Hori, S; Komori, K; Yonei, K

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a new type of velocity modulation transistor (VMT) with an InGaAs dual channel structure fabricated on an InP (001) substrate. The dual channel structure consists of a high mobility 10 nm In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As quantum well, a 2 nm In 0.52 Al 0.48 As barrier layer, and a low mobility 1 nm In 0.26 Ga 0.74 As quantum well. The VMTs have a negative differential resistance (NDR) effect with a low source-drain voltage of 0.38 V. The NDR characteristics can be clearly seen in the temperature range of 50 to 220 K with a gate voltage of 5 V. The NDR mechanism is thought to be the carrier transfer from the high mobility to the low mobility channels. Three-terminal VMTs are favorable for applications to highfrequency, high-speed, and low-power consumption devices

  10. Growth and characterization of InGaAs based nanowire-heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treu, Julian Pascal

    2017-01-01

    tunability covering the technologically relevant telecommunication wavelengths. However, given their high surface-to-volume ratio, nanowire structures are especially prone to detrimental surface states, deteriorating in particular radiative efficiencies. Probing surfacestate related Fermi level pinning via detailed photoluminescence spectroscopy, we evaluate the influence of Ga-content on band bending and dominant recombination mechanism by studying as-grown nanowires covered by native oxide in comparison with nanowires free of oxide after wet-chemical treatment. In conjunction with complementary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we identify a cross-over between surface electron accumulation for In-rich InGaAs nanowires to electron depletion for a gallium content between ∼ 20-30%. For stable passivation of deteriorating surface states higher bandgap materials are applied in radial core-shell geometry. Exploiting low surface recombination velocity and existing doping proficiency of InAsP, we establish a hybrid process combining MBE grown InAs core structures surrounded by metal organic vapor deposited (MOCVD) InAsP layers. This directly induces an increase in emission intensity by up to two orders of magnitude that can be related to high interface quality, as further corroborated by detailed TEM analysis of cross-sectional lamella structures. By systematically tuning thickness and phosphorus content we tune core-emission energies via strain-induced peak shifts and elucidate detrimental effects of plastic relaxation upon too high lattice mismatch. Introducing fully latticematched InGaAs-InAlAs heterostructures, such undesired strain accumulation and accompanied defect formation can be avoided, reflected by the absence of any strain-induced spectral shifts in peak emission energy and confirmed by high-resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps (strain ε core < 0.1%). As entirely in-situ based MBE process, exposure to ambient conditions is no longer required, further enhancing

  11. Interfaces and strain in InGaAsP/InP heterostructures assessed with dynamical simulations of high-resolution x-ray diffraction curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The interfacial structure of a lattice-matched InGaAs/InP/(100)InP superlattice with a long period of ∼630 Angstrom has been studied by fully dynamical simulations of high-resolution x-ray diffraction curves. This structure exhibits a very symmetrical x-ray pattern enveloping a large number of closely spaced satellite intensities with pronounced maxima and minima. It appears in the dynamical analysis that the position and shape of these maxima and minima is extremely sensitive to the number N of molecular layers and atomic spacing d of the InGaAs and InP layer and in particular the presence of strained interfacial layers. The structural model of strained interfaces was also applied to an epitaxial lattice-matched 700 Angstrom InP/400 Angstrom InGaAsP/(100)InP beterostructure. 9 refs., 3 figs

  12. Widely Tunable High-Power Tapered Diode Laser at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz

    2011-01-01

    We report a large tuning range from 1018 to 1093 nm from a InGaAs single quantum-well 1060-nm external cavity tapered diode laser. More than 2.5-W output power has been achieved. The tuning range is to our knowledge the widest obtained from a high-power InGaAs single quantum-well tapered laser...... operating around 1060 nm. The light emitted by the laser has a nearly diffraction limited beam quality and a narrow linewidth of less than 6 pm everywhere in the tuning range....

  13. Growth and temperature dependent photoluminescence of InGaAs quantum dot chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Haeyeon; Kim, Dong-Jun; Colton, John S.; Park, Tyler; Meyer, David; Jones, Aaron M.; Thalman, Scott; Smith, Dallas; Clark, Ken; Brown, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the optical properties of novel quantum dot chains. • Study shows that platelets evolve into quantum dots during heating of the InGaAs platelets encapsulated with GaAs. • Single stack of quantum dots emits light at room temperature. • Quantum dots are of high quality, confirmed by cross-section TEM images and photoluminescence. • Light emission at room temperature weakens beyond the detection limit when the quantum dots form above the critical annealing temperature. - Abstract: We report a study of growth and photoluminescence from a single stack of MBE-grown In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As quantum dot chains. The InGaAs epilayers were grown at a low temperature so that the resulting surfaces remain flat with platelets even though their thicknesses exceed the critical thickness of the conventional Stranski–Krastanov growth mode. The flat InGaAs layers were then annealed at elevated temperatures to induce the formation of quantum dot chains. A reflection high energy electron diffraction study suggests that, when the annealing temperature is at or below 480 °C, the surface of growth front remains flat during the periods of annealing and growth of a 10 nm thick GaAs capping layer. Surprisingly, transmission electron microscopy images do indicate the formation of quantum dot chains, however, so the dot-chains in those samples may form from precursory platelets during the period of temperature ramping and subsequent capping with GaAs due to intermixing of group III elements. The optical emission from the quantum dot layer demonstrates that there is a critical annealing temperature of 480–500 °C above which the properties of the low temperature growth approach are lost, as the optical properties begin to resemble those of quantum dots produced by the conventional Stranski–Krastanov technique

  14. Integration of InGaAs MOSFETs and GaAs/ AlGaAs lasers on Si Substrate for advanced opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Annie; Lee, Shuh-Ying; Yadav, Sachin; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Dong, Yuan; Lee, Kwang Hong; Wicaksono, Satrio; Liang, Gengchiau; Yoon, Soon-Fatt; Antoniadis, Dimitri; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Gong, Xiao

    2017-12-11

    Lasers monolithically integrated with high speed MOSFETs on the silicon (Si) substrate could be a key to realize low cost, low power, and high speed opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs). In this paper, we report the monolithic integration of InGaAs channel transistors with electrically pumped GaAs/AlGaAs lasers on the Si substrate for future advanced OEICs. The laser and transistor layers were grown on the Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using direct epitaxial growth. InGaAs n-FETs with an I ON /I OFF ratio of more than 10 6 with very low off-state leakage and a low subthreshold swing with a minimum of 82 mV/decade were realized. Electrically pumped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well (QW) lasers with a lasing wavelength of 795 nm at room temperature were demonstrated. The overall fabrication process has a low thermal budget of no more than 400 °C.

  15. Thermal conductivity of InAs quantum dot stacks using AlAs strain compensating layers on InP substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, S.; Folliot, H.; Le Pouliquen, J.; Chevalier, N.; Rohel, T.; Paranthoën, C.; Bertru, N.; Labbé, C.; Letoublon, A.; Le Corre, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermal conductivity of InAs on InP (1 1 3)B quantum dots stacks is measured. ► The growth of a close stack of 100 layers of InAs using AlAs strain compensating layers is presented. ► New data on the thermal conductivity of InP n-doped susbtrate are given. - Abstract: The growth and thermal conductivity of InAs quantum dot (QD) stacks embedded in GaInAs matrix with AlAs compensating layers deposited on (1 1 3)B InP substrate are presented. The effect of the strain compensating AlAs layer is demonstrated through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction structural analysis. The thermal conductivity (2.7 W/m K at 300 K) measured by the 3ω method reveals to be clearly reduced in comparison with a bulk InGaAs layer (5 W/m K). In addition, the thermal conductivity measurements of S doped InP substrates and the SiN insulating layer used in the 3ω method in the 20–200 °C range are also presented. An empirical law is proposed for the S doped InP substrate, which slightly differs from previously presented results.

  16. Predictions and Experimental Microstructural Characterization of High Strain Rate Failure Modes in Layered Aluminum Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikar, Prasenjit

    Different aluminum alloys can be combined, as composites, for tailored dynamic applications. Most investigations pertaining to metallic alloy layered composites, however, have been based on quasi-static approaches. The dynamic failure of layered metallic composites, therefore, needs to be characterized in terms of strength, toughness, and fracture response. A dislocation-density based crystalline plasticity formulation, finite-element techniques, rational crystallographic orientation relations and a new fracture methodology were used to predict the failure modes associated with the high strain rate behavior of aluminum layered composites. Two alloy layers, a high strength alloy, aluminum 2195, and an aluminum alloy 2139, with high toughness, were modeled with representative microstructures that included precipitates, dispersed particles, and different grain boundary (GB) distributions. The new fracture methodology, based on an overlap method and phantom nodes, is used with a fracture criteria specialized for fracture on different cleavage planes. One of the objectives of this investigation, therefore, was to determine the optimal arrangements of the 2139 and 2195 aluminum alloys for a metallic layered composite that would combine strength, toughness and fracture resistance for high strain-rate applications. Different layer arrangements were investigated for high strain-rate applications, and the optimal arrangement was with the high toughness 2139 layer on the bottom, which provided extensive shear strain localization, and the high strength 2195 layer on the top for high strength resistance. The layer thickness of the bottom high toughness layer also affected the bending behavior of the roll-boned interface and the potential delamination of the layers. Shear strain localization, dynamic cracking and delamination were the mutually competing failure mechanisms for the layered metallic composite, and control of these failure modes can be optimized for high strain

  17. InGaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy for light emission on Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru-Chevallier, C; El Akra, A; Pelloux-Gervais, D; Dumont, H; Canut, B; Chauvin, N; Regreny, P; Gendry, M; Patriarche, G; Jancu, J M; Even, J; Noe, P; Calvo, V; Salem, B

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve homogeneous, high density and dislocation free InGaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy for light emission on silicon substrates. This work is part of a project which aims at overcoming the severe limitation suffered by silicon regarding its optoelectronic applications, especially efficient light emission device. For this study, one of the key points is to overcome the expected type II InGaAs/Si interface by inserting the InGaAs quantum dots inside a thin silicon quantum well in SiO2 fabricated on a SOI substrate. Confinement effects of the Si/SiO2 quantum well are expected to heighten the indirect silicon bandgap and then give rise to a type I interface with the InGaAs quantum dots. Band structure and optical properties are modeled within the tight binding approximation: direct energy bandgap is demonstrated in SiO2/Si/InAs/Si/SiO2 heterostructures for very thin Si layers and absorption coefficient is calculated. Thinned SOI substrates are successfully prepared using successive etching process resulting in a 2 nm-thick Si layer on top of silica. Another key point to get light emission from InGaAs quantum dots is to avoid any dislocations or defects in the quantum dots. We investigate the quantum dot size distribution, density and structural quality at different V/III beam equivalent pressure ratios, different growth temperatures and as a function of the amount of deposited material. This study was performed for InGaAs quantum dots grown on Si(001) substrates. The capping of InGaAs quantum dots by a silicon epilayer is performed in order to get efficient photoluminescence emission from quantum dots. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images are used to study the structural quality of the quantum dots. Dislocation free In50Ga50As QDs are successfully obtained on a (001) silicon substrate. The analysis of QDs capped with silicon by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in a channeling geometry is also presented.

  18. The photoluminescence decay time of self-assembled InAs quantum dots covered by InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, G W; Wang, C K; Wang, J S; Shen, J L; Hsiao, R S; Chou, W C; Chen, J F; Lin, T Y; Ko, C H; Lai, C M

    2006-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) with InGaAs covering layers was investigated. The PL decay time increases with temperature from 50 to 170 K, and then decreases as the temperature increases further above 170 K. A model based on the phonon-assisted transition between the QD ground state and the continuum state is used to explain the temperature dependence of the PL decay time. This result suggests that the continuum states are important in the carrier capture in self-assembled InAs QDs

  19. Structural and optical features of InGaAs quantum dots grown on Si(001) substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Vdovin, V I; Rzaev, M M; Burbaev, T M

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer GaAs/SiGe/Si heterostructure with InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a GaAs layer was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a Si(001) substrate. A step-graded Si sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x (0 <= x <= 1) buffer layer and a GaAs layer with In sub y Ga sub 1 sub sub - sub y As (y approx 0.5) QDs were deposited consecutively in two different MBE systems. The heterostructure exhibits intense photoluminescence in the region of 1.3 mu m at room temperature. Perfect crystal InGaAs islands with height less than 10 nm are the sources of this radiation.

  20. The barrier to misfit dislocation glide in continuous, strained, epitaxial layers on patterned substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.P.; Ast, D.G.; Anderson, T.J.; Pathangey, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous report [G. P. Watson, D. G. Ast, T. J. Anderson, and Y. Hayakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2517 (1991)] we demonstrated that the motion of misfit dislocations in InGaAs, grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned GaAs substrates, can be impeded even if the strained epitaxial layer is continuous. Trenches etched into GaAs before growth are known to act as a barrier to misfit dislocation propagation [E. A. Fitzgerald, G. P. Watson, R. E. Proano, D. G. Ast, P. D. Kirchner, G. D. Pettit, and J. M. Woodall, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2220 (1989)] when those trenches create discontinuities in the epitaxial layers; but even shallow trenches, with continuous strained layers following the surface features, can act as barriers. By considering the strain energy required to change the length of the dislocation glide segments that stretch from the interface to the free surface, a simple model is developed that explains the major features of the unique blocking action observed at the trench edges. The trench wall angle is found to be an important parameter in determining whether or not a trench will block dislocation glide. The predicted blocking angles are consistent with observations made on continuous 300 and 600 nm thick In 0.04 Ga 0.96 As films on patterned GaAs. Based on the model, a structure is proposed that may be used as a filter to yield misfit dislocations with identical Burgers vectors or dislocations which slip in only one glide plane

  1. Properties of InGaAs quantum dot saturable absorbers in monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, M.G.; Marinelli, C.; Chu, Y.

    Saturable absorbers properties are characterised in monolithic mode-locked InGaAs quantum dot lasers. We analyse the impact of weak quantum confined Stark effect, fast absorber recovery time and low absorber saturation power on the mode-locking performance.......Saturable absorbers properties are characterised in monolithic mode-locked InGaAs quantum dot lasers. We analyse the impact of weak quantum confined Stark effect, fast absorber recovery time and low absorber saturation power on the mode-locking performance....

  2. Complex laterally ordered InGaAs and InAs quantum dots by guided self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on artificially patterned GaAs (3 1 1)B substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selçuk, E.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Nötzel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-organized anisotropic strain engineering is combined with growth on artificially patterned GaAs (3 1 1)B substrates to realize complex lateral ordering of InGaAs and InAs quantum dots (QDs) guided by steps and facets generated along the pattern sidewalls. Depending on the pattern design, size,

  3. Frequency doubling of an InGaAs multiple quantum wells semiconductor disk laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidan, Jiang; Renjiang, Zhu; Maohua, Jiang; Dingke, Zhang; Yuting, Cui; Peng, Zhang; Yanrong, Song

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a good beam quality 483 nm blue coherent radiation from a frequency doubled InGaAs multiple quantum wells semiconductor disk laser. The gain chip is consisted of 6 repeats of strain uncompensated InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and 25 pairs of GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector. A 4 × 4 × 7 mm3 type I phase-matched BBO nonlinear crystal is used in a V-shaped laser cavity for the second harmonic generation, and 210 mW blue output power is obtained when the absorbed pump power is 3.5 W. The M2 factors of the laser beam in x and y directions are about 1.04 and 1.01, respectively. The output power of the blue laser is limited by the relatively small number of the multiple quantum wells, and higher power can be expected by increasing the number of the multiple quantum wells and improving the heat management of the laser.

  4. Electromodulation spectroscopy of direct optical transitions in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers under hydrostatic pressure and built-in strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybała, F.; Żelazna, K.; Maczko, H.; Gladysiewicz, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Kudrawiec, R., E-mail: robert.kudrawiec@pwr.wroc.pl [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Lin, H.; Chen, R.; Shang, C.; Huo, Y.; Kamins, T. I.; Harris, J. S. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4075 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers of various Sn concentration (1.5%, 3%, 6% Sn) and Ge{sub 0.97}Sn{sub 0.03} layers with built-in compressive (ε = −0.5%) and tensile (ε = 0.3%) strain are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and studied by electromodulation spectroscopy (i.e., contactless electroreflectance and photoreflectance (PR)). In order to obtain unstrained GeSn layers and layers with different built-in in-plane strains, virtual InGaAs substrates of different compositions are grown prior to the deposition of GeSn layers. For unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers, the pressure coefficient for the direct band gap transition is determined from PR measurements at various hydrostatic pressures to be 12.2 ± 0.2 meV/kbar, which is very close to the pressure coefficient for the direct band gap transition in Ge (12.9 meV/kbar). This suggests that the hydrostatic deformation potentials typical of Ge can be applied to describe the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys with low Sn concentrations. The same conclusion is derived for the uniaxial deformation potential, which describes the splitting between heavy-hole (HH) and light-hole (LH) bands as well as the strain-related shift of the spin-orbit (SO) split-off band. It is observed that the HH, LH, and SO related transitions shift due to compressive and tensile strain according to the Bir-Pikus theory. The dispersions of HH, LH, and SO bands are calculated for compressive and tensile strained Ge{sub 0.97}Sn{sub 0.03} with the 8-band kp Hamiltonian including strain effects, and the mixing of HH and LH bands is discussed. In addition, the dispersion of the electronic band structure is calculated for unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers (3% and 6% Sn) at high hydrostatic pressure with the 8-band kp Hamiltonian, and the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure are discussed.

  5. Wide bandgap, strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions on InP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, M. P.; Yakes, M. K.; Schmieder, K. J.; Affouda, C. A.; Walters, R. J.; González, M.; Bennett, M. F.; Herrera, M.; Delgado, F. J.; Molina, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the electrical performance of strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions with varying designs is presented. Strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions comprising compressively strained InAlAs wells and tensile-strained InAlAs barriers were grown on InP substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The use of InAlAs enables InP-based tunnel junction devices to be produced using wide bandgap layers, enabling high electrical performance with low absorption. The impact of well and barrier thickness on the electrical performance was investigated, in addition to the impact of Si and Be doping concentration. Finally, the impact of an InGaAs quantum well at the junction interface is presented, enabling a peak tunnel current density of 47.6 A/cm 2 to be realized.

  6. Wide bandgap, strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions on InP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumb, M. P. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Yakes, M. K.; Schmieder, K. J.; Affouda, C. A.; Walters, R. J. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); González, M.; Bennett, M. F. [Sotera Defense Solutions, Annapolis Junction, Maryland 20701 (United States); US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Herrera, M.; Delgado, F. J.; Molina, S. I. [University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2016-05-21

    In this work, the electrical performance of strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions with varying designs is presented. Strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions comprising compressively strained InAlAs wells and tensile-strained InAlAs barriers were grown on InP substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The use of InAlAs enables InP-based tunnel junction devices to be produced using wide bandgap layers, enabling high electrical performance with low absorption. The impact of well and barrier thickness on the electrical performance was investigated, in addition to the impact of Si and Be doping concentration. Finally, the impact of an InGaAs quantum well at the junction interface is presented, enabling a peak tunnel current density of 47.6 A/cm{sup 2} to be realized.

  7. InAs migration on released, wrinkled InGaAs membranes used as virtual substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe Covre da Silva, S; Lanzoni, E M; De Araujo Barboza, V; Deneke, Ch; Malachias, A; Kiravittaya, S

    2014-01-01

    Partly released, relaxed and wrinkled InGaAs membranes are used as virtual substrates for overgrowth with InAs. Such samples exhibit different lattice parameters for the unreleased epitaxial parts, the released flat, back-bond areas and the released wrinkled areas. A large InAs migration towards the released membrane is observed with a material accumulation on top of the freestanding wrinkles during overgrowth. A semi-quantitative analysis of the misfit strain shows that the material migrates to the areas of the sample with the lowest misfit strain, which we consider as the areas of the lowest chemical potential of the surface. Material migration is also observed for the edge-supported, freestanding InGaAs membranes found on these samples. Our results show that the released, wrinkled nanomembranes offer a growth template for InAs deposition that fundamentally changes the migration behavior of the deposited material on the growth surface. (paper)

  8. Continuous wave power scaling in high power broad area quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, M.; Leshin, J.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Shu, H.; Lyakh, A.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental and model results for high power broad area quantum cascade lasers are presented. Continuous wave power scaling from 1.62 W to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15 mm-long, high reflection-coated 5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers with 15 stage active region for active region width increased from 10 μm to 20 μm. A semi-empirical model for broad area devices operating in continuous wave mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sub-linearity of pulsed power vs current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm x 25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300Å, pulsed roll-over current density of 6 kA/cm2 , and InGaAs waveguide layers; optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to 4.5 W from 3.15 mm × 31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  9. Materials and device characteristics of pseudomorphic AlGaAs-InGaAs-GaAs and AlInAs-InGaAs-InP high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballingall, J.M.; Ho, P.; Tessmer, G.J.; Martin, P.A.; Yu, T.H.; Choa, P.C.; Smith, P.M.; Duh, K.H.G.

    1990-01-01

    High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with single quantum well active layers composed of pseudomorphic InGaAs grown on GaAs and InP are establishing new standards of performance for microwave and millimeter wave applications. This is due to recent progress in the molecular beam epitaxial growth of strained InGaAs heterostructures coupled with developments in short gate length (sub-0.2 μm) device fabrication technology. This paper reviews this progress and the current state-of-the-art for materials and devices

  10. High strain amount in recessed junctions induced by selectively deposited boron-doped SiGe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radamson, H.H.; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Ostling, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.15-0.315) layers with high amount of boron (1 x 10 20 -1 x 10 21 cm -3 ) in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. The influence of the growth rate and strain on boron incorporation has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and boron incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers

  11. High strain amount in recessed junctions induced by selectively deposited boron-doped SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: rad@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Ostling, M. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-12-05

    This work presents the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.315) layers with high amount of boron (1 x 10{sup 20}-1 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. The influence of the growth rate and strain on boron incorporation has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and boron incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  12. Strain-dependent magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAs on InGaAs templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeubler, Joachim; Glunk, Michael; Schwaiger, Stephan; Dreher, Lukas; Schoch, Wladimir; Sauer, Rolf; Limmer, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We have systematically studied the influence of strain on the magnetic anisotropy of GaMnAs by means of HRXRD reciprocal space mapping and angle-dependent magnetotransport. For this purpose, a series of GaMnAs layers with Mn contents of {proportional_to}5% was grown by low-temperature MBE on relaxed InGaAs/GaAs templates with different In concentrations, enabling us to vary the strain in the GaMnAs layers continuously from tensile to compressive, including the unstrained state. Considering both, as-grown and annealed samples, the anisotropy parameter describing the uniaxial out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy has been found to vary linearly with hole density and strain. As a consequence, the out-of-plane direction gradually undergoes a transition from a magnetic hard axis to a magnetic easy axis from compressive to tensile strain.

  13. Strain and crystalline defects in epitaxial GaN layers studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chierchia, Rosa

    2007-07-01

    This thesis treats strain and dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers. The mosaic structure of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)-grown GaN layers was studied in dependence on the grain diameter utilizing high-resolution XRD. Different models for the defect structure were analyzed, the edge type TD densities were calculated under the assumption that the dislocations are not randomly distributed but localized at the grain boundaries. Moreover, in situ measurements have shown that the layers are under tension in the c-plane when a nucleation layer is used. The second part of this thesis treats a particular approach to reduce dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers, i.e. maskless pendeo epitaxial growth of MOVPE GAN layers. FE simulations assuming the strain to be completely induced during cooling of the structures after growth agree only partly with experimental data. The strain state of single layers and stripes of GaN grown on SiC was studied to exploit the evolution of the strain in the different phases of the PE growth. The biaxial compressive stress, due to the lattice mismatch between the GaN layer and the AlN nucleation layer is plastically relieved before overgrowth. Temperature dependent measurements show a linear reduction of the wing tilt with increasing temperature varying from sample to sample. Bent TDs have been observed in TEM images of maskless PE samples. Stress induced from the mismatch between the AlN buffer layer and the GaN also contributes to the remaining part of the wing tilt not relieved thermally. It has to be noted that the rest tilt value varies from sample to sample at the growth temperature. In fact some of the data indicate that the wing tilt decreases with increasing V/III ratio. In the last Chapter the application of X-ray techniques for the analysis of strain and composition in layers of inhomogeneous composition is explored. In the first part of the Chapter the strain state and the Al content of AlGaN buffer layers grown directly on (0001

  14. Through-Layer Buckle Wavelength-Gradient Design for the Coupling of High Sensitivity and Stretchability in a Single Strain Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tengyu; Lin, Chucheng; Shi, Liangjing; Wang, Ranran; Sun, Jing

    2018-03-21

    Recent years have witnessed a breathtaking development of wearable strain sensors. Coupling high sensitivity and stretchability in a strain sensor is greatly desired by emerging wearable applications but remains a big challenge. To tackle this issue, a through-layer buckle wavelength-gradient design is proposed and a facile and universal fabrication strategy is demonstrated to introduce such a gradient into the sensing film with multilayered sensing units. Following this strategy, strain sensors are fabricated using graphene woven fabrics (GWFs) as sensing units, which exhibit highly tunable electromechanical performances. Specifically, the sensor with 10-layer GWFs has a gauge factor (GF) of 2996 at a maximum strain of 242.74% and an average GF of 327. It also exhibits an extremely low minimum detection limit of 0.02% strain, a fast signal response of less than 90 ms, and a high cyclic durability through more than 10 000 cycling test. Such excellent performances qualify it in accurately monitoring full-range human activities, ranging from subtle stimuli (e.g., pulse, respiration, and voice recognition) to vigorous motions (finger bending, walking, jogging, and jumping). The combination of experimental observations and modeling study shows that the predesigned through-layer buckle wavelength gradient leads to a layer-by-layer crack propagation process, which accounts for the underlying working mechanism. Modeling study shows a great potential for further improvement of sensing performances by adjusting fabrication parameters such as layers of sensing units ( n) and step pre-strain (ε sp ). For one thing, when ε sp is fixed, the maximum sensing strain could be adjusted from >240% ( n = 10) to >450% ( n = 15) and >1200% ( n = 20). For the other, when n is fixed, the maximum sensing strain could be adjusted from >240% (ε sp = 13.2%) to >400% (ε sp = 18%) and >800% (ε sp = 25%).

  15. Misfit dislocation reduction in InGaAs epilayers grown on porous GaAs substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dimitrakopulos, G.P.; Bazioti, C.; Grym, Jan; Gladkov, Petar; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří; Pacherová, Oliva; Komninou, Ph.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 306, Jul (2014), s. 89-93 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12GR034 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : compound semiconductors * InGaAs * porous substrate * misfit dislocations * strain Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  16. InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical modulator monolithically integrated with InGaAs driver MOSFET on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kown; Takagi, Shinichi; Takenaka, Mitsuru

    2018-02-19

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of a carrier-injection InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical modulator and InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) on a III-V-on-insulator (III-V-OI) wafer. A low-resistivity lateral PIN junction was formed along an InGaAsP rib waveguide by Zn diffusion and Ni-InGaAsP alloy, enabling direct driving of the InGaAsP optical modulator by the InGaAs MOSFET. A π phase shift of the InGaAsP optical modulator was obtained through the injection of a drain current from the InGaAs MOSFET with a gate voltage of approximately 1 V. This proof-of-concept demonstration of the monolithic integration of the InGaAsP optical modulator and InGaAs driver MOSFET will enable us to develop high-performance and low-power electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

  17. Catastrophic optical bulk degradation in high-power single- and multi-mode InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers: part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yongkun; Ayvazian, Talin; Brodie, Miles; Lingley, Zachary

    2018-03-01

    High-power single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well (QW) lasers are critical components for both terrestrial and space satellite communications systems. Since these lasers predominantly fail by catastrophic and sudden degradation due to catastrophic optical damage (COD), it is especially crucial for space satellite applications to investigate reliability, failure modes, precursor signatures of failure, and degradation mechanisms of these lasers. Our group reported a new failure mode in MM and SM InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers in 2009 and 2016, respectively. Our group also reported in 2017 that bulk failure due to catastrophic optical bulk damage (COBD) is the dominant failure mode of both SM and MM lasers that were subject to long-term life-tests. For the present study, we continued our physics of failure investigation by performing long-term life-tests followed by failure mode analysis (FMA) using nondestructive and destructive micro-analytical techniques. We performed long-term accelerated life-tests on state-of-the-art SM and MM InGaAs- AlGaAs strained QW lasers under ACC mode. Our life-tests have accumulated over 25,000 test hours for SM lasers and over 35,000 test hours for MM lasers. We first employed electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique to identify failure modes of degraded SM lasers by observing dark line defects. All the SM failures that we studied showed catastrophic and sudden degradation and all of these failures were bulk failures. Since degradation mechanisms responsible for COBD are still not well understood, we also employed other techniques including focused ion beam (FIB) and high-resolution TEM to further study dark line defects and dislocations in post-aged lasers. Keywor

  18. Narrow photoluminescence peak from Ge(Si) islands embedded between tensile-strained Si layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaleev, Mikhail; Novikov, Alexey; Baydakova, Nataliya; Yablonskiy, Artem; Drozdov, Yuriy; Lobanov, Dmitriy; Krasilnik, Zakhary [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Oleg [Physical-Technical Research Institute, Nizhny Novgorod State University, pr. Gagarina 23, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The influence of thickness of the strained Si layers, measurement temperature and optical pumping power on width of the photoluminescence line from Ge(Si) self-assembled nanoislands grown on relaxed SiGe/Si(001) buffer layers and embedded between tensile-stained Si layers was studied. This line appears due to the II-type optical transition between the holes localized in islands and the electrons confined in tensile-strained Si layers under and above the islands. The possibility of tuning the photoluminescence line width by changing the strained Si layer thicknesses under and above the islands is showed. The decrease of the photoluminescence line width from Ge(Si) islands down to values comparable with width of the PL line from InAs/GaAs quantum dots was achieved due to the quantum confinement of electrons in thin strained Si layers and taking into account of the higher diffusion-induced smearing of strained Si layer above the islands. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Atomic-scale structure and formation of self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Granados, D.; Garcia, J.M.; Fomin, V.; Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present an at.-scale anal. of the In distribution of self-assembled (In,Ga)As quantum rings (QRs), which are formed from InAs quantum dots by capping with a thin layer of GaAs and subsequent annealing. The size and shape of QRs as obsd. by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

  20. InGaAs focal plane array developments at III-V Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvié, Anne; Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Huet, Odile; Djedidi, Anis; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Bria, Toufiq; Pires, Mauricio; Decobert, Jean; Costard, Eric

    2012-06-01

    SWIR detection band benefits from natural (sun, night glow, thermal radiation) or artificial (eye safe lasers) photons sources combined to low atmospheric absorption and specific contrast compared to visible wavelengths. It gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. For few years, III-VLab has been studying InGaAs imagery, gathering expertise in InGaAs material growth and imaging technology respectively from Alcatel-Lucent and Thales, its two mother companies. This work has lead to put quickly on the market a 320x256 InGaAs module, exhibiting high performances in terms of dark current, uniformity and quantum efficiency. In this paper, we present the last developments achieved in our laboratory, mainly focused on increasing the pixels number to VGA format associated to pixel pitch decrease (15μm) and broadening detection spectrum toward visible wavelengths. Depending on targeted applications, different Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROIC) have been used. Low noise ROIC have been developed by CEA LETI to fit the requirements of low light level imaging whereas logarithmic ROIC designed by NIT allows high dynamic imaging adapted for automotive safety.

  1. Atomic-scale structure of self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum rings in GaAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Granados, D.; Garcia, J.M.; Fomin, V.; Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    We present an atomic-scale analysis of the indium distribution of self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum rings (QRs) which are formed from InAs quantum dots by capping with a thin layer of GaAs and subsequent annealing. We find that the size and shape of QRs as observed by cross-sectional scanning

  2. A Highly Expressed High-Molecular-Weight S-Layer Complex of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Binds Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorgersen, Michael P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Lancaster, W. Andrew [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Rajeev, Lara [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Ge, Xiaoxuan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Vaccaro, Brian J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Poole, Farris L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Arkin, Adam P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Adams, Michael W. W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2016-12-02

    Cell suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl group ligands on proteins. The goal of our present study was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). The UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203. Samples of UBC purified from the membrane fraction contained 3.3 U atoms/heterodimer, but significant amounts of phosphate were not detected. The UBC had an estimated molecular mass by gel filtration chromatography of 15 MDa, and it was proposed to contain 150 heterodimers (UFO1_4203 and UFO1_4202) and about 500 uranium atoms. The UBC was also the dominant extracellular protein, but when purified from the growth medium, it contained only 0.3 U atoms/heterodimer. The two genes encoding the UBC were among the most highly expressed genes within the UFO1 genome, and their expressions were unchanged by the presence or absence of uranium. Therefore, the UBC appears to be constitutively expressed and is the first line of defense against uranium, including by secretion into the extracellular medium. Although S-layer proteins were previously shown to bind U(VI), here we showed that U(IV) binds to S-layer proteins, we identified the proteins involved, and we quantitated the amount of uranium bound. Widespread uranium contamination from industrial sources poses hazards to human health and to the environment. Here in this paper, we identified a highly abundant uranium-binding complex (UBC) from Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1. The complex makes up the primary protein component of the S-layer of strain UFO1 and binds 3.3 atoms of U(IV) per heterodimer. Finally, while other bacteria have been shown to bind U(VI) on their S-layer, we demonstrate here an example of U(IV) bound by

  3. Magnetic domains in epitaxial (100) Fe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florczak, J.M.; Dahlberg, E.D.; Ryan, P.J.; White, R.M.; Kuznia, J.N.; Wowchak, A.M.; Cohen, P.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the investigation of the domain patterns of thin Fe films (10 nm) grown on In x Ga 1 - x As (0.09< x<0.25)/GaAs substrates by use of Kerr microscopy. For this investigation, two types of InGaAs buffer layers were prepared. One consisted of a single, thick InGaAs layer and the second composed of an InGaAs strained layer superlattice. Both were grown on (100) GaAs substrates. The study showed that many of the domain walls were approximately parallel to the easy axis of Fe for those films grown on the low x alloy, e.g. x = 0.1, InGaAs buffer layers

  4. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-09-02

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  5. Off state breakdown behavior of AlGaAs / InGaAs field plate pHEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, John; Mil'shtein, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Off-state breakdown voltage, V br , is an important parameter determining the maximum power output of microwave Field Effect Transistors (FETs). In recent years, the use of field plates has been widely adopted to significantly increase V br . This important technological development has extended FET technologies into new areas requiring these higher voltages and power levels. Keeping with this goal, field plates were added to an existing AlGaAs / InGaAs pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor (pHEMT) process with the aim of determining the off-state breakdown mechanism and the dependency of V br on the field plate design. To find the mechanism responsible for breakdown, temperature dependent off-state breakdown measurements were conducted. It was found that at low current levels, the temperature dependence indicates thermionic field emission at the Schottky gate and at higher current levels, impact ionization is indicated. The combined results imply that impact ionization is ultimately the mechanism that is responsible for the breakdown in the tested transistors, but that it is preceded by thermionic field emission from the gate. To test the dependence of V br upon the field plate design, the field plate length and the etch depth through the highly-doped cap layer under the field plate were varied. Also, non-field plate devices were tested along side field plate transistors. It was found that the length of the etched region under the field plate is the dominant factor in determining the off-state breakdown of the more deeply etched devices. For less deeply etched devices, the length of the field plate is more influential. The influence of surface states between the highly doped cap layer and the passivation layer along the recess are believed to have a significant influence in the case of the more deeply etched examples. It is believed that these traps spread the electric field, thus raising the breakdown voltage. Three terminal breakdown voltages

  6. Cavity quantum electrodynamics studies with site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots integrated into high quality microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzenstein, S.; Schneider, C.; Albert, F.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fascinating nanoscopic structures for photonics and future quantum information technology. However, the random position of self-organized QDs inhibits a deterministic coupling in devices relying on cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) effects which complicates......, e.g., the large scale fabrication of quantum light sources. As a result, large efforts focus on the growth and the device integration of site-controlled QDs. We present the growth of low density arrays of site-controlled In(Ga)As QDs where shallow etched nanoholes act as nucleation sites...... linewidth, the oscillator strength and the quantum efficiency. A stacked growth of strain coupled SCQDs forming on wet chemically etched nanoholes provide the smallest linewidth with an average value of 210 μeV. Using time resolved photoluminescence studies on samples with a varying thickness of the capping...

  7. Development of a novel two-layer multiplate magnetorheological clutch for high-power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Daoming; Tian, Zuzhi; Meng, Qingrui; Hou, Youfu

    2013-01-01

    A novel magnetorheological (MR) clutch for high-power applications is designed, simulated and tested. The clutch is implemented in a two-layer multiplate transmission form and adopts a two-way liquid cooling method to improve the heat dissipation capability. In this paper, a brief introduction to the transmission form of the proposed MR clutch is given first. Then, theoretical analyses of the output torque, magnetic circuit and temperature characteristic are conducted and further design details are presented and discussed, followed by a magnetostatic simulation of the designed circuit. A prototype of the clutch was fabricated and several tests were carried out to evaluate the torque transmission, time response and steady slip power of the prototype. The results show that the proposed MR clutch can produce a maximum output torque of 1545 N m and possesses a high steady slip power of up to 35 kW. Therefore, the developed two-layer multiplate MR clutch is promising for applications in many high-power situations. (paper)

  8. Metastable growth of pure wurtzite InGaAs microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2014-08-13

    III-V compound semiconductors can exist in two major crystal phases, namely, zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ). While ZB is thermodynamically favorable in conventional III-V epitaxy, the pure WZ phase can be stable in nanowires with diameters smaller than certain critical values. However, thin nanowires are more vulnerable to surface recombination, and this can ultimately limit their performances as practical devices. In this work, we study a metastable growth mechanism that can yield purely WZ-phased InGaAs microstructures on silicon. InGaAs nucleates as sharp nanoneedles and expand along both axial and radial directions simultaneously in a core-shell fashion. While the base can scale from tens of nanometers to over a micron, the tip can remain sharp over the entire growth. The sharpness maintains a high local surface-to-volume ratio, favoring hexagonal lattice to grow axially. These unique features lead to the formation of microsized pure WZ InGaAs structures on silicon. To verify that the WZ microstructures are truly metastable, we demonstrate, for the first time, the in situ transformation from WZ to the energy-favorable ZB phase inside a transmission electron microscope. This unconventional core-shell growth mechanism can potentially be applied to other III-V materials systems, enabling the effective utilization of the extraordinary properties of the metastable wurtzite crystals.

  9. Strain and defect microstructure in ion-irradiated GeSi/Si strained layers as a function of annealing temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasko, J.M.; Elliman, R.G.; Zou, J.; Cockayne, D.J.H.; Fitz Gerald, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    High energy (1 MeV), ion irradiation of GeSi/Si strained layers at elevated temperatures can cause strain relaxation. In this study, the effect of subsequent thermal annealing was investigated. Three distinct annealing stages were identified and correlated with the evolution of the defect microstructure. In the temperature range from 350 to 600 deg C, a gradual recovery of strain is observed. This is believed to result from the annealing of small defect clusters and the growth of voids. The voids are visible at annealing temperatures in excess of 600 deg C, consistent with an excess vacancy concentration in the irradiated alloy layer. The 600 to 750 deg C range is marked by pronounced maximal recovery of strain, and is correlated with the dissolution of faulted loops in the substrate. At temperatures in the range 750-1000 deg C, strain relaxation is observed and is correlated with the growth of intrinsic dislocations within the alloy layer. These dislocations nucleate at the alloy-substrate interface and grow within the alloy layer, towards the surface. (authors)

  10. High power blue LED development using different growth modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong S.; Florescu, Doru I.; Ramer, Jeff C.; Merai, Vinod; Parekh, Aniruddh; Begarney, Michael J.; Armour, Eric A. [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); Lu Dong [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); School of Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Blue high brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) have been developed using different growth modes in the active layers. Piezoelectric field engineering improves the optical output power in multiple quantum well (MQW) LEDs by inserting an optimized transitional superlattice (TSL) before the active MQW layers. Within single quantum well (SQW) LEDs, quasi-Quantum Dot (QD) growth for Indium localization has been realized. The SQW LED output power exceeds the strain engineered MQW LEDs. The experimental data indicates that Indium localization enhances overall quantum efficiency and results in increased output power for HB-LEDs. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. The ground state properties of In(Ga)As/GaAs low strain quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieczarka, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.pieczarka@pwr.edu.pl; Sęk, Grzegorz

    2016-08-15

    We present theoretical studies on the confined states in low-strain In(Ga)As quantum dots (QDs). The 8-band k·p model together with the continuum elasticity theory and piezoelectric fields were employed to calculate the potential and confined electron and hole eigenstates. We focused on low-indium-content QDs with distinct in-plane asymmetry, which are naturally formed in the low strain regime of the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode. It has been found that the naturally thick wetting layer together with piezoelectric potential affect the total confinement potential to such extent that the hole eigenstates can get the spatial in-plane orientation orthogonal to the main axis of the dot elongation. This can influence both, qualitatively and quantitatively, many of the electronic and optical properties, as e.g. the polarization selection rules for the optical transition or the transitions oscillator strength. Eventually, importance of the degree of the shape asymmetry or the dots’ size, and differences between the low-strain (low-In-content) QDs and pure InAs dots formed in high strain conditions are discussed.

  12. High polarization photocathode R ampersand D at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Garwin, E.L.; Prepost, R.; Zaplac, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes recent progress on the development of high polarization photocathodes for polarized electron sources. A strained InGaAs cathode has achieved a maximum electron-spin polarization of 71% and has demonstrated the strain enhancement of polarization for the first time. Strained GaAs cathodes have yielded polarizations as high as 90% with much higher quantum efficiency

  13. Evaluation of InGaAS array detector suitability to space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauziede, L.; Beulé, K.; Boutillier, M.; Bernard, F.; Reverchon, J.-L.; Buffaz, A.

    2017-11-01

    InGaAs material has a natural cutoff wavelength of 1.65µm so it is naturally suitable for detection in Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral range. Regarding Earth Observation Spacecraft missions this spectral range can be used for the CO2 concentration measurements in the atmosphere. CNES (French Space agency) is studying a new mission, Microcarb with a spectral band centered on 1.6µm wavelength. InGaAs detector looks attractive for space application because its low dark current allows high temperature operation, reducing by the way the needed instrument resources. The Alcatel Thales III-VLab group has developed InGaAs arrays technology (320x256 & 640x512) that has been studied by CNES, using internal facilities. Performance tests and technological evaluation were performed on a 320x256 pixels array with a pitch of 30µm. The aim of this evaluation was to assess this new technology suitability for space applications. The carried out test plan includes proton radiations with Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) study, operating lifetest and evolution of performances as a function of the operating temperature.

  14. Ultrathin highly uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide layer with modulated B8 type Ni5(SiGe)3 phase formed on strained Si1−xGex layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Linjie; Xu, Dawei; Jin, Lei; Knoll, Lars; Wirths, Stephan; Nichau, Alexander; Buca, Dan; Mussler, Gregor; Holländer, Bernhard; Zhao, Qing-Tai; Mantl, Siegfried; Feng Di, Zeng; Zhang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to form ultrathin highly uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide layers on compressively strained Si 1−x Ge x substrates and their structural characteristics. The uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide film is formed with Ni/Al alloy at an optimized temperature of 400 °C with an optimized Al atomic content of 20 at. %. We find only two kinds of grains in the layer. Both grains show orthogonal relationship with modified B8 type phase. The growth plane is identified to be (10-10)-type plane. After germanosilicidation the strain in the rest Si 1−x Ge x layer is conserved, which provides a great advantage for device application

  15. High-resolution X-ray diffraction characterisation of piezoelectric InGaAs / GaAs multiquantum wells and superlattices on (111)B GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Hervas, A.; Aguilar, M. [Madrid, Univ. (Spain). Dept. Tecnologia Electronica. E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion; Lopez, M.; Llorente, C.; Lorenzo, R.; Abril, E. J. [Valladolid, Real de Burgos Univ. (Spain). Dept. Teoria de la Senal u Comunicaciones e Ingegneria Telematica. E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion; Sacedon, A.; Sanchez, J. L.; Calleja, E.; Munoz, E. [Madrid, Univ. (Spain). Dept. Ingegnieria Electronica. E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion

    1997-02-01

    In this paper the authors show some examples of strained InGaAs / GaAs multilayers on (111)B GaAs substrates studied by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. The samples consisted of a multiquantum well or superlattice embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n photodiode. They have analysed piezoelectric (111)B structures with 3, 7, 10, and 40 periods and different indium contents and compared the results with identical structures simultaneously grown on (001) substrates. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been carried out with a computer simulation model developed in our labs, which allows the calculation of symmetric and asymmetric reflections regardless of the substrate orientation or miscut angle. The agreement between the experimental scans and the theory was very satisfactory in all the samples, which has enabled us to determine the main structural parameters of the diodes, Asymmetric 224{+-} reflections on (111)B structures have been simulated for the first time. They have also compared the structural parameters obtained by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry with the results deduced from photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopies.

  16. High-resolution X-ray diffraction characterisation of piezoelectric InGaAs / GaAs multiquantum wells and superlattices on (111)B GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Hervas, A.; Aguilar, M.; Lopez, M.; Llorente, C.; Lorenzo, R.; Abril, E. J.; Sacedon, A.; Sanchez, J. L.; Calleja, E.; Munoz, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the authors show some examples of strained InGaAs / GaAs multilayers on (111)B GaAs substrates studied by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. The samples consisted of a multiquantum well or superlattice embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n photodiode. They have analysed piezoelectric (111)B structures with 3, 7, 10, and 40 periods and different indium contents and compared the results with identical structures simultaneously grown on (001) substrates. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been carried out with a computer simulation model developed in our labs, which allows the calculation of symmetric and asymmetric reflections regardless of the substrate orientation or miscut angle. The agreement between the experimental scans and the theory was very satisfactory in all the samples, which has enabled us to determine the main structural parameters of the diodes, Asymmetric 224± reflections on (111)B structures have been simulated for the first time. They have also compared the structural parameters obtained by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry with the results deduced from photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopies

  17. Designing high-Performance layered thermoelectric materials through orbital engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Lirong; Madsen, Georg K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric technology, which possesses potential application in recycling industrial waste heat as energy, calls for novel high-performance materials. The systematic exploration of novel thermoelectric materials with excellent electronic transport properties is severely hindered by limited...... insight into the underlying bonding orbitals of atomic structures. Here we propose a simple yet successful strategy to discover and design high-performance layered thermoelectric materials through minimizing the crystal field splitting energy of orbitals to realize high orbital degeneracy. The approach...... naturally leads to design maps for optimizing the thermoelectric power factor through forming solid solutions and biaxial strain. Using this approach, we predict a series of potential thermoelectric candidates from layered CaAl2Si2-type Zintl compounds. Several of them contain nontoxic, low-cost and earth...

  18. Strain induced effects on the transport properties of metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capotondi, F.; Biasiol, G.; Ercolani, D.; Grillo, V.; Carlino, E.; Romanato, F.; Sorba, L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between structural and low-temperature transport properties is explored for In x Al 1 - x As/In x Ga 1 - x As metamorphic quantum wells with x > 0.7 grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Different step-graded buffer layers are used to gradually adapt the in-plane lattice parameter from the GaAs towards the InGaAs value. We show that using buffer layers with a suitable maximum In content the residual compressive strain in the quantum well region can be strongly reduced. Samples with virtually no residual strain in the quantum well region show a low-temperature electron mobility up to 29 m 2 /V s while for samples with higher residual compressive strain the low-temperature mobility is reduced. Furthermore, for samples with buffers inducing a tensile strain in the quantum well region, deep grooves are observed on the surface, and in correspondence we notice a strong deterioration of the low-temperature transport properties

  19. Influence of strain on the growth of thick InGaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellmach, J.; Leyer, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of high quality InGaN alloys is critical for a number of various optoelectronic device applications like LEDs and laser diodes. Nevertheless, the exact growth mechanisms of InGaN with high indium content is still not fully understood. In the present study the growth of thick InGaN layers was systematically investigated. InGaN films with thicknesses between ∝35 nm and ∝200 nm were grown on GaN templates with metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The group III partial pressures of 1.1 Pa for TMGa, 0.45 Pa for TMIn and the V/III-ratio of 1600 were kept constant. The growth temperature was varied between 750 C and 800 C. The growth of InGaN layer was characterized by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Up to temperatures of 790 C structural analysis by XRD showed two strained layers with different indium content. The formation of the layer structure was investigated by varying the growth times at 770 C. In the first 500 s (35 nm) a rough (rms=9 nm) and pseudomorphically strained InGaN layer with low indium content (4%) is formed. Between 500 s and 1000 s this strained layer becomes smoother (rms=3.4 nm). For thicknesses beyond the In content increases (8% at 84 nm) and reaches 11% at 200 nm. We propose that the transition from a first layer with a low indium content to a second layer with an higher indium content is due to a gradual release of strain

  20. Surface segregation of InGaAs films by the evolution of reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xun; Luo Zi-Jiang; Guo Xiang; Zhang Bi-Chan; Shang Lin-Tao; Zhou Qing; Deng Chao-Yong; Ding Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Surface segregation is studied via the evolution of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns under different values of As 4 BEP for InGaAs films. When the As 4 BEP is set to be zero, the RHEED pattern keeps a 4×3/(n × 3) structure with increasing temperature, and surface segregation takes place until 470 °C. The RHEED pattern develops into a metal-rich (4 × 2) structure as temperature increases to 495 °C. The reason for this is that surface segregation makes the In inside the InGaAs film climb to its surface. With the temperature increasing up to 515 °C, the RHEED pattern turns into a GaAs(2 × 4) structure due to In desorption. While the As 4 BEP comes up to a specific value (1.33 × 10 -4 Pa−1.33 × 10 -3 Pa), the surface temperature can delay the segregation and desorption. We find that As 4 BEP has a big influence on surface desorption, while surface segregation is more strongly dependent on temperature than surface desorption. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  1. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Technological development for crystalline compound solar cells (high-efficiency III-V tandem solar cells); Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu (III-V zoku kagobutsu handotai taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development of III-V compound semiconductor solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of epitaxial growth technology of lattice mismatching systems, the optimum structure of InGaAs strain intermediate layers was studied for reducing a dislocation density by lattice mismatching of GaAs layer grown on Si substrate and difference in thermal expansion coefficient. The effect of strain layer on dislocation reduction was found only at 250dyne/cm in strain energy. Growth of GaAs layers on the Si substrate treated by hydrofluoric acid at low temperature was attempted by MBE method. As a dislocation distribution was controlled by laying different atoms at hetero-interface, the dislocation density of growing layer surfaces decreased by concentration of dislocation at hetero-interface. (2) On development of high-efficiency tandem cell structure, tunnel junction characteristics, cell formation process and optimum design method of lattice matching tandem cells were studied, while thin film cell formation was basically studied for lattice mismatching tandem cells. 45 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Design of Strain-Compensated Epitaxial Layers Using an Electrical Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujofsa, Tedi; Ayers, John E.

    2017-12-01

    The design of heterostructures that exhibit desired strain characteristics is critical for the realization of semiconductor devices with improved performance and reliability. The control of strain and dislocation dynamics requires an understanding of the relaxation processes associated with mismatched epitaxy, and the starting point for this analysis is the equilibrium strain profile, because the difference between the actual strain and the equilibrium value determines the driving force for dislocation glide and relaxation. Previously, we developed an electrical circuit model approach for the equilibrium analysis of semiconductor heterostructures, in which an epitaxial layer may be represented by a stack of subcircuits, each of which involves an independent current source, a resistor, an independent voltage source, and an ideal diode. In this work, we have applied the electrical circuit model to study the strain compensation mechanism and show that, for a given compositionally uniform device layer with fixed mismatch and layer thickness, a buffer layer may be designed (in terms of thickness and mismatch) to tailor the strain in the device layer. A special case is that in which the device layer will exhibit zero residual strain in equilibrium (complete strain compensation). In addition, the application of the electrical circuit analogy enables the determination of exact expressions for the residual strain characteristics of both the buffer and device layers in the general case where the device layer may exhibit partial strain compensation. On the basis of this framework, it is possible to develop design equations for the tailoring of the strain in a device layer grown on a uniform composition buffer.

  3. Strain, magnetic anisotropy, and anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As on high-index substrates: Application to (113)A -oriented layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, L.; Donhauser, D.; Daeubler, J.; Glunk, M.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.

    2010-06-01

    Based on a detailed theoretical examination of the lattice distortion in high-index epilayers in terms of continuum mechanics, expressions are deduced that allow the calculation and experimental determination of the strain tensor for (hhl) -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers. Analytical expressions are derived for the strain-dependent free-energy density and for the resistivity tensor for monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal symmetries, phenomenologically describing the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance by appropriate anisotropy and resistivity parameters, respectively. Applying the results to (113)A orientation with monoclinic crystal symmetry, the expressions are used to determine the strain tensor and the shear angle of a series of (113)A -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and to probe the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance at 4.2 K by means of angle-dependent magnetotransport. Whereas the transverse-resistivity parameters are nearly unaffected by the magnetic field, the parameters describing the longitudinal resistivity are strongly field dependent.

  4. Effects of post-growth annealing on InGaAs quantum posts embedded in Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, A; Polojärvi, V; Hakkarainen, T V; Tukiainen, A; Guina, M

    2011-01-01

    We study effects of rapid thermal annealing on photoluminescence and electron confinement of InGaAs quantum posts by means of photoluminescence experiments and capacitance–voltage spectroscopy. The quantum posts are embedded in n-type Schottky diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(1 0 0). The observed photoluminescence spectra arise from the quantum posts as well as from a contribution of a wetting-layer superlattice. With increasing annealing temperatures, the quantum-post photoluminescence blueshifts toward the wetting-layer superlattice, and upon the highest annealing step, the wetting-layer superlattice luminescence dominates. In capacitance–voltage experiments, we clearly observe a charge accumulation in the quantum-post layer as well as from the wetting-layer superlattice. Capacitance–voltage spectra and carrier-density profiles only experience slight changes upon annealing treatments. We suggest that the main electron accumulation takes place in the wetting-layer superlattice

  5. Wavelength stabilized high pulse power laser diodes for automotive LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, A.; Klehr, A.; Wenzel, H.; Zeghuzi, A.; Fricke, J.; Maaßdorf, A.; Liero, A.; Tränkle, G.

    2018-03-01

    Diode lasers generating optical pulses with high peak power and lengths in the nanosecond range are key components of systems for free-space communication, metrology, material processing, spectroscopy, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) as needed for object detection and autonomous driving. Automotive LiDAR systems demand additionally a good beam quality and low wavelength shift with temperature due to the wide operating temperature span. We present here internally wavelength stabilized lasers emitting ns optical pulses from an emission aperture between 30 μm and 100 μm with peak powers of tens of Watts at wavelengths around 905 nm. The vertical structure based on AlGaAs (confinement and cladding layers) and InGaAs (active quantum well) is especially optimized for pulsed operation with respect to the implementation of a surface Bragg grating with a high reflectivity. The fabricated 6 mm long distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) broad area (BA) lasers are electrically driven by an in-house developed high-speed unit generating 3 to 10 ns long nearly rectangular shaped current pulses with amplitudes of up to 250 A. Such lasers emit optical pulses with a peak power of more than 30 W at 95 A pulse current up to a temperature of 85°C with a wavelength shift as low as 65 pm/K and a lateral beam propagation factor less than 10. The influence of the lateral aperture width and the pulse length on the beam quality will be shown. A monolithic integration of 3 DBR BA lasers on a single chip whose emission can be combined into a single beam raises the output power to more than 100 W.

  6. Performance of an Uncooled Camera Utilizing an SWIR InGaAs 256x256 FPA for Imaging in the 1.0 micrometer - 1.7 micrometer Spectral Band

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barton, J

    1998-01-01

    .... The camera spectral sensitivity is established by the material properties of the detector array which is composed of photovoltaic detectors formed in an epitaxial layer of InGaAs with a composition...

  7. Piezoelectric strained layer semiconductor lasers and integrated modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The properties, benefits and limitations of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum well lasers and modulators grown on (111)B GaAs have been studied. Particular interest in this material system arose from the predicted increase in critical layer thickness, which would facilitate semiconductor lasers emitting beyond 1 μm. However, the recent discovery of a new type of misfit dislocation indicates that the critical layer thickness in this system is closer to that of (001) orientated structures. Photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy presented in this study support this predicted reduction of the critical layer thickness and the resulting limitations on the emission wavelength. The absence of 3D growth in this system may however be advantageous when high reproducibility and reliable lasing operation beyond 1 μm are required. The piezoelectric field originating from strained growth on substrate orientations other than (001) was studied and its influence on transition energies and absorptive behaviour were investigated. The piezoelectric constant was found to show significant temperature dependence and, as also indicated in earlier studies, its value is smaller then the linearly interpolated value. When the effects of indium segregation on the transition energies is considered, the reduction is significantly smaller. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained using 86% of the value linearly interpolated between the binaries at room temperature and 82% at low temperature. Broad area lasers were fabricated emitting at lasing wavelengths of up to 1.08 μm with threshold current densities as low as 80 A/cm 2 at room temperature under continuous wave operation. Increasing the indium composition and strain within the limit of strain relaxation was demonstrated to improve device performance significantly. Furthermore, ridge waveguide lasers were fabricated exhibiting monomode emission at wavelengths up to 1.07 μm with a threshold current of 19 mA at

  8. Two-Dimensional Layered Oxide Structures Tailored by Self-Assembled Layer Stacking via Interfacial Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenrui; Li, Mingtao; Chen, Aiping; Li, Leigang; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhenhai; Lu, Ping; Boullay, Philippe; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Jia, Quanxi; Zhou, Honghui; Narayan, Jagdish; Zhang, Xinghang; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-07-06

    Study of layered complex oxides emerge as one of leading topics in fundamental materials science because of the strong interplay among intrinsic charge, spin, orbital, and lattice. As a fundamental basis of heteroepitaxial thin film growth, interfacial strain can be used to design materials that exhibit new phenomena beyond their conventional forms. Here, we report a strain-driven self-assembly of bismuth-based supercell (SC) with a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure. With combined experimental analysis and first-principles calculations, we investigated the full SC structure and elucidated the fundamental growth mechanism achieved by the strain-enabled self-assembled atomic layer stacking. The unique SC structure exhibits room-temperature ferroelectricity, enhanced magnetic responses, and a distinct optical bandgap from the conventional double perovskite structure. This study reveals the important role of interfacial strain modulation and atomic rearrangement in self-assembling a layered singe-phase multiferroic thin film, which opens up a promising avenue in the search for and design of novel 2D layered complex oxides with enormous promise.

  9. Noise characteristics analysis of short wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunlei; Li, Xue; Yang, Bo; Huang, Songlei; Shao, Xiumei; Zhang, Yaguang; Gong, Haimei

    2017-09-01

    The increasing application of InGaAs short wave infrared (SWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in low light level imaging requires ultra-low noise FPAs. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of FPA noise, and point out that both dark current and detector capacitance strongly affect the FPA noise. The impact of dark current and detector capacitance on FPA noise is compared in different situations. In order to obtain low noise performance FPAs, the demand for reducing detector capacitance is higher especially when pixel pitch is smaller, integration time is shorter, and integration capacitance is larger. Several InGaAs FPAs were measured and analyzed, the experiments' results could be well fitted to the calculated results. The study found that the major contributor of FPA noise is coupled noise with shorter integration time. The influence of detector capacitance on FPA noise is more significant than that of dark current. To investigate the effect of detector performance on FPA noise, two kinds of photodiodes with different concentration of the absorption layer were fabricated. The detectors' performance and noise characteristics were measured and analyzed, the results are consistent with that of theoretical analysis.

  10. Unusual strain in homoepitaxial CdTe(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinke, H.; Waag, A.; Moeller, M.O.; Regnet, M.M.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    For homoepitaxial CdTe(001) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto CdTe(001) substrates, a difference between the lattice constants of the substrate and the layer was systematically observed using high resolution X-ray diffraction. Reciprocal space maps point out an unusual strain state of such layers which is indicated by the position of their reciprocal lattice points. They lie in a section of reciprocal space which is usually forbidden by elasticity theory. The strain is laterally anisotropic leading to a monoclinic symmetry of the thin films. The lateral strain is depth dependent. Possible reasons for the formation of the unusual strain are discussed, and a correlation of the unusual strain with the growth conditions is attempted

  11. From structure to spectra. Tight-binding theory of InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots have raised considerable interest in the last decades due to a multitude of possible applications ranging from carrier storage to light emitters, lasers and future quantum communication devices. Quantum dots offer unique electronic and photonic properties due to the three-dimensional confinement of charge carriers and the coupling to a quasi-continuum of wetting layer and barrier states. In this work we investigate the electronic structure of In x Ga 1-x As quantum dots embedded in GaAs, considering realistic quantum dot geometries and Indium concentrations. We utilize a next-neighbour sp 3 s * tight-binding model for the calculation of electronic single-particle energies and wave functions bound in the nanostructure and account for strain arising from lattice mismatch of the constituent materials atomistically. With the calculated single-particle wave functions we derive Coulomb matrix elements and include them into a configuration interaction treatment, yielding many-particle states and energies of the interacting many-carrier system. Also from the tight-binding single-particle wave functions we derive dipole transition strengths to obtain optical quantum dot emission and absorption spectra with Fermi's golden rule. Excitonic fine-structure splittings are obtained, which play an important role for future quantum cryptography and quantum communication devices for entanglement swapping or quantum repeating. For light emission suited for long-range quantum-crypted fiber communication InAs quantum dots are embedded in an In x Ga 1-x As strain-reducing layer, shifting the emission wavelength into telecom low-absorption windows. We investigate the influence of the strain-reducing layer Indium concentration on the excitonic finestructure splitting. The fine-structure splitting is found to saturate and, in some cases, even reduce with strain-reducing layer Indium concentration, a result being counterintuitively. Our result

  12. From structure to spectra. Tight-binding theory of InGaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, Elias

    2014-07-23

    Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots have raised considerable interest in the last decades due to a multitude of possible applications ranging from carrier storage to light emitters, lasers and future quantum communication devices. Quantum dots offer unique electronic and photonic properties due to the three-dimensional confinement of charge carriers and the coupling to a quasi-continuum of wetting layer and barrier states. In this work we investigate the electronic structure of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As quantum dots embedded in GaAs, considering realistic quantum dot geometries and Indium concentrations. We utilize a next-neighbour sp{sup 3}s{sup *} tight-binding model for the calculation of electronic single-particle energies and wave functions bound in the nanostructure and account for strain arising from lattice mismatch of the constituent materials atomistically. With the calculated single-particle wave functions we derive Coulomb matrix elements and include them into a configuration interaction treatment, yielding many-particle states and energies of the interacting many-carrier system. Also from the tight-binding single-particle wave functions we derive dipole transition strengths to obtain optical quantum dot emission and absorption spectra with Fermi's golden rule. Excitonic fine-structure splittings are obtained, which play an important role for future quantum cryptography and quantum communication devices for entanglement swapping or quantum repeating. For light emission suited for long-range quantum-crypted fiber communication InAs quantum dots are embedded in an In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As strain-reducing layer, shifting the emission wavelength into telecom low-absorption windows. We investigate the influence of the strain-reducing layer Indium concentration on the excitonic finestructure splitting. The fine-structure splitting is found to saturate and, in some cases, even reduce with strain-reducing layer Indium concentration, a result being

  13. Low dark current InGaAs detector arrays for night vision and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Liao, Shirong; Getty, Jonathan; Holmes, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Aerius Photonics has developed large InGaAs arrays (1K x 1K and greater) with low dark currents for use in night vision applications in the SWIR regime. Aerius will present results of experiments to reduce the dark current density of their InGaAs detector arrays. By varying device designs and passivations, Aerius has achieved a dark current density below 1.0 nA/cm2 at 280K on small-pixel, detector arrays. Data is shown for both test structures and focal plane arrays. In addition, data from cryogenically cooled InGaAs arrays will be shown for astronomy applications.

  14. Highly efficient and reliable high power LEDs with patterned sapphire substrate and strip-shaped distributed current blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengjun [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yuan, Shu; Liu, Yingce [Quantum Wafer Inc., Foshan 528251 (China); Guo, L. Jay [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Liu, Sheng, E-mail: victor_liu63@126.com [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ding, Han [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TEM is used to characterize threading dislocation existing in GaN epitaxial layer. • Effect of threading dislocation on optical and electrical of LEDs is discussed. • Strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL is designed to improve current spreading performance of LEDs. - Abstract: We demonstrated that the improvement in optical and electrical performance of high power LEDs was achieved using cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) and strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} distributed current blocking layer (DCBL). We found through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation that densities of both the screw dislocation and edge dislocation existing in GaN epitaxial layer grown on PSS were much less than that of GaN epitaxial layer grown on flat sapphire substrate (FSS). Compared to LED grown on FSS, LED grown on PSS showed higher sub-threshold forward-bias voltage and lower reverse leakage current, resulting in an enhancement in device reliability. We also designed a strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL beneath a strip-shaped p-electrode, which prevents the current from being concentrated on regions immediately adjacent the strip-shaped p-electrode, thereby facilitating uniform current spreading into the active region. By implementing strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL, light output power of high power PSS-LED chip could be further increased by 13%.

  15. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained-Layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    potential; bulk materials; total energy calculations; entropy; strained- layer superlattice (SLS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0217 FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES (POSTPRINT) Zhi-Gang Yu...2016 Interim 11 September 2013 – 5 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES

  16. Probing and Manipulating the Interfacial Defects of InGaAs Dual-Layer Metal Oxides at the Atomic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing; Luo, Chen; Hao, Peng; Sun, Tao; Wang, Runsheng; Wang, Chaolun; Hu, Zhigao; Li, Yawei; Zhang, Jian; Bersuker, Gennadi; Sun, Litao; Pey, Kinleong

    2018-01-01

    The interface between III-V and metal-oxide-semiconductor materials plays a central role in the operation of high-speed electronic devices, such as transistors and light-emitting diodes. The high-speed property gives the light-emitting diodes a high response speed and low dark current, and they are widely used in communications, infrared remote sensing, optical detection, and other fields. The rational design of high-performance devices requires a detailed understanding of the electronic structure at this interface; however, this understanding remains a challenge, given the complex nature of surface interactions and the dynamic relationship between the morphology evolution and electronic structures. Herein, in situ transmission electron microscopy is used to probe and manipulate the structural and electrical properties of ZrO 2 films on Al 2 O 3 and InGaAs substrate at the atomic scale. Interfacial defects resulting from the spillover of the oxygen-atom conduction-band wavefunctions are resolved. This study unearths the fundamental defect-driven interfacial electric structure of III-V semiconductor materials and paves the way to future high-speed and high-reliability devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The role of strain-driven in migration in the growth of self-assembled InAs quantum dots on InP

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, S H; Lee, T W; Hwang, H D; Yoon, E J; Kim, Y D

    1999-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (SAQDs) were grown on InP by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The amount of excess InAs and the aspect ratio of the SAQD increased with temperature and V/III ratio. It is explained that the As/P exchange reaction at the surface played an important role in the kinetics of SAQD formation. Insertion of a lattice-matched InGaAs buffer layer suppressed the excess InAs formation, and lowered the aspect ratio. Moreover, the dots formed on InGaAs buffer layers were faceted, whereas those on InP were hemispherical, confirming the effect of the As/P exchange reaction. The shape of InAs quantum dots on InGaAs buffer layers was a truncated pyramid with four [136] facets and base edges parallel to directions.

  18. Layer-by-layer assembled polyaniline nanofiber/multiwall carbon nanotube thin film electrodes for high-power and high-energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Md Nasim; Lee, Seung Woo; Cebeci, Fevzi Ç; Schmidt, Daniel J; Shao-Horn, Yang; Hammond, Paula T

    2011-11-22

    Thin film electrodes of polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers and functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are created by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly for microbatteries or -electrochemical capacitors. Highly stable cationic PANi nanofibers, synthesized from the rapid aqueous phase polymerization of aniline, are assembled with carboxylic acid functionalized MWNT into LbL films. The pH-dependent surface charge of PANi nanofibers and MWNTs allows the system to behave like weak polyelectrolytes with controllable LbL film thickness and morphology by varying the number of bilayers. The LbL-PANi/MWNT films consist of a nanoscale interpenetrating network structure with well developed nanopores that yield excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage applications. These LbL-PANi/MWNT films in lithium cell can store high volumetric capacitance (~238 ± 32 F/cm(3)) and high volumetric capacity (~210 mAh/cm(3)). In addition, rate-dependent galvanostatic tests show LbL-PANi/MWNT films can deliver both high power and high energy density (~220 Wh/L(electrode) at ~100 kW/L(electrode)) and could be promising positive electrode materials for thin film microbatteries or electrochemical capacitors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. The study of stress-strain state of stabilized layered soil foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Mikhail V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein presented are the results of modeling and analysis of stress-strain state of layered inhomogeneous foundation soil when it is stabilised by injection to different depths. Produced qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components of the field of isolines of stresses, strains, stress concentration and the difference between the strain at the boundary of different elastic horizontal layers. Recommendations are given for the location of stabilised zones in relation to the border of different elastic layers. In particular, it found that stabilization of soil within the weak layer is inappropriate, since it practically provides no increase in the stability of the soil foundation, and when performing stabilisation of soil foundations, it is recommended to place the lower border of the stabilisation zone below the border of a stronger layer, at this the distribution of stresses and strains occurs more evenly, and load-bearing capacity of this layer is used to the maximum.

  20. Light-trapping for room temperature Bose-Einstein condensation in InGaAs quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Pranai; Jiang, Jian-Hua; John, Sajeev

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate the possibility of room-temperature, thermal equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of exciton-polaritons in a multiple quantum well (QW) system composed of InGaAs quantum wells surrounded by InP barriers, allowing for the emission of light near telecommunication wavelengths. The QWs are embedded in a cavity consisting of double slanted pore (SP2) photonic crystals composed of InP. We consider exciton-polaritons that result from the strong coupling between the multiple quantum well excitons and photons in the lowest planar guided mode within the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal cavity. The collective coupling of three QWs results in a vacuum Rabi splitting of 3% of the bare exciton recombination energy. Due to the full three-dimensional PBG exhibited by the SP2 photonic crystal (16% gap to mid-gap frequency ratio), the radiative decay of polaritons is eliminated in all directions. Due to the short exciton-phonon scattering time in InGaAs quantum wells of 0.5 ps and the exciton non-radiative decay time of 200 ps at room temperature, polaritons can achieve thermal equilibrium with the host lattice to form an equilibrium BEC. Using a SP2 photonic crystal with a lattice constant of a = 516 nm, a unit cell height of 2a=730nm and a pore radius of 0.305a = 157 nm, light in the lowest planar guided mode is strongly localized in the central slab layer. The central slab layer consists of 3 nm InGaAs quantum wells with 7 nm InP barriers, in which excitons have a recombination energy of 0.944 eV, a binding energy of 7 meV and a Bohr radius of aB = 10 nm. We take the exciton recombination energy to be detuned 35 meV above the lowest guided photonic mode so that an exciton-polariton has a photonic fraction of approximately 97% per QW. This increases the energy range of small-effective-mass photonlike states and increases the critical temperature for the onset of a Bose-Einstein condensate. With three quantum wells in the central slab layer

  1. Materials science and technology strained-layer superlattices materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P; Willardson, R K; Pearsall, Thomas P

    1990-01-01

    The following blurb to be used for the AP Report and ATI only as both volumes will not appear together there.****Strained-layer superlattices have been developed as an important new form of semiconducting material with applications in integrated electro-optics and electronics. Edited by a pioneer in the field, Thomas Pearsall, this volume offers a comprehensive discussion of strained-layer superlattices and focuses on fabrication technology and applications of the material. This volume combines with Volume 32, Strained-Layer Superlattices: Physics, in this series to cover a broad spectrum of topics, including molecular beam epitaxy, quantum wells and superlattices, strain-effects in semiconductors, optical and electrical properties of semiconductors, and semiconductor devices.****The following previously approved blurb is to be used in all other direct mail and advertising as both volumes will be promoted together.****Strained-layer superlattices have been developed as an important new form of semiconducting ...

  2. Analysis of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures with the scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwald, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this thesis was to apply the analytical methods of the scanning transmission electron microscopy to the study of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures. With the imaging methods Z contrast and bright field (position resolutions in the subnanometer range) and especially with the possibilities of the quantitative chemical EELS analysis of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) fundamental questions concerning morphology and chemical properties of self-organized quantum structures should be answered. By the high position resolution of the STEM among others essentail morphological and structural parameters in the growth behaviour of ''dot in a well'' (DWell) structures and of vertically correlated quantum dots (QDs) could be analyzed. For the optimization of DWell structures samples were studied, the nominal InAs-QD growth position was directedly varied within the embedding InGaAs quantum wells. The STEM offers in connection with the EELS method a large potential for the chemical analysis of quantum structures. Studied was a sample series of self-organized InGaAs/GaAs structures on GaAs substrate, the stress of which was changed by varying the Ga content of the INGaAs material between 2.4 % and 4.3 % [de

  3. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  4. Strain-free GaN thick films grown on single crystalline ZnO buffer layer with in situ lift-off technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, W. H.; Goto, H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, J. S.; Goto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-free freestanding GaN layers were prepared by in situ lift-off process using a ZnO buffer as a sacrificing layer. Thin Zn-polar ZnO layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates, which was followed by the growth of Ga-polar GaN layers both by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The MBE-grown GaN layer acted as a protecting layer against decomposition of the ZnO layer and as a seeding layer for GaN growth. The ZnO layer was completely in situ etched off during growth of thick GaN layers at low temperature by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Hence freestanding GaN layers were obtained for the consecutive growth of high-temperature GaN thick layers. The lattice constants of freestanding GaN agree with those of strain-free GaN bulk. Extensive microphotoluminescence study indicates that strain-free states extend throughout the high-temperature grown GaN layers

  5. Response of the convecting high-latitude F layer to a powerful HF wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Mingaleva

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the high-latitude ionosphere, which takes into account the convection of the ionospheric plasma, has been developed and utilized to simulate the F-layer response at auroral latitudes to high-power radio waves. The model produces the time variations of the electron density, positive ion velocity, and ion and electron temperature profiles within a magnetic field tube carried over an ionospheric heater by the convection electric field. The simulations have been performed for the point with the geographic coordinates of the ionospheric HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway, when it is located near the midnight magnetic meridian. The calculations have been made for equinox, at high-solar-activity, and low-geomagnetic-activity conditions. The results indicate that significant variations of the electron temperature, positive ion velocity, and electron density profiles can be produced by HF heating in the convecting high-latitude F layer.

  6. Response of the convecting high-latitude F layer to a powerful HF wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Mingaleva

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the high-latitude ionosphere, which takes into account the convection of the ionospheric plasma, has been developed and utilized to simulate the F-layer response at auroral latitudes to high-power radio waves. The model produces the time variations of the electron density, positive ion velocity, and ion and electron temperature profiles within a magnetic field tube carried over an ionospheric heater by the convection electric field. The simulations have been performed for the point with the geographic coordinates of the ionospheric HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway, when it is located near the midnight magnetic meridian. The calculations have been made for equinox, at high-solar-activity, and low-geomagnetic-activity conditions. The results indicate that significant variations of the electron temperature, positive ion velocity, and electron density profiles can be produced by HF heating in the convecting high-latitude F layer.

  7. Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...... to resolve luminescence lines from individual quantum dots, revealing an atomic-like spectrum of sharp transition lines. A parameter of fundamental importance is the intrinsic linewidth of these transitions. Using high-resolution spectroscopy we have determined the linewidth and investigated its dependence...... on temperature, which gives information about how the exciton confined to the quantum dot interacts with the surrounding lattice....

  8. Graphene electric double layer capacitor with ultra-high-power performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John R.; Outlaw, R.A.; Holloway, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, efficient 120 Hz filtering by an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The key to this ultra-high-power performance is electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized both electronic and ionic resistance and produced capacitors having RC time-constants of less than 200 μs. Significantly, graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increase stored charge over designs relying on basal plane surfaces. Collectively these factors make vertically oriented graphene nanosheet electrodes ideally suited for producing high-frequency EDLCs. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes are predicted to be significantly smaller than aluminum electrolyte capacitors that they could functionally replace plus be manufactured using standard semiconductor process equipment, creating interesting commercial opportunities.

  9. Role of experimental resolution in measurements of critical layer thickness for strained-layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental measurements of critical layer thicknesses (CLT's) in strained-layer epitaxy are considered. Finite experimental resolution can have a major effect on measured CLT's and can easily lead to spurious results. The theoretical approach to critical layer thicknesses of J. W. Matthews [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 126 (1975)] has been modified in a straightforward way to predict the apparent critical thickness for an experiment with finite resolution in lattice parameter. The theory has also been modified to account for the general empirical result that fewer misfit dislocations are generated than predicted by equilibrium calculation. The resulting expression is fit to recent x-ray diffraction data on InGaAs/GaAs and SiGe/Si. The results suggest that CLT's in these systems may not be significantly larger than predicted by equilibrium theory, in agreement with high-resolution measurements

  10. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Le Pourhiet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr–Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes

  11. Effects of a finite melt on the thickness and composition of liquid phase epitaxial InGaAsP and InGaAs layers grown by the diffusion-limited step-cooling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.W.; Tashima, M.M.; Stillman, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The thickness of InGaAsP (lambda/sub g/=1.15 μm) and InGaAs (lambda/sub g/=1.68 μm) liquid phase epitaxial layers grown on (100) InP substrates by the step-cooling technique has been measured as a function of growth time. (lambda/sub g/ is defined as the wavelength corresponding to the energy gap of the epitaxial layer.) For growth times much less than the shortest diffusion time tau/sub i/=l 2 /D/sub i/ of the melt constituents, where l is the melt height and D/sub i/ is the diffusivity of each component in the melt, the thickness is consistent with diffusion-limited theory, and the composition is constant. The time at which the growth rate deviates sharply from diffusion-limited theory and beyond which constant composition growth can no longer be maintained has been determined for the melt size used in our experiments and can be estimated for any melt size

  12. VCSELs based on arrays of sub-monolayer InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Kuz'menkov, A. G.; Shernyakov, Yu. M.; Novikov, I. I.; Gordeev, N. Yu.; Dyudelev, V. V.; Sokolovskii, G. S.; Kuchinskii, V. I.; Kulagina, M. M.; Maximov, M. V.; Ustinov, V. M.; Kovsh, A. R.; Mikhrin, S. S.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2006-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with an active region based on sub-monolayer InGaAs quantum dots and doped AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors were grown by MBE. VCSELs with current aperture of 3 μm in diameter demonstrate single-mode lasing in 980-nm range with the threshold current of 0.6 mA, maximum output power up to 4 mW, and external differential efficiency of 68%. Multimode VCSELs with a (10-12)-μm aperture demonstrate ultralow internal optical loss of 0.09% per pass, which compares favorably with the best results obtained in similar lasers with undoped distributed Bragg reflectors

  13. High-power piezoelectric characteristics of textured bismuth layer structured ferroelectric ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirozumi; Kawada, Shinichiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Shiratsuyu, Kousuke; Sakabe, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    Abstract-The high-power piezoelectric characteristics in h001i oriented ceramics of bismuth layer structured ferroelectrics (BLSF), SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) (SBN), (Bi,La)(4)Ti(3)O(12) (BLT), and CaBi(4)Ti(4)O(15) (CBT), were studied by a constant voltage driving method. These textured ceramics were fabricated by a templated grain growth (TGG) method, and their Lotgering factors were 95%, 97%, and 99%, respectively. The vibration velocities of the longitudinal mode (33-mode) increased proportionally to an applied electric field up to 2.5 m/s in these textured BLSF ceramics, although, the vibration velocity of the 33-mode was saturated at more than 1.0 m/s in the Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT ceramics. The resonant frequencies were constant up to the vibration velocity of 2.5 m/s in the SBN and CBT textured ceramics; however, the resonant frequency decreased with increasing over the vibration velocity of 1.5 m/s in the BLT textured ceramics. The dissipation power density of the BLT was almost the same as that of the Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT ceramics. However, the dissipation power densities of the SBN and CBT were lower than those of the BLT and Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT ceramics. The textured SBN and CBT ceramics are good candidates for high-power piezoelectric applications.

  14. III-V Ultra-Thin-Body InGaAs/InAs MOSFETs for Low Standby Power Logic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ying

    As device scaling continues to sub-10-nm regime, III-V InGaAs/InAs metal- oxide-semiconductor ?eld-e?ect transistors (MOSFETs) are promising candidates for replacing Si-based MOSFETs for future very-large-scale integration (VLSI) logic applications. III-V InGaAs materials have low electron effective mass and high electron velocity, allowing higher on-state current at lower VDD and reducing the switching power consumption. However, III-V InGaAs materials have a narrower band gap and higher permittivity, leading to large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage or gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) at the drain end of the channel, and large subthreshold leakage due to worse electrostatic integrity. To utilize III-V MOSFETs in future logic circuits, III-V MOSFETs must have high on-state performance over Si MOSFETs as well as very low leakage current and low standby power consumption. In this dissertation, we will report InGaAs/InAs ultra-thin-body MOSFETs. Three techniques for reducing the leakage currents in InGaAs/InAs MOSFETs are reported as described below. 1) Wide band-gap barriers: We developed AlAs0.44Sb0.56 barriers lattice-match to InP by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and studied the electron transport in In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs 0.44Sb0.56 heterostructures. The InGaAs channel MOSFETs using AlAs0.44Sb0.56 bottom barriers or p-doped In0.52 Al0.48As barriers were demonstrated, showing significant suppression on the back barrier leakage. 2) Ultra-thin channels: We investigated the electron transport in InGaAs and InAs ultra-thin quantum wells and ultra-thin body MOSFETs (t ch ~ 2-4 nm). For high performance logic, InAs channels enable higher on-state current, while for low power logic, InGaAs channels allow lower BTBT leakage current. 3) Source/Drain engineering: We developed raised InGaAs and recessed InP source/drain spacers. The raised InGaAs source/drain spacers improve electrostatics, reducing subthreshold leakage, and smooth the electric field near drain, reducing

  15. Multi-layered controllable stiffness beams for morphing: energy, actuation force, and material strain considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Gabriel; Gandhi, Farhan

    2010-01-01

    Morphing aerospace structures could benefit from the ability of structural elements to transition from a stiff load-bearing state to a relatively compliant state that can undergo large deformation at low actuation cost. The present paper focuses on multi-layered beams with controllable flexural stiffness—comprising polymer layers affixed to the surfaces of a base beam and cover layers, in turn, affixed to the surfaces of the polymer layers. Heating the polymer through the glass transition reduces its shear modulus, decouples the cover layers from the base beam and reduces the overall flexural stiffness. Although the stiffness and actuation force required to bend the beam reduce, the energy required to heat the polymer layer must also be considered. Results show that for beams with low slenderness ratios, relatively thick polymer layers, and cover layers whose extensional stiffness is high, the decoupling of the cover layers through softening of the polymer layers can result in flexural stiffness reductions of over 95%. The energy savings are also highest for these configurations, and will increase as the deformation of the beam increases. The decoupling of the cover layers from the base beam through the softening of the polymer reduces the axial strains in the cover layers significantly; otherwise material failure would prevent large deformation. Results show that when the polymer layer is stiff, the cover layers are the dominant contributors to the total energy in the beam, and the energy in the polymer layers is predominantly axial strain energy. When the polymer layers are softened the energy in the cover layers is a small contributor to the total energy which is dominated by energy in the base beam and shear strain energy in the polymer layer

  16. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of anisotropically strained c-plane GaN layers on stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmyeong; Moon, Daeyoung; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Donghyun; Yang, Duyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain and resultant linearly polarized photoluminescence (PL) of c-plane GaN layers were realized by using a stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate (SCES). High resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping measurements revealed that the GaN layers on the SCES were under significant anisotropic in-plane strain of -0.0140% and -0.1351% along the directions perpendicular and parallel to the stripe pattern, respectively. The anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers was attributed to the anisotropic strain relaxation due to the anisotropic arrangement of cavity-incorporated membranes. Linearly polarized PL behavior such as the observed angle-dependent shift in PL peak position and intensity comparable with the calculated value based on k.p perturbation theory. It was found that the polarized PL behavior was attributed to the modification of valence band structures induced by anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers on the SCES.

  17. Implementation of ZnO/ZnMgO strained-layer superlattice for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Bakin, Andrey; Tsiaoussis, Ioannis; Rothman, Johan; Ivanov, Sergey; Stoemenos, John; Waag, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The main challenge in fabrication of ZnO-based devices is the absence of reliable p-type material. This is mostly caused by insufficient crystalline quality of the material and not well-enough-developed native point defect control of ZnO. At present high-quality ZnO wafers are still expensive and ZnO heteroepitaxial layers on sapphire are the most reasonable alternative to homoepitaxial layers. But it is still necessary to improve the crystalline quality of the heteroepitaxial layers. One of the approaches to reduce defect density in heteroepitaxial layers is to introduce a strained-layer superlattice (SL) that could stop dislocation propagation from the substrate-layer interface. In the present paper we have employed fifteen periods of a highly strained SL structure. The structure was grown on a conventional double buffer layer comprising of high-temperature MgO/low-temperature ZnO on sapphire. The influence of the SLs on the properties of the heteroepitaxial ZnO layers is investigated. Electrical measurements of the structure with SL revealed very high values of the carrier mobility up to 210 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Structural characterization of the obtained samples showed that the dislocation density in the following ZnO layer was not reduced. The high mobility signal appears to come from the SL structure or the SL/ZnO interface.

  18. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-01

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, Pmax was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  19. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P max was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs

  20. Control of biaxial strain in single-layer molybdenite using local thermal expansion of the substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plechinger, Gerd; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Buscema, Michele; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steele, Gary A.; Kuc, Agnieszka; Heine, Thomas; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Single-layer MoS2 is a direct-gap semiconductor whose electronic band structure strongly depends on the strain applied to its crystal lattice. While uniaxial strain can be easily applied in a controlled way, e.g., by bending of a flexible substrate with the atomically thin MoS2 layer on top, experimental realization of biaxial strain is more challenging. Here, we exploit the large mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of MoS2 and a silicone-based substrate to apply a controllable biaxial tensile strain by heating the substrate with a focused laser. The effect of this biaxial strain is directly observable in optical spectroscopy as a redshift of the MoS2 photoluminescence. We also demonstrate the potential of this method to engineer more complex strain patterns by employing highly absorptive features on the substrate to achieve non-uniform heat profiles. By comparison of the observed redshift to strain-dependent band structure calculations, we estimate the biaxial strain applied by the silicone-based substrate to be up to 0.2%, corresponding to a band gap modulation of 105 meV per percentage of biaxial tensile strain.

  1. Modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier behaviour by atomic layer deposition of ultra-thin Al2O3 interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Lalit; Gupta, Suman; Jaiswal, Piyush; Bhat, Navakanta; Shivashankar, S.A.; Hughes, G.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of inserting ultra-thin atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 dielectric layers (1 nm and 2 nm thick) on the Schottky barrier behaviour for high (Pt) and low (Al) work function metals on n- and p-doped InGaAs substrates has been investigated. Rectifying behaviour was observed for the p-type substrates (both native oxide and sulphur passivated) for both the Al/p-InGaAs and Al/Al 2 O 3 /p-InGaAs contacts. The Pt contacts directly deposited on p-InGaAs displayed evidence of limited rectification which increased with Al 2 O 3 interlayer thickness. Ohmic contacts were formed for both metals on n-InGaAs in the absence of an Al 2 O 3 interlayer, regardless of surface passivation. However, limited rectifying behaviour was observed for both metals on the 2 nm Al 2 O 3 /n-InGaAs samples for the sulphur passivated InGaAs surface, indicating the importance of both surface passivation and the presence of an ultra-thin dielectric interlayer on the current–voltage characteristics displayed by these devices. - Highlights: • Investigation of the modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier (SB) behaviour • Improving metal–InGaAs interface by sulphur passivation and ultrathin interlayer • Examine the effect of low work function and high work function metals on SB • Different SB behaviours observed on both n-type InGaAs and p-type InGaAs • Metal/n-InGaAs interface is more strongly pinned than the metal/p-InGaAs interface

  2. Largely Tunable Band Structures of Few-Layer InSe by Uniaxial Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaoyu; Fan, Fengren; Xuan, Ningning; Huang, Shenyang; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Chong; Sun, Zhengzong; Wu, Hua; Yan, Hugen

    2018-01-31

    Because of the strong quantum confinement effect, few-layer γ-InSe exhibits a layer-dependent band gap, spanning the visible and near infrared regions, and thus recently has been drawing tremendous attention. As a two-dimensional material, the mechanical flexibility provides an additional tuning knob for the electronic structures. Here, for the first time, we engineer the band structures of few-layer and bulk-like InSe by uniaxial tensile strain and observe a salient shift of photoluminescence peaks. The shift rate of the optical gap is approximately 90-100 meV per 1% strain for four- to eight-layer samples, which is much larger than that for the widely studied MoS 2 monolayer. Density functional theory calculations well reproduce the observed layer-dependent band gaps and the strain effect and reveal that the shift rate decreases with the increasing layer number for few-layer InSe. Our study demonstrates that InSe is a very versatile two-dimensional electronic and optoelectronic material, which is suitable for tunable light emitters, photodetectors, and other optoelectronic devices.

  3. Amorphization threshold in Si-implanted strained SiGe alloy layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, T.W.; Love, D.; Endisch, E.; Goldberg, R.D.; Mitchell, I.V.; Haynes, T.E.; Baribeau, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The authors have examined the damage produced by Si-ion implantation into strained Si 1-x Ge x epilayers. Damage accumulation in the implanted layers was monitored in situ by time-resolved reflectivity and measured by ion channeling techniques to determine the amorphization threshold in strained Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.16 and 0.29) over the temperature range 30--110 C. The results are compared with previously reported measurements on unstrained Si 1-x Ge x , and with the simple model used to describe those results. They report here data which lend support to this model and which indicate that pre-existing strain does not enhance damage accumulation in the alloy layer

  4. Misfit Strain in Superlattices Controlling the Electron-Lattice Interaction via Micro strain in Active Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poccia, N.; Ricci, A.; Bianconi, N.

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) emerges in quite different electronic materials: cuprates, diborides, and iron-pnictide superconductors. Looking for unity in the diversity we find in all these materials a common lattice architecture: they are practical realizations of heterostructures at atomic limit made of superlattices of metallic active layers intercalated by spacers as predicted in 1993 by one of us. The multilayer architecture is the key feature for the presence of electronic topological transitions where the Fermi surface of one of the subbands changes dimensionality. The superlattice misfit strain η between the active and spacer layers is shown to be a key variable to drive the system to the highest critical temperature Tc that occurs at a particular point of the 3D phase diagram Tc(θ, η) where d is the charge transfer or doping. The plots of Tc as a function of misfit strain at constant charge transfer in cuprates show a first-order quantum critical phase transition where an itinerant striped magnetic phase competes with superconductivity in the proximity of a structural phase transition, that is, associated with an electronic topological transition. The shape resonances in these multi gap superconductors is associated with the maximum Tc.

  5. Life test of the InGaAs focal plane arrays detector for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xian-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Li, Xue; Huang, Zhang-Cheng; Gong, Hai-Mei

    2017-08-01

    The short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) InGaAs focal plane array (FPA) detector consists of infrared detector chip, readout integrated circuit (ROIC), and flip-chip bonding interconnection by Indium bump. In order to satisfy space application requirements for failure rates or Mean Time to Failure (MTTF), which can only be demonstrated with the large number of detectors manufactured, the single pixel in InGaAs FPAs was chosen as the research object in this paper. The constant-stress accelerated life tests were carried out at 70°C 80°C 90°C and100°C. The failed pixels increased gradually during more than 14000 hours at each elevated temperatures. From the random failure data the activation energy was estimated to be 0.46eV, and the average lifetime of a single pixel in InGaAs FPAs was estimated to be longer than 1E+7h at the practical operating temperature (5°C).

  6. Subwavelength Gold Grating as Polarizers Integrated with InP-Based InGaAs Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Tao; Shao, Xiumei; Li, Xue; Huang, Xiaqi; Shao, Jinhai; Chen, Yifang; Gong, Haimei

    2015-07-08

    There are currently growing needs for polarimetric imaging in infrared wavelengths for broad applications in bioscience, communications and agriculture, etc. Subwavelength metallic gratings are capable of separating transverse magnetic (TM) mode from transverse electric (TE) mode to form polarized light, offering a reliable approach for the detection in polarization way. This work aims to design and fabricate subwavelength gold gratings as polarizers for InP-based InGaAs sensors in 1.0-1.6 μm. The polarization capability of gold gratings on InP substrate with pitches in the range of 200-1200 nm (fixed duty cycle of 0.5) has been systematically studied by both theoretical modeling with a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulator and spectral measurements. Gratings with 200 nm lines/space in 100-nm-thick gold have been fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL). It was found that subwavelength gold gratings directly integrated on InP cannot be applied as good polarizers, because of the existence of SPP modes in the detection wavelengths. An effective solution has been found by sandwiching the Au/InP bilayer using a 200 nm SiO2 layer, leading to significant improvement in both TM transmission and extinction ratio. At 1.35 μm, the improvement factors are 8 and 10, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that the Au/SiO2/InP trilayer should be a promising candidate of near-infrared polarizers for the InP-based InGaAs sensors.

  7. Optical Properties of InGaAs/ GaAs Multi Quantum Wells Structure Grown By Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sharizal Alias; Mohd Fauzi Maulud; Mohd Razman Yahya; Abdul Fatah Awang Mat; Suomalainen, Soile

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive analysis on the optical characteristics of InGaAs/ GaAs QW structure for 980 nm semiconductor laser operation is presented from experimental and theoretical point of view. The InGaAs/ GaAs quantum well structure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy at different indium composition and quantum well thickness for optical characteristic comparison. Photoluminescence spectra from the measurement show that the spectrum is in good agreement with the simulation results. Detail simulation on the material gain for the InGaAs/ GaAs quantum well as a function of carrier densities and operating temperature is also performed in order to optimize the semiconductor laser design for device fabrication. (author)

  8. Strain rate effects on localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers

    OpenAIRE

    BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Due to their good mechanical and technological performances, thin substrate-supported metal layers are increasingly used as functional components in flexible electronic devices. Consequently, the prediction of necking, and the associated limit strains, for such components is of major academic and industrial importance. The current contribution aims to numerically investigate the respective and combined effects of strain rate sensitivity of the metal layer and the addition of an elastomer l...

  9. Strain-Dependent Edge Structures in MoS2 Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Miguel; Maduro, Luigi; Masaki, Mukai; Okunishi, Eiji; Conesa-Boj, Sonia

    2017-11-08

    Edge structures are low-dimensional defects unavoidable in layered materials of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) family. Among the various types of such structures, the armchair (AC) and zigzag (ZZ) edge types are the most common. It has been predicted that the presence of intrinsic strain localized along these edges structures can have direct implications for the customization of their electronic properties. However, pinning down the relation between local structure and electronic properties at these edges is challenging. Here, we quantify the local strain field that arises at the edges of MoS 2 flakes by combining aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the geometrical-phase analysis (GPA) method. We also provide further insight on the possible effects of such edge strain on the resulting electronic behavior by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements. Our results reveal that the two-dominant edge structures, ZZ and AC, induce the formation of different amounts of localized strain fields. We also show that by varying the free edge curvature from concave to convex, compressive strain turns into tensile strain. These results pave the way toward the customization of edge structures in MoS 2 , which can be used to engineer the properties of layered materials and thus contribute to the optimization of the next generation of atomic-scale electronic devices built upon them.

  10. A polygonal double-layer coil design for high-efficiency wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a novel coil structure for the design of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems via magnetic resonant coupling. The new coil consists of two layers of flat polygonal windings in square, pentagonal and hexagonal shapes. The double-layer coil can be conveniently fabricated using the print circuit broad (PCB) technology. In our design, we include an angle between the two layers which can be adjusted to change the area of inter-layer overlap. This unique structure is thoroughly investigated with respect to the quality factor Q and the power transfer efficiency (PTE) using the finite element method (FEM). An equivalent circuit is derived and used to explain the properties of the angularly shifted double-layer coil theoretically. Comparative experiments are conducted from which the performance of the new coil is evaluated quantitatively. Our results have shown that an increased shift angle improves the Q-factor, and the optimal PTE is achieved when the angle reaches the maximum. When compared to the pentagonal and hexagonal coils, the square coil achieves the highest PTE due to its lowest parasitic capacitive effects. In summary, our new coil design improves the performance of WPT systems and allows a formal design procedure for optimization in a given application.

  11. Modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier behaviour by atomic layer deposition of ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Gupta, Suman; Jaiswal, Piyush; Bhat, Navakanta; Shivashankar, S.A. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2015-08-31

    The effect of inserting ultra-thin atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric layers (1 nm and 2 nm thick) on the Schottky barrier behaviour for high (Pt) and low (Al) work function metals on n- and p-doped InGaAs substrates has been investigated. Rectifying behaviour was observed for the p-type substrates (both native oxide and sulphur passivated) for both the Al/p-InGaAs and Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-InGaAs contacts. The Pt contacts directly deposited on p-InGaAs displayed evidence of limited rectification which increased with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer thickness. Ohmic contacts were formed for both metals on n-InGaAs in the absence of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer, regardless of surface passivation. However, limited rectifying behaviour was observed for both metals on the 2 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/n-InGaAs samples for the sulphur passivated InGaAs surface, indicating the importance of both surface passivation and the presence of an ultra-thin dielectric interlayer on the current–voltage characteristics displayed by these devices. - Highlights: • Investigation of the modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier (SB) behaviour • Improving metal–InGaAs interface by sulphur passivation and ultrathin interlayer • Examine the effect of low work function and high work function metals on SB • Different SB behaviours observed on both n-type InGaAs and p-type InGaAs • Metal/n-InGaAs interface is more strongly pinned than the metal/p-InGaAs interface.

  12. Large-format InGaAs focal plane arrays for SWIR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Andrew D.; MacDougal, Michael H.; Manzo, Juan; Follman, David; Geske, Jonathan C.

    2012-06-01

    FLIR Electro Optical Components will present our latest developments in large InGaAs focal plane arrays, which are used for low light level imaging in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) regime. FLIR will present imaging from their latest small pitch (15 μm) focal plane arrays in VGA and High Definition (HD) formats. FLIR will present characterization of the FPA including dark current measurements as well as the use of correlated double sampling to reduce read noise. FLIR will show imagery as well as FPA-level characterization data.

  13. Strain relief InGaN/GaN MQW micro-pillars for high brightness LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Micro-structured group-III-nitrides are considered as promising strain relief structures for high efficiency solid state lighting. In this work, the strain field in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) micro-pillars is investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and the design of micro-pillars were studied experimentally. We distinguished the strained and strain-relieved signatures of the GaN layer from the E2 phonon peak split from the Raman scattering signatures at 572 cm-1 and 568 cm-1, respectively. The extent of strain relief is examined considering the height and size of micro-pillars fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining technique. A significant strain relief can be achieved when one micro-machined through the entire epi-layers, 3 μm in our study. The dependence of strain relief on micro-pillar diameter (D) suggested that micro-pillar with D < 3 μm showed high degree of strain relief. Our results shed new insights into designing strain-relieved InGaN/GaN microstructures for high brightness light emitting diode arrays. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  15. Enhancement of breakdown voltage for fully-vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diode by using strained layer superlattice as drift layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Suguru; Hamada, Takeaki; Freedsman, Joseph J.; Egawa, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    We have demonstrated a vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diode with breakdown voltage (BV) as high as 839 V by using a low Si-doped strained layer superlattice (SLS). The p-n vertical diode fabricated by using the n‑-SLS layer as a part of the drift layer showed a remarkable enhancement in BV, when compared with the conventional n‑-GaN drift layer of similar thickness. The vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diodes with 2.3 μm-thick n‑-GaN drift layer and 3.0 μm-thick n‑-SLS layer exhibited a differential on-resistance of 4.0 Ω · cm2 and a BV of 839 V.

  16. Fracture and flaking off behavior of coated layer of DyBCO coated conductor under applied tensile strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, T.; Shin, J.K.; Matsubayashi, H.; Ochiai, S.; Okuda, H.; Osamura, K.; Prusseit, W.

    2009-01-01

    The tensile behavior of the DyBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (DyBCO) coated conductor with MgO buffer layer deposited on the Hastelloy C-276 substrate by inclined substrate deposition (ISD) was studied. The tensile stress-strain curve showed a flat region, characterized by the discontinuous yielding of the substrate due to the Lueders band extension from the gripped portions of the sample. In the area where the Lueders band had passed, the coating layer showed severe multiple transverse cracking due to the localized plastic deformation of the substrate. The flaking off of the coating layers took place at high applied strain, due to the buckling fracture of the coated layers in the sample width direction, accompanied by the interfacial debonding.

  17. Structural characterization of InAlAsSb/InGaAs/InP heterostructures for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baladés, N., E-mail: nuria.balades@uca.es [INNANOMAT Group, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Microscopía Electrónica y Materiales (IMEYMAT), CEIMAR, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Herrera, M.; Sales, David L.; Delgado, F.J. [INNANOMAT Group, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Microscopía Electrónica y Materiales (IMEYMAT), CEIMAR, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Hernández-Maldonado, D.; Ramasse, Q.M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, SciTech Daresbury Campus, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Pizarro, J.; Galindo, P. [Department of Computer Engineering, University of Cádiz, Avda. de la Universidad de Cádiz, no 10, 11519 Cádiz (Spain); González, M. [U.S Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington D.C. 20375 (United States); Sotera Defense Solutions, 430 National Business Pkwy # 100, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701 (United States); Abell, J.; Tomasulo, S.; Walters, J.R. [U.S Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington D.C. 20375 (United States); and others

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The red shift in the photoluminescence emission of InAlAsSb layers is due to small and gradual compositional fluctuations, rather than in the form of atomically sharp transitions. • The composition fluctuations in InAlAsSb active layers do not cause strong variations of the lattice parameter. • The strain due to composition fluctuations in the InGaAs buffer layer does not have a strong effect in the InAlAsSb active layer. • The 2D nature of the TEM-STEM techniques is an important limitation for the analysis of 3D small compositional fluctuations in quaternary semiconductors. - Abstract: In this work, we have characterized by transmission electron microscopy techniques the structural properties of InAlAsSb/InGaAs/InP heterostructures, with target applications in high efficiency solar cells. Previous photoluminescence (PL) analysis suggested the existence of compositional fluctuations in the active layer of these heterostructures. 220 bright field (BF) diffraction contrast micrographs have revealed strong strain contrast in the InGaAs buffer layer, related to the existence of these compositional fluctuations. The effect of a decomposed buffer on the growth of the InAlAsSb layer has been analyzed through the simulation of the strain fields in the heterostructure using the finite elements method (FEM). These simulations have shown that the strain in the buffer layer due to the compositional fluctuations only affects the first few nm of the InAlAsSb layer. The analysis by aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the composition of the InAlAsSb layer reveals that any compositional fluctuation is only observed as an average effect, rather than in the form of clustering or atomically sharp transitions. The limitations of these techniques for the detection of small 3D compositional fluctuations are discussed.

  18. Characterization of modulation doped pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs HEMT structures by electron beam electroreflectance and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.A.; Ward, I.D.; Kopf, R.F.; Pearton, S.J.; Jones, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have investigated the optical transitions present in MBE-grown modulation doped pseudomorphic Al x Ga 1-x As/In y Ga 1-y As/GaAs HEMT structures of 120 Angstrom InGaAs thickness, y values 0 to 0.28, and x values 0.20 to 0.30. From both 300K electron beam electroreflectance (EBER) and 4K photoluminescence (PL) measurements the authors observe transitions from the InGaAs strained quantum well layer. The intensity and lineshape of the InGaAs transition in both optical spectra are affected by processing temperatures, and provides an indication of the quality of the HEMT

  19. Ba{sub y}Sr{sub 1−y}TiO{sub 3} buffer layers for strain tuning of infinite-layer Sr{sub 1−x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Keita, E-mail: sakuma.keita@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ito, Masataka; He, Yilun; Hajiri, Tetsuya; Ueda, Kenji; Asano, Hidefumi

    2016-08-01

    We report on the precise tuning of lattice strain in an infinite-layer electron-doped high temperature superconductor Sr{sub 1−x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 2} (SLCO; a{sub SLCO} = 0.3949 nm for x = 0.1), which is a perovskite-related oxide, using perovskite BaTiO{sub 3}–SrTiO{sub 3} (BSTO; Ba{sub y}Sr{sub 1−y}TiO{sub 3}) buffer layers. The BSTO buffer layers formed on (001) (La{sub 0.18}Sr{sub 0.82})(Al{sub 0.59}Ta{sub 0.41})O{sub 3} substrates by magnetron sputtering were fully relaxed with high crystalline quality due to high oxygen partial pressure deposition and post annealing at 950 °C. The lattice constants of the BSTO buffer layers could be controlled in the range of 0.3926–0.3973 nm by changing the Ba content (y = 0.2–0.7). These BSTO buffer layers allow coherent growth of SLCO thin films, and a clear dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on the lattice strain was observed. The fabrication of these BSTO/superconductor heterostructures may provide novel devices composed of functional perovskite thin films, in addition to a general approach for the precise control of lattice strain in functional perovskite thin films. - Highlights: • Ba{sub y}Sr{sub 1−y}TiO{sub 3} buffer layers were developed for the strain tuning of perovskite-related oxides. • Strain effect in Sr{sub 1−x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 2} was investigated by using Ba{sub y}Sr{sub 1−y}TiO{sub 3} buffer layers. • Ba{sub y}Sr{sub 1−y}TiO{sub 3} buffer layers can be used to tune the strain in other perovskite oxides.

  20. Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors which may be the next generation of band-gap engineered, large format infrared detector...

  1. Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Li-Rich Layered Cathode Oxides for High Volumetric and Power Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bao; Yin, Chong; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-02-01

    As rechargeable Li-ion batteries have expanded their applications into on-board energy storage for electric vehicles, the energy and power must be increased to meet the new demands. Li-rich layered oxides are one of the most promising candidate materials; however, it is very difficult to make them compatible with high volumetric energy density and power density. Here, we develop an innovative approach to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides Li[Li 0.144 Ni 0.136 Co 0.136 Mn 0.544 ]O 2 , directly occurring at deep chemical delithiation with carbon dioxide. It is found that the as-prepared material presents a micrometer-sized spherical structure that is typically composed of interconnected nanosized subunits with narrow distributed pores at 3.6 nm. As a result, this unique 3D micro-/nanostructure not only has a high tap density over 2.20 g cm -3 but also exhibits excellent rate capability (197.6 mA h g -1 at 1250 mA g -1 ) as an electrode. The excellent electrochemical performance is ascribed to the unique nanoporous micro-nanostructures, which facilitates the Li + diffusion and enhances the structural stability of the Li-rich layered cathode materials. Our work offers a comprehensive designing strategy to construct 3D nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides for both high volumetric energy density and power density in Li-ion batteries.

  2. InGaAs focal plane arrays for low-light-level SWIR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougal, Michael; Hood, Andrew; Geske, Jon; Wang, Jim; Patel, Falgun; Follman, David; Manzo, Juan; Getty, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Aerius Photonics will present their latest developments in large InGaAs focal plane arrays, which are used for low light level imaging in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) regime. Aerius will present imaging in both 1280x1024 and 640x512 formats. Aerius will present characterization of the FPA including dark current measurements. Aerius will also show the results of development of SWIR FPAs for high temperaures, including imagery and dark current data. Finally, Aerius will show results of using the SWIR camera with Aerius' SWIR illuminators using VCSEL technology.

  3. Pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn and Ge layers in strained heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. A.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Tuktamyshev, A. R.; Mashanov, V. I.; Loshkarev, I. D.; Bloshkin, A. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    The GeSiSn, SiSn layer growth mechanisms on Si(100) were investigated and the kinetic diagrams of the morphological GeSiSn, SiSn film states in the temperature range of 150 °C-450 °C at the tin content from 0% to 35% were built. The phase diagram of the superstructural change on the surface of Sn grown on Si(100) in the annealing temperature range of 0 °C-850 °C was established. The specular beam oscillations were first obtained during the SiSn film growth from 150 °C to 300 °C at the Sn content up to 35%. The transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry data confirm the crystal perfection and the pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn film state, and also the presence of smooth heterointerfaces between GeSiSn or SiSn and Si. The photoluminescence for the multilayer periodic GeSiSn/Si structures in the range of 0.6-0.8 eV was detected. The blue shift with the excitation power increase is observed suggesting the presence of a type II heterostructure. The creation of tensile strained Ge films, which are pseudomorphic to the underlying GeSn layer, is confirmed by the results of the formation and analysis of the reciprocal space map in the x-ray diffractometry. The tensile strain in the Ge films reached the value in the range of 0.86%-1.5%. The GeSn buffer layer growth in the Sn content range from 8% to 12% was studied. The band structure of heterosystems based on pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn and Ge layers was calculated and the valence and conduction band subband position dependences on the Sn content were built. Based on the calculation, the Sn content range in the GeSiSn, SiSn, and GeSn layers, which corresponds to the direct bandgap GeSiSn, SiSn, and Ge material, was obtained.

  4. Growth rate and surfactant-assisted enhancements of rare-earth arsenide InGaAs nanocomposites for terahertz generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Salas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the effects of the growth rate on the properties of iii-v nanocomposites containing rare-earth-monopnictide nanoparticles. In particular, the beneficial effects of surfactant-assisted growth of LuAs:In0.53Ga0.47As nanocomposites were found to be most profound at reduced LuAs growth rates. Substantial enhancement in the electrical and optical properties that are beneficial for ultrafast photoconductors was observed and is attributed to the higher structural quality of the InGaAs matrix in this new growth regime. The combined enhancements enabled a >50% increase in the amount of LuAs that could be grown without degrading the quality of the InGaAs overgrowth. Dark resistivity increased by ∼25× while maintaining carrier mobilities over 3000 cm2/V s; carrier lifetimes were reduced by >2×, even at high depositions of LuAs. The combined growth rate and surfactant enhancements offer a previously unexplored regime to enable high-performance fast photoconductors that may be integrated with telecom components for compact, broadly tunable, heterodyne THz source and detectors.

  5. Defect analysis of NiMnSb epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, L. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: lech.nowicki@fuw.edu.pl; Turos, A. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Stonert, A. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Garrido, F. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Molenkamp, L.W. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Bach, P. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Schmidt, G. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Karczewski, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Muecklich, A. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-10-15

    NiMnSb layers grown on InP substrates with InGaAs buffer were studied by the backscattering/channeling spectrometry (RBS/C) with He beams. The nature of predominant defects observed in the layers was studied by determination of incident-energy dependence of the relative channeling yield. The defects are described as a combination of large amount of interstitial atoms and of stacking faults or grain boundaries. The presence of grains was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Texture-enhanced Al-Cu electrodes on ultrathin Ti buffer layers for high-power durable 2.6 GHz SAW filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sulei; Wang, Weibiao; Xiao, Li; Lu, Zengtian; Li, Qi; Song, Cheng; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Achieving high resistance to acoustomigration and electromigration in the electrodes used in high-power and high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters is important to mobile communications development. In this study, the effects of the Ti buffer layers on the textures and acoustomigration and electromigration resistances of the Al-Cu electrodes were studied comprehensively. The results demonstrate that both power durability and electromigration lifetime are positively correlated with the Al-Cu electrode texture quality. Ultrathin (˜2 nm) Ti can lead to the strongest Al-Cu (111) textured electrodes, with a full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of 2.09°. This represents a remarkable enhancement of the power durability of high-frequency 2.6 GHz SAW filters from 29 dBm to 35 dBm. It also produces lifetime almost 7 times longer than those of electrodes without Ti buffer layers in electromigration tests. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that these improved acoustomigration and electromigration resistances can be attributed primarily to the reductions in overall and large-angle grain boundaries in the highly Al-Cu (111) textured electrodes. Furthermore, the growth mechanism of highly Al-Cu texture films is discussed in terms of surface-interface energy balance.

  7. Equilibrium stability of strained epitaxial layers on a rigid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, E.; Kosterlitz, J.M.; Ying, S.C.

    1987-07-01

    A simple theory of the equilibrium stability of an strained epitaxial layer on a rigid substrate is presented. We generalise the Frankvan der Merwe model of a single layer and consider N layers of adsorbate on a substrate. Continuum elasticity theory is used to describe each layer, but the coupling between layers is treated ina discrete fashion. Our method interpolates between a few layers and the thick film limit of standard dislocation theory, and in this limit the standard results are obtained. In addition, we developed a variational approach which agrees well with our exact calculations. The advantage of our method over previous ores is that it allows to perform stability analyses of arbitrary superlattice configurations. (author) [pt

  8. X-ray study of strain relaxation in heteroepitaxial AlGaAs layers annealed under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak-Misiuk, J.; Adamczewska, J.; Kozanecki, A.; Kuritsyn, D.; Glukhanyuk, W.; Trela, J.; Misiuk, A.; Reginski, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of treatment at up to 1270 K under hydrostatic argon pressure, up to 1.2 GPa, on strain relaxation of AlGaAs layers was investigated by X-ray diffraction and related methods. The 1.5 μm thick AlGaAs layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy method on 001 oriented semi-insulating GaAs substrate at 950 K. An increase of intensity of X-ray diffuse scattering, originating from hydrostatic pressure-induced misfit dislocations, was observed for all treated samples. For the samples treated at 920 K during 1 h under 0.6 GPa, the diffuse scattering was confined to the [110] crystallographic direction, perpendicular to the direction of dislocations. For the samples treated at 1.2 GPa, a different behaviour is observed, namely the diffuse scattering extends along all azimuthal directions, indicating that dislocations are created in both [110] and [1 - 10] directions. The change of strain after the treatment was most pronounced for the samples treated at 1.2 GPa for 1 h at 920 K. (author)

  9. Scattering and mobility in indium gallium arsenide channel, pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (InGaAs pHEMTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.L.

    1999-03-01

    Extensive transport measurements have been completed on deep and shallow-channelled InGaAs p-HEMTs of varying growth temperature, indium content, spacer thickness and doping density, with a view to a thorough characterisation, both in the metallic and the localised regimes. Particular emphasis was given to MBE grown layers, with characteristics applicable for device use, but low measurement temperatures were necessary to resolve the elastic scattering mechanisms. Measurements made in the metallic regime included transport and quantum mobility - the former over a range of temperatures between 1.5K to 300K. Conductivity measurements were also acquired in the strong localisation regime between about 1.5K and 100K. Experimentally determined parameters were tested for comparison with those predicted by an electrostatic model. Excellent agreement was obtained for carrier density. Other parameters were less well predicted, but the relevant experimental measurements, including linear depletion of the 2DEG, were sensitive to any excess doping above a 'critical' value determined by the model. At low temperature (1.5K), it was found that in all samples tested, transport mobility was strongly limited at all carrier densities by a large q mechanism, possibly intrinsic to the channel. This was ascribed either to scattering by the long-range potentials arising from the indium concentration fluctuations or fluctuations in the thickness of the channel layer. This mechanism dominates the transport at low carrier densities for all samples, but at high carrier density, an additional mechanism is significant for samples with the thinnest spacers tested (2.5nm). This is ascribed to direct electron interaction with the states of the donor layer, and produces a characteristic transport mobility peak. At higher carrier densities, past the peak, quantum mobility was found only to increase monotonically in value. Remote ionised impurity scattering while significant, particularly for samples

  10. Metallic nanoparticle-based strain sensors elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.; Thomas, D.; Rafaël, R.; R'Mili, M.; Malchère, A.; Roiban, L.; Koneti, S.; Bugnet, M.; Sabac, A.; Le Berre, M.

    2017-03-01

    Platinum nanoparticle-based strain gauges are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition on flexible polyimide substrates. Their electro-mechanical response is tested under mechanical bending in both buckling and conformational contact configurations. A maximum gauge factor of 70 is reached at a strain level of 0.5%. Although the exponential dependence of the gauge resistance on strain is attributed to the tunneling effect, it is shown that the majority of the junctions between adjacent Pt nanoparticles are in a short circuit state. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of an all-plastic pressure sensor integrating Pt nanoparticle-based strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration.

  11. Self-sustained pulsation in the oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Ustinov, V. M.; Sokolovskii, G. S.; Maleev, N. A.; Blokhin, S. A.; Deryagin, A. G.; Chumak, S. V.; Shulenkov, A. S.; Mikhrin, S. S.; Kovsh, A. R.; McRobbie, A. D.; Sibbett, W.; Cataluna, M. A.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the observation of strong self-pulsations in molecular-beam epitaxy-grown oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots. At continuous-wave operation, self-pulsations with pulse durations of 100-300 ps and repetition rates of 0.2-0.6 GHz were measured. The average optical power of the pulsations was 0.5-1.0 mW at the laser continuous-wave current values of 1.5-2.5 mA

  12. Numerical analysis of high-power broad-area laser diode with improved heat sinking structure using epitaxial liftoff technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghyun; Sung, Yunsu; Yang, Jung-Tack; Choi, Woo-Young

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of high-power broad-area laser diodes with the improved heat sinking structure are numerically analyzed by a technology computer-aided design based self-consistent electro-thermal-optical simulation. The high-power laser diodes consist of a separate confinement heterostructure of a compressively strained InGaAsP quantum well and GaInP optical cavity layers, and a 100-μm-wide rib and a 2000-μm long cavity. In order to overcome the performance deteriorations of high-power laser diodes caused by self-heating such as thermal rollover and thermal blooming, we propose the high-power broad-area laser diode with improved heat-sinking structure, which another effective heat-sinking path toward the substrate side is added by removing a bulk substrate. It is possible to obtain by removing a 400-μm-thick GaAs substrate with an AlAs sacrificial layer utilizing well-known epitaxial liftoff techniques. In this study, we present the performance improvement of the high-power laser diode with the heat-sinking structure by suppressing thermal effects. It is found that the lateral far-field angle as well as quantum well temperature is expected to be improved by the proposed heat-sinking structure which is required for high beam quality and optical output power, respectively.

  13. Tunnel field-effect transistors with germanium/strained-silicon hetero-junctions for low power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Younghyun; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Kim, SangHyeon; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    We have studied a simple structure n-channel tunnel field-effect transistor with a pure-Ge/strained-Si hetero-junction. The device operation was demonstrated for the devices fabricated by combining epitaxially-grown Ge on strained-silicon-on-insulator substrates. Atomic-layer-deposition-Al 2 O 3 -based gate stacks were formed with electron cyclotron resonance plasma post oxidation to ensure the high quality metal–oxide–semiconductor interface between the high-k insulator and Ge. While the gate leakage current and drain current saturation are well controlled, relatively higher minimum subthreshold swing of 125 mV/dec and lower I ON /I OFF ratio of 10 3 –10 4 were obtained. It is expected that these device characteristics can be improved by further process optimization. - Highlights: • Layer by layer growth of Ge • Uniform interface between Ge and the insulator • Gate leakage current and drain current saturation seem to be well controlled. • The output characteristics show good saturation

  14. Optical properties of InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells for the 1520–1580 nm spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladyshev, A. G., E-mail: andrey.gladyshev@connector-optics.com; Novikov, I. I.; Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Denisov, D. V. [Connector Optics OOO (Russian Federation); Blokhin, S. A.; Blokhin, A. A.; Nadtochiy, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kurochkin, A. S. [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. Yu. [Connector Optics OOO (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The optical properties of elastically strained semiconductor heterostructures with InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells (QWs), intended for use in the formation of the active region of lasers emitting in the spectral range 1520–1580 nm, are studied. Active regions with varied lattice mismatch between the InGaAs QWs and the InP substrate are fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. The maximum lattice mismatch for the InGaAs QWs is +2%. The optical properties of the elastically strained InGaAlAs/InGaAs/InP heterostructures are studied by the photoluminescence method in the temperature range from 20 to 140°C at various power densities of the excitation laser. Investigation of the optical properties of InGaAlAs/InGaAs/InP experimental samples confirms the feasibility of using the developed elastically strained heterostructures for the fabrication of active regions for laser diodes with high temperature stability.

  15. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, V.; Pandolfo, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m 2 g -1 , and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et 4 NBF 4 /ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size ( -1 at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg -1 and 38 kW kg -1 on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g -1 at current densities as high as 250 A g -1 . The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  16. Behavior of fiber reinforced metal laminates at high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newaz, Golam; Sasso, Marco; Amodio, Dario; Mancini, Edoardo

    2018-05-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Laminate (CARALL) is a good system for energy absorption through plastic deformation in aluminum and micro-cracking in the composite layers. Moreover, CARALL FMLs also provide excellent impact resistance due to the presence of aluminum layer. The focus of this research is to characterize the CARALL behavior under dynamic conditions. High strain rate tests on sheet laminate samples have been carried out by means of direct Split Hopkinson Tension Bar. The sample geometry and the clamping system were optimized by FEM simulations. The clamping system has been designed and optimized in order reduce impedance disturbance due to the fasteners and to avoid the excessive plastic strain outside the gauge region of the samples.

  17. Highly Efficient Spin-to-Charge Current Conversion in Strained HgTe Surface States Protected by a HgCdTe Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, P.; Thomas, C.; Fu, Y.; Vila, L.; Haas, B.; Jouneau, P.-H.; Gambarelli, S.; Meunier, T.; Ballet, P.; Attané, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of spin-to-charge current conversion in strained mercury telluride at room temperature, using spin pumping experiments. We show that a HgCdTe barrier can be used to protect the HgTe from direct contact with the ferromagnet, leading to very high conversion rates, with inverse Edelstein lengths up to 2.0 ±0.5 nm . The influence of the HgTe layer thickness on the conversion efficiency is found to differ strongly from what is expected in spin Hall effect systems. These measurements, associated with the temperature dependence of the resistivity, suggest that these high conversion rates are due to the spin momentum locking property of HgTe surface states.

  18. Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors which may be the next generation of band-gap engineered, large format infrared detector...

  19. Limitations of In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dot growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, Andrea; Timm, Rainer; Eisele, Holger; Ivanova, Lena; Sellin, Roman L.; Pohl, Udo W.; Bimberg, Dieter; Daehne, Mario; Liu, Huiyun; Hopkinson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Large In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with an emission wavelength of 1.3 μm are of widespread interest for devices in optoelectronics. Two different growth strategies to achieve those larger QDs are - among others - the overgrowth with a strain-reducing InGaAs layer or the growth of InAs QDs within InGaAs quantum wells. Using cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM) we studied such In(Ga)As QD samples grown with MOCVD and MBE. In both cases the intended size increase of the QDs is confirmed, but it is accompanied by some QDs containing a material hole, and hence will not contribute to the luminescence. We present atomically-resolved XSTM images of these defects and discuss the similarities and differences between the two samples. In addition, we developed growth models considering the strain and the limited growth kinetics during capping, demonstrating the limits of larger QD growth

  20. Coherent Pound-Drever-Hall technique for high resolution fiber optic strain sensor at very low light power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxin; Liu, Qingwen; Chen, Jiageng; He, Zuyuan

    2017-04-01

    Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) technique has been widely adopted for ultrahigh resolution fiber-optic sensors, but its performance degenerates seriously as the light power drops. To solve this problem, we developed a coherent PDH technique for weak optical signal detection, with which the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of demodulated PDH signal is dramatically improved. In the demonstrational experiments, a high resolution fiber-optic sensor using the proposed technique is realized, and n"-order strain resolution at a low light power down to -43 dBm is achieved, which is about 15 dB lower compared with classical PDH technique. The proposed coherent PDH technique has great potentials in longer distance and larger scale sensor networks.

  1. Terahertz tunable detection in self-switching diodes based on high mobility semiconductors: InGaAs, InAs and InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniguez-de-la-Torre, I; Rodilla, H; Mateos, J; Pardo, D; Gonzalez, T; Song, A M

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report on the use of high mobility materials in the channel of self-switching diodes as potential candidates for terahertz operation. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we envisage the feasibility of tuneable-by-geometry detection in the terahertz range. The low effective mass of InAs and InSb in relation to InGaAs enhances ballistic transport inside the diode, thus improving the amplitude and quality factor of the resonance found in the detection spectra of self-switching diodes. The frequency of the resonant peak is also increased with the use of these narrow band gap semiconductors. The analysis of the noise spectra provides useful information about the origin of the resonance. By decreasing temperature below 300 K, a clear improvement in detection sensitivity is also achieved.

  2. Terahertz tunable detection in self-switching diodes based on high mobility semiconductors: InGaAs, InAs and InSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iniguez-de-la-Torre, I; Rodilla, H; Mateos, J; Pardo, D; Gonzalez, T [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Song, A M, E-mail: indy@usal.e [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    In this work we report on the use of high mobility materials in the channel of self-switching diodes as potential candidates for terahertz operation. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we envisage the feasibility of tuneable-by-geometry detection in the terahertz range. The low effective mass of InAs and InSb in relation to InGaAs enhances ballistic transport inside the diode, thus improving the amplitude and quality factor of the resonance found in the detection spectra of self-switching diodes. The frequency of the resonant peak is also increased with the use of these narrow band gap semiconductors. The analysis of the noise spectra provides useful information about the origin of the resonance. By decreasing temperature below 300 K, a clear improvement in detection sensitivity is also achieved.

  3. Modeling and optimization of InGaAs infrared photovoltaic detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Piotrowski, J; Reginski, K

    2000-01-01

    The performance of In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As detectors operating in the 2-3.4 mu m spectral range and temperature of 300 K has been analyzed theoretically as a function of wavelength, band gap and doping level with special emphasis on 2-2.5 mu m and 3-3.5 mu m atmospheric window devices. The calculations show that the dominant generation-recombination mechanism in p-type, intrinsic and in a lightly doped n-type InGaAs is the spin split-off band Auger process (AS). Since the AS generation increases with the square of the hole concentration, the minimum thermal generation and the best performance can be obtained using moderately doped n-type material as the absorber region of a photovoltaic device. In principle, the ultimate performance can be achieved in the optimized homojunction devices with relatively thick n-type absorber region forming n-p junction with a thin p-type material. N-type doping of absorber region of InGaAs photodiodes at 300 K changes from 1x10 sup 1 sup 4 to 5.2x10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup ...

  4. Analysis of Strain and Intermixing in a Single Layer Ge/Si dots using polarized Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    PEROVA, TANIA; MOORE, ROBERT

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED The built-in strain and composition of as-grown and Si-capped single layers of Ge?Si dots grown at various temperatures (460?800 ?C) are studied by a comparative analysis of the Ge-Ge and Si-Ge modes in the polarized Raman spectra of the dots. A pronounced reduction of the strain and Ge content in the dots after deposition of the cap layer at low temperatures is observed, indicating that strain-induced Si diffusion from the cap layer is occurring. For large dots grown at 700?800...

  5. Tunnel field-effect transistors with germanium/strained-silicon hetero-junctions for low power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoo@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kim, Younghyun; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Kim, SangHyeon; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2014-04-30

    We have studied a simple structure n-channel tunnel field-effect transistor with a pure-Ge/strained-Si hetero-junction. The device operation was demonstrated for the devices fabricated by combining epitaxially-grown Ge on strained-silicon-on-insulator substrates. Atomic-layer-deposition-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based gate stacks were formed with electron cyclotron resonance plasma post oxidation to ensure the high quality metal–oxide–semiconductor interface between the high-k insulator and Ge. While the gate leakage current and drain current saturation are well controlled, relatively higher minimum subthreshold swing of 125 mV/dec and lower I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio of 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} were obtained. It is expected that these device characteristics can be improved by further process optimization. - Highlights: • Layer by layer growth of Ge • Uniform interface between Ge and the insulator • Gate leakage current and drain current saturation seem to be well controlled. • The output characteristics show good saturation.

  6. Anisotropically biaxial strain in non-polar (112-0) plane In x Ga1-x N/GaN layers investigated by X-ray reciprocal space mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guijuan; Li, Huijie; Wang, Lianshan; Meng, Yulin; Ji, Zesheng; Li, Fangzheng; Wei, Hongyuan; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-07-03

    In this study, the indium composition x as well as the anisotropically biaxial strain in non-polar a-plane In x Ga 1-x N on GaN is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In accordance with XRD reciprocal lattice space mapping, with increasing indium composition, the maximum of the In x Ga 1-x N reciprocal lattice points progressively shifts from a fully compressive strained to a fully relaxed position, then to reversed tensile strained. To fully understand the strain in the ternary alloy layers, it is helpful to grow high-quality device structures using a-plane nitrides. As the layer thickness increases, the strain of In x Ga 1-x N layer releases through surface roughening and the 3D growth-mode.

  7. Highly stretchable strain sensor based on polyurethane substrate using hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure for monitoring of tiny human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yunong; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia; Zhang, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Strain sensors used as flexible and wearable electronic devices have improved prospects in the fields of artificial skin, robotics, human-machine interfaces, and healthcare. This work introduces a highly stretchable fiber-based strain sensor with a laminated structure made up of a graphene nanoplatelet layer and a carbon black/single-walled carbon nanotube synergetic conductive network layer. An ultrathin, flexible, and elastic two-layer polyurethane (PU) yarn substrate was successively deposited by a novel chemical bonding-based layered dip-coating process. These strain sensors demonstrated high stretchability (˜350%), little hysteresis, and long-term durability (over 2400 cycles) due to the favorable tensile properties of the PU substrate. The linearity of the strain sensor could reach an adjusted R-squared of 0.990 at 100% strain, which is better than most of the recently reported strain sensors. Meanwhile, the strain sensor exhibited good sensibility, rapid response, and a lower detection limit. The lower detection limit benefited from the hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure and continuous conductive path. Finally, a series of experiments were carried out based on the special features of the PU strain sensor to show its capacity of detecting and monitoring tiny human motions.

  8. Periodic Two-Dimensional GaAs and InGaAs Quantum Rings Grown on GaAs (001) by Droplet Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Kar Hoo Patrick; Huang, Jian; Danner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Growth of ordered GaAs and InGaAs quantum rings (QRs) in a patterned SiO2 nanohole template by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using droplet epitaxy (DE) process is demonstrated. DE is an MBE growth technique used to fabricate quantum nanostructures of high crystal quality by supplying group III and group V elements in separate phases. In this work, ordered QRs grown on an ordered nanohole template are compared to self-assembled QRs grown with the same DE technique without the nanohole template. This study allows us to understand and compare the surface kinetics of Ga and InGa droplets when a template is present. It is found that template-grown GaAs QRs form clustered rings which can be attributed to low mobility of Ga droplets resulting in multiple nucleation sites for QR formation when As is supplied. However, the case of template-grown InGaAs QRs only one ring is formed per nanohole; no clustering is observed. The outer QR diameter is a close match to the nanohole template diameter. This can be attributed to more mobile InGa droplets, which coalesce from an Ostwald ripening to form a single large droplet before As is supplied. Thus, well-patterned InGaAs QRs are demonstrated and the kinetics of their growth are better understood which could potentially lead to improvements in the future devices that require the unique properties of patterned QRs.

  9. Strain Dependence of Photoluminescense of Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pavel N.; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, Bruce; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated strain dependence of photoluminescense (PL) spectra of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Nanotubes were sparsely dispersed in a thin PMMA film applied to acrylic bar, and strained in both compression and extension by bending this bar in either direction in a homebuilt four-point bending rig. The average surface strain was measured with high accuracy by a resistive strain gage applied on top of the film. The near infrared imaging and spectroscopy were performed on the inverted microscope equipped with high numerical aperture reflective objective lens and InGaAs CCD cameras. PL was excited with a diode laser at either 658, 730 or 785 nm, linearly polarized in the direction of the strain. We were able to measure (n,m) types and orientation of individual nanotubes with respect to strain direction and strain dependence of their PL maxima. It was found that PL peak shifts with respect to the values measured in SDS micelles are a sum of three components. First, a small environmental shift due to difference in the dielectric constant of the surrounding media, that is constant and independent of the nanotube type. Second, shift due to isotropic compression of the film during drying. Third, shifts produced by the uniaxial loading of the film in the experiment. Second and third shifts follow expression based on the first-order expansion of the TB hamiltonian. Their magnitude is proportional to the nanotube chiral angle and strain, and direction is determined by the nanotube quantum number. PL strain dependence measured for a number of various nanotube types allows to estimate TB carbon-carbon transfer integral.

  10. Ion-beam synthesis of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} strained layers for high speed electronic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliman, R.G.; Jiang, H.; Wong, W.C.; Kringhoj, P. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that Ge{sub x}S{sub 1-x} strained layers can be fabricated by Ge implantation and solid-phase epitaxy and that the use of these layers can improve the performance of electronic devices. Several materials science issues are addressed, including the effect of Ge on solid-phase-epitaxy, the effect of oxidation on the implanted Ge distribution, and the effect of Ge on the oxidation rate of Si. The process is demonstrated for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Ion-beam synthesis of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} strained layers for high speed electronic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliman, R G; Jiang, H; Wong, W C; Kringhoj, P [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    It is shown that Ge{sub x}S{sub 1-x} strained layers can be fabricated by Ge implantation and solid-phase epitaxy and that the use of these layers can improve the performance of electronic devices. Several materials science issues are addressed, including the effect of Ge on solid-phase-epitaxy, the effect of oxidation on the implanted Ge distribution, and the effect of Ge on the oxidation rate of Si. The process is demonstrated for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  13. In situ real-time x-ray reciprocal space mapping during InGaAs/GaAs growth for understanding strain relaxation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sai, Akihisa; Lee, Jong-Han; Kamiya, Itaru; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masamitsu; Fujikawa, Seiji; Arafune, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In situ real-time X-ray diffraction measurements during In 0.12 Ga 0.88 As/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth are performed for the first time to understand the strain relaxation mechanisms in a lattice-mismatched system. The high resolution reciprocal space maps of 004 diffraction obtained at interval of 6.2 nm thickness enable transient behavior of residual strain and crystal quality to be observed simultaneously as a function of InGaAs film thickness. From the evolution of these data, five thickness ranges with different relaxation processes and these transition points are determined quantitatively, and the dominant dislocation behavior in each phase is deduced. (author)

  14. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 10 4 to 4 × 10 4  s −1 . The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading

  15. InGaAs detectors and FPA's for a large span of applications: design and material considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeiren, J. P.; Merken, P.

    2017-11-01

    Compared with the other Infrared detector materials, such as HgCdTe (or MCT) and lead salts (e.g.: PbS, PbSe, PbSnTe, …), the history of InGaAs FPA's is not that old. Some 25 years ago the first linear detectors were used for space missions [1,2]. During the last 15-20 years InGaAs, grown lattice matched on InP, has become the work horse for the telecommunication industry [3] and later on for passive and active imagery in the SWIR range. For longer wavelengths than 1.7 μm, III-V materials are in strong competition with SWIR MCT and till now the performance of MCT is better than high In-content InGaAs. During the last years some alternatives based on quaternary materials [4] and on Superlattice structures [5] are making gradual progress in such a way that they can yield performing Focal planes in the (near) future. As the SWIR wavelengths range covers a large variety of applications, also the FPA characteristics and mainly the ROIC properties need to be adjusted to fulfil the mission requirements with the requested performance. Additionally one has to bear in mind that the nature of SWIR radiation is completely different from what is usually encountered in IR imaging. Whereas the signal of thermal imagery in the Middle Wavelength (MWIR: [3 - 5 μm]) or Long Wavelength (LWIR: [8 - 10 μm] or [8 - 12 μm]) band is characterized by a large DC pedestal, caused by objects at ambient temperature, and a small AC signal, due to the small temperature or emissivity variations, SWIR range imagery is characterized by a large dynamic range and almost no DC signal. In this sense the SWIR imagery is resembling more the nature of Visible and NIR imaging than that of thermal imagery.

  16. In-situ Ga doping of fully strained Ge1-xSnx heteroepitaxial layers grown on Ge(001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O.; Vincent, B.; Gencarelli, F.; Clarysse, T.; Vandervorst, W.; Caymax, M.; Loo, R.; Jensen, A.; Petersen, D.H.; Zaima, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the Ga and Sn content dependence of the crystallinity and electrical properties of Ga-doped Ge 1-x Sn x layers that are heteroepitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrates. The doping of Ga to levels as high as the solubility limit of Ga at the growth temperature leads to the introduction of dislocations, due to the increase in the strain of the Ge 1-x Sn x layers. We achieved the growth of a fully strained Ge 0.922 Sn 0.078 layer on Ge with a Ga concentration of 5.5 × 10 19 /cm 3 without any dislocations and stacking faults. The resistivity of the Ga-doped Ge 1-x Sn x layer decreased as the Sn content was increased. This decrease was due to an increase in the carrier concentration, with an increase in the activation level of Ga atoms in the Ge 1-x Sn x epitaxial layers being induced by the introduction of Sn. As a result, we found that the resistivity for the Ge 0.950 Sn 0.050 layer annealed at 600°C for 1 min is 3.6 times less than that of the Ga-doped Ge/Ge sample. - Highlights: ► Heavy Ga-doping into fully strained GeSn layers without the introduction of dislocations ► The uniform Ga depth profile allowed the introduction of Sn ► The decrease in resistivity with an increase in the activation level of Ga was caused by the introduction of Sn

  17. Flexible Strain Sensor Based on Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Graphene/Polymer Nanocomposite Membrane and Its Sensing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhi; Jiang, Chuanxing; Tong, Jun; Zong, Xiaoqi; Hu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Graphene is a potential building block for next generation electronic devices including field-effect transistors, chemical sensors, and radio frequency switches. Investigations of strain application of graphene-based films have emerged in recent years, but the challenges in synthesis and processing achieving control over its fabrication constitute the main obstacles towards device applications. This work presents an alternative approach, layer-by-layer self-assembly, allowing a controllable fabrication of graphene/polymer film strain sensor on flexible substrates of polyimide with interdigital electrodes. Carboxylated graphene and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) were exploited to form hierarchical nanostructure due to electrostatic action. The morphology and structure of the film were inspected by using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain-sensing properties of the graphene/PDDA film sensor were investigated through tuning micrometer caliper exertion and a PC-assisted piezoresistive measurement system. Experimental result shows that the sensor exhibited not only excellent response and reversibility behavior as a function of deflection, but also good repeatability and acceptable linearity. The strain-sensing mechanism of the proposed sensor was attributed to the electrical resistance change resulted from piezoresistive effect.

  18. Ellipsometric study of metal-organic chemically vapor deposited III-V semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Sekula-Moise, Patricia A.; Sieg, Robert M.; Drotos, Mark N.; Bogner, Nancy A.

    1992-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of MOCVD-grown layers of AlGaAs and InGaAs in thick films and strained layer complex structures is presented. It is concluded that the ternary composition of thick nonstrained layers can be accurately determined to within experimental errors using numerical algorithms. In the case of complex structures, thickness of all layers and the alloy composition of nonstrained layers can be determined simultaneously, provided that the correlations between parameters is no higher than 0.9.

  19. Growth of light-emitting SiGe heterostructures on strained silicon-on-insulator substrates with a thin oxide layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baidakova, N. A., E-mail: banatale@ipmras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Bobrov, A. I. [University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Pavlov, D. A. [University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A.; Yurasov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    The possibility of using substrates based on “strained silicon on insulator” structures with a thin (25 nm) buried oxide layer for the growth of light-emitting SiGe structures is studied. It is shown that, in contrast to “strained silicon on insulator” substrates with a thick (hundreds of nanometers) oxide layer, the temperature stability of substrates with a thin oxide is much lower. Methods for the chemical and thermal cleaning of the surface of such substrates, which make it possible to both retain the elastic stresses in the thin Si layer on the oxide and provide cleaning of the surface from contaminating impurities, are perfecte. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of molecular-beam epitaxy to grow light-emitting SiGe structures of high crystalline quality on such substrates.

  20. Temperature dependence of trapping effects in metal gates/Al2O3/InGaAs stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, F.; Pazos, S.; Aguirre, F.; Winter, R.; Krylov, I.; Eizenberg, M.

    2017-06-01

    The influence of the temperature on Metal Gate/Al2O3/n-InGaAs stacks has been studied by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis and flat band voltage as function of both negative and positive stress fields. It was found that the de-trapping effect decreases at low-temperature, indicating that the de-trapping of trapped electrons from oxide traps may be performed via Al2O3/InGaAs interface defects. The dependence of the C-V hysteresis on the stress field at different temperatures in our InGaAs stacks can be explained in terms of the defect spatial distribution. An oxide defect distribution can be found very close to the metal gate/Al2O3 interface. On the other side, the Al2O3/InGaAs interface presents defects distributed from the interface into the bulk of the oxide, showing the influence of InGaAs on Al2O3 in terms of the spatial defect distribution. At the present, he is a research staff of the National Council of Science and Technology (CONICET), working in the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, well embedded within international research collaboration. Since 2008, he is Professor at the National Technological University (UTN) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Dr. Palumbo has received research fellowships from: Marie Curie Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Italy, National Council of Science and Technology (CONICET) Argentina, and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) Italy. He is also a frequent scientific visitor of academic institutions as IMM-CNR-Italy, Minatec Grenoble-France, the Autonomous University of Barcelona-Spain, and the Israel Institute of Technology-Technion. He has authored and co-authored more than 50 papers in international conferences and journals.

  1. High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layer and thick N-doped electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuki, Shunichiro, E-mail: shunichiro.nobuki.nb@hitachi.com [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Wakana, Hironori; Ishihara, Shingo [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Mikami, Akiyoshi [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichimachi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have developed green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W at 2.73 V at 0.053 mA/cm{sup 2}. A double emission layer and a thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted to improve the exciton recombination factor. A high refractive index hemispherical lens was attached to a high refractive index substrate for extracting light trapped inside the substrate and the multiple-layers of OLEDs to air. Additionally, we analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify room for the improvement of our OLEDs including the charge balance factor. - Highlights: • We developed high efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED). • Our OLED had external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W. • A double emission layer and thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted. • High refractive index media (hemispherical lens and substrate) were also used. • We analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify the charge balance factor of our OLED.

  2. Effects of stress on the oxide layer thickness and post-oxidation creep strain of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Young Ku

    1986-01-01

    Effects of compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and its subsequent relief on oxidation rate and post-oxidation creep characteristics of zircaloy-4 were investigated by oxidation studies in steam with and without applied tensile stress and by creep testing at 700 deg C in high purity argon. The thickness of oxide layer increased with the magnitude of tensile stress applied during oxidation at 650 deg C in steam whereas similar phenomenon was not observed during oxidation at 800 deg C. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C in steam without applied stress exhibited higher creep strain than that shown by unoxidized specimens when creep-tested in argon. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C steam under the applied stress of 8.53MPa and oxidized at 800 deg C under the applied stress of 0 and 8.53MPa exhibited lower strain than that shown by unoxidized specimen. The above experimental results were accounted for on the basis of interactions among applied stress during oxidation, compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and elasticity of zircaloy-4 matrix. (Author)

  3. Strong doping of the n-optical confinement layer for increasing output power of high- power pulsed laser diodes in the eye safe wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Boris S.; Avrutin, Eugene A.; Kostamovaara, Juha T.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical model for internal optical losses at high power in a 1.5 μm laser diode with strong n-doping in the n-side of the optical confinement layer is created. The model includes intervalence band absorption by holes supplied by both current flow and two-photon absorption (TPA), as well as the direct TPA effect. The resulting losses are compared with those in an identical structure with a weakly doped waveguide, and shown to be substantially lower, resulting in a significant improvement in the output power and efficiency in the structure with a strongly doped waveguide.

  4. Carbon redistribution and precipitation in high temperature ion-implanted strained Si/SiGe/Si multi-layered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiduk, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract Carbon depth profiles after high temperature implantation in strained Si/SiGe/Si multilayered system and induced structural defects.......Graphical abstract Carbon depth profiles after high temperature implantation in strained Si/SiGe/Si multilayered system and induced structural defects....

  5. Indium and gallium diffusion through zirconia in the TiN/ZrO{sub 2}/InGaAs stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos-Sanchez, O. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro, Qro. 76230 (Mexico); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Martinez, E.; Guedj, C.; Veillerot, M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Herrera-Gomez, A. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro, Qro. 76230 (Mexico)

    2015-06-01

    Angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) was applied to the TiN/ZrO{sub 2}/InGaAs stack to assess its thermal stability. Through a robust ARXPS analysis, it was possible to observe subtle effects such as the thermally induced diffusion of substrate atomic species (In and Ga) through the dielectric layer. The detailed characterization of the film structure allowed for assessing the depth profiles of the diffused atomic species by means of the scenarios-method. Since the quantification for the amount of diffused material was done at different temperatures, it was possible to obtain an approximate value of the activation energy for the diffusion of indium through zirconia. The result is very similar to the previously reported values for indium diffusion through alumina and through hafnia.

  6. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, V. [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Pandolfo, A.G., E-mail: tony.pandolfo@csiro.a [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-10-30

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et{sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size (<{approx}0.6 nm) exhibited electrolyte accessibility issues and an associated decrease in capacitance at high charging rates. PFA carbons with larger average pore sizes exhibited greatly improved performance, with specific electrode capacitances of 150 F g{sup -1} at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg{sup -1} and 38 kW kg{sup -1} on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g{sup -1} at current densities as high as 250 A g{sup -1}. The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  7. Spallation model for the high strain rates range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, E.; Eliezer, S.; Henis, Z.; Moshe, E.; Ludmirsky, A.; Goldberg, I. B.

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of the dynamic spall strength in aluminum and copper shocked by a high power laser to pressures of hundreds of kbars show a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at values of about 107 s-1. We suggest that this behavior is a result of a change in the spall mechanism. At low strain rates the spall is caused by the motion and coalescence of material's initial flaws. At high strain rates there is not enough time for the flaws to move and the spall is produced by the formation and coalescence of additional cavities where the interatomic forces become dominant. Material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and cavities of a critical radius are formed in it due to thermal fluctuations. These cavities grow due to the tension. The total volume of the voids grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. Simplified calculations based on this model, describing the metal as a viscous liquid, give results in fairly good agreement with the experimental data and predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates.

  8. Light-hole conduction in InGaAs/GaAs strained-layer superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirber, J.E.; Fritz, I.J.; Dawson, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    We report the first observation of light-hole band carriers in In/sub 0.2/Ga/sub 0.8/As/GaAs strained-layer superlattices by direct measurements of their effective mass (m*m/sub o/ = 0.14) using oscillatory magnetoresistance data. Preferential population of light-hole states, due to splitting of the degenerate bulk valence bands by built-in strain, allows this direct observation

  9. Whole exome sequencing of wild-derived inbred strains of mice improves power to link phenotype and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peter L; Kopania, Emily; Keeble, Sara; Sarver, Brice A J; Larson, Erica; Orth, Annie; Belkhir, Khalid; Boursot, Pierre; Bonhomme, François; Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D

    2017-10-01

    The house mouse is a powerful model to dissect the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, and serves as a model to study human diseases. Despite a wealth of discoveries, most classical laboratory strains have captured only a small fraction of genetic variation known to segregate in their wild progenitors, and existing strains are often related to each other in complex ways. Inbred strains of mice independently derived from natural populations have the potential to increase power in genetic studies with the addition of novel genetic variation. Here, we perform exome-enrichment and high-throughput sequencing (~8× coverage) of 26 wild-derived strains known in the mouse research community as the "Montpellier strains." We identified 1.46 million SNPs in our dataset, approximately 19% of which have not been detected from other inbred strains. This novel genetic variation is expected to contribute to phenotypic variation, as they include 18,496 nonsynonymous variants and 262 early stop codons. Simulations demonstrate that the higher density of genetic variation in the Montpellier strains provides increased power for quantitative genetic studies. Inasmuch as the power to connect genotype to phenotype depends on genetic variation, it is important to incorporate these additional genetic strains into future research programs.

  10. Improved thermal stability and hole mobilities in a strained-Si/strained-Si1-yGe y/strained-Si heterostructure grown on a relaxed Si1-xGe x buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Lee, Minjoo L.; Isaacson, David M.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.

    2005-01-01

    A dual channel heterostructure consisting of strained-Si/strained-Si 1-y Ge y on relaxed Si 1-x Ge x (y > x), provides a platform for fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high hole mobilities (μ eff ) which depend directly on Ge concentration and strain in the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer. Ge out-diffuses from the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer into relaxed Si 1-x Ge x during high temperature processing, reducing peak Ge concentration and strain in the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer and degrades hole μ eff in these dual channel heterostructures. A heterostructure consisting of strained-Si/strained-Si 1-y Ge y /strained-Si, referred to as a trilayer heterostructure, grown on relaxed Si 1-x Ge x has much reduced Ge out-flux from the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer and retains higher μ eff after thermal processing. Improved hole μ eff over similar dual channel heterostructures is also observed in this heterostructure. This could be a result of preventing the hole wavefunction tunneling into the low μ eff relaxed Si 1-x Ge x layer due to the additional valence band offset provided by the underlying strained-Si layer. A diffusion coefficient has been formulated and implemented in a finite difference scheme for predicting the thermal budget of the strained SiGe heterostructures. It shows that the trilayer heterostructures have superior thermal budgets at higher Ge concentrations. Ring-shaped MOSFETs were fabricated on both platforms and subjected to various processing temperatures in order to compare the extent of μ eff reduction with thermal budget. Hole μ eff enhancements are retained to a much higher extent in a trilayer heterostructure after high temperature processing as compared to a dual channel heterostructure. The improved thermal stability and hole μ eff of a trilayer heterostructure makes it an ideal platform for fabricating high μ eff MOSFETs that can be processed over higher temperatures without significant losses in hole

  11. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction investigations on strains in the oxide layer of an irradiated Zircaloy fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollet, Mélanie, E-mail: melanie.chollet@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, NES, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Valance, Stéphane; Abolhassani, Sousan; Stein, Gene [Paul Scherrer Institute, NES, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Grolimund, Daniel [Paul Scherrer Institute, SLS, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Martin, Matthias; Bertsch, Johannes [Paul Scherrer Institute, NES, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    For the first time the microstructure of the oxide layer of a Zircaloy-2 cladding after 9 cycles of irradiation in a boiling water reactor has been analyzed with synchrotron micro-X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic strains of the monoclinic and to some extent of the tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} are depicted through the thick oxide layer. Thin layers of sub-oxide at the oxide-metal interface as found for autoclave-tested samples and described in the literature, have not been observed in this material maybe resulting from irradiation damage. Shifts of selected diffraction peaks of the monoclinic oxide show that the uniform strain produced during oxidation is orientated in the lattice and displays variations along the oxide layer. Diffraction peaks and their shifts from families of diffracting planes could be translated into a virtual tensor. This virtual tensor exhibits changes through the oxide layer passing by tensile or compressive components. - Highlights: •A Zircaloy-2 cladding irradiated 9 cycles was investigated thanks to synchrotron X-ray diffraction. •Microstructure and uniform strain through the oxide layer is revealed. •The m-ZrO{sub 2} uniform strain is oriented presenting compression along the (−111) plane. •Virtual tensor is built based on reflecting planes of families of grains. •Tensor components vary from tensile to compressive along the oxide layer.

  12. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction investigations on strains in the oxide layer of an irradiated Zircaloy fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, Mélanie; Valance, Stéphane; Abolhassani, Sousan; Stein, Gene; Grolimund, Daniel; Martin, Matthias; Bertsch, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    For the first time the microstructure of the oxide layer of a Zircaloy-2 cladding after 9 cycles of irradiation in a boiling water reactor has been analyzed with synchrotron micro-X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic strains of the monoclinic and to some extent of the tetragonal ZrO 2 are depicted through the thick oxide layer. Thin layers of sub-oxide at the oxide-metal interface as found for autoclave-tested samples and described in the literature, have not been observed in this material maybe resulting from irradiation damage. Shifts of selected diffraction peaks of the monoclinic oxide show that the uniform strain produced during oxidation is orientated in the lattice and displays variations along the oxide layer. Diffraction peaks and their shifts from families of diffracting planes could be translated into a virtual tensor. This virtual tensor exhibits changes through the oxide layer passing by tensile or compressive components. - Highlights: •A Zircaloy-2 cladding irradiated 9 cycles was investigated thanks to synchrotron X-ray diffraction. •Microstructure and uniform strain through the oxide layer is revealed. •The m-ZrO 2 uniform strain is oriented presenting compression along the (−111) plane. •Virtual tensor is built based on reflecting planes of families of grains. •Tensor components vary from tensile to compressive along the oxide layer.

  13. The growth of mid-infrared emitting InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.; Burkhart, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition os InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. These SLSs were grown at 500 degrees C, and 200 torr in a horizontal quartz reactor using trimethylindium, triethylantimony, AsH 3 , and PH 3 . By changing the layer thickness and composition we have prepared structures with low temperature (≤20K) photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 5.0 μm. Excellent performance was observed for an SLS light emitting diode (LED) and both optically pumped and electrically injected SLS layers. An InAsSb/InAsP SLS injection laser emitted at 3.3 μm at 80 K with peak power of 100 mW

  14. Properties of surface layer of X40CrMoV5-1 in the relation to remelting conditions by the use of a high power diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Bonek, M.; Klimpel, A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations included remelting experiments on the X40CrMoV5-1 hot-work steel with the high power diode laser. Tests have been made using the high power diode laser (HPDL) in the technological process of remelting. The effect of remelting parameters on structure and properties of its surface layer, as well as on remelting geometry and shape. The influence of the technological conditions and their effect on the mechanical properties of the surface layer, and especially its hardness has been tested. Dependence of the microhardness changes, on the degree of the laser beam influence on the treated surface, and mostly on the hardness increase in the remelted layer is presented. The influence of remelting process parameters on the structure of substrate material is presented. Guidelines for remelting of the X40CrMoV5-1 steel surface using the high power diode laser feature the outcome of the investigation aimed at obtaining its optimum mechanical and working properties. (author)

  15. Layer-by-layer evolution of structure, strain, and activity for the oxygen evolution reaction in graphene-templated Pt monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ali; Vitale, Adam; Joiner, Corey; Vogel, Eric; Alamgir, Faisal M

    2015-03-25

    In this study, we explore the dimensional aspect of structure-driven surface properties of metal monolayers grown on a graphene/Au template. Here, surface limited redox replacement (SLRR) is used to provide precise layer-by-layer growth of Pt monolayers on graphene. We find that after a few iterations of SLRR, fully wetted 4-5 monolayer Pt films can be grown on graphene. Incorporating graphene at the Pt-Au interface modifies the growth mechanism, charge transfers, equilibrium interatomic distances, and associated strain of the synthesized Pt monolayers. We find that a single layer of sandwiched graphene is able to induce a 3.5% compressive strain on the Pt adlayer grown on it, and as a result, catalytic activity is increased due to a greater areal density of the Pt layers beyond face-centered-cubic close packing. At the same time, the sandwiched graphene does not obstruct vicinity effects of near-surface electron exchange between the substrate Au and adlayers Pt. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques are used to examine charge mediation across the Pt-graphene-Au junction and the local atomic arrangement as a function of the Pt adlayer dimension. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are used as probes to examine the electrochemically active area of Pt monolayers and catalyst activity, respectively. Results show that the inserted graphene monolayer results in increased activity for the Pt due to a graphene-induced compressive strain, as well as a higher resistance against loss of the catalytically active Pt surface.

  16. Reducing AC-Winding Losses in High-Current High-Power Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Madawala, Udaya K.; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    Foil windings are preferable in high-current high-power inductors to realize compact designs and to reduce dc-current losses. At high frequency, however, proximity effect will cause very significant increase in ac resistance in multi-layer windings, and lead to high ac winding losses. This paper ...

  17. Mobility and Device Applications of Heavily Doped Silicon and Strained SILICON(1-X) Germanium(x) Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carns, Timothy Keith

    With the advent of Si molecular beam epitaxy (Si -MBE), a significant amount of research has occurred to seek alternative high conductivity Si-based materials such as rm Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x} and delta-doped Si. These materials have brought improvements in device speeds and current drives with the added advantage of monolithic integration into Si VLSI circuits. The bulk of research in Si-based materials has been devoted to the implementation of strained rm Si_{1-x}Ge_{x} as the base layer of a rm Si_ {1-x}Ge_{x}/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Because of the valence band offset, the rm Si_{1-x}Ge _{x} layer can be heavily doped, leading to lower base sheet resistances and hence, improved speed performances. The Ge content in the base can also be graded to increase the drift field in the base. However, very few hole mobility measurements have been done in these strained layers, leading to limitations in device modeling and in understanding the transport behavior in this important material. In addition to rm Si_{1 -x}Ge_{x}, much potential also exists in using delta-doping in Si for improved conductivities over those of bulk Si. However, as of yet, delta-doped Si has received little attention. Therefore, this dissertation is dedicated to the investigation of both of these Si-based materials (strained rm Si_{1-x}Ge_{x } and delta-doped Si and rm Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x}) for the purpose of obtaining higher conductivities than comparably doped bulk Si. This work is divided into three parts to accomplish this objective. The first part is contained in Chapter 3 and is comprised of a comprehensive characterization of the hole mobility in compressively strained rm Si_{1 -x}Ge_{x}. Few results have been obtained prior to this research which has led to many inaccuracies in device modeling. The second part of this dissertation in Chapters 4 and 5 is devoted to the study of the mobility behavior in both boron and antimony delta-doped Si and rm Si_ {1-x}Ge_{x}. The important

  18. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.; Lai, Ying-Chih; He, Xu; Liu, Ruiyuan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  19. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.

    2017-05-15

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  20. Triple and Quadruple Junctions Thermophotovoltaic Devices Lattice Matched to InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, L.; Freundlich, A.

    2007-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of IR radiation emanating from a radioisotope heat source is under consideration for deep space exploration. Ideally, for radiator temperatures of interest, the TPV cell must convert efficiently photons in the 0.4-0.7 eV spectral range. Best experimental data for single junction cells are obtained for lattice-mismatched 0.55 eV InGaAs based devices. It was suggested, that a tandem InGaAs based TPV cell made by monolithically combining two or more lattice mismatched InGaAs subcells on InP would result in a sizeable efficiency improvement. However, from a practical standpoint the implementation of more than two subcells with lattice mismatch systems will require extremely thick graded layers (defect filtering systems) to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the sub-cells and could detrimentally affect the recycling of the unused IR energy to the emitter. A buffer structure, consisting of various InPAs layers, is incorporated to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the high and low bandgap subcells. There are evidences that the presence of the buffer structure may generate defects, which could extend down to the underlying InGaAs layer. The unusual large band gap lowering observed in GaAs(1-x)N(x) with low nitrogen fraction [1] has sparked a new interest in the development of dilute nitrogen containing III-V semiconductors for long-wavelength optoelectronic devices (e.g. IR lasers, detector, solar cells) [2-7]. Lattice matched Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x on InP has recently been investigated for the potential use in the mid-infrared device applications [8], and it could be a strong candidate for the applications in TPV devices. This novel quaternary alloy allows the tuning of the band gap from 1.42 eV to below 1 eV on GaAs and band gap as low as 0.6eV when strained to InP, but it has its own limitations. To achieve such a low band gap using the quaternary Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x, either it needs to be strained on InP, which creates further

  1. Evidence for possible quantum dot interdiffusion induced by cap layer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, J.; Czeczott, M.; Gladysz, A.; Babinski, A.; Kozubowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Self-organised InGaAs quantum dots were grown on (001) GaAs substrates and covered with two different types of cap layers grown at significantly different temperatures. In order to determine quantum dot emission energy and dot size distribution, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out on such samples. Simple theoretical model neglecting effect of interdiffusion allowed for correlation between quantum dot size and photoluminescence emission energy only in the case of dots covered by cap layers grown at the lower temperature. For dots covered by layers grown at the higher temperature such correlation was possible only when strong interdiffusion was assumed. (author)

  2. Robust piezoelectric composites for energy harvesting in high-strain environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van der; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2013-01-01

    High-strain environments, such as are found in automobile tires, provide deformation energy that can be harvested using piezoelectric materials, for instance, for powering electronics such as wireless sensors. Despite numerous efforts, none of the present devices easily satisfy the stringent

  3. Lactobacillus kefiri shows inter-strain variations in the amino acid sequence of the S-layer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Mariano; Carasi, Paula; Bronsoms, Sílvia; Trejo, Sebastián A; Serradell, María de Los Angeles

    2017-04-01

    The S-layer is a proteinaceous envelope constituted by subunits that self-assemble to form a two-dimensional lattice that covers the surface of different species of Bacteria and Archaea, and it could be involved in cell recognition of microbes among other several distinct functions. In this work, both proteomic and genomic approaches were used to gain knowledge about the sequences of the S-layer protein (SLPs) encoding genes expressed by six aggregative and sixteen non-aggregative strains of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus kefiri. Peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis confirmed the identity of SLPs extracted from L. kefiri, and based on the homology with phylogenetically related species, primers located outside and inside the SLP-genes were employed to amplify genomic DNA. The O-glycosylation site SASSAS was found in all L. kefiri SLPs. Ten strains were selected for sequencing of the complete genes. The total length of the mature proteins varies from 492 to 576 amino acids, and all SLPs have a calculated pI between 9.37 and 9.60. The N-terminal region is relatively conserved and shows a high percentage of positively charged amino acids. Major differences among strains are found in the C-terminal region. Different groups could be distinguished regarding the mature SLPs and the similarities observed in the PMF spectra. Interestingly, SLPs of the aggregative strains are 100% homologous, although these strains were isolated from different kefir grains. This knowledge provides relevant data for better understanding of the mechanisms involved in SLPs functionality and could contribute to the development of products of biotechnological interest from potentially probiotic bacteria.

  4. Piezoelectricity of single-atomic-layer MoS2 for energy conversion and piezotronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Lei; Li, Yilei; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Long; Niu, Simiao; Chenet, Daniel; Zhang, Xian; Hao, Yufeng; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-23

    The piezoelectric characteristics of nanowires, thin films and bulk crystals have been closely studied for potential applications in sensors, transducers, energy conversion and electronics. With their high crystallinity and ability to withstand enormous strain, two-dimensional materials are of great interest as high-performance piezoelectric materials. Monolayer MoS2 is predicted to be strongly piezoelectric, an effect that disappears in the bulk owing to the opposite orientations of adjacent atomic layers. Here we report the first experimental study of the piezoelectric properties of two-dimensional MoS2 and show that cyclic stretching and releasing of thin MoS2 flakes with an odd number of atomic layers produces oscillating piezoelectric voltage and current outputs, whereas no output is observed for flakes with an even number of layers. A single monolayer flake strained by 0.53% generates a peak output of 15 mV and 20 pA, corresponding to a power density of 2 mW m(-2) and a 5.08% mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the output increases with decreasing thickness and reverses sign when the strain direction is rotated by 90°. Transport measurements show a strong piezotronic effect in single-layer MoS2, but not in bilayer and bulk MoS2. The coupling between piezoelectricity and semiconducting properties in two-dimensional nanomaterials may enable the development of applications in powering nanodevices, adaptive bioprobes and tunable/stretchable electronics/optoelectronics.

  5. The Low Temperature Epitaxy of Strained GeSn Layers Using RTCVD System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Yuk, Sim-Hoon; Jang, Han-Soo; Lee, Sang-Geul; Choi, Chel-Jong; Shim, Kyu-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the low temperature (LT) growth of GeSn-Ge-Si structures using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition system utilizing Ge2H6 and SnCl4 as the reactive precursors. Due to inappropriate phenomena, such as, Ge etch and Sn segregation, it was hard to achieve high quality GeSn epitaxy at the temperature > 350 °C. On the contrary, we found that the SnCl4 promoted the reaction of Ge2H6 precursors in a certain process condition of LT, 240-360 °C. In return, we could perform the growth of GeSn epi layer with 7.7% of Sn and its remaining compressive strain of 71.7%. The surface propagated defects were increased with increasing the Sn content in the GeSn layer confirmed by TEM analysis. And we could calculate the activation energies at lower GeSn growth temperature regime using by Ge2H6 and SnCl4 precursors about 0.43 eV.

  6. Highly ductile multilayered films by layer-by-layer assembly of oppositely charged polyurethanes for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlo, Paul; Qin, Ming; Cuddihy, Meghan; Zhu, Jian; Critchley, Kevin; Kheng, Eugene; Kaushik, Amit K; Qi, Ying; Kim, Hyoung-Sug; Noh, Si-Tae; Arruda, Ellen M; Waas, Anthony M; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2009-12-15

    Multilayered thin films prepared with the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique are typically "brittle" composites, while many applications such as flexible electronics or biomedical devices would greatly benefit from ductile, and tough nanostructured coatings. Here we present the preparation of highly ductile multilayered films via LBL assembly of oppositely charged polyurethanes. Free-standing films were found to be robust, strong, and tough with ultimate strains as high as 680% and toughness of approximately 30 MJ/m(3). These results are at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than most LBL materials presented until today. In addition to enhanced ductility, the films showed first-order biocompatibility with animal and human cells. Multilayered structures incorporating polyurethanes open up a new research avenue into the preparation of multifunctional nanostructured films with great potential in biomedical applications.

  7. Spin injection from Co2MnGa into an InGaAs quantum well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, M. C.; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Holmes, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated spin injection from a full Heusler alloy Co2MnGa thin film into a (100) InGaAs quantum well in a semiconductor light-emitting diode structure at a temperature of 5 K. The detection is performed in the oblique Hanle geometry, allowing quantification of the effective spin lifet...

  8. effects of extended period of storage and strain of layer on quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    strain of layers and extended storage length on internal and external qualities of chicken eggs. ... storage of egg on some important egg quality determinants like egg weight, albumen height and ... of information on the quality of eggs of these.

  9. Applications of high power microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.; Swegle, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address a number of applications for HPM technology. There is a strong symbiotic relationship between a developing technology and its emerging applications. New technologies can generate new applications. Conversely, applications can demand development of new technological capability. High-power microwave generating systems come with size and weight penalties and problems associated with the x-radiation and collection of the electron beam. Acceptance of these difficulties requires the identification of a set of applications for which high-power operation is either demanded or results in significant improvements in peRFormance. The authors identify the following applications, and discuss their requirements and operational issues: (1) High-energy RF acceleration; (2) Atmospheric modification (both to produce artificial ionospheric mirrors for radio waves and to save the ozone layer); (3) Radar; (4) Electronic warfare; and (5) Laser pumping. In addition, they discuss several applications requiring high average power than border on HPM, power beaming and plasma heating

  10. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, R.; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J.; Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans; Radamson, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers

  11. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandi, R. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: ghandi@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden); Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans [Texas Instrument, 13121 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Tx 75243 (United States); Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-11-03

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  12. Strain measurements of nuclear power plant steam generator antiseismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichevsky, R.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear power plants steam generators have different types of structural supports. One of these types are the antiseismic supports, which are intended to be under stress only if a seismic event takes place. Nevertheless, the antiseismic supports lugs, that are welded to the steam generator vessel, are subjected to thermal fatigue because of the temperature cycles related with the shut down and start up operations performed during the life of the nuclear power plant. In order to evaluate the stresses that the lugs are subjected to, several strain gages were welded on two supports lugs, positioned at two heights of one of the Embalse nuclear power plant steam generators. In this paper, the instrumentation used and the strain measurements obtained during two start up operations are presented. The influence of the plant start up operation parameters on the lugs strain evolution is also analyzed. (author) [es

  13. Shape-engineered epitaxial InGaAs quantum rods for laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. H.; Ridha, P.; Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.

    2008-01-01

    We apply artificial shape engineering of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures to demonstrate InGaAs quantum rods (QRs), nanocandles, and quantum dots-in-rods on a GaAs substrate. The evolution of the QRs from a zero-dimensional to one-dimensional confinement is evidenced by systematically measuring the photoluminescence and photoluminescence decay as a function of the rod length. Lasers based on a three-stack QR active region are demonstrated at room temperature, validating the applicability of the QRs in the real devices

  14. Strain relaxation near high-k/Si interface by post-deposition annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Akimoto, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Ichimiya, A.; Nabatame, T.; Toriumi, A.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of post-deposition annealing on a HfO 2 /Si interface of by extremely asymmetric X-ray diffraction. Comparing the rocking curves before annealing the sample with those of the annealed sample, it is found that an interfacial layer with a density of 3 g/cm 3 grows at the interface between the HfO 2 layer and the substrate during post-deposition annealing. The wavelength dependency of the integrated intensities of the rocking curve for the as-deposited sample fluctuated with the observation position. This fluctuation was suppressed by annealing. From these results we concluded that the strain introduced into the substrate becomes homogeneous by annealing. Moreover, a quantitative estimation of the strain by curve fitting reveals the existence of compressive strain under the HfO 2 layer

  15. Ordered quantum-ring chains grown on a quantum-dot superlattice template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Holmes, Kyland; Marega, Euclydes; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional ordered quantum-ring chains are fabricated on a quantum-dot superlattice template by molecular beam epitaxy. The quantum-dot superlattice template is prepared by stacking multiple quantum-dot layers and quantum-ring chains are formed by partially capping quantum dots. Partially capping InAs quantum dots with a thin layer of GaAs introduces a morphological change from quantum dots to quantum rings. The lateral ordering is introduced by engineering the strain field of a multi-layer InGaAs quantum-dot superlattice.

  16. Plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Biot linearized quasi-static theory of fluid-infiltrated porous materials is used to formulate the problem of the two-dimensional plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by surface loads. The Fourier–Laplace transforms of the stresses, displacements, pore pressure and fluid flux in each ...

  17. Visualizing period fluctuations in strained-layer superlattices with scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanedy, K.; Lopez, F.; Wood, M. R.; Gmachl, C. F.; Weimer, M.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Shaner, E. A.; Kim, J. K.

    2018-01-01

    We show how cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) may be used to accurately map the period fluctuations throughout epitaxial, strained-layer superlattices based on the InAs/InAsSb and InGaAs/InAlAs material systems. The concept, analogous to Bragg's law in high-resolution x-ray diffraction, relies on an analysis of the [001]-convolved reciprocal-space satellite peaks obtained from discrete Fourier transforms of individual STM images. Properly implemented, the technique enables local period measurements that reliably discriminate vertical fluctuations localized to within ˜5 superlattice repeats along the [001] growth direction and orthogonal, lateral fluctuations localized to within ˜40 nm along directions in the growth plane. While not as accurate as x-ray, the inherent, single-image measurement error associated with the method may be made as small as 0.1%, allowing the vertical or lateral period fluctuations contributing to inhomogeneous energy broadening and carrier localization in these structures to be pinpointed and quantified. The direct visualization of unexpectedly large, lateral period fluctuations on nanometer length scales in both strain-balanced systems supports a common understanding in terms of correlated interface roughness.

  18. Growth and characterization of highly tensile strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} formed on relaxed In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; D' Costa, Vijay Richard; Dong, Yuan; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Loke, Wan Khai; Yoon, Soon Fatt [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yin, Tingting; Shen, Zexiang [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2016-03-28

    Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} films with high tensile strain were grown on strain-relaxed In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P virtual substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane tensile strain in the Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} film was varied by changing the In mole fraction in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}P buffer layer. The tensile strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. An in-plane tensile strain of up to 1% in the Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} was measured, which is much higher than that achieved using other buffer systems. Controlled thermal anneal experiment demonstrated that the strain was not relaxed for temperatures up to 500 °C. The band alignment of the tensile strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} on In{sub 0.77}Ga{sub 0.23}P was obtained by high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06}/In{sub 0.77}Ga{sub 0.23}P interface was found to be of the type I band alignment, with a valence band offset of 0.31 ± 0.12 eV and a conduction band offset of 0.74 ± 0.12 eV.

  19. In Situ Complementary Doping, Thermoelectric Improvements, and Strain-Induced Structure within Alternating PEDOT:PSS/PANI Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Virgil; Bethke, Kevin; Madzharova, Fani; Bronneberg, Aafke Cecile; Kneipp, Janina; Rademann, Klaus

    2017-09-27

    Although the deposition of alternating layers from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and polyaniline (PANI) salts has recently provided a breakthrough in the field of conductive polymers, the cause for the conductivity improvement has remained unclear. In this work, we report a cooperative doping effect between alternating PANI base and PEDOT:PSS layers, resulting in electrical conductivities of 50-100 S cm -1 and power factors of up to 3.0 ± 0.5 μW m -1 K -2 , which surpass some of the recent values obtained for protonated PANI/PEDOT:PSS multilayers by a factor of 20. In this case, the simultaneous improvement in the electrical conductivity of both types of layers is caused by the in situ protonation of PANI, which corresponds to the removal of the excess acidic PSS chains from the PEDOT:PSS grains. The interplay between the functional groups' reactivity and the supramolecular chain reorganization leads to an array of preparation-dependent phenomena, including a stepwise increase in the film thickness, an alternation in the electrical conductivity, and the formation of a diverse surface landscape. The latter effect can be traced to a buildup of strain within the layers, which results in either the formation of folds or the shrinkage of the film. These results open new paths for designing nanostructured thin-film thermoelectrics.

  20. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications.

  1. 3D mechanical stratigraphy of a deformed multi-layer: Linking sedimentary architecture and strain partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Adam J.; Bond, Clare E.

    2018-01-01

    Stratigraphic influence on structural style and strain distribution in deformed sedimentary sequences is well established, in models of 2D mechanical stratigraphy. In this study we attempt to refine existing models of stratigraphic-structure interaction by examining outcrop scale 3D variations in sedimentary architecture and the effects on subsequent deformation. At Monkstone Point, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales, digital mapping and virtual scanline data from a high resolution virtual outcrop have been combined with field observations, sedimentary logs and thin section analysis. Results show that significant variation in strain partitioning is controlled by changes, at a scale of tens of metres, in sedimentary architecture within Upper Carboniferous fluvio-deltaic deposits. Coupled vs uncoupled deformation of the sequence is defined by the composition and lateral continuity of mechanical units and unit interfaces. Where the sedimentary sequence is characterized by gradational changes in composition and grain size, we find that deformation structures are best characterized by patterns of distributed strain. In contrast, distinct compositional changes vertically and in laterally equivalent deposits results in highly partitioned deformation and strain. The mechanical stratigraphy of the study area is inherently 3D in nature, due to lateral and vertical compositional variability. Consideration should be given to 3D variations in mechanical stratigraphy, such as those outlined here, when predicting subsurface deformation in multi-layers.

  2. Effects of the strain relaxation of an AlGaN barrier layer induced by various cap layers on the transport properties in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zi-Yang; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Duan Huan-Tao; Xue Jun-Shuai; Lin Zhi-Yu; Ma Jun-Cai; Xue Xiao-Yong; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    The strain relaxation of an AlGaN barrier layer may be influenced by a thin cap layer above, and affects the transport properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Compared with the slight strain relaxation found in AlGaN barrier layer without cap layer, it is found that a thin cap layer can induce considerable changes of strain state in the AlGaN barrier layer. The degree of relaxation of the AlGaN layer significantly influences the transport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. It is observed that electron mobility decreases with the increasing degree of relaxation of the AlGaN barrier, which is believed to be the main cause of the deterioration of crystalline quality and morphology on the AlGaN/GaN interface. On the other hand, both GaN and AlN cap layers lead to a decrease in 2DEG density. The reduction of 2DEG caused by the GaN cap layer may be attributed to the additional negative polarization charges formed at the interface between GaN and AlGaN, while the reduction of the piezoelectric effect in the AlGaN layer results in the decrease of 2DEG density in the case of AlN cap layer. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. High power RF window deposition apparatus, method, and device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Lawrence R.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Zeller, Daniel

    2017-07-04

    A process for forming a coating for an RF window which has improved secondary electron emission and reduced multipactor for high power RF waveguides is formed from a substrate with low loss tangent and desirable mechanical characteristics. The substrate has an RPAO deposition layer applied which oxygenates the surface of the substrate to remove carbon impurities, thereafter has an RPAN deposition layer applied to nitrogen activate the surface of the substrate, after which a TiN deposition layer is applied using Titanium tert-butoxide. The TiN deposition layer is capped with a final RPAN deposition layer of nitridation to reduce the bound oxygen in the TiN deposition layer. The resulting RF window has greatly improved titanium layer adhesion, reduced multipactor, and is able to withstand greater RF power levels than provided by the prior art.

  4. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olney, K L; Chiu, P H; Nesterenko, V F; Higgins, A; Serge, M; Weihs, T P; Fritz, G; Stover, A; Benson, D J

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  5. High Power Electric Double-Layer Capacitors based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and Nanostructured Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Carlos R.

    The efficient storage of electrical energy constitutes both a fundamental challenge for 21st century science and an urgent requirement for the sustainability of our technological civilization. The push for cleaner renewable forms of energy production, such as solar and wind power, strongly depends on a concomitant development of suitable storage methods to pair with these intermittent sources, as well as for mobile applications, such as vehicles and personal electronics. In this regard, Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors (supercapacitors) represent a vibrant area of research due to their environmental friendliness, long lifetimes, high power capability, and relative underdevelopment when compared to electrochemical batteries. Currently supercapacitors have gravimetric energies one order of magnitude lower than similarly advanced batteries, while conversly enjoying a similar advantage over them in terms of power. The challenge is to increase the gravimentric energies and conserve the high power. On the material side, research focuses on highly porous supports and electrolytes, the critical components of supercapacitors. Through the use of electrolyte systems with a wider electrochemical stability window, as well as properly tailored carbon nanomaterials as electrodes, significant improvements in performance are possible. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids and Carbide-Derived Carbons are promising electrolytes and electrodes, respectively. RTILs have been shown to be stable at up to twice the voltage of organic solvent-salt systems currently employed in supercapacitors, and CDCs are tunable in pore structure, show good electrical conductivity, and superior demonstrated capability as electrode material. This work aims to better understand the interplay of electrode and electrolyte parameters, such as pore structure and ion size, in the ultimate performance of RTIL-based supercapacitors in terms of power, energy, and temperature of operation. For this purpose, carbon

  6. Quantitative Differentiation of LV Myocardium with and without Layer-Specific Fibrosis Using MRI in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Layer-Specific Strain TTE Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Nobusada; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Koya; Kamata, Tomoko; Uehara, Masae; Komuro, Issei; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2018-05-30

    To achieve further risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients, we localized and quantified layer-specific LVM fibrosis on MRI in HCM patients using regional layer-specific peak longitudinal strain (PLS) and peak circumferential strain (PCS) in LV myocardium (LVM) on speckle tracking transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). A total of 18 HCM patients (14 males; 58 ± 17 years) underwent 1.5T-MRI and TTE. PLS and PCS in each layer of the LVM (endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer myocardium) were calculated for 17 AHA-defined lesions. MRI assessment showed that fibrosis was classified as endocardial, epicardial, or whole-layer (= either or both of these). Regional PLS was smaller in fibrotic endocardial lesions than in non-fibrotic endocardial lesions (P = 0.004). To detect LV endocardial lesions with fibrosis, ROC curves of regional PLS revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.609 and a best cut-off point of 13.5%, with sensitivity of 65.3% and specificity of 54.3%. Regional PLS was also smaller in fibrotic epicardial lesions than in non-fibrotic epicardial lesions (P layer myocardium analysis, PLS was smaller in fibrotic lesions than in non-fibrotic lesions (P layer LV lesions with fibrosis, ROC curves of regional PLS revealed an AUC of 0.674 and a best cut-off point of 12.5%, with sensitivity of 79.0% and specificity of 50.7%. There were no significant differences in PCS of LV myocardium (endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer) between fibrotic and non-fibrotic lesions. Quantitative regional PLS but not PCS in LV endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer myocardium provides useful non-invasive information for layer-specific localization of fibrosis in HCM patients.

  7. MBE growth of Topological Isolators based on strained semi-metallic HgCdTe layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendysa, J.; Tomaka, G.; Sliz, P.; Becker, C. R.; Trzyna, M.; Wojnarowska-Nowak, R.; Bobko, E.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Particularities of Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) technology for the growth of Topological Insulators (TI) based on the semi-metal Hg1-xCdx Te are presented. A series of strained layers grown on GaAs substrates with a composition close to the 3D Dirac point were studied. The composition of the layers was verified by means of the position of the E1 maximum in optical reflectivity in the visible region. The surface morphology was determined via atomic force and electron microscopy. Magneto-transport measurements show quantized Hall resistance curves and Shubnikov de Hass oscillations (up to 50 K). It has been demonstrated that a well-developed MBE technology enables one to grow strained Hg1-xCdx Te layers on GaAs/CdTe substrates with a well-defined composition near the 3D Dirac point and consequently allows one to produce a 3D topological Dirac semimetal - 3D analogy of graphene - for future applications.

  8. Gain dynamics in p-doped InGaAs quantum dot amplifiers from room to cryogenic temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borri, P.; Cesaria, V.; Rossetti, M.; Fiore, A.; Langbein, W.

    2009-01-01

    We have compared the gain dynamics of the ground state excitonic transition between undoped and p-doped electrically-pumped InGaAs quantum-dot optical amplifiers, for temperatures from 300K to 20K. A pump-probe differential transmission technique in heterodyne detection with sub-picosecond time

  9. Exciton dephasing in single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    The homogeneous linewidth of excitonic transitions is a parameter of fundamental physical importance. In self-assembled quantum dot systems, a strong inhomogeneous broadening due to dot size fluctuations masks the homogeneous linewidth associated with transitions between individual states....... The homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening of InGaAs quantum dot luminescence is of central importance for the potential application of this material system in optoelectronic devices. Recent measurements of MOCVD-grown InAs/InGaAs quantum dots indicate a large homogeneous broadening at room temperature due...... to fast dephasing. We present an investigation of the low-temperature homogeneous linewidth of individual PL lines from MBE-grown In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots....

  10. Deformation-phase transformation coupling mechanism of white layer formation in high speed machining of FGH95 Ni-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jin [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250353 (China); Liu, Zhanqiang, E-mail: melius@sdu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Shandong (China); Lv, Shaoyu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Ni-based superalloy represents a significant metal portion of the aircraft critical structural and engine components. When these critical structural components in aerospace industry are manufactured with the objective to reach high reliability levels and excellent service performance, surface integrity is one of the most relevant parameter used for evaluating the quality of finish machined surfaces. In the study of surface integrity, the formation white layer is a very important research topic. The formation of white layer on the Ni-based superalloy machined surface will reduce the machined parts service performance and fatigue life. This paper was conducted to determine the effects of cutting speed on white layer formation in high speed machining of FGH95 Ni-based superalloy. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to analyze the elements and microstructures of white layer and bulk materials. The statistical analysis for grain numbers was executed to study the influence of cutting speed on the grain refinement in the machined surface. The investigation results showed that white layer exhibits significantly different microstructures with the bulk materials. It shows densification, no obvious structural features characteristic. The microstructure and phase of Ni-based solid solution changed during cutting process. The increase of cutting speed causes the increase of white layer thickness when the cutting speed is less than 2000 m/min. However, white layer thickness reduces with the cutting speed further increase. The higher the cutting speed, the more serious grains refinement in machined surface. 2-D FEM for machining FGH95 were carried out to simulate the cutting process and obtained the cutting temperature field, cutting strain field and strain rate field. The impact mechanisms of cutting temperature, cutting strain and strain rates on white layer formation were analyzed. At last, deformation-phase transformation

  11. Grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of iridium alloy DOP-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKamey, C.G.; Gubbi, A.N.; Lin, Y.; Cohron, J.W.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the new-process iridium-based DOP-26 alloy used for the Cassini space mission. This alloy was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1980's and is currently used by NASA for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. Included within this report are data generated on grain growth in vacuum or low-pressure oxygen environments; a comparison of grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material with sheet material; effect of grain size, test temperature, and oxygen exposure on high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility; and grain growth in vacuum and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of welded DOP-26. The data for the new-process material is compared to available old-process data

  12. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  13. Review of power ramp irradiations with different pellet L/D ratios and thicknesses of CANLUB layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Power ramps in fuel during normal operation can result in Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) failures. Experimental evidence shows that pellets with smaller L/D ratios produce smaller circumferential ridges at pellet interface, the location where power ramps failures commonly occur. This may reduce the power ramp damage to the sheath, thereby improving the ability of the fuel sheath to withstand SCC. CANLUB coatings have demonstrated beneficial effects with respect to SCC. It is speculated that the coating acts as a chemical barrier by interacts with the corrosive fission products reducing the amount of corrosive species to reach susceptible areas of the sheath surface. This reduced concentration of corrosive products may enable the sheath to resist higher levels of incremental stresses/strains and therefore survive severe power-ramps. This work focuses on the review of experimental information that substantiates the effect of pellets with lower L/D ratios and thicker CANLUB layers on SCC sheath failures. (author)

  14. Vacuum packaging of InGaAs focal plane array with four-stage thermoelectric cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, De-feng; Liu, Da-fu; Yang, Li-yi; Xu, Qin-fei; Li, Xue

    2013-09-01

    The InGaAs focal plane array (FPA) detectors, covering the near-infrared 1~2.4 μm wavelength range, have been developed for application in space-based spectroscopy of the Earth atmosphere. This paper shows an all-metal vacuum package design for area array InGaAs detector of 1024×64 pixels, and its architecture will be given. Four-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is used to cool down the FPA chip. To acquire high heat dissipation for TEC's Joule-heat, tungsten copper (CuW80) and kovar (4J29) is used as motherboard and cavity material respectively which joined by brazing. The heat loss including conduction, convection and radiation is analyzed. Finite element model is established to analyze the temperature uniformity of the chip substrate which is made of aluminum nitride (AlN). The performance of The TEC with and without heat load in vacuum condition is tested. The results show that the heat load has little influence to current-voltage relationship of TEC. The temperature difference (ΔT) increases as the input current increases. A linear relationship exists between heat load and ΔT of the TEC. Theoretical analysis and calculation show that the heat loss of radiation and conduction is about 187 mW and 82 mW respectively. Considering the Joule-heat of readout circuit and the heat loss of radiation and conduction, the FPA for a 220 K operation at room temperature can be achieved. As the thickness of AlN chip substrate is thicker than 1 millimeter, the temperature difference can be less than 0.3 K.

  15. In-situ Ga doping of fully strained Ge1-xSnx heteroepitaxial layers grown on Ge(001) substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimura, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O.

    2012-01-01

    to the introduction of dislocations, due to the increase in the strain of the Ge1-xSnx layers. We achieved the growth of a fully strained Ge0.922Sn0.078 layer on Ge with a Ga concentration of 5.5×1019 /cm3 without any dislocations and stacking faults. The resistivity of the Ga-doped Ge1-xSnx layer decreased as the Sn...... content was increased. This decrease was due to an increase in the carrier concentration, with an increase in the activation level of Ga atoms in the Ge1-xSnx epitaxial layers being induced by the introduction of Sn. As a result, we found that the resistivity for the Ge0.950Sn0.050 layer annealed at 600°C...

  16. Thermoelectric energy conversion in layered structures with strained Ge quantum dots grown on Si surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchenkov, Oleg; Nadtochiy, Andriy; Kuryliuk, Vasyl; Wang, Chin-Chi; Li, Pei-Wen; Cantarero, Andres

    2014-03-01

    The efficiency of the energy conversion devices depends in many ways on the materials used and various emerging cost-effective nanomaterials have promised huge potentials in highly efficient energy conversion. Here we show that thermoelectric voltage can be enhanced by a factor of 3 using layer-cake growth of Ge quantum dots through thermal oxidation of SiGe layers stacked in SiO2/Si3N4 multilayer structure. The key to achieving this behavior has been to strain the Ge/Si interface by Ge dots migrating to Si substrate. Calculations taking into account the carrier trapping in the dot with a quantum transmission into the neighboring dot show satisfactory agreement with experiments above ≈200 K. The results may be of interest for improving the functionality of thermoelectric devices based on Ge/Si.

  17. Low-confinement high-power semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, M.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of studies related to optimisation of high power semiconductor laser diodes using the low confinement concept. This implies a different approach in designing the transversal layer structure before growth and in processing the wafer after growth, for providing the

  18. High Ms Fe16N2 thin film with Ag under layer on GaAs substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    (001) textured Fe16N2 thin film with Ag under layer is successfully grown on GaAs substrate using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system. After post annealing, chemically ordered Fe16N2 phase is formed and detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD). High saturation magnetization (Ms) is measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). In comparison with Fe16N2 with Ag under layer on MgO substrate and Fe16N2 with Fe under layer on GaAs substrate, the current layer structure shows a higher Ms value, with a magnetically softer feature in contrast to the above cases. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is performed to characterize the binding energy of N atoms. To verify the role of strain that the FeN layer experiences in the above three structures, Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) is conducted to reveal a large in-plane lattice constant due to the in-plane biaxial tensile strain. INTRODUCTION

  19. Strain in epitaxial high-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Chen, Weiguang [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China); Guo, Xin; Ho, Wingkin [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Dai, Xianqi [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China); Jia, Jinfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xie, Maohai, E-mail: mhxie@hku.hk [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • High-index, off c-axis, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. • A retarded strain relaxation process in such high-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is observed, enabling experimentally probe strain effect on topological insulators. • It has been shown by calculation that the Dirac electrons participate in chemical bonding at the heterointerface. - Abstract: High-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) film has been grown on In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-buffered GaAs(001), in which a much retarded strain relaxation dynamics is recorded. The slow strain-relaxation process of in epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) can be attributed to the layered structure of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystal, where the epifilm grown along [221] is like a pile of weakly-coupled quintuple layer slabs stacked side-by-side on substrate. Finally, we reveal strong chemical bonding at the interface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by plotting differential charge contour calculated by first-principle method. This study points to the feasibility of achieving strained TIs for manipulating the properties of topological systems.

  20. Inspection of power and ground layers in PCB images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyak, Filiz; Ercal, Fikret

    1998-10-01

    In this work, we present an inspection method for power and ground (P&G) layers of printed circuit boards (PCB) also called utility layers. Design considerations for the P&G layers are different than those of signal layers. Current PCB inspection approaches cannot be applied to these layers. P&G layers act as internal ground, neutral or power sources. P&G layers are predominantly copper with occasional pad areas (without copper) called clearance. Defect definition is based on the spacing between the holes that will be drilled in clearances and the surrounding copper. Overlap of pads of different sizes and shapes are allowed. This results in complex, hard to inspect clearances. Our inspection is based on identification of shape, size and position of the individual pads that contribute to an overlapping clearance and then inspection of each pad based on design rules and tolerances. Main steps of our algorithm are as follows: (1) extraction and preprocessing of clearance contours; (2) decomposition of contours into segments: corner detection and matching lines or circular arcs between two corners; (3) determination of the pads from partial contour information obtained in step (2), and (4) design rules checking for each detected pad.

  1. AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

    2002-11-27

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and

  2. Model of thermal fatigue of a copper surface under the action of high-power microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzikov, S. V.; Plotkin, M. E.

    2007-10-01

    The accelerating structures of modern supercolliders, as well as the components of high-power microwave electron devices operated in strong cyclic electromagnetic fields should have long lifetimes. Along with the electric breakdown, the surfaces of these microwave components deteriorate and their lifetimes decrease due to thermal strains and subsequent mechanical loads on the surface metal layer. The elementary theory of thermal fatigue was developed in the 1970s. In particular, a model of metal as a continuous medium was considered. Within the framework of this model, thermal fatigue is caused by the strains arising between the hot surface layer and the cold internal layer of the metal. However, this theory does not describe all the currently available experimental data. In particular, the notion of “safe temperature” of the heating, i.e., temperature at which the surface is not destroyed during an arbitrarily long series of pulses, which was proposed in the theoretical model, is in poor agreement with the experiment performed in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC, USA). In this work, the thermal-fatigue theory is developed on the basis of consideration of the copper polycrystalline structure. The necessity to take it into account was demonstrated by the results of the SLAC experiment, in which a change in the mutual orientation of copper grains and the formation of cracks at their boundaries was recorded for the first time. The developed theory makes it possible to use the experimental data to refine the coefficients in the obtained formulas for the lifetime of the metal surface and to predict the number of microwave pulses before its destruction as a function of the radiation power, the surface-temperature increase at the pulse peak, and the pulse duration.

  3. Self-healing of cracks in Ag joining layer for die-attachment in power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuantong, E-mail: chenchuantong@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Jiu, Jinting; Zhang, Hao; Sugahara, Tohru [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Iwashige, Tomohito; Sugiura, Kazuhiko; Tsuruta, Kazuhiro [Research Division 3, Denso Corporation, Komenoki-cho, Minamiyama 500-1, Nissin, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan)

    2016-08-29

    Sintered silver (Ag) joining has attracted significant interest in power devices modules for its ability to form stable joints with a porous interconnection layer. A function for the self-healing of cracks in sintered porous Ag interlayers at high temperatures is discovered and reported here. A crack which was prepared on a Ag joining layer was closed after heating at 200 °C in air. The tensile strength of pre-cracked Ag joining layer specimens recovers to the value of non-cracked specimens after heating treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to probe the self-healing mechanism. TEM images and electron diffraction patterns show that a large quantity of Ag nanoparticles formed at the gap with the size less than 10 nm, which bridges the crack in the self-healing process. This discovery provides additional motivation for the application of Ag as an interconnection material for power devices at high temperature.

  4. Power scaling and experimentally fitted model for broad area quantum cascade lasers in continuous wave operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, Matthew; Go, Rowel; Figueiredo, Pedro; Todi, Ankesh; Shu, Hong; Leshin, Jason; Lyakh, Arkadiy

    2018-01-01

    Experimental and model results for 15-stage broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are presented. Continuous wave (CW) power scaling from 1.62 to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15-mm long, high reflection-coated QCLs for an active region width increased from 10 to 20 μm. A semiempirical model for broad area devices operating in CW mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sublinearity of pulsed power versus current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall-plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm×25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design, but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300 Å, pulsed rollover current density of 6 kA/cm2, and InGaAs waveguide layers, an optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to ˜4.5 W from 3.15 mm×31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  5. High gamma power in ECoG reflects cortical electrical stimulation effects on unit activity in layers V/VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdan-Shahmorad, Azadeh; Kipke, Daryl R.; Lehmkuhle, Mark J.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Cortical electrical stimulation (CES) has been used extensively in experimental neuroscience to modulate neuronal or behavioral activity, which has led this technique to be considered in neurorehabilitation. Because the cortex and the surrounding anatomy have irregular geometries as well as inhomogeneous and anisotropic electrical properties, the mechanism by which CES has therapeutic effects is poorly understood. Therapeutic effects of CES can be improved by optimizing the stimulation parameters based on the effects of various stimulation parameters on target brain regions. Approach. In this study we have compared the effects of CES pulse polarity, frequency, and amplitude on unit activity recorded from rat primary motor cortex with the effects on the corresponding local field potentials (LFP), and electrocorticograms (ECoG). CES was applied at the surface of the cortex and the unit activity and LFPs were recorded using a penetrating electrode array, which was implanted below the stimulation site. ECoGs were recorded from the vicinity of the stimulation site. Main results. Time-frequency analysis of LFPs following CES showed correlation of gamma frequencies with unit activity response in all layers. More importantly, high gamma power of ECoG signals only correlated with the unit activity in lower layers (V-VI) following CES. Time-frequency correlations, which were found between LFPs, ECoGs and unit activity, were frequency- and amplitude-dependent. Significance. The signature of the neural activity observed in LFP and ECoG signals provides a better understanding of the effects of stimulation on network activity, representative of large numbers of neurons responding to stimulation. These results demonstrate that the neurorehabilitation and neuroprosthetic applications of CES targeting layered cortex can be further improved by using field potential recordings as surrogates to unit activity aimed at optimizing stimulation efficacy. Likewise, the signatures

  6. Layout Capacitive Coupling and Structure Impacts on Integrated High Voltage Power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    The switching performances of the integrated high voltage power MOSFETs that have prevailing interconnection matrices are being heavily influenced by the parasitic capacitive coupling of on-chip metal wires. The mechanism of the side-byside coupling is generally known, however, the layer-to-layer......The switching performances of the integrated high voltage power MOSFETs that have prevailing interconnection matrices are being heavily influenced by the parasitic capacitive coupling of on-chip metal wires. The mechanism of the side-byside coupling is generally known, however, the layer...... extraction tool shows that the side-by-side coupling dominated structure can perform better than the layer-to-layer coupling dominated structure, in terms of on-resistance times input or output capacitance, by 9.2% and 4.9%, respectively....

  7. Impact of thickness on the structural properties of high tin content GeSn layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Gassenq, A.; Milord, L.; Pauc, N.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2017-09-01

    We have grown various thicknesses of GeSn layers in a 200 mm industrial Reduced Pressure - Chemical Vapor Deposition cluster tool using digermane (Ge2H6) and tin tetrachloride (SnCl4). The growth pressure (100 Torr) and the F(Ge2H6)/F(SnCl4) mass-flow ratio were kept constant, and incorporation of tin in the range of 10-15% was achieved with a reduction in temperature: 325 °C for 10% to 301 °C for 15% of Sn. The layers were grown on 2.5 μm thick Ge Strain Relaxed Buffers, themselves on Si(0 0 1) substrates. We used X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy to measure the Sn concentration, the strain state, the surface roughness and thickness as a function of growth duration. A dramatic degradation of the film was seen when the Sn concentration and layer thickness were too high resulting in rough/milky surfaces and significant Sn segregation.

  8. Hanle effect in (In,Ga)As quantum dots: Role of nuclear spin fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, M. S.; Flisinski, K.; Gerlovin, I. Ya.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Kavokin, K. V.; Verbin, S. Yu.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Bayer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The role of nuclear spin fluctuations in the dynamic polarization of nuclear spins by electrons is investigated in (In,Ga)As quantum dots. The photoluminescence polarization under circularly polarized optical pumping in transverse magnetic fields (Hanle effect) is studied. A weak additional magnetic field parallel to the optical axis is used to control the efficiency of nuclear spin cooling and the sign of nuclear spin temperature. The shape of the Hanle curve is drastically modified with cha...

  9. High thermoelectric power factor from multilayer solution-processed organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guangzheng; Andersson, Olof; Abdalla, Hassan; Kemerink, Martijn

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the suitability of the "sequential doping" method of organic semiconductors for thermoelectric applications. The method consists of depositing a dopant (F4TCNQ) containing solution on a previously cast semiconductor (P3HT) thin film to achieve high conductivity, while preserving the morphology. For very thin films (˜25 nm), we achieve a high power factor around 8 μW/mK-2 with a conductivity over 500 S/m. For the increasing film thickness, conductivity and power factor show a decreasing trend, which we attribute to the inability to dope the deeper parts of the film. Since thick films are required to extract significant power from thermoelectric generators, we developed a simple additive technique that allows the deposition of an arbitrary number of layers without significant loss in conductivity or power factor that, for 5 subsequent layers, remain at ˜300 S/m and ˜5 μW/mK-2, respectively, whereas the power output increases almost one order of magnitude as compared to a single layer. The efficient doping in multilayers is further confirmed by an increased intensity of (bi)polaronic features in the UV-Vis spectra.

  10. Critical thickness and strain relaxation in high-misfit heteroepitaxial systems: PbTe1-xSex on PbSe (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesauer, Karin; Springholz, G.

    2004-01-01

    Strain relaxation and misfit dislocation formation is investigated for the high-misfit PbTe 1-x Se x /PbSe (001) heteroepitaxial system in which the lattice mismatch varies from 0% to 5.5%. Because a two-dimensional (2D) layer growth prevails for all PbTe 1-x Se x ternary compositions, the lattice mismatch is relaxed purely by misfit dislocations. In addition, it is found that strain relaxation is not hindered by dislocation kinetics. Therefore, this material combination is an ideal model system for testing the equilibrium Frank-van der Merwe and Matthews-Blakeslee strain relaxation models. In our experiments, we find significantly lower values of the critical layer thickness as compared to the model predictions. This discrepancy is caused by the inappropriate description of the dislocation self-energies when the layer thickness becomes comparable to the dislocation core radius. To resolve this problem, a modified expression for the dislocation self-energy is proposed. The resulting theoretical critical thicknesses are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In addition, a remarkable universal scaling behavior is found for the strain relaxation data. This underlines the breakdown of the current strain relaxation models

  11. Incorporating Cyber Layer Failures in Composite Power System Reliability Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze the impacts of cyber layer failures (i.e., protection failures and monitoring failures on the reliability evaluation of composite power systems. The reliability and availability of the cyber layer and its protection and monitoring functions with various topologies are derived based on a reliability block diagram method. The availability of the physical layer components are modified via a multi-state Markov chain model, in which the component protection and monitoring strategies, as well as the cyber layer topology, are simultaneously considered. Reliability indices of composite power systems are calculated through non-sequential Monte-Carlo simulation. Case studies demonstrate that operational reliability downgrades in cyber layer function failure situations. Moreover, protection function failures have more significant impact on the downgraded reliability than monitoring function failures do, and the reliability indices are especially sensitive to the change of the cyber layer function availability in the range from 0.95 to 1.

  12. Metal-oxide-semiconductor devices based on epitaxial germanium-carbon layers grown directly on silicon substrates by ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David Quest

    After the integrated circuit was invented in 1959, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology soon became the mainstay of the semiconductor industry. Silicon-based CMOS has dominated logic technologies for decades. During this time, chip performance has grown at an exponential rate at the cost of higher power consumption and increased process complexity. The performance gains have been made possible through scaling down circuit dimensions by improvements in lithography capabilities. Since scaling cannot continue forever, researchers have vigorously pursued new ways of improving the performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) without having to shrink gate lengths and reduce the gate insulator thickness. Strained silicon, with its ability to boost transistor current by improving the channel mobility, is one of the methods that has already found its way into production. Although not yet in production, high-kappa dielectrics have also drawn wide interest in industry since they allow for the reduction of the electrical oxide thickness of the gate stack without having to reduce the physical thickness of the dielectric. Further out on the horizon is the incorporation of high-mobility materials such as germanium (Ge), silicon-germanium (Si1-xGe x), and the III-V semiconductors. Among the high-mobility materials, Ge has drawn the most attention because it has been shown to be compatible with high-kappa dielectrics and to produce high drive currents compared to Si. Among the most difficult challenges for integrating Ge on Si is finding a suitable method for reducing the number of crystal defects. The use of strain-relaxed Si1- xGex buffers has proven successful for reducing the threading dislocation density in Ge epitaxial layers, but questions remain as to the viability of this method in terms of cost and process complexity. This dissertation presents research on thin germanium-carbon (Ge 1-yCy layers on Si for the fabrication

  13. Sub-second photonic processing of solution-deposited single layer and heterojunction metal oxide thin-film transistors using a high-power xenon flash lamp

    KAUST Repository

    Tetzner, Kornelius

    2017-11-01

    We report the fabrication of solution-processed In2O3 and In2O3/ZnO heterojunction thin-film transistors (TFTs) where the precursor materials were converted to their semiconducting state using high power light pulses generated by a xenon flash lamp. In2O3 TFTs prepared on glass substrates exhibited low-voltage operation (≤2 V) and a high electron mobility of ∼6 cm2 V−1 s−1. By replacing the In2O3 layer with a photonically processed In2O3/ZnO heterojunction, we were able to increase the electron mobility to 36 cm2 V−1 s−1, while maintaining the low-voltage operation. Although the level of performance achieved in these devices is comparable to control TFTs fabricated via thermal annealing at 250 °C for 1 h, the photonic treatment approach adopted here is extremely rapid with a processing time of less than 18 s per layer. With the aid of a numerical model we were able to analyse the temperature profile within the metal oxide layer(s) upon flashing revealing a remarkable increase of the layer\\'s surface temperature to ∼1000 °C within ∼1 ms. Despite this, the backside of the glass substrate remains unchanged and close to room temperature. Our results highlight the applicability of the method for the facile manufacturing of high performance metal oxide transistors on inexpensive large-area substrates.

  14. Active quenching circuit for a InGaAs single-photon avalanche diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lixia; Wu Jin; Xi Shuiqing; Shi Longxing; Liu Siyang; Sun Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel gated operation active quenching circuit (AQC). In order to simulate the quenching circuit a complete SPICE model of a InGaAs SPAD is set up according to the I–V characteristic measurement results of the detector. The circuit integrated with aROIC (readout integrated circuit) is fabricated in an CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process and then hybrid packed with the detector. Chip measurement results show that the functionality of the circuit is correct and the performance is suitable for practical system applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Nearest-IR superluminescent diodes with a 100-nm spectral width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' chenko, S N; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Yakubovich, S D

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents an experimental study of quantum well superluminescent diodes with an extremely thin (InGa)As active layer. Under cw injection, the output power of such diodes is several milliwatts, with a centre wavelength of 830 nm and emission bandwidth of about 100 nm. (letters)

  16. High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    The development of new implantable medical devices has been limited in the past by slow advances in lithium battery technology. Non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells are promising replacement candidates for lithium batteries because of good long-term stability and adequate power density. The devices developed to date however use an "oxygen depletion design" whereby the electrodes are stacked on top of each other leading to low volumetric power density and complicated fabrication protocols. Here we have developed a novel single-layer fuel cell with good performance (2 μW cm⁻²) and stability that can be integrated directly as a coating layer on large implantable devices, or stacked to obtain a high volumetric power density (over 16 μW cm⁻³). This represents the first demonstration of a low volume non-enzymatic fuel cell stack with high power density, greatly increasing the range of applications for non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells.

  17. Design of robust hollow fiber membranes with high power density for osmotic energy production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sui

    2014-04-01

    This study highlights the design strategy of highly asymmetric hollow fiber membranes that possess both characteristics of high flux and high mechanical strength to effectively reap the osmotic energy from seawater brine with an ultrahigh power density. An advanced co-extrusion technology was employed to fabricate the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber supports with diversified structures from macrovoid to sponge-like. The microstructure of the supports is found critical for the stability and water permeability of the thin film composite (TFC) membranes. A high porosity in the porous layer is needed to reduce internal concentration polarization, while a thick and relatively dense skin layer underneath the TFC layer is required to maintain good mechanical stability and stress dissipation. The pore size of the supporting layer underneath the TFC layer must be small with a narrow pore size distribution to ensure the formation of a less-defective, highly permeable and mechanically stable TFC layer. The newly developed hollow fiber comprising high asymmetry, high porosity, and a thick skin layer with a small and narrow pore size distribution underneath the TFC layer produces a maximum power density of 24.3W/m2 at 20.0bar by using 1M NaCl as the concentrated brine and deionized (DI) water as the feed. The proposed design strategy for ultrahigh power density membranes clearly advances the osmotic energy production close to commercialization with a quite cost-effective and practicable approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Design of robust hollow fiber membranes with high power density for osmotic energy production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sui; Sukitpaneenit, Panu; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the design strategy of highly asymmetric hollow fiber membranes that possess both characteristics of high flux and high mechanical strength to effectively reap the osmotic energy from seawater brine with an ultrahigh power density. An advanced co-extrusion technology was employed to fabricate the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber supports with diversified structures from macrovoid to sponge-like. The microstructure of the supports is found critical for the stability and water permeability of the thin film composite (TFC) membranes. A high porosity in the porous layer is needed to reduce internal concentration polarization, while a thick and relatively dense skin layer underneath the TFC layer is required to maintain good mechanical stability and stress dissipation. The pore size of the supporting layer underneath the TFC layer must be small with a narrow pore size distribution to ensure the formation of a less-defective, highly permeable and mechanically stable TFC layer. The newly developed hollow fiber comprising high asymmetry, high porosity, and a thick skin layer with a small and narrow pore size distribution underneath the TFC layer produces a maximum power density of 24.3W/m2 at 20.0bar by using 1M NaCl as the concentrated brine and deionized (DI) water as the feed. The proposed design strategy for ultrahigh power density membranes clearly advances the osmotic energy production close to commercialization with a quite cost-effective and practicable approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. An adaptive crystal bender for high power synchrotron radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, L.E.; Hastings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Perfect crystal monochromators cannot diffract x-rays efficiently, nor transmit the high source brightness available at synchrotron radiation facilities, unless surface strains within the beam footprint are maintained within a few arcseconds. Insertion devices at existing synchrotron sources already produce x-ray power density levels that can induce surface slope errors of several arcseconds on silicon monochromator crystals at room temperature, no matter how well the crystal is cooled. The power density levels that will be produced by insertion devices at the third-generation sources will be as much as a factor of 100 higher still. One method of restoring ideal x-ray diffraction behavior, while coping with high power levels, involves adaptive compensation of the induced thermal strain field. The design and performance, using the X25 hybrid wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), of a silicon crystal bender constructed for this purpose are described

  20. Sound Power Minimization of Circular Plates Through Damping Layer Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, H.-W.; Lamancusa, J. S.

    1998-09-01

    Damping layers, widely used for noise and vibration control of thin-walled structures, can be designed to provide an optimal trade-off between performance and weight which is of particular importance in the automotive and aircraft industry. The goal of the presented work is the minimization of sound power radiated from plates under broadband excitation by redistribution of unconstrained damping layers. The total radiated sound power is assumed to be represented by the sound power radiated at the structural resonances. Resonance tracking is performed by means of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF)-approximations based on near-resonance responses and their frequency derivatives. Axisymmetric vibrations of circular plates under several boundary and forcing conditions are considered. Frequency dependent Young's modulus and loss factor of the damping material are taken into account. Vibration analysis is based on the finite element method (FEM) while acoustic radiation is treated by means of Rayleigh's integral formula. It is shown that, starting from a uniform damping layer distribution, substantial reduction in radiated sound power can be achieved through redistribution of the damping layers. Depending on the given situation, these reductions are not only due to amplitude reductions but also to changes in vibration shapes and frequencies.

  1. DC microgrid power flow optimization by multi-layer supervision control. Design and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechilariu, Manuela; Wang, Bao Chao; Locment, Fabrice; Jouglet, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • DC microgrid (PV array, storage, power grid connection, DC load) with multi-layer supervision control. • Power balancing following power flow optimization while providing interface for smart grid communication. • Optimization under constraints: storage capability, grid power limitations, grid time-of-use pricing. • Experimental validation of DC microgrid power flow optimization by multi-layer supervision control. • DC microgrid able to perform peak shaving, to avoid undesired injection, and to make full use of locally energy. - Abstract: Urban areas have great potential for photovoltaic (PV) generation, however, direct PV power injection has limitations for high level PV penetration. It induces additional regulations in grid power balancing because of lacking abilities of responding to grid issues such as reducing grid peak consumption or avoiding undesired injections. The smart grid implementation, which is designed to meet these requirements, is facilitated by microgrids development. This paper presents a DC microgrid (PV array, storage, power grid connection, DC load) with multi-layer supervision control which handles instantaneous power balancing following the power flow optimization while providing interface for smart grid communication. The optimization takes into account forecast of PV power production and load power demand, while satisfying constraints such as storage capability, grid power limitations, grid time-of-use pricing and grid peak hour. Optimization, whose efficiency is related to the prediction accuracy, is carried out by mixed integer linear programming. Experimental results show that the proposed microgrid structure is able to control the power flow at near optimum cost and ensures self-correcting capability. It can respond to issues of performing peak shaving, avoiding undesired injection, and making full use of locally produced energy with respect to rigid element constraints

  2. Far scrape-off layer particle and heat fluxes in high density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H. W.; Bernert, M.; Carralero, D.

    2014-01-01

    The far scrape-off layer transport is studied in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode discharges with high divertor neutral density N0,div, high power across the separatrix Psep and nitrogen seeding to control the divertor temperature. Such conditions are expected for ITER but usually not investigated in terms...

  3. Cross-Layer Design Approach for Power Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, communication among mobile nodes occurs through wireless medium The design of ad hoc network protocol, generally based on a traditional “layered approach”, has been found ineffective to deal with receiving signal strength (RSS-related problems, affecting the physical layer, the network layer and transport layer. This paper proposes a design approach, deviating from the traditional network design, toward enhancing the cross-layer interaction among different layers, namely physical, MAC and network. The Cross-Layer design approach for Power control (CLPC would help to enhance the transmission power by averaging the RSS values and to find an effective route between the source and the destination. This cross-layer design approach was tested by simulation (NS2 simulator and its performance over AODV was found to be better.

  4. Growth parameter optimization and interface treatment for enhanced electron mobility in heavily strained GaInAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Ostinelli, Olivier; Alt, Andreas; Pallin, Angel; Bolognesi, Colombo R.

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of heavily strained Ga 0.25 In 0.75 As/Al 0.48 In 0.52 As high electron mobility transistor structures is discussed in detail. The growth parameters and the channel layer interfaces were optimized in order to maximize the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. Structures composed of an 11 nm thick channel layer and a 4 nm thick spacer layer exhibited electron mobilities as high as 15 100 cm 2 /Vs and 70 000 cm 2 /Vs at 300 and 77 K, respectively, for channels including InAs strained layers. The sheet carrier density was kept above 2.5 × 10 12  cm −2 throughout the entire study

  5. Observation of electron polarization above 80% in photoemission from strained III-V compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwin, E.L.; Maruyama, T.; Prepost, R.; Zapalac, G.H.

    1992-02-01

    Spin-polarized electron photoemission has been investigated for strained III--V compounds; (1) strained In x Ga 1-x As epitaxially grown on a GaAs substrate, and (2) strained GaAs grown on a GaAs 1-x P x buffer layer. The lattice mismatched heterostructure results in a highly strained epitaxial layer, and electron spin polarization as high as 90% has been observed

  6. Neuroscience imaging enabled by new highly tunable and high peak power femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.

    2017-02-01

    Neuroscience applications benefit from recent developments in industrial femtosecond laser technology. New laser sources provide several megawatts of peak power at wavelength of 1040 nm, which enables simultaneous optogenetics photoactivation of tens or even hundreds of neurons using red shifted opsins. Another recent imaging trend is to move towards longer wavelengths, which would enable access to deeper layers of tissue due to lower scattering and lower absorption in the tissue. Femtosecond lasers pumping a non-collinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) enable the access to longer wavelengths with high peak powers. High peak powers of >10 MW at 1300 nm and 1700 nm allow effective 3-photon excitation of green and red shifted calcium indicators respectively and access to deeper, sub-cortex layers of the brain. Early results include in vivo detection of spontaneous activity in hippocampus within an intact mouse brain, where neurons express GCaMP6 activated in a 3-photon process at 1320 nm.

  7. Mechanics of brazed joints and compliant layers in high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, G.; Moret, F.; Chaumat, G.

    1994-01-01

    Soft layers are of great interest for the joining of dissimilar materials like beryllium, tungsten or carbon base refractory tiles for plasma interface and cooled structures made of copper or molybdenum. Soft layers reduce the residual and in-service stress/strain level without reducing the thermal capability. Thin soft layers interfaces are produced during the brazing or HIP bonding cycles. However, the numerical modelling of the mechanical effect of such soft layers remains largely inaccurate. The camber of [CFC tiles (A05, N11, N112)/Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal/OFHC or TZM substrate] assemblies is recorded during the whole brazing thermal cycle and subsequent thermal fatigue cycles using a special vertical dilatometer. An inverse method based on Finite Element modelling of the samples is used to determine the joint constitutive law. Then, by comparing experiments and FEM calculations, the effects of distributed damage of the CFC and of the strain hardening and thermal softening of OFHC on the in-service stress/strain state of the component are observed. (authors). 5 refs., 7 figs

  8. Mechanics of brazed joints and compliant layers in high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, G.; Moret, F.; Chaumat, G.; Cailletaud, G.; Pilvin, P.

    1995-01-01

    Soft layers are of great interest for the joining of dissimilar materials like beryllium, tungsten or carbone base refractory tiles for plasma interface and cooled structures made of copper or molybdenum. Soft layers reduce the residual and in-service stress/strain level without reducing the thermal capability. Thin soft layers interfaces are produced during the brazing or HIP bonding cycles. However, the numerical modelling of the mechanical effect of such soft layers remains largely inaccurate. The camber of [CFC tiles (A05, N11, N112)/Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal/OFHC or TZM substrate] assemblies is recorded during the whole brazing thermal cycle and subsequent thermal fatigue cycles using a special vertical dilatometer. An inverse method based on Finite Element modelling of the samples is used to determine the joint constitutive law. Then, by comparing experiments and FEM calculations, the effects of distributed damage of the CFC and of the strain hardening and thermal softening of OFHC on the in-service stress/strain state of the component are observed. (orig.)

  9. Compressive strain induced enhancement in thermoelectric-power-factor in monolayer MoS2 nanosheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimple; Jena, Nityasagar; De Sarkar, Abir

    2017-01-01

    Strain and temperature induced tunability in the thermoelectric properties in monolayer MoS 2 (ML-MoS 2 ) has been demonstrated using density functional theory coupled to semi-classical Boltzmann transport theory. Compressive strain, in general and uniaxial compressive strain (along the zig-zag direction), in particular, is found to be most effective in enhancing the thermoelectric power factor, owing to the higher electronic mobility and its sensitivity to lattice compression along this direction. Variation in the Seebeck coefficient and electronic band gap with strain is found to follow the Goldsmid–Sharp relation. n-type doping is found to raise the relaxation time-scaled thermoelectric power factor higher than p-type doping and this divide widens with increasing temperature. The relaxation time-scaled thermoelectric power factor in optimally n-doped ML-MoS 2 is found to undergo maximal enhancement under the application of 3% uniaxial compressive strain along the zig-zag direction, when both the ( direct ) electronic band gap and the Seebeck coefficient reach their maximum, while the electron mobility drops down drastically from 73.08 to 44.15 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . Such strain sensitive thermoelectric responses in ML-MoS 2 could open doorways for a variety of applications in emerging areas in 2D-thermoelectrics, such as on-chip thermoelectric power generation and waste thermal energy harvesting. (paper)

  10. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  11. Parameters of straining-induced corrosion cracking in low-alloy steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, E.; Liebert, A.; Stellwag, B.; Wieling, N.

    Tensile tests with slow deformation speed determine parameters of corrosion cracking at low strain rates of low-alloy steels in high-temperature water. Besides the strain rate the temperature and oxygen content of the water prove to be important for the deformation behaviour of the investigated steels 17MnMoV64, 20 MnMoNi55 and 15NiCuMoNb 5. Temperatures about 240 0 C, increased oxygen contents in the water and low strain rates cause a decrease of the material ductility as against the behaviour in air. Tests on the number of stress cycles until incipient cracking show that the parameters important for corrosion cracking at low strain velocities apply also to low-frequency cyclic loads with high strain amplitude. In knowledge of these influencing parameters the strain-induced corrosion cracking is counteracted by concerted measures taken in design, construction and operation of nuclear power stations. Essential aims in this matter are to avoid as far as possible inelastic strains and to fix and control suitable media conditions. (orig.) [de

  12. Dualband MW/LW Strained Layer Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays For Satellite-Based Wildfire Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dualband focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on gallium-free Type-II strained layer superlattice (SLS) photodiodes have recently experienced significant advances. We...

  13. The effect of donor layer thickness on the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices fabricated with a double small-molecular layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Su-Hwan; Kim, Dal-Ho; Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2009-01-01

    In organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices fabricated with a double small-molecular layer, the power conversion efficiency strongly depends on the thickness of the organic donor layer (here, copper phthalocyanine). In other words, the power conversion efficiency increases with the donor layer thickness up to a specific thickness (∼12.7 nm) and then decreases beyond that thickness. This trend is associated with the light absorption and carrier transport resistance of the small-molecular donor layer, both of which strongly depend on the layer thickness. Experimental and calculated results showed that the short-circuit current due to light absorption increased with the donor layer thickness, while that due to current through the donor layer decreased with 1/R. Since the total short-circuit current is the product of the light absorption current and current through the donor layer, there is a trade-off, and the maximum power conversion efficiency occurs at a specific organic donor layer thickness (e.g. ∼12.7 nm in this experiment).

  14. Nondestructive strain depth profiling with high energy X-ray diffraction: System capabilities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Wendt, Scott; Cosentino, Nicholas; Bond, Leonard J.

    2018-04-01

    Limited by photon energy, and penetration capability, traditional X-ray diffraction (XRD) strain measurements are only capable of achieving a few microns depth due to the use of copper (Cu Kα1) or molybdenum (Mo Kα1) characteristic radiation. For deeper strain depth profiling, destructive methods are commonly necessary to access layers of interest by removing material. To investigate deeper depth profiles nondestructively, a laboratory bench-top high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) system was previously developed. This HEXRD method uses an industrial 320 kVp X-Ray tube and the Kα1 characteristic peak of tungsten, to produces a higher intensity X-ray beam which enables depth profiling measurement of lattice strain. An aluminum sample was investigated with deformation/load provided using a bending rig. It was shown that the HEXRD method is capable of strain depth profiling to 2.5 mm. The method was validated using an aluminum sample where both the HEXRD method and the traditional X-ray diffraction method gave data compared with that obtained using destructive etching layer removal, performed by a commercial provider. The results demonstrate comparable accuracy up to 0.8 mm depth. Nevertheless, higher attenuation capabilities in heavier metals limit the applications in other materials. Simulations predict that HEXRD works for steel and nickel in material up to 200 µm, but experiment results indicate that the HEXRD strain profile is not practical for steel and nickel material, and the measured diffraction signals are undetectable when compared to the noise.

  15. Dualband MW/LW Strained Layer Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays for Satellite-Based Wildfire Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on Type-II strained layer superlattice (SLS) photodiodes have recently experienced significant advances. In Phase I we...

  16. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, Hasan; Khodadadi, J. M.; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS 2 utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS 2 on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS 2 to peak at ∼2.8 × 10 4 μW/m K 2 at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10 12 cm −2 . This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi 2 Te 3 , for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS 2 may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized

  17. Reconstruction of original indium distribution in InGaAs quantum wells from experimental SIMS depth profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudriavtsev, Yu., E-mail: yuriyk@cinvestav.mx [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN #2508, D.F., México (Mexico); Asomoza, R. [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN #2508, D.F., México (Mexico); Gallardo-Hernandez, S.; Ramirez-Lopez, M.; Lopez-Lopez, M. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, México (Mexico); Nevedomsky, V.; Moiseev, K. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, S-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Depth profiling analysis of InGaAs/GaAs hetero-structures grown by MBE on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates is reported. A novel two-step procedure for de-convolving experimental SIMS depth distribution is employed and the original In distribution in InGaAs quantum wells (QW) is estimated. The QW thickness calculated from the de-convolved profiles is shown to be in good agreement with the cross-sectional TEM images. The experimental In depth profile is shifted from the original In distribution due to the ion mixing process during depth profiling analysis. It is shown that the de-convolution procedure is suitable for reconstruction of the original QW width and depth by SIMS even for relatively high primary ion energies.

  18. Extended wavelength InGaAs on GaAs using InAlAs buffer for back-side-illuminated short-wave infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Lars; John, Joachim; Degroote, Stefan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Hoof, Chris van; Nemeth, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study of back-side-illuminated InGaAs photodiodes grown on GaAs and sensitive in the short-wave infrared up to 2.4 μm. Standard metamorphic InGaAs or IR-transparent InAlAs buffers were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. We studied dark current and photocurrent as a function of buffer thickness, buffer material, and temperature. A saturation of the dark current with buffer thickness was not observed. The maximum resistance area product was ∼10 Ω cm2 at 295 K. The dark current above 200 K was dominated by generation-recombination current. A pronounced dependence of the photocurrent on the buffer thickness was observed. The peak external quantum efficiency was 46% (at 1.6 μm) without antireflective coating

  19. Characteristic of doping and diffusion of heavily doped n and p type InP and InGaAs epitaxial layers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzone, C.J.; Dupuis, R.D.; Ha, N.T.; Luftman, H.S.; Gerrard, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    Electronic and photonic device applications of the InGaAs/InP materials system often require the growth of epitaxial material doped to or near the solubility limit of the impurity in the host material. These requirements present an extreme challenge for the crystal grower. To produce devices with abrupt dopant profiles, preserve the junction during subsequent growth, and retain a high degree of crystalline perfection, it is necessary to understand the limits of dopant incorporation and the behavior of the impurity in the material. In this study, N-type doping above 10 19 cm -3 has been achieved in InP and InGaAs using Sn as a dopant. P-type Zn doping at these levels has also been achieved in these materials but p type activation above ∼3 x 10 18 cm -3 in InP has not been seen. All materials were grown by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) crystal growth technique. Effective diffusion coefficients have been measured for Zn and Sn in both materials from analysis of secondary ion mass spectra (SIMS) of specially grown and annealed samples

  20. Structural and thermal stabilities of layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials in 18650 high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Ning, Feng; Yang, Quan-Hong; Song, Quan-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Su, Fangyuan; Du, Hongda; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Kang, Feiyu

    The structural and thermal stabilities of the layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode materials under high rate cycling and abusive conditions are investigated using the commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries. The Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials maintain their layered structure even when the power batteries are subjected to 200 cycles with 10 C discharge rate at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C, whereas their microstructure undergoes obvious distortion, which leads to the relatively poor cycling performance of power batteries at high charge/discharge rates and working temperature. Under abusive conditions, the increase in the battery temperature during overcharge is attributed to both the reactions of electrolyte solvents with overcharged graphite anode and Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode and the Joule heat that results from the great increase in the total resistance (R cell) of batteries. The reactions of fully charged Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathodes and graphite anodes with electrolyte cannot be activated during short current test in the fully charged batteries. However, these reactions occur at around 140 °C in the fully charged batteries during oven test, which is much lower than the temperature of about 240 °C required for the reactions outside batteries.

  1. The growth of InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices for use in infrared emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R. [and others

    1997-06-01

    We describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. These SLSs were grown at 500{degrees}C, and 200 torr in a horizontal quartz reactor using TMIn, TESb, AsH{sub 3},and PH{sub 3}. By changing the layer thickness and composition we have prepared structures with low temperature ({le}20K) photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 4.4 {mu}m. Excellent performance was observed for an SLS LED and both optically pumped and electrically injected SLS lasers. An optically pumped, double heterostructure laser emitted at 3.86 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of 240 K and a characteristic temperature of 33 K. We have also made electrically injected lasers and LEDs utilizing a GaAsSb/InAs semi-metal injection scheme. The semi-metal injected, broadband LED emitted at 4 {mu}m with 80 {mu}W of power at 300K and 200 mA average current. The InAsSb/InAsP SLS injection laser emitted at 3.6 gm at 120 K.

  2. Layer-specific systolic and diastolic strain in  hypertensive patients with and without mild diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Sharif PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine layer-specific longitudinal and circumferential systolic and diastolic strain, strain rate (SR and diastolic time intervals in hypertensive patients with and without diastolic dysfunction. Fifty-eight treated hypertensive patients were assigned to normal diastolic function (NDF, N = 39 or mild diastolic dysfunction (DD, N = 19 group. Layer-specific systolic and diastolic longitudinal and circumferential strains and SR were assessed. Results showed no between-group difference in left ventricular mass index (DD: 92.1 ± 18.1 vs NDF: 88.4 ± 16.3; P = 0.44. Patients with DD had a proportional reduction in longitudinal strain across the myocardium (endocardial for DD −13 ± 4%; vs NDF −17 ± 3, P < 0.01; epicardial for DD −10 ± 3% vs NDF −13 ± 3%, P < 0.01; global for DD: −12 ± 3% vs NDF: −15 ± 3, P = 0.01, and longitudinal mechanical diastolic impairments as evidenced by reduced longitudinal strain rate of early diastole (DD 0.7 ± 0.2 L/s vs NDF 1.0 ± 0.3 L/s, P < 0.01 and absence of a transmural gradient in the duration of diastolic strain (DD endocardial: 547 ± 105 ms vs epicardial: 542 ± 113 ms, P = 0.24; NDF endocardial: 566 ± 86 ms vs epicardial: 553 ± 77 ms, P = 0.03. Patients with DD also demonstrate a longer duration of early circumferential diastolic strain (231 ± 71 ms vs 189 ± 58 ms, P = 0.02. In conclusion, hypertensive patients with mild DD demonstrate a proportional reduction in longitudinal strain across the myocardium, as well as longitudinal mechanical diastolic impairment, and prolonging duration of circumferential mechanical relaxation.

  3. Highly efficient white organic light-emitting devices consisting of undoped ultrathin yellow phosphorescent layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Ma, Zhu; Zhao, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-02-15

    High-efficiency white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) based on an undoped ultrathin yellow light-emitting layer and a doped blue light-emitting layer were demonstrated. While the thickness of blue light-emitting layer, formed by doping a charge-trapping phosphor, iridium(III) bis(4 Prime ,6 Prime -difluorophenylpyridinato)tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate (FIr6) in a wide bandgap host, was kept constant, the thickness of neat yellow emissive layer of novel phosphorescent material, bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2 Prime }]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] was varied to optimize the device performance. The optimized device exhibited maximum luminance, current efficiency and power efficiency of 24,000 cd/m{sup 2} (at 15.2 V), 79.0 cd/A (at 1550 cd/m{sup 2}) and 40.5 lm/W (at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}), respectively. Besides, the white-light emission covered a wide range of visible spectrum, and the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates were (0.32, 0.38) with a color temperature of 5800 K at 8 V. Moreover, high external quantum efficiency was also obtained in the high-efficiency WOLEDs. The performance enhancement was attributed to the proper thickness of (t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac) layer that enabled adequate current density and enough phosphorescent dye to trap electrons. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly efficient WOLEDs based on two complementary layers were fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The yellow emissive layer was formed by utilizing undoping system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The blue emissive layer was made by host-guest doping system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thickness of the yellow emissive layer was varied to make device optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimized device achieved high power efficiency of 40.5 lm/W.

  4. Different strain relaxation mechanisms in strained Si/Si sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x /Si heterostructures by high dose B sup + and BF sub 2 sup + doping

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C C; Zhang, S L; Zhu, D Z; Vantomme, A

    2002-01-01

    Strained Si/Si sub 0 sub . sub 8 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 2 /Si heterostructures are implanted at room temperature with 7.5 keV B sup + and 33 keV BF sub 2 sup + ions to a high dose of 2x10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 2 , respectively. The samples are subsequently subjected to three-step anneals (spacer anneal, oxidation anneal and rapid thermal anneal), which are used to simulate a real fabrication process of SiGe-based MOSFET devices. The damage induced by implantation and its recovery are characterized by 2 MeV sup 4 He sup + RBS/channeling spectrometry. A damage layer on the surface is induced by B sup + implantation, but BF sup + sub 2 ion implantation amorphizes the surface of Si/Si sub 0 sub . sub 8 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 2 /Si heterostructure. Channeling angular scans along the axial direction demonstrate that the strain stored in the SiGe layer could be nearly completely retained for the B sup + implanted and subsequently annealed sample. However, the strain in the BF sub 2 sup + implanted/annealed SiGe layer has...

  5. Realization of Intrinsically Stretchable Organic Solar Cells Enabled by Charge-Extraction Layer and Photoactive Material Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Ting; Chen, Jung-Yao; Fukuta, Seijiro; Lin, Po-Chen; Higashihara, Tomoya; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2018-06-12

    The rapid development of wearable electronic devices has prompted a strong demand to develop stretchable organic solar cells (OSCs) to serve as the advanced powering systems. However, to realize an intrinsically stretchable OSC is challenging because it requires all the constituent layers to possess certain elastic properties. It thus necessitates a combined engineering of charge-transporting layers and photoactive materials. Herein, we first describe a stretchable electron-extraction layer using a blend of poly[(9,9-bis(3'-( N, N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)- alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, Nipol 1072). This hybrid PFN/NBR layer exhibits a much lower Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov modulus (0.45 GPa) than the value (1.25 GPa) of the pristine PFN and could withstand a high strain (60% strain) without showing any cracks. Moreover, besides enriching the stretchability of PFN, the terminal carboxyl groups of NBR can ionize PFN to promote its solution-processability in polar solvents and to ensure the interfacial dipole formation at the corresponding interface in the device, as evidenced by the Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. By further coupling the replacement of [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with nonfullerene acceptors owing to better mechanical stretchability in the photoactive layer, OSCs with improved intrinsically stretchability and performance were demonstrated. An all-polymer OSC can exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 2.82% after 10% stretching, surpassing the PCBM-based device that can only withstand 5% strain.

  6. A design method for two-layer beams consisting of normal and fibered high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Two-layer fibered concrete beams can be analyzed using conventional methods for composite elements. The compressed zone of such beam section is made of high strength concrete (HSC), and the tensile one of normal strength concrete (NSC). The problems related to such type of beams are revealed and studied. An appropriate depth of each layer is prescribed. Compatibility conditions between HSC and NSC layers are found. It is based on the shear deformations equality on the layers border in a section with maximal depth of the compression zone. For the first time a rigorous definition of HSC is given using a comparative analysis of deformability and strength characteristics of different concrete classes. According to this definition, HSC has no download branch in the stress-strain diagram, the stress-strain function has minimum exponent, the ductility parameter is minimal and the concrete tensile strength remains constant with an increase in concrete compression strength. The application fields of two-layer concrete beams based on different static schemes and load conditions make known. It is known that the main disadvantage of HSCs is their low ductility. In order to overcome this problem, fibers are added to the HSC layer. Influence of different fiber volume ratios on structural ductility is discussed. An upper limit of the required fibers volume ratio is found based on compatibility equation of transverse tensile concrete deformations and deformations of fibers

  7. Self-powered neutron detector of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Spillekothen, H.G.; Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.

    1983-01-01

    A self-powered neutron detector is proposed, consisting of three concentrically arranged electrically conducting tubes; where the central one forms the emitter and the inner and outer ones form the collector and where the tubes are electrically insulated from each other by insulating material. The emitter consists of a material with a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, particularly of gadolinium, and is provided with an auxiliary emitter layer on the inside or the outside. With suitable dimensions and material, the auxiliary emitter layer increases the yield of electrons. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Multilayer self-organization of InGaAs quantum wires on GaAs surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiming M.; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Xie, Yanze Z.; Schmidbauer, Martin; Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-Beam Epitaxy growth of multiple In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As layers on GaAs (311)A and GaAs (331)A has been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Photoluminescence. On GaAs (311)A, uniformly distributed In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As quantum wires (QWRs) with wider lateral separation were achieved, presenting a significant improvement in comparison with the result on single layer [H. Wen, Z.M. Wang, G.J. Salamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) 1756]. On GaAs (331)A, In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As QWRs were revealed to be much straighter than in the previous report on multilayer growth [Z. Gong, Z. Niu, Z. Fang, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) 1140]. These observations are discussed in terms of the strain-field interaction among multilayers, enhancement of surface mobility at high temperature, and surface stability of GaAs (311)A and (331)A surfaces.

  9. Strain-induced phenomenon in complex oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haislmaier, Ryan

    to deposit single monolayers of SrO and TiO2 is utilized to build the RP film structure over a time period of 5 hours. This is the first time that a thin film RP phase has been grown using hybrid MBE, where an a stable control over the fluxes is demonstrated during relatively long time periods of growth, which advantageously facilitates the synthesis of high-quality RP materials with excellent structural and chemical homogeneity. Additionally, this work demonstrates some major advancements in optical second harmonic generation (SHG) characterization techniques of ferroelectric thin film materials. The SHG characterization techniques developed here proved to be the 'bread-and-butter' for most of the work performed in this thesis, providing a powerful tool for identifying the existence of strain-induced ferroelectric phases, including their temperature dependence and polar symmetry. The work presented in this dissertation will hopefully provide a preliminary road map for future hybrid MBE growers, scientists and researchers, to develop and investigate epitaxial strain and heterostructure layering induced phenomena in other complex oxide systems.

  10. Narrow ridge waveguide high power single mode 1.3-μm InAs/InGaAs ten-layer quantum dot lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Q

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTen-layer InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As quantum dot (QD laser structures have been grown using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE on GaAs (001 substrate. Using the pulsed anodic oxidation technique, narrow (2 μm ridge waveguide (RWG InAs QD lasers have been fabricated. Under continuous wave operation, the InAs QD laser (2 × 2,000 μm2 delivered total output power of up to 272.6 mW at 10 °C at 1.3 μm. Under pulsed operation, where the device heating is greatly minimized, the InAs QD laser (2 × 2,000 μm2 delivered extremely high output power (both facets of up to 1.22 W at 20 °C, at high external differential quantum efficiency of 96%. Far field pattern measurement of the 2-μm RWG InAs QD lasers showed single lateral mode operation.

  11. Strain and strain-release engineering at epitaxial SiGe islands on Si(0 0 1) for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastola, G.; Marzegalli, A.; Montalenti, F.; Miglio, Leo

    2009-01-01

    We report original finite element method simulations of the strain components at nanometric GeSi island on Si(0 0 1), for realistic shape, sizes and average composition, discussing the main mechanisms acting in the misfit strain relaxation. The tensile strain induced in a 30 nm Si capping layer and the one upon removing the island, after fixing the top part of the Si layer, is discussed in view of application as a field effect transistor channel, with high career mobility induced by the lattice deformation. The large shear components obtained for steeper island morphologies are predicted to be particularly performing, especially in comparison to one another strained-silicon configuration (totally top-down originated), recently developed by IBM corporation.

  12. A Decomposition Method for Security Constrained Economic Dispatch of a Three-Layer Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junfeng; Luo, Zhiqiang; Dong, Cheng; Lai, Xiaowen; Wang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decomposition method for the security-constrained economic dispatch in a three-layer large-scale power system. The decomposition is realized using two main techniques. The first is to use Ward equivalencing-based network reduction to reduce the number of variables and constraints in the high-layer model without sacrificing accuracy. The second is to develop a price response function to exchange signal information between neighboring layers, which significantly improves the information exchange efficiency of each iteration and results in less iterations and less computational time. The case studies based on the duplicated RTS-79 system demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  13. Unstacked double-layer templated graphene for high-rate lithium-sulphur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Tian, Gui-Li; Nie, Jing-Qi; Peng, Hong-Jie; Wei, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Preventing the stacking of graphene is essential to exploiting its full potential in energy-storage applications. The introduction of spacers into graphene layers always results in a change in the intrinsic properties of graphene and/or induces complexity at the interfaces. Here we show the synthesis of an intrinsically unstacked double-layer templated graphene via template-directed chemical vapour deposition. The as-obtained graphene is composed of two unstacked graphene layers separated by a large amount of mesosized protuberances and can be used for high-power lithium-sulphur batteries with excellent high-rate performance. Even after 1,000 cycles, high reversible capacities of ca. 530 mA h g-1 and 380 mA h g-1 are retained at 5 C and 10 C, respectively. This type of double-layer graphene is expected to be an important platform that will enable the investigation of stabilized three-dimensional topological porous systems and demonstrate the potential of unstacked graphene materials for advanced energy storage, environmental protection, nanocomposite and healthcare applications.

  14. Synthesis of ultrathin polymer insulating layers by initiated chemical vapour deposition for low-power soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hanul; Seong, Hyejeong; Shin, Woo Cheol; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Mincheol; Lee, Seungwon; Bong, Jae Hoon; Noh, Yong-Young; Cho, Byung Jin; Yoo, Seunghyup; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-06-01

    Insulating layers based on oxides and nitrides provide high capacitance, low leakage, high breakdown field and resistance to electrical stresses when used in electronic devices based on rigid substrates. However, their typically high process temperatures and brittleness make it difficult to achieve similar performance in flexible or organic electronics. Here, we show that poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) (pV3D3) prepared via a one-step, solvent-free technique called initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD) is a versatile polymeric insulating layer that meets a wide range of requirements for next-generation electronic devices. Highly uniform and pure ultrathin films of pV3D3 with excellent insulating properties, a large energy gap (>8 eV), tunnelling-limited leakage characteristics and resistance to a tensile strain of up to 4% are demonstrated. The low process temperature, surface-growth character, and solvent-free nature of the iCVD process enable pV3D3 to be grown conformally on plastic substrates to yield flexible field-effect transistors as well as on a variety of channel layers, including organics, oxides, and graphene.

  15. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...... or a mixture of gases (500) flow in contact with said solid object (100) is thinned or destructed for at least a part of said surface (314). In this way, the plasma can more efficiently access and influence the surface of the solid object to be treated by the plasma, which speeds the process time up...

  16. Soil Plasticity Model for Analysis of Collapse Load on Layers Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nujid Masyitah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural soil consist of soil deposits which is a soil layer overlying a thick stratum of another soil. The bearing capacity of layered soil studies have been conducted using different approach whether theoretical, experimental and combination of both. Numerical method in computer programme has become a powerful tool in solving complex geotechnical problems. Thus in numerical modelling, stress-strain soil behaviour is well predicted, design and interpreted using appropriate soil model. It is also important to identify parameters and soil model involve in prediction real soil problem. The sand layer overlaid clay layer soil is modelled with Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager criterion. The bearing capacity in loaddisplacement analysis from COMSOL Multiphysics is obtained and presented. In addition the stress distribution and evolution of plastic strain for each thickness ratio below centre of footing are investigated. The results indicate the linear relation on load-displacement which have similar trend for both soil models while stress and plastic strain increase as thickness ratio increase.

  17. Silent spread of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 virus amongst vaccinated commercial layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poetri, O.N.; Boven, M.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.; Koch, G.; Wibawan, I.W.; Stegeman, A.; Broek, van den J.; Bouma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a single vaccination of commercial layer type chickens with an inactivated vaccine containing highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain H5N1 A/chicken/Legok/2003, carried out on the farm, was sufficient to protect against infection with the

  18. Cross-layer combining of power control and adaptive modulation with truncated ARQ for cognitive radios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shi-lun; YANG Zhen

    2008-01-01

    To maximize throughput and to satisfy users' requirements in cognitive radios, a cross-layer optimization problem combining adaptive modulation and power control at the physical layer and truncated automatic repeat request at the medium access control layer is proposed. Simulation results show the combination of power control, adaptive modulation, and truncated automatic repeat request can regulate transmitter powers and increase the total throughput effectively.

  19. High strain rates spallation phenomena with relation to the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, E.

    1997-11-01

    Theoretical spall strength, defined as the stress needed to separate a material along a plane surface instantaneously, is one order of magnitude larger then the measured spell strength at strain rates up to 10 6 s -1 . The discrepancy is explained by material initial flaws and cavities which grow and coalesce under stress and weaken the material. Measurements of spall strength of materials shocked by a high power laser shows a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at strain rates of about 10 7 s -1 . This indicates that the initial flaws does not have time to coalesce and the interatomic forces become dominant. In order to break the material more cavities must be created. This cavities are characterized by the interatomic forces and are created statistically: material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and due to thermal fluctuations cavities are formed. Cavities larger than a certain critical size grow due to the stress. They grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. The theoretical results predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates, as observed experimentally. (authors)

  20. The role of strain rate during deposition of CAP on Ti6Al4V by superplastic deformation-like method using high-temperature compression test machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramdan, R.D.; Jauhari, I.; Hasan, R.; Masdek, N.R. Nik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation of superplastic deformation method for the deposition of carbonated-apatite (CAP) on the well-know titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V. This deposition process was carried out using high-temperature compression test machine, at temperature of 775 deg. C, different strain rates, and conducted along the elastic region of the sample. Before the process, titanium substrate was cryogenically treated in order to approach superplastic characteristic during the process. After the process, thin film of CAP was created on the substrate with the thickness from 0.71 μm to 1.42 μm. The resulted film has a high density of CAP that covered completely the surface of the substrate. From the stress-strain relation chart, it can be observed that as the strain rate decreases, the area under stress-strain chart also decreases. This condition influences the density of CAP layer on the substrate that as this area decreases, the density of CAP layer also decreases as also confirmed by X-ray diffraction characterization. In addition, since the resulting layer of CAP is in the form of thin film, this layer did not alter the hardness of the substrate as measured by Vickers hardness test method. On the other hand, the resulting films also show a good bonding strength properties as the layer remain exist after friction test against polishing clothes for 1 h

  1. Graded GaAsSb strain reducing layers covering InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hospodková, Alice; Zíková, Markéta; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Kuldová, Karla; Vyskočil, Jan; Hulicius, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 370, MAY (2013), s. 303-306 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : band alignment * photoluminescence * strain reducing layer * quantum dot * MOVPE * InAs/GaAs Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2013

  2. Low-Power Super-resolution Readout with Antimony Bismuth Alloy Film as Mask layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai-Xin, Jiang; Yi-Qun, Wu; Yang, Wang; Jing-Song, Wei; Fu-Xi, Gan

    2009-01-01

    Sb–Bi alloy films are proposed as a new kind of super-resolution mask layer with low readout threshold power. Using the Sb–Bi alloy film as a mask layer and SiN as a protective layer in a read-only memory disc, the super-resolution pits with diameters of 380 nm are read out by a dynamic setup, the laser wavelength is 780 nm and the numerical aperture of pickup lens is 0.45. The effects of the Sb–Bi thin film thickness, laser readout power and disc rotating velocity on the readout signal are investigated. The results show that the threshold laser power of super-resolution readout of the Sb–Bi mask layer is about 0.5 mW, and the corresponding carrier-to-noise ratio is about 20 dB at the film thickness of 50 nm. The super-resolution mechanism of the Sb–Bi alloy mask layer is discussed based on its temperature dependence of reflection

  3. Nuclear based diagnostics in high-power laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Marc; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Harres, Knut; Otten, Anke; Roth, Markus [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Vogt, Karsten; Bagnoud, Vincent [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    High-power lasers allow focused intensities of >10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. During the laser-solid interaction, an intense relativistic electron current is injected from the plasma into the target. One challenge is to characterize the electron dynamic close to the interaction region. Moreover, next generation high-power laser proton acceleration leads to high proton fluxes, which require novel, nuclear diagnostic techniques. We present an activation-based nuclear pyrometry for the investigation of electrons generated in relativistic laser-solid interactions. We use novel activation targets consisting of several isotopes with different photo-neutron disintegration thresholds. The electrons are decelerated inside the target via bremsstrahlung processes. The high-energy bremsstrahlung induces photo-nuclear reactions. In this energy range no disturbing low energy effects are important. Via the pyrometry the Reconstruction of the absolute yield, spectral and spatial distribution of the electrons is possible. For the characterization of proton beams we present a nuclear activation imaging spectroscopy (NAIS). The diagnostic is based on proton-neutron disintegration reactions of copper stacked in consecutive layers. An autoradiography of copper layers leads to spectrally and spatially reconstruction of the beam profile.

  4. Nacre-Templated Synthesis of Highly Dispersible Carbon Nanomeshes for Layered Membranes with High-Flux Filtration and Sensing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Meng; Li, Mingjie; Shang, Ruoxu; Wu, Jingyu; Yan, Peisong; Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chaoxu

    2018-01-24

    Marine shells not only represent a rapidly accumulating type of fishery wastes but also offer a unique sort of hybrid nanomaterials produced greenly and massively in nature. The elaborate "brick and mortar" structures of nacre enabled the synthesis of carbon nanomeshes with <1 nm thickness, hierarchical porosity, and high specific surface area through pyrolysis, in which two-dimensional (2D) organic layers served as the carbonaceous precursor and aragonite platelets as the hard template. Mineral bridges within 2D organic layers templated the formation of mesh pores of 20-70 nm. In contrast to other hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials, these carbon nanomeshes showed super dispersibility in diverse solvents and thus processability for membranes through filtration, patterning, spray-coating, and ink-writing. The carbon membranes with layered structures were capable of serving not only for high-flux filtration and continuous flow absorption but also for electrochemical and strain sensing with high sensitivity. Thus, utilization of marine shells, on one hand, relieves the environmental concern of shellfish waste, on the other hand, offers a facile, green, low-cost, and massive approach to synthesize unique carbon nanomeshes alternative to graphene nanomeshes and applicable in environmental adsorption, filtration, wearable sensors, and flexible microelectronics.

  5. Mechanisms of Left Ventricular Dysfunction Assessed by Layer-Specific Strain Analysis in Patients With Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mariko; Takahashi, Ken; Kobayashi, Maki; Yazaki, Kana; Takayasu, Hirobumi; Akimoto, Katsumi; Kishiro, Masahiko; Inage, Akio; Yoshikawa, Tadahiro; Park, In-Sam; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Shiori; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2017-05-25

    Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) is an important risk factor for adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the details and time course of such LV dysfunction using layer-specific strain analysis by echocardiography.Methods and Results:The 66 patients with rTOF (mean age, 16.3±9.3 years) were divided into 3 groups (T1: 4-10 years, T2: 11-20 years, T3: 21-43 years), and 113 controls of similar age (mean age, 17.2±9.3 years) were divided into 3 corresponding groups (C1, C2, and C3). Layer-specific longitudinal strain (LS) and circumferential strain (CS) of 3 myocardial layers (endocardial, midmyocardial, and epicardial) were determined by echocardiography. Basal and papillary endocardial CS values were decreased in T1 compared with C1. With the exception of papillary epicardial CS, basal/papillary CS and LS of all 3 layers decreased in T2 compared with C2. Excepting papillary epicardial CS, all other values were decreased in T3 compared with C3. Potential myocardial damage was found in the endocardium at the basal and papillary levels of the LV in young patients with rTOF, extending from the endocardium to the epicardium and from the base to the apex. This is the possible time course of LV dysfunction in patients with rTOF.

  6. Effects of thermal cycle annealing on reduction of defect density in lattice-mismatched InGaAs solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Arafune, K.; Lee, H.S.; Ekins-Daukes, N.J.; Tanaka, S.; Ohshita, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lattice-mismatched In 0.16 Ga 0.84 As solar cells were grown on GaAs substrates using graded In x Ga 1- x As buffer layers and homogenous In 0.16 Ga 0.84 As buffer layers. The indium composition x in the graded buffer changed from 0% to 16% continuously. Thermal cycle annealing (TCA) was performed after the growth of the graded buffer layers. The effects of TCA on the solar cell open-circuit voltage and quantum efficiency have been investigated. The minority carrier lifetime is observed to increase in the p-type In 0.16 Ga 0.84 As layer after applying the TCA process. Electron-beam-induced current microscopy also shows a related reduction in dislocation density in the p-type In 0.16 Ga 0.84 As layer after TCA processing. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy performed on the graded buffer layer suggests that the strain present in the cell layers is reduced after the TCA process, implying that the TCA treatment promotes strain relaxation in the graded buffer layers

  7. A III-V nanowire channel on silicon for high-performance vertical transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Fukui, Takashi

    2012-08-09

    Silicon transistors are expected to have new gate architectures, channel materials and switching mechanisms in ten years' time. The trend in transistor scaling has already led to a change in gate structure from two dimensions to three, used in fin field-effect transistors, to avoid problems inherent in miniaturization such as high off-state leakage current and the short-channel effect. At present, planar and fin architectures using III-V materials, specifically InGaAs, are being explored as alternative fast channels on silicon because of their high electron mobility and high-quality interface with gate dielectrics. The idea of surrounding-gate transistors, in which the gate is wrapped around a nanowire channel to provide the best possible electrostatic gate control, using InGaAs channels on silicon, however, has been less well investigated because of difficulties in integrating free-standing InGaAs nanostructures on silicon. Here we report the position-controlled growth of vertical InGaAs nanowires on silicon without any buffering technique and demonstrate surrounding-gate transistors using InGaAs nanowires and InGaAs/InP/InAlAs/InGaAs core-multishell nanowires as channels. Surrounding-gate transistors using core-multishell nanowire channels with a six-sided, high-electron-mobility transistor structure greatly enhance the on-state current and transconductance while keeping good gate controllability. These devices provide a route to making vertically oriented transistors for the next generation of field-effect transistors and may be useful as building blocks for wireless networks on silicon platforms.

  8. Composite Beam Cross-Section Analysis by a Single High-Order Element Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated by applic......An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated...

  9. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  10. Subband Structure and Effective Mass in the Inversion Layer of a Strain Si-Based Alloy P-Type MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ting; Fan, Jun Wei; Chang, Shu-Tong; Lin, Chung-Yi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the subband structure and effective mass of an Si-based alloy inversion layer in a PMOSFET are studied theoretically. The strain condition considered in our calculations is the intrinsic strain resulting from growth of the silicon-carbon alloy on a (001) Si substrate and mechanical uniaxial stress. The quantum confinement effect resulting from the vertically effective electric field was incorporated into the k · p calculation. The distinct effective mass, such as the quantization effective mass and the density-of-states (DOS) effective mass, as well as the subband structure of the silicon-carbon alloy inversion layer for a PMOSFET under substrate strain and various effective electric field strengths, were all investigated. Ore results show that subband structure of relaxed silicon-carbon alloys with low carbon content are almost the same as silicon. We find that an external stress applied parallel to the channel direction can efficiently reduce the effective mass along the channel direction, thus producing hole mobility enhancement.

  11. Case study of elevated layers of high sulfate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, D.J.; Orgill, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    During studies in August 1976 that were part of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study (MAP3S), Alkezweeny et al., (1977) noted that in the Milwaukee urban plume, layers of relatively high sulfate concentrations occurred at high altitudes with respect to the boundary layer. This paper represents a progress report on studies undertaken to investigate possible causes for a bimodel vertical profile of sulfate concentrations. Data presented by Alkezweeny et al., (1977) serve as a basis for this study. Data from August 23, 1976, and August 24, 1978, indicate concentrations relatively high in sulfate, at 1000 and 6000 ft, respectively, with lower concentrations at lower altitudes. Concentrations of trace metals also indicate no peaks in the vertical concentration profiles above the surface. Initial studies of the high, elevated sulfate concentrations have centered on the August 23 measurements taken over southeast Wisconsin using synoptic data from the national weather service, emissions data from the national emissions data bank system (EPA), air quality data from the national air surveillance network (EPA), and satellite photographs from the EROS Data Center

  12. InGaAs-OI Substrate Fabrication on a 300 mm Wafer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Sollier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a 300-mm indium–gallium–arsenic (InGaAs wafer on insulator (InGaAs-OI substrates by splitting in an InP sacrificial layer. A 30-nm-thick InGaAs layer was successfully transferred using low temperature direct wafer bonding (DWB and Smart CutTM technology. Three key process steps of the integration were therefore specifically developed and optimized. The first one was the epitaxial growing process, designed to reduce the surface roughness of the InGaAs film. Second, direct wafer bonding conditions were investigated and optimized to achieve non-defective bonding up to 600 °C. Finally, we adapted the splitting condition to detach the InGaAs layer according to epitaxial stack specifications. The paper presents the overall process flow that achieved InGaAs-OI, the required optimization, and the associated characterizations, namely atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM, and HR-XRD, to insure the crystalline quality of the post transferred layer.

  13. THE CALCULATION OF STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF THREE-LAYER BEAM TAKING INTO ACCOUNT EDGE EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. M. Muselemov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the calculation of the stress-strain state (SSS of the three-layer beam (TLB subject to boundary effects.In this paper, a system of differential equations of equilibrium of the threelayer beam. To solve these equations, it is necessary to know the 12 boundary conditions, co-which depend on support conditions and loading of sandwich beams under study. This system of equations is solved by the application package of mathematical modeling "Maple 5.4." The solution of this system we obtain expressions for determining de-formations and stress all components (bearing layers and filler, a three-layer beam anywhere under specified conditions of fastening the ends of the beam and its loading. 

  14. Layered bismuth selenide utilized as hole transporting layer for highly stable organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Zhongcheng

    2015-11-01

    Abstract Layered bismuth selenide (L-Bi2Se3) nanoplates were implemented as hole transporting layers (HTLs) for inverted organic solar cells. Device based on L-Bi2Se3 showed increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE) during ambient condition storage process. A PCE of 4.37% was finally obtained after 5 days storage, which outperformed the ones with evaporated-MoO3 using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as donor material and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as acceptor. The improved device efficiency can be attributed to the high conductivity and increasing work function of L-Bi2Se3. The work function of L-Bi2Se3 increased with the storage time in ambient condition due to the oxygen atom doping. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to verify the increased work function, which originated from the p-type doping process. The device based on L-Bi2Se3 exhibited excellent stability in ambient condition up to 4 months, which was much improved compared to the device based on traditional HTLs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  15. High Strain Rate Response of 7055 Aluminum Alloy Subject to Square-spot Laser Shock Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Zhu, Ying; Li, Liuhe; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The influences of laser pulse energy and impact time on high strain rate response of 7055 aluminum alloy subject to square-spot laser shock peening (SLSP) were investigate. Microstructural evolution was characterized by OM, SEM and TEM. Microhardness distribution and in-depth residual stress in 15 J with one and two impacts and 25 J with one and two impacts were analyzed. Results show that the original rolling structures were significantly refined due to laser shock induced recrystallization. High density of microdefects was generated, such as dislocation tangles, dislocation wall and stacking faults. Subgrains and nanograins were induced in the surface layer, resulting in grain refinement in the near surface layer after SLSP. Compressive residual stresses with maximum value of more than -200 MPa and affected depths of more than 1 mm can be generated after SLSP. Impact time has more effectiveness than laser pulse energy in increasing the magnitude of residual stress and achieving thicker hardening layer.

  16. High-power comparison among brazed, clamped and electroformed X-band cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataro, B., E-mail: bruno.spataro@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Alesini, D.; Chimenti, V. [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Higashi, Y. [KEK 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A. [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Fundamental and Applied Science for Engineering, Via A. Scarpa 14, 00185 Rome (Italy); Parodi, R. [INFN-Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Tantawi, S.G.; Yeremian, A.D. [SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2011-11-21

    We report the building procedure of X-band copper structures using the electroforming and electroplating techniques. These techniques allow the deposition of copper layers on a suitable die and they can be used to build RF structures avoiding the high temperature brazing step in the standard technique. We show the constructed prototypes and low power RF measurements and discuss the results of the high power tests at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  17. High-energy power capacitors, their applied technology and the trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    High-voltage and high-energy-density power capacitors called high-power ones such as film or electrolytic capacitors, have been used in large quantities for the pulse power technology such as an impulse current or voltage generator and a laser power supply, and for the power electronics one with progress of the power semiconductor device and the inverter technology. Recently, electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) with remarkable technical progress have been applied for the equipments of electric power and industrial field for the purpose of energy saving or electric power quality improvement, which have come to link to the electric power system. Thus, using a lot of high-power capacitors near our life would require to know the structure, the principle and the characteristic of capacitors, and also to consider suitable directions for use, maintenance and safety and so on, when carrying out a system and a facility design. In the technical report, while describing the dielectric and the feature of some high-power capacitors, and introducing the application examples to the laser-fusion power supply and some systems with EDLC, the trend of standardization of EDLC and the directivity of the examination about installation and maintenance of the applied equipments are described. (author)

  18. Capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the combined effect of the strained Si channel and hole confinement on the memory margin enhancement for a capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator (ε-Si SGOI). The memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell was higher than that of the memory cell fabricated on an unstrained Si-on-insulator (SOI) and increased with increasing Ge concentration of the relaxed SiGe layer; i.e. the memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell (138.6 µA) at a 32 at% Ge concentration was 3.3 times higher than the SOI capacitor-less memory cell (43 µA). (paper)

  19. Effects of annealing on electrical and optical properties of a multilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dots system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilson José Chiquito

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of the properties of the InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs system subjected to a post-growth annealing using capacitance-voltage, Raman scattering and photoluminescence measurements is presented. The application of both electrical and optical methods allowed us to obtain reliable information on the microscopic structural evolution of this system. The single layer and the multilayer quantum dots were found to respond differently to the annealing process, due to the differences in strain that occur in both systems. The diffusion activated by strain provoked the appearance of an InGaAs alloy layer in substitution to the quantum dots layers; this change occurred at the annealing temperature T = 600 ºC in the multilayer system. A single dot layer, however, was observed even after the annealing at T = 700 ºC. Moreover, the low temperature annealing was found to improve the homogeneity of the multilayer system and to decrease the electrical interlayer coupling.

  20. STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF ROCKFILL DAM DOUBLE-LAYER FACE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AND SOIL-CEMENT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the stress-strain state of 215 m high rockfill dam where the seepage-control element is presented by a reinforced concrete face of soil-cement concrete placed on the under-face zone. Calculations were carried out for two possible variants of deformability of rock outline taking into account the non-linearity of its deformative properties. It was obtained that the reinforced concrete face and the soil-cement concrete under-face zone work jointly as a single construction - a double-layer face. As the face assembly resting on rock is made with a sliding joint the scheme of its static operation is similar to the that of the beam operation on the elastic foundation. At that, the upstream surface of the double-layer face is in the compressed zone and lower one is in the tensile zone. This protects the face against cracking on the upstream surface but threatens with structural failure of soil-cement concrete. In order to avoid appearance of cracks in soil-cement concrete part due to tension it is necessary to achieve proper compaction of rockfill and arrange transverse joints in the double-layer face.

  1. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  2. Growth and characterization of straight InAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xin; Zhang Xia; Li Jun-Shuai; Lü Xiao-Long; Ren Xiao-Min; Huang Yong-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Vertical InAs/GaAs nanowire (NW) heterostructures with a straight InAs segment have been successfully fabricated on Si (111) substrate by using AlGaAs/GaAs buffer layers coupled with a composition grading InGaAs segment. Both the GaAs and InAs segments are not limited by the misfit strain induced critical diameter. The low growth rate of InAs NWs is attributed to the AlGaAs/GaAs buffer layers which dramatically decrease the adatom diffusion contribution to the InAs NW growth. The crystal structure of InAs NW can be tuned from zincblende to wurtzite by controlling its diameter as well as the length of GaAs NWs. This work helps to open up a road for the integration of high-quality III-V NW heterostructures with Si

  3. Mobility enhancement in tensile-strained Ge grown on InAlP metamorphic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Gong, Qian; Zhou, Haifei; Kang, Chuanzhen; Yan, Jinyi; Liu, Qingbo; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth of tensile-strained Ge on InAlP metamorphic templates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good control of biaxial tensile strain in the Ge layer was demonstrated in the range of 0.5–2.0% by adjusting the In content of the metamorphic template. It was found that the growth of Ge was layer-by-layer (2D) even under high tensile strain of 2.0%, resulting in a smooth surface with roughness less than 1.5 nm. Hall results showed that the electron mobility of Ge increased monotonically with tensile strain.

  4. Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Bin; Wang Xiaogang

    2005-01-01

    Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a uniformly magnetized plasma layer covering a highly conducting surface is studied under atmosphere conditions. It is assumed that the system consists of not only electrons and positive ions but negative ions as well. By a general formula derived in our previous work [B. Guo and X. G. Wang, Plasma Sci. Tech. 7, 2645 (2005)], the total power absorption in the plasma layer with multiple reflections between an air-plasma interface and the conducting surface is computed. The results show that although the existence of negative ions greatly reduces the total power absorption, the magnetization of the plasma can, however, partially enhance it. Parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed

  5. Strain-induced oxygen vacancies in ultrathin epitaxial CaMnO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, Ravini; Yang, Weibing; Lei, Qingyu; Delgado-Jaime, Mario; de Groot, Frank; Arenholz, Elke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Aschauer, Ulrich; Spaldin, Nicola; Xi, Xiaoxing; Gray, Alexander

    Dynamic control of strain-induced ionic defects in transition-metal oxides is considered to be an exciting new avenue towards creating materials with novel electronic, magnetic and structural properties. Here we use atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular beam epitaxy to synthesize high-quality ultrathin single-crystalline CaMnO3 films with systematically varying coherent tensile strain. We then utilize a combination of high-resolution soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy in conjunction with first-principles theory and core-hole multiplet calculations to establish a direct link between the coherent in-plane strain and the oxygen-vacancy content. We show that the oxygen vacancies are highly mobile, which necessitates an in-situ-grown capping layer in order to preserve the original strain-induced oxygen-vacancy content. Our findings open the door for designing and controlling new ionically active properties in strongly-correlated transition-metal oxides.

  6. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei, Hasan, E-mail: babaei@illinois.edu, E-mail: babaei@auburn.edu [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2906 (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5341 (United States); Khodadadi, J. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5341 (United States); Sinha, Sanjiv [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2906 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS{sub 2} utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS{sub 2} on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} to peak at ∼2.8 × 10{sup 4} μW/m K{sup 2} at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized.

  7. Fracto-mechanoluminescent light emission of EuD4TEA-PDMS composites subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyeon; Castaño, Nicolas; Bhakta, Raj; Kimberley, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to understand light emission characteristics of fracto-mechanoluminescent (FML) europium tetrakis(dibenzoylmethide)-triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. As a sensing material that can play a pivotal role for the self-powered impact sensor technology, it is important to understand transformative light emission characteristics of the FML EuD4TEA crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. First, EuD4TEA crystals were synthesized and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to fabricate EuD4TEA-PDMS composite test specimens. Second, the prepared EuD4TEA-PDMS composites were tested using the modified Kolsky bar setup equipped with a high-speed camera. Third, FML light emission was captured to yield 12 bit grayscale video footage, which was processed to quantify the FML light emission. Finally, quantitative parameters were generated by taking into account pixel values and population of pixels of the 12 bit grayscale images to represent FML light intensity. The FML light intensity was correlated with high strain-rate compressive strain and strain rate to understand the FML light emission characteristics under high strain-rate compressive loading that can result from impact occurrences.

  8. Strain-induced recovery of electronic anisotropy in 90°-twisted bilayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiafeng; Luo, Qiangjun; Jia, Lei; Zhang, Z. Y.; Shi, H. G.; Yang, D. Z.; Si, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that anisotropy determines the preferred transport direction of carriers. To manipulate the anisotropy is an exciting topic in two-dimensional materials, where the carriers are confined within individual layers. In this work, it is found that uniaxial strain can tune the electronic anisotropy of the 90°-twisted bilayer phosphorene. In this unique bilayer structure, the zigzag direction of one layer corresponds to the armchair one of the other layer and vice versa. Owing to this complementary structure, the directional (zigzag or armchair) deformation response to strain of one layer is opposite to that of the other layer, where the in-plane positive Poisson's ratio plays a key role. As a result, the doubly degenerate highest valence bands split, followed by a recovery of anisotropy. More interestingly, such an anisotropy, namely, the ratio of the effective mass along the Γ \\text- X direction to that along the Γ \\text- Y direction, reaches as high as 6 under a small strain of 1%, and keeps nearly unchanged up to a strain of 3%. In addition, high anisotropy only holds for hole carriers as the conduction band is insensitive to strain. These findings should shed new light on the design of semiconducting devices, where the hole acts as the transport carrier.

  9. Simulation of hole-mobility in doped relaxed and strained Ge layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Jeremy R.; Riddet, Craig; Chan, Morgan Kah H.; Asenov, Asen

    2010-11-01

    As silicon based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are reaching the limits of their performance with scaling, alternative channel materials are being considered to maintain performance in future complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology generations. Thus there is renewed interest in employing Ge as a channel material in p-MOSFETs, due to the significant improvement in hole mobility as compared to Si. Here we employ full-band Monte Carlo to study hole transport properties in Ge. We present mobility and velocity-field characteristics for different transport directions in p-doped relaxed and strained Ge layers. The simulations are based on a method for over-coming the potentially large dynamic range of scattering rates, which results from the long-range nature of the unscreened Coulombic interaction. Our model for ionized impurity scattering includes the affects of dynamic Lindhard screening, coupled with phase-shift, and multi-ion corrections along with plasmon scattering. We show that all these effects play a role in determining the hole carrier transport in doped Ge layers and cannot be neglected.

  10. Anisotropic electro-optic effect on InGaAs quantum dot chain modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana; Fetterman, Harold

    2013-10-15

    We investigated the anisotropic electro-optic (EO) effect on InGaAs quantum dot (QD) chain modulators. The linear EO coefficients were determined as 24.3 pm/V (33.8 pm/V) along the [011] direction and 30.6 pm/V (40.3 pm/V) along the [011¯] direction at 1.55 μm (1.32 μm) operational wavelength. The corresponding half-wave voltages (Vπs) were measured to be 5.35 V (4.35 V) and 4.65 V (3.86 V) at 1.55 μm (1.32 μm) wavelength. This is the first report on the anisotropic EO effect on QD chain structures. These modulators have 3 dB bandwidths larger than 10 GHz.

  11. Comminution of solids caused by kinetic energy of high shear strain rate, with implications for impact, shock, and shale fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Zdenek P; Caner, Ferhun C

    2013-11-26

    Although there exists a vast literature on the dynamic comminution or fragmentation of rocks, concrete, metals, and ceramics, none of the known models suffices for macroscopic dynamic finite element analysis. This paper outlines the basic idea of the macroscopic model. Unlike static fracture, in which the driving force is the release of strain energy, here the essential idea is that the driving force of comminution under high-rate compression is the release of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate. The density of this energy at strain rates >1,000/s is found to exceed the maximum possible strain energy density by orders of magnitude, making the strain energy irrelevant. It is shown that particle size is proportional to the -2/3 power of the shear strain rate and the 2/3 power of the interface fracture energy or interface shear stress, and that the comminution process is macroscopically equivalent to an apparent shear viscosity that is proportional (at constant interface stress) to the -1/3 power of this rate. A dimensionless indicator of the comminution intensity is formulated. The theory was inspired by noting that the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate plays a role analogous to the local kinetic energy of eddies in turbulent flow.

  12. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2010. Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer...

  13. Photoabsorption modulation in GaAs: Ga1-xInx as strained-layer superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sella, I.; Watkins, D.E.; Laurich, B.K.; Smith, D.L.; Subbanna, S.; Kroemer, H.

    1990-01-01

    Photoabsorption modulation measurements have been made on Ga 1 -x In x As -- GaAs strained-layer superlattices using two approaches: In the first the modulating beam and the test beam have the same wavelength (near the exciton resonance). In the second, the modulation wavelength is much shorter than the test beam wavelength. A dramatic difference is observed in the modulated transmission spectra near the excitonic level for the two modulating wavelengths. The difference in behavior can be explained by screening of the residual surface electric field, which only occurs for the high photon energy modulating beam. This beam excites carriers that are free to drift in the surface field before they are captured in the quantum wells. Carriers excited by the low photon energy modulation beam are created in the wells and can not effectively screen the surface field. We describe a model which explains the nonlinear intensity saturation profile and qualitatively describes the spectral line shape. 4 refs., 4 figs

  14. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  15. Ultrasensitive tunability of the direct bandgap of 2D InSe flakes via strain engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Tianmeng; Wu, Meng; Cao, Ting; Chen, Yanwen; Sankar, Raman; Ulaganathan, Rajesh K.; Chou, Fangcheng; Wetzel, Christian; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Louie, Steven G.; Shi, Su-Fei

    2018-04-01

    InSe, a member of the layered materials family, is a superior electronic and optical material which retains a direct bandgap feature from the bulk to atomically thin few-layers and high electronic mobility down to a single layer limit. We, for the first time, exploit strain to drastically modify the bandgap of two-dimensional (2D) InSe nanoflakes. We demonstrated that we could decrease the bandgap of a few-layer InSe flake by 160 meV through applying an in-plane uniaxial tensile strain to 1.06% and increase the bandgap by 79 meV through applying an in-plane uniaxial compressive strain to 0.62%, as evidenced by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The large reversible bandgap change of ~239 meV arises from a large bandgap change rate (bandgap strain coefficient) of few-layer InSe in response to strain, ~154 meV/% for uniaxial tensile strain and ~140 meV/% for uniaxial compressive strain, representing the most pronounced uniaxial strain-induced bandgap strain coefficient experimentally reported in 2D materials. We developed a theoretical understanding of the strain-induced bandgap change through first-principles DFT and GW calculations. We also confirmed the bandgap change by photoconductivity measurements using excitation light with different photon energies. The highly tunable bandgap of InSe in the infrared regime should enable a wide range of applications, including electro-mechanical, piezoelectric and optoelectronic devices.

  16. High-strength concrete and the design of power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttonen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the literature, the design of high-strength concrete structures and the suitability of high-strength concrete for the power plant structures have been studied. Concerning the behavior of structures, a basic difference between the high-strength concrete and the traditional one is that the ductility of the high-strength concrete is smaller. In the design, the non-linear stress-strain relationship of the high-strength concrete has to be taken into account. The use of the high-strength concrete is economical if the strength of the material can be utilized. In the long term, the good durability and wear resistance of the high-strength concrete increases the economy of the material. Because of the low permeability of the high-strength concrete, it is a potential material in the safety-related structures of nuclear power plants. The study discovered no particular power plant structure which would always be economical to design of high-strength concrete. However, the high-strength concrete was found to be a competitive material in general

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of spin transport in a strained nanoscale InGaAs field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, B.; Kalna, K.; Langbein, F. C.; Schirmer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Spin-based logic devices could operate at a very high speed with a very low energy consumption and hold significant promise for quantum information processing and metrology. We develop a spintronic device simulator by combining an in-house developed, experimentally verified, ensemble self-consistent Monte Carlo device simulator with spin transport based on a Bloch equation model and a spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian accounting for Dresselhaus and Rashba couplings. It is employed to simulate a spin field effect transistor operating under externally applied voltages on a gate and a drain. In particular, we simulate electron spin transport in a 25 nm gate length In0.7Ga0.3As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with a CMOS compatible architecture. We observe a non-uniform decay of the net magnetization between the source and the gate and a magnetization recovery effect due to spin refocusing induced by a high electric field between the gate and the drain. We demonstrate a coherent control of the polarization vector of the drain current via the source-drain and gate voltages, and show that the magnetization of the drain current can be increased twofold by the strain induced into the channel.

  18. Strain-engineering of the topological insulator HgTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leubner, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    demonstrated as well. Strain in bulk layers lifts the degeneracy of the Γ 8 bands at k=0. Tensile strain opens an energy gap, compressive strain shifts the touching points of the valence- and conduction band to positions in the Brillouin zone with finite k. Such a situation has been realized for the first time in the course of this work. For QWs in the inverted regime, it is demonstrated that compressive strain can be used to significantly enhance the thermal energy gap of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). An examination of the temperature dependence of the subband ordering in QWs revealed that the band gap is only temperature-stable for appropriate sample parameters and temperature regimes. The band inversion is always lifted for sufficiently high temperatures. An enhancement of the stability of quantum-spin-Hall edge state conductance is expected for enlarged band gaps. Detailed low-temperature magnetotransport studies have been carried out on QWs and bulk layers. The Fermi energy in the 2DEG has been adjusted by means of a top gate electrode. The strain-induced transition from semi-metallic to semiconducting characteristics in wide QWs was shown. The magnitude of the semi-metallic overlap of valence- and conduction band was determined by an analysis of the two-carrier conductance and is in agreement with band structure calculations. The band gap of the semiconducting sample was determined by measurements of the temperature dependence of the conductance at the charge-neutrality point. The influence of the band gap on the stability of QSH edge state conductance has been investigated on a set of six samples. The band gap of the set spans a range of 10 to 55 meV. The latter value has been achieved in a highly compressively strained QW, has been confirmed by temperature-dependent conductance measurements, and is the highest ever reported in the inverted regime. Studies of the carrier mobility reveal a degradation of the sample quality with increasing Zn-fraction in the

  19. Strain-engineering of the topological insulator HgTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leubner, Philipp

    2017-07-24

    thickness of at least 50 nm) was demonstrated as well. Strain in bulk layers lifts the degeneracy of the Γ{sub 8} bands at k=0. Tensile strain opens an energy gap, compressive strain shifts the touching points of the valence- and conduction band to positions in the Brillouin zone with finite k. Such a situation has been realized for the first time in the course of this work. For QWs in the inverted regime, it is demonstrated that compressive strain can be used to significantly enhance the thermal energy gap of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). An examination of the temperature dependence of the subband ordering in QWs revealed that the band gap is only temperature-stable for appropriate sample parameters and temperature regimes. The band inversion is always lifted for sufficiently high temperatures. An enhancement of the stability of quantum-spin-Hall edge state conductance is expected for enlarged band gaps. Detailed low-temperature magnetotransport studies have been carried out on QWs and bulk layers. The Fermi energy in the 2DEG has been adjusted by means of a top gate electrode. The strain-induced transition from semi-metallic to semiconducting characteristics in wide QWs was shown. The magnitude of the semi-metallic overlap of valence- and conduction band was determined by an analysis of the two-carrier conductance and is in agreement with band structure calculations. The band gap of the semiconducting sample was determined by measurements of the temperature dependence of the conductance at the charge-neutrality point. The influence of the band gap on the stability of QSH edge state conductance has been investigated on a set of six samples. The band gap of the set spans a range of 10 to 55 meV. The latter value has been achieved in a highly compressively strained QW, has been confirmed by temperature-dependent conductance measurements, and is the highest ever reported in the inverted regime. Studies of the carrier mobility reveal a degradation of the sample

  20. UV-Photoreflectance and Raman Characterization of Strain Relaxation in Si on Silicon-Germanium Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current, Michael; Chism, Will; Yoo, Woo Sik; Vartanian, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Photoreflectance (PR), using a uv (374 nm) diode laser probe beam, and Raman spectroscopy, using a multi-wavelength Ar + laser coupled to a high-resolution multi-wavelength spectrometer, were used to characterize the strain relaxation of Si top layers grown on a graded and relaxed SiGe buffer stack with a final Ge concentration of 20%. The Si top layer thicknesses ranged from 1.6 to 18 nm. Considerable radial variation in the strain relaxation was seen in all sampled wafers, highlighting the need for rapid, local strain characterization. Strong correlation between shift in the Si layer dielectric response, measured by uv-PR, and the Si top layer strain, measured by Raman, is reported.

  1. Lattice defects in LPE InP-InGaAsP-InGaAs structure epitaxial layers on InP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Taguchi, K.

    1982-01-01

    Lattice defects generated during LPE growth of InP-InGaAsP-InGaAs structure epitaxial layers on InP substrates are studied. Two different kinds of dislocations are observed at the two interfaces of the epitaxial layers; at the InP-InGaAsP interface, misfit dislocations are generated in the InP layer by carry over of InGaAsP melt into the InP one and at the InGaAs-InP interface, V-shaped dislocations are generated in the InGaAs layer. It is shown that the critical amount of lattice mismatch to suppress generation of misfit dislocations in InP is about two times smaller than that of other III-V compound semiconductors. Conditions to suppress the generation of these dislocations are clarified. (author)

  2. Optimisation of 1.3 μm strained-layer semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacey, C.

    1999-03-01

    The objectives of the research undertaken have been to investigate the properties of semiconductor lasers operating at around 1.3 μm. The aim of the investigation is to suggest modifications which give rise to improved operating characteristics especially in the high temperature (approaching 85 deg. C) range. The investigation can be divided into 2 sections: a theoretical approach and an experimental section. The theoretical study examined the performance of compressively strained InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum-well lasers emitting at 1.3 μm. in order to investigate the important factors and trends in the threshold current density and differential gain with strain, well width and well number. Structures with a fixed compressive strain of 1% but variable well width, and also with a fixed well width but variable strain from 0% to 1.4% have been considered. It has been found that there is little benefit to having compressive strains greater than 1%. For structures with a fixed 1% compressive strain and unstrained barriers, an optimum structure for lowest threshold current density and a high differential gain has been found to consist of six 35 A quantum-wells. In addition, compensated strain (CS) structures with compressive wells and tensile barriers have been examined. It is shown that the conduction band offset can be significantly increased and the valence band offset reduced in such structures, to give band-offset ratios comparable with aluminium based 1.3 μm devices. The gain calculations performed suggest that there is little degradation in the threshold carrier density or differential gain due to these alterations in the band offsets; and hence a better laser performance is expected due to a reduction in thermal leakage currents due to the improved electron confinement. The experimental study concentrates on looking at certain key design parameters to investigate their effect on the laser performance. These design parameters range from the number of quantum

  3. Pulsed Electrical Spin Injection into InGaAs Quantum Dots: Studies of the Electroluminescence Polarization Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asshoff, P.; Loeffler, W.; Fluegge, H.; Zimmer, J.; Mueller, J.; Westenfelder, B.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.; Kalt, H.; Hetterich, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present time-resolved studies of the spin polarization dynamics during and after initialization through pulsed electrical spin injection into InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a p-i-n-type spin-injection light-emitting diode. Experiments are performed with pulse widths in the nanosecond range and a time-resolved single photon counting setup is used to detect the subsequent electroluminescence. We find evidence that the achieved spin polarization shows an unexpected temporal behavior, attributed mainly to many-carrier and non-equilibrium effects in the device.

  4. InGaAs/InP Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIM) for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Weizer, Victor G.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Scheiman, David A.; Murray, Christopher S.; Riley, David R.

    2004-01-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between systems efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) devices series -connected on a single semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIMs are exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An infrared (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1 sq cm device consisting of eight series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0,74 eV InGAAs, have demonstrated V(sub infinity) = 3.23 volts, J(sub sc) = 70 mA/sq cm and a fill factor of 66% under flashlamp testing. Infrared (IR) reflectance measurement (less than 2 microns) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of less than 82%. MIM devices produced from 0.55 eV InGaAs have also been den=monstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7% AM1) have been demonstrated.

  5. Highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented, direct-gap GeSn crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented direct-gap Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} thin films (0.074 < x < 0.085) crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} towards 3D photonic integration. Due to a much smaller Poisson's ratio for (111) vs. (100) orientation, 0.44% thermally induced biaxial tensile strain reduces the direct-gap by 0.125 eV towards enhanced direct-gap semiconductor properties, twice as effective as the tensile strain in Ge(100) films. Correspondingly, the optical response is extended to λ = 2.8 μm. A dilatational deformation potential of a = −12.8 ± 0.8 eV is derived. These GeSn films also demonstrate high thermal stability, offering both excellent direct-gap optoelectronic properties and fabrication/operation robustness for integrated photonics.

  6. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Minh D.; Houwman, Evert P.; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain

  7. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  8. Psychosocial work strain of maintenance personnel during annual outage and normal operation in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Svensson, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which evaluates psychosocial work demands during the annual outage for a maintenance work group in a nuclear power plant. The study is based on a stress paradigm and it has been asserted that increased work strain would have a negative effect on performance. Nineteen workers, aged 20-55 years, participated in the study. The subjects filled out a questionnaire comparing work strain during annual outage and normal operation. During the outage period a 3-shift 24-hour work schedule, including nightwork, was used (working hours during normal operation was 7-16). Increased demands on concentration and vigilance, increased time pressure and strain on social relations within the group were found to characterize work during annual outage. Interestingly, for specific work tasks an association was found between the risk of making errors and high psychological workload. Increased work strain, shiftwork including nightwork and reduced social support are important psychosocial risk factors that might contribute to human error during the outage period

  9. Fused Methoxynaphthyl Phenanthrimidazole Semiconductors as Functional Layer in High Efficient OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Ramanathan, Periyasamy; Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Thanikachalam, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Efficient hole transport materials based on novel fused methoxynaphthyl phenanthrimidazole core structure were synthesised and characterized. Their device performances in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes were investigated. The high thermal stability in combination with the reversible oxidation process made promising candidates as hole-transporting materials for organic light-emitting devices. Highly efficient Alq3-based organic light emitting devices have been developed using phenanthrimidazoles as functional layers between NPB [4,4-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl] and Alq3 [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium] layers. Using the device of ITO/NPB/4/Alq3/LiF/Al, a maximum luminous efficiency of 5.99 cd A(-1) was obtained with a maximum brightness of 40,623 cd m(-2) and a power efficiency of 5.25 lm W(-1).

  10. Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Turan, Mehmet; Clementson, Cameron P; Sitti, Metin

    2016-03-02

    There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11,344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics.

  11. High-power and highly reliable 638-nm band BA-LD for CW operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Takehiro; Kuramoto, Kyosuke; Abe, Shinji; Kusunoki, Masatsugu; Miyashita, Motoharu; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2018-02-01

    High-power laser diodes (LDs) are strongly demanded as light sources of display applications. In multiple spatial light modulator-type projectors or liquid crystal displays, the light source LDs are operated under CW condition. The high-power 638-nm band broad-area LD for CW operation was newly developed. The LD consisted of two stripes with each width of 75 μm to reduce both an optical power density at a front facet and a threshold current. The newly improved epitaxial technology was also applied to the LD to suppress an electron overflow from an active layer. The LD showed superior output characteristics, such as output of 1.77 W at case temperature of 55 °C with wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 23%, which was improved by 40% compared with the current product. The peak WPE at 25 °C reached 40.6% under the output power of 2.37 W, CW, world highest.

  12. Piezophototronic Effect in Single-Atomic-Layer MoS 2 for Strain-Gated Flexible Optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenzhuo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Wang, Lei [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York NY 10027 USA; Yu, Ruomeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Liu, Yuanyue [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Wei, Su-Huai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Hone, James [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York NY 10027 USA; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing China

    2016-08-03

    Strain-gated flexible optoelectronics are reported based on monolayer MoS2. Utilizing the piezoelectric polarization created at metal-MoS2 interface to modulate the separation/transport of photogenerated carriers, the piezophototronic effect is applied to implement atomic-layer-thick phototransistor. Coupling between piezoelectricity and photogenerated carriers may enable the development of novel optoelectronics.

  13. Space nuclear power requirements for ozone layer modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    This work estimates the power requirements for using photochemical processes driven by space nuclear power to counteract the Earth's ozone layer depletion. The total quantity of ozone (O 3 ) in the Earth's atmosphere is estimated to be about 4.7 x 10 37 molecules. The ozone production and destruction rates in the stratosphere are both on the order of 4.9 x 10 31 molecules/s, differing by a small fraction so that the net depletion rate is about 0.16 to 0.26% per year. The delivered optical power requirement for offsetting this depletion is estimated to be on the order of 3 GW. If the power were produced by satellite reactors at 800 km altitude (orbit decay time ∼ 300 years), some means of efficient power beaming would be needed to deliver the power to stratospheric levels (10--50 km). Ultraviolet radiation at 140--150 nm could have higher absorption rates in O 2 (leading to production of atomic oxygen, which can combine with O 2 to form O 3 ) than in ozone (leading to photodissociation of O 3 ). Potential radiation sources include H 2 lasers and direct nuclear pumping of ultraviolet fluorescers. 5 refs

  14. THz-wave generation via difference frequency mixing in strained silicon based waveguide utilizing its second order susceptibility χ((2)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kyosuke; Tanabe, Tadao; Oyama, Yutaka

    2014-07-14

    Terahertz (THz) wave generation via difference frequency mixing (DFM) process in strain silicon membrane waveguides by introducing the straining layer is theoretically investigated. The Si(3)N(4) straining layer induces anisotropic compressive strain in the silicon core and results in the appearance of the bulk second order nonlinear susceptibility χ((2)) by breaking the crystal symmetry. We have proposed waveguide structures for THz wave generation under the DFM process by .using the modal birefringence in the waveguide core. Our simulations show that an output power of up to 0.95 mW can be achieved at 9.09 THz. The strained silicon optical device may open a widow in the field of the silicon-based active THz photonic device applications.

  15. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  16. Raman Scattering analysis of InGaAs and AlGaAs superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, N.; Bahceli, S.

    2010-01-01

    InGaAs/GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated by X-ray diffraction and micro Raman spectroscopy. Phonon modes are investigated in backscattering from (001) surface. In the measured micro Raman spectrum for both structure, phonon peaks can be resolved for GaAs. These are longitudinal optical (LO) mode at 293 cm - 1 and 294 cm - 1 for InGaAs and AlGaAs, respectively.

  17. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Jakobsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power...... picosecond pulses. A novel fiber with 7 tubes and a core of 30 mu m was fabricated and it is here described and characterized, showing remarkable low loss, low bend loss, and good mode quality. Its optical properties are compared to both a 10 mu m and a 18 mu m core diameter photonic band gap hollow......-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  18. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    -reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... from designing and constructing a high-speed servo-hydraulic test machine and by performing a comprehensive test series. The difficulties encountered in the test work could be addressed with the developed analysis. The conclusion was that the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine is less suited...... for testing fibre-reinforced polymers due to their elastic behaviour and low strain to failure. This is problematic as the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine closes the gap between quasi-static tests rates and lower strain rates, which are achievable with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Split...

  19. Reliable and repeatable bonding technology for high temperature automotive power modules for electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Won; Shiozaki, Koji; Glover, Michael D; Mantooth, H Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the feasibility of highly reliable and repeatable copper–tin transient liquid phase (Cu–Sn TLP) bonding as applied to die attachment in high temperature operational power modules. Electrified vehicles are attracting particular interest as eco-friendly vehicles, but their power modules are challenged because of increasing power densities which lead to high temperatures. Such high temperature operation addresses the importance of advanced bonding technology that is highly reliable (for high temperature operation) and repeatable (for fabrication of advanced structures). Cu–Sn TLP bonding is employed herein because of its high remelting temperature and desirable thermal and electrical conductivities. The bonding starts with a stack of Cu–Sn–Cu metal layers that eventually transforms to Cu–Sn alloys. As the alloys have melting temperatures (Cu 3 Sn: > 600 °C, Cu 6 Sn 5 : > 400 °C) significantly higher than the process temperature, the process can be repeated without damaging previously bonded layers. A Cu–Sn TLP bonding process was developed using thin Sn metal sheets inserted between copper layers on silicon die and direct bonded copper substrates, emulating the process used to construct automotive power modules. Bond quality is characterized using (1) proof-of-concept fabrication, (2) material identification using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and (3) optical analysis using optical microscopy and scanning acoustic microscope. The feasibility of multiple-sided Cu–Sn TLP bonding is demonstrated by the absence of bondline damage in multiple test samples fabricated with double- or four-sided bonding using the TLP bonding process. (paper)

  20. Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Wei Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal quality, electrical and optical properties of GaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs with ex-situ sputtered physical vapor deposition (PVD aluminum nitride (AlN nucleation layers were investigated. It was found that the crystal quality in terms of defect density and x-ray diffraction linewidth was greatly improved in comparison to LEDs with in-situ low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The light output power was 3.7% increased and the reverse bias voltage of leakage current was twice on LEDs with ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers. However, larger compressive strain was discovered in LEDs with ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers. The study shows the potential and constrain in applying ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers to fabricate high quality GaN crystals in various optoelectronics.

  1. Application of electric double layer capacitor to pulse coil power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Keita; Inomoto, Michiaki; Yamada, Takuma; Kamio, Shuji; Sakumura, Morio; Cao, Qinghong; Ono, Yasushi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Imazawa, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new application of the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) as a sec-order quasi-DC power supply like flying-wheel motor-generators. We constructed the power supply using IGBT switching circuit and successfully demonstrated its initial operation whose current and duration time are 100 A and 3 sec, respectively, indicating a new potential of EDLC. (author)

  2. Defect engineering for 650 nm high-power AlGaInP laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.S.; Kim, K.C.; Shin, Y.C.; Kang, D.H.; Kim, B.J.; Kim, Y.M.; Park, Y.; Kim, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    To find the optimal growth and annealing conditions for high-power 650 nm band AlGaInP laser diodes, we carried out defect engineering, in which the distribution and density of deep level defects of the laser structure was analyzed. For this purpose, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were carried out for each layer of the 650 nm band AlGaInP laser. By layer optimization at growth and annealing conditions, the laser diode was able operate stably and kink-free at high power over 220 mW at 70 deg. C. The characteristic temperatures (T ) were 212 K for 25-60 deg. C and 106 K over 60 deg. C

  3. Cooptimization of Adhesion and Power Conversion Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells by Controlling Surface Energy of Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inhwa; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2017-10-25

    Here, we demonstrate the cooptimization of the interfacial fracture energy and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT)-based organic solar cells (OSCs) by surface treatments of the buffer layer. The investigated surface treatments of the buffer layer simultaneously changed the crack path and interfacial fracture energy of OSCs under mechanical stress and the work function of the buffer layer. To investigate the effects of surface treatments, the work of adhesion values were calculated and matched with the experimental results based on the Owens-Wendt model. Subsequently, we fabricated OSCs on surface-treated buffer layers. In particular, ZnO layers treated with poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) simultaneously satisfied the high mechanical reliability and PCE of OSCs by achieving high work of adhesion and optimized work function.

  4. Layered compression for high-precision depth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Dan; Fu, Jingjing; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2015-12-01

    With the development of depth data acquisition technologies, access to high-precision depth with more than 8-b depths has become much easier and determining how to efficiently represent and compress high-precision depth is essential for practical depth storage and transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a layered high-precision depth compression framework based on an 8-b image/video encoder to achieve efficient compression with low complexity. Within this framework, considering the characteristics of the high-precision depth, a depth map is partitioned into two layers: 1) the most significant bits (MSBs) layer and 2) the least significant bits (LSBs) layer. The MSBs layer provides rough depth value distribution, while the LSBs layer records the details of the depth value variation. For the MSBs layer, an error-controllable pixel domain encoding scheme is proposed to exploit the data correlation of the general depth information with sharp edges and to guarantee the data format of LSBs layer is 8 b after taking the quantization error from MSBs layer. For the LSBs layer, standard 8-b image/video codec is leveraged to perform the compression. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed coding scheme can achieve real-time depth compression with satisfactory reconstruction quality. Moreover, the compressed depth data generated from this scheme can achieve better performance in view synthesis and gesture recognition applications compared with the conventional coding schemes because of the error control algorithm.

  5. The influence of surface preparation on low temperature HfO2 ALD on InGaAs (001) and (110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Tyler; Edmonds, Mary; Kummel, Andrew C.; Tang, Kechao; Negara, Muhammad Adi; McIntyre, Paul; Chobpattana, Varistha; Mitchell, William; Sahu, Bhagawan; Galatage, Rohit; Droopad, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Current logic devices rely on 3D architectures, such as the tri-gate field effect transistor (finFET), which utilize the (001) and (110) crystal faces simultaneously thus requiring passivation methods for the (110) face in order to ensure a pristine 3D surface prior to further processing. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and correlated electrical measurement on MOSCAPs were utilized to compare the effects of a previously developed in situ pre-atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface clean on the InGaAs (001) and (110) surfaces. Ex situ wet cleans are very effective on the (001) surface but not the (110) surface. Capacitance voltage indicated the (001) surface with no buffered oxide etch had a higher C max hypothesized to be a result of poor nucleation of HfO 2 on the native oxide. An in situ pre-ALD surface clean employing both atomic H and trimethylaluminum (TMA) pre-pulsing, developed by Chobpattana et al. and Carter et al. for the (001) surface, was demonstrated to be effective on the (110) surface for producing low D it high C ox MOSCAPs. Including TMA in the pre-ALD surface clean resulted in reduction of the magnitude of the interface state capacitance. The XPS studies show the role of atomic H pre-pulsing is to remove both carbon and oxygen while STM shows the role of TMA pre-pulsing is to eliminate H induced etching. Devices fabricated at 120 °C and 300 °C were compared

  6. Influence of defects and nanoscale strain on the photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe nanocomposite co-sensitized ZnO nanowire solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungeun; Lee, Jeongwon; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Joosun; Kim, Choong-Un; Lee, Man-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CdSe/CdS nanocomposites were coated on ZnO nanowires using solution processes. • In situ CdSe/CdS co-sensitizers resulted in a 3-fold increase in efficiency. • Nano-strain analyses at interfaces and CdS layers were performed. • Drastic decrease of nano-strain in CdSe/CdS was observed. • Relaxed nano-strain was attributed to the increase of efficiency. - Abstract: This paper reports the mechanism of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement in the ZnO nanowires (NW) based solar cells by using CdS/CdSe nanocomposite sensitizers instead of a single CdS quantum-dot (QD) sensitization layer. Two cells with the different type of the sensitization layers were essentially consists of the high-density ZnO nanowire (NW) and a sensitization layer of either CdS-QD or CdS/CdSe nanocomposite, which were produced by an in-situ sequential assembly process of both ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD). Measurement on the PCE revealed that the cell with CdS/CdSe nanocomposite showed a three-fold increase in PCE compared to the one with a CdS-QD layer. While such improvement in PCE appeared to be consistent with the step-wise band alignment mechanism suggested for the type-II heterojunction of CdSe/CdS/ZnO structures, our microstructural analysis of the cell structure yielded results strongly indicating that the reduction of both interface defects and misfit strain in the CdS lattices plays an additional role on the PCE improvement. Analyses on the interface and the CdS crystallinity using high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) combined with the geometric phase analysis (GPA) revealed that the addition of CdSe effectively reduced the lattice strain in the CdS without introducing misfit dislocations at CdS/CdSe interface, probably owing to Se anion diffusion (or exchange) to the defective SILAR CdS layer during the CBD process. Although an entire enhancement in PCE by the addition of CdSe layer seen in our

  7. Inverse Funnel Effect of Excitons in Strained Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo San-Jose

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of strain on the properties and dynamics of Wannier excitons in monolayer (phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus (BP, a promising two-dimensional material for optoelectronic applications due to its high mobility, mechanical strength, and strain-tunable direct band gap. We compare the results to the case of molybdenum disulphide (MoS_{2} monolayers. We find that the so-called funnel effect, i.e., the possibility of controlling exciton motion by means of inhomogeneous strains, is much stronger in few-layer BP than in MoS_{2} monolayers and, crucially, is of opposite sign. Instead of excitons accumulating isotropically around regions of high tensile strain like in MoS_{2}, excitons in BP are pushed away from said regions. This inverse funnel effect is moreover highly anisotropic, with much larger funnel distances along the armchair crystallographic direction, leading to a directional focusing of exciton flow. A strong inverse funnel effect could enable simpler designs of funnel solar cells and offer new possibilities for the manipulation and harvesting of light.

  8. The influence of the scale effect and high temperatures on the strength and strains of high performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsun Vladimyr Ivanovych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most effective way to reduce the structure mass, labor input and expenses for its construction is to use modern high-performance concrete of the classes С50/60… С90/105, which possess high physical and mathematic characteristics. One of the constraints for their implementation in mass construction in Ukraine is that in design standards there are no experimental data on the physical and mathematic properties of concrete of the classes more than С50/60. Also there are no exact statements on calculating reinforced concrete structures made of high-performance concretes.The authors present the results of experimental research of the scale effect and short-term and long-term heating up to +200 ° C influence on temperature and shrinkage strain, on strength and strain characteristics under compression and tensioning of high-strength modified concrete of class C70/85. The application of high performance concretes is challenging in the process of constructing buildings aimed at operating in high technological temperatures: smoke pipes, coolers, basins, nuclear power plants' protective shells, etc. Reducing cross-sections can lead to reducing temperature drops and thermal stresses in the structures.

  9. Simple single-emitting layer hybrid white organic light emitting with high color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneously achieving a high efficiency and color quality at luminance levels required for solid-state lighting has been difficult for white organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Single-emitting layer (SEL) white OLEDs, in particular, exhibit a significant tradeoff between efficiency and color stability. Furthermore, despite the simplicity of SEL white OLEDs being its main advantage, the reported device structures are often complicated by the use of multiple blocking layers. In this paper, we report a highly simplified three-layered white OLED that achieves a low turn-on voltage of 2.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 18.9% and power efficiency of 30 lm/W at 1000 cd/cm2. This simple white OLED also shows good color quality with a color rendering index of 75, CIE coordinates (0.42, 0.46), and little color shifting at high luminance. The device consists of a SEL sandwiched between a hole transport layer and an electron transport layer. The SEL comprises a thermally activated delayer fluorescent molecule having dual functions as a blue emitter and as a host for other lower energy emitters. The improved color stability and efficiency in such a simple device structure is explained as due to the elimination of significant energy barriers at various organic-organic interfaces in the traditional devices having multiple blocking layers.

  10. Dependence on the growth direction of the strain in AlGaSb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R; Gayou, V L; Orduna-Diaz, A [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Momox-Beristain, E [FC-BUAP, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Salazar-Hernandez, B [CIICAp-UAEM, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Rodriguez, A G, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.m [IICO-UASLP, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High resolution x-ray diffraction profiles were obtained from Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb layers grown on (001) and (111) GaSb substrates. The out of plane lattice parameter, was estimated directly from the symmetrical diffractions for (001) and (111) alloys. These results show that all the layers are strained, and those grown on (001) GaSb are slightly more strained than the corresponding layers grown on (111) GaSb. This difference is explained by the dependence of the strain ratio on growth direction. The out of plane lattice parameter as a function of Al content is higher than the corresponding bulk lattice parameter of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb layers obtained with Vegard's law. Also, the perpendicular and the in-plane lattice parameter expected for pseudomorphic alloys, was estimated from the strain ratios, assuming an elastic deformation and using the EDX alloy composition to interpolate the elastic constants C{sub ij}. This estimation also shows that almost all the layers are fully strained.

  11. Silicon dioxide with a silicon interfacial layer as an insulating gate for highly stable indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, V. J.; Shokrani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel gate insulator consisting of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a thin silicon (Si) interfacial layer has been investigated for high-power microwave indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). The role of the silicon interfacial layer on the chemical nature of the SiO2/Si/InP interface was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the silicon interfacial layer reacted with the native oxide at the InP surface, thus producing silicon dioxide, while reducing the native oxide which has been shown to be responsible for the instabilities in InP MISFETs. While a 1.2-V hysteresis was present in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve of the MIS capacitors with silicon dioxide, less than 0.1 V hysteresis was observed in the C-V curve of the capacitors with the silicon interfacial layer incorporated in the insulator. InP MISFETs fabricated with the silicon dioxide in combination with the silicon interfacial layer exhibited excellent stability with drain current drift of less than 3 percent in 10,000 sec, as compared to 15-18 percent drift in 10,000 sec for devices without the silicon interfacial layer. High-power microwave InP MISFETs with Si/SiO2 gate insulators resulted in an output power density of 1.75 W/mm gate width at 9.7 GHz, with an associated power gain of 2.5 dB and 24 percent power added efficiency.

  12. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-10-10

    Thin films of PbZr 0 . 52 Ti 0 . 48 O 3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO 3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain and ultra-low strain hysteresis. The observed increase of the piezoelectric coefficient with increasing film thickness is attributed to the reduction of clamping, because of the increasingly less dense columnar microstructure (more separation between the grains) with across the film thickness. A very large piezoelectric coefficient (490 pm/V) and a high piezoelectric strain (~0.9%) are obtained in 4-µm-thick film under an applied electric field of 200 kV/cm, which is several times larger than in usual PZT ceramics. Further very low strain hysteresis (H≈2-4%) is observed in 4 to 5 µm thick films. These belong to the best values demonstrated so far in piezoelectric films. Fatigue testing shows that the piezoelectric properties are stable up to 10 10 cycles. The growth of high quality PZT films with very large strain and piezoelectric coefficients, very low hysteresis and with long-term stability on a technologically important substrate as glass is of great significance for the development of practical piezo driven microelectromechanical actuator systems.

  13. 3D printed high performance strain sensors for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; Moser, Russell; Zbib, Hussein M.; Ramana, C. V.; Panat, Rahul

    2018-01-01

    Realization of high temperature physical measurement sensors, which are needed in many of the current and emerging technologies, is challenging due to the degradation of their electrical stability by drift currents, material oxidation, thermal strain, and creep. In this paper, for the first time, we demonstrate that 3D printed sensors show a metamaterial-like behavior, resulting in superior performance such as high sensitivity, low thermal strain, and enhanced thermal stability. The sensors were fabricated using silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), using an advanced Aerosol Jet based additive printing method followed by thermal sintering. The sensors were tested under cyclic strain up to a temperature of 500 °C and showed a gauge factor of 3.15 ± 0.086, which is about 57% higher than that of those available commercially. The sensor thermal strain was also an order of magnitude lower than that of commercial gages for operation up to a temperature of 500 °C. An analytical model was developed to account for the enhanced performance of such printed sensors based on enhanced lateral contraction of the NP films due to the porosity, a behavior akin to cellular metamaterials. The results demonstrate the potential of 3D printing technology as a pathway to realize highly stable and high-performance sensors for high temperature applications.

  14. Characteristics of high gradient insulators for accelerator and high power flow applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.

    1997-07-01

    The high gradient insulator has been demonstrated to operate at levels comparable or better than special geometry or coated insulators. Some patented insulator configurations allow for sophisticated accelerator structures, high power flow interfaces, and microwave applications not previously possible. Sophisticated manufacturing techniques available at AlliedSignal FM and T made this development possible. Bipolar and high power flow applications are specially suited for present insulator designs. The insulator shows a beneficial effect when used under RF fields or RF structures. These insulators can be designed, to a first approximation, from simple electron flight path equations. With a recently developed model of surface flashover physics the authors completed a set of design calculations that include effects such as layer density and dielectric/metal thickness. Experimental data, obtained in the last few years of development, is presented and reviewed. Several insulator fabrication characteristics, indicating critical design parameters, are also presented

  15. Reconstruction of fiber Bragg grating strain profile used to monitor the stiffness degradation of the adhesive layer in carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive-bonded joint of carbon fiber–reinforced plastic is one of the core components in aircraft structure design. It is an effective guarantee for the safety and reliability of the aerospace aircraft structure to use effective methods for monitoring and early warning of internal failure. In this article, the mapping relation model between the strain profiles of the adherend of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap adhesive joint and the stiffness degradation evolution of adhesive layer was achieved by finite element software ABAQUS. The fiber Bragg grating was embedded in the adherend between the first and second layers at the end of the adhesive layer to calculate the reflection spectrum of fiber Bragg grating sensor region with improved T-matrix method for reconstruction of the adherend strain profile of fiber Bragg grating sensing area with the help of genetic algorithm. According to the reconstruction results, the maximum error between the ideal and reconstructed strain profile under different tension loads did not exceed 7.43%, showing a good coincidence degree. The monitoring method of the stiffness degradation evolution of adhesive layer of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap joint based on the reconstruction of the adherend strain profile of fiber Bragg grating sensing area thus was figured out.

  16. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  17. High performance CaS solar-blind ultraviolet photodiodes fabricated by seed-layer-assisted growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qing Lin; Lai, Ying Hoi; Sou, Iam Keong; Liu, Yi; Beltjens, Emeline; Qi, Jie

    2015-01-01

    CaS, with a direct bandgap of 5.38 eV, is expected to be a strong candidate as the active-layer of high performance solar-blind UV photodiodes that have important applications in both civilian and military sectors. Here, we report that a seed-layer-assisted growth approach via molecular beam epitaxy can result in high crystalline quality rocksalt CaS thin films on zincblende GaAs substrates. The Au/CaS/GaAs solar-blind photodiodes demonstrated , more than five orders in its visible rejection power, a photoresponse of 36.8 mA/w at zero bias and a corresponding quantum efficiency as high as 19% at 235 nm

  18. Highly efficient tandem OLED based on C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} as charge generation layer and LiF/Al as electron injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); College of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wu, Xiaoming, E-mail: wxm@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xiao, Zhihui; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Juan; Rui, Hongsong; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Yulin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yin, Shougen, E-mail: sgyin@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs are fabricated. • The optimal tandem OLED consists of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} as a CGL and LiF/Al as an EIL. • Current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem OLED is markedly enhanced. • The turn-on and driving voltages of optimal tandem OLED is obviously reduced. - Abstract: Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have received much attention in solid-state lighting due to their high current efficiency, long lifetime and excellent stability. The highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs based on the charge generation layer (CGL) of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} and the electron injection layer (EIL) of LiF/Al were fabricated. The ultra-thin Al layer in EIL was introduced to further increase electron injection from CGL to the emission unit. We found that the maximal current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem device can reach to 43.1 cd/A and 15.1 lm/W, respectively, which are approximately 2.8 and 1.9 times compared with those of single-emissive-unit device. Moreover, compared with the traditional tandem device, the driving voltage of the optimal device is reduced by 6 V, and the turn-on voltage is reduced by 2.4 V. We analyzed the mechanism and characterization of these tandem devices. The effective charge separation and transport of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3}, and excellent electron injection ability of ultra-thin Al layer are the main factors for the remarkable enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency of tandem OLEDs.

  19. Development of high temperature strain gage, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuuki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Kanai, Kenji; Yamaura, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Development and improvement of resistance wire type strain gages usable for experimental measurement of thermal strains generated at high temperature in various structures and equipments that consist of a Fast Breeder Reactor have been carried out, and various characteristics of the strain gages have been investigated. Based on the results obtained up to now, development and research of this time mainly aim to improve strain and fatigue characteristics. As the results, characteristics of strain gages with sensing elements of nichrome V are improved, specifically mechanical hysteresis is decreased, strain limit is increased, etc. Also, improvement is recognized in thermal output, and it becomes clear that dummy gages work effectively. However, a filling method of MgO and an inserting method of active-dummy elements are selected as primary objects to improve strain characteristics, and many hours are taken for these objects, so confirmations of characteristics of platinum-tungsten strain gages, strain sensing elements of which are troublesome to produce, have not been completely done, though the performance of the gages has been improved in several points. As to nichrome V strain gages, there is a fair prospect of obtaining ones, specifications of which are quite close to the goal, though problems in manufacturing technics remain for future. As to platinum-tungsten strain gages, it is expected that similar strain gages to nichrome V are obtainable by improvement in manufacturing of sensing elements. (auth.)

  20. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  1. Boundary layer plasmas as a source for high-latitude, early afternoon, auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, R.; Evans, D.S.

    1985-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of hot boundary layer plasma from PROGNOZ-7 and particle precipitation from the TIROS/NOAA satellite in nearly magnetically conjugate regions have been used to study the dynamo process responsible for the formation of high latitude, early afternoon, auroral arcs. Characteristic for the PROGNOZ-7 observations in the dayside boundary layer at high latitudes is the frequent occurrence of regions with injected magnetosheath plasma embedded in a 'halo' of antisunward flowing magnetosphere plasma. The injected magnetosheath plasma have several features which indicate that it also acts as a local source of EMF in the boundary layer. The process resembles that of a local MHD dynamo driven by the excess drift velocity of the injected magnetosheath plasma relative to the background magnetospheric plasma. The dynamo region is capable of driving fielc-aligned currents that couple to the ionosphere, where the upward current is associated with the high latitude auroral arcs. We demonstrate that the large-scale morphology as well as the detailed data intercomparison between PROGNOZ-7 and TIROS-N both agree well with a local injection of magnetosheath plasma into the dayside boundary layer as the main dynamo process powering the high-latitude, early afternoon auroral arcs. (Author)

  2. High Resolution 3D Experimental Investigation of Flow Structures and Turbulence Statistics in the Viscous and Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy is implemented to perform 3D velocity measurement in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a square channel over a smooth wall at Reτ=1,400. The measurements are performed at a resolution of ˜1μm over a sample volume of 1.5x2x1.5mm (x^+=50, y^+=60, z^+=50), sufficient for resolving buffer layer structures and for measuring the instantaneous wall shear stress distributions from velocity gradients in the sublayer. The data provides detailed statistics on the spatial distribution of both wall shear stress components along with the characteristic flow structures, including streamwise counter-rotating vortex pairs, multiple streamwise vortices, and rare hairpins. Conditional sampling identifies characteristic length scales of 70 wall units in spanwise and 10 wall units in wall-normal direction. In the region of high stress, the conditionally averaged flow consists of a stagnation-like sweeping motion induced by a counter rotating pair of streamwise vortices. Regions with low stress are associated with ejection motion, also generated by pairs of counter-rotating vortices. Statistics on the local strain and geometric alignment between strain and vorticity shows that the high shear generating vortices are inclined at 45 to streamwise direction, indicating that vortices are being stretched. Results of on-going analysis examines statistics of helicity, strain and impacts of near-wall structures.

  3. High heat flux testing of TiC coated molybdenum with a tungsten intermediate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitsuka, Masakazu; Fukutomi, Masao; Okada, Masatoshi

    1988-01-01

    The use of low atomic number (Z) material coatings for fusion reactor first-wall components has proved to be a valuable technique to reduce the plasma radiation losses. Molybdenum coated with titanium carbide is considered very promising since it has a good capability of receiving heat from the plasma. An interfacial reaction between the TiC film and the molybdenum substrate, however, causes a severe deterioration of the film at elevated temperatures. In order to solve this problem a TiC coated molybdenum with an intermediate tungsten layer was developed. High temperature properties of this material was evaluated by a newly devised electron beam heating apparatus. TiC coatings prepared on a vacuum-heat-treated molybdenum with a tungsten intermediate layer showed good high temperature stability and survived 2.0 s pulses of heating at a power density as high as 53 MW/m 2 . The melt area of the TiC coatings in high heat flux testings also markedly decreased when a tungsten intermediate layer was applied. The melting mechanism of the TiC coatings with and without a tungsten intermediate layer was discussed by EPMA measurements. (author)

  4. Rational design of atomic-layer-deposited LiFePO4 as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Banis, Mohammad N; Sun, Qian; Lushington, Andrew; Li, Ruying; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xueliang

    2014-10-08

    Atomic layer deposition is successfully applied to synthesize lithium iron phosphate in a layer-by-layer manner by using self-limiting surface reactions. The lithium iron phosphate exhibits high power density, excellent rate capability, and ultra-long lifetime, showing great potential for vehicular lithium batteries and 3D all-solid-state microbatteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Root causes investigation of catastrophic optical bulk damage in high-power InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yongkun; Lingley, Zachary; Ayvazian, Talin; Brodie, Miles; Ives, Neil

    2018-02-01

    High-power single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well (QW) lasers are critical components for both terrestrial and space satellite communications systems. Since these lasers predominantly fail by catastrophic and sudden degradation due to COD, it is especially crucial for space satellite applications to investigate reliability, failure modes, and degradation mechanisms of these lasers. Our group reported a new failure mode in MM and SM InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers in 2009 and 2016, respectively. Our group also reported in 2017 that bulk failure due to catastrophic optical bulk damage (COBD) is the dominant failure mode of both SM and MM lasers that were subject to long-term life-tests. For the present study, we report root causes investigation of COBD by performing long-term lifetests followed by failure mode analysis (FMA) using various micro-analytical techniques including electron beam induced current (EBIC), time-resolved electroluminescence (EL), focused ion beam (FIB), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Our life-tests with accumulated test hours of over 25,000 hours for SM lasers and over 35,000 hours for MM lasers generated a number of COBD failures with various failure times. EBIC techniques were employed to study dark line defects (DLDs) generated in SM COBD failures stressed under different test conditions. FIB and high-resolution TEM were employed to prepare cross sectional and plan view TEM specimens to study DLD areas (dislocations) in post-aged SM lasers. Time-resolved EL techniques were employed to study initiation and progressions of dark spots and dark lines in real time as MM lasers were aged. Lastly, to investigate precursor signatures of failure and degradation mechanisms responsible for COBD in both SM and MM lasers, we employed DLTS techniques to study a role that electron traps (non-radiative recombination centers) play in degradation of these

  6. Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and selection of a high-producing mutant, Bacillus subtilis HB-32, with enhanced acetoin yield and productivity. The mutant was obtained by the protoplast fusion of a Bacillus subtilis mutant TH-49 (Val− producing acetoin and Bacillus licheniformis AD-30 producing α-acetolactate decarboxylase, with the fusogen polyethylene glycol and after the regeneration and selection, etc. of the fusant. The acetoin production reached 49.64 g/L, which is an increase of 61.8% compared to that of B. subtilis strain TH-49. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed to determine the mutagenic and protoplast fusion effects and the genomic changes in the acetoin high-producing strain compared to the parent strains at the molecular level. The constructed strain was shown to be promising for large-scale acetoin production. Future studies should focus on the application of the mutant strain in practice.

  7. Health-promoting properties exhibited by Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Gustaw, Waldemar; Waśko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Many strains belonging to lactobacilli exert a variety of beneficial health effects in humans and some of the bacteria are regarded as probiotic microorganisms. Adherence and capabilities of colonization by Lactobacillus strains of the intestinal tract is a prerequisite for probiotic strains to exhibit desired functional properties. The analysis conducted here aimed at screening strains of Lactobacillus helveticus possessing a health-promoting potential. The molecular analysis performed, revealed the presence of a slpA gene encoding the surface S-layer protein SlpA (contributing to the immunostimulatory activity of L. helveticus M 92 probiotic strain) in all B734, DSM, T80, and T105 strains. The product of gene amplification was also identified in a Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 probiotic strain. SDS-PAGE of a surface protein extract demonstrated the presence of a protein with a mass of about 50 kDa in all strains, which refers to the mass of the S-layer proteins. These results are confirmed by observations carried with transmission electron microscopy, where a clearly visible S-layer was registered in all the strains analyzed. The in vitro study results obtained indicate that the strongest adhesion capacity to epithelial cells (HT-29) was demonstrated by L. helveticus B734, while coaggregation with pathogens was highly diverse among the tested strains. The percentage degree of coaggregation was increasing with the incubation time. After 5 h of incubation, the strongest ability to coaggregate with Escherichia coli was expressed by T104. The T80 strain demonstrated a significant ability to co-aggregate with Staphylococcus aureus, while DSM with Bacillus subtilis. For B734, the highest values of co-aggregation coefficient was noted in samples with Salmonella. The capability of autoaggregation, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to increasing salt concentrations, and strain survival in simulated small intestinal juice were also analyzed.

  8. Fiber facet gratings for high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Martin; Vanis, Jan; Baravets, Yauhen; Todorov, Filip; Ctyroky, Jiri; Honzatko, Pavel

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigated the properties of diffraction gratings designated for fabrication on the facet of an optical fiber. The gratings are intended to be used in high-power fiber lasers as mirrors either with a low or high reflectivity. The modal reflectance of low reflectivity polarizing grating has a value close to 3% for TE mode while it is significantly suppressed for TM mode. Such a grating can be fabricated on laser output fiber facet. The polarizing grating with high modal reflectance is designed as a leaky-mode resonant diffraction grating. The grating can be etched in a thin layer of high index dielectric which is sputtered on fiber facet. We used refractive index of Ta2O5 for such a layer. We found that modal reflectance can be close to 0.95 for TE polarization and polarization extinction ratio achieves 18 dB. Rigorous coupled wave analysis was used for fast optimization of grating parameters while aperiodic rigorous coupled wave analysis, Fourier modal method and finite difference time domain method were compared and used to compute modal reflectance of designed gratings.

  9. High speed gain coupled DFB laser diode integrated with MQW electroabsorption modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Gyoo; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Seong Su; Oh, Dae Kon; Lee, Hee Tae; Kim, Hong man; Pyun, Kwang Eui

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated stable modulation characteristics of the gain coupled distributed feedback(GC-DFB) laser diode integrated with butt-coupled InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW(multiple-Quantum-well) modulator for high speed optical transmission. For this purpose, we have adopted the InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW structure for the EA modulator and n-doped InGaAs absorptive grating for DFB laser. The typical threshold current and slope efficiency were about 15 mA and 0.1 mW/mA, respectively. The extinction ratio of fabricated integrated device was about 15 dB at -2 V, and the small signal bandwidth was shown to be around 17GHz. We also found that the α parameter becomes negative at below a -0.6 V bias voltage. We transmitted 10 Gbps NRZ electrical signal over 90 km of standard single mode optical fiber (SMF). A clearly opened eye diagram was observed in the modulated output

  10. High speed gain coupled DFB laser diode integrated with MQW electroabsorption modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M G; Park, S S; Oh, D K; Lee, H T; Kim, H M; Pyun, K E

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated stable modulation characteristics of the gain coupled distributed feedback(GC-DFB) laser diode integrated with butt-coupled InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW(multiple-Quantum-well) modulator for high speed optical transmission. For this purpose, we have adopted the InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW structure for the EA modulator and n-doped InGaAs absorptive grating for DFB laser. The typical threshold current and slope efficiency were about 15 mA and 0.1 mW/mA, respectively. The extinction ratio of fabricated integrated device was about 15 dB at -2 V, and the small signal bandwidth was shown to be around 17GHz. We also found that the alpha parameter becomes negative at below a -0.6 V bias voltage. We transmitted 10 Gbps NRZ electrical signal over 90 km of standard single mode optical fiber (SMF). A clearly opened eye diagram was observed in the modulated output.

  11. Electrical Insulation of 500-m High-Tc Superconducting Power Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T; Ichikawa, M; Suzuki, H; Okamoto, T; Akita, S; Mukoyama, S; Yagi, M; Maruyama, S; Kimura, A

    2006-01-01

    Electrical insulation is one of the essential technologies for the electric power apparatus. Determination of testing voltages and design method of the electrical insulation layer are inextricably linked each other, and are critical to developing and realizing a cold dielectric (CD) type high-Tc superconducting (HTS) power cable. The authors had proposed the electrical insulation design method with concepts of partial discharge-free designs for ac voltage condition. This paper discusses the testing voltages for a 77 kV 1000 A HTS power cable with a length of 500 m, and describes results of various voltage withstand test. As a result, it is concluded that the proposed electrical insulation design method is appropriate for the HTS power cable

  12. Design of single-layer high-efficiency transmitting phase-gradient metasurface and high gain antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Yang, Xiaoqing; Su, Piqiang; Luo, Jiefang; Chen, Huijie; Yuan, Jianping; Li, Lixin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, based on rotation phase-gradient principle, a single-layer, high-efficiency transmitting metasurface is designed and applied to high-gain antenna. In the case of circularly polarized incident wave, the PCR (polarization conversions ratio) of the metasurface element is greater than 90% in the band of 9.11-10.48 GHz. The transmitting wave emerges an anomalous refraction when left-handed circularly polarized wave are incident perpendicularly to the 1D phase-gradient metasurface, which is composed of cycle arrangement of 6 units with step value of 30°. The simulated anomalous refraction angle is 40.1°, coincided with the theoretical design value (40.6°). For further application, the 2D focused metasurface is designed to enhance the antenna performance while the left-handed circularly polarized antenna is placed at the focus. The simulated max gain is increased by 12 dB (182%) and the half-power beamwidth is reduced by 74.6°. The measured results are coincided with the simulations, which indicates the antenna has high directivity. The designed single-layer transmission metasurface has advantages of thin thickness (only 1.5 mm), high efficiency and light weight, and will have important application prospects in polarization conversion and beam control.

  13. High level active n+ doping of strained germanium through co-implantation and nanosecond pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, David; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Monmeyran, Corentin P.; Akey, Austin J.; Milazzo, Ruggero; Cai, Yan; Napolitani, Enrico; Gwilliam, Russell M.; Crowe, Iain F.; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, L. C.; Agarwal, Anuradha; Mazur, Eric; Aziz, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining high level active n+ carrier concentrations in germanium (Ge) has been a significant challenge for further development of Ge devices. By ion implanting phosphorus (P) and fluorine (F) into Ge and restoring crystallinity using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM), we demonstrate 1020 cm-3 n+ carrier concentration in tensile-strained epitaxial germanium-on-silicon. Scanning electron microscopy shows that after laser treatment, samples implanted with P have an ablated surface, whereas P + F co-implanted samples have good crystallinity and a smooth surface topography. We characterize P and F concentration depth profiles using secondary ion mass spectrometry and spreading resistance profiling. The peak carrier concentration, 1020 cm-3 at 80 nm below the surface, coincides with the peak F concentration, illustrating the key role of F in increasing donor activation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of the co-implanted sample shows that the Ge epilayer region damaged during implantation is a single crystal after PLM. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements both indicate that the as-grown epitaxial layer strain is preserved after PLM. These results demonstrate that co-implantation and PLM can achieve the combination of n+ carrier concentration and strain in Ge epilayers necessary for next-generation, high-performance Ge-on-Si devices.

  14. Electro optical system to measure strains at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1991-12-01

    The measurement of strains at temperatures of the order of 1000 C has become a very important field of research. Technological advances in areas such as the analysis of high speed aircraft structures and high efficiency thermal engines require operational temperatures of this order of magnitude. Current techniques for the measurement of strains, such as electrical strain gages, are at the limit of their useful range and new methods need to be developed. Optical techniques are very attractive in this type of application because of their noncontacting nature. Holography is of particular interest because a minimal preparation of the surfaces is required. Optoelectronics holography is specially suited for this type of application, from the point of view of industrial use. There are a number of technical problems that need to be overcome to measure strains using holographic interferometry at high temperatures. Some of these problems are discussed, and solutions are given. A specimen instrumented with high temperature strains gages is used to compare the results of both technologies.

  15. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  16. Analysis of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures with the scanning transmission electron microscope; Analyse selbstorganisierter In(Ga)As-Quantenstrukturen mit dem Raster-Transmissionselektronenmikroskop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, Andres

    2008-05-27

    Aim of this thesis was to apply the analytical methods of the scanning transmission electron microscopy to the study of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures. With the imaging methods Z contrast and bright field (position resolutions in the subnanometer range) and especially with the possibilities of the quantitative chemical EELS analysis of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) fundamental questions concerning morphology and chemical properties of self-organized quantum structures should be answered. By the high position resolution of the STEM among others essentail morphological and structural parameters in the growth behaviour of 'dot in a well' (DWell) structures and of vertically correlated quantum dots (QDs) could be analyzed. For the optimization of DWell structures samples were studied, the nominal InAs-QD growth position was directedly varied within the embedding InGaAs quantum wells. The STEM offers in connection with the EELS method a large potential for the chemical analysis of quantum structures. Studied was a sample series of self-organized InGaAs/GaAs structures on GaAs substrate, the stress of which was changed by varying the Ga content of the INGaAs material between 2.4 % and 4.3 %. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die analytischen Methoden der Raster-Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie zur Untersuchung selbstorganisierter In(Ga)As-Quantenstrukturen anzuwenden. Mit den abbildenden Methoden Z-Kontrast und Hellfeld (Ortsaufloesungen im Subnanometerbereich) und insbesondere mit den Moeglichkeiten der quantitativen chemischen EELS-Analyse des Raster-Transmissionselektronenmikroskops (RTEMs) sollten grundsaetzliche Fragestellungen hinsichtlich der Morphologie und der chemischen Eigenschaften selbstorganisierter Quantenstrukturen beantwortet werden. Durch die hohe Ortsaufloesung des RTEMs konnten u.a. essentielle morphologische und strukturelle Parameter im Wachstumsverhalten von 'Dot in a Well

  17. Evaluation of the effects of strain rate on material properties of the high strength concrete used in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shirai, Koji; Takayanagi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Concrete physical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, initial elastic modulus and maximum strain) affected by strain rate weren't fully utilize for material model in dynamic response analysis for seismic and impact load because of few reports and various difficulties of impact tests. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) methods are the most popular high-speed material testing and were also applied for composite material. We applied SHPB for concrete specimen and reported the strain rate effect to the concrete physical property. We used hydraulic testing device for 10 -5 /s to 10 0 /s strain rate and SHPB methods for over 10 1 /s. Four cases of concrete tests (high (50MPa at 28days)/low (35MPa at 28days) compressive strength (based on the test of exiting nuclear power facilities) and dry/wet condition) were done. And we formulated strain rate effect about compressive strength and initial elastic modulus from comparing with previous studies. (author)

  18. High-power pure blue laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, M.; Ohizumi, Y.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Yabuki, Y.; Goto, S.; Ikeda, M. [Development Center, Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor Inc., Miyagi (Japan); Funato, K. [Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We successfully developed high-power and long-lived pure blue laser diodes (LDs) having an emission wavelength of 440-450 nm. The pure-blue LDs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on GaN substrates. The dislocation density was successfully reduced to {proportional_to}10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} by optimizing the MOCVD growth conditions and the active layer structure. The vertical layer structure was designed to have an absorption loss of 4.9 cm{sup -1} and an internal quantum efficiency of 91%. We also reduced the operating current density to 6 kA/cm{sup 2} under 750 mW continuous-wave operation at 35 C by optimizing the stripe width to 12 {mu}m and the cavity length to 2000 {mu}m. The half lifetimes in constant current mode are estimated to be longer than 10000 h. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. High-rate deposition of SI absorber layers by electron beam evaporation and first electron beam crystallization tests

    OpenAIRE

    Saager, Stefan; Ben Yaala, Marwa; Heinß, Jens-Peter; Temmler, Dietmar; Pfefferling, Bert; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In earlier electron beam physical vapor deposition tests (EB-PVD), using a conventional copper crucible (A), high Si deposition rates at relatively high EB power together with a contamination level of 1016 cm-3 are demonstrated. To improve the rate vs. EB power relation as well as the Si layer purity, two alternative high rate EBPVD methods are investigated and reported here - a contact-less crucible setup (B) and a crucible-free setup (C).In these experiments comparable deposition rates of ~...

  20. High-precision, whole-genome sequencing of laboratory strains facilitates genetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Srivatsan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing is a powerful technique for obtaining the reference sequence information of multiple organisms. Its use can be dramatically expanded to rapidly identify genomic variations, which can be linked with phenotypes to obtain biological insights. We explored these potential applications using the emerging next-generation sequencing platform Solexa Genome Analyzer, and the well-characterized model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Combining sequencing with experimental verification, we first improved the accuracy of the published sequence of the B. subtilis reference strain 168, then obtained sequences of multiple related laboratory strains and different isolates of each strain. This provides a framework for comparing the divergence between different laboratory strains and between their individual isolates. We also demonstrated the power of Solexa sequencing by using its results to predict a defect in the citrate signal transduction pathway of a common laboratory strain, which we verified experimentally. Finally, we examined the molecular nature of spontaneously generated mutations that suppress the growth defect caused by deletion of the stringent response mediator relA. Using whole-genome sequencing, we rapidly mapped these suppressor mutations to two small homologs of relA. Interestingly, stable suppressor strains had mutations in both genes, with each mutation alone partially relieving the relA growth defect. This supports an intriguing three-locus interaction module that is not easily identifiable through traditional suppressor mapping. We conclude that whole-genome sequencing can drastically accelerate the identification of suppressor mutations and complex genetic interactions, and it can be applied as a standard tool to investigate the genetic traits of model organisms.

  1. The gradient crystalline structure and microhardness in the treated layer of TC17 via high energy shot peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huimin; Liu, Yingang; Li, Miaoquan; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The gradient nanocrystalline structure was induced in treated layer of TC17. • The thickness of nanograin layer with an average grain size of 10.5 nm was 20 μm. • The composition of the treated layer of TC17 was discussed. • The gradient variation of the microhardness was obtained in treated layer of TC17. - Abstract: The gradient nanocrystalline structure from the topmost surface to the matrix of a bulk coarse-grained TC17 was attained by using high energy shot peening treatment at an air pressure of 0.35 MPa and a processing duration of 30 min. The thickness from the topmost surface with a grain size of about 10.5 nm to the matrix with a micrometer structure was about 120 μm, and the thickness in the nanocrystalline layer was about 20 μm. The microscopic and nanocrystalline structure characteristic in the treated layer were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanograins layer, the nanometer-thick laminated structure layer, the refined grains layer and the low-strain matrix layer occurred in sequence from the topmost surface to the matrix, and therefore the gradient nanocrystalline structure in the treated layer was produced by using high energy shot peening. TEM investigation confirmed that the dislocation activity with very high stacking fault energy induced by surface severe plastic deformation mainly controlled the grain refinement. The microhardness (HV 0.02 ) from the topmost surface to the matrix gradually increased by 43% from 440 to 629 and the gradient variation of the microhardness with the depths from the topmost surface to the matrix of treated TC17 was obtained.

  2. Methodology to measure strains at high temperatures using electrical strain gages with free filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanazio Filho, Nelson N.; Gomes, Paulo T. Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Silva, Luiz L. da; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental methodology used for strains measuring at high temperatures is show in this work. In order to do the measurements, it was used electric strain gages with loose filaments attached to a stainless steel 304 beam with specific cements. The beam has triangular shape and a constant thickness, so the strain is the same along its length. Unless the beam surface be carefully prepared, the strain gage attachment is not efficient. The showed results are for temperatures ranging from 20 deg C to 300 deg C, but the experimental methodology could be used to measure strains at a temperature up to 900 deg C. Analytical calculations based on solid mechanics were used to verify the strain gage electrical installation and the measured strains. At a first moment, beam deformations as a temperature function were plotted. After that, beam deformations with different weighs were plotted as a temperature function. The results shown allowed concluding that the experimental methodology is trustable to measure strains at temperatures up to 300 deg C. (author)

  3. Laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper for instilling high sensitivity, high stretchability, and high linearity in strain sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Yangyang

    2017-06-29

    There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure. Such sensors are reproducible and durable and can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and high stretchability (with a gauge factor of over 4.2 × 10(4) at 150% strain). Moreover, they can attain high linearity from 0% to 15% and from 22% to 150% strain. They are good candidates for stretchable electronic applications that require high sensitivity and linearity at large strains.

  4. High strain fatigue behaviour of a high-temperature, low-alloyed forging steel subject to a servicelike loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Rieth, P.

    1979-01-01

    A test plan was developed for selected cases of service-like long-time high strain load of a heated surface of massive components, which includes service-like anisothermic high strain tests with pressure-strain in the start-up phase and pull-strain in the shutdown phase, comparable isothermal tests at the highest cycle temperature, and finally tests with 'packaged' high strain and creep strain periods, which should enable long-time-tests with only short use of the large-scale high-strain-test-technique. The tests started on the melts of the high-temperature steel 28 Cr Mo NiV 4 9 have reached a longest tests time of nearly 1000 at a maximum temperature of 525 0 C. On the basis of there results, the carrying-out of 'packaged' long-time high strain tests with short creep strain periods seem to be a good way of determining the long-time high-strain behaviour of this steel under service-like strain cycles. (orig./RW) 891 RW/orig.- 892 RKD [de

  5. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control  diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected  by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  6. Spin-dependent tunneling recombination in heterostructures with a magnetic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, K. S., E-mail: denisokonstantin@gmail.com; Rozhansky, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    We propose a mechanism for the generation of spin polarization in semiconductor heterostructures with a quantum well and a magnetic impurity layer spatially separated from it. The spin polarization of carriers in a quantum well originates from spin-dependent tunneling recombination at impurity states in the magnetic layer, which is accompanied by a fast linear increase in the degree of circular polarization of photoluminescence from the quantum well. Two situations are theoretically considered. In the first case, resonant tunneling to the spin-split sublevels of the impurity center occurs and spin polarization is caused by different populations of resonance levels in the quantum well for opposite spin projections. In the second, nonresonant case, the spin-split impurity level lies above the occupied states of electrons in the quantum well and plays the role of an intermediate state in the two-stage coherent spin-dependent recombination of an electron from the quantum well and a hole in the impurity layer. The developed theory allows us to explain both qualitatively and quantitatively the kinetics of photoexcited electrons in experiments with photoluminescence with time resolution in Mn-doped InGaAs heterostructures.

  7. Controlling the Laser Guide Star power density distribution at Sodium layer by combining Pre-correction and Beam-shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wei, Kai; Jin, Kai; Li, Min; Zhang, YuDong

    2018-06-01

    The Sodium laser guide star (LGS) plays a key role in modern astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems (AOSs). The spot size and photon return of the Sodium LGS depend strongly on the laser power density distribution at the Sodium layer and thus affect the performance of the AOS. The power density distribution is degraded by turbulence in the uplink path, launch system aberrations, the beam quality of the laser, and so forth. Even without any aberrations, the TE00 Gaussian type is still not the optimal power density distribution to obtain the best balance between the measurement error and temporal error. To optimize and control the LGS power density distribution at the Sodium layer to an expected distribution type, a method that combines pre-correction and beam-shaping is proposed. A typical result shows that under strong turbulence (Fried parameter (r0) of 5 cm) and for a quasi-continuous wave Sodium laser (power (P) of 15 W), in the best case, our method can effectively optimize the distribution from the Gaussian type to the "top-hat" type and enhance the photon return flux of the Sodium LGS; at the same time, the total error of the AOS is decreased by 36% with our technique for a high power laser and poor seeing.

  8. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David

    2014-08-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  9. Initialization method for triple-layer exchanged coupled direct overwrite MO disk (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, T. K.; Genova, D. J.; Palumbo, A. C.

    1993-05-01

    Increasing efforts are directed at the development of direct overwrite (DOW) capability for achieving higher data transfer rate in MO media. DOW by light intensity modulation on a triple-layer medium has shown great promise. The three layers consist of memory, reference, and intermediate layers that are weakly coupled to each other. This scheme uses an auxiliary magnet to initialize the reference layer in one direction in addition to the bias magnet. DOW is between high and low power levels. High power aligns the magnetization of the coupled layers in one direction, and low power aligns the magnetization in the opposite direction. These high (Ph) and low (Pl) powers are generally widely separated. Since the focused writing beam has a Gaussian profile, when the center of the spot does the high power writing, the ``skirt'' is actually doing the low power writing. As a result, if the background is initialized in the direction of the high power written mark, a chain-like domain pattern is observed. This leads to high writing noise. We found that such writing noise can be eliminated by initializing the background in the direction of the low power written marks. We will discuss the spin structure in exchanged coupled triple-layer films and the DOW characteristics of the disk with the two different initialization methods.

  10. Mechanical loading regulates human MSC differentiation in a multi-layer hydrogel for osteochondral tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Neven J; Aisenbrey, Elizabeth A; Westbrook, Kristofer K; Qi, H Jerry; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2015-07-01

    A bioinspired multi-layer hydrogel was developed for the encapsulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a platform for osteochondral tissue engineering. The spatial presentation of biochemical cues, via incorporation of extracellular matrix analogs, and mechanical cues, via both hydrogel crosslink density and externally applied mechanical loads, were characterized in each layer. A simple sequential photopolymerization method was employed to form stable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with a soft cartilage-like layer of chondroitin sulfate and low RGD concentrations, a stiff bone-like layer with high RGD concentrations, and an intermediate interfacial layer. Under a compressive load, the variation in hydrogel stiffness within each layer produced high strains in the soft cartilage-like layer, low strains in the stiff bone-like layer, and moderate strains in the interfacial layer. When hMSC-laden hydrogels were cultured statically in osteochondral differentiation media, the local biochemical and matrix stiffness cues were not sufficient to spatially guide hMSC differentiation after 21 days. However dynamic mechanical stimulation led to differentially high expression of collagens with collagen II in the cartilage-like layer, collagen X in the interfacial layer and collagen I in the bone-like layer and mineral deposits localized to the bone layer. Overall, these findings point to external mechanical stimulation as a potent regulator of hMSC differentiation toward osteochondral cellular phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the interface stability of the metal (Mo, Ni, Pd/HfO2/AlN/InGaAs MOS devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Binh Do

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The degeneration of the metal/HfO2 interfaces for Mo, Ni, and Pd gate metals was studied in this paper. An unstable PdOx interfacial layer formed at the Pd/HfO2 interface, inducing the oxygen segregation for the Pd/HfO2/InGaAs metal oxide capacitor (MOSCAP. The low dissociation energy for the Pd-O bond was the reason for oxygen segregation. The PdOx layer contains O2− and OH− ions which are mobile during thermal annealing and electrical stress test. The phenomenon was not observed for the (Mo, Ni/HfO2/InGaAs MOSCAPs. The results provide the guidance for choosing the proper metal electrode for the InGaAs based MOSFET.

  12. Film-based Sensors with Piezoresistive Molecular Conductors as Active Components Strain Damage and Thermal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Laukhina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to the development of flexible all-organic bi layer (BL film-based sensors being capable of measuring strain as a well-defined electrical signal in a wide range of elongations and temperature. The purpose was achieved by covering polycarbonate films with the polycrystalline layer of a high piezoresistive organic molecular conductor. To determine restrictions for sensor applications, the effect of monoaxial strain on the resistance and texture of the sensing layers of BL films was studied. The experiments have shown that the maximum strain before fracture is about 1 %. A thermal regeneration of the sensing layer of the BL film-based sensors that were damaged by cyclic load is also described. These sensors are able to take the place of conventional metal-based strain and pressure gages in low cost innovative controlling and monitoring technologies.

  13. Layer-by-Layer Assembly for Preparation of High-Performance Forward Osmosis Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Libin; Zhang, Jinglong; Song, Peng; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) membrane with high separation performance is needed to promote its practical applications. Herein, layer-by-layer (LbL) approach was used to prepare a thin and highly cross-linked polyamide layer on a polyacrylonitrile substrate surface to prepare a thin-film composite forward osmosis (TFC-FO) membrane with enhanced FO performance. The effects of monomer concentrations and assembly cycles on the performance of the TFC-FO membranes were systematically investigated. Under the optimal preparation condition, TFC-FO membrane achieved the best performance, exhibiting the water flux of 14.4/6.9 LMH and reverse salt flux of 7.7/3.8 gMH under the pressure retarded osmosis/forward osmosis (PRO/FO) mode using 1M NaCl as the draw against a DI-water feed, and a rejection of 96.1% for 2000 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. The result indicated that layer-by-layer method was a potential method to regulate the structure and performance of the TFC-FO membrane.

  14. Towards development of nanofibrous large strain flexible strain sensors with programmable shape memory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Asif, H.; Naguib, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospun polymeric fibers can be used as strain sensors due to their large surface to weight/volume ratio, high porosity and pore interconnectivity. Large strain flexible strain sensors are used in numerous applications including rehabilitation, health monitoring, and sports performance monitoring where large strain detection should be accommodated by the sensor. This has boosted the demand for a stretchable, flexible and highly sensitive sensor able to detect a wide range of mechanically induced deformations. Herein, a physically cross-linked polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blend is made into nanofiber networks via electrospinning. The PLA/TPU weight ratio is optimized to obtain a maximum attainable strain of 100% while maintaining its mechanical integrity. The TPU/PLA fibers also allowed for their thermally activated recovery due to shape memory properties of the substrate. This novel feature enhances the sensor’s performance as it is no longer limited by its plastic deformation. Using spray coating method, a homogeneous layer of single-walled carbon nanotube is deposited onto the as-spun fiber mat to induce electrical conductivity to the surface of the fibers. It is shown that stretching and bending the sensor result in a highly sensitive and linear response with a maximum gauge factor of 33.

  15. High power CW output from low confinement asymmetric structure diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordache, G.; Buda, M.; Acket, G.A.; Roer, van de T.G.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.; Karouta, F.; Jagadish, C.; Tan, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    High power continuous wave output from diode lasers using low loss, low confinement, asymmetric structures is demonstrated. An asymmetric structure with an optical trap layer was grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Gain guided 50 µm wide stripe 1-3 mm long diode lasers were studied. 1.8 W

  16. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  17. Capacitance high temperature strain transducer by Interatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    Special strain transducers are necessary to perform structure mechanical experiments on real components under creep-fatigue load. The new development of the transducer was able to solve the problem. In the meantime, different characteristics of the transducer have been examined and many successful applications have been effected. Some important aspects are given in this report. Up to now the longest operation period has been 24000 h on a pipe at 630 0 C service temperature in a conventional power station. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  19. Ultralow noise midwave infrared InAs-GaSb strain layer superlattice avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Shubhrangshu; Banerjee, Koushik; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Plis, Elena; Rodriguez, Jean Baptiste; Krishna, Sanjay; Grein, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Eye-safe midwavelength infrared InAs-GaSb strain layer superlattice p + -n - -n homojunction avalanche photodiodes (APDs) grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy were fabricated and characterized. Maximum multiplication gain of 1800 was measured at -20 V at 77 K. Excess noise factors between 0.8 and 1.2 were measured up to gain of 300. Gain of 200 was measured at 120 K. Exponential nature of the gain as a function of reverse bias along with low excess noise factor at higher gain confirms single carrier electron-only impact ionization in the avalanche regime. Decrease in the multiplication gain at higher temperatures correlates with standard APD characteristics

  20. Room temperature observation of lateral quantization effects in modulated barrier InGaAs/InP wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkel, K.; Oshinowo, J.; Forchel, A. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Technische Physik; Weber, J.; Zielinski, E. [Alcatel Corp., Stuttgart (Germany). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    The authors have fabricated buried InGaAs/InP quantum wires with widths down to 15 nm by high resolution electron beam lithography and selective wet chemical etching. In their approach, only the InP cap layer of an InGaAs/InP quantum well is locally removed. In the etched parts of the sample, InGaAs surface quantum wells are formed, where the conduction and valence band discontinuity between InGaAs and InP (600 meV) is replaced by the high vacuum barrier ({approximately}5 eV). Therefore the quantization energies are enlarged in the InGaAs surface quantum wells. This creates a lateral potential, that confines the carriers to the InP covered regions, which act as wires. The different thermal stability of both regions is used to enhance the lateral potential significantly in a subsequent rapid thermal annealing step. The wires show clear lateral quantization effects with energy shifts up to 13 meV and high luminescence intensities up to room temperature.

  1. MeV and GeV prospects for producing a large ion layer configuration for fusion power generation and breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Injection of multi-MeV molecular hydrogen ions into a magnetic mirror or magnetic mirror well can lead to the production of an ion (or proton-E) Layer with prospects for fusion power generation. This involves: (1) slow (exponential or Lorentz) trapping of protons from dissociation and/or ionization of H 2 + ions; (2) electron cyclotron drive of the electronic temperature to reduce the electron stopping power; (3) production of an Ion-Layer, E-Core plasma configuration having prospects for cold fuel feed with in situ axial acceleration of say D 2 + ions into the negative E-Core; (4) ignited advanced fuel burns in the resulting high beta plasma with excess (free) neutrons available for energy multiplication of fissile fuel breeding; (5) development of a nuclear dynamo with fuel feed, plasma energy, and Ion-Layer current maintenance by fusion products; and (6) a natural divertor end loss of ashes with charge separation permitting a natural direct electrical conversion prospect

  2. Twinning in copper deformed at high strain rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Copper samples having varying microstructures were deformed at high strain rates using a split-. Hopkinson pressure bar. Transmission electron microscopy results show deformation twins present in samples that were both annealed and strained, whereas samples that were annealed and left unstrained, as well ...

  3. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  4. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  5. Strain relaxation during solid-phase epitaxial crystallisation of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} alloy layers with depth dependent G{sub e} compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Wahchung; Elliman, R.G.; Kringhoj, P. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1993-12-31

    The solid-phase epitaxial crystallisation of depth dependent Ge{sub x}Si{sub lx} alloy layers produced by implanting Ge into Si substrates was studied. In-situ monitoring was done using time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) whilst post-anneal defect structures were characterised by Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS-C) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particular attention was directed at Ge concentrations above the critical concentration for the growth of fully strained layers. Strain relief is shown to be correlated with a sudden reduction in crystallisation velocity caused by roughening of the crystalline/amorphous interface. 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Strain relaxation during solid-phase epitaxial crystallisation of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} alloy layers with depth dependent G{sub e} compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Wahchung; Elliman, R G; Kringhoj, P [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1994-12-31

    The solid-phase epitaxial crystallisation of depth dependent Ge{sub x}Si{sub lx} alloy layers produced by implanting Ge into Si substrates was studied. In-situ monitoring was done using time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) whilst post-anneal defect structures were characterised by Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS-C) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particular attention was directed at Ge concentrations above the critical concentration for the growth of fully strained layers. Strain relief is shown to be correlated with a sudden reduction in crystallisation velocity caused by roughening of the crystalline/amorphous interface. 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Active high-power RF pulse compression using optically switched resonant delay lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantawi, S.G.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1996-11-01

    The authors present the design and a proof of principle experimental results of an optically controlled high power rf pulse compression system. The design should, in principle, handle few hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band. The system is based on the switched resonant delay line theory. It employs resonant delay lines as a means of storing rf energy. The coupling to the lines is optimized for maximum energy storage during the charging phase. To discharge the lines, a high power microwave switch increases the coupling to the lines just before the start of the output pulse. The high power microwave switch, required for this system, is realized using optical excitation of an electron-hole plasma layer on the surface of a pure silicon wafer. The switch is designed to operate in the TE 01 mode in a circular waveguide to avoid the edge effects present at the interface between the silicon wafer and the supporting waveguide; thus, enhancing its power handling capability

  8. Superconducting high frequency high power resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbis, C.; Vardiman, R.; Weinman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A niobium superconducting quarter-wave helical resonator has been designed and built. The resonator has been electron-beam welded and electropolished to produce a smooth flaw-free surface. This has been followed by an anodization to produce a 1000 A layer of Nb 2 0 5 . At the resonant frequency of approximately 15 MHz the unloaded Q was approximately equal to 4.6x10 6 with minimal dielectric support. With the resonator open to the helium bath to provide cooling, and rigidly supported by a teflon cylinder, 350 V of power were transferred at a doubly loaded Q of 3500. The extrapolation of the results to a Qsub(DL) of 1000 meet the power handling criteria of one kilowatt for the intended application. (author)

  9. Artificial dispersion via high-order homogenization: magnetoelectric coupling and magnetism from dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Guenneau, Sébastien; Gralak, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a high-order homogenization (HOH) algorithm for periodic multi-layered stacks. The mathematical tool of choice is a transfer matrix method. Expressions for effective permeability, permittivity and magnetoelectric coupling are explored by frequency power expansions. On the physical side, this HOH uncovers a magnetoelectric coupling effect (odd-order approximation) and artificial magnetism (even-order approximation) in moderate contrast photonic crystals. Comparing the effective parameters' expressions of a stack with three layers against that of a stack with two layers, we note that the magnetoelectric coupling effect vanishes while the artificial magnetism can still be achieved in a centre-symmetric periodic structure. Furthermore, we numerically check the effective parameters through the dispersion law and transmission property of a stack with two dielectric layers against that of an effective bianisotropic medium: they are in good agreement throughout the low-frequency (acoustic) band until the first stop band, where the analyticity of the logarithm function of the transfer matrix () breaks down. PMID:24101891

  10. The influence of molecular layers of amines on the hydraulic resistance of piping systems and power plant equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhenkov, Viacheslav A.; Ryzhenkov, Artem V. [Moscow Power Engineering Institute / Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Industrial Heat and Power Systems; Petrova, Tamara I. [Moscow Power Engineering Institute / Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Water and Fuel Technology Dept.

    2012-07-15

    The current state of pipeline systems and power equipment has a high accident rate due to intense corrosion, the accumulation of deposits on heat and in-line transfer surfaces, and high hydraulic resistance. Analysis and synthesis of published results shows that the solution to improving the efficiency of pipeline systems and power equipment can be approached from two directions: (i) the impact on the properties of transported media and (ii) changes in the properties of functional surfaces of pipelines and equipment. Improving the ''quality'' of the technological agents involves very substantial capital and operating costs, so the most promising way is to modify the surface properties. Studies conducted at the National Research University MPEI showed that these problems are solved more effectively by means of molecular layers of adsorbed amines on the functional surfaces of pipes and equipment. When present in a certain way with the optimal number of molecular amine layers, these significantly alter the surface properties of conventional structural materials, which leads to very substantial improvement in the hydrodynamic characteristics: reduction of the hydraulic resistance of pipelines and equipment (up to 40 %), almost complete stoppage of corrosion processes (up to 7 times), and a multiple (up to 10-fold) reduction in the rate of deposit accumulation. The method of adsorption of molecular amine layers and the equipment for its implementation developed on the basis of this research will not only reduce flow resistance, but will also significantly improve the operating efficiency of pipeline systems and power equipment generally. (orig.)

  11. Heteroepitaxial growth of strained multilayer thin films of high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.; Gupta, A.; Olsson, E.; Segmueller, A.; Koren, G.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the heteroepitaxial growth of multilayer structures of different copper oxide superconductors has been reported by several groups. In general, two different types of multilayer structures should be distinguished. The first kind of mulitlayer is formed by high-T c materials having the same crystal structure and almost the same lattice constants, as for example ReBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (Re=rare earth) multilayers with alternating Re-elements. In these multilayers the two different rare earth copper oxides (Y/Dy, Y/Pr) have the same orthorhombic unit cell. Due to the very similar lattice constants, the misfit strain is easily accommodated without the formation of defects. The second kind of multilayer is formed by layers of materials having different crystal structure and lattice parameters. In these multilayers the misfit can be coherently accommodated below a critical modulation thickness as discussed below. This renders possible the heteroepitaxial growth of strained multilayer structures, both of two copper oxides of different crystal structure, as has been demonstrated recently for the system YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ /Nd 1.83 Ce 0.17 CuO x , and of superconducting copper oxides and insulating materials. For multilayers of different copper oxides, a combination of almost all high-Tc materials should be possible, since the presence of the CuO 2 sheets in these materials results in similar lattice constants in their basal planes ('a' and 'b'). (orig./BHO)

  12. Fatigue and rutting strain analysis of flexible pavements designed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    The study was carried out with the layered elastic analysis software EVERSTRESS. Key words: Layered elastic analysis, fatigue, rutting, strains, design, flexible pavement, CBR. ..... Numerical Computational Stresses and Strains in Multi-Layer ...

  13. Magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy in single-layer PtSe{sub 2}: Interplay between strain and vacancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangw@nfpc.edu.cn; Tao, Qiu Chen; Song, Xiao Jiao; Li, Hao [Physicochemical Group of Department of Criminal Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210023 (China); Guo, Hai Tao; Jiang, Jing [Physicochemical Group of Department of Criminal Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210023 (China); National Judicial Authentication Center of Public Security Bureau of State Forestry Bureau, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Jie [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-07-07

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the newly synthesized single-layer (1 L) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) PtSe{sub 2} are studied by first-principles calculations. We find the strain or selenium vacancy (V{sub Se}) alone cannot induce the magnetism. However, an interplay between strain and V{sub Se} leads to the magnetism due to the breaking of Pt-Pt metallic bonds. Different from the case of 1 L-MoS{sub 2} with V{sub S}, the defective 1 L-PtSe{sub 2} has the spatially extended spin density, which is responsible for the obtained long range ferromagnetic coupling. Moreover, the 1 L-PtSe{sub 2} with V{sub Se} undergoes a spin reorientation transition from out-of-plane to in-plane magnetization, accompanying a maximum magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of ∼9–10.6 meV/V{sub Se}. These results indicate the strain not only can effectively tune the magnetism but also can manipulate the magnetization direction of 1 L-TMDs.

  14. Transcriptional analysis of liver from chickens with fast (meat bird), moderate (F1 layer x meat bird cross) and low (layer bird) growth potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Nicky-Lee; Forder, Rebecca E A; Tearle, Rick; Williams, John L; Hughes, Robert J; Nattrass, Greg S; Hynd, Philip I

    2018-05-02

    Divergent selection for meat and egg production in poultry has resulted in strains of birds differing widely in traits related to these products. Modern strains of meat birds can reach live weights of 2 kg in 35 d, while layer strains are now capable of producing more than 300 eggs per annum but grow slowly. In this study, RNA-Seq was used to investigate hepatic gene expression between three groups of birds with large differences in growth potential; meat bird, layer strain as well as an F1 layer x meat bird. The objective was to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes between all three strains to elucidate biological factors underpinning variations in growth performance. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on total RNA extracted from the liver of meat bird (n = 6), F1 layer x meat bird cross (n = 6) and layer strain (n = 6), males. Differential expression of genes were considered significant at P layers (19%), 2935 DE between meat birds and the cross (9.6%) and 493 DE between the cross and layers (1.6%). Comparisons between the three groups identified 155 significant DE genes. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the 155 DE genes showed the FoxO signalling pathway was most enriched (P = 0.001), including genes related to cell cycle regulation and insulin signalling. Significant GO terms included 'positive regulation of glucose import' and 'cellular response to oxidative stress', which is also consistent with FoxOs regulation of glucose metabolism. There were high correlations between FoxO pathway genes and bodyweight, as well as genes related to glycolysis and bodyweight. This study revealed large transcriptome differences between meat and layer birds. There was significant evidence implicating the FoxO signalling pathway (via cell cycle regulation and altered metabolism) as an active driver of growth variations in chicken. Functional analysis of the FoxO genes is required to

  15. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zheng, Yan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Easton, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  16. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  17. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zhang, Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10{sup 3}/s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70 ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300 µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. - Highlights: • Tensile straining TEM specimens made by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling. • Accurate positioning of the electron transparent area within a controlled gauge region. • Optimization of femtosecond laser and ion milling parameters. • Fast production of numerous samples with a highly repeatable geometry.

  18. Advanced cathode materials for high-power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, K.; Liu, J.; Belharouak, I.; Kang, S.-H.; Bloom, I.; Vissers, D.; Henriksen, G.

    In our efforts to develop low cost high-power Li-ion batteries with excellent safety, as well as long cycle and calendar life, lithium manganese oxide spinel and layered lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials were investigated. Our studies with the graphite/LiPF 6/spinel cells indicated a very significant degradation of capacity with cycling at 55 °C. This degradation was caused by the reduction of manganese ions on the graphite surface which resulted in a significant increase of the charge-transfer impedance at the anode/electrolyte interface. To improve the stability of the spinel, we investigated an alternative salt that would not generate HF acid that may attack the spinel. The alternative salt we selected for this work was lithium bisoxalatoborate, LiB(C 2O 4) 2 ("LiBoB"). In this case, the graphite/LiBoB/spinel Li-ion cells exhibited much improved cycle/calendar life at 55 °C and better abuse tolerance, as well as excellent power. A second system based on LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 layered material was also investigated and its performance was compared to commercial LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2. Cells based on LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 showed lower power fade and better thermal safety than the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2-based commercial cells under similar test conditions. Li-ion cells based on the material with excess lithium (Li 1.1Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2) exhibited excellent power performance that exceeded the FreedomCAR requirements.

  19. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  20. Positive/negative magnetostrictive GMR trilayer systems as strain gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokupil, S.; Bootsmann, M.-T.; Stein, S.; Loehndorf, M.; Quandt, E.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, highly sensitive strain gauges were developed, which are based on tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) or giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effects combined with the inverse magnetostriction. GMR and TMR structures generally possess a symmetrical characteristic, which reflects the switching fields of the soft and hard layers, respectively. This characteristic can be changed by a stress field if the soft layer is replaced by a suitable magnetostrictive layer leading to a stress-induced rotation of the magnetostrictive layer with respect to the reference layer. Alternatively, both magnetic layers can be soft magnetic, one being positive and the other negative magnetostrictive. In this case, a stress applied on the stack leads to a reverse rotation of both layers due to the different sign in magnetostriction. This new approach is especially attractive since no reference layer is required which allows multilayering for GMR effect enhancement. This paper presents the stress biased characteristics of (FeCo/Cu/Ni) GMR trilayers in which the positive magnetostrictive FeCo and the negative magnetostrictive Ni replace the sensing and reference layer of a conventional GMR stack. The results can be interpreted by a simple model taking into account the magnetization direction of the individual layers and their response to mechanical strain in the range of 0.1-1%o

  1. Strain buildup in GaAs due to 100 MeV Ag ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Shramana; Bhaumik, Sudipta; Panda, Jaya Kumar [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Ojha, Sunil [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Dhar, Achintya [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kabiraj, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Roy, Anushree, E-mail: anushree@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The formation of strained layers and a non-monotonic evolution of strain in high energy (100 MeV) silver ion (Ag{sup 7+}) irradiated undoped semi-insulating GaAs are observed and analyzed using Raman scattering and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. At low fluence, compressively strained layers are formed, whereas, with increase in fluence both compressive and tensile strains appear as observed from HRXRD measurements. Further, at low fluence, the change in compressive strain with increase in fluence is found to be sharper than what is observed at higher fluence, thereby suggesting a critical fluence value, beyond which there is a simultaneous generation and annihilation of vacancy type defects. The initial blue shift and subsequent relative red shift beyond above critical fluence in the Raman peak also qualitatively reveal non-monotonic evolution of strain in this case. Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in detecting the decrease in lattice ordering in the crystal in the low fluence regime, below the detection limit of Rutherford back-scattering channeling (c-RBS) measurements.

  2. Influence of a falling edge on high power microwave pulse combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Zhu, Qi; Xiao, Renzhen; Shao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an explanation of the influence of a microwave falling edge on high-power microwave pulse combination. Through particle-in-cell simulations, we discover that the falling edge is the driving factor that limits the output power of the combined pulses. We demonstrate that the space charge field, which accumulates to become comparable to the E-field at the falling edge of the former pulse, will trap the electrons in the gas layer and decrease its energy to attain a high ionization rate. Hence, avalanche discharge, caused by trapped electrons, makes the plasma density to approach the critical density and cuts off the latter microwave pulse. An X-band combination experiment is conducted with different pulse intervals. This experiment confirms that the high density plasma induced by the falling edge can cut off the latter pulse, and that the time required for plasma recombination in the transmission channel is several microseconds. To ensure a high output power for combined pulses, the latter pulse should be moved ahead of the falling edge of the former one, and consequently, a beat wave with high peak power becomes the output by adding two pulses with normal amplitudes.

  3. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, YUAN; Lizhen, YANG; Zhongwei, LIU; Qiang, CHEN

    2018-04-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has attracted a great deal of attention because the sputtered material is highly ionized during the coating process, which has been demonstrated to be advantageous for better quality coating. Therefore, the mechanism of the HiPIMS technique has recently been investigated. In this paper, the current knowledge of HiPIMS is described. We focus on the mechanical properties of the deposited thin film in the latest applications, including hard coatings, adhesion enhancement, tribological performance, and corrosion protection layers. A description of the electrical, optical, photocatalytic, and functional coating applications are presented. The prospects for HiPIMS are also discussed in this work.

  4. Engineering the Pores of Biomass-Derived Carbon: Insights for Achieving Ultrahigh Stability at High Power in High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Ranjith; Kaliyappan, Karthikeyan; Ramasamy, Hari Vignesh; Sun, Xueliang; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2017-07-10

    Electrochemical supercapacitors with high energy density are promising devices due to their simple construction and long-term cycling performance. The development of a supercapacitor based on electrical double-layer charge storage with high energy density that can preserve its cyclability at higher power presents an ongoing challenge. Herein, we provide insights to achieve a high energy density at high power with an ultrahigh stability in an electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) system by using carbon from a biomass precursor (cinnamon sticks) in a sodium ion-based organic electrolyte. Herein, we investigated the dependence of EDLC performance on structural, textural, and functional properties of porous carbon engineered by using various activation agents. The results demonstrate that the performance of EDLCs is not only dependent on their textural properties but also on their structural features and surface functionalities, as is evident from the electrochemical studies. The electrochemical results are highly promising and revealed that the porous carbon with poor textural properties has great potential to deliver high capacitance and outstanding stability over 300 000 cycles compared with porous carbon with good textural properties. A very low capacitance degradation of around 0.066 % per 1000 cycles, along with high energy density (≈71 Wh kg -1 ) and high power density, have been achieved. These results offer a new platform for the application of low-surface-area biomass-derived carbons in the design of highly stable high-energy supercapacitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. High power operation of cladding pumped holmium-doped silica fibre lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Alexander; Bennetts, Shayne; Simakov, Nikita; Davidson, Alan; Haub, John; Carter, Adrian

    2013-02-25

    We report the highest power operation of a resonantly cladding-pumped, holmium-doped silica fibre laser. The cladding pumped all-glass fibre utilises a fluorine doped glass layer to provide low loss cladding guidance of the 1.95 µm pump radiation. The operation of both single mode and large-mode area fibre lasers was demonstrated, with up to 140 W of output power achieved. A slope efficiency of 59% versus launched pump power was demonstrated. The free running emission was measured to be 2.12-2.15 µm demonstrating the potential of this architecture to address the long wavelength operation of silica based fibre lasers with high efficiency.

  6. Mechanical characterization of alloys in extreme conditions of high strain rates and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the mechanical characterization of alloys under extreme conditions of temperature and loading. In fact, in the frame of the Cost Action CA15102 “Solutions for Critical Raw Materials Under Extreme Conditions (CRM-EXTREME)” this aspect is crucial and many industrial applications have to consider the dynamic response of materials. Indeed, for a reduction and substitution of CRMs in alloys is necessary to design the materials and understand if the new materials behave better or if the substitution or reduction badly affect their performance. For this reason, a deep knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high strain-rates of considered materials is required. In general, machinery manufacturing industry or transport industry as well as energy industry have important dynamic phenomena that are simultaneously affected by extended strain, high strain-rate, damage and pressure, as well as conspicuous temperature gradients. The experimental results in extreme conditions of high strain rate and high temperature of an austenitic stainless steel as well as a high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 are presented.

  7. Physical nature of strain rate sensitivity of metals and alloys at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, E. N.; Gruzdkov, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.; Selyutina, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The role of instabilities of plastic flow at plastic deformation of various materials is one of the important cross-disciplinary problems which is equally important in physics, mechanics and material science. The strain rate sensitivities under slow and high strain rate conditions of loading have different physical nature. In the case of low strain rate, the sensitivity arising from the inertness of the defect structures evolution can be expressed by a single parameter characterizing the plasticity mechanism. In our approach, this is the value of the characteristic relaxation time. In the dynamic case, there are additional effects of “high-speed sensitivity” associated with the micro-localization of the plastic flow near the stress concentrators. In the frames of mechanical description, this requires to introduce additional strain rate sensitivity parameters, which is realized in numerous modifications of Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models. The consideration of both these factors is fundamental for an adequate description of the problems of dynamic deformation of highly inhomogeneous metallic materials such as steels and alloys. The measurement of the dispersion of particle velocities on the free surface of a shock-loaded material can be regarded as an experimental expression of the effect of micro-localization. This is also confirmed by our results of numerical simulation of the propagation of shock waves in a two-dimensional formulation and analytical estimations.

  8. An EELS sub-nanometer investigation of the dielectric gate stack for the realization of InGaAs based MOSFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, P; Paterson, G W; Craven, A J; Holland, M C; Thayne, I G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a subnanometer investigation of the Ga 2 O 3 /GdGaO dielectric gate stack deposited onto InGaAs is presented. Results regarding the influence of the growth conditions on the interface region from a chemical and morphological point of view are presented. The chemical information reported in this paper has been obtained using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) that was carried out in a scanning transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) showing both spatial and depth resolution.

  9. Spontaneous layering of porous silicon layers formed at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhutik, Vitali; Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Millan, Mari-Carmen [R and D Center MTM, Technical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Albella, Jose [Institute of Materials Science (ICMM CSIC) Madrid (Spain)

    2005-06-01

    We report here a curious effect of spontaneous fracturing of the silicon layers formed in galvanostatic conditions at medium and high current densities. Instead of formation of homogeneous p-Si layer as at low currents, a stack of thin layers is formed. Each layer is nearly separated from others and possesses rather flat interfaces. The effects is observed using p{sup +}-Si wafers for the p-Si formation and starts being noticeable at above 100 mA/cm{sup 2}. We interpret these results in terms of the porous silicon growth model where generation of dynamic mechanical stress during the p-Si growth causes sharp changes in Si dissolution mechanism from anisotropic etching of individual needle-like pores in silicon to their branching and isotropic etching. At this moment p-Si layer loses its adhesion to the surface of Si wafer and another p-Si layer starts growing. One of the mechanisms triggering on the separation of p-Si layers from one another is a fluctuation of local anodic current in the pore bottoms associated with gas bubble evolution during the p-Si formation. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Highly sensitive strain sensors based on fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Fang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Jianping; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun; Xuan, Fuzhen

    2018-06-01

    Wearable strain sensors based on nanomaterial/elastomer composites have potential applications in flexible electronic skin, human motion detection, human–machine interfaces, etc. In this research, a type of high performance strain sensors has been developed using fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS) composites. The CNT/PDMS composites were ground into fragments, and a liquid-induced densification method was used to fabricate the strain sensors. The strain sensors showed high sensitivity with gauge factors (GFs) larger than 200 and a broad strain detection range up to 80%, much higher than those strain sensors based on unfragmentized CNT/PDMS composites (GF composite particles during mechanical deformation, which causes significant resistance change in the strain sensors. The strain sensors can differentiate mechanical stimuli and monitor various human body motions, such as bending of the fingers, human breathing, and blood pulsing.

  11. High temperature study on the thermal properties of few-layer Mo0.5W0.5S2 and effects of capping layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gu

    Full Text Available We investigated the thermal properties of few-layer Mo0.5W0.5S2 using a series of samples with different kinds of capping layers. Temperature-dependent Raman measurements were conducted in the range of 300–500 K, with power-dependent measurements also carried out. It indicated, for the few-layer Mo0.5W0.5S2, the temperature coefficients of the WS2-like E12g mode, MoS2-like E12g mode and A1g mode were −0.0155 cm−1/K, −0.0146 cm−1/K, and −0.0130 cm−1/K, respectively. And the thermal conductivity was estimated to be 44.8 W/mK. Moreover, the Mo0.5W0.5S2 samples coated with capping layers (ZrO2, HfO2 both showed a better thermal stability and a larger thermal conductivity than the one without. The results revealed that the capping layer should be an important factor in the thermal property. Keywords: Mo0.5W0.5S2, TMDs, Thermal properties, High temperature, Capping layers, Raman

  12. A study of graphite-epoxy laminate failures due to high transverse shear strains using the multi-span-beam shear test procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1989-01-01

    The multi-span-beam shear test procedure is used to study failure mechanisms in graphite-epoxy laminates due to high transverse shear strains induced by severe local bending deformations in test specimens. Results of a series of tests on specimens with a variety of stacking sequences, including some with adhesive interleaving, are presented. These results indicate that laminates with stacking sequences with several + or - 45 and 90 deg plies next to each other are more susceptible to failures due to high transverse shear strains than laminates with + or - 45 and 0 deg plies next to each other or with + or - 45 deg plies next to layers of adhesive interleaving. Results of these tests are compared with analytical results based on finite elements.

  13. Facile Formation of High-quality InGaN/GaN Quantum-disks-in-Nanowires on Bulk-Metal Substrates for High-power Light-emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Wei, Nini; Prabaswara, Aditya; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Janjua, Bilal; Shen, Chao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    High-quality nitride materials grown on scalable and low-cost metallic substrates are considerably attractive for high-power light emitters. We demonstrate here, for the first time, the high-power red (705 nm) InGaN/GaN quantum-disks (Qdisks)-in-nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) self-assembled directly on metal-substrate. The LEDs exhibited a low turn-on voltage of ~2 V without efficiency droop up to injection current of 500 mA (1.6 kA/cm2) at ~5 V. This is achieved through the direct growth and optimization of high-quality nanowires on titanium (Ti) coated bulk polycrystalline-molybdenum (Mo) substrates. We performed extensive studies on the growth mechanisms, obtained high-crystal-quality nanowires, and confirmed the epitaxial relationship between the cubic titanium nitride (TiN) transition layer and the hexagonal nanowires. The growth of nanowires on all-metal stack of TiN/Ti/Mo enables simultaneous implementation of n-metal contact, reflector and heat-sink, which greatly simplifies the fabrication process of high-power light emitters. Our work ushers in a practical platform for high-power nanowires light emitters, providing versatile solutions for multiple cross-disciplinary applications that are greatly enhanced by leveraging on the chemical stability of nitride materials, large specific surface of nanowires, chemical lift-off ready layer structures, and reusable Mo substrates.

  14. Facile Formation of High-quality InGaN/GaN Quantum-disks-in-Nanowires on Bulk-Metal Substrates for High-power Light-emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2016-01-08

    High-quality nitride materials grown on scalable and low-cost metallic substrates are considerably attractive for high-power light emitters. We demonstrate here, for the first time, the high-power red (705 nm) InGaN/GaN quantum-disks (Qdisks)-in-nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) self-assembled directly on metal-substrate. The LEDs exhibited a low turn-on voltage of ~2 V without efficiency droop up to injection current of 500 mA (1.6 kA/cm2) at ~5 V. This is achieved through the direct growth and optimization of high-quality nanowires on titanium (Ti) coated bulk polycrystalline-molybdenum (Mo) substrates. We performed extensive studies on the growth mechanisms, obtained high-crystal-quality nanowires, and confirmed the epitaxial relationship between the cubic titanium nitride (TiN) transition layer and the hexagonal nanowires. The growth of nanowires on all-metal stack of TiN/Ti/Mo enables simultaneous implementation of n-metal contact, reflector and heat-sink, which greatly simplifies the fabrication process of high-power light emitters. Our work ushers in a practical platform for high-power nanowires light emitters, providing versatile solutions for multiple cross-disciplinary applications that are greatly enhanced by leveraging on the chemical stability of nitride materials, large specific surface of nanowires, chemical lift-off ready layer structures, and reusable Mo substrates.

  15. Nonlinear photoresponse of field effect transistors terahertz detectors at high irradiation intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But, D. B.; Drexler, C.; Ganichev, S. D.; Sakhno, M. V.; Sizov, F. F.; Dyakonova, N.; Drachenko, O.; Gutin, A.; Knap, W.

    2014-01-01

    Terahertz power dependence of the photoresponse of field effect transistors, operating at frequencies from 0.1 to 3 THz for incident radiation power density up to 100 kW/cm 2 was studied for Si metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors and InGaAs high electron mobility transistors. The photoresponse increased linearly with increasing radiation intensity up to the kW/cm 2 range. Nonlinearity followed by saturation of the photoresponse was observed for all investigated field effect transistors for intensities above several kW/cm 2 . The observed photoresponse nonlinearity is explained by nonlinearity and saturation of the transistor channel current. A theoretical model of terahertz field effect transistor photoresponse at high intensity was developed. The model explains quantitative experimental data both in linear and nonlinear regions. Our results show that dynamic range of field effect transistors is very high and can extend over more than six orders of magnitudes of power densities (from ∼0.5 mW/cm 2 to ∼5 kW/cm 2 )

  16. High quality Ge epilayer on Si (1 0 0) with an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si buffer layer by RPCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Guo, Qinglei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Anli; Wang, Bei; Li, Ya; Wang, Gang

    2017-07-01

    The authors report a method to grow high quality strain-relaxed Ge epilayer on a combination of low temperature Ge seed layer and Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system without any subsequent annealing treatment. Prior to the growth of high quality Ge epilayer, an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer with the thickness of 50 nm and a 460 nm Ge seed layer were deposited successively at low temperature. Then an 840 nm Ge epilayer was grown at high deposition rate with the surface root-mean-square roughness of 0.707 nm and threading dislocation density of 2.5  ×  106 cm-2, respectively. Detailed investigations of the influence of ultrathin low-temperature Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer on the quality of Ge epilayer were performed, which indicates that the crystalline quality of Ge epilayer can be significantly improved by enhancing the Ge concentration of Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer.

  17. Low-Light-Level InGaAs focal plane arrays with and without illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Follman, David

    2010-04-01

    Short wavelength IR imaging using InGaAs-based FPAs is shown. Aerius demonstrates low dark current in InGaAs detector arrays with 15 μm pixel pitch. The same material is mated with a 640x 512 CTIA-based readout integrated circuit. The resulting FPA is capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 microns at low light levels. The mean dark current density on the FPAs is extremely low at 0.64 nA/cm2 at 10°C. Noise due to the readout can be reduced from 95 to 57 electrons by using off-chip correlated double sampling (CDS). In addition, Aerius has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide speckle-free illumination, provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  18. Investigation of stress–strain models for confined high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High strength concrete; confined concrete; stress–strain models; ... One of its advantages is the lessening column cross-sectional areas. It was ..... Ahmad S H, Shah S P 1982 Stress–strain curves of concrete confined by spiral reinforcement.

  19. Highly doped layer for tunnel junctions in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Christopher M.

    2017-08-01

    A highly doped layer for interconnecting tunnel junctions in multijunction solar cells is presented. The highly doped layer is a delta doped layer in one or both layers of a tunnel diode junction used to connect two or more p-on-n or n-on-p solar cells in a multijunction solar cell. A delta doped layer is made by interrupting the epitaxial growth of one of the layers of the tunnel diode, depositing a delta dopant at a concentration substantially greater than the concentration used in growing the layer of the tunnel diode, and then continuing to epitaxially grow the remaining tunnel diode.

  20. Microstructural evolution at high strain rates in solution-hardened interstitial free steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenishi, A.; Teodosiu, C.; Nesterova, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive transmission electron microscopical studies have been conducted for solution-hardened steels deformed at high (1000 s -1 ) and low (0.001 s -1 ) strain rates, in order to clarify the effects of strain rate and a jump in strain rate on the evolution of the microstructure and its connection with the mechanical response. It was revealed that the various types of microstructure, observed even within the same specimen, depend on the corresponding grain orientations and their evolution with progressive deformation depends on these microstructure types. At high strain rates, the dislocation density increases especially at low strains and the onset of dislocation organization is delayed. A jump in strain rate causes an increase of the dislocation density inside an organized structure. These results corroborated the mechanical behaviour at high strain rates after compensation for the cross-sectional reduction and temperature increase. The higher work-hardening rate at high strain rates could be connected to a delay in the dislocation organization. The high work-hardening rate just after a jump could be due to an increase of the density of dislocations distributed uniformly inside an organized structure

  1. Highly sensitive strain sensors based on fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Fang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Jianping; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun; Xuan, Fuzhen

    2018-06-08

    Wearable strain sensors based on nanomaterial/elastomer composites have potential applications in flexible electronic skin, human motion detection, human-machine interfaces, etc. In this research, a type of high performance strain sensors has been developed using fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS) composites. The CNT/PDMS composites were ground into fragments, and a liquid-induced densification method was used to fabricate the strain sensors. The strain sensors showed high sensitivity with gauge factors (GFs) larger than 200 and a broad strain detection range up to 80%, much higher than those strain sensors based on unfragmentized CNT/PDMS composites (GF sensors is ascribed to the sliding of individual fragmentized-CNT/PDMS-composite particles during mechanical deformation, which causes significant resistance change in the strain sensors. The strain sensors can differentiate mechanical stimuli and monitor various human body motions, such as bending of the fingers, human breathing, and blood pulsing.

  2. Sliding wear resistance of metal matrix composite layers prepared by high power laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, Vaclav; Matthews, D; de Hosson, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Two laser surface engineering techniques, Laser Cladding and Laser Melt Injection (LMI), were used to prepare three different metal matrix composite layers with a thickness of about 1 mm and approximately 25-30% volume fraction of ceramic particles. SiC/Al-8Si, WC/Ti-6Al-4V and TiB2/Ti-6Al-4V layers

  3. Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.

    1997-01-01

    Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    Full Text Available The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of γ-linolenic acid (GLA; however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11 isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w cell dry weight (CDW. We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains.

  5. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of γ-linolenic acid (GLA); however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11) isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w) cell dry weight (CDW). We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w) lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL) to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains.

  6. Analysis of reaction between c+a and -c+a dislocations in GaN layer grown on 4-inch Si(111) substrate with AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Yukari, E-mail: yukari@jfcc.or.jp [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Atsuta, Nagoya, 456-8587 (Japan); Watanabe, Arata [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Innovation Center for Multi-Business of Nitride Semiconductors, Nagoya Institute of Technoloy, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    The behavior of dislocations in a GaN layer grown on a 4-inch Si(111) substrate with an AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice using horizontal metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cross-sectional observation indicated that a drastic decrease in the dislocation density occurred in the GaN layer. The reaction of a dislocation (b=1/3[-211-3]) and anothor dislocation (b =1/3[-2113]) to form one dislocation (b =2/3[-2110]) in the GaN layer was clarified by plan-view observation using weak-beam dark-field and large-angle convergent-beam diffraction methods.

  7. Mobility-limiting mechanisms in single and dual channel strained Si/SiGe MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, S.H.; Dobrosz, P.; Escobedo-Cousin, E.; Bull, S.J.; O'Neill, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Dual channel strained Si/SiGe CMOS architectures currently receive great attention due to maximum performance benefits being predicted for both n- and p-channel MOSFETs. Epitaxial growth of a compressively strained SiGe layer followed by tensile strained Si can create a high mobility buried hole channel and a high mobility surface electron channel on a single relaxed SiGe virtual substrate. However, dual channel n-MOSFETs fabricated using a high thermal budget exhibit compromised mobility enhancements compared with single channel devices, in which both electron and hole channels form in strained Si. This paper investigates the mobility-limiting mechanisms of dual channel structures. The first evidence of increased interface roughness due to the introduction of compressively strained SiGe below the tensile strained Si channel is presented. Interface corrugations degrade electron mobility in the strained Si. Roughness measurements have been carried out using AFM and TEM. Filtering AFM images allowed roughness at wavelengths pertinent to carrier transport to be studied and the results are in agreement with electrical data. Furthermore, the first comparison of strain measurements in the surface channels of single and dual channel architectures is presented. Raman spectroscopy has been used to study channel strain both before and after processing and indicates that there is no impact of the buried SiGe layer on surface macrostrain. The results provide further evidence that the improved performance of the single channel devices fabricated using a high thermal budget arises from improved surface roughness and reduced Ge diffusion into the Si channel

  8. Standard guide for high-temperature static strain measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and application of strain gages for the measurement of static strain up to and including the temperature range from 425 to 650°C (800 to 1200°F). This guide reflects some current state-of-the-art techniques in high temperature strain measurement, and will be expanded and updated as new technology develops. 1.2 This practice assumes that the user is familiar with the use of bonded strain gages and associated signal conditioning and instrumentation as discussed in Refs. (1) and (2). The strain measuring systems described are those that have proven effective in the temperature range of interest and were available at the time of issue of this practice. It is not the intent of this practice to limit the user to one of the gage types described nor is it the intent to specify the type of system to be used for a specific application. However, in using any strain measuring system including those described, the proposer must be able to demonstrate the capability of the proposed sy...

  9. High strain rate studies in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic compression studies using high velocity impact are usually considered to involve a catastrophic process of indeterminate loading rate by which a material is brough to a shock compressed state. Although this is frequently the case, methods are also available to control the rate of strain during the shock compression process. One of the most accurate of these methods makes use of the anomalous nonlinear elastic property of glass to transform an initial shock or step wave input into a ramp wave of known amplitude and duration. Fused silica is the most carefully calibrated material for this purpose and, when placed between the test specimen and the impact projectile, can provide loading strain rates in the range of 10 4 /s to 10 6 /s for final stress states of approximately 3.9 GPa or less.Ramp wave compression experiments have been conducted on dolomite at strain rates of 3 x 10 4 /s. Both initial yielding and subsequent deformation at this strain rate agrees well with previous shock wave studies (epsilon-dotapprox.10 6 /s) and differs substantially from quasi-static measurements (epsilon-dotapprox.10 -4 /s). The ramp wave studies have also uncovered a pressure-induced phase transition in dolomite initiating at 4.0 GPa

  10. [Discriminatory power of variable number on tandem repeats loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H X; Cai, C; Liu, J Y; Zhang, Z G; Yuan, M; Jia, J N; Sun, Z G; Huang, H R; Gao, J M; Li, W M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: Using the standard genotype method, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), we constructed a VNTR database to cover all provinces and proposed a set of optimized VNTR loci combinations for each province, in order to improve the preventive and control programs on tuberculosis, in China. Methods: A total of 15 loci VNTR was used to analyze 4 116 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, isolated from national survey of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, in 2007. Hunter-Gaston Index (HGI) was also used to analyze the discriminatory power of each VNTR site. A set combination of 12-VNTR, 10-VNTR, 8-VNTR and 5-VNTR was respectively constructed for each province, based on 1) epidemic characteristics of M. tuberculosis lineages in China, with high discriminatory power and genetic stability. Results: Through the completed 15 loci VNTR patterns of 3 966 strains under 96.36 % (3 966/4 116) coverage, we found seven high HGI loci (including QUB11b and MIRU26) as well as low stable loci (including QUB26, MIRU16, Mtub21 and QUB11b) in several areas. In all the 31 provinces, we found an optimization VNTR combination as 10-VNTR loci in Inner Mongolia, Chongqing and Heilongjiang, but with 8-VNTR combination shared in other provinces. Conclusions: It is necessary to not only use the VNTR database for tracing the source of infection and cluster of M. tuberculosis in the nation but also using the set of optimized VNTR combinations in monitoring those local epidemics and M. tuberculosis (genetics in local) population.

  11. Composition Related Electrical Active Defect States of InGaAs and GaAsN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Kosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses results of electrically active defect states - deep energy level analysis in InGaAs and GaAsN undoped semiconductor structures grown for solar cell applications. Main attention is focused on composition and growth condition dependent impurities and the investigation of their possible origins. For this purpose a widely utilized spectroscopy method, Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy, was utilized. The most significant responses of each sample labelled as InG2, InG3 and NG1, NG2 were discussed in detail and confirmed by simulations and literature data. The presence of a possible dual conduction type and dual state defect complex, dependent on the In/N composition, is reported. Beneficial characteristics of specific indium and nitrogen concentrations capable of eliminating or reducing certain point defects and dislocations are stated.

  12. Free-standing, well-aligned ordered mesoporous carbon nanofibers on current collectors for high-power micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunae; Jeon, Gumhye; Kim, Jin Kon

    2013-07-21

    The mesoporous carbon nanofiber arrays that stand on carbon-gold double-layer current collectors are synthesized by self-assembly of a PS-b-PEO copolymer and resol in AAO templates for a high-power micro-supercapacitor at high current densities.

  13. CW operation of high-power blue laser diodes with polished facets on semi-polar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) GaN substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Pourhashemi, A.

    2016-10-11

    Continuous wave (CW) operation of high-power blue laser diodes (LDs) with polished facets on semi-polar (202̅1̅) gallium nitride (GaN) substrates is demonstrated. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated using indium GaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 452 nm, the peak two-facet CW output power from an LD with uncoated facets was 1.71 W at a current of 3 A, corresponding to an optical power density of 32.04 MW/cm2 on each facet. The dependence of output power on current did not change with repeated CW measurements, indicating that the polished facets did not degrade under high-power CW operation. These results show that polished facets are a viable alternative to cleaved or etched facets for high-power CW semi-polar LDs.

  14. CW operation of high-power blue laser diodes with polished facets on semi-polar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) GaN substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Pourhashemi, A.; Farrell, R.M.; Cohen, D.A.; Becerra, D.L.; DenBaars, S.P.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) operation of high-power blue laser diodes (LDs) with polished facets on semi-polar (202̅1̅) gallium nitride (GaN) substrates is demonstrated. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated using indium GaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 452 nm, the peak two-facet CW output power from an LD with uncoated facets was 1.71 W at a current of 3 A, corresponding to an optical power density of 32.04 MW/cm2 on each facet. The dependence of output power on current did not change with repeated CW measurements, indicating that the polished facets did not degrade under high-power CW operation. These results show that polished facets are a viable alternative to cleaved or etched facets for high-power CW semi-polar LDs.

  15. High power klystrons for efficient reliable high power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1980-11-01

    This report covers the design of reliable high efficiency, high power klystrons which may be used in both existing and proposed troposcatter radio systems. High Power (10 kW) klystron designs were generated in C-band (4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz), S-band (2.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz), and L-band or UHF frequencies (755 MHz to 985 MHz). The tubes were designed for power supply compatibility and use with a vapor/liquid phase heat exchanger. Four (4) S-band tubes were developed in the course of this program along with two (2) matching focusing solenoids and two (2) heat exchangers. These tubes use five (5) tuners with counters which are attached to the focusing solenoids. A reliability mathematical model of the tube and heat exchanger system was also generated.

  16. Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar: an experimental technique for high strain rate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chavan, V.M.; Agrawal, R.G.; Patel, R.J.; Kapoor, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    Mechanical properties of materials are, in general, strain rate dependent, i.e. they respond differently at quasi-static and higher strain rate condition. The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), also referred to as Kolsky bar is a commonly used setup for high strain rate testing. SHPB is suitable for high strain rate test in strain rate range of 10 2 to 10 4 s -1 . These high strain rate data are required for safety and structural integrity assessment of structures subjected to dynamic loading. As high strain rate data are not easily available in open literature need was felt for setting up such high strain rate testing machine. SHPB at BARC was designed and set-up inhouse jointly by Refuelling Technology Division and Mechanical Metallurgy Division, at Hall no. 3, BARC. A number of conceptual designs for SHPB were thought of and the optimized design was worked out. The challenges of precision tolerance, straightness in bars and design and proper functioning of pneumatic gun were met. This setup has been used extensively to study the high strain rate material behavior. This report introduces the SHPB in general and the setup at BARC in particular. The history of development of SHPB, the basic formulations of one dimensional wave propagation, the relations between the wave velocity, particle velocity and elastic strain in a one dimensional bar, and the equations used to obtain the final stress vs. strain curves are described. The calibration of the present setup, the pre-test calculations and the posttest analysis of data are described. Finally some of the experimental results on different materials such as Cu, SS305, SA516 and Zr, at room temperature and elevated temperatures are presented. (author)

  17. High efficiency rubrene based inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices with a mixed single layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaokui; Lou, Yanhui; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices (TEOLEDs) with a mixed single layer by mixing of electron transport materials (PyPySPyPy and Alq 3 ), hole transport material (α-NPD) and dope material (rubrene) were investigated. Maximum power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W and maximum luminance of 7000 cd/m 2 were obtained by optimizing the mixing ratio of PyPySPyPy:Alq 3 :α-NPD:rubrene=25:50:25:1. Luminance and power efficiency of mixed single layer device were two times improved compared to bi-layer heterojunction device and tri-layer heterojunction device. Lifetime test also shows that the mixed single layer device exhibits longer operational lifetimes of 343 h, which is three times longer than the 109 h for tri-layer device, and two times longer than the 158 h for bi-layer device. In addition, the maximum luminance and power efficiency were obtained at 20,000 cd/m 2 and 7.5 lm/W, respectively, when a TPD layer of 45 nm was capped onto the top metal electrode.

  18. High-Tg TOPAS mPOF strain sensing at 110 degrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a mPOF made of high-Tg TOPAS grade 5013 with Tg = 135°C. We inscribe FBGs into the fiber and demonstrate strain sensing of 2.5% strain at 98°C, further we also demonstrate strain sensing at a record high temperature of 110°C. The Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are around 860 nm, whe...... the propagation loss is 5.1dB/m, close to the fiber loss minimum of 3.67dB/m at 787nm....

  19. Luminescence and Morphological Properties of GaN Layers Grown on SiC/Si(111) Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ristic, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dpto. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Serre, C.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. [EME - Electronic Materials and Engineering, Department of Electronics, Universidad de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Koegler, R.; Skorupa, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., 01314 Dresden (Germany); Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-08-16

    This article describes the fabrication of SiC thin films on top of Si(111) substrates by means of a multiple C-ion implantation and the subsequent growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of GaN layers. The stoichiometry of the top SiC layer is controlled by reactive ion etching. Photoluminescence spectra reveal that all GaN layers are under biaxial tensile strain of thermal origin. The photoluminescence efficiency clearly depends on the stoichiometry of the initial SiC layer and on whether AlN buffer layers are used or not. GaN layers grown directly on bare non-stoichiometric SiC layers exhibit the best photoluminescence efficiency but also a high degree of mosaicity, as measured by X-ray diffraction techniques. The nucleation process involved in the initial stages of the growth leads to the formation of large dislocation-free grains with a high PL efficiency and with a higher tensile strain character. Despite the lack of a perfect monocrystalline SiC substrate lattice, high quality GaN microcrystals are obtained. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. The sandwich InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure for IR photoelectric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldavskaya, L. D.; Vostokov, N. V.; Gaponova, D. M.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    A new possibility for growing InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures for infrared photoelectric detectors by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is discussed. The specific features of the technological process are the prolonged time of growth of quantum dots and the alternation of the low-and high-temperature modes of overgrowing the quantum dots with GaAs barrier layers. During overgrowth, large-sized quantum dots are partially dissolved, and the secondary InGaAs quantum well is formed of the material of the dissolved large islands. In this case, a sandwich structure is formed. In this structure, quantum dots are arranged between two thin layers with an increased content of indium, namely, between the wetting InAs layer and the secondary InGaAs layer. The height of the quantum dots depends on the thickness of the GaAs layer grown at a comparatively low temperature. The structures exhibit intraband photoconductivity at a wavelength around 4.5 μm at temperatures up to 200 K. At 90 K, the photosensitivity is 0.5 A/W, and the detectivity is 3 x 10 9 cm Hz 1/2 W -1

  1. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  2. Solar cell of 6.3% efficiency employing high deposition rate (8 nm/s) microcrystalline silicon photovoltaic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Yasushi; Nishino, Mitsutoshi; Fukumori, Taiga; Kurihara, Masanori; Higuchi, Takuya; Nakano, Shinya; Toyama, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Hiroaki [Department of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Machikaneyama-cho 1-3, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si) films deposited at high growth rates up to 8.1 nm/s prepared by very-high-frequency-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) at 18-24 Torr have been investigated. The relation between the deposition rates and input power revealed the depletion of silane. Under high-pressure deposition (HPD) conditions, the structural properties were improved. Furthermore, applying {mu}c-Si to n-i-p solar cells, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) was increased in accordance with the improvement of microstructure of i-layer. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 6.30% has been achieved employing the i-layer deposited at 8.1 nm/s under the HPD conditions. (author)

  3. Stress-strain behavior under static loading in Gd123 high-temperature superconductors at 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Akira; Teshima, Hidekazu; Morita, Mitsuru

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical properties of melt-growth GdBa2Cu3Ox (Gd123) superconducting samples with 10 wt.% Ag2O and 0.5 wt.% Pt were evaluated at 77 K through flexural tests for specimens cut from the samples in order to estimate the mechanical properties of the Gd123 material without metal substrates, buffer layers or stabilization layers. We discuss the mechanical properties; the Young's modulus and flexural strength with stress-strain behavior at 77 K. The results show that the flexural strength and fracture strain of Gd123 at 77 K are approximately 100 MPa and 0.1%, respectively, and that the origin of the fracture is defects such as pores, impurities and non-superconducting compounds. We also show that the Young's modulus of Gd123 is estimated to be 160-165 GPa.

  4. On the applicability of the layered sine-Gordon model for Josephson-coupled high-Tc layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandori, I; Jentschura, U D; Nagy, S; Sailer, K; Vad, K; Meszaros, S

    2007-01-01

    We find a mapping of the layered sine-Gordon model to an equivalent gas of topological excitations and determine the long-range interaction potentials of the topological defects. This enables us to make a detailed comparison to the so-called layered vortex gas, which can be obtained from the layered Ginzburg-Landau model. The layered sine-Gordon model has been proposed in the literature as a candidate field-theoretical model for Josephson-coupled high-T c superconductors, and the implications of our analysis for the applicability of the layered sine-Gordon model to high-T c superconductors are discussed. We are led to the conjecture that the layered sine-Gordon and the layered vortex gas models belong to different universality classes. The determination of the critical temperature of the layered sine-Gordon model is based on a renormalization-group analysis

  5. Relaxation of a strained 3C-SiC(1 1 1) thin film on silicon by He+ and O+ ion beam defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Häberlen, M.; Murphy, B.; Stritzker, B.; Lindner, J.K.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the successful reduction of tensile strain in a thin strained ion-beam synthesized 3C-SiC(1 1 1) layer on silicon. The creation of a near-interface defect structure consisting of nanometric voids and stacking fault type defects by He ion implantation and subsequent annealing yields significant relaxation in the top SiC film. The microstructure of the defect layer is studied by transmission electron microscopy, and the strain state of the 3C-SiC layer was studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction in a parallel beam configuration. Typical process conditions for the growth of GaN films on the SiC layer were emulated by high temperature treatments in a rapid thermal annealer or a quartz tube furnace. It is found that prolonged annealing at high temperatures leads to ripening of the voids and to a weaker reduction of the tensile strain. It is shown that this problem can be overcome by the co-implantation of oxygen ions to form highly thermally stable void/extended defect structures.

  6. High-rate tensile behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Jin; Park, Gi-Joon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jae Heum; Lee, Jang Hwa [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 2311 Daewha-Dong, Ilsan-Gu, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 411-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • The final goal is to develop a fiber reinforced concrete for containment buildings. • High rate tensile behavior of FRC was investigated. • Strain energy frame impact machine was used for tensile impact tests. • Different rate sensitivity of FRC was found according to the type fiber. • Adding more fibers by increasing S/a is positive for higher impact resistance of FRC. -- Abstract: The direct tensile behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) at high strain rates were investigated for their potential to enhance the resistance of the containment building of nuclear power plants (NPPs) against aircraft impact. Two types of deformed steel, hooked (H) and twisted (T) fibers were employed. To improve the tensile resistance of FRCs even at higher rates by adding more fibers, the mixture of concrete was modified by either increasing the sand-to-coarse aggregate ratio or decreasing the maximum size of coarse aggregate. All FRC specimens produced two to six times greater tensile strength and one to five times higher toughness at high strain rates (4–53 s{sup −1}) than those at a static rate (0.000167 s{sup −1}). T-fiber generally produced higher tensile strength and toughness than H-fiber at both static and high rates. Although both fibers showed favorable rate sensitivity, T-fiber produced much greater enhancement, at higher strain rates, in tensile strength and slightly lower enhancement in toughness than H-fiber. As the maximum size of coarse aggregate decreased from 19 to 5 mm, the tensile strength and toughness of FRCs with T-fibers noticeably increased at both static and high strain rates.

  7. To Crack or Not to Crack: Strain in High Temperature Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godeke, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Round wire Bi 2212 is emerging as a viable successor of Nb3Sn in High Energy Physics and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, to generate magnetic fields that surpass the intrinsic limitations of Nb3Sn. Rather bold claims are made on achievable magnetic fields in applications using Bi 2212, due to the materials' estimated critical magnetic field of 100 Tor higher. High transport currents in high magnetic fields, however, lead to large stress on, and resulting large strain in the superconductor. The effect of strain on the critical properties of Bi-2212 is far from understood, and strain is, as with Nb3Sn, often treated as a secondary parameter in the design of superconducting magnets. Reversibility of the strain induced change of the critical surface of Nb3Sn, points to an electronic origin of the observed strain dependence. Record breaking high field magnets are enabled by virtue of such reversible behavior. Strain effects on the critical surface of Bi-2212, in contrast, are mainly irreversible and suggest a non-electronic origin of the observed strain dependence, which appears to be dominated by the formation of cracks in the superconductor volumes. A review is presented of available results on the effects of strain on the critical surface of Bi-2212, Bi-2223 and YBCO. It is shown how a generic behavior emerges for the (axial) strain dependence of the critical current density, and how the irreversible reduction of the critical current density is dominated by strain induced crack formation in the superconductor. From this generic model it becomes clear that magnets using high temperature superconductors will be strain limited far before the intrinsic magnetic field limitations will be approached, or possibly even before the magnetic field limitation of Nb3Sn can be surpassed. On a positive note, in a very promising recent result from NIST on the axial strain dependence of the critical current density in extremely well aligned YBCO, reversible behavior was observed. This

  8. Binary Oxide p-n Heterojunction Piezoelectric Nanogenerators with an Electrochemically Deposited High p-Type Cu2O Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kwak, Sung Soo; Kim, Joo Sung; Kim, Sang Woo; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-08-31

    The high performance of ZnO-based piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) has been limited due to the potential screening from intrinsic electron carriers in ZnO. We have demonstrated a novel approach to greatly improve piezoelectric power generation by electrodepositing a high-quality p-type Cu2O layer between the piezoelectric semiconducting film and the metal electrode. The p-n heterojunction using only oxides suppresses the screening effect by forming an intrinsic depletion region, and thus sufficiently enhances the piezoelectric potential, compared to the pristine ZnO piezoelectric NG. Interestingly, a Sb-doped Cu2O layer has high mobility and low surface trap states. Thus, this doped layer is an attractive p-type material to significantly improve piezoelectric performance. Our results revealed that p-n junction NGs consisting of Au/ZnO/Cu2O/indium tin oxide with a Cu2O:Sb (cuprous oxide with a small amount of antimony) layer of sufficient thickness (3 μm) exhibit an extraordinarily high piezoelectric potential of 0.9 V and a maximum output current density of 3.1 μA/cm(2).

  9. High-Performance MIM Capacitors for a Secondary Power Supply Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Mu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure is important to the development of energy devices with high performance. In this work, a three-dimensional Si-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM capacitor has been reported, which is fabricated by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Area enlargement is achieved by forming deep trenches in a silicon substrate using the deep reactive ion etching method. The results indicate that an area of 2.45 × 103 mm2 can be realized in the deep trench structure with a high aspect ratio of 30:1. Subsequently, a dielectric Al2O3 layer and electrode W/TiN layers are deposited by atomic layer deposition. The obtained capacitor has superior performance, such as a high breakdown voltage (34.1 V, a moderate energy density (≥1.23 mJ/cm2 per unit planar area, a high breakdown electric field (6.1 ± 0.1 MV/cm, a low leakage current (10−7 A/cm2 at 22.5 V, and a low quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (VCC (≤63.1 ppm/V2. In addition, the device’s performance has been theoretically examined. The results show that the high energy supply and small leakage current can be attributed to the Poole–Frenkel emission in the high-field region and the trap-assisted tunneling in the low-field region. The reported capacitor has potential application as a secondary power supply.

  10. Thermal conductivities of single- and multi-layer phosphorene: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Yan; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wei, Ning; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-01-07

    As a new two-dimensional (2D) material, phosphorene has drawn growing attention owing to its novel electronic properties, such as layer-dependent direct bandgaps and high carrier mobility. Herein we investigate the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of single- and multi-layer phosphorene, focusing on geometrical (sample size, orientation and layer number) and strain (compression and tension) effects. A strong anisotropy is found in the in-plane thermal conductivity with its value along the zigzag direction being much higher than that along the armchair direction. Interestingly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of multi-layer phosphorene is insensitive to the layer number, which is in strong contrast to that of graphene where the interlayer interactions strongly influence the thermal transport. Surprisingly, tensile strain leads to an anomalous increase in the in-plane thermal conductivity of phosphorene, in particular in the armchair direction. Both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities can be modulated by external strain; however, the strain modulation along the cross-plane direction is more effective and thus more tunable than that along the in-plane direction. Our findings here are of great importance for the thermal management in phosphorene-based nanoelectronic devices and for thermoelectric applications of phosphorene.

  11. Characteristics of the low power cylindrical anode layer ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jie; Tang Deli; Cheng Changming; Geng Shaofei

    2009-01-01

    A low power cylindrical anode layer ion source and its working characteristic, and the beam distribution are introduced. This ion source has two working states, emanative state and collimated state, and the normal parameters of this system are: working voltage 200-1200 V, discharge current 0.1-1.4A, air pressure 1.9 x 10 -2 -1.7 x 10 -1 Pa, gas flow 5-20 sccm. (authors)

  12. Highly Sensitive and Very Stretchable Strain Sensor Based on a Rubbery Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Jin; Thukral, Anish; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-02-07

    There is a growing interest in developing stretchable strain sensors to quantify the large mechanical deformation and strain associated with the activities for a wide range of species, such as humans, machines, and robots. Here, we report a novel stretchable strain sensor entirely in a rubber format by using a solution-processed rubbery semiconductor as the sensing material to achieve high sensitivity, large mechanical strain tolerance, and hysteresis-less and highly linear responses. Specifically, the rubbery semiconductor exploits π-π stacked poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) nanofibrils (P3HT-NFs) percolated in silicone elastomer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) to yield semiconducting nanocomposite with a large mechanical stretchability, although P3HT is a well-known nonstretchable semiconductor. The fabricated strain sensors exhibit reliable and reversible sensing capability, high gauge factor (gauge factor = 32), high linearity (R 2 > 0.996), and low hysteresis (degree of hysteresis wearable smart gloves. Systematic investigations in the materials design and synthesis, sensor fabrication and characterization, and mechanical analysis reveal the key fundamental and application aspects of the highly sensitive and very stretchable strain sensors entirely from rubbers.

  13. Highly sensitive wearable strain sensor based on silver nanowires and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengbo, Sang; Lihua, Liu; Aoqun, Jian; Qianqian, Duan; Jianlong, Ji; Qiang, Zhang; Wendong, Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Here, we propose a highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensor based on silver nanoparticles and nanowires (Ag NPs and NWs), advancing the rapid development of electronic skin. To improve the sensitivity of strain sensors based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs), Ag NPs and NWs were added to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an aid filler. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) increase the conductive paths for electrons, leading to the low resistance of the resulting sensor (14.9 Ω). The strain sensor based on Ag NPs and NWs showed strong piezoresistivity with a tunable gauge factor (GF) at 3766, and a change in resistance as the strain linearly increased from 0% to 28.1%. The high GF demonstrates the irreplaceable role of Ag NPs in the sensor. Moreover, the applicability of our high-performance strain sensor has been demonstrated by its ability to sense movements caused by human talking, finger bending, wrist raising and walking.

  14. A Facile and General Approach to Recoverable High-Strain Multishape Shape Memory Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjian; Pan, Yi; Zheng, Zhaohui; Ding, Xiaobin

    2018-03-01

    Fabricating a single polymer network with no need to design complex structures to achieve an ideal combination of tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects and highly recoverable shape memory property is a great challenge for the real applications of advanced shape memory devices. Here, a facile and general approach to recoverable high-strain multishape shape memory polymers is presented via a random copolymerization of acrylate monomers and a chain-extended multiblock copolymer crosslinker. As-prepared shape memory networks show a large width at the half-peak height of the glass transition, far wider than current classical multishape shape memory polymers. A combination of tunable high-strain multishape memory effect and as high as 1000% recoverable strain in a single chemical-crosslinking network can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first thermosetting material with a combination of highly recoverable strain and tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification Version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Levenhagen, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, H. Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Younge, Andrew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  16. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Microfluidic Strain Sensors for Monitoring Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Geun; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Suk Tai

    2015-12-16

    We report a new class of simple microfluidic strain sensors with high stretchability, transparency, sensitivity, and long-term stability with no considerable hysteresis and a fast response to various deformations by combining the merits of microfluidic techniques and ionic liquids. The high optical transparency of the strain sensors was achieved by introducing refractive-index matched ionic liquids into microfluidic networks or channels embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The microfluidic strain sensors offer the outstanding sensor performance under a variety of deformations induced by stretching, bending, pressing, and twisting of the microfluidic strain sensors. The principle of our microfluidic strain sensor is explained by a theoretical model based on the elastic channel deformation. In order to demonstrate its capability of practical usage, the simple-structured microfluidic strain sensors were performed onto a finger, wrist, and arm. The highly stretchable and transparent microfluidic strain sensors were successfully applied as potential platforms for distinctively monitoring a wide range of human body motions in real time. Our novel microfluidic strain sensors show great promise for making future stretchable electronic devices.

  17. Distributed Processing System for Restoration of Electric Power Distribution Network Using Two-Layered Contract Net Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yu; Hamagami, Tomoki

    Distributed processing system for restoration of electric power distribution network using two-layered CNP is proposed. The goal of this study is to develop the restoration system which adjusts to the future power network with distributed generators. The state of the art of this study is that the two-layered CNP is applied for the distributed computing environment in practical use. The two-layered CNP has two classes of agents, named field agent and operating agent in the network. In order to avoid conflicts of tasks, operating agent controls privilege for managers to send the task announcement messages in CNP. This technique realizes the coordination between agents which work asynchronously in parallel with others. Moreover, this study implements the distributed processing system using a de-fact standard multi-agent framework, JADE(Java Agent DEvelopment framework). This study conducts the simulation experiments of power distribution network restoration and compares the proposed system with the previous system. We confirmed the results show effectiveness of the proposed system.

  18. Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of Agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. Four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (VCS, lime schist (LSC, São Paulo peat (SPP and Santa Catarina peat (SCP; and two genetically distant A. blazei strains. The fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. Mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. The biological efficiency (BE was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. The production flushes were also determined over time production. The BE and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. The ABL26 and LSC produced the best BE of 60.4%. Although VCS is the most used casing layer in Brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. The strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. In average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. The casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. Production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with ABL26, and better porosity to LSC and SCP casing layers.

  19. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Interfacial Layer for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Cong, Shan; Lou, Yanhui; Han, Liang; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Zou, Guifu

    2017-09-20

    4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) is an efficient electron transport and hole blocking material in organic photoelectric devices. Here, we report cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) doped Bphen as cathode interfacial layer in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3-x Cl x based planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Investigation finds that introducing Cs 2 CO 3 suppresses the crystallization of Bphen and benefits a smooth interface contact between the perovskite and electrode, resulting in the decrease in carrier recombination and the perovskite degradation. In addition, the matching energy level of Bphen film in the PSCs effectively blocks the holes diffusion to cathode. The resultant power conversion efficiency (PCE) achieves as high as 17.03% in comparison with 12.67% of reference device without doping. Besides, experiments also demonstrate the stability of PSCs have large improvement because the suppressed crystallization of Bphen by doping Cs 2 CO 3 as a superior barrier layer blocks the Ag atom and surrounding moisture access to the vulnerable perovskite layer.

  20. Low-power logic computing realized in a single electric-double-layer MoS2 transistor gated with polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junjie; Xie, Dingdong; Yang, Bingchu; Jiang, Jie

    2018-06-01

    Due to its mechanical flexibility, large bandgap and carrier mobility, atomically thin molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) has attracted widespread attention. However, it still lacks a facile route to fabricate a low-power high