Sample records for high-power short-pulse laser

  1. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.


    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10 12 watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10 9 watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10 16 W/cm 2 . Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs

  2. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.


    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  3. Cold cathode electron guns in the LASL high power short-pulse CO2 laser program

    Singer, S.; Ladish, J.S.; Nutter, M.J.


    The Electron Beam Controlled Discharge CO 2 Laser is now firmly established as the only high power short pulse laser amplifier that has been demonstrated to have scaling capabilities to large apertures and energies much greater than 100 J. These devices require a beam of energetic electrons to control the gas discharge that produces the required population inversion. Until recently, the electron source was usually a thermionic emitter, even for rather large lasers, whose heater requirements dwarfed the pulsed energies associated with the transient operation of the laser. With the advent of reliable cold-cathode electron guns, the operation of these lasers has been greatly simplified. At LASL, there are four electron beam controlled laser systems which are in operation, under construction, or in design: the 1 kJ system, now operational; the 2.5 kJ system; the 10 kJ system; and the 100 kJ system. Only the first uses thermionic-emitter electron guns; the remainder use or will use cold cathode sources. The operation of the 200 x 35 cm 2 two sided cold cathode electron gun used in the 2.5 kJ laser system and to be used in the 10 kJ laser is described

  4. An ultra short pulse reconstruction software applied to the GEMINI high power laser system

    Galletti, Mario, E-mail: [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Galimberti, Marco [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Hooker, Chris [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Chekhlov, Oleg; Tang, Yunxin [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Bisesto, Fabrizio Giuseppe [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Curcio, Alessandro [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anania, Maria Pia [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Giulietti, Danilo [Physics Department of the University and INFN, Pisa (Italy)


    The GRENOUILLE traces of Gemini pulses (15 J, 30 fs, PW, shot per 20 s) were acquired in the Gemini Target Area PetaWatt at the Central Laser Facility (CLF), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). A comparison between the characterizations of the laser pulse parameters made using two different types of algorithms: Video Frog and GRenouille/FrOG (GROG), was made. The temporal and spectral parameters came out to be in great agreement for the two kinds of algorithms. In this experimental campaign it has been showed how GROG, the developed algorithm, works as well as VideoFrog algorithm with the PetaWatt pulse class. - Highlights: • Integration of the diagnostic tool on high power laser. • Validation of the GROG algorithm in comparison to a well-known commercial available software. • Complete characterization of the GEMINI ultra-short high power laser pulse.

  5. Forward voltage short-pulse technique for measuring high power laser array junction temperature

    Meadows, Byron L. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Frazin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Baker, Nathaniel R. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a method of measuring the temperature of the P-N junction within the light-emitting region of a quasi-continuous-wave or pulsed semiconductor laser diode device. A series of relatively short and low current monitor pulses are applied to the laser diode in the period between the main drive current pulses necessary to cause the semiconductor to lase. At the sufficiently low current level of the monitor pulses, the laser diode device does not lase and behaves similar to an electronic diode. The voltage across the laser diode resulting from each of these low current monitor pulses is measured with a high degree of precision. The junction temperature is then determined from the measured junction voltage using their known linear relationship.

  6. A UV pre-ionized dual-wavelength short-pulse high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for laser particle acceleration research

    Ebrahim, N A; Mouris, J F; Davis, R W


    In this report we describe the Chalk River dual-wavelength, short-pulse, single-mode, high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for research in laser particle acceleration and CANDU materials modifications. The facility is designed and built around UV-preionized transversely-excited atmospheric-pressure (TEA) Lumonics CO{sub 2} laser discharge modules. Peak focussed power densities of up to 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in 500 ps pulses have been obtained. (author). 10 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.


    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  8. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  9. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.


    demonstrate FI. Our design work has focused on the NIF, which is the only facility capable of forming a full-scale hydro assembly, and could be adapted for full-scale FI by the conversion of additional beams to short-pulse operation.

  10. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    Mitra, Kunal


    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  11. High-energy, short-pulse, carbon-dioxide lasers

    Fenstermacher, C.A.


    Lasers for fusion application represent a special class of short-pulse generators; not only must they generate extremely short temporal pulses of high quality, but they must do this at ultra-high powers and satisfy other stringent requirements by this application. This paper presents the status of the research and development of carbon-dioxide laser systems at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, vis-a-vis the fusion requirements

  12. High-power pulsed lasers

    Holzrichter, J.F.


    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization

  13. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    Mincuzzi, G., E-mail:; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.


    Highlights: • We carried out metal surface texturing (Ripples, micro grooves, Spikes) using a high power, high repetition rate, industrial, Ultra-short pulses laser. • Extremely Fast processing is shown (Laser Scan speed as high as 90 m/s) with a polygon scanner head. • Stainless steel surface blackening with Ultra-short pulses laser has been obtained with unprecedented scanspeed. • Full SEM surface characterization was carried out for all the different structures obtained. • Reflectance measurements were carried out to characterize surface reflectance. - Abstract: Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm{sup −2}). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s{sup −1} to 25 m s{sup −1}. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s{sup −1} and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  14. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N


    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984 [l]. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a -k4 to law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of ∼ 35 (angstrom) demonstrated for Ni-like All was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al [8, 9] was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavour of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 A using a small tabletop laser [10] but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the

  15. Optical engineering for high power laser applications

    Novaro, M.


    Laser facilities for Inertial Confinement Fusion (I.C.F.) experiments require laser and X ray optics able to withstand short pulse conditions. After a brief recall of high power laser system arrangements and of the characteristics of their optics, the authors will present some X ray optical developments


    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; John Hansknecht; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn


    This paper describes phase noise measurements of several different laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on state-of-the-art short pulse lasers, especially drive lasers for photocathode injectors. Phase noise comparison of the FEL drive laser, electron beam and FEL laser output also will be presented.

  17. Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems

    S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn


    This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.

  18. Theory and simulation of ultra-short pulse laser interactions

    More, R; Walling, R; Price, D; Guethlein, G; Stewart, R; Libby, S; Graziani, F; Levatin, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    This paper describes recent Livermore work aimed at building computational tools to describe ultra-short pulse laser plasmas. We discuss calculations of laser absorption, atomic data for high-charge ions, and a new idea for linear-response treatment of non-equilibrium phenomena near LTE. (author)

  19. Short-pulse lasers for weather control

    Wolf, J. P.


    Filamentation of ultra-short TW-class lasers recently opened new perspectives in atmospheric research. Laser filaments are self-sustained light structures of 0.1–1 mm in diameter, spanning over hundreds of meters in length, and producing a low density plasma (1015–1017 cm‑3) along their path. They stem from the dynamic balance between Kerr self-focusing and defocusing by the self-generated plasma and/or non-linear polarization saturation. While non-linearly propagating in air, these filamentary structures produce a coherent supercontinuum (from 230 nm to 4 µm, for a 800 nm laser wavelength) by self-phase modulation (SPM), which can be used for remote 3D-monitoring of atmospheric components by Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging). However, due to their high intensity (1013–1014 W cm‑2), they also modify the chemical composition of the air via photo-ionization and photo-dissociation of the molecules and aerosols present in the laser path. These unique properties were recently exploited for investigating the capability of modulating some key atmospheric processes, like lightning from thunderclouds, water vapor condensation, fog formation and dissipation, and light scattering (albedo) from high altitude clouds for radiative forcing management. Here we review recent spectacular advances in this context, achieved both in the laboratory and in the field, reveal their underlying mechanisms, and discuss the applicability of using these new non-linear photonic catalysts for real scale weather control.

  20. Advances in High Power Calorimetric Matched Loads for Short Pulses and CW Gyrotrons

    Bin, W.M.; Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S.; Gandini, F.; Granucci, G.; Mellera, V.; Muzzini, V.; Nardone, A.; Sozzi, C.; Spinicchia, N.


    The development of high power gyrotrons for plasma physics research needs proper matched and calorimetric loads able to absorb and measure the power, which nowadays is foreseen to be as high as 2 MW during CW operations. To this end IFP/CNR has developed a family of matched loads useful in the mm-wave frequency band for applications ranging from a few ms to CW in pulse length. The different loads in the family, made of an integrating sphere with a partially reflecting coating on the inner wall, are characterized by having the same absorbing geometry for the incoming beam and a different heat removal system for the specific application. Some important advances have been recently achieved from the point of view of the uniformity of power distribution on the absorbing wall and of the load construction. With high precision achieved in the coating thickness a better control of the heating power distribution is possible by proper shaping of the local reflectivity, in addition to the shaping of the mirror dispersing the input beam. A more sophisticated model describing the power distribution has been developed, taking into account a variable thickness of the absorbing coating, the proper shape of the spreading mirror, the frequency of the incoming radiation and the shape of the input beam. Lower coating thickness is shown to be preferable, at equal local reflectivity, from the point of view of a lower peak temperature and thermal stress. The paper describes a load with variable coating thickness along the meridian of the sphere, showing a uniform power deposition on the inner walls. The cooling pipe is completely electroformed on the spherical copper shell, ensuring the maintenance of the correct curvature of the inner surface and a fast heat conduction from the absorbing coating to the water through the thin copper body. For CW use all heated parts of the load must be cooled and this is achieved by 16 electroformed spiral channels. Both short pulse loads (0.1-1 s) and

  1. Simulation of intense short-pulse laser-plasma interaction

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru


    We have completed the massive parallelization of a 2-dimensional giga-particle code and have achieved a 530-fold acceleration rate with 512 processing elements (PE's). Using this we have implemented a simulation of the interaction of a solid thin film and a high intensity laser and have discovered a phenomenon in which high quality short pulses from the far ultraviolet to soft X-rays are generated at the back surface of the thin layer. We have also introduced the atomic process database code (Hullac) and have the possibility for high precision simulations of X-ray laser radiation. With respect to laser acceleration we have the possibility to quantitatively evaluate relativistic self-focusing assumed to occur in higher intensity fields. Ion acceleration from a solid target and an underdense plasma irradiated by an intense and an ultra intense laser, respectively, has also been studied by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. (author)

  2. High-order harmonic generation with short-pulse lasers

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.


    Recent progress in the understanding of high-order harmonic conversion from atoms and ions exposed to high-intensity, short-pulse optical lasers is reviewed. We find that ions can produce harmonics comparable in strength to those obtained from neutral atoms, and that the emission extends to much higher order. Simple scaling laws for the strength of the harmonic emission and the maximium observable harmonic are suggested. These results imply that the photoemission observed in recent experiments in helium and neon contains contributions from ions as well as neutrals

  3. Stimulated brillouin backscatter of a short-pulse laser

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.


    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) from a short-pulse laser, where the pulse length is short compared to the plasma length, is found to be qualitatively different than in the long pulse regime, where the pulse length is long compared to the plasma length. We find that after an initial transient of order the laser pulse length transit time, the instability reaches a steady state in the variables x' = x - V g t, t' = t, where V g is the pulse group velocity. In contrast, SBBS in a long pulse can be absolutely unstable and grows indefinitely, or until nonlinearities intervene. We find that the motion of the laser pulse induces Doppler related effects that substantially modify the backscattered spectrum at higher intensities, where the instability is strongly coupled (i.e. , has a growth rate large compared to the ion acoustic frequency)

  4. High Power Vanadate lasers



    Full Text Available stream_source_info Strauss1_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3151 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Strauss1_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Laser Research Institute... University of Stellenbosch High Power Vanadate lasers H.J.Strauss, Dr. C. Bollig, R.C. Botha, Prof. H.M. von Bergmann, Dr. J.P. Burger Aims 1) To develop new techniques to mount laser crystals, 2) compare the lasing properties...

  5. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Messerly, M J


    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  6. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    Gadag, Shiva

    The semiconductor materials like Si and the transparent dielectric materials like glass and quartz are extensively used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries. The combination of these materials often go hand in hand for applications in MEMS such as in chips for pressure sensors, charge coupled devices (CCD), and photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy generation. The transparent negative terminal of the solar cell is made of glass on one surface of the PV cell. The positive terminal (cathode) on the other surface of the solar cell is made of silicon with a glass negative terminal (anode). The digital watches and cell phones, LEDs, micro-lens, optical components, and laser optics are other examples for the application of silicon and or glass. The Si and quartz are materials extensively used in CCD and LED for digital cameras and CD players respectively. Hence, three materials: (1) a semiconductor silicon and transparent dielectrics,- (2) glass, and (3) quartz are chosen for laser micromachining as they have wide spread applications in microelectronics industry. The Q-switched, nanosecond pulsed lasers are most extensively used for micro-machining. The nanosecond type of short pulsed laser is less expensive for the end users than the second type, pico or femto, ultra-short pulsed lasers. The majority of the research work done on these materials (Si, SiO 2, and glass) is based on the ultra-short pulsed lasers. This is because of the cut quality, pin point precision of the drilled holes, formation of the nanometer size microstructures and fine features, and minimally invasive heat affected zone. However, there are many applications such as large surface area dicing, cutting, surface cleaning of Si wafers by ablation, and drilling of relatively large-sized holes where some associated heat affected zone due to melting can be tolerated. In such applications the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of materials is very

  7. Short-pulse optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification for the generation of high-power few-cycle pulses

    Major, Zs.; Osterhoff, J.; Hoerlein, R.; Karsch, S.; Fuoloep, J.A.; Krausz, F.; Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, Muenchen


    Complete test of publication follows. In the quest for a way to generate ultrashort, high-power, few-cycle laser pulses the discovery of optical parametric amplification (OPA) has opened up to the path towards a completely new regime, well beyond that of conventional laser amplification technology. The main advantage of this parametric amplification process is that it allows for an extremely broad amplification bandwidth compared to any known laser amplifier medium. When combined with the chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) principle (i.e. OPCPA), on one hand pulses of just 10 fs duration and 8 mJ pulse energy have been demonstrated. On the other hand, pulse energies of up to 30 J were also achieved on a different OPCPA system; the pulse duration in this case, however, was 100 fs. In order to combine ultrashort pulse durations (i.e. pulses in the few-cycle regime) with high pulse energies (i.e. in the Joule range) we propose tu pump on OPCPA chain with TW-scale short pulses (100 fs - 1 ps instead of > 100 ps of previous OPCPA systems) delivered by a conventional CPA system. This approach inherently improves the conditions for generating high-power ultrashort pulses using OPCPA in the following ways. Firstly, the short pump pulse duration reduces the necessary stretching factor for the seed pulse, thereby increasing stretching and compression fidelity. Secondly, also due to the shortened pump pulse duration, a much higher contrast is achieved. Finally, the significantly increased pump power makes the use of thinner OPCPA crystals possible, which implies an even broader amplification bandwidth, thereby allowing for even shorter pulses. We carried out theoretical investigations to show the feasibility of such a set-up. Alongside these studies we will also present preliminary experimental results of an OPCPA system pumped by the output of our Ti:Sapphire ATLAS laser, currently delivering 350 mJ in 43 fs. An insight into the planned scaling of this technique to petawatt

  8. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    Kant, Niti [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144 402 (India); Nandan Gupta, Devki [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, Hyyong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) and Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)


    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  9. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    Kant, Niti; Nandan Gupta, Devki; Suk, Hyyong


    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  10. High power lasers & systems

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip


    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  11. High power lasers

    Niku-Lari, A


    The use of lasers for the working and treatment of materials is becoming increasingly common in industry. However, certain laser applications, for example, in welding, cutting and drilling, are more widely exploited than others. Whilst the potential of lasers for the surface treatment of metals is well recognised, in practice, this particular application is a relative newcomer. The 24 papers in this volume present the latest research and engineering developments in the use of lasers for processes such as surface melting, surface alloying and cladding, and machining, as well as discussing th

  12. High power excimer laser

    Oesterlin, P.; Muckenheim, W.; Basting, D.


    Excimer lasers emitting more than 200 W output power are not commercially available. A significant increase requires new technological efforts with respect to both the gas circulation and the discharge system. The authors report how a research project has yielded a laser which emits 0.5 kW at 308 nm when being UV preionized and operated at a repetition rate of 300 Hz. The laser, which is capable of operating at 500 Hz, can be equipped with an x-ray preionization module. After completing this project 1 kW output power will be available

  13. Ultra-Short-Pulse Laser Effects Research and Analysis Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables research into advanced laser countermeasure techniques.DESCRIPTION: This laser facility has a capability to produce very high peak power levels of...

  14. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun


    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  15. New configurations for short-pulses high power solid-state lasers: conception and realization of highly doped waveguide amplifiers/lasers grown by liquid phase epitaxy and demonstration of Y2SiO5: Yb and Lu2SiO5: Yb femtosecond lasers

    Thibault, F.


    Yb-doped yttrium and lutetium ortho-silicates, Y 2 SiO 5 :Yb and Lu 2 SiO 5 :Yb respectively, exhibit spectroscopic properties favorable to an efficient laser operation in both high power cw and femtosecond regime. Their first diode-pumped femtosecond operation demonstration lead to exceptional performances in terms of output power and efficiency. In order to realize compact and efficient solid-state laser devices using those materials, we chose a configuration with an Yb-doped medium planar waveguide geometry, grown by liquid phase epitaxy, face-pumped by a single laser diode bar. The growth of highly doped Y 2 SiO 5 :Yb layers, within a large range of compositions and thicknesses, was demonstrated. The refractive index increase due to the substitution of the various dopants is analyzed. The layers spectroscopic properties are similar to the bulk ones, with an noticeably higher crystalline quality. The Yb ion lifetime evolution with respect to its doping shows up a particularly low decrease, proof of a low concentration of extrinsic quenching centers. The covered YSO:24%Yb waveguides exhibit lower than 0.3 dB/cm propagation losses, and provided up to 2.9 dB/cm net amplification at 1082 nm with a single mode output. The realization of the first diode-pumped monolithic cw waveguide lasers was also demonstrated. For a 4% output coupler, they provided up to 340 mW at 1082 nm with a 14% slope efficiency. (author)

  16. XPS studies of short pulse laser interaction with copper

    Stefanov, P.; Minkovski, N.; Balchev, I.; Avramova, I.; Sabotinov, N.; Marinova, Ts.


    The effect of laser ablation on copper foil irradiated by a short 30 ns laser pulse was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The laser fluence was varied from 8 to 16.5 J/cm 2 and the velocity of the laser beam from 10 to 100 mm/s. This range of laser fluence is characterized by a different intensity of laser ablation. The experiments were done in two kinds of ambient atmosphere: air and argon jet gas. The chemical state and composition of the irradiated copper surface were determined using the modified Auger parameter (α') and O/Cu intensity ratio. The ablation atmosphere was found to influence the size and chemical state of the copper particles deposited from the vapor plume. During irradiation in air atmosphere the copper nanoparticles react with oxygen and water vapor from the air and are deposited in the form of a CuO and Cu(OH) 2 thin film. In argon atmosphere the processed copper surface is oxidized after exposure to air

  17. Research on imploded plasma heating by short pulse laser for fast ignition

    Kodama, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.


    Since the peta watt module (PWM) laser was constructed in 1995, investigated are heating processes of imploded plasmas by intense short pulse lasers. In order to heat the dense plasma locally, a heating laser pulse should be guided into compressed plasmas as deeply as possible. Since the last IAEA Fusion Conference, the feasibility of fast ignition has been investigated by using the short pulse GEKKO MII glass laser and the PWM laser with GEKKO XII laser. We found that relativistic electrons are generated efficiently in a preformed plasma to heat dense plasmas. The coupling efficiency of short pulse laser energy to a solid density plasma is 40% when no plasmas are pre-formed, and 20% when a large scale plasma is formed by a long pulse laser pre-irradiation. The experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations using the simulation code 'MONET' which stands for the Monte-Carlo Electron Transport code developed at Osaka. In the GEKKO XII and PWM laser experiments, intense heating pulses are injected into imploded plasmas. As a result of the injection of heating pulse, it is found that high energy electrons and ions could penetrate into imploded core plasmas to enhance neutron yield by factor 3∼5. (author)

  18. Numerical analysis of short-pulse laser interactions with thin metal film

    E. Majchrzak


    Full Text Available Thin metal film subjected to a short-pulse laser heating is considered. The hyperbolic two-temperature model describing the temporal andspatial evolution of the lattice and electrons temperatures is discussed. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  19. Generation of ultra short pulses by auto injection in the Nd: YAG laser

    Faria, I.C. de.


    Yhe work presented here, was concerned to the construction of a coherent light source in the near infrared region with pulses of 10 -10 seconds. The auto-injection technique was employed for generating these short pulses with posterior extraction of the pulse applied to a Nd=YAG-pulsed laser. (author) [pt

  20. Modeling short-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Sandkamm, Ditte Både; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse


    A theoretical description of ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials based on strong-field excitation in the Keldysh picture combined with a multiple-rateequation model for the electronic excitation including collisional processes is presented. The model includes light attenuation...

  1. Short-pulse generation in a diode-end-pumped solid-state laser

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available , Development of High Average Power Picosecond Laser Systems, Opto- Electronic Devices, (2002). INTRODUCTION A Nd:YVO4 modelocked laser has been constructed using a resonator designed according to the theoretical parameters. The laser produced pulses... theoretical PQSML,th of 2.08W. Short-Pulse Generation in a Diode-End-Pumped Solid-State Laser S. Ngcobo1,2, C. Bollig1 and H. Von Bergmann2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Laser Research Center, University...

  2. Tissue photoablation process with short-pulsed lasers

    Mueller, Gerhard J.; Doerschel, Klaus; Kar, Hasan


    Since Hippocrates, physicians have three weapons to fight malignant diseases of the human body: Quae medicamenta non sanat, ferrum sanat; quae ferrum non sanat, ignis sanat; and quae vero ignis non sanat, insanabilia reputari oportet. Today there are various possibilities to use the ''fire'': electrical and optical cauterization; mono- and bipolar rf-surgery; ionizing radiation for tumor treatment; and last but not least, the laser of laser tissue interactions, all can be used to remove malignant tissue either by biological digestion or immediate ablation, i.e., photovaporization or photodecomposition. This paper will discuss a semiempirical theory of the so-called photoablation process and the thermal side effects of the surrounding tissue. The term ''Photoablation; has to be well differentiated with the terms photovaporization, photodisruption and photofragmentation. As will be shown in this paper, photoablation is a microscale fast thermal explosion.

  3. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.


    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially

  4. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems.

    Nishioka, H; Kuranishi, H; Ueda, K; Takuma, H


    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to be useful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturation characteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a 20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2 mJ/cm(2) and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross section of 6.25:1.

  5. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems

    Nishioka, H.; Kuranishi, H.; Ueda, K.; Takuma, H.


    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to beuseful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturationcharacteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2mJ/cm/sup 2/ and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross sectionof 6.25:1.

  6. Chromium carbide thin films deposited by ultra-short pulse laser deposition

    Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Villani, P.


    Pulsed laser deposition performed by a laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs has been used to deposit films from a Cr 3 C 2 target. Due to the different processes involved in the laser ablation when it is performed by an ultra-short pulse source instead of a conventional short pulse one, it has been possible to obtain in vacuum films containing only one type of carbide, Cr 3 C 2 , as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the other hand, Cr 3 C 2 is not the only component of the films, since a large amount of amorphous carbon is also present. The films, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and seem to be formed by the coalescence of a large number of particles with nanometric size. The film composition can be explained in terms of thermal evaporation from particles ejected from the target.

  7. Temporal analysis of reflected optical signals for short pulse laser interaction with nonhomogeneous tissue phantoms

    Trivedi, Ashish; Basu, Soumyadipta; Mitra, Kunal


    The use of short pulse laser for minimally invasive detection scheme has become an indispensable tool in the technological arsenal of modern medicine and biomedical engineering. In this work, a time-resolved technique has been used to detect tumors/inhomogeneities in tissues by measuring transmitted and reflected scattered temporal optical signals when a short pulse laser source is incident on tissue phantoms. A parametric study involving different scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms and inhomogeneities, size of inhomogeneity as well as the detector position is performed. The experimental measurements are validated with a numerical solution of the transient radiative transport equation obtained by using discrete ordinates method. Thus, both simultaneous experimental and numerical studies are critical for predicting the optical properties of tissues and inhomogeneities from temporal scattered optical signal measurements

  8. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  9. Computational Design of Short Pulse Laser Driven Iron Opacity Measurements at Stellar-Relevant Conditions

    Martin, Madison E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    Opacity is a critical parameter in the simulation of radiation transport in systems such as inertial con nement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would bene t from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Overall, short pulse laser heated iron experiments reaching stellar-relevant conditions have been designed with consideration of minimizing tamper emission and optical depth effects while meeting plasma condition and x-ray emission goals.

  10. Theory of suppressing avalanche process of carrier in short pulse laser irradiated dielectrics

    Deng, H. X., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zu, X. T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Xiang, X. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zheng, W. G.; Yuan, X. D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, K., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering and Sciences, University of Michigan, 413B Space Research Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Gao, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P. O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)


    A theory for controlling avalanche process of carrier during short pulse laser irradiation is proposed. We show that avalanche process of conduction band electrons (CBEs) is determined by the occupation number of phonons in dielectrics. The theory provides a way to suppress avalanche process and a direct judgment for the contribution of avalanche process and photon ionization process to the generation of CBEs. The obtained temperature dependent rate equation shows that the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics, e.g., fused silica, increase nonlinearly with the decreases of temperature. Present theory predicts a new approach to improve the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics.

  11. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R.; Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M.


    The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  12. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livemore, California 94551 (United States); Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M. [LULI Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)


    The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  13. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.


    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially advantageous for the processing of thin films. A precise control of the heat affected zone, as small as tens of nanometers, depending on the material and laser conditions, can be achieved. It enab...

  14. Short pulse laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon



    Short pulse laser damage and ablation of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films is investigated. Material removal is due to fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments, which exhibit a broadband emission of microsecond duration.

  15. Experimental approach to interaction physics challenges of the shock ignition scheme using short pulse lasers.

    Goyon, C; Depierreux, S; Yahia, V; Loisel, G; Baccou, C; Courvoisier, C; Borisenko, N G; Orekhov, A; Rosmej, O; Labaune, C


    An experimental program was designed to study the most important issues of laser-plasma interaction physics in the context of the shock ignition scheme. In the new experiments presented in this Letter, a combination of kilojoule and short laser pulses was used to study the laser-plasma coupling at high laser intensities for a large range of electron densities and plasma profiles. We find that the backscatter is dominated by stimulated Brillouin scattering with stimulated Raman scattering staying at a limited level. This is in agreement with past experiments using long pulses but laser intensities limited to 2×10(15)  W/cm2, or short pulses with intensities up to 5×10(16)  W/cm2 as well as with 2D particle-in-cell simulations.

  16. Transient thermal and nonthermal electron and phonon relaxation after short-pulsed laser heating of metals

    Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E.


    Several dynamic thermal and nonthermal scattering processes affect ultrafast heat transfer in metals after short-pulsed laser heating. Even with decades of measurements of electron-phonon relaxation, the role of thermal vs. nonthermal electron and phonon scattering on overall electron energy transfer to the phonons remains unclear. In this work, we derive an analytical expression for the electron-phonon coupling factor in a metal that includes contributions from equilibrium and nonequilibrium distributions of electrons. While the contribution from the nonthermal electrons to electron-phonon coupling is non-negligible, the increase in the electron relaxation rates with increasing laser fluence measured by thermoreflectance techniques cannot be accounted for by only considering electron-phonon relaxations. We conclude that electron-electron scattering along with electron-phonon scattering have to be considered simultaneously to correctly predict the transient nature of electron relaxation during and after short-pulsed heating of metals at elevated electron temperatures. Furthermore, for high electron temperature perturbations achieved at high absorbed laser fluences, we show good agreement between our model, which accounts for d-band excitations, and previous experimental data. Our model can be extended to other free electron metals with the knowledge of the density of states of electrons in the metals and considering electronic excitations from non-Fermi surface states

  17. Hot-electron surface retention in intense short-pulse laser-matter interactions.

    Mason, R J; Dodd, E S; Albright, B J


    Implicit hybrid plasma simulations predict that a significant fraction of the energy deposited into hot electrons can be retained near the surface of targets with steep density gradients illuminated by intense short-pulse lasers. This retention derives from the lateral transport of heated electrons randomly emitted in the presence of spontaneous magnetic fields arising near the laser spot, from geometric effects associated with a small hot-electron source, and from E fields arising in reaction to the ponderomotive force. Below the laser spot hot electrons are axially focused into a target by the B fields, and can filament in moderate Z targets by resistive Weibel-like instability, if the effective background electron temperature remains sufficiently low. Carefully engineered use of such retention in conjunction with ponderomotive density profile steepening could result in a reduced hot-electron range that aids fast ignition. Alternatively, such retention may disturb a deeper deposition needed for efficient radiography and backside fast ion generation.

  18. Collisionless energy absorption in the short-pulse intense laser-cluster interaction

    Kundu, M.; Bauer, D.


    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123401 (2006)] we have shown by means of three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and a simple rigid-sphere model that nonlinear resonance absorption is the dominant collisionless absorption mechanism in the intense, short-pulse laser cluster interaction. In this paper we present a more detailed account of the matter. In particular we show that the absorption efficiency is almost independent of the laser polarization. In the rigid-sphere model, the absorbed energy increases by many orders of magnitude at a certain threshold laser intensity. The particle-in-cell results display maximum fractional absorption around the same intensity. We calculate the threshold intensity and show that it is underestimated by the common overbarrier ionization estimate

  19. Erosion of CFC, pyrolytic and boronated graphite under short pulsed laser irradiation

    Kraaij, G.J.; Bakker, J.; Stad, R.C.L. van der


    The effect of short pulsed laser irradiation of '0/3' ms and up to 10 MJ/m 2 on different types of carbon base materials is described. These materials are investigated as candidate protection materials for the Plasma Facing Components of NET/ITER. These materials are: carbon fibre composite graphite, pyrolytic graphite and boronated graphite. The volume of the laser induced craters was measured with an optical topographic scanner, and these data are evaluated with a simple model for the erosion. As a results, the enthalpy of ablation is estimated as 30±3 MJ/kg. A comparison is made with finite element numerical calculations, and the effect of lateral heat transfer is estimated using an analytical model. (author). 8 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.


    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  1. Short-pulsed laser for the treatment of tattoos, pigmented lesions, scars and rejuvenation.

    Tanghetti, Emil A; Hoffmann, Kristina Andrea; Hoffmann, Klaus


    This review describes the use of picosecond lasers for the treatment of tattoos, pigmented lesions, scars, and their use in rejuvenation. These devices have delivered enhanced efficacy for the treatment of tattoos and pigmented lesions when compared to the older 40-50 nanosecond devices. The fractional delivery with the picosecond devices have opened up a new method of rejuvenation for photodamaged skin and the treatment of scars. The delivery of these high-energy short pulses have created zones of injury in the skin referred to as areas of laser-induced optical breakdown. These areas of damage appear to produce cytokines and chemokines which result in epidermal and dermal repair and remodeling. The dual use of these devices with the flat and the fractional optics have made these devices useful in many ways that have been unanticipated. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  2. Prospects of the high power iodine laser

    Hohla, K.; Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Volk, R.; Witte, K.J.


    The characteristic properties of the iodine laser (gaseous laser substance, photolytic pump mechanism, variable stimulated emission cross-section) made it possible in a relatively short time to generate ns pulses in the kJ range. The Asterix II and III iodine laser systems at IPP are working successfully, and the question arises what prospects are afforded for further iodine laser development. What are the problems that have to be clarified in order to build 10 or 100 kJ systems for laser fusion experiments. According to our experience these can be classified as follows: 1) Short pulse generation and contrast ratio, 2) pulse shaping in a high-gain laser and amplification in the coherent time range, 3) non-linear properties at high intensities, 4) scalable pumping schemes and chemical processes. (orig./WL) [de

  3. Aurora: A short-pulse multikilojoule KrF inertial fusion laser system

    Rosocha, L.A.


    Aurora is a laser system that serves as an operating technology demonstration prototype for large-scale high-energy KrF laser systems of interest for inertial fusion applications. This system will incorporate the following elements to achieve an end-to-end 248-nm laser fusion concept demonstration: an injection-locked oscillator-amplifier front end; an optical angular multiplexer to produce 96 encoded optical channels each of 5-nsec duration; a chain of four electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers; automated alignment systems for beam alignment; a decoder to provide for pulse compression of some fraction of the total beam train to be delivered to target, and a target chamber to house and diagnose fusion targets. The front end configuration uses a stable resonator master oscillator to drive an injection-locked unstable resonator slave oscillator. An extension of existing technology has been used to develop an electrooptic switchout at 248 nm that produces a 5-nsec pulse from the longer slave oscillator pulse. This short pulse is amplified by a postamplifier. Using these discharge lasers, the front end then delivers at least 250 mJ of KrF laser light output to the optical encoder

  4. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan


    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  5. Development of a high power femtosecond laser

    Neethling, PH


    Full Text Available The Laser Research Institute and the CSIR National Laser Centre are developing a high power femtosecond laser system in a joint project with a phased approach. The laser system consists of an fs oscillator and a regenerative amplifier. An OPCPA...

  6. Characterization of a high repetition-rate laser-driven short-pulsed neutron source

    Hah, J.; Nees, J. A.; Hammig, M. D.; Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R.


    We demonstrate a repetitive, high flux, short-pulsed laser-driven neutron source using a heavy-water jet target. We measure neutron generation at 1/2 kHz repetition rate using several-mJ pulse energies, yielding a time-averaged neutron flux of 2 × 105 neutrons s‑1 (into 4π steradians). Deuteron spectra are also measured in order to understand source characteristics. Analyses of time-of-flight neutron spectra indicate that two separate populations of neutrons, ‘prompt’ and ‘delayed’, are generated at different locations. Gamma-ray emission from neutron capture 1H(n,γ) is also measured to confirm the neutron flux.

  7. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J


    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  8. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    Perry, M.D.


    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced

  9. Dynamical resonance shift and unification of resonances in short-pulse laser-cluster interaction

    Mahalik, S. S.; Kundu, M.


    Pronounced maximum absorption of laser light irradiating a rare-gas or metal cluster is widely expected during the linear resonance (LR) when Mie-plasma wavelength λM of electrons equals the laser wavelength λ . On the contrary, by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an argon cluster irradiated by short 5-fs (FWHM) laser pulses it is revealed that, for a given laser pulse energy and a cluster, at each peak intensity there exists a λ —shifted from the expected λM—that corresponds to a unified dynamical LR at which evolution of the cluster happens through very efficient unification of possible resonances in various stages, including (i) the LR in the initial time of plasma creation, (ii) the LR in the Coulomb expanding phase in the later time, and (iii) anharmonic resonance in the marginally overdense regime for a relatively longer pulse duration, leading to maximum laser absorption accompanied by maximum removal of electrons from cluster and also maximum allowed average charge states for the argon cluster. Increasing the laser intensity, the absorption maxima is found to shift to a higher wavelength in the band of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM than permanently staying at the expected λM. A naive rigid sphere model also corroborates the wavelength shift of the absorption peak as found in MD and unequivocally proves that maximum laser absorption in a cluster happens at a shifted λ in the marginally overdense regime of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM instead of λM of LR. The present study is important for guiding an optimal condition laser-cluster interaction experiment in the short-pulse regime.

  10. Phonon transport in a curved aluminum thin film due to laser short pulse irradiation

    Mansoor, Saad Bin; Yilbas, Bekir Sami


    Laser short-pulse heating of a curved aluminum thin film is investigated. The Boltzmann transport equation is incorporated to formulate the heating situation. A Gaussian laser intensity distribution is considered along the film arc and time exponentially decaying of pulse intensity is incorporated in the analysis. The governing equations of energy transport in the electron and lattice sub-systems are coupled through the electron-phonon coupling parameter. To quantify the phonon intensity distribution in the thin film, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced, which is associated with the average energy of all phonons around a local point when the phonon energies are redistributed adiabatically to an equilibrium state. It is found the numerical simulations that electron temperature follows similar trend to the spatial distribution of the laser pulse intensity at the film edge. Temporal variation of electron temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity distribution. The rise of temperature in the electron sub-system is fast while it remains slow in the lattice sub-system.

  11. Cutting and drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by 70W short pulse nanosecond laser

    Jaeschke, Peter; Stolberg, Klaus; Bastick, Stefan; Ziolkowski, Ewa; Roehner, Markus; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger


    Continuous carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are recognized as having a significant lightweight construction potential for a wide variety of industrial applications. However, a today`s barrier for a comprehensive dissemination of CFRP structures is the lack of economic, quick and reliable manufacture processes, e.g. the cutting and drilling steps. In this paper, the capability of using pulsed disk lasers in CFRP machining is discussed. In CFRP processing with NIR lasers, carbon fibers show excellent optical absorption and heat dissipation, contrary to the plastics matrix. Therefore heat dissipation away from the laser focus into the material is driven by heat conduction of the fibres. The matrix is heated indirectly by heat transfer from the fibres. To cut CFRP, it is required to reach the melting temperature for thermoplastic matrix materials or the disintegration temperature for thermoset systems as well as the sublimation temperature of the reinforcing fibers simultaneously. One solution for this problem is to use short pulse nanosecond lasers. We have investigated CFRP cutting and drilling with such a laser (max. 7 mJ @ 10 kHz, 30 ns). This laser offers the opportunity of wide range parameter tuning for systematic process optimization. By applying drilling and cutting operations based on galvanometer scanning techniques in multi-cycle mode, excellent surface and edge characteristics in terms of delamination-free and intact fiber-matrix interface were achieved. The results indicate that nanosecond disk laser machining could consequently be a suitable tool for the automotive and aircraft industry for cutting and drilling steps.

  12. Short-pulse-width micromachining of hard materials using DPSS Nd:YAG lasers

    Heglin, Michael; Govorkov, Sergei V.; Scaggs, Michael J.; Theoharidis, Haris; Schoelzel, T.


    The material processing of an industrial, short-pulse duration DPPS YAG laser producing peak powers greater than 0.2MW is discussed in this paper. This peak power provides sufficient materials processing capability to meet the micro machining needs in the automotive, semiconductor, micro- electronic, medical and telecommunication industries. All hard and soft materials including: plastics, metals, ceramics, diamond and other crystalline materials are suitable candidates for the processing capability of this laser. Micro level features can be machined in these materials to a depth in excess of 1mm with high quality results. In most applications feature sizes can be achieved that are not possible or economical with existing technologies. The optical beam delivery system requirements, and overall micro-machining set-up are also described. The drilling and cutting versatility down to feature sizes of less than 7 micrometers , as well as, complex shapes are shown. The wavelength, pulse length, and peakpower are described and relate to their effect on recast, micro-cracking and material removal rates. Material removal effects related to progressive penetration into the material will be reviewed. The requirements of this DPSS laser technology to meet the operational requirements for high duty cycle operation in industrial environments is covered along with processing flexibility and lower operating cost.

  13. Unresolved spectral structures emitted from heavy atom plasmas produced by short pulse laser

    Fraenkel, M.; Zigler, A.


    Spectra of rare earth elements emitted from ultra short pulse laser produced plasma were recorded using simultaneously high and low resolution, spectrometers. A study of the broad band emission of the Δn = 1 transitions in highly ionized Ba and Sm plasma showed that this band is completely unresolved. The spectra were analyzed using the LTE based on super-transition array (STA) model. The theory reconstructs the entire Ba spectrum using a single temperature and density, whereas for Sm the discrepancies between the theory and experiment are not reconcilable. The agreement in the Ba case is attributed to the fact that BaF 2 target is transparent to the laser's prepulse effects, producing a homogeneous dense plasma, whereas for Sm the dilute plasma created by the prepulse is far from LTE. The obtained results posses a significant implication to the applicability of the STA model, in particular for calculations of opacities and conversion of laser light to X-rays. (orig.)

  14. Unresolved spectral structures emitted from heavy atom plasmas produced by short pulse laser

    Fraenkel, M.; Zigler, A. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Russian Committee of Standards Moscow region (Russian Federation)


    Spectra of rare earth elements emitted from ultra short pulse laser produced plasma were recorded using simultaneously high and low resolution, spectrometers. A study of the broad band emission of the {delta}n = 1 transitions in highly ionized Ba and Sm plasma showed that this band is completely unresolved. The spectra were analyzed using the LTE based on super-transition array (STA) model. The theory reconstructs the entire Ba spectrum using a single temperature and density, whereas for Sm the discrepancies between the theory and experiment are not reconcilable. The agreement in the Ba case is attributed to the fact that BaF{sub 2} target is transparent to the laser's prepulse effects, producing a homogeneous dense plasma, whereas for Sm the dilute plasma created by the prepulse is far from LTE. The obtained results posses a significant implication to the applicability of the STA model, in particular for calculations of opacities and conversion of laser light to X-rays. (orig.)

  15. Short-pulse-laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films

    Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Ziegler, Wolfgang; von der Linde, Dietrich; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, D. L.


    Short-pulse-laser-induced damage and ablation of thin films of amorphous, diamond-like carbon have been investigated. Material removal and damage are caused by fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments. The fragments exhibit a delayed, intense and broadband emission of microsecond duration. Both fracture and emission are attributed to the laser-initiated relaxation of the high internal stresses of the pulse laser deposition-grown films.

  16. High Power Fiber Laser Test Bed

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility, unique within DoD, power-combines numerous cutting-edge fiber-coupled laser diode modules (FCLDM) to integrate pumping of high power rare earth-doped...

  17. High power laser exciter accelerators

    Martin, T.H.


    Recent developments in untriggered oil and water switching now permit the construction of compact, high energy density pulsed power sources for laser excitation. These accelerators, developed principally for electron beam fusion studies, appear adaptable to laser excitation and will provide electron beams of 10 13 to 10 14 W in the next several years. The accelerators proposed for e-beam fusion essentially concentrate the available power from the outside edge of a disk into the central region where the electron beam is formed. One of the main problem areas, that of power flow at the vacuum diode insulator, is greatly alleviated by the multiplicity of electron beams that are allowable for laser excitation. A proposal is made whereby the disk-shaped pulsed power sections are stacked vertically to form a series of radially flowing electron beams to excite the laser gas volume. (auth)

  18. Study of the oncogenic expression in human fibroblast cells after exposure to very short pulsed laser radiations

    Dormont, D.; Freville, Th.; Raoul, H.; Courant, D.; Court, L.


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of a laser, delivering very short pulses in the near infrared spectrum with a high pulse ratio frequency, to induce genetic modification on biological tissues. The absence of dicentric among chromosomal aberrations on human lymphocytes suggests that a repetitive very short pulses irradiation has a relatively low capacity to induce genetic abnormalities. The studies of the radiation effects on the cellular growth and the oncogenic expression show that the modifications, induced at the cellular level, do not seem the origin of a cellular transformation and a possible mechanism of carcinogenesis. (author)

  19. The high-power iodine laser

    Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Witte, K. J.

    The book provides a description of the present state of the art concerning the iodine laser, giving particular attention to the design and operation of pulsed high-power iodine lasers. The basic features of the laser are examined, taking into account aspects of spontaneous emission lifetime, hyperfine structure, line broadening and line shifts, stimulated emission cross sections, the influence of magnetic fields, sublevel relaxation, the photodissociation of alkyl iodides, flashlamp technology, excitation in a direct discharge, chemical excitation, and questions regarding the chemical kinetics of the photodissociation iodine laser. The principles of high-power operation are considered along with aspects of beam quality and losses, the design and layout of an iodine laser system, the scalability and prospects of the iodine laser, and the design of the single-beam Asterix III laser.

  20. Chemical and physical analysis on hard tissues after irradiation with short pulse Nd:YAG laser

    Pereira, Andrea Antunes


    This work reports on a study that was designed to investigate chemical, physical and morphological alterations in the dental enamel surface. The influence of application of laser in enamel surface by microscopic technical, X-ray fluorescence for chemical analysis, physical property as well as hardness and thermal analysis with Nd:YAG laser is also pointed out. A prototype of Nd:YAG (Q-switched) laser developed at the Center of Lasers and Applications - Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, aiming applications in the Medical Sciences that typical wavelength of 1.064 nm was used. The modifications in human dental enamel chemical composition for major and trace elements are here outlined. The accuracy of procedures was performed by analysis of natural hydroxyapatite as standard reference material. The identification and quantification of the chemical elements presented in the dental tissue samples were performed trough EDS, XRF and INAA. We determined the rate Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) for different techniques. We performed an analysis in different regions of the surface and for different areas allowing a description of the chemical change in the total area of the specimen and the assessment of the compositional homogeneity of the each specimen. A comparison between XRF and INAA is presented. Based on morphological analysis of the irradiated surfaces with short pulse Nd:YAG laser we determined the area surrounded by the irradiation for the parameters for this thesis, and this technique allowed us to visualize the regions of fusion and re-solidification. The energy densities ranged from 10 J/cm 2 to 40 J/cm 2 , with pulse width of 6, 10 e 200 ns, and repetition rates of 5 and 7 Hz. In this thesis, FTIR-spectroscopy is used to analyze powder of mineralized tissue as well as enamel, dentine, root and cementum for human and bovine teeth after irradiation with short-pulse Nd:YAG laser. Characteristic spectra were obtained for the proteins components and mineral

  1. Lattice Boltzmann method for short-pulsed laser transport in a multi-layered medium

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping


    We construct a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional multi-layered medium with distinct refractive index in each layer. The left boundary is irradiated normally by a short-pulsed laser. The Fresnel interfaces conditions, which incorporate reflection and refraction, are used at the boundaries and the interfaces. Based on the Fresnel's law and Snell's law, the interfacial intensity formulas are introduced. The collimated and diffuse intensities are treated individually. At a transient time step, the collimated component is first solved by LBM and then embedded into the transient radiative transfer equation as a source term. To keep the consistency of the directions in all the layers, angular interpolation of the intensities at the interfaces is adopted. The transient radiative transfer in a two-layer medium is first investigated, and the time-resolved results are validated by comparing with those by the Monte Carlo method (MCM). Of particular interest, the angular intensities along the slab at different times are presented to illustrate a variety of interesting phenomena, and the discontinuous nature of the intensity at the interfaces is discussed. The effects of various parameters on the time-resolved signals are examined. - Highlights: • Transient radiative transfer in a multi-layered medium is solved by LBM. • The boundary and interfaces are all considered as Fresnel surfaces. • The LBM solution for the collimated pulse is derived. • Discontinuous nature of the intensity at the interface is illustrated and discussed

  2. Laser Processing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Release of Carbon Fiber Segments During Short-pulsed Laser Processing of CFRP

    Walter, Juergen; Brodesser, Alexander; Hustedt, Michael; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    Cutting and ablation using short-pulsed laser radiation are promising technologies to produce or repair CFRP components with outstanding mechanical properties e.g. for automotive and aircraft industry. Using sophisticated laser processing strategies and avoiding excessive heating of the workpiece, a high processing quality can be achieved. However, the interaction of laser radiation and composite material causes a notable release of hazardous substances from the process zone, amongst others carbon fiber segments or fibrous particles. In this work, amounts and geometries of the released fiber segments are analyzed and discussed in terms of their hazardous potential. Moreover, it is investigated to what extent gaseous organic process emissions are adsorbed at the fiber segments, similar to an adsorption of volatile organic compounds at activated carbon, which is typically used as filter material.

  3. Evaluation of temperature history of a spherical nanosystem irradiated with various short-pulse laser sources

    Lahiri, Arnab; Mondal, Pranab K.


    Spatiotemporal thermal response and characteristics of net entropy production rate of a gold nanosphere (radius: 50-200 nm), subjected to a short-pulse, femtosecond laser is reported. In order to correctly illustrate the temperature history of laser-metal interaction(s) at picoseconds transient with a comprehensive single temperature definition in macroscale and to further understand how the thermophysical response of the single-phase lag (SPL) and dual-phase lag (DPL) frameworks (with various lag-ratios') differs, governing energy equations derived from these benchmark non-Fourier frameworks are numerically solved and thermodynamic assessment under both the classical irreversible thermodynamics (CIT) as well as extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) frameworks is subsequently carried out. Under the frameworks of SPL and DPL with small lag ratio, thermophysical anomalies such as temperature overshooting characterized by adverse temperature gradient is observed to violate the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) hypothesis. The EIT framework, however, justifies the compatibility of overshooting of temperature with the second law of thermodynamics under a nonequilibrium paradigm. The DPL framework with higher lag ratio was however observed to remain free from temperature overshooting and finds suitable consistency with LTE hypothesis. In order to solve the dimensional non-Fourier governing energy equation with volumetric laser-irradiation source term(s), the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended and a three-time level, fully implicit, second order accurate finite difference method (FDM) is illustrated. For all situations under observation, the LBM scheme is featured to be computationally superior to remaining FDM schemes. With detailed prediction of maximum temperature rise and the corresponding peaking time by all the numerical schemes, effects of the change of radius of the gold nanosphere, the magnitude of fluence of laser, and laser irradiation with

  4. Clinical observation of one time short-pulse pattern scan laser pan-retinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Xin Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical efficacy and benefit of short-pulse pattern scan laser(PASCALphotocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS:Twenty-eight PDR patients(42 eyesunderwent short-pulse PASCAL pan-retinal photocoagulation(PRPwere analyzed.The best corrected visual acuity was ≥0.1 in 36 eyes, RESULTS: All the cases had no pain during the short-pulse PASCAL treatment.One year after treatments,the final visual acuity was improved in 6 eyes,kept stable in 28 eyes and decreased in 8 eyes; neovascularization were regressed in 18 eyes(43%, stable in 12 eyes(29%, uncontrolled in 12 eyes(29%. Five eyes(12%received vitrectomy due to vitreous hemorrhage.Compared with before operation, retina thickness in central fovea of macula and visual field had no obvious change after one-time PASCAL PRP(P>0.05. CONCLUSION:The one-time short-pulse PASCAL PRP could stabilize the progress of PDR safely, effectively and simply.

  5. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.


    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  6. 8. High power laser and ignition facilities

    Bayramian, A.J.; Beach, R.J.; Bibeau, C.


    This document gives a review of the various high power laser projects and ignition facilities in the world: the Mercury laser system and Electra (Usa), the krypton fluoride (KrF) laser and the HALNA (high average power laser for nuclear-fusion application) project (Japan), the Shenguang series, the Xingguang facility and the TIL (technical integration line) facility (China), the Vulcan peta-watt interaction facility (UK), the Megajoule project and its feasibility phase: the LIL (laser integration line) facility (France), the Asterix IV/PALS high power laser facility (Czech Republic), and the Phelix project (Germany). In Japan the 100 TW Petawatt Module Laser, constructed in 1997, is being upgraded to the world biggest peta-watt laser. Experiments have been performed with single-pulse large aperture e-beam-pumped Garpun (Russia) and with high-current-density El-1 KrF laser installation (Russia) to investigate Al-Be foil transmittance and stability to multiple e-beam irradiations. An article is dedicated to a comparison of debris shield impacts for 2 experiments at NIF (national ignition facility). (A.C.)

  7. Development of high repetition rate ultra-short pulse solid state lasers pumped by laser diodes

    Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Takaichi, Kazunori; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takakimi; Kaminskii, Alexander; Kawanaka, Junji


    A novel technique for ceramic lasers has been developed recently. Self-energy-driven sintering of nano-and micro particles created the fully transparent Nd:YAG ceramics. The ceramic YAG demonstrated high efficiency operation (optical-to-optical conversion of 60% in end pumping) and solid-phase crystals growth and the possible scaling were investigated principally. Typical performance of ceramic YAG laser has been reviewed. The present status and future prospect of the ceramic lasers technologies were discussed. (author)

  8. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam

    Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Flippo, K. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Rose, H. A.; Shimada, T.; Williams, E. A.


    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 deg. angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (∼2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  9. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam.

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A


    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  10. Assessment and mitigation of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) impacts at short-pulse laser facilities

    Brown, C G Jr; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  11. QED studies using high-power lasers

    Mattias Marklund


    Complete text of publication follows. The event of extreme lasers, which intensities above 10 22 W/cm 2 will be reached on a routine basis, will give us opportunities to probe new aspects of quantum electrodynamics. In particular, the non-trivial properties of the quantum vacuum can be investigated as we reach previously unattainable laser intensities. Effects such as vacuum birefringence and pair production in strong fields could thus be probed. The prospects of obtaining new insights regarding the non-perturbative structure of quantum field theories shows that the next generation laser facilities can be important tool for fundamental physical studies. Here we aim at giving a brief overview of such aspects of high-power laser physics.

  12. Development of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser with ultra short-pulse laser

    Kado, Masataka; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tanaka, Momoko; Sukegawa, Kouta; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki


    We have observed lasing on Ne-like 3s-3p line from titanium (32.4 nm), Ni-like 4p-4d line from silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm) with the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme that uses combination of a long pre-pulse (∼ns) and a short main pulse (∼ps). A gain coefficient of 23 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 4 mm with silver slab targets. We have also observed lasing on Ne-like and Ni-like lines with new TCE scheme that used pico-seconds laser pulse to generate plasma and observed strong improvement of x-ray laser gain coefficient. A gain coefficient of 14 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 6 mm with tin targets. (author)

  13. Modeling of collisional excited x-ray lasers using short pulse laser pumping

    Sasaki, Akira; Moribayashi, Kengo; Utsumi, Takayuki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment


    A simple atomic kinetics model of electron collisional excited x-ray lasers has been developed. The model consists of a collisional radiative model using the average ion model (AIM) and a detailed term accounting (DTA) model of Ni-like Ta. An estimate of plasma condition to produce gain in Ni-like Ta ({lambda}=44A) is given. Use of the plasma confined in a cylinder is proposed to preform a uniform high density plasma from 1-D hydrodynamics calculations. (author)

  14. Temporal and spatial temperature distribution in the glabrous skin of rats induced by short-pulse CO2 laser

    Lu, Pen-Li; Hsu, Shu-Shen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wang, An-Bang; Yen, Chen-Tung


    Pain is a natural alarm that aids the body in avoiding potential danger and can also present as an important indicator in clinics. Infrared laser-evoked potentials can be used as an objective index to evaluate nociception. In animal studies, a short-pulse laser is crucial because it completes the stimulation before escape behavior. The objective of the present study was to obtain the temporal and spatial temperature distributions in the skin caused by the irradiation of a short-pulse laser. A fast speed infrared camera was used to measure the surface temperature caused by a CO2 laser of different durations (25 and 35 ms) and power. The measured results were subsequently implemented with a three-layer finite element model to predict the subsurface temperature. We found that stratum corneum was crucial in the modeling of fast temperature response, and escape behaviors correlated with predictions of temperature at subsurface. Results indicated that the onset latency and duration of activated nociceptors must be carefully considered when interpreting physiological responses evoked by infrared irradiation.

  15. Pain score of patients undergoing single spot, short pulse laser versus conventional laser for diabetic retinopathy.

    Mirshahi, Ahmad; Lashay, Alireza; Roozbahani, Mehdi; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei; Molaie, Saber; Mireshghi, Meysam; Zaferani, Mohamad Mehdi


    To compare pain score of single spot short duration time (20 milliseconds) panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) with conventional (100 milliseconds) PRP in diabetic retinopathy. Sixty-six eyes from 33 patients with symmetrical severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (non-PDR) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled trial. One eye of each patient was randomized to undergo conventional and the other eye to undergo short time PRP. Spot size of 200 μm was used in both laser types, and energy was adjusted to achieve moderate burn on the retina. Patients were asked to mark the level of pain felt during the PRP session for each eye on the visual analog scale (VAS) and were examined at 1 week, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. Sixteen women and 17 men with mean age 58.9 ± 7.8 years were evaluated. The conventional method required a mean power of 273 ± 107 mW, whereas the short duration method needed 721 ± 406 mW (P = 0.001). An average of 1,218 ± 441 spots were delivered with the conventional method and an average of 2,125 ± 503 spots were required with the short duration method (P = 0.001). Average pain score was 7.5 ± 1.14 in conventional group and 1.75 ± 0.87 in the short duration group (P = 0.001). At 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months following PRP, the mean changes of central macular thickness (CMT) from baseline in the conventional group remained 29.2 μm (P = 0.008), 40.0 μm (P = 0.001), and 40.2 μm (P = 0.007) greater than the changes in CMT for short time group. Patient acceptance of short time single spot PRP was high, and well-tolerated in a single session by all patients. Moreover, this method is significantly less painful than but just as effective as conventional laser during 6 months of follow-up. The CMT change was more following conventional laser than short time laser.

  16. Atomistic simulations of ultra-short pulse laser ablation of aluminum: validity of the Lambert-Beer law

    Eisfeld, Eugen; Roth, Johannes


    Based on hybrid molecular dynamics/two-temperature simulations, we study the validity of the application of Lambert-Beer's law, which is conveniently used in various modeling approaches of ultra-short pulse laser ablation of metals. The method is compared to a more rigorous treatment, which involves solving the Helmholtz wave equation for different pulse durations ranging from 100 fs to 5 ps and a wavelength of 800 nm. Our simulations show a growing agreement with increasing pulse durations, and we provide appropriate optical parameters for all investigated pulse durations.

  17. High power diode laser remelting of metals

    Chmelickova, H; Tomastik, J; Ctvrtlik, R; Supik, J; Nemecek, S; Misek, M


    This article is focused on the laser surface remelting of the steel samples with predefined overlapping of the laser spots. The goal of our experimental work was to evaluate microstructure and hardness both in overlapped zone and single pass ones for three kinds of ferrous metals with different content of carbon, cast iron, non-alloy structural steel and tool steel. High power fibre coupled diode laser Laserline LDF 3600-100 was used with robotic guided processing head equipped by the laser beam homogenizer that creates rectangular beam shape with uniform intensity distribution. Each sample was treated with identical process parameters - laser power, beam diameter, focus position, speed of motion and 40% spot overlap. Dimensions and structures of the remelted zone, zone of the partial melting, heat affected zone and base material were detected and measured by means of laser scanning and optical microscopes. Hardness progress in the vertical axis of the overlapped zone from remelted surface layer to base material was measured and compared with the hardness of the single spots. The most hardness growth was found for cast iron, the least for structural steel. Experiment results will be used to processing parameters optimization for each tested material separately.

  18. Visible high power fiber coupled diode lasers

    Köhler, Bernd; Drovs, Simon; Stoiber, Michael; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Könning, Tobias; Biesenbach, Jens; König, Harald; Lell, Alfred; Stojetz, Bernhard; Löffler, Andreas; Strauß, Uwe


    In this paper we report on further development of fiber coupled high-power diode lasers in the visible spectral range. New visible laser modules presented in this paper include the use of multi single emitter arrays @ 450 nm leading to a 120 W fiber coupled unit with a beam quality of 44 mm x mrad, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power from 405 nm to 640 nm. However, as these lasers are based on single emitters, power scaling quickly leads to bulky laser units with a lot of optical components to be aligned. We also report on a new approach based on 450 nm diode laser bars, which dramatically reduces size and alignment effort. These activities were performed within the German government-funded project "BlauLas": a maximum output power of 80 W per bar has been demonstrated @ 450 nm. We show results of a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled 35 W source @ 450 nm, which has been reduced in size by a factor of 25 compared to standard single emitter approach. In addition, we will present a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled laser unit with an output power of 135 W.

  19. Applications of ultra-short pulsed laser ablation: thin films deposition and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Teghil, R; De Bonis, A; Galasso, A; Santagata, A; Albano, G; Villani, P; Spera, D; Parisi, G P


    In this paper, we report a survey of two of the large number of possible practical applications of the laser ablation performed by an ultra-short pulse laser, namely pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). These applications differ from those using just longer pulsed lasers as a consequence of the distinctive characteristics of the plasma produced by ultra-short laser beams. The most important feature of this plasma is the large presence of particles with nanometric size which plays a fundamental role in both applications.

  20. Interaction of high power ultrashort laser pulses with plasmas

    Geissler, M.


    based on an improved model for HHG. Apart from the generation of coherent x-ray radiation, the interaction of few-cycle laser pulses with gases has the potential to generate attosecond pulses (1as=10 -18 s). Such pulses should be present in current HHG experiments but due to the lack of measuring them the unique time resolution cannot be used. A method to measure sub-fs pulses is proposed and theoretically analyzed, which allows resolving pulse durations on the order of a fraction of the optical period. In the second part, interaction at higher intensities is discussed, where relativistic effects have to be considered. First a three dimensional simulation code, developed for this work, is presented, followed by the investigation of electron acceleration mechanisms with short pulses. Finally simulations indicate that relativistic laser-plasma interactions leads to the generation of high power half-cycle Terrahertz pulses (1 THz=10 12 Hz), with peak intensities and conversion efficiencies exceeding current THz sources by orders of magnitude. The mechanism of the THz generation is presented in the last part of the thesis. (author)

  1. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.


    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  2. Inhibited-coupling HC-PCF based beam-delivery-system for high power green industrial lasers

    Chafer, M.; Gorse, A.; Beaudou, B.; Lekiefs, Q.; Maurel, M.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.


    We report on an ultra-low loss Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF) beam delivery system (GLO-GreenBDS) for high power ultra-short pulse lasers operating in the green spectral range (including 515 nm and 532 nm). The GLOBDS- Green combines ease-of-use, high laser-coupling efficiency, robustness and industrial compatible cabling. It comprises a pre-aligned laser-injection head, a sheath-cable protected HC-PCF and a modular fiber-output head. It enables fiber-core gas loading and evacuation in a hermetic fashion. A 5 m long GLO-BDS were demonstrated for a green short pulse laser with a transmission coefficient larger than 80%, and a laser output profile close to single-mode (M2 <1.3).

  3. Thin film beam splitter multiple short pulse generation for enhanced Ni-like Ag x-ray laser emission.

    Cojocaru, Gabriel V; Ungureanu, Razvan G; Banici, Romeo A; Ursescu, Daniel; Delmas, Olivier; Pittman, Moana; Guilbaud, Olivier; Kazamias, Sophie; Cassou, Kevin; Demailly, Julien; Neveu, Olivier; Baynard, Elsa; Ros, David


    An alternative, novel multiple pulse generation scheme was implemented directly after the optical compressor output of an x-ray pump laser. The new method uses a polarization sensitive thin film beam splitter and a half-wavelength wave plate for tuning the energy ratio in the multiple short pulses. Based on this method, an extensive study was made of the running parameters for a grazing incidence pumped silver x-ray laser (XRL) pumped with a long pulse of 145 mJ in 6 ns at 532 nm and up to 1.45 J in few picoseconds at 810 nm. Fivefold enhancement in the emission of the silver XRL was demonstrated using the new pump method.

  4. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers.

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hongchao; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian


    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO(2) film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO(2) films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  5. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers

    Wang Bin; Zhang Hongchao; Qin Yuan; Wang Xi; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian


    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO 2 film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO 2 films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations.

  6. Ultra-short pulse, ultra-high intensity laser improvement techniques for laser-driven quantum beam science

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kando, Masaki


    Recent development activities of the Quantum Beam Research Team in JAEA are reported. The downsized, petawatt and femtosecond pulse laser is described at first. The process of the system development and utilization effort of so-called J-KAREN is explained with its time and space control system. For high contrast, OPCPA (Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification) preamplifier is adopted by using the titanium-sapphire laser system in which only the seed light pulses can be amplified. In addition, high contrast is obtained by adopting the high energy seed light to the amplifier. The system configuration of J-KAREN laser is illustrated. Typical spectra with and without OPCPA, as well as the spectra with OPCPA adjustment and without one are shown. The result of the recompressed pulses is shown in which the pulse width of 29.5 femtoseconds is close to the theoretical limit. Considering the throughput of the pulse compressor is 64 percent it is possible to generate high power laser beam of about 600 terawatts. In the supplementary budget of 2012, it has been approved to cope with the aging or obsoleteness of the system and at the same time to further sophisticate the laser using system. The upgraded laser system is named as J-KAREN-P in which the repetition rate is improved and another booster amplifier is added to increase the power. The system configuration of J-KAREN-P after the upgrading is illustrated. (S. Funahashi)

  7. Time-dependent H-like and He-like Al lines produced by ultra-short pulse laser

    Kato, Takako; Kato, Masatoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Shepherd, R; Young, B; More, R; Osterheld, Al


    We have performed numerical modeling of time-resolved x-ray spectra from thin foil targets heated by the LLNL Ultra-short pulse (USP) laser. The targets were aluminum foils of thickness ranging from 250 A to 1250 A, heated with 120 fsec pulses of 400 nm light from the USP laser. The laser energy was approximately 0.2 Joules, focused to a 3 micron spot size for a peak intensity near 2 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} lines were recorded using a 900 fsec x-ray streak camera. We calculate the effective ionization, recombination and emission rate coefficients including density effects for H-like and He-like aluminum ions using a collisional radiative model. We calculate time-dependent ion abundances using these effective ionization and recombination rate coefficients. The time-dependent electron temperature and density used in the calculation are based on an analytical model for the hydrodynamic expansion of the target foils. During the laser pulse the target is ionized. After the laser heating stops, the plasma begins to recombine. Using the calculated time dependent ion abundances and the effective emission rate coefficients, we calculate the time dependent Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} lines. The calculations reproduce the main qualitative features of the experimental spectra. (author)

  8. Production of neutrons up to 18 MeV in high-intensity, short-pulse laser matter interactions

    Higginson, D. P. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94440 (United States); McNaney, J. M.; Swift, D. C.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94440 (United States); Petrov, G. M.; Davis, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Jarrott, L. C.; Tynan, G.; Beg, F. N. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Kodama, R.; Nakamura, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-5 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 454-0871 (Japan); Lancaster, K. L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11OQX (United Kingdom)


    The generation of high-energy neutrons using laser-accelerated ions is demonstrated experimentally using the Titan laser with 360 J of laser energy in a 9 ps pulse. In this technique, a short-pulse, high-energy laser accelerates deuterons from a CD{sub 2} foil. These are incident on a LiF foil and subsequently create high energy neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(d,xn) nuclear reaction (Q = 15 MeV). Radiochromic film and a Thomson parabola ion-spectrometer were used to diagnose the laser accelerated deuterons and protons. Conversion efficiency into protons was 0.5%, an order of magnitude greater than into deuterons. Maximum neutron energy was shown to be angularly dependent with up to 18 MeV neutrons observed in the forward direction using neutron time-of-flight spectrometry. Absolutely calibrated CR-39 detected spectrally integrated neutron fluence of up to 8 x 10{sup 8} n sr{sup -1} in the forward direction.

  9. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.


    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure

  10. Diode-pumped solid state laser. (Part V). ; Short pulse laser oscillation. Handotai laser reiki kotai laser. 5. ; Tan pulse hasshin

    Kuwabara, M.; Bando, N. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    A semiconductor laser (LD) excited solid state laser using an LD as an excited light source is under discussion for its practical applications to measurements, processing, communications, office automation, and medical areas. This paper describes the discussions given on the short pulse transmission using AOQ switching elements in the LD excited solid state laser with a long wave length band (1.3{mu}m), which is expected of its application in the communications and measurements area. Based on a possibility of raising a measurements resolution by making the pluses in the LD excited solid state laser, and experiments were performed using Nd:YLF as a laser host. as a results, it was found that the smaller the effective mode volume V {sub eff},the smaller the pulse width, and that the ratio of number of initial inversion distribution (N{sub i}/N{sub t}), an important parameter to determine pulse widths, can be obtained from the ratio of the LD exciting light to the input power (P{sub in}/P{sub t}). 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Microdrilling of metals with an inexpensive and compact ultra-short-pulse fiber amplified microchip laser

    Ancona, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory ' LIT3' , Dipartimento Interuniversitario di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Nodop, D.; Limpert, J.; Nolte, S. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF), Jena (Germany)


    We have investigated the ultra-fast microdrilling of metals using a compact and cheap fiber amplified passively Q-switched microchip laser. This laser system delivers 100-ps pulses with repetition rates higher than 100 kHz and pulse energies up to 80 {mu}J. The ablation process has been studied on metals with quite different thermal properties (copper, carbon steel and stainless steel). The dependence of the ablation depth per pulse on the pulse energy follows the same logarithmic scaling laws governing laser ablation with sub-picosecond pulses. Structures ablated with 100-ps laser pulses are accompanied only by a thin layer of melted material. Despite this, results with a high level of precision are obtained when using the laser trepanning technique. This simple and affordable laser system could be a valid alternative to nanosecond laser sources for micromachining applications. (orig.)

  12. Effect of pulse slippage on resonant second harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma

    Nitikant; Sharma, A K


    The process of second harmonic generation of an intense short pulse laser in a plasma is resonantly enhanced by the application of a magnetic wiggler. The wiggler of suitable wave number k-vector 0 provides necessary momentum to second harmonic photons to make harmonic generation a resonant process. The laser imparts an oscillatory velocity to electrons and exerts a longitudinal ponderomotive force on them at (2ω 1 ,2k-vector 1 ), where ω 1 and k-vector 1 are the frequency and the wave number of the laser, respectively. As the electrons acquire oscillatory velocity at the second harmonic, the wiggler magnetic field beats with it to produce a transverse second harmonic current at (2ω 1 ,2k-vector 1 +k-vector 0 ), driving the second harmonic electromagnetic radiation. However, the group velocity of the second harmonic wave is greater than that of the fundamental wave, hence, the generated pulse slips out of the main laser pulse and its amplitude saturates

  13. Electron transport phenomena and dense plasmas produced by ultra-short pulse laser interaction

    More, R.M.


    Recent experiments with femtosecond lasers provide a test bed for theoretical ideas about electron processes in hot dense plasmas. We briefly review aspects of electron conduction theory likely to prove relevant to femtosecond laser absorption. We show that the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit implies a maximum inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of about 50% at temperatures near the Fermi temperature. We also propose that sheath inverse bremsstrahlung leads to a minimum absorption of 7-10% at high laser intensity

  14. Channels of energy redistribution in short-pulse laser interactions with metal targets

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.


    The kinetics and channels of laser energy redistribution in a target irradiated by a short, 1 ps, laser pulse is investigated in computer simulations performed with a model that combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a continuum description of the laser excitation and relaxation of the conduction band electrons, based on the two-temperature model (TTM). The energy transferred from the excited electrons to the lattice splits into several parts, namely the energy of the thermal motion of the atoms, the energy of collective atomic motions associated with the relaxation of laser-induced stresses, the energy carried away from the surface region of the target by a stress wave, the energy of quasi-static anisotropic stresses, and, at laser fluences above the melting threshold, the energy transferred to the latent heat of melting and then released upon recrystallization. The presence of the non-thermal channels of energy redistribution (stress wave and quasi-static stresses), not accounted for in the conventional TTM model, can have important implications for interpretation of experimental results on the kinetics of thermal and mechanical relaxation of a target irradiated by a short laser pulse as well as on the characteristics of laser-induced phase transformations. The fraction of the non-thermal energy in the total laser energy partitioning increases with increasing laser fluence

  15. Allowable propagation of short pulse laser beam in a plasma channel and electromagnetic solitary waves

    Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Wang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Bai-Song


    Nonparaxial and nonlinear propagation of a short intense laser beam in a parabolic plasma channel is analyzed by means of the variational method and nonlinear dynamics. The beam propagation properties are classified by five kinds of behaviors. In particularly, the electromagnetic solitary wave for finite pulse laser is found beside the other four propagation cases including beam periodically oscillating with defocussing and focusing amplitude, constant spot size, beam catastrophic focusing. It is also found that the laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in the plasma channel only when a certain relation for laser parameters and plasma channel parameters is satisfied. For the solitary wave, it may provide an effective way to obtain ultra-short laser pulse.

  16. Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study

    Quintino, L.; Costa, A.; Miranda, R.; Yapp, D.; Kumar, V.; Kong, C.J.


    The new generation of high power fiber lasers presents several benefits for industrial purposes, namely high power with low beam divergence, flexible beam delivery, low maintenance costs, high efficiency and compact size. This paper presents a brief review of the development of high power lasers, and presents initial data on welding of API 5L: X100 pipeline steel with an 8 kW fiber laser. Weld bead geometry was evaluated and transition between conduction and deep penetration welding modes was investigated

  17. High-power pure blue laser diodes

    Ohta, M.; Ohizumi, Y.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Yabuki, Y.; Goto, S.; Ikeda, M. [Development Center, Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor Inc., Miyagi (Japan); Funato, K. [Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan)


    We successfully developed high-power and long-lived pure blue laser diodes (LDs) having an emission wavelength of 440-450 nm. The pure-blue LDs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on GaN substrates. The dislocation density was successfully reduced to {proportional_to}10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} by optimizing the MOCVD growth conditions and the active layer structure. The vertical layer structure was designed to have an absorption loss of 4.9 cm{sup -1} and an internal quantum efficiency of 91%. We also reduced the operating current density to 6 kA/cm{sup 2} under 750 mW continuous-wave operation at 35 C by optimizing the stripe width to 12 {mu}m and the cavity length to 2000 {mu}m. The half lifetimes in constant current mode are estimated to be longer than 10000 h. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Nuclear Material Detection by One-Short-Pulse-Laser-Driven Neutron Source

    Favalli, Andrea; Aymond, F.; Bridgewater, Jon S.; Croft, Stephen; Deppert, O.; Devlin, Matthew James; Falk, Katerina; Fernandez, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald Cort; Gonzales, Manuel A.; Goodsell, Alison Victoria; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher Eric; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall Philip; Jung, Daniel; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth; Pomerantz, Ishay; Roth, Markus; Santi, Peter Angelo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; McCary, E.


    Covered in the PowerPoint presentation are the following areas: Motivation and requirements for active interrogation of nuclear material; laser-driven neutron source; neutron diagnostics; active interrogation of nuclear material; and, conclusions, remarks, and future works.

  19. Observation of the charge neutrality of the ions from target short-pulse laser interaction experiments

    Yasuike, Kazuhito


    Intended to simulate the early stage of the plasma (preformed plasma) formation in the higher (10 20 W cm -2 ) intensity experiments (in which the plasma density profile rules laser absorption thus conversion efficiency from laser into hot electrons, ions and x-rays) experiments using solid target were done under a peak intensity (main laser pulse) of up to ∼10 15 W cm -2 and pre-pulse and pedestal intensity of ∼10 3 times lower than main pulse. With pedestal, significant enhancement of laser absorption was observed with pedestal condition. Charge neutralization of the ions from the plasma was measured by biased charge collectors. Earlier part of the ion were almost un-neutralized in with or without pedestal condition, and the later part of the ions (≤ few keV) were partially neutralized (≥40%). These not-perfect charge neutralization results is different from the longer nano-seconds pulse experimental results. (author)

  20. Short Pulsed Laser Methods for Velocimetry and Thermometry in High Enthalpy Facilities, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A suite of laser-based diagnostics is proposed to measure velocity and temperature simultaneously using unseeded techniques in high enthalpy flows relevant to...

  1. Short Pulsed Laser Methods for Velocimetry and Thermometry in High Enthalpy Facilities, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A suite of pulsed laser diagnostics is proposed for studying aspects of planetary entry and Earth atmospheric reentry in arc jets. For example, dissociation of...

  2. Control of ion beam generation in intense short pulse laser target interaction

    Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Gu, Y.J.; Wang, W.M.; Ma, Y.Y.; Kong, Q.


    In intense laser plasma interaction, several issues still remain to be solved for future laser particle acceleration. In this paper we focus on a control of generation of high-energy ions. In this study, near-critical density plasmas are employed and are illuminated by high intensity short laser pulses; we have successfully generated high-energy ions, and also controlled ion energy and the ion energy spectrum by multiple-stages acceleration. We performed particle-in-cell simulations in this paper. The first near-critical plasma target is illuminated by a laser pulse, and the ions accelerated are transferred to the next target. The next identical target is also illuminated by another identical large pulse, and the ion beam introduced is further accelerated and controlled. In this study four stages are employed, and finally a few hundreds of MeV of protons are realized. A quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum is also obtained. (author)

  3. Short pulse generation in a passively mode-locked photonic crystal semiconductor laser

    Heuck, Mikkel; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper


    We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties......We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties...

  4. Beam shaping to provide round and square-shaped beams in optical systems of high-power lasers

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim


    Optical systems of modern high-power lasers require control of irradiance distribution: round or square-shaped flat-top or super-Gaussian irradiance profiles are optimum for amplification in MOPA lasers and for thermal load management while pumping of crystals of solid-state ultra-short pulse lasers to control heat and minimize its impact on the laser power and beam quality while maximizing overall laser efficiency, variable profiles are also important in irradiating of photocathode of Free Electron lasers (FEL). It is suggested to solve the task of irradiance re-distribution using field mapping refractive beam shapers like piShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flat-top one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with ultra-short pulse lasers having broad spectrum. Using the same piShaper device it is possible to realize beams with flat-top, inverse Gauss or super Gauss irradiance distribution by simple variation of input beam diameter, and the beam shape can be round or square with soft edges. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying in optical systems of high-power lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  5. Q-switched all-fiber laser with short pulse duration based on tungsten diselenide

    Li, Wenyi; OuYang, Yuyi; Ma, Guoli; Liu, Mengli; Liu, Wenjun


    Fiber lasers are widely used in industrial processing, sensing, medical and communications applications due to their simple structure, good stability and low cost. With the rapid development of fiber lasers and the sustained improvement of industrial laser quality requirements, researchers in ultrafast optics focus on how to get laser pulses with high output power and narrow pulse duration. Q-switched technology is one of the most effective techniques to generate ultrashort pulses. In this paper, a tungsten diselenide saturable absorber with 16.82% modulation depth is prepared by chemical vapor deposition. Experimental results show that when the pump power changes from 115.7 mW to 630 mW, the all-fiber laser can achieve a stable Q-switched pulse output. The repetition rate of the output pulse varies from 80.32 kHz to 204.2 kHz, the pulse duration is 581 ns, the maximum output power is 17.1 mW and the maximum pulse energy is 83.7 nJ. Results in this paper show that tungsten diselenide can be applied to ultrafast optics, which is a kind of saturable absorption material with excellent properties.

  6. Ultra-intense, short pulse laser-plasma interactions with applications to the fast ignitor

    Wilks, S.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Young, P.E.; Hammer, J.; Tabak, M.


    Due to the advent of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) as an efficient means of creating ultra-high intensity laser light (I > 5{times}10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) in pulses less than a few picoseconds, new ideas for achieving ignition and gain in DT targets with less than 1 megajoule of input energy are currently being pursued. Two types of powerful lasers are employed in this scheme: (1) channeling beams and (2) ignition beams. The current state of laser-plasma interactions relating to this fusion scheme will be discussed. In particular, plasma physics issues in the ultra-intense regime are crucial to the success of this scheme. We compare simulation and experimental results in this highly nonlinear regime.

  7. Ultra-intense, short pulse laser-plasma interactions with applications to the fast ignitor

    Wilks, S.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Young, P.E.; Hammer, J.; Tabak, M.


    Due to the advent of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) as an efficient means of creating ultra-high intensity laser light (I > 5x10 17 W/cm 2 ) in pulses less than a few picoseconds, new ideas for achieving ignition and gain in DT targets with less than 1 megajoule of input energy are currently being pursued. Two types of powerful lasers are employed in this scheme: (1) channeling beams and (2) ignition beams. The current state of laser-plasma interactions relating to this fusion scheme will be discussed. In particular, plasma physics issues in the ultra-intense regime are crucial to the success of this scheme. We compare simulation and experimental results in this highly nonlinear regime

  8. Tungsten diselenide for mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with short pulse duration

    Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Mengli; OuYang, Yuyi; Hou, Huanran; Ma, Guoli; Lei, Ming; Wei, Zhiyi


    In this paper, a WSe2 film prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is transferred onto a tapered fiber, and a WSe2 saturable absorber (SA) is fabricated. In order to measure the third-order optical nonlinearity of the WSe2, the Z-scan technique is applied. The modulation depth of the WSe2 SA is measured as being 21.89%. Taking advantage of the remarkable nonlinear absorption characteristic of the WSe2 SA, a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated at 1557.4 nm with a bandwidth of 25.8 nm and signal to noise ratio of 96 dB. To the best of our knowledge, the pulse duration of 163.5 fs is confirmed to be the shortest compared with previous mode-locked fiber lasers based on transition-metal dichalcogenides SAs. These results indicate that WSe2 is a powerful competitor in the application of ultrashort pulse lasers.

  9. Decoration of silica nanowires with gold nanoparticles through ultra-short pulsed laser deposition

    Gontad, F.; Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Resta, V.; Taurino, A.; Colombelli, A.; Leo, C.; Klini, A.; Manousaki, A.; Convertino, A.; Rella, R.; Martino, M.; Perrone, A.


    The ablation of a metal target at laser energy densities in the range of 1-10 TW/cm2 leads to the generation of nanoparticles (NP) of the ablated material. This aspect is of particular interest if the immobilization of NPs on three-dimensional (3D) substrates is necessary as for example in sensing applications. In this work the deposition of Au NP by irradiation of a Au bulk target with a sub-picosecond laser beam (500 fs; 248 nm; 10 Hz) on 2D (silica and Si(100)) and 3D substrates (silica nanowire forests) is reported for different number of laser pulses (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500). A uniform coverage of small Au NPs (with a diameter of few nm) on both kinds of substrates has been obtained using a suitable number of laser pulses. The presence of spherical droplets, with a diameter ranging from tens of nm up to few μm was also detected on the substrate surface and their presence can be explained by the weak electron-phonon coupling of Au. The optical characterization of the samples on 2D and 3D substrates evidenced the surface plasmon resonance peak characteristic of the Au NPs although further improvements of the size-distribution are necessary for future applications in sensing devices.

  10. Study of the Propagation of Short Pulse Laser With Cavity Using ...

    The purpose of this representation is to show the potentialities (Computational Time, access to the dynamic and feasibility of systematic studies) of the numerical study of the nonlinear dynamics in laser cavity, assisted by software. We will give as an example, one type of cavity completely fibered composed of several ...

  11. Structure modifications in silikon irradiated by ultra-short pulses of XUV free electron laser

    Pelka, J. B.; Andrejczuk, A.; Reniewicz, H.; Schell, N.; Krzywinski, J.; Sobierajski, R.; Wawro, A.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Klinger, D.; Juha, Libor


    Roč. 382, - (2004), s. 264-270 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA235; GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : XUV ablation * free electron laser Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2004

  12. Novel short-pulse laser diode source for high-resolution 3D flash lidar

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier


    Imaging based on laser illumination is present in various fields of applications such as medicine, security, defense, civil engineering and in the automotive sector. In this last domain, research and development to bring autonomous vehicles on the roads has been intensified the recent years. Among the various technologies currently studied, automotive lidars are a fast-growing one due to their accuracy to detect a wide range of objects at distances up to a few hundreds of meters in various weather conditions. First commercialized devices for ADAS were laser scanners. Since then, new architectures have recently appeared such as solid-state lidar and flash lidar that offer a higher compactness, robustness and a cost reduction. Flash lidars are based on time-of-flight measurements, with the particularity that they do not require beam scanners because only one short laser pulse with a large divergence is used to enlighten the whole scene. Depth of encountered objects can then be recovered from measurement of echoed light at once, hence enabling real-time 3D mapping of the environment. This paper will bring into the picture a cutting edge laser diode source that can deliver millijoule pulses as short as 12 ns, which makes them highly suitable for integration in flash lidars. They provide a 100-kW peak power highly divergent beam in a footprint of 4x5 cm2 (including both the laser diode and driver) and with a 30-% electrical-to-optical efficiency, making them suitable for integration in environments in which compactness and power consumption are a priority. Their emission in the range of 800-1000 nm is considered to be eye safe when taking into account the high divergence of the output beam. An overview of architecture of these state-of-the-art pulsed laser diode sources will be given together with some solutions for their integration in 3D mapping systems. Future work leads will be discussed for miniaturization of the laser diode and drastic cost reduction.

  13. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir, E-mail:


    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system.

  14. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir


    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system

  15. Study and development of 22 kW peak power fiber coupled short pulse Nd:YAG laser for cleaning applications

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Vachhani, D. M.; Singh, Ravindra; Misra, Pushkar; Jain, R. K.; Arya, R.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.


    Free running short pulse Nd:YAG laser of microsecond pulse duration and high peak power has a unique capability to ablate material from the surface without heat propagation into the bulk. Applications of short pulse Nd:YAG lasers include cleaning and restoration of marble, stones, and a variety of metals for conservation. A study on the development of high peak power short pulses from Nd:YAG laser along with its cleaning and conservation applications has been performed. A pulse energy of 1.25 J with 55 μs pulse duration and a maximum peak power of 22 kW has been achieved. Laser beam has an M2 value of ~28 and a pulse-to-pulse stability of ±2.5%. A lower value of M2 means a better beam quality of the laser in multimode operation. A top hat spatial profile of the laser beam was achieved at the exit end of 200 μm core diameter optical fiber, which is desirable for uniform cleaning. This laser system has been evaluated for efficient cleaning of surface contaminations on marble, zircaloy, and inconel materials for conservation with cleaning efficiency as high as 98%. Laser's cleaning quality and efficiency have been analysed by using a microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) measurements.

  16. Atmospheric Propagation and Combining of High-Power Lasers


    Brightness-scaling potential of actively phase- locked solid state laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 460–472, May...attempting to phase- lock high-power lasers, which is not encountered when phase- locking low-power lasers, for example mW power levels. Regardless, does not currently exist. This presents a challenging problem when attempting to phase- lock high-power lasers, which is not encountered when

  17. Laser radiation short pulse absorption in a high-density plasma

    Brantov, A.V.; Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.


    Dependences of the absorption coefficients for s and p polarized electromagnetic waves (laser radiation) in a semi-bound plasma on the temperature and incidence angle are found for an arbitrary ratio of the skin-layer depth to the electron free path length t. The dependences obtained describe transition from the normal skin effect to abnormal one and permit quantitatively to determine the absorption coefficients in the intermediate range of the parameter t, characteristic for the majority of modern experiments

  18. Thermal interaction of short-pulsed laser focused beams with skin tissues

    Jiao Jian; Guo Zhixiong


    Time-dependent thermal interaction is developed in a skin tissue cylinder subjected to the irradiation of a train of short laser pulses. The skin embedded with a small tumor is stratified as three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat with different optical, thermal and physiological properties. The laser beam is focused to the tumor site by an objective lens for thermal therapy. The ultrafast radiation heat transfer of the focused beam is simulated by the transient discrete ordinates method. The transient Pennes bio-heat equation is solved numerically by the finite volume method with alternating direction implicit scheme. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of the focused beam propagation and absorption and the temperature rise in the focal spot. The effects of the focal spot size and location, the laser power, and the bio-heat equation are investigated. Comparisons with collimated irradiation are conducted. The focused beam can penetrate a greater depth and produce higher temperature rise at the target area, and thus reduce the possibility of thermal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is ideal for killing cancerous cells and small tumors.

  19. Thermal interaction of short-pulsed laser focused beams with skin tissues

    Jiao Jian; Guo Zhixiong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail:


    Time-dependent thermal interaction is developed in a skin tissue cylinder subjected to the irradiation of a train of short laser pulses. The skin embedded with a small tumor is stratified as three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat with different optical, thermal and physiological properties. The laser beam is focused to the tumor site by an objective lens for thermal therapy. The ultrafast radiation heat transfer of the focused beam is simulated by the transient discrete ordinates method. The transient Pennes bio-heat equation is solved numerically by the finite volume method with alternating direction implicit scheme. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of the focused beam propagation and absorption and the temperature rise in the focal spot. The effects of the focal spot size and location, the laser power, and the bio-heat equation are investigated. Comparisons with collimated irradiation are conducted. The focused beam can penetrate a greater depth and produce higher temperature rise at the target area, and thus reduce the possibility of thermal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is ideal for killing cancerous cells and small tumors.

  20. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.


    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  1. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    Olsen, Flemming Ove


    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  2. Supersonic Ionization Wave Driven by Radiation Transport in a Short-Pulse Laser-Produced Plasma

    Ditmire, T.; Gumbrell, E.T.; Smith, R.A.; Mountford, L.; Hutchinson, M.H.


    Through the use of an ultrashort (2ps) optical probe, we have time resolved the propagation of an ionization wave into solid fused silica. This ionization wave results when a plasma is created by the intense irradiation of a solid target with a 2ps laser pulse. We find that the velocity of the ionization wave is consistent with radiation driven thermal transport, exceeding the velocity expected from simple electron thermal conduction by nearly an order of magnitude. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society


    S. Terniche


    Full Text Available The purpose of this representation is to show the potentialities (Computational Time, access to the dynamic and feasibility of systematic studies of the numerical study of the nonlinear dynamics in laser cavity, assisted by software. We will give as an example, one type of cavity completely fibered composed of several elements and then studying the physical parameters of a pulse propagating into this cavity, determining its characteristics at the output. The results are interesting but we also projects to verify them experimentally by making assemblies similar to this type of cavities.

  4. Enhancing caries resistance with a short-pulsed CO2 9.3-μm laser: a laboratory study (Conference Presentation)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M.; Groves, William H.; Le, Charles; Rapozo-Hilo, Marcia L.; Featherstone, John D. B.


    The objective of this laboratory study was to test whether irradiation with a new 9.3µm microsecond short-pulsed CO2-laser enhances enamel caries resistance with and without additional fluoride applications. 101 human enamel samples were divided into 7 groups. Each group was treated with different laser parameters (Carbon-dioxide laser, wavelength 9.3µm, 43Hz pulse-repetition rate, pulse duration between 3μs to 7μs (1.5mJ/pulse to 2.9mJ/pulse). Using a pH-cycling model and cross-sectional microhardness testing determined the mean relative mineral loss delta Z (∆Z) for each group. The pH-cycling was performed with or without additional fluoride. The CO2 9.3μm short-pulsed laser energy rendered enamel caries resistant with and without additional fluoride use.

  5. Analysis of neon soft x-ray spectra from short-pulse laser-produced plasmas

    Abare, A.C.; Keane, C.J.; Crane, J.K.; DaSilva, L.B.; Lee, R.W.; Perry, M.D.; Falcone, R.W.


    We report preliminary results from the analysis of streaked soft x-ray neon spectra a gas jet target. In obtained from the interaction of a picosecond Nd:glass laser with these experiments streaked spectra show prompt harmonic emission followed by longer time duration soft x-ray line emission. The majority of the line emission observed was found to originate from Li- and Be-like Ne and the major transitions in the observed spectra have been identified. Li-like emission lines were observed to decay faster in time than Be-like transitions, suggesting that recombination is taking place. Line ratios of n=4-2 and n=3-2 transitions supported the view that these lines were optically thin and thick, respectively. The time history of Li-like Ne 2p-4d and 2p-3d lines is in good agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model coupled to a time dependent collisional-radiative code. Further x-ray spectroscopic analysis is underway which is aimed at diagnosing plasma conditions and assessing the potential of this recombining neon plasma as a quasi-steady-state recombination x-ray laser medium

  6. Selection of heat transfer model for describing short-pulse laser heating silica-based sensor

    Hao Xiangnan; Nie Jinsong; Li Hua; Bian Jintian


    The fundamental equations of Fourier heat transfer model and non-Fourier heat transfer model were numerically solved, with the finite difference method. The relative changes between temperature curves of the two heat transfer models were analyzed under laser irradiation with different pulse widths of 10 ns, 1 ns, 100 ps, 10 ps. The impact of different thermal relaxation time on non-Fourier model results was discussed. For pulses of pulse width less than or equal to 100 ps irradiating silicon material, the surface temperature increases slowly and carrier effect happens, which the non-Fourier model can reflect properly. As for general material, when the pulse width is less than or equal to the thermal relaxation time of material, carrier effect occurs. In this case, the non-Fourier model should be used. (authors)

  7. Development of high damage threshold optics for petawatt-class short-pulse lasers

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Boyd, R.D.


    The authors report laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics and gold-coated optics at 1053 and 526 nm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Damage thresholds of gold coatings are limited to 500 mJ/cm 2 in the subpicosecond range for 1053-nm pulses. In dielectrics, qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in quantitative agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  8. Self-cleaning effect in high quality percussion ablating of cooling hole by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser

    Zhao, Wanqin; Yu, Zhishui


    Comparing with the trepanning technology, cooling hole could be processed based on the percussion drilling with higher processing efficiency. However, it is widely believed that the ablating precision of hole is lower for percussion drilling than for trepanning, wherein, the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and the recast layer inside the hole are the two main issues for reducing the ablating precision of hole, especially for the recast layer, it can't be eliminated completely even through the trepanning technology. In this paper, the self-cleaning effect which is a particular property just for percussion ablating of holes has been presented in detail. In addition, the reasons inducing the self-cleaning effect have been discussed. At last, based on the self-cleaning effect of percussion drilling, high quality cooling hole without the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and recast layer inside the hole could be ablated in nickel-based superalloy by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser.

  9. Optically transparent and durable Al2O3 coatings for harsh environments by ultra short pulsed laser deposition

    Korhonen, Hannu; Syväluoto, Aki; Leskinen, Jari T. T.; Lappalainen, Reijo


    Nowadays, an environmental protection is needed for a number of optical applications in conditions quickly impairing the clarity of optical surfaces. Abrasion resistant optical coatings applied onto plastics are usually based on alumina or polysiloxane technology. In many applications transparent glasses and ceramics need a combination of abrasive and chemically resistant shielding or other protective solutions like coatings. In this study, we intended to test our hypothesis that clear and pore free alumina coating can be uniformly distributed on glass prisms by ultra short pulsed laser deposition (USPLD) technique to protect the sensitive surfaces against abrasives. Abrasive wear tests were carried out by the use of SiC emery paper using specified standard procedures. After the wear tests the measured transparencies of coated prisms turned out to be close those of the prisms before coating. The coating on sensitive surfaces consistently displayed enhanced wear resistance exhibiting still high quality, even after severe wear testing. Furthermore, the coating modified the surface properties towards hydrophobic nature in contrast to untreated prisms, which became very hydrophilic especially due to wear.

  10. Survey on modern pulsed high power lasers

    Witte, K.J.


    The requirements to be met by lasers for particle acceleration are partially similar to those already known for fusion lasers. The power level wanted in both caes is up to 100 TW or even more. The pulse durations favourable for laser accelerators are in the range from 1 ps to 1000 ps whereas fusion lasers require several ns. The energy range for laser accelerators is thus correspondingly smaller than that for fusion lasers: 1-100 kJ versus several 100 kJ. The design criteria of lasers meeting the requirements are discussed in the following. The CO 2 , iodine, Nd:glass and excimer lasers are treated in detail. The high repetition rate aspect will not be particularly addressed since for the present generation of lasers the wanted rates of far above 1 Hz are completely out of scope. Moreover, for the demonstration of principle these rates are not needed. (orig./HSI)

  11. Laser-fired contact formation on metallized and passivated silicon wafers under short pulse durations

    Raghavan, Ashwin S.

    The objective of this work is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the physical processes governing laser-fired contact (LFC) formation under microsecond pulse durations. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding how processing parameters influence contact morphology, passivation layer quality, alloying of Al and Si, and contact resistance. In addition, the research seeks to develop a quantitative method to accurately predict the contact geometry, thermal cycles, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and the influence of contact pitch distance on substrate temperatures in order to improve the physical understanding of the underlying processes. Finally, the work seeks to predict how geometry for LFCs produced with microsecond pulses will influence fabrication and performance factors, such as the rear side contacting scheme, rear surface series resistance and effective rear surface recombination rates. The characterization of LFC cross-sections reveals that the use of microsecond pulse durations results in the formation of three-dimensional hemispherical or half-ellipsoidal contact geometries. The LFC is heavily alloyed with Al and Si and is composed of a two-phase Al-Si microstructure that grows from the Si wafer during resolidification. As a result of forming a large three-dimensional contact geometry, the total contact resistance is governed by the interfacial contact area between the LFC and the wafer rather than the planar contact area at the original Al-Si interface within an opening in the passivation layer. By forming three-dimensional LFCs, the total contact resistance is significantly reduced in comparison to that predicted for planar contacts. In addition, despite the high energy densities associated with microsecond pulse durations, the passivation layer is well preserved outside of the immediate contact region. Therefore, the use of microsecond pulse durations can be used to improve device performance by leading to lower total contact resistances

  12. Industrial application of high power disk lasers

    Brockmann, Rüdiger; Havrilla, David


    Laser welding has become one of the fastest growing areas for industrial laser applications. The increasing cost effectiveness of the laser process is enabled by the development of new highly efficient laser sources, such as the Disk laser, coupled with decreasing cost per Watt. TRUMPF introduced the Disk laser several years ago, and today it has become the most reliable laser tool on the market. The excellent beam quality and output powers of up to 10 kW enable its application in the automotive industry as well as in the range of thick plate welding, such as heavy construction and ship building. This serves as an overview of the most recent developments on the TRUMPF Disk laser and its industrial applications like cutting, welding, remote welding and hybrid welding, too. The future prospects regarding increased power and even further improved productivity and economics are presented.

  13. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  14. Working Group VI Summary Report: New Ideas Employing High-Power Lasers

    Leemans, W.P.


    The objectives of this working group were to provide the ''Future Light Source Community'' information on: Electron-Laser interaction based sources; Plasma based radiation sources and accelerators; and Present and future high-power laser technology. A summary of presentations, discussions and opinions is presented next. At the end of this report, a few references are given. The list is very far from being complete but is meant as a start for further exploring the various topics discussed in this working group. Based on presentations and discussions during the workshop, a summarizing table of the performance of three different types of laser systems has been made. The emphasis is on listing performance parameters of solid state, FEL and gas based lasers, relevant to the development of a future fourth generation light source. Two types of solid state lasers capable of producing peak power in the multi-terawatt range are described: Nd:glass and Ti:sapphire lasers [1]. The main development for these lasers is towards higher average power levels: from the 10 W to the > 100 W level. An infrared FEL has recently produced 1 kW average power but with peak power on the order of 0.1 GW [2]. A terawatt class, short pulse CO 2 based gas laser is under development at the Advanced Test Facility at BNL [3

  15. High-powered CO2 -lasers and noise control

    Honkasalo, Antero; Kuronen, Juhani

    High-power CO2 -lasers are being more and more widely used for welding, drilling and cutting in machine shops. In the near future, different kinds of surface treatments will also become routine practice with laser units. The industries benefitting most from high power lasers will be: the automotive industry, shipbuilding, the offshore industry, the aerospace industry, the nuclear and the chemical processing industries. Metal processing lasers are interesting from the point of view of noise control because the working tool is a laser beam. It is reasonable to suppose that the use of such laser beams will lead to lower noise levels than those connected with traditional metal processing methods and equipment. In the following presentation, the noise levels and possible noise-control problems attached to the use of high-powered CO2 -lasers are studied.

  16. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    Stehle, M [SOPRA, 92 - Bois-Colombes (France)


    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at {lambda} = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : (a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. (b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. (c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. (d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.).

  17. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    Stehle, M.


    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at λ = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  18. High power atomic iodine photodissociation lasers

    Palmer, R.E.; Padrick, T.D.; Jones, E.D.


    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has developed into a system capable of producing nanosecond or shorter pulses of near infrared radiation with energies well in excess of a hundred J. Discussed are the operating characteristics, advantages, and potential problem areas associated with this laser

  19. Fundamentals and industrial applications of high power laser beam cladding

    Bruck, G.J.


    Laser beam cladding has been refined such that clad characteristics are precisely determined through routine process control. This paper reviews the state of the art of laser cladding optical equipment, as well as the fundamental process/clad relationships that have been developed for high power processing. Major categories of industrial laser cladding are described with examples chose to highlight particular process attributes

  20. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    Liu, Jingru


    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  1. Compact High Power Fiber Laser, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is the development of a portable and efficient pulsed laser system for LIDAR and ranging applications, which make use of the latest...

  2. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Perin J.P.


    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  3. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.


    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  4. The Application of Cryogenic Laser Physics to the Development of High Average Power Ultra-Short Pulse Lasers

    David C. Brown


    Full Text Available Ultrafast laser physics continues to advance at a rapid pace, driven primarily by the development of more powerful and sophisticated diode-pumping sources, the development of new laser materials, and new laser and amplification approaches such as optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification. The rapid development of high average power cryogenic laser sources seems likely to play a crucial role in realizing the long-sought goal of powerful ultrafast sources that offer concomitant high peak and average powers. In this paper, we review the optical, thermal, thermo-optic and laser parameters important to cryogenic laser technology, recently achieved laser and laser materials progress, the progression of cryogenic laser technology, discuss the importance of cryogenic laser technology in ultrafast laser science, and what advances are likely to be achieved in the near-future.

  5. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter


    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations...

  6. A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers

    Katzir, Yiftach; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ferber, Yair; Zigler, Arie; Hubbard, Richard F.


    We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.

  7. A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers

    Katzir, Yiftach; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ferber, Yair; Zigler, Arie; Hubbard, Richard F.


    We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.

  8. Recent results in mirror based high power laser cutting

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Elvang, Mads


    In this paper, recent results in high power laser cutting, obtained in reseach and development projects are presented. Two types of mirror based focussing systems for laser cutting have been developed and applied in laser cutting studies on CO2-lasers up to 12 kW. In shipyard environment cutting...... speed increase relative to state-of-the-art cutting of over 100 % has been achieved....

  9. High-power laser source evaluation

    Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Dipeso, G.J.; Gerassimenko, M.; Managan, R.A.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Simonson, G.F.; Suter, L.J.



  10. Final Report: High Power Semiconductor Laser Sources,


    Mittelstein, Yasuhiko Arakawa, ) Anders Larssonb) and Amnon Yariv California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91 125~412 (Received 7 July...Electronics and Commu- nication Engineers of Japan. He is a member of the Institute of Electronics Yasuhiko Arakawa S󈨑-M󈨔) was born in Ai- and...Gain, Modulation Response, and Spectral Linewidth in AlGaAs Quantum Well Lasers YASUHIKO ARAKAWA. MEMBER, IEEE. AND AMNON YARIV. FELLOW. IEEE Abstract

  11. Development of high power pulsed CO2 laser

    Nakai, Sadao; Matoba, Masafumi; Fujita, Hisanori; Daido, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Mitsuo


    The inertial nuclear fusion research using pellet implosion has rapidly progressed accompanying laser technique improvement and output increase. As the high output lasers for this purpose, Nd glass lasers or CO 2 lasers are used. The CO 2 lasers possess the characteristics required as reactor lasers, i.e., high efficiency, high frequency repetition, possibility of scale-up and economy. So, the technical development of high power CO 2 lasers assuming also as reactor drivers has been performed at a quick pace together with the research on the improvement of efficiency of pellet implosion by 10 μm laser beam. The Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, stated to build a laser system LEKKO No. 8 of 8 beams and 10 kJ based on the experiences in laser systems LEKKO No. 1 and LEKKO No. 2, and the system LEKKO No. 8 was completed in March, 1981. The operation tests for one year since then has indicated as the laser characteristics that the system performance was as designed initially. This paper reviews the structure, problems and present status of the large scale CO 2 lasers. In other words, the construction of laser system, CO 2 laser proper, oscillator, booster amplifier, prevention of parasitic oscillation, non-linear pulse propagation and fairing of output pulse form, system control and beam alignment, and high power problems are described. The results obtained are to be reported in subsequent issues. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Functionally graded materials produced with high power lasers

    De Hosson, J. T. M.; Ocelik, V.; Chandra, T; Torralba, JM; Sakai, T


    In this keynote paper two examples will be present of functionally graded materials produced with high power Nd:YAG lasers. In particular the conditions for a successful Laser Melt Injection (LMI) of SiC and WC particles into the melt pool of A18Si and Ti6Al4V alloys are presented. The formation of

  13. High power green lasers for gamma source

    Durand, Magali; Sevillano, Pierre; Alexaline, Olivier; Sangla, Damien; Casanova, Alexis; Aubourg, Adrien; Saci, Abdelhak; Courjaud, Antoine


    A high intensity Gamma source is required for Nuclear Spectroscopy, it will be delivered by the interaction between accelerated electron and intense laser beams. Those two interactions lasers are based on a multi-stage amplification scheme that ended with a second harmonics generation to deliver 200 mJ, 5 ps pulses at 515 nm and 100 Hz. A t-Pulse oscillator with slow and fast feedback loop implemented inside the oscillator cavity allows the possibility of synchronization to an optical reference. A temporal jitter of 120 fs rms is achieved, integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz. Then a regenerative amplifier, based on Yb:YAG technology, pumped by fiber-coupled QCW laser diodes, delivers pulses up to 30 mJ. The 1 nm bandwidth was compressed to 1.5 ps with a good spatial quality: M2 of 1.1. This amplifier is integrated in a compact sealed housing (750 x 500 x 150 mm), which allows a pulse-pulse stability of 0.1 % rms, and a long-term stability of 1,9 % over 100 hours (with +/-1°C environment). The main amplification stage uses a cryocooled Yb:YAG crystal in an active mirror configuration. The crystal is cooled at 130 K via a compact and low-vibration cryocooler, avoiding any additional phase noise contribution, 340 mJ in a six pass scheme was achieved, with 0.9 of Strehl ratio. The trade off to the gain of a cryogenic amplifier is the bandwidth reduction, however the 1030 nm pulse was compressed to 4.4 ps. As for the regenerative amplifier a long-term stability of 1.9 % over 30 hours was achieved in an environment with +/-1°C temperature fluctuations The compression and Second Harmonics Generation Stages have allowed the conversion of 150 mJ of uncompressed infrared beam into 60 mJ at 515 nm.

  14. Optical design of high power excimer laser system

    Zhang Yongsheng; Zhao Jun; Ma Lianying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru


    Image relay and angular multiplexing,which should be considered together in the design of high power excimer laser system, is reviewed. It's important to select proper illumination setup and laser beam shaping techniques. Given the complex and special angular multiplexing scheme in high power excimer laser systems, some detailed conceptual layout schemes are given in the paper. After a brief description of lens array and reflective telescope objective, which combine the incoming beams to a common focus, a new schematic layout which uses the final targeting optics and one optical delay line array, to realize multiplexing and de-multiplexing simultaneously is first proposed in the paper. (authors)

  15. High-power CO laser and its potential applications

    Sato, Shunichi; Takahashi, Kunimitsu; Shimamoto, Kojiro; Takashima, Yoichi; Matsuda, Keiichi; Kuribayashi, Shizuma; Noda, Osamu; Imatake, Shigenori; Kondo, Motoe.


    The R and D program for the development of a high-power CO laser and its application technologies is described. Based on a self-sustained discharge excitation scheme, the available laser output has been successfully scaled to over 20 kW. The CO laser cutting experiments for thick metals have been performed in association with the decommissioning technologies development. Other potential applications, which include those based on photo chemical process, are reviewed. Recently demonstrated high-power tunable operation and room-temperature operation are also reported. (author)

  16. Stretchers and compressors for ultra-high power laser systems

    Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)


    This review is concerned with pulse stretchers and compressors as key components of ultra-high power laser facilities that take advantage of chirped-pulse amplification. The potentialities, characteristics, configurations and methods for the matching and alignment of these devices are examined, with particular attention to the history of the optics of ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses before and after 1985, when the chirped-pulse amplification method was proposed, which drastically changed the view of the feasibility of creating ultra-high power laser sources. The review is intended primarily for young scientists and experts who begin to address the amplification and compression of chirped pulses, experts in laser optics and all who are interested in scientific achievements in the field of ultra-high power laser systems. (review)

  17. High power laser-matter interaction

    Mulser, Peter


    This book intended as a guide for scientists and students who have just discovered the field as a new and attractive area of research, and for scientists who have worked in another field and want to join now the subject of laser plasmas. In the first chapter the plasma dynamics is described phenomenologically by a two fluid model and similarity relations from dimensional analysis. Chapter 2 is devoted to plasma optics and collisional absorption in the dielectric and ballistic model. Linear resonance absorption at the plasma frequency and its mild nonlinearities as well as the self-quenching of high amplitude electron plasma waves by wave breaking are discussed in Chapter 3. With increasing laser intensity the plasma dynamics is dominated by radiation pressure, at resonance producing all kinds of parametric instabilities and out of resonance leading to density steps, self-focusing and filamentation, described in Chapters 4 and 5. A self-contained treatment of field ionization of atoms and related phenomena ar...

  18. High Power High Efficiency Diode Laser Stack for Processing

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hui; Fu, Yueming; Cui, Yan


    High-power diode lasers based on GaAs semiconductor bars are well established as reliable and highly efficient laser sources. As diode laser is simple in structure, small size, longer life expectancy with the advantages of low prices, it is widely used in the industry processing, such as heat treating, welding, hardening, cladding and so on. Respectively, diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. At this power level, it can have many important applications, such as surgery, welding of polymers, soldering, coatings and surface treatment of metals. But there are some applications, which require much higher power and brightness, e.g. hardening, key hole welding, cutting and metal welding. In addition, High power diode lasers in the military field also have important applications. So all developed countries have attached great importance to high-power diode laser system and its applications. This is mainly due their low performance. In this paper we will introduce the structure and the principle of the high power diode stack.

  19. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H


    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  20. Material Processing with High Power CO2-Lasers

    Bakowsky, Lothar


    After a period of research and development lasertechnique now is regarded as an important instrument for flexible, economic and fully automatic manufacturing. Especially cutting of flat metal sheets with high power C02-lasers and CNC controlled two or three axes handling systems is a wide spread. application. Three dimensional laser cutting, laser-welding and -heat treatment are just at the be ginning of industrial use in production lines. The main. advantages of laser technology. are - high. accuracy - high, processing velocity - law thermal distortion. - no tool abrasion. The market for laser material processing systems had 1985 a volume of 300 Mio S with growth rates between, 20 % and 30 %. The topic of this lecture are hiTrh. power CO2-lasers. Besides this systems two others are used as machining tools, Nd-YAG- and Eximer lasers. All applications of high. power CO2-lasers to industrial material processing show that high processing velocity and quality are only guaranteed in case of a stable intensity. profile on the workpiece. This is only achieved by laser systems without any power and mode fluctuations and by handling systems of high accuracy. Two applications in the automotive industry are described, below as examples for laser cutting and laser welding of special cylindrical motor parts.

  1. Trends in high power laser applications in civil engineering

    Wignarajah, Sivakumaran; Sugimoto, Kenji; Nagai, Kaori


    This paper reviews the research and development efforts made on the use of lasers for material processing in the civil engineering industry. Initial investigations regarding the possibility of using lasers in civil engineering were made in the 1960s and '70s, the target being rock excavation. At that time however, the laser powers available were too small for any practical application utilization. In the 1980's, the technology of laser surface cleaning of historically important structures was developed in Europe. In the early 1990s, techniques of laser surface modification, including glazing and coloring of concrete, roughening of granite stones, carbonization of wood were pursued, mainly in Japan. In the latter part of the decade, techniques of laser decontamination of concrete surfaces in nuclear facilities were developed in many countries, and field tests were caried out in Japan. The rapid advances in development of diode lasers and YAG lasers with high power outputs and efficiencies since the late 1990's have led to a revival of worldwide interest in the use of lasers for material processing in civil engineering. The authors believe that, in the next 10 years or so, the advent of compact high power lasers is likely to lead to increased use of lasers of material processing in the field of civil engineering.

  2. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.


    The introduction of high power single mode fiber lasers allows for a beam of high power and a good beam quality factor (M2 ” 1.2), compared to the multimode fiber lasers often utilised in macro laser metal cutting. This paper describes fundamental studies of macro laser metal cutting with a singl...

  3. Department of Defense high power laser program guidance

    Muller, Clifford H.


    The DoD investment of nominally $200 million per year is focused on four high power laser (HPL) concepts: Space-Based Laser (SBL), a Ballistic Missile Defense Organization effort that addresses boost-phase intercept for Theater Missile Defense and National Missile Defense; Airborne Laser (ABL), an Air Force effort that addresses boost-phase intercept for Theater Missile Defense; Ground-Based Laser (GBL), an Air Force effort addressing space control; and Anti-Ship Missile Defense (ASMD), a Navy effort addressing ship-based defense. Each organization is also supporting technology development with the goal of achieving less expensive, brighter, and lighter high power laser systems. These activities represent the building blocks of the DoD program to exploit the compelling characteristics of the high power laser. Even though DoD's HPL program are focused and moderately strong, additional emphasis in a few technical areas could help reduce risk in these programs. In addition, a number of options are available for continuing to use the High-Energy Laser System Test Facility (HELSTF) at White Sands Missile Range. This report provides a brief overview and guidance for the five efforts which comprise the DoD HPL program (SBL, ABL, GBL, ASMD, HELSTF).

  4. Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode in vacuum

    Miyazaki, Shuji; Kawata, Shigeo; Kong, Qing; Miyauchi, Koichi; Sakai, Kei; Hasumi, Shotaro; Sonobe, Ryo; Kikuchi, Takashi


    The generation of a high energy microelectron bunch in vacuum by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode is investigated in this paper numerically and analytically. A focused short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode has a confinement effect on electrons in the transverse direction due to the transverse ponderomotive force, and at the same time the electrons are accelerated and compressed longitudinally by a longitudinal electric field. In our three-dimensional particle simulations, the maximum kinetic energy of electrons reaches 455 MeV, the maximum density is 3.87 x 10 10 cm -3 , and the normalized transverse and longitudinal rms emittances of accelerated electrons are of the order of 10 -6 m rad at the following parameter values: a 0 = eE 0 /(m e ω c) = 10 (where a 0 is the dimensionless parameter of the laser amplitude, e and m e are the electron charge and rest mass, respectively, E 0 is the laser amplitude, ω the angular frequency of the laser and c the speed of light in vacuum), a laser wavelength λ = 0.8 μm, laser spot size 20λ, laser pulse length 5λ and initial electron velocity 0.99c. Moreover, the transverse and longitudinal sizes of the compressed electron bunch are about 600λ and 10λ, respectively. In this paper, we also present a scaling law of the maximum electron energy. The estimated results of the maximum electron energy coincide well with the simulation results

  5. Hosing, sausaging, filamentation and side-scatter of a high-intensity short-pulse laser in an under-dense plasma

    Najmudin, Z.; Krushelnick, K.; Clark, E.L.; Salvati, M.; Santala, M.I.K.; Tatarakis, M.; Dangor, A.E.


    Previous studies of high-intensity short-pulse laser beams propagating in under-dense plasma have relied on spectrally integrated Thomson scattering images. Though interesting, many significant features of the interaction cannot be diagnosed by this method. We report on shadow-graphy and spectrally resolved Thomson scattering of such an interaction. These images reveal many processes previously predicted but unseen, such as the Raman side-scatter and filamentation instabilities. Also the interaction is shown to clearly demonstrate many propagation instabilities such as 'sausaging' and 'hosing' for the first time. (authors)

  6. Short-Pulse-Width Repetitively Q-Switched ~2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 Ceramic Laser

    Xiaojing Ren


    Full Text Available A short-pulse-width repetitively Q-switched 2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser is demonstrated using a specially designed mechanical switch, a metal plate carved with slits of both slit-width and duty-cycle optimized. With a 20% transmission output coupler, stable pulse trains with durations (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM of 27–38 ns were generated with a repetition rate within the range of 0.26–4 kHz. The peak power at a 0.26 kHz repetition rate was ~3 kW.

  7. High-Power ZBLAN Glass Fiber Lasers: Review and Prospect

    Xiushan Zhu


    Full Text Available ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF, considered as the most stable heavy metal fluoride glass and the excellent host for rare-earth ions, has been extensively used for efficient and compact ultraviolet, visible, and infrared fiber lasers due to its low intrinsic loss, wide transparency window, and small phonon energy. In this paper, the historical progress and the properties of fluoride glasses and the fabrication of ZBLAN fibers are briefly described. Advances of infrared, upconversion, and supercontinuum ZBLAN fiber lasers are addressed in detail. Finally, constraints on the power scaling of ZBLAN fiber lasers are analyzed and discussed. ZBLAN fiber lasers are showing promise of generating high-power emissions covering from ultraviolet to mid-infrared considering the recent advances in newly designed optical fibers, beam-shaped high-power pump diodes, beam combining techniques, and heat-dissipating technology.

  8. Detection of calculus by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using an ultra-short pulse laser system (USPL)

    Schelle, F.; Brede, O.; Krueger, S.; Oehme, B.; Dehn, C.; Frentzen, M.; Braun, A.


    The aim of this study was to assess the detection of calculus by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The study was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser, emitting pulses with a duration of 8 ps at a wavelength of 1064 nm. A repetition rate of 500 kHz at an average power of 5 W was used. Employing a focusing lense, intensities of the order of 1011 W/cm2 were reached on the tooth surface. These high intensities led to the generation of a plasma. The light emitted by the plasma was collimated into a fibre and then analyzed by an echelle spectroscope in the wavelength region from 220 nm - 900 nm. A total number of 15 freshly extracted teeth was used for this study. For each tooth the spectra of calculus and cementum were assessed separately. Comprising all single measurements median values were calculated for the whole spectrum, leading to two specific spectra, one for calculus and one for cementum. For further statistical analysis 28 areas of interest were defined as wavelength regions, in which the signal strength differed regarding the material. In 7 areas the intensity of the calculus spectrum differed statistically significant from the intensity of the cementum spectrum (p calculus. Further studies are necessary to verify that LIBS is a minimally invasive method allowing a safe application in laser-guided dentistry.

  9. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping


    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  10. A high-power laser system for thermonuclear fusion experiments

    Azizov, Eh.A.; Ignat'ev, L.P.; Koval'skij, N.G.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Mamzer, A.F.; Pergament, M.I.; Rudnitskij, Yu.P.; Smirnov, G.V.; Yagnov, V.A.; Nikolaevskij, V.G.


    A high-power laser system has been designed for an energy output of approximately 3X10 4 J. Neodymium glass was selected based on the level of technical progress, operating experience and the availability of components. The operating performance that has been achieved to date is described. (author)

  11. Low-confinement high-power semiconductor lasers

    Buda, M.


    This thesis presents the results of studies related to optimisation of high power semiconductor laser diodes using the low confinement concept. This implies a different approach in designing the transversal layer structure before growth and in processing the wafer after growth, for providing the

  12. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  13. Wavelength dependency in high power laser cutting and welding

    Havrilla, David; Ziermann, Stephan; Holzer, Marco


    Laser cutting and welding have been around for more than 30 years. Within those three decades there has never been a greater variety of high power laser types and wavelengths to choose from than there is today. There are many considerations when choosing the right laser for any given application - capital investment, cost of ownership, footprint, serviceability, along with a myriad of other commercial & economic considerations. However, one of the most fundamental questions that must be asked and answered is this - "what type of laser is best suited for the application?". Manufacturers and users alike are realizing what, in retrospect, may seem obvious - there is no such thing as a universal laser. In many cases there is one laser type and wavelength that clearly provides the highest quality application results. This paper will examine the application fields of high power, high brightness 10.6 & 1 micron laser welding & cutting and will provide guidelines for selecting the laser that is best suited for the application. Processing speed & edge quality serve as key criteria for cutting. Whereas speed, seam quality & spatter ejection provide the paradigm for welding.

  14. Development of high-power dye laser chain

    Konagai, Chikara; Kimura, Hironobu; Fukasawa, Teruichiro; Seki, Eiji; Abe, Motohisa; Mori, Hideo


    Copper vapor laser (CVL) pumped dye laser (DL) system, both in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration, has been developed for Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation program in Japan. Dye laser output power of about 500 W has been proved in long-term operations over 200 hours. High power fiber optic delivery system is utilized in order to efficiently transport kilowatt level CVL beams to the DL MOPA. Single model CVL pumped DL oscillator has been developed and worked for 200 hours within +/- 0.1 pm wavelength stability. Phase modulator for spreading spectrum to the linewidth of hyperfine structure has been developed and demonstrated.

  15. Techniques for preventing damage to high power laser components

    Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Jones, W.A.; Wentworth, D.E.


    Techniques for preventing damage to components of the LASL Shiva high power laser system were briefly presented. Optical element damage in the disk amplifier from the combined fluence of the primary laser beam and the Xenon flash lamps that pump the cavity was discussed. Assembly and cleaning techniques were described which have improved optical element life by minimizing particulate and optically absorbing film contamination on assembled amplifier structures. A Class-100 vertical flaw clean room used for assembly and inspection of laser components was also described. The life of a disk amplifier was extended from less than 50 shots to 500 shots through application of these assembly and cleaning techniques

  16. Stabilized High Power Laser for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Willke, B; Danzmann, K; Fallnich, C; Frede, M; Heurs, M; King, P; Kracht, D; Kwee, P; Savage, R; Seifert, F; Wilhelm, R


    Second generation gravitational wave detectors require high power lasers with several 100W of output power and with very low temporal and spatial fluctuations. In this paper we discuss possible setups to achieve high laser power and describe a 200W prestabilized laser system (PSL). The PSL noise requirements for advanced gravitational wave detectors will be discussed in general and the stabilization scheme proposed for the Advanced LIGO PSL will be described. Special emphasis will be given to the most demanding power stabilization requirements and new results (RIN ≤ 4x10 -9 /√Hz) will be presented

  17. Experimental devices for the spatio-temporal characterization of femtosecond high-power laser chains

    Gallet, Valentin


    One of the advantages of high-power femtosecond lasers (TW-PW) is to obtain, at the focus of a focusing optic, very high intensities up to 10 22 -2 (i.e. an electric field of 2.7 PV.m -1 . Therefore, these lasers chains necessarily deliver beams with large diameter (up to 40 cm) and very short pulses (of the order of tens of femto-seconds). As a consequence, the spatial and temporal properties of the pulse are generally not independent. Such dependence, called spatial-temporal coupling has the effect of increasing the pulse duration and the size of the focal spot, which can lead to a significant reduction of the maximum intensity at the focus. Metrology devices commonly used on these high-power femtosecond lasers allow retrieving the spatial and temporal profiles of the pulse only in an independent manner. The aim of this thesis was to develop techniques for measuring spatio-temporal couplings in order to quantify their effect and correct them in order to obtain the maximum intensity at focus. First of all, we adapted an existing technique of spatio-temporal characterization to the measurement of TW lasers. To avoid the issues induced at the focus, such as those related to jittering, measurements were performed on the collimated beam. By adding a reference source to the original device, we managed to take into account the measurement artifacts due to thermal and mechanical variations affecting the interferometer. With this improvement, it was possible to reconstruct the complete spatio-temporal profile of the beam, particularly its wavefront. However, the limitations imposed by this technique led to the development of a new measurement device. Based on a cross-correlation, this technique consists of making the laser beam to interfere with a part of itself, small enough not to be spatio-temporally distorted. We have also implemented a variant of this device for a single-shot measurement along one transverse dimension of the pulse. Using these techniques, we

  18. Detection of tumor-like inclusions embedded within human liver tissue using a short-pulsed near-infrared laser beam: Parallel simulations with radiative transfer equation

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Addoum, Ahmad; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain


    An efficient solution to detect tumor-like inclusions embedded within a human liver tissue model is presented, using illumination by a short-pulsed laser beam. Light propagation was accurately solved using the time-dependent radiative transfer equation, with multithreaded parallel computing. A modified finite volume method based on unstructured grids and the fourth-order Runge–Kutta approach was employed to solve the equation in the (2-D/3-D) spatial and time domains. The normalization technique applied to the Henyey–Greenstein phase function was adopted to ensure numerical stability for values of the anisotropy factor that were close to unity. The presence of one or two circular/spherical inclusions was analyzed from the time and spatially resolved reflectance on the medium bounding surface. The results allowed a minimal size and a maximum distance for the detection of the inclusion to be highlighted. - Highlights: • We detect tumor-like inclusions embedded within a (2D/3D) human liver tissue model. • The technique is based on a short-pulsed near-infrared laser beam. • We solve the (2D/3D) time-dependent RTE, with multithreaded parallel computing. • The presence of one or two circular/spherical inclusions is analyzed. • The results allows a minimal size and a maximum distance for the detection

  19. High Power Diode Lasers with External Feedback: Overview and Prospects

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael


    In summary, different external-cavity feedback techniques to improve the spatial beam quality and narrow the linewidth of the output beam from both BALs and TDLs are presented. Broad-area diode laser system with external-cavity feedback around 800 nm can produce several Watts of output power...... with a good beam quality. Tapered diode laser systems with external-cavity feedback around 800 and 1060 nm can deliver more than 2 W output power with diffraction-limited beam quality and can be operated in single-longitudinal mode. These high-brightness, narrow linewidth, and tunable external-cavity diode...... lasers emerge as the next generation of compact lasers that have the potential of replacing conventional high power laser systems in many existing applications....

  20. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    Kodama, Ryosuke


    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  1. New generation of compact high power disk lasers

    Feuchtenbeiner, Stefanie; Zaske, Sebastian; Schad, Sven-Silvius; Gottwald, Tina; Kuhn, Vincent; Kumkar, Sören; Metzger, Bernd; Killi, Alexander; Haug, Patrick; Speker, Nicolai


    New technological developments in high power disk lasers emitting at 1030 nm are presented. These include the latest generation of TRUMPF's TruDisk product line offering high power disk lasers with up to 6 kW output power and beam qualities of up to 4 mm*mrad. With these compact devices a footprint reduction of 50% compared to the previous model could be achieved while at the same time improving robustness and increasing system efficiency. In the context of Industry 4.0, the new generation of TruDisk lasers features a synchronized data recording of all sensors, offering high-quality data for virtual analyses. The lasers therefore provide optimal hardware requirements for services like Condition Monitoring and Predictive Maintenance. We will also discuss its innovative and space-saving cooling architecture. It allows operation of the laser under very critical ambient conditions. Furthermore, an outlook on extending the new disk laser platform to higher power levels will be given. We will present a disk laser with 8 kW laser power out of a single disk with a beam quality of 5 mm*mrad using a 125 μm fiber, which makes it ideally suited for cutting and welding applications. The flexibility of the disk laser platform also enables the realization of a wide variety of beam guiding setups. As an example a new scheme called BrightLine Weld will be discussed. This technology allows for an almost spatter free laser welding process, even at high feed rates.

  2. High speed micromachining with high power UV laser

    Patel, Rajesh S.; Bovatsek, James M.


    Increasing demand for creating fine features with high accuracy in manufacturing of electronic mobile devices has fueled growth for lasers in manufacturing. High power, high repetition rate ultraviolet (UV) lasers provide an opportunity to implement a cost effective high quality, high throughput micromachining process in a 24/7 manufacturing environment. The energy available per pulse and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of diode pumped solid state (DPSS) nanosecond UV lasers have increased steadily over the years. Efficient use of the available energy from a laser is important to generate accurate fine features at a high speed with high quality. To achieve maximum material removal and minimal thermal damage for any laser micromachining application, use of the optimal process parameters including energy density or fluence (J/cm2), pulse width, and repetition rate is important. In this study we present a new high power, high PRF QuasarR 355-40 laser from Spectra-Physics with TimeShiftTM technology for unique software adjustable pulse width, pulse splitting, and pulse shaping capabilities. The benefits of these features for micromachining include improved throughput and quality. Specific example and results of silicon scribing are described to demonstrate the processing benefits of the Quasar's available power, PRF, and TimeShift technology.

  3. Modelling of Ne-like copper X-ray laser driven by 1.2 ps short pulse and 280 ps background pulse configuration

    Demir, A.; Kenar, N.; Goktas, H.; Tallents, G.J.


    Detailed simulations of Ne-like Cu x-ray laser are undertaken using the EHYBRID code. The atomic physics data are obtained using the Cowan code. The optimization calculations are performed in terms of the intensity of background and the time separation between the background and the short pulse. The optimum value is obtained for the conditions of a Nd:glass laser with 1.2 ps pulse at 4.4 x 10 15 W cm -2 irradiance pumping a plasma pre-formed by a 280 ps duration pulse at 5.4 x 10 12 W cm -2 with peak-to-peak pulse separation set at 300 ps. X-ray resonance lines between 6 A and 15 A emitted from copper plasmas have been simulated. Free-free and free-bound emission from the Si-, Al-, Mg-, Na-, Ne- and F-like ions is calculated in the simulation. (author)

  4. Kinetic study on non-thermal volumetric plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by a short pulse microwave or laser

    Yang, Wei, E-mail:; Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)


    This paper reports a kinetic study on non-thermal plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by short pulse microwave or laser. A global self-consistent model is based on the particle balance of complex plasma chemistry, electron energy equation, and gas thermal balance equation. Electron-ion Coulomb collision is included in the steady state Boltzmann equation solver to accurately describe the electron mobility and other transport coefficients. The model is used to simulate the afterglow of microsecond to nanosecond pulse microwave discharge in N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and air, as well as femtosecond laser filament discharge in dry and humid air. The simulated results for electron density decay are in quantitative agreement with the available measured ones. The evolution of plasma decay under an external electric field is also investigated, and the effect of gas heating is considered. The underlying mechanism of plasma density decay is unveiled through the above kinetic modeling.

  5. High-power ultrashort fiber laser for solar cells micromachining

    Lecourt, J.-B.; Duterte, C.; Liegeois, F.; Lekime, D.; Hernandez, Y.; Giannone, D.


    We report on a high-power ultra-short fiber laser for thin film solar cells micromachining. The laser is based on Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) scheme. The pulses are stretched to hundreds of picoseconds prior to amplification and can be compressed down to picosecond at high energy. The repetition rate is adjustable from 100 kHz to 1 MHz and the optical average output power is close to 13 W (before compression). The whole setup is fully fibred, except the compressor achieved with bulk gratings, resulting on a compact and reliable solution for cold ablation.

  6. High-Power Lasers for Science and Society

    Siders, C. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haefner, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Since the first demonstration of the laser in 1960 by Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, the principal defining characteristic of lasers has been their ability to focus unprecedented powers of light in space, time, and frequency. High-power lasers have, over the ensuing five and a half decades, illuminated entirely new fields of scientific endeavor as well as made a profound impact on society. While the United States pioneered lasers and their early applications, we have been eclipsed in the past decade by highly effective national and international networks in both Europe and Asia, which have effectively focused their energies, efforts, and resources to achieve greater scientific and societal impact. This white paper calls for strategic investment which, by striking an appropriate balance between distributing our precious national funds and establishing centers of excellence, will ensure a broad pipeline of people and transformative ideas connecting our world-leading universities, defining flagship facilities stewarded by our national laboratories, and driving innovation across industry, to fully exploit the potential of high-power lasers.

  7. High-power fiber lasers for photocathode electron injectors

    Zhi Zhao


    Full Text Available Many new applications for electron accelerators require high-brightness, high-average power beams, and most rely on photocathode-based electron injectors as a source of electrons. To achieve such a photoinjector, one requires both a high-power laser system to produce the high average current beam, and also a system at reduced repetition rate for electron beam diagnostics to verify high beam brightness. Here we report on two fiber laser systems designed to meet these specific needs, at 50 MHz and 1.3 GHz repetition rate, together with pulse pickers, second harmonic generation, spatiotemporal beam shaping, intensity feedback, and laser beam transport. The performance and flexibility of these laser systems have allowed us to demonstrate electron beam with both low emittance and high average current for the Cornell energy recovery linac.

  8. High power electron beam accelerators for gas laser excitation

    Kelly, J.G.; Martin, T.H.; Halbleib, J.A.


    A preliminary parameter investigation has been used to determine a possible design of a high-power, relativistic electron beam, transversely excited laser. Based on considerations of present and developing pulsed power technology, broad area diode physics and projected laser requirements, an exciter is proposed consisting of a Marx generator, pulse shaping transmission lines, radially converging ring diodes and a laser chamber. The accelerator should be able to deliver approximately 20 kJ of electron energy at 1 MeV to the 10 4 cm 2 cylindrical surface of a laser chamber 1 m long and 0.3 m in diameter in 24 ns with very small azimuthal asymmetry and uniform radial deposition

  9. Short pulse neutron generator

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.


    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  10. Recent progress in high-power slab lasers in Japan

    Fujii, Y.


    Recently, many solid-state lasers have been widely employed in Japanese industries, especially in the electronics industries for precise and reliable processing. To expand the use of solid-state lasers and to achieve higher processing speed, the authors are developing slab lasers of high power, high repetition rate, and high beam quality. Metal processing systems with optical fibers for large and complex 3-D work, multiwork station systems linked to only one laser with optical fibers, and compact x-ray sources for lithography are promising areas for such lasers. Surnitomo Metal Mining is growing Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG crystals 60 mm in diameter and 200 mm long. From 2 at.% Nd-doped GGG crystals without central core regions. The authors obtained two slab materials with dimensions of 35 X 9 X 192 and 55 X 15 X 213 mm/sup 3/. By using the smaller slab, they constructed a slab laser and obtained 370-W laser output power at 24-kW lamp input power and 10-pps repetition rate. Now they are constructing a 1-kW slab laser using the other larger size slab

  11. Coherent beam combining architectures for high power tapered laser arrays

    Schimmel, G.; Janicot, S.; Hanna, M.; Decker, J.; Crump, P.; Erbert, G.; Witte, U.; Traub, M.; Georges, P.; Lucas-Leclin, G.


    Coherent beam combining (CBC) aims at increasing the spatial brightness of lasers. It consists in maintaining a constant phase relationship between different emitters, in order to combine them constructively in one single beam. We have investigated the CBC of an array of five individually-addressable high-power tapered laser diodes at λ = 976 nm, in two architectures: the first one utilizes the self-organization of the lasers in an interferometric extended-cavity, which ensures their mutual coherence; the second one relies on the injection of the emitters by a single-frequency laser diode. In both cases, the coherent combining of the phase-locked beams is ensured on the front side of the array by a transmission diffractive grating with 98% efficiency. The passive phase-locking of the laser bar is obtained up to 5 A (per emitter). An optimization algorithm is implemented to find the proper currents in the five ridge sections that ensured the maximum combined power on the front side. Under these conditions we achieve a maximum combined power of 7.5 W. In the active MOPA configuration, we can increase the currents in the tapered sections up to 6 A and get a combined power of 11.5 W, corresponding to a combining efficiency of 76%. It is limited by the beam quality of the tapered emitters and by fast phase fluctuations between emitters. Still, these results confirm the potential of CBC approaches with tapered lasers to provide a high-power and high-brightness beam, and compare with the current state-of-the-art with laser diodes.

  12. Multi-focus beam shaping of high power multimode lasers

    Laskin, Alexander; Volpp, Joerg; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei


    Beam shaping of powerful multimode fiber lasers, fiber-coupled solid-state and diode lasers is of great importance for improvements of industrial laser applications. Welding, cladding with millimetre scale working spots benefit from "inverseGauss" intensity profiles; performance of thick metal sheet cutting, deep penetration welding can be enhanced when distributing the laser energy along the optical axis as more efficient usage of laser energy, higher edge quality and reduction of the heat affected zone can be achieved. Building of beam shaping optics for multimode lasers encounters physical limitations due to the low beam spatial coherence of multimode fiber-coupled lasers resulting in big Beam Parameter Products (BPP) or M² values. The laser radiation emerging from a multimode fiber presents a mixture of wavefronts. The fiber end can be considered as a light source which optical properties are intermediate between a Lambertian source and a single mode laser beam. Imaging of the fiber end, using a collimator and a focusing objective, is a robust and widely used beam delivery approach. Beam shaping solutions are suggested in form of optics combining fiber end imaging and geometrical separation of focused spots either perpendicular to or along the optical axis. Thus, energy of high power lasers is distributed among multiple foci. In order to provide reliable operation with multi-kW lasers and avoid damages the optics are designed as refractive elements with smooth optical surfaces. The paper presents descriptions of multi-focus optics as well as examples of intensity profile measurements of beam caustics and application results.

  13. Nuclear based diagnostics in high-power laser applications

    Guenther, Marc; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Harres, Knut; Otten, Anke; Roth, Markus [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Vogt, Karsten; Bagnoud, Vincent [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)


    High-power lasers allow focused intensities of >10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. During the laser-solid interaction, an intense relativistic electron current is injected from the plasma into the target. One challenge is to characterize the electron dynamic close to the interaction region. Moreover, next generation high-power laser proton acceleration leads to high proton fluxes, which require novel, nuclear diagnostic techniques. We present an activation-based nuclear pyrometry for the investigation of electrons generated in relativistic laser-solid interactions. We use novel activation targets consisting of several isotopes with different photo-neutron disintegration thresholds. The electrons are decelerated inside the target via bremsstrahlung processes. The high-energy bremsstrahlung induces photo-nuclear reactions. In this energy range no disturbing low energy effects are important. Via the pyrometry the Reconstruction of the absolute yield, spectral and spatial distribution of the electrons is possible. For the characterization of proton beams we present a nuclear activation imaging spectroscopy (NAIS). The diagnostic is based on proton-neutron disintegration reactions of copper stacked in consecutive layers. An autoradiography of copper layers leads to spectrally and spatially reconstruction of the beam profile.

  14. Study of Short-Pulsed Laser Retinal Injury Mechanisms By Time-Resolved Imaging of Photomechanical Transients in RPE

    Lin, Charles


    We studied RPE cell damage mechanism for laser duration from 100 femtosec to 5 microsec, and we have investigated the dependence of threshold fluence for cell damage on the laser spot size on the RPE...

  15. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  16. Fast optical shutters for Nova, a high power fusion laser

    Bradley, L.P.; Gagnon, W.L.; Carder, B.M.


    Preliminary design and performance test results for fast optical shutters intended for use in the Nova high power fusion laser system are briefly described. Both an opening shutter to protect the pellet target from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and a closing shutter to protect the laser from light reflected back from the target are discussed. Faraday rotators, synchronized by a 400 Hz oscillator, provide an opening shutter mechanism with an opening time of approximately 10 μs. A plasma closing shutter, employing electrical sublimation of a foil, provide a shutter closing time of 70 ns +- 20 ns. Energy for foil sublimation is provided by discharge of a 42 J capacitor bank. Implementation of these shutter techniques in the Nova system is anticipated to improve laser output power and efficiency

  17. Three-Dimensional Dynamics of Breakout Afterburner Ion Acceleration Using High-Contrast Short-Pulse Laser and Nanoscale Targets

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Fernandez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Hegelich, B. M.


    Breakout afterburner (BOA) laser-ion acceleration has been demonstrated for the first time in the laboratory. In the BOA, an initially solid-density target undergoes relativistically induced transparency, initiating a period of enhanced ion acceleration. First-ever kinetic simulations of the BOA in three dimensions show that the ion beam forms lobes in the direction orthogonal to laser polarization and propagation. Analytic theory presented for the electron dynamics in the laser ponderomotive field explains how azimuthal symmetry breaks even for a symmetric laser intensity profile; these results are consistent with recent experiments at the Trident laser facility.

  18. High power industrial picosecond laser from IR to UV

    Saby, Julien; Sangla, Damien; Pierrot, Simonette; Deslandes, Pierre; Salin, François


    Many industrial applications such as glass cutting, ceramic micro-machining or photovoltaic processes require high average and high peak power Picosecond pulses. The main limitation for the expansion of the picosecond market is the cost of high power picosecond laser sources, which is due to the complexity of the architecture used for picosecond pulse amplification, and the difficulty to keep an excellent beam quality at high average power. Amplification with fibers is a good technology to achieve high power in picosecond regime but, because of its tight confinement over long distances, light undergoes dramatic non linearities while propagating in fibers. One way to avoid strong non linearities is to increase fiber's mode area. Nineteen missing holes fibers offering core diameter larger than 80μm have been used over the past few years [1-3] but it has been shown that mode instabilities occur at approximately 100W average output power in these fibers [4]. Recently a new fiber design has been introduced, in which HOMs are delocalized from the core to the clad, preventing from HOMs amplification [5]. In these so-called Large Pitch Fibers, threshold for mode instabilities is increased to 294W offering robust single-mode operation below this power level [6]. We have demonstrated a high power-high efficiency industrial picosecond source using single-mode Large Pitch rod-type fibers doped with Ytterbium. Large Pitch Rod type fibers can offer a unique combination of single-mode output with a very large mode area from 40 μm up to 100μm and very high gain. This enables to directly amplify a low power-low energy Mode Locked Fiber laser with a simple amplification architecture, achieving very high power together with singlemode output independent of power level or repetition rate.

  19. Laser apparatus for surgery and force therapy based on high-power semiconductor and fibre lasers

    Minaev, V P


    High-power semiconductor lasers and diode-pumped lasers are considered whose development qualitatively improved the characteristics of laser apparatus for surgery and force therapy, extended the scope of their applications in clinical practice, and enhanced the efficiency of medical treatment based on the use of these lasers. The characteristics of domestic apparatus are presented and their properties related to the laser emission wavelength used in them are discussed. Examples of modern medical technologies based on these lasers are considered. (invited paper)

  20. Non-vacuum, single-step conductive transparent ZnO patterning by ultra-short pulsed laser annealing of solution-deposited nanoparticles

    Lee, Daeho; Pan, Heng; Kim, Eunpa; Grigoropoulos, Costas P. [University of California, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ko, Seung Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee K. [AppliFlex LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)


    A solution-processable, high-concentration transparent ZnO nanoparticle (NP) solution was successfully synthesized in a new process. A highly transparent ZnO thin film was fabricated by spin coating without vacuum deposition. Subsequent ultra-short-pulsed laser annealing at room temperature was performed to change the film properties without using a blanket high temperature heating process. Although the as-deposited NP thin film was not electrically conductive, laser annealing imparted a large conductivity increase and furthermore enabled selective annealing to write conductive patterns directly on the NP thin film without a photolithographic process. Conductivity enhancement could be obtained by altering the laser annealing parameters. Parametric studies including the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the annealed ZnO NP thin film were conducted for various laser powers, scanning speeds and background gas conditions. The lowest resistivity from laser-annealed ZnO thin film was about 4.75 x 10{sup -2} {omega} cm, exhibiting a factor of 10{sup 5} higher conductivity than the previously reported furnace-annealed ZnO NP film and is even comparable to that of vacuum-deposited, impurity-doped ZnO films within a factor of 10. The process developed in this work was applied to the fabrication of a thin film transistor (TFT) device that showed enhanced performance compared with furnace-annealed devices. A ZnO TFT performance test revealed that by just changing the laser parameters, the solution-deposited ZnO thin film can also perform as a semiconductor, demonstrating that laser annealing offers tunability of ZnO thin film properties for both transparent conductors and semiconductors. (orig.)

  1. Status and trends of short pulse generation using mode-locked lasers based on advanced quantum-dot active media

    Shi, L W; Chen, Y H; Xu, B; Wang, Z C; Jiao, Y H; Wang, Z G


    In this review, the potential of mode-locked lasers based on advanced quantum-dot (QD) active media to generate short optical pulses is analysed. A comprehensive review of experimental and theoretical work on related aspects is provided, including monolithic-cavity mode-locked QD lasers and external-cavity mode-locked QD lasers, as well as mode-locked solid-state and fibre lasers based on QD semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors. Performance comparisons are made for state-of-the-art experiments. Various methods for improving important characteristics of mode-locked pulses such as pulse duration, repetition rate, pulse power, and timing jitter through optimization of device design parameters or mode-locking methods are addressed. In addition, gain switching and self-pulsation of QD lasers are also briefly reviewed, concluding with the summary and prospects. (topical review)

  2. Type-I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    Bache, Morten; Wise, Frank W.


    The output pulses of a commercial high-power femtosecond fiber laser or amplifier are typically around 300–500 fs with wavelengths of approximately 1030 nm and tens of microjoules of pulse energy. Here, we present a numerical study of cascaded quadratic soliton compression of such pulses in LiNbO3....... However, the strong group-velocity dispersion implies that the pulses can achieve moderate compression to durations of less than 130 fs in available crystal lengths. Most of the pulse energy is conserved because the compression is moderate. The effects of diffraction and spatial walk-off are addressed......, and in particular the latter could become an issue when compressing such long crystals (around 10 cm long). We finally show that the second harmonic contains a short pulse locked to the pump and a long multi-picosecond red-shifted detrimental component. The latter is caused by the nonlocal effects...

  3. Soft apertures to shape high-power laser beams

    Lukishova, S.G.; Pashinin, P.P.; Batygov, S.K.; Terentiev, B.M.


    Soft or apodized apertures with smooth decreasing from center to edges transmission profiles are used in laser physics for beam shaping. This paper gives the results of the studies of four types of these units for UV, visible and IR lasers. They are made of glasses or crystals with the use of one of the following technologies: absorption induced by ionizing radiation; photodestruction of color centers or photooxidation of impurities ions; additive coloration; frustrated total internal reflection. The special feature of such apertures is their high optical damage resistance under the irradiation of single-pulse laser radiation. They are approximately 3-50 mm in diameter by the methods of making them give the possibility to create near-Gaussian and flat-top beams with dimensions less than 1 mm and larger than 200 mm. The results of using them in high-power single-pulse lasers are presented. Damage thresholds of these apertures in such types of lasers have been defined

  4. Cutting and drilling studies using high power visible lasers

    Kautz, D.D.; Dragon, E.P.; Werve, M.E.; Hargrove, R.S.; Warner, B.E.


    High power and radiance laser technologies developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory such as copper-vapor and dye lasers show great promise for material processing tasks. Evaluation of models suggests significant increases in welding, cutting, and drilling capabilities, as well as applications in emerging technologies such as micromachining, surface treatment, and stereolithography. Copper lasers currently operate at 1.8 kW output at approximately three times the diffraction limit and achieve mean time between failures of more than 1,000 hours. Dye lasers have near diffraction limited beam quality at greater than 1.0 kW. Results from cutting and drilling studies in titanium and stainless steel alloys show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye and copper-vapor lasers. High radiance beams produce low distortion and small heat-affected zones. The authors have accomplished very high aspect ratios (> 60:1) and features with micron scale (5-50 μm) sizes. The paper gives a description of the equipment; discusses cutting theory; and gives experimental results of cutting and drilling studies on Ti-6Al-4V and 304 stainless steel

  5. Thermal Response to High-Power Holmium Laser Lithotripsy.

    Aldoukhi, Ali H; Ghani, Khurshid R; Hall, Timothy L; Roberts, William W


    The aim of this study was to investigate "caliceal" fluid temperature changes during holmium laser activation/lithotripsy using settings up to 40 W power output with different irrigation flow rates. The experimental system consisted of a glass test tube (diameter 10 mm/length 75 mm) filled with deionized water, to mimic a calix. Real-time temperature was recorded using a thermocouple (Physitemp, NJ) positioned 5 mm from the bottom of the tube. A 200 μm laser fiber (Flexiva; Boston Scientific, MA) was introduced through the working channel of a disposable ureteroscope (LithoVue; Boston Scientific) and the laser fiber tip was positioned 15 mm above the bottom of the test tube. Deionized water irrigation (room temperature) through the working channel of the ureteroscope was delivered at flow rates of 0, 7-8, 14-15, and 38-40 mL/minute. A 120-W holmium laser (pulse 120; Lumenis, CA) was used. The following settings were explored: 0.5 J × 10 Hz, 1.0 J × 10 Hz, 0.5 J × 20 Hz, 1.0 J × 20 Hz, 0.5 J × 40 Hz, 1.0 J × 40 Hz, and 0.5 J × 80 Hz. During each experiment, the laser was activated continuously for 60 seconds. Temperature increased with increasing laser power output and decreasing irrigation flow rate. The highest temperature, 70.3°C (standard deviation 2.7), occurred with laser setting of 1.0 J × 40 Hz and no irrigation after 60 seconds of continuous laser firing. None of the tested laser settings and irrigation parameters produced temperature exceeding 51°C when activated for only 10 seconds of continuous laser firing. High-power holmium settings fired in long bursts with low irrigation flow rates can generate high fluid temperatures in a laboratory "caliceal" model. Awareness of this risk allows urologist to implement a variety of techniques (higher irrigation flow rates, intermittent laser activation, and potentially cooled irrigation fluid) to control and mitigate thermal

  6. High-power laser experiments to study collisionless shock generation

    Sakawa Y.


    Full Text Available A collisionless Weibel-instability mediated shock in a self-generated magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation [Kato and Takabe, Astophys. J. Lett. 681, L93 (2008]. It is predicted that the generation of the Weibel shock requires to use NIF-class high-power laser system. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas using Gekko XII laser system [Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011]. A NIF facility time proposal is approved to study the formation of the collisionless Weibel shock. OMEGA and OMEGA EP experiments have been started to study the plasma conditions of counter-streaming plasmas required for the NIF experiment using Thomson scattering and to develop proton radiography diagnostics.

  7. Control system for high power laser drilling workover and completion unit

    Zediker, Mark S; Makki, Siamak; Faircloth, Brian O; DeWitt, Ronald A; Allen, Erik C; Underwood, Lance D


    A control and monitoring system controls and monitors a high power laser system for performing high power laser operations. The control and monitoring system is configured to perform high power laser operation on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  8. Latest development of high-power fiber lasers in SPI

    Norman, Stephen; Zervas, Mikhail N.; Appleyard, Andrew; Durkin, Michael K.; Horley, Ray; Varnham, Malcolm P.; Nilsson, Johan; Jeong, Yoonchan


    High Power Fiber Lasers (HPFLs) and High Power Fiber Amplifiers (HPFAs) promise a number of benefits in terms of their high optical efficiency, degree of integration, beam quality, reliability, spatial compactness and thermal management. These benefits are driving the rapid adoption of HPFLs in an increasingly wide range of applications and power levels ranging from a few Watts, in for example analytical applications, to high-power >1kW materials processing (machining and welding) applications. This paper describes SPI"s innovative technologies, HPFL products and their performance capabilities. The paper highlights key aspects of the design basis and provides an overview of the applications space in both the industrial and aerospace domains. Single-fiber CW lasers delivering 1kW output power at 1080nm have been demonstrated and are being commercialized for aerospace and industrial applications with wall-plug efficiencies in the range 20 to 25%, and with beam parameter products in the range 0.5 to 100 mm.mrad (corresponding to M2 = 1.5 to 300) tailored to application requirements. At power levels in the 1 - 200 W range, SPI"s proprietary cladding-pumping technology, GTWaveTM, has been employed to produce completely fiber-integrated systems using single-emitter broad-stripe multimode pump diodes. This modular construction enables an agile and flexible approach to the configuration of a range of fiber laser / amplifier systems for operation in the 1080nm and 1550nm wavelength ranges. Reliability modeling is applied to determine Systems martins such that performance specifications are robustly met throughout the designed product lifetime. An extensive Qualification and Reliability-proving programme is underway to qualify the technology building blocks that are utilized for the fiber laser cavity, pump modules, pump-driver systems and thermo-mechanical management. In addition to the CW products, pulsed fiber lasers with pulse energies exceeding 1mJ with peak pulse

  9. New developments in short-pulse eye safe lasers pay the way for future LADARs and 3D mapping performances

    Pasmanik, Guerman; Latone, Kevin; Shilov, Alex; Shklovsky, Eugeni; Spiro, Alex; Tiour, Larissa


    We have demonstrated that direct excitation of 3rd Stokes Raman emission in crystal can produce short (few nanosecond) eye-safe pulses. Produced beam has very high quality and the pulse energy can be as high as tens of millijoules. For pulsed diode pumped solid state lasers the demonstrated repetition rate was 250 Hz but higher repetition rates are certainly achievable. It is important that tested schemes do not have strict requirements on laser pump parameters, namely beam divergence and frequency bandwidth. The obtained results are very relevant to the development of eye-safe lasers, such as the new generation of rangefinders, target designators, and laser tracking and pin-pointing devices, as well as remote 2D and 3D imaging systems.

  10. Evaluation of plasma disruption simulating short pulse laser irradiation experiments on boronated graphites and CFCs [carbon fibre composites

    Stad, R.C.L. van der; Klippel, H.T.; Kraaij, G.J.


    New experimental and numerical results from disruption heat flux simulations in the millisecond range with laser beams are discussed. For a number of graphites, boronated graphites and carbon fibre composites, the effective enthalpy of ablation is determined as 30 ± 3 MJ/kg, using laser pulses of about -.3 ms. The numerical results predict the experimental results rather well. No effect of boron doping on the ablation enthalpy is found. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Applications of OALCLV in the high power laser systems

    Huang, Dajie; Fan, Wei; Cheng, He; Wei, Hui; Wang, Jiangfeng; An, Honghai; Wang, Chao; Cheng, Yu; Xia, Gang; Li, Xuechun; Lin, Zunqi


    This paper introduces the recent development of our integrated optical addressed spatial light modulator and its applications in the high power laser systems. It can be used to convert the incident beam into uniform beam for high energy effiency, or it can realize special distribution to meet the requirements of physical experiment. The optical addressing method can avoid the problem of the black matrix effect of the electric addressing device. Its transmittance for 1053nm light is about 85% and the aperture of our device has reached 22mm× 22mm. As a transmissive device, it can be inserted into the system without affecting the original optical path. The applications of the device in the three laser systems are introduced in detail in this paper. In the SGII-Up laser facility, this device demonstrates its ability to shape the output laser beam of the fundamental frequency when the output energy reaches about 2000J. Meanwhile, there's no change in the time waveform and far field distribution. This means that it can effectively improve the capacity of the maximum output energy. In the 1J1Hz Nd-glass laser system, this device has been used to improve the uniformity of the output beam. As a result, the PV value reduces from 1.4 to 1.2, which means the beam quality has been improved effectively. In the 9th beam of SGII laser facility, the device has been used to meet the requirements of sampling the probe light. As the transmittance distribution of the laser beam can be adjusted, the sampling spot can be realized in real time. As a result, it's easy to make the sampled spot meet the requirements of physics experiment.

  12. Atomistic simulation study of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a transparent overlayer

    Karim, Eaman T.; Shugaev, Maxim; Wu, Chengping; Zhigilei, Leonid V., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4745 (United States); Lin, Zhibin; Hainsey, Robert F. [Electro Scientific Industries, Inc., 13900 NW Science Park Drive, Portland, Oregon 97229 (United States)


    The distinct characteristics of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a solid transparent overlayer are investigated in a series of atomistic simulations. The simulations are performed with a computational model combining classical molecular dynamics (MD) technique with a continuum description of the laser excitation, electron-phonon equilibration, and electronic heat transfer based on two-temperature model (TTM). Two methods for incorporation of the description of a transparent overlayer into the TTM-MD model are designed and parameterized for Ag-silica system. The material response to the laser energy deposition is studied for a range of laser fluences that, in the absence of the transparent overlayer, covers the regimes of melting and resolidification, photomechanical spallation, and phase explosion of the overheated surface region. In contrast to the irradiation in vacuum, the spatial confinement by the overlayer facilitates generation of sustained high-temperature and high-pressure conditions near the metal-overlayer interface, suppresses the generation of unloading tensile wave, decreases the maximum depth of melting, and prevents the spallation and explosive disintegration of the surface region of the metal target. At high laser fluences, when the laser excitation brings the surface region of the metal target to supercritical conditions, the confinement prevents the expansion and phase decomposition characteristic for the vacuum conditions leading to a gradual cooling of the hot compressed supercritical fluid down to the liquid phase and eventual solidification. The target modification in this case is limited to the generation of crystal defects and the detachment of the metal target from the overlayer.

  13. Ultra-short pulse delivery at high average power with low-loss hollow core fibers coupled to TRUMPF's TruMicro laser platforms for industrial applications

    Baumbach, S.; Pricking, S.; Overbuschmann, J.; Nutsch, S.; Kleinbauer, J.; Gebs, R.; Tan, C.; Scelle, R.; Kahmann, M.; Budnicki, A.; Sutter, D. H.; Killi, A.


    Multi-megawatt ultrafast laser systems at micrometer wavelength are commonly used for material processing applications, including ablation, cutting and drilling of various materials or cleaving of display glass with excellent quality. There is a need for flexible and efficient beam guidance, avoiding free space propagation of light between the laser head and the processing unit. Solid core step index fibers are only feasible for delivering laser pulses with peak powers in the kW-regime due to the optical damage threshold in bulk silica. In contrast, hollow core fibers are capable of guiding ultra-short laser pulses with orders of magnitude higher peak powers. This is possible since a micro-structured cladding confines the light within the hollow core and therefore minimizes the spatial overlap between silica and the electro-magnetic field. We report on recent results of single-mode ultra-short pulse delivery over several meters in a lowloss hollow core fiber packaged with industrial connectors. TRUMPF's ultrafast TruMicro laser platforms equipped with advanced temperature control and precisely engineered opto-mechanical components provide excellent position and pointing stability. They are thus perfectly suited for passive coupling of ultra-short laser pulses into hollow core fibers. Neither active beam launching components nor beam trackers are necessary for a reliable beam delivery in a space and cost saving packaging. Long term tests with weeks of stable operation, excellent beam quality and an overall transmission efficiency of above 85 percent even at high average power confirm the reliability for industrial applications.

  14. Design of high power solid-state pulsed laser resonators

    Narro, R.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.


    Methods and configurations for the design of high power solid-state pulsed laser resonators, operating in free running, are presented. For fundamental mode high power resonators, a method is proposed for the design of a resonator with joined stability zones. In the case of multimode resonators, two configurations are introduced for maximizing the laser overall efficiency due to the compensation of the astigmatism induced by the excitation. The first configuration consists in a triangular ring resonator. The results for this configuration are discussed theoretically, showing that it is possible to compensate the astigmatism of the thermal lens virtually in a 100%; however this is only possible for a specific pumping power. The second configuration proposes a dual-active medium resonator, rotated 90 degree one from the other around the optical axis, where each active medium acts as an astigmatic lens of the same dioptric power. The reliability of this configuration is corroborated experimentally using a Nd:YAG dual-active medium resonator. It is found that in the pumping power range where the astigmatism compensation is possible, the overall efficiency is constant, even when increasing the excitation power with the consequent increase of the thermal lens dioptric power. (Author)

  15. Acceleration of a solid-density plasma projectile to ultrahigh velocities by a short-pulse ultraviolet laser

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Euratom Association, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)


    It is shown by means of particle-in-cell simulations that a high-fluence ({>=}1 GJ/cm{sup 2}) solid-density plasma projectile can be accelerated up to sub-relativistic velocities by radiation pressure of an ultraviolet (UV) picosecond laser pulse of moderate values of dimensionless laser amplitude a{sub 0}{approx}10. The efficiency of acceleration by the UV laser is significantly higher than in the case of long-wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 1 {mu}m) driver of a comparable value of a{sub 0}, and the motion of the projectile is fairly well described by the ''Light Sail'' acceleration model.

  16. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    Taylor, J.R.


    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  17. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    Lopez V, V.E.; Ondarza R, R.


    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10 20 W/cm 2 on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  18. Ultra-fast Movies Resolve Ultra-short Pulse Laser Ablation and Bump Formation on Thin Molybdenum Films

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz

    For the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS thin film solar cells, 470 nm molybdenum films on glass substrates must be separated galvanically. The single pulse ablation with a 660 fs laser at a wavelength of 1053 nm is investigated in a fluence regime from 0.5 to 5.0 J/cm2. At fluences above 2.0 J/cm2 bump and jet formation can be observed that could be used for creating microstructures. For the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the laser ablation process itself as well as of the bump or jet formation, pump probe microscopy is utilized to resolve the transient ablation behavior.

  19. Time-resolved plasma spectroscopy of thin foils heated by a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser

    Audebert, P.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Shepherd, R.; Fournier, K.B.; Price, D.; Lee, R.W.; Springer, P.; Peyrusse, O.; Klein, L.


    Time-resolved K-shell x-ray spectra are recorded from sub-100 nm aluminum foils irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at relativistic intensities of Iλ 2 =2x10 18 W μm 2 /cm 2 . The thermal penetration depth is greater than the foil thickness in these targets so that uniform heating takes place at constant density before hydrodynamic motion occurs. The high-contrast, high-intensity laser pulse, broad spectral band, and short time resolution utilized in this experiment permit a simplified interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the radiating matter. The observed spectrum displays two distinct phases. At early time, ≤500 fs after detecting target emission, a broad quasicontinuous spectral feature with strong satellite emission from multiply excited levels is seen. At a later time, the He-like resonance line emission is dominant. The time-integrated data is in accord with previous studies with time resolution greater than 1 ps. The early time satellite emission is shown to be a signature of an initial large area, high density, low-temperature plasma created in the foil by fast electrons accelerated by the intense radiation field in the laser spot. We conclude that, because of this early time phenomenon and contrary to previous predictions, a short, high-intensity laser pulse incident on a thin foil does not create a uniform hot and dense plasma. The heating mechanism has been studied as a function of foil thickness, laser pulse length, and intensity. In addition, the spectra are found to be in broad agreement with a hydrodynamic expansion code postprocessed by a collisional-radiative model based on superconfiguration average rates and on the unresolved transition array formalism

  20. Analysis of the M-shell spectra emitted by a short-pulse laser-created tantalum plasma

    Busquet; Jiang; Coinsertion Markte CY; Kieffer; Klapisch; Bar-Shalom; Bauche-Arnoult; Bachelier


    The spectrum of tantalum emitted by a subpicosecond laser-created plasma, was recorded in the regions of the 3d-5f, 3d-4f, and 3d-4p transitions. The main difference with a nanosecond laser-created plasma spectrum is a broad understructure appearing under the 3d-5f transitions. An interpretation of this feature as a density effect is proposed. The supertransition array model is used for interpreting the spectrum, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at some effective temperature. An interpretation of the 3d-4f spectrum using the more detailed unresolved transition array formalism, which does not assume LTE, is also proposed. Fitted contributions of the different ionic species differ slightly from the LTE-predicted values.

  1. Stable polarization short pulse passively Q-switched monolithic microchip laser with [110] cut Cr4+:YAG

    Wang, Y; Gong, M; Yan, P; Huang, L; Li, D


    A monolithic Nd:YAG microchip laser with [110] cut Cr 4+ :YAG is presented. The output beam is linearly polarized with polarization ratio higher than 100:1. The polarization direction is stable, independent of pump power, crystal temperature, LD temperature. In single longitudinal mode operation, stable 259 ps pulses at 2.5 kHz with 82 kW peak power and diffraction limited beam mode are output. With a simple and compact one-pass Nd:YVO 4 amplifier, 144 kW peak power is achieved. Single longitudinal and fundamental transverse mode is kept after passing through the amplifier stage. The microchip laser can be operated in two longitudinal modes with two sets of output pulses by increasing the pump power

  2. Roll-to-roll suitable short-pulsed laser scribing of organic photovoltaics and close-to-process characterization

    Kuntze, Thomas; Wollmann, Philipp; Klotzbach, Udo; Fledderus, Henri


    The proper long term operation of organic electronic devices like organic photovoltaics OPV depends on their resistance to environmental influences such as permeation of water vapor. Major efforts are spent to encapsulate OPV. State of the art is sandwich-like encapsulation between two ultra-barrier foils. Sandwich encapsulation faces two major disadvantages: high costs ( 1/3 of total costs) and parasitic intrinsic water (sponge effects of the substrate foil). To fight these drawbacks, a promising approach is to use the OPV substrate itself as barrier by integration of an ultra-barrier coating, followed by alternating deposition and structuring of OPV functional layers. In effect, more functionality will be integrated into less material, and production steps are reduced in number. All processing steps must not influence the underneath barrier functionality, while all electrical functionalities must be maintained. As most reasonable structuring tool, short and ultrashort pulsed lasers USP are used. Laser machining applies to three layers: bottom electrode made of transparent conductive materials (P1), organic photovoltaic operative stack (P2) and top electrode (P3). In this paper, the machining of functional 110…250 nm layers of flexible OPV by USP laser systems is presented. Main focus is on structuring without damaging the underneath ultra-barrier layer. The close-to-process machining quality characterization is performed with the analysis tool "hyperspectral imaging" (HSI), which is checked crosswise with the "gold standard" Ca-test. It is shown, that both laser machining and quality controlling, are well suitable for R2R production of OPV.

  3. X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions

    Tutt, T.E.


    When a solid target is irradiated by a laser beam, the material is locally heated to a high temperature and a plasma forms. The interaction of the laser with plasma can produce energetic electrons. By observing the behavior of these {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electrons, we hope to obtain a better understanding of Laser/Plasma Interactions. In this work we employ a layered-fluorescer technique to study the transport, and therefore the energetics, of the electrons. The plasma forms on a thin foil of metallic Pd which is bonded to thin layer of metallic Sn. Electrons formed from the plasma penetrate first the Pd and then the Sn. In both layers the energetic electrons promote inner (K) shell ionization of the metallic atoms which leads to the emission of characteristic K{sub {alpha}} x-rays of the fluorescers. By recording the x-ray spectrum emitted by the two foils, we can estimate the energy-dependent range of the electrons and their numbers.

  4. Adaptive metal mirror for high-power CO2 lasers

    Jarosch, Uwe-Klaus


    Spherical mirrors with a variable radius of curvature are used inside laser resonators as well as in the beam path between the laser and the workpiece. Commercially-available systems use piezoelectric actuators, or the pressure of the coolant, to deform the mirror surface. In both cases, the actuator and the cooling system influence each other. This interaction is avoided through the integration of the cooling system with the flexible mirror membrane. A multi- channel design leads to an optimized cooling effect, which is necessary for high power applications. The contour of the variable metal mirror depends on the mounting between the membrane and the mirror body and on the distribution of forces. Four cases of deformation can be distinguished for a circular elastic membrane. The realization of an adaptive metal mirror requires a technical compromise to be made. A mechanical construction is presented which combines an elastic hinge with the inlet and outlet of the coolant. For the deformation of the mirror membranes two actuators with different character of deformation are used. The superposition of the two deformations results in smaller deviations from the spherical surface shape than can be achieved using a single actuator. DC proportional magnets have been introduced as cheap and rigid actuators. The use of this adaptive mirror, either in a low pressure atmosphere of a gas laser resonator, or in an extra-cavity beam path is made possible through the use of a ventilation system.

  5. Laser wakefield acceleration with high-power, few-cycle mid-IR lasers

    Papp, Daniel; Wood, Jonathan C.; Gruson, Vincent; Bionta, Mina; Gruse, Jan-Niclas; Cormier, Eric; Najmudin, Zulfikar; Légaré, François; Kamperidis, Christos


    The study of laser wakefield electron acceleration (LWFA) using mid-IR laser drivers is a promising path for future laser driven electronaccelerators, when compared to traditional near-IR laser drivers uperating at 0.8-1 {\\mu}m central wavelength ({\\lambda}laser), as the necessary vector potential a_0 for electron injection can be achieved with smaller laser powers due to the linear dependence on {\\lambda}laser. In this work, we perform 2D PIC simulations on LWFA using few-cycle high power (5...

  6. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    Lopez V, V.E.


    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  7. Advanced laser architectures for high power eyesafe illuminators

    Baranova, N.; Pati, B.; Stebbins, K.; Bystryak, I.; Rayno, M.; Ezzo, K.; DePriest, C.


    Q-Peak has demonstrated a novel pulsed eyesafe laser architecture operating with >50 mJ pulse energies at Pulse Repetition Frequencies (PRFs) as high as 320 Hz. The design leverages an Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) and Optical Parametric Amplifier (OPA) geometry, which provides the unique capability for high power in a comparatively compact package, while also offering the potential for additional eyesafe power scaling. The laser consists of a Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Q-switched front-end seed laser to produce pulse-widths around 10 ns at 1.06-μm, which is then followed by a pair of Multi-Pass Amplifier (MPA) architectures (comprised of side-pumped, multi-pass Nd:YAG slabs with a compact diode-pump-array imaging system), and finally involving two sequential nonlinear optical conversion architectures for transfer into the eyesafe regime. The initial seed beam is first amplified through the MPA, and then split into parallel optical paths. An OPO provides effective nonlinear conversion on one optical path, while a second MPA further amplifies the 1.06-μm beam for use in pumping an OPA on the second optical path. These paths are then recombined prior to seeding the OPA. Each nonlinear conversion subsystem utilizes Potassium Titanyl Arsenate (KTA) for effective nonlinear conversion with lower risk to optical damage. This laser architecture efficiently produces pulse energies of >50 mJ in the eyesafe band at PRFs as high as 320 Hz, and has been designed to fit within a volume of 4,500 in3 (0.074 m3 ). We will discuss theoretical and experimental details of the nonlinear optical system for achieving higher eyesafe powers.

  8. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    Gregori, G.; Hansen, S.B.; Key, M.H.; King, J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Park, H.; Patel, P.K.; Shepard, R.; Snavely, R.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Glenzer, S.H.


    We have measured high resolution copper Kα spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T e ) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T e and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z ∼ 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is Λ ii ∼ 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime

  9. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    Gregori, G; Hansen, S B; Key, M H; King, J; Mackinnon, A J; Park, H; Patel, P K; Shepard, R; Snavely, R A; Wilks, S C; Glenzer, S H


    We have measured high resolution copper K{alpha} spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T{sub e}) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T{sub e} and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z {approx} 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is {Lambda}{sub ii} {approx} 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime.

  10. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  11. Fiber facet gratings for high power fiber lasers

    Vanek, Martin; Vanis, Jan; Baravets, Yauhen; Todorov, Filip; Ctyroky, Jiri; Honzatko, Pavel


    We numerically investigated the properties of diffraction gratings designated for fabrication on the facet of an optical fiber. The gratings are intended to be used in high-power fiber lasers as mirrors either with a low or high reflectivity. The modal reflectance of low reflectivity polarizing grating has a value close to 3% for TE mode while it is significantly suppressed for TM mode. Such a grating can be fabricated on laser output fiber facet. The polarizing grating with high modal reflectance is designed as a leaky-mode resonant diffraction grating. The grating can be etched in a thin layer of high index dielectric which is sputtered on fiber facet. We used refractive index of Ta2O5 for such a layer. We found that modal reflectance can be close to 0.95 for TE polarization and polarization extinction ratio achieves 18 dB. Rigorous coupled wave analysis was used for fast optimization of grating parameters while aperiodic rigorous coupled wave analysis, Fourier modal method and finite difference time domain method were compared and used to compute modal reflectance of designed gratings.

  12. Development of Faraday rotators for high power glass laser systems

    Yoshida, Kunio; Kato, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.


    As a new approach to nuclear fusion, laser-induced fusion has been recently highlighted. It is no exaggeration to say that the future success of this technique depends on the development of high power laser as the energy driver. Faraday rotators are used as photo-diodes to prevent amplifiers and oscillator assemblies from the possibility to be broken by reversely transmitting light. The authors were able to increase the isolation ratio by about 10 times as compared with conventional one by employing the large performance index, disc type Faraday glass, FR-5. In this paper, first, Faraday glasses which are the composing element of Faraday rotators and the optical characteristics of dielectric thin-film polarizers are described, and next, the design of a magnetic coil and its resulting coil characteristics are reported. Then the dominant causes limiting the isolation ratio of Faraday rotators are investigated, and it is clarified that the residual strain in Faraday glasses and the non-uniformity of magnetic field affect predominantly. The measured results are as follows: The magnetic flux densities required to rotate by 45 deg the polarizing plane of the light transmitted through the Faraday rotators A and B are both 27 kG; and the isolation ratios over the whole effective plane are 36 and 32 dB, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389 nm

    Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.


    A high-power, frequency-stabilized laser for cooling of metastable helium atoms using the 2 S13 →3 P23 transition at 389 nm has been developed. The 389 nm light is generated by frequency doubling of a titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity containing a lithium-triborate nonlinear

  14. X-ray spectroscopy of a thin foil plasma produced by a short-pulse high-intensity laser

    Audebert, P.; Nagels, V.; Geindre, J.P.; Dorchies, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Gary, S.; Girard, F.; Shepherd, R.; Gauthier, J.C.; Chenais-Popovics, C.


    High density and temperature plasmas have been generated by irradiating thin foils of various elements with a high-energy subpicosecond laser pulse. The X-ray emission duration was studied by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Frequency domain interferometry provided a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion of the back of the foil as a function of time. The effect of longitudinal temperature gradients, i.e., gradients perpendicular to the surface, were decreased using very thin foil targets. Additionally, radial gradients effects, i.e., gradients parallel to the surface, were limited by using a 50 μm pinhole on target. The Al, Se and Sm spectra, recorded in the range 7.7-8 Angst. using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to an 800 fs resolution streak camera, lasted a few picoseconds. Sm spectra showed no spectral features in this wavelength range, providing a spectrally homogeneous backlighter for future experiments. The main features of the experimental time-resolved spectra have been well reproduced with one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the free expansion of a plasma heated at a given initial temperature obtained from the expansion velocity of the rear critical surface of the plasma

  15. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Atomic Oxygen Measurements in Short Pulse Discharges by Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Lempert, Walter; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Mintusov, Eugene; Jiang, Naibo; Adamovich, Igor


    Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) is used to measure time-dependent absolute oxygen atom concentrations in O2/He, O2/N2, and CH4/air plasmas produced with a 20 nanosecond duration, 20 kV pulsed discharge at 10 Hz repetition rate. Xenon calibrated spectra show that a single discharge pulse creates initial oxygen dissociation fraction of ˜0.0005 for air like mixtures at 40-60 torr total pressure. Peak O atom concentration is a factor of approximately two lower in fuel lean (φ=0.5) methane/air mixtures. In helium buffer, the initially formed atomic oxygen decays monotonically, with decay time consistent with formation of ozone. In all nitrogen containing mixtures, atomic oxygen concentrations are found to initially increase, for time scales on the order of 10-100 microseconds, due presumably to additional O2 dissociation caused by collisions with electronically excited nitrogen. Further evidence of the role of metastable N2 is demonstrated from time-dependent N2 2^nd Positive and NO Gamma band emission spectroscopy. Comparisons with modeling predictions show qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Relativistic motion of charged particles in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light with plasma

    Gomez R, F.


    τ of the electron that per se is an invariant, it is proportional to a certain interval dη. In the chapter 3 it will see that the movement analysis of the charged particles in the electromagnetic field presents serious mathematical difficulties, where the integration of the movement equations results extraordinarily complex and it can only be integrated in most of the cases by numerical means. We will present the procedure used for the deduction of the equations of motion of a charged particle in the interaction of a laser light pulse and a homogeneous magnetic field in arbitrary direction, with the addition of an harmonic term of force. In this chapter it is not sought to make a meticulous discussion of the involved physics and only we will present the algebraic procedure. In the chapter 4 we will present the integration method of the Lorentz force, and we will obtain the exact solution for the case of a pulse of a plane wave elliptically polarized of arbitrary amplitude spreading along an external magnetic field. The solution method will allow to decrease the solutions to the case in which we have an infinite waves train reported by Ondarza (10) and so the corresponding solutions will be obtained reported in the literature by other authors. The main contribution in this part will be the one of obtaining an exact solution for the problem of the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse, modulated by a form of gaussian type, and a charged particle. The above-mentioned approaches in acceptable measure to real situations in well-known experiments. It will be found that when the form of the pulse is introduced to modulate the electromagnetic field, an amplification of the resonance zone in the solutions appears. Such resonance depends of the external magnetic field that fixes by turns the cyclotron frequency, and of the number of optical cycles that compose the encircling one that modulates the pulse form. In the chapter 5 it will see the case of small oscillations free of

  17. Comparison of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser for treatment of cosmetic tattoos containing titanium and iron in an animal model.

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Yang, An-Hang; Chen, Chih-Kang; Lee, Shao-Chen; Leu, Fur-Jiang


    Cosmetic tattoos contain titanium and ferric oxide and darken through reduction after Q-switched laser irradiation. The optimal treatment for removing these pigments remains unknown. To compare the effects of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (SP Er:YAG) laser to remove cosmetic tattoos in an animal model. Rats were tattooed using white, flesh-colored, and brown inks (4 bands of each color) on their backs. For each color, one band was left untreated, and one each was treated with a Q-switched neodymium-doped YAG laser, a Q-switched alexandrite laser, and a SP Er:YAG laser every 3 weeks until the pigments were clear. The two Q-switched lasers were equally effective; all three pigments darkened initially and then resolved gradually. Up to 20, 18, and 10 sessions were required to remove white, flesh-colored, and brown tattoos, respectively. Only six sessions were required with the SP Er:YAG laser. Minimal scarring was observed with all lasers. Skin biopsies confirmed pigment granule fragmentation after Q-switched laser treatment and a decrease in the amount of pigment after SP Er:YAG laser treatment. The SP Er:YAG laser was superior to the Q-switched lasers for removing cosmetic tattoos. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  18. A NASA high-power space-based laser research and applications program

    Deyoung, R. J.; Walberg, G. D.; Conway, E. J.; Jones, L. W.


    Applications of high power lasers are discussed which might fulfill the needs of NASA missions, and the technology characteristics of laser research programs are outlined. The status of the NASA programs or lasers, laser receivers, and laser propulsion is discussed, and recommendations are presented for a proposed expanded NASA program in these areas. Program elements that are critical are discussed in detail.

  19. High power laser research and development at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Soures, J.M.; McCrory, R.L.; Cerqua, K.A.


    As part of its research mission - to investigate the interaction of intense radiation with matter - the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of Rochester is developing a number of high-peak power and high-average-power laser systems. In this paper we highlight some of the LLE work on solid-state laser research, development and applications. Specifically, we discuss the performance and operating characteristics of Omega, a twenty-four beam, 4000 Joule, Nd:glass laser system which is frequently tripled using the polarization mismatch scheme. We also discuss progress in efforts to develop high-average-power solid-state laser systems with active-mirror and slab geometries and to implement liquid-crystal devices in high-power Nd:glass lasers. Finally we present results from a program to develop a compact, ultrahigh-peak-power solid-state laser using the concept of frequency chirped pulse amplification

  20. Physics of laser fusion. Volume III. High-power pulsed lasers

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Eimerl, D.; George, E.V.; Trenholme, J.B.; Simmons, W.W.; Hunt, J.T.


    High-power pulsed lasers can deliver sufficient energy on inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) time scales (0.1 to 10 ns) to heat and compress deuterium-tritium fuel to fusion-reaction conditions. Several laser systems have been examined, including Nd:glass, CO 2 , KrF, and I 2 , for their ICF applicability. A great deal of developmental effort has been applied to the Nd:glass laser and the CO 2 gas laser systems; these systems now deliver > 10 4 J and 20 x 10 12 W to ICF targets. We are constructing the Nova Nd:glass laser at LLNL to provide > 100 kJ and > 100 x 10 12 W of 1-μm radiation for fusion experimentation in the mid-1980s. For ICF target gain > 100 times the laser input, we expect that the laser driver must deliver approx. 3 to 5 MJ of energy on a time scale of 10 to 20 ns. In this paper we review the technological status of fusion-laser systems and outline approaches to constructing high-power pulsed laser drivers

  1. High-power fiber-coupled pump lasers for fiber lasers

    Kasai, Yohei; Aizawa, Takuya; Tanaka, Daiichiro


    We present high-power fiber-coupled pump modules utilized effectively for ultra-high power single-mode (SM) fiber lasers. Maximum output power of 392 W was achieved at 23 A for 915 nm pump, and 394 W for 976 nm pump. Fiber core diameter is 118 μm and case temperature is 25deg. C. Polarization multiplexing technique was newly applied to our optical system. High-reliability of the laser diodes (LD) at high-power operation has been demonstrated by aging tests. Advanced package structure was developed that manages uncoupled light around input end of the fiber. 800 hours continuous drive with uncoupled light power of 100 W has been achieved.

  2. Advanced specialty fiber designs for high power fiber lasers

    Gu, Guancheng

    The output power of fiber lasers has increased rapidly over the last decade. There are two major limiting factors, namely nonlinear effects and transverse mode instability, prohibiting the power scaling capability of fiber lasers. The nonlinear effects, originating from high optical intensity, primarily limit the peak power scaling. The mode instability, on the other hand, arises from quantum-defect driven heating, causing undesired mode coupling once the power exceeds the threshold and degradation of beam quality. The mode instability has now become the bottleneck for average output power scaling of fiber lasers. Mode area scaling is the most effective way to mitigate nonlinear effects. However, the use of large mode area may increase the tendency to support multiple modes in the core, resulting in lower mode instability threshold. Therefore, it is critical to maintain single mode operation in a large mode area fiber. Sufficient higher order mode suppression can lead to effective single-transverse-mode propagation. In this dissertation, we explore the feasibility of using specialty fiber to construct high power fiber lasers with robust single-mode output. The first type of fiber discussed is the resonantly-enhanced leakage channel fiber. Coherent reflection at the fiber outer boundary can lead to additional confinement especially for highly leaky HOM, leading to lower HOM losses than what are predicted by conventional finite element mothod mode solver considering infinite cladding. In this work, we conducted careful measurements of HOM losses in two leakage channel fibers (LCF) with circular and rounded hexagonal boundary shapes respectively. Impact on HOM losses from coiling, fiber boundary shapes and coating indexes were studied in comparison to simulations. This work demonstrates the limit of the simulation method commonly used in the large-mode-area fiber designs and the need for an improved approach. More importantly, this work also demonstrates that a

  3. An Evaluation of the Cutting Potential of Different Types of High Power Lasers

    Olsen, Flemming Ove


    Laser cutting is a widespread industrial process. The boundaries for the performance of the lasers in terms of cutting capabilities is steadily moving towards higher cutting rates and thicker section cutting. In this paper the potential of different high power laser sources in cutting is evaluated...... based upon the historical development, the available cutting mechanisms understanding and the critical parameters involved in high power laser cutting. From the theoretical point of view, the new laser sources, the Disc-laser and the Fibre laser possess a potential of changing dramatically the limits...... for cutting performance. These theoretical considerations are evaluated against available cutting data....

  4. Target isolation system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz


    A system for applying a laser beam to work pieces, includes a laser system producing a high power output beam. Target delivery optics are arranged to deliver the output beam to a target work piece. A relay telescope having a telescope focal point is placed in the beam path between the laser system and the target delivery optics. The relay telescope relays an image between an image location near the output of the laser system and an image location near the target delivery optics. A baffle is placed at the telescope focal point between the target delivery optics and the laser system to block reflections from the target in the target delivery optics from returning to the laser system and causing damage.

  5. Design of measurement equipment for high power laser beam shapes

    Hansen, K. S.; Olsen, F. O.; Kristiansen, Morten


    To analyse advanced high power beam patterns, a method, which is capable of analysing the intensity distribution in 3D is needed. Further a measuring of scattered light in the same system is preferred. This requires a high signal to noise ratio. Such a system can be realised by a CCD-chip impleme...... by a commercial product has been done. The realised system might suffer from some thermal drift at high power; future work is to clarify this....

  6. Sandia high-power atomic iodine photodissociation laser

    Palmer, R.E.; Padrick, T.D.


    One of the more promising candidates for a laser to demonstrate the feasibility of laser fusion is the 1.315 μ atomic iodine laser. In a relatively short time it has been developed into a viable subnanosecond, high energy laser. Although at present the iodine laser cannot equal the output capabilities of a large Nd:glass laser system, there are no foreseeable obstacles in the construction of a 100 psec, 10 KJ or greater atomic iodine laser system. A 100 joule system being constructed at Sandia to investigate many of the scaling parameters essential to the design of a 10 KJ or greater system is described. (U.S.)

  7. High-power Yb-doped continuous-wave and pulsed fibre lasers


    Jan 5, 2014 ... In this article, a review of Yb-doped CW and pulsed fibre lasers along with our study on self-pulsing dynamics in CW fibre lasers to find its role in high-power fibre laser development and the physical ... Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, India ...

  8. Development of high power lasers and their applications for nuclear engineering in IHI

    Kanazawa, H.; Uehara, M.; Mori, M.; Taniu, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Harashina, H.


    High power laser technologies developed in IHI are summarized. A discharge-excited CO laser of 3 kW and an arc lamp pumped cw YAG laser of 3 kW with a flexible optical fiber delivery have been developed for material processing use. An ablation processing using a high intensity pulse laser has also been investigated. (author)

  9. Development of high-power CO2 lasers and laser material processing

    Nath, Ashish K.; Choudhary, Praveen; Kumar, Manoj; Kaul, R.


    Scaling laws to determine the physical dimensions of the active medium and optical resonator parameters for designing convective cooled CO2 lasers have been established. High power CW CO2 lasers upto 5 kW output power and a high repetition rate TEA CO2 laser of 500 Hz and 500 W average power incorporated with a novel scheme for uniform UV pre- ionization have been developed for material processing applications. Technical viability of laser processing of several engineering components, for example laser surface hardening of fine teeth of files, laser welding of martensitic steel shroud and titanium alloy under-strap of turbine, laser cladding of Ni super-alloy with stellite for refurbishing turbine blades were established using these lasers. Laser alloying of pre-placed SiC coating on different types of aluminum alloy, commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and laser curing of thermosetting powder coating have been also studied. Development of these lasers and results of some of the processing studies are briefly presented here.

  10. Laser plasma generation of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon thin films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube materials and silicon wafers with a pulsed high-power CO2 laser

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Mouris, J.F.; Hoffmann, C.R.J.; Davis, R.W.


    We report the first experiments on the laser plasma deposition of hydrogen-free, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure-tube materials and silicon substrates, using the short-pulse, high-power, CO 2 laser in the High-Power Laser Laboratory at Chalk River Laboratories. The films were (AFM). The thin films show the characteristic signature of DLC films in the Raman spectra obtained using a krypton-ion (Kr + ) laser. The Vickers ultra-low-load microhardness tests show hardness of the coated surface of approximately 7000 Kg force mm -2 , which is consistent with the hardness associated with DLC films. AFM examination of the film morphology shows diamond-like crystals distributed throughout the film, with film thicknesses of up to 0.5 μm generated with 50 laser pulses. With significantly more laser pulses, it is expected that very uniform diamond-like films would be produced. These experiments suggest that it should be possible to deposit hydrogen-free, diamond-like films of relevance to nuclear reactor components with a high-power and high-repetition-rate laser facility. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  11. The Beam Characteristics of High Power Diode Laser Stack

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Fu, Yueming; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yan


    Direct diode lasers have some of the most attractive features of any laser. They are very efficient, compact, wavelength versatile, low cost, and highly reliable. However, the full utilization of direct diode lasers has yet to be realized. However, the poor quality of diode laser beam itself, directly affect its application ranges, in order to better use of diode laser stack, need a proper correction of optical system, which requires accurate understanding of the diode laser beam characteristics. Diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. Therefore diode laser cladding will open a new field of repairing for the damaged machinery parts which must contribute to recycling of the used machines and saving of cost.

  12. Development of high power chemical oxygen lodine laser

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, C. M.; Kim, M. S.; Baik, S. H.; Kwon, S. O.; Park, S. K.; Kim, T. S


    This project is directed to construct 10kW Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) for decommissioning of old nuclear facilities, and to get the key technology that can be used for the development of high energy laser weapon. COIL is possible up to MW class in proportion to the amount of chemical reaction. For this reason, high energy laser weapon including Airborne Laser (ABL) and Airborne Tactical Laser (ATL) has been developed as a military use in USA. Recently, many research group have been doing a development study of COIL for nuclear and industrial use in material processing such as cutting and decommissioning by combining laser beam delivery through optical fiber. The Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser of 6 kW output power has been developed in this project. The main technologies of chemical reaction and supersonic fluid control were developed. This technology can be applied for construction of 10 kW laser system. This laser can be used for old nuclear facilities and heavy industry by combining laser beam delivery through optical fiber. The development of High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon is necessary as a military use, and we conclude that Airborne Tactical Laser should be developed in our country.

  13. High-power copper vapour lasers and applications

    Chang, J.J.; Warner, B.E.; Boley, C.D.; Dragon, E.P.


    Expanded applications of copper vapor lasers has prompted increased demand for higher power and better beam quality. This paper reports recent progress in laser power scaling, MOPA operation, beam quality improvement, and applications in precision laser machining. Issues such as gas heating, radial delay, discharge instability, and window heating will also be discussed.

  14. High-power single-mode cw dye ring laser

    Schroeder, H W; Stein, L; Froelich, D; Fugger, B; Welling, H [Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik


    Due to spatial hole burning, standing-wave dye lasers require a large amount of selectivity inside the cavity for single-mode operation. The output power of these lasers is limited by losses caused by the frequency selecting elements. In a travelling-wave laser, on the other hand, spatial hole burning does not exist, thereby eliminating the need for high selectivity. A travelling-wave cw dye laser was realized by unidirectional operation of a ring laser, yielding single mode output powers of 1.2 W at 595 nm and of 55 mW in the UV-region with intracavity frequency doubling.

  15. High power visible diode laser for the treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation

    Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Harlander, Maximilian; Nussbaumer, Bernhard


    We present a high power visible diode laser enabling a low-cost treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation, including the two leading causes of blindness worldwide (diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration) as well as retinopathy of prematurely born children, intraocular tumors and retinal detachment. Laser coagulation requires the exposure of the eye to visible laser light and relies on the high absorption of the retina. The need for treatment is constantly increasing, due to the demographic trend, the increasing average life expectancy and medical care demand in developing countries. The World Health Organization reacts to this demand with global programs like the VISION 2020 "The right to sight" and the following Universal Eye Health within their Global Action Plan (2014-2019). One major point is to motivate companies and research institutes to make eye treatment cheaper and easily accessible. Therefore it becomes capital providing the ophthalmology market with cost competitive, simple and reliable technologies. Our laser is based on the direct second harmonic generation of the light emitted from a tapered laser diode and has already shown reliable optical performance. All components are produced in wafer scale processes and the resulting strong economy of scale results in a price competitive laser. In a broader perspective the technology behind our laser has a huge potential in non-medical applications like welding, cutting, marking and finally laser-illuminated projection.

  16. Modematic: a fast laser beam analyzing system for high power CO2-laser beams

    Olsen, Flemming O.; Ulrich, Dan


    The performance of an industrial laser is very much depending upon the characteristics of the laser beam. The ISO standards 11146 and 11154 describing test methods for laser beam parameters have been approved. To implement these methods in industry is difficult and especially for the infrared laser sources, such as the CO2-laser, the availabl analyzing systems are slow, difficult to apply and having limited reliability due to the nature of the detection methods. In an EUREKA-project the goal was defined to develop a laser beam analyzing system dedicated to high power CO2-lasers, which could fulfill the demands for an entire analyzing system, automating the time consuming pre-alignment and beam conditioning work required before a beam mode analyses, automating the analyzing sequences and data analysis required to determine the laser beam caustics and last but not least to deliver reliable close to real time data to the operator. The results of this project work will be described in this paper. The research project has led to the development of the Modematic laser beam analyzer, which is ready for the market.

  17. High-power green diode laser systems for biomedical applications

    Müller, André

    propagation parameters and therefore efficiently increases the brightness of compact and cost-effective diode laser systems. The condition of overlapping beams is an ideal scenario for subsequent frequency conversion. Based on sum-frequency generation of two beam combined diode lasers a 3.2 fold increase...... output power of frequency doubled single emitters is limited by thermal effects potentially resulting in laser degradation and failure. In this work new concepts for power scaling of visible diode laser systems are introduced that help to overcome current limitations and enhance the application potential....... Implementing the developed concept of frequency converted, beam combined diode laser systems will help to overcome the high pump thresholds for ultrabroad bandwidth titanium sapphire lasers, leading towards diode based high-resolution optical coherence tomography with enhanced image quality. In their entirety...

  18. Picosecond high power laser systems and picosecond diagnostic technique in laser produced plasma

    Kuroda, Hiroto; Masuko, H.; Maekawa, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yoshiji; Sugiyama, Masaru.


    Highly repetitive, high power YAG and Glass laser systems have been developed and been successfully used for the studies of laser-plasma interactions. Various picosecond diagnostic techniques have been developed for such purposes in the regions from optical to X-ray frequency. Recently highly sensitive X-ray (1 - 10 KeV) streak camera for highly repetitive operations have been developed. Preliminary experiment shows the achievement of 28ps temporal resolution (100μm slit) and good sensitivity with detectable minimum number of 10E3-1KeV photons/shot/slit area. (author)

  19. Description of high-power laser radiation in the paraxial approximation

    Milant' ev, V P; Karnilovich, S P; Shaar, Ya N [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We consider the feasibility of an adequate description of a laser pulse of arbitrary shape within the framework of the paraxial approximation. In this approximation, using a parabolic equation and an expansion in the small parameter, expressions are obtained for the field of a sufficiently intense laser radiation given in the form of axially symmetric Hermite – Gaussian beams of arbitrary mode and arbitrary polarisation. It is shown that in the case of sufficiently short pulses, corrections to the transverse components of the laser field are the first-order rather than the secondorder quantities in the expansion in the small parameter. The peculiarities of the description of higher-mode Hermite – Gaussian beams are outlined. (light wave transformation)

  20. High power YAG laser cutting; Koshutsuryoku YAG laser ni yoru setsudan gijutsu

    Owaki, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes features of high power YAG cutting. The optical fiber transmission YAG laser machining system has some advantages in which optical path length compensation unit is not required and measures for low power loss and dust are not required, when compared with the CO2 laser system. Its application to the cutting of stainless steel plates has attracted attention. Cutting tests of SUS304 were conducted using high power YAG laser. Cutting of SUS304 plate with a thickness of 40 mm could be successfully done at the power of 3.5 kW. Cutting tests of SUS304 pipes with a thickness of 8 mm in water under the depth of 20 m were also conducted using air as assist gas at the power of 2.5 kW. Excellent results were obtained without scale deposition. For the tests by the composite beam using 3 kW and 4 kW systems, SUS304 plate with a thickness of 50 mm could be cut at the cutting speed of 0.1 m/min. Laser cutting of pipes from the internal surface was conducted using a newly developed small machining head which can rotate in the peripheral direction. Excellent quality for welding was confirmed. Cutting speed and plate thickness were improved by combining water jet cutter and YAG laser unit. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  1. High-Power, Solid-State, Deep Ultraviolet Laser Generation

    Hongwen Xuan


    Full Text Available At present, deep ultraviolet (DUV lasers at the wavelength of fourth harmonics of 1 μm (266 nm/258 nm and at the wavelength of 193 nm are widely utilized in science and industry. We review the generation of these DUV lasers by nonlinear frequency conversion processes using solid-state/fiber lasers as the fundamental frequency. A DUV laser at 258 nm by fourth harmonics generation (FHG could achieve an average power of 10 W with a beam quality of M2 < 1.5. Moreover, 1 W of average power at 193 nm was obtained by sum-frequency generation (SFG. A new concept of 193-nm DUV laser generation by use of the diamond Raman laser is also introduced. A proof-of-principle experiment of the diamond Raman laser is reported with the conversion efficiency of 23% from the pump to the second Stokes wavelength, which implies the potential to generate a higher power 193 nm DUV laser in the future.

  2. Characterization of High-power Quasi-cw Laser Diode Arrays

    Stephen, Mark A.; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Troupaki, Elisavet; Allan, Graham R.; Kashem, Nasir B.


    NASA s requirements for high reliability, high performance satellite laser instruments have driven the investigation of many critical components; specifically, 808 nm laser diode array (LDA) pump devices. Performance and comprehensive characterization data of Quasi-CW, High-power, laser diode arrays is presented.

  3. Recent Results in High Power CO2-Laser Cutting for Shipbuilding Industry

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov


    In 1997 a high power laser cutting and welding test facility was established at the Danish shipyard Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Research and development projects were initiated in order to establish the basis for applying the full power of the laser for laser-cutting, by developing mirror based...

  4. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    Ho, Ching-Hung.


    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed

  5. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.


    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  6. High-power laser-plasma chemistry in planetary atmospheres

    Juha, Libor; Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Krása, Josef; Skála, Jiří; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Civiš, Svatopluk; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Babánková, Dagmar


    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2007), s. 516-517 ISSN 1531-1074. [Bioastronomy 2007. San Juach, 16.07.2007-20.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1278; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : laser spark * laser-produced plasma * chemical evolution * plasmachemistry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.025, year: 2007

  7. High power laser interaction with single and double layer targets

    Borodziuk, S.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Jungwirth, Karel; Kálal, M.; Kasperczuk, A.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Králiková, Božena; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, Jiří; Mašek, Karel; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Rozanov, V. B.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří


    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2005), s. 241-262 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A100; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2043105 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00053; RFBR(RU) 02-02-16966; IAEA(XE) 11655/RBF; INTAS(XX) 01-0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser produced plasma * three-frame interferometry * macroparticle * single and double targets * crater * shock wave * laser energy absorption Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  8. High Power (50W) WDM Space Lasercom 1.5um Fiber Laser Transmitter, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to develop and demonstrate a spaceflight prototype of a wideband, high power (up to 50W), polarization maintaining (PM), 1.5-um fiber laser...

  9. Efficient high power 2 micron Tm3+-Doped Fiber Laser, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers for efficient high power 2 micron fiber lasers capable of generating an output power of...

  10. High Power Mid-IR Semiconductor Lasers for LADAR

    Lester, Luke


    The growing need for antimonide-based, room temperature, 2-5 micrometers, semiconductor lasers for trace gas spectroscopy, ultra-low loss communication, infrared countermeasures, and ladar motivated this work...

  11. High Power, Thermally Optimized Blue Laser for Lidar, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enable widespread and rapid airborne bathymetric lidar to adequate depths in many ocean regions a low-cost, rugged, and high energy pulsed laser source must be...

  12. High Power, Thermally Optimized Blue Laser for Lidar, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enable widespread and rapid airborne bathymetric lidar to adequate depths in many ocean regions a low-cost, rugged, and high energy pulsed laser source must be...

  13. High power radiation guiding systems for laser driven accelerators

    Cutolo, A.


    This paper reviews the main problems encountered in the design of an optical system for transmitting high fluence radiation in a laser driven accelerator. Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of mirror and waveguide systems. (orig.)

  14. Research with high-power short-wavelength lasers

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Campbell, E.M.; Lindl, J.D.; Storm, E.


    Three important high-temperature, high-density experiments were conducted recently using the 10-TW, short-wavelength Novette laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These experiments demonstrated successful solutions to problems that arose during previous experiments with long wavelength lasers (lambda greater than or equal to 1μm) in which inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray laser, and other high-temperature physics concepts were being tested. The demonstrations were: (1) large-scale plasmas (typical dimensions of up to 1000 laser wavelengths) were produced in which potentially deleterious laser-plasma instabilities were collisionally damped. (2) Deuterium-tritium fuel was imploded to a density of 20 g/cm 3 and a pressure of 10 10 atm. (3) A 700-fold amplification of soft x rays by stimulated emission at 206 and 209 A (62 eV) from Se +24 ions was observed in a laser-generated plasma. Isoelectronic scaling to 155 A (87 eV) in Y +29 was also demonstrated

  15. Controlling Stimulated Brillouin/Raman Scattering in High Power Fiber Lasers


    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2017-0043 TR-2017-0043 CONTROLLING STIMULATED BRILLOUIN/RAMAN SCATTERING IN HIGH POWER FIBER LASERS Cody Mart Ben...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research addressed suppression of stimulated Brillouin/Raman scattering in high power fiber lasers

  16. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya


    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  17. Novel High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers


    Novel High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6... High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers Report Term: 0-Other Email: Distribution Statement: 1-Approved

  18. Advances in high power linearly polarized fiber laser and its application

    Zhou, Pu; Huang, Long; Ma, Pengfei; Xu, Jiangming; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin


    Fiber lasers are now attracting more and more research interest due to their advantages in efficiency, beam quality and flexible operation. Up to now, most of the high power fiber lasers have random distributed polarization state. Linearlypolarized (LP) fiber lasers, which could find wide application potential in coherent detection, coherent/spectral beam combining, nonlinear frequency conversion, have been a research focus in recent years. In this paper, we will present a general review on the achievements of various kinds of high power linear-polarized fiber laser and its application. The recent progress in our group, including power scaling by using power amplifier with different mechanism, high power linearly polarized fiber laser with diversified properties, and various applications of high power linear-polarized fiber laser, are summarized. We have achieved 100 Watt level random distributed feedback fiber laser, kilowatt level continuous-wave (CW) all-fiber polarization-maintained fiber amplifier, 600 watt level average power picosecond polarization-maintained fiber amplifier and 300 watt level average power femtosecond polarization-maintained fiber amplifier. In addition, high power linearly polarized fiber lasers have been successfully applied in 5 kilowatt level coherent beam combining, structured light field and ultrasonic generation.

  19. Photonic bandgap fiber lasers and multicore fiber lasers for next generation high power lasers

    Shirakawa, A.; Chen, M.; Suzuki, Y.


    Photonic bandgap fiber lasers are realizing new laser spectra and nonlinearity mitigation that a conventional fiber laser cannot. Multicore fiber lasers are a promising tool for power scaling by coherent beam combination. © 2014 OSA....

  20. Tunable high-power narrow-linewidth green external-cavity GaN diode laser

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system.......A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system....

  1. The development of fluorides for high power laser optics

    Ready, J. F.; Vora, H.


    The laser assisted thermonuclear fusion program has need for improved optical materials with high transmission in the ultraviolet, and with low values of nonlinear index of refraction. Lithium fluoride possesses a combination of optical properties which are of use. Single crystalline LiF is limited by low mechanical strength. The technique of press forging to increase the mechanical strength is investigated. LiF single crystals were press forged over the temperature range 300 - 600 deg C to produce fine grained polycrystalline material. Optical homogenity at 633, stress birefringence, scattering at 633, residual absorption over the spectral range 339 - 3800 nm, and laser damage thresholds for 1 ns, 1064 nm and 700 ps, 266 nm laser pulses are evaluated. Single crystals can be press forged without seriously degrading their optical properties. Yield strength in compression, proportional limit and fracture strength in 3 and 4 point bending, fracture energy, and threshold for microyield are discussed.

  2. Efficient High Power Ho,Tm:GdVO4 Laser

    Wang Yue-Zhu; Zhu Guo-Li; Ju You-Lun; Yao Bao-Quan


    We report a 22.3 W cw diode-pumped cryogenic Ho(0.5at.%),Tm(at.5%):GdVO 4 laser at a wavelength of 2.05 μm. It is pumped by two fiber-coupled laser diodes with a fiber core diameter of 0.4 mm, both of which provide 42 W pump power near 802 nm. A cw output power of 22.3 W was obtained at the pump power of 51.0 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 43.7% when the ratio of the pump beam to oscillating laser beam in the crystal was ∼1.33:1. The M 2 factor was found to be 2.0 under an output power of 16.5 W. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  3. Relay telescope for high power laser alignment system

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.


    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  4. Fast ion generation by a picosecond high-power laser

    Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Hora, H.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel


    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2005), s. 5-22 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 238 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy in Vienna(XE) 11535/RO; State Commitee for Scientific Research (KBN)(PL) 1 PO3B 082 19 and 1 PO3B 043 26 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : fast ion * plasma * picosecond laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  5. Enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Detection limit using a low-pressure and short-pulse laser-induced plasma process.

    Wang, Zhen Zhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Yan, Jun Jie; Liu, Ji Ping


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology is an appealing technique compared with many other types of elemental analysis because of the fast response, high sensitivity, real-time, and noncontact features. One of the challenging targets of LIBS is the enhancement of the detection limit. In this study, the detection limit of gas-phase LIBS analysis has been improved by controlling the pressure and laser pulse width. In order to verify this method, low-pressure gas plasma was induced using nanosecond and picosecond lasers. The method was applied to the detection of Hg. The emission intensity ratio of the Hg atom to NO (IHg/INO) was analyzed to evaluate the LIBS detection limit because the NO emission (interference signal) was formed during the plasma generation and cooling process of N2 and O2 in the air. It was demonstrated that the enhancement of IHg/INO arose by decreasing the pressure to a few kilopascals, and the IHg/INO of the picosecond breakdown was always much higher than that of the nanosecond breakdown at low buffer gas pressure. Enhancement of IHg/INO increased more than 10 times at 700 Pa using picosecond laser with 35 ps pulse width. The detection limit was enhanced to 0.03 ppm (parts per million). We also saw that the spectra from the center and edge parts of plasma showed different features. Comparing the central spectra with the edge spectra, IHg/INO of the edge spectra was higher than that of the central spectra using the picosecond laser breakdown process.

  6. Plasma turbulence imaging using high-power laser Thomson scattering

    Zweben, S. J.; Caird, J.; Davis, W.; Johnson, D. W.; Le Blanc, B. P.


    The two-dimensional (2D) structure of plasma density turbulence in a magnetically confined plasma can potentially be measured using a Thomson scattering system made from components of the Nova laser of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. For a plasma such as the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the laser would form an ≈10-cm-wide plane sheet beam passing vertically through the chamber across the magnetic field. The scattered light would be imaged by a charge coupled device camera viewing along the direction of the magnetic field. The laser energy required to make 2D images of density turbulence is in the range 1-3 kJ, which can potentially be obtained from a set of frequency-doubled Nd:glass amplifiers with diameters in the range of 208-315 mm. A laser pulse width of ⩽100 ns would be short enough to capture the highest frequency components of the expected density fluctuations.

  7. Two dimensional simulation of high power laser-surface interaction

    Goldman, S.R.; Wilke, M.D.; Green, R.E.L.; Johnson, R.P.; Busch, G.E.


    For laser intensities in the range of 10 8 --10 9 W/cm 2 , and pulse lengths of order 10 microsec or longer, the authors have modified the inertial confinement fusion code Lasnex to simulate gaseous and some dense material aspects of the laser-matter interaction. The unique aspect of their treatment consists of an ablation model which defines a dense material-vapor interface and then calculates the mass flow across this interface. The model treats the dense material as a rigid two-dimensional mass and heat reservoir suppressing all hydrodynamic motion in the dense material. The computer simulations and additional post-processors provide predictions for measurements including impulse given to the target, pressures at the target interface, electron temperatures and densities in the vapor-plasma plume region, and emission of radiation from the target. The authors will present an analysis of some relatively well diagnosed experiments which have been useful in developing their modeling. The simulations match experimentally obtained target impulses, pressures at the target surface inside the laser spot, and radiation emission from the target to within about 20%. Hence their simulational technique appears to form a useful basis for further investigation of laser-surface interaction in this intensity, pulse-width range. This work is useful in many technical areas such as materials processing

  8. Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications

    Campbell, J.H.


    Recent advances in Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses for high-peak-power and high-average-power applications are reviewed. Compositional studies have progressed to the point that glasses can be tailored to have specific properties for specific applications. Non-radiative relaxation effects can be accurately modeled and empirical expressions have been developed to evaluate both intrinsic (structural) and extrinsic (contamination induced) relaxation effects. Losses due to surface scattering and bulk glass absorption have been carefully measured and can be accurately predicted. Improvements in processing have lead to high damage threshold (e.g. Pt inclusion free) and high thermal shock resistant glasses with improved edge claddings. High optical quality pieces up to 79 x 45 x 4cm 3 have been made and methods for continuous melting laser glass are under development

  9. High-power CO laser with RF discharge for isotope separation employing condensation repression

    Baranov, I. Ya.; Koptev, A. V.


    High-power CO laser can be the effective tool in such applications as isotope separation using the free-jet CRISLA method. The way of transfer from CO small-scale experimental installation to industrial high-power CO lasers is proposed through the use of a low-current radio-frequency (RF) electric discharge in a supersonic stream without an electron gun. The calculation model of scaling CO laser with RF discharge in supersonic stream was developed. The developed model allows to calculate parameters of laser installation and optimize them with the purpose of reception of high efficiency and low cost of installation as a whole. The technical decision of industrial CO laser for isotope separation employing condensation repression is considered. The estimated cost of laser is some hundred thousand dollars USA and small sizes of laser head give possibility to install it in any place.

  10. High-Power, High-Intensity Laser Propagation and Interactions


    intensity as the weighting function. The full refractive index associated with the laser plasma interaction having a parabolic density variation ...radiation in turn enhances the electron density wave further amplifying the radiation. Considering spatial variations in the z direction only the FEL...effL/ at the entrance to the wiggler where effL is the effective interaction length. This requirement can be expressed by the following inequality

  11. High-power laser diodes with high polarization purity

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Yanson, Dan; Peleg, Ophir; Blonder, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Klumel, Genady


    Fiber-coupled laser diode modules employ power scaling of single emitters for fiber laser pumping. To this end, techniques such as geometrical, spectral and polarization beam combining (PBC) are used. For PBC, linear polarization with high degree of purity is important, as any non-perfectly polarized light leads to losses and heating. Furthermore, PBC is typically performed in a collimated portion of the beams, which also cancels the angular dependence of the PBC element, e.g., beam-splitter. However, we discovered that single emitters have variable degrees of polarization, which depends both on the operating current and far-field divergence. We present data to show angle-resolved polarization measurements that correlate with the ignition of high-order modes in the slow-axis emission of the emitter. We demonstrate that the ultimate laser brightness includes not only the standard parameters such as power, emitting area and beam divergence, but also the degree of polarization (DoP), which is a strong function of the latter. Improved slow-axis divergence, therefore, contributes not only to high brightness but also high beam combining efficiency through polarization.

  12. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  13. High-power random distributed feedback fiber laser: From science to application

    Du, Xueyuan [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Naval Academy of Armament, Beijing 100161 (China); Zhang, Hanwei; Xiao, Hu; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)


    A fiber laser based on random distributed feedback has attracted increasing attention in recent years, as it has become an important photonic device and has found wide applications in fiber communications or sensing. In this article, recent advances in high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser are reviewed, including the theoretical analyses, experimental approaches, discussion on the practical applications and outlook. It is found that a random distributed feedback fiber laser can not only act as an information photonics device, but also has the feasibility for high-efficiency/high-power generation, which makes it competitive with conventional high-power laser sources. In addition, high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser has been successfully applied for midinfrared lasing, frequency doubling to the visible and high-quality imaging. It is believed that the high-power random distributed feedback fiber laser could become a promising light source with simple and economic configurations. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. High power CW output from low confinement asymmetric structure diode laser

    Iordache, G.; Buda, M.; Acket, G.A.; Roer, van de T.G.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.; Karouta, F.; Jagadish, C.; Tan, H.H.


    High power continuous wave output from diode lasers using low loss, low confinement, asymmetric structures is demonstrated. An asymmetric structure with an optical trap layer was grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Gain guided 50 µm wide stripe 1-3 mm long diode lasers were studied. 1.8 W

  15. Behaviour of alkali halides as materials for optical components of high power lasers

    Apostol, D.I.; Mihailescu, N.I.; Ghiordanescu, V.; Nistor, C.L.; Nistor, V.S.; Teodorescu, V.; Voda, M.


    The physical phenomena taking place in alkali halides when a CO 2 laser radiation is passing through have been reviewed. A special emphasis has been put on the specific qualities which such materials should have for being used as components for high power lasers. (author)

  16. Cladding glass ceramic for use in high powered lasers

    Marker, Alexander J.; Campbell, John H.


    A Cu-doped/Fe-doped low expansion glass ceramic composition comprising in Wt. %: SiO{sub 2} 50--65; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 18--27; P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 0--10; Li{sub 2}O 2--6; Na{sub 2}O 0--2; K{sub 2}O 0--2; B{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1; MgO 0--4; ZnO 0--5; CaO 0--4; BaO 0--5; TiO{sub 2} 1--3; ZrO{sub 3} 1--3; As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; CuO 0--3; and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1 wherein the total amount of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is 80--89 wt. %, and said glass ceramic contains as a dopant 0.1--3 wt. % CuO, 0.1--1 wt. % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a combined CuO+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} amount of 0.1--4 wt. %. The glass ceramic composition is suitable for use as a cladding material for solid laser energy storage mediums as well as for use in beam attenuators for measuring laser energy level and beam blocks or beam dumps used for absorbing excess or unused laser energy.

  17. A homogeneous cooling scheme investigation for high power slab laser

    He, Jianguo; Lin, Weiran; Fan, Zhongwei; Chen, Yanzhong; Ge, Wenqi; Yu, Jin; Liu, Hao; Mo, Zeqiang; Fan, Lianwen; Jia, Dan


    The forced convective heat transfer with the advantages of reliability and durability is widely used in cooling the laser gain medium. However, a flow direction induced temperature gradient always appears. In this paper, a novel cooling configuration based on longitudinal forced convective heat transfer is presented. In comparison with two different types of configurations, it shows a more efficient heat transfer and more homogeneous temperature distribution. The investigation of the flow rate reveals that the higher flow rate the better cooling performance. Furthermore, the simulation results with 20 L/min flow rate shows an adequate temperature level and temperature homogeneity which keeps a lower hydrostatic pressure in the flow path.

  18. High-power non linear frequency converted laser diodes

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Hansen, Anders Kragh


    We present different methods of generating light in the blue-green spectral range by nonlinear frequency conversion of tapered diode lasers achieving state-of-the-art power levels. In the blue spectral range, we show results using single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) as well as cavity enh...... enhanced sum frequency generation (SFG) with watt-level output powers. SHG and SFG are also demonstrated in the green spectral range as a viable method to generate up to 4 W output power with high efficiency using different configurations....

  19. Development of fluorides for high power laser optics

    Ready, J.F.; Vora, H.


    The laser-assisted thermonuclear fusion program has significant needs for improved optical materials with high transmission in the ultraviolet, and with low values of nonlinear index of refraction. Lithium fluoride (LiF) possesses a combination of optical properties which are of potential use. Single-crystalline LiF is limited by low mechanical strength. In this program, we investigated the technique of press-forging to increase the mechanical strength. LiF single crystals were press-forged over the temperature range 300 to 600 0 C to produce fine-grained polycrystalline material

  20. Efficient high-power narrow-linewidth all-fibred linearly polarized ytterbium laser source

    Bertrand, Anthony; Liégeois, Flavien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico


    We report on experimental results on a high power, all-fibred, linearly polarized, mode-locked laser at 1.03 μm. The laser generates pulses of 40 ps wide at a repetition rate of 52 MHz, exhibiting 12 kW peak power. Dispersion in optical fibres is controlled to obtain both high power and narrow spectral linewidth. The average output power reached is 25 W with a spectral linewidth of 380 pm and a near diffraction limit beam (M2 < 1.2). This laser is an ideal candidate for applications like IR spectroscopy, where high peak power and narrow linewidth are required for subsequent wavelength conversion.

  1. Study on high power ultraviolet laser oil detection system

    Jin, Qi; Cui, Zihao; Bi, Zongjie; Zhang, Yanchao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Fu, Shiyou


    Laser Induce Fluorescence (LIF) is a widely used new telemetry technology. It obtains information about oil spill and oil film thickness by analyzing the characteristics of stimulated fluorescence and has an important application in the field of rapid analysis of water composition. A set of LIF detection system for marine oil pollution is designed in this paper, which uses 355nm high-energy pulsed laser as the excitation light source. A high-sensitivity image intensifier is used in the detector. The upper machine sends a digital signal through a serial port to achieve nanoseconds range-gated width control for image intensifier. The target fluorescence spectrum image is displayed on the image intensifier by adjusting the delay time and the width of the pulse signal. The spectral image is coupled to CCD by lens imaging to achieve spectral display and data analysis function by computer. The system is used to detect the surface of the floating oil film in the distance of 25m to obtain the fluorescence spectra of different oil products respectively. The fluorescence spectra of oil products are obvious. The experimental results show that the system can realize high-precision long-range fluorescence detection and reflect the fluorescence characteristics of the target accurately, with broad application prospects in marine oil pollution identification and oil film thickness detection.

  2. Short Pulse Switches for Airborne High Power Supplies


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  3. Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches

    Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D


    With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.

  4. Investigation of micro-plasma in physiological saline produced by a high-power YAG laser

    Lu Jian; Ni Xiaowu; He Anzhi


    Micro-plasma and shock waves in the physiological saline produced by a Q-switched pulse YAG laser with nearby optical breakdown threshold energy are investigated by using optical shadowing exploring method, and a series of optical shadow graphs of micro-plasma and shock waves versus the incident laser energy and the delay time are obtained. Influence of mechanical action of shock waves for the high-power pulse laser on the ophthalmic treatment is discussed

  5. Development of a high power free-electron laser

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sun Kook; Jung, Yung Wook; Cho, Sung Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator has been developed. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable in the range of 3 - 12 mm by tuning the energy of the electron beam. The output power is estimated to be 1 kW. The electrostatic accelerator is composed of high-current electron gun, acceleration tube, high-voltage generator, high-voltage terminal, deceleration tube, electron collator, and vacuum pumps. Two types of LaB{sub 6}-based thermionic electron guns (triode gun and diode gun) and their power supplies have been developed. The voltage of the guns is 30 kV and the output current is - 2 A. A beam-focusing planar undulator and a permanent-magnet helical undulator have been developed and 3D trajectories of electron beam in the undulators have been calculated to find optimal input condition of electron beam. 135 figs, 15 pix, 17 tabs, 98 refs. (Author).

  6. Development of a high power free-electron laser

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sun Kook; Jung, Yung Wook; Cho, Sung Oh


    A millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator has been developed. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable in the range of 3 - 12 mm by tuning the energy of the electron beam. The output power is estimated to be 1 kW. The electrostatic accelerator is composed of high-current electron gun, acceleration tube, high-voltage generator, high-voltage terminal, deceleration tube, electron collator, and vacuum pumps. Two types of LaB 6 -based thermionic electron guns (triode gun and diode gun) and their power supplies have been developed. The voltage of the guns is 30 kV and the output current is - 2 A. A beam-focusing planar undulator and a permanent-magnet helical undulator have been developed and 3D trajectories of electron beam in the undulators have been calculated to find optimal input condition of electron beam. 135 figs, 15 pix, 17 tabs, 98 refs. (Author)

  7. Investigation of a high power UV pre-ionized tea CO2 laser for making purposes

    Tan Shiw Jin; Low Kum Seng


    A simple, high-power TEA CO 2 laser using profiled electrodes with capacitatively-coupled side-arcs to provide preionization is described. The output pulse energy, beam size and beam divergence of this laser is measured as well as the voltage across the two laser electrodes. The effect of various operating parameters on the output pulse energy and efficiency of this laser are also described. The laser, with a maximum output energy of 4 J per pulse, has been used successfully to mark plastic surfaces such as plastic Ic components. (author)

  8. High power multiple wavelength diode laser stack for DPSSL application without temperature control

    Hou, Dong; Yin, Xia; Wang, Jingwei; Chen, Shi; Zhan, Yun; Li, Xiaoning; Fan, Yingmin; Liu, Xingsheng


    High power diode laser stack is widely used in pumping solid-state laser for years. Normally an integrated temperature control module is required for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser, as the output power of the solid-state laser highly depends on the emission wavelength and the wavelength shift of diode lasers according to the temperature changes. However the temperature control module is inconvenient for this application, due to its large dimension, high electric power consumption and extra adding a complicated controlling system. Furthermore, it takes dozens of seconds to stabilize the output power when the laser system is turned on. In this work, a compact hard soldered high power conduction cooled diode laser stack with multiple wavelengths is developed for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser in a certain temperature range. The stack consists of 5 laser bars with the pitch of 0.43mm. The peak output power of each bar in the diode laser stack reaches as much as 557W and the combined lasing wavelength spectrum profile spans 15nm. The solidstate laser, structured with multiple wavelength diode laser stacks, allows the ambient temperature change of 65°C without suddenly degrading the optical performance.

  9. Chemical and physical analysis on hard tissues after irradiation with short pulse Nd:YAG laser; Alteracoes quimicas e fisicas de tecidos duros irradiados por laser de neodimio chaveado

    Pereira, Andrea Antunes


    This work reports on a study that was designed to investigate chemical, physical and morphological alterations in the dental enamel surface. The influence of application of laser in enamel surface by microscopic technical, X-ray fluorescence for chemical analysis, physical property as well as hardness and thermal analysis with Nd:YAG laser is also pointed out. A prototype of Nd:YAG (Q-switched) laser developed at the Center of Lasers and Applications - Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, aiming applications in the Medical Sciences that typical wavelength of 1.064 nm was used. The modifications in human dental enamel chemical composition for major and trace elements are here outlined. The accuracy of procedures was performed by analysis of natural hydroxyapatite as standard reference material. The identification and quantification of the chemical elements presented in the dental tissue samples were performed trough EDS, XRF and INAA. We determined the rate Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) for different techniques. We performed an analysis in different regions of the surface and for different areas allowing a description of the chemical change in the total area of the specimen and the assessment of the compositional homogeneity of the each specimen. A comparison between XRF and INAA is presented. Based on morphological analysis of the irradiated surfaces with short pulse Nd:YAG laser we determined the area surrounded by the irradiation for the parameters for this thesis, and this technique allowed us to visualize the regions of fusion and re-solidification. The energy densities ranged from 10 J/cm{sup 2} to 40 J/cm{sup 2}, with pulse width of 6, 10 e 200 ns, and repetition rates of 5 and 7 Hz. In this thesis, FTIR-spectroscopy is used to analyze powder of mineralized tissue as well as enamel, dentine, root and cementum for human and bovine teeth after irradiation with short-pulse Nd:YAG laser. Characteristic spectra were obtained for the proteins components and

  10. High Power Laser Laboratory at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion: equipment and preliminary research

    Zaraś-Szydłowska Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the newly-opened High Power Laser Laboratory (HPLL at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM. This article describes the laser, the main laboratory accessories and the diagnostic instruments. We also present preliminary results of the first experiment on ion and X-ray generation from laser-produced plasma that has been already performed at the HPLL.

  11. High-power diode laser bars as pump sources for fiber lasers and amplifiers (Invited Paper)

    Bonati, G.; Hennig, P.; Wolff, D.; Voelckel, H.; Gabler, T.; Krause, U.; T'nnermann, A.; Reich, M.; Limpert, J.; Werner, E.; Liem, A.


    Fiber lasers are pumped by fibercoupled, multimode single chip devices at 915nm. That"s what everybody assumes when asked for the type of fiber laser pumps and it was like this for many years. Coming up as an amplifier for telecom applications, the amount of pump power needed was in the range of several watts. Highest pump powers for a limited market entered the ten watts range. This is a range of power that can be covered by highly reliable multimode chips, that have to survive up to 25 years, e.g. in submarine applications. With fiber lasers entering the power range and the application fields of rod and thin disc lasers, the amount of pump power needed raised into the area of several hundred watts. In this area of pump power, usually bar based pumps are used. This is due to the much higher cost pressure of the industrial customers compared to telecom customers. We expect more then 70% of all industrial systems to be pumped by diode laser bars. Predictions that bar based pumps survive for just a thousand hours in cw-operation and fractions of this if pulsed are wrong. Bar based pumps have to perform on full power for 10.000h on Micro channel heat sinks and 20.000h on passive heatsinks in industrial applications, and they do. We will show a variety of data, "real" long time tests and statistics from the JENOPTIK Laserdiode as well as data of thousands of bars in the field, showing that bar based pumps are not just well suitable for industrial applications on high power levels, but even showing benefits compared to chip based pumps. And it"s reasonable, that the same objectives of cost effectiveness, power and lifetime apply as well to thin disc, rod and slab lasers as to fiber lasers. Due to the pumping of fiber lasers, examples will be shown, how to utilize bars for high brightness fiber coupling. In this area, the automation is on its way to reduce the costs on the fibercoupling, similar to what had been done in the single chip business. All these efforts are

  12. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression of high-power femtosecond fiber lasers in Lithium Niobate crystals

    Bache, Morten; Moses, Jeffrey; Wise, Frank W.


    The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs.......The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs....

  13. Aluminium alloys welding with high-power Nd:YAG lasers

    Garcia Orza, J.A.


    Aluminium alloys have good mechanical properties (high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance) and good workability. their applications are growing up, specially in the transportation industry. Weldability is however poorer than in other materials; recent advances in high power YAG laser are the key to obtain good appearance welds and higher penetration, at industrial production rates. Results of the combination of high power YAG beams with small fiber diameters and specific filler wires are presented. It is also characterized the air bone particulate material, by-product of the laser process: emission rates, size distribution and chemical composition are given for several aluminium alloys. (Author) 6 refs

  14. Observation of superradiance in a short-pulse FEL oscillator

    Jaroszynski, D. A.; Chaix, P.; Piovella, N.; Oepts, D.; Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Weits, H. H.


    Superradiance has been experimentally studied, in a short-pulse free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator. Superradiance is the optimal way of extracting optical radiation from an FEL and can be characterised by the following scale laws: peak optical power P, scales as the square of electron charge, Q,

  15. Forge: a short pulse x-ray diagnostic development facility

    Stradling, G.L.; Hurry, T.R.; Denbow, E.R.; Selph, M.M.; Ameduri, F.P.


    A new short pulse x-ray calibration facility has been brought on line at Los Alamos. This facility is being used for the development, testing and calibration of fast x-ray diagnostic systems. The x-ray source consists of a moderate size, sub-nanosecond laser focused at high intensity on an appropriate target material to generate short pulses of x-ray emission from the resulting plasma. Dynamic performance parameters of fast x-ray diagnostic instruments, such as x-ray streak cameras, can be conveniently measured using this facility

  16. Propagation Characteristics of High-Power Vortex Laguerre-Gaussian Laser Beams in Plasma

    Zhili Lin


    Full Text Available The propagation characteristics of high-power laser beams in plasma is an important research topic and has many potential applications in fields such as laser machining, laser-driven accelerators and laser-driven inertial confined fusion. The dynamic evolution of high-power Laguerre-Gaussian (LG beams in plasma is numerically investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method based on the nonlinear Drude model, with both plasma frequency and collision frequency modulated by the light intensity of laser beam. The numerical algorithms and implementation techniques of FDTD method are presented for numerically simulating the nonlinear permittivity model of plasma and generating the LG beams with predefined parameters. The simulation results show that the plasma has different field modulation effects on the two exemplified LG beams with different cross-sectional patterns. The self-focusing and stochastic absorption phenomena of high-power laser beam in plasma are also demonstrated. This research also provides a new means for the field modulation of laser beams by plasma.

  17. Defect engineering for 650 nm high-power AlGaInP laser diodes

    Kim, D.S.; Kim, K.C.; Shin, Y.C.; Kang, D.H.; Kim, B.J.; Kim, Y.M.; Park, Y.; Kim, T.G.


    To find the optimal growth and annealing conditions for high-power 650 nm band AlGaInP laser diodes, we carried out defect engineering, in which the distribution and density of deep level defects of the laser structure was analyzed. For this purpose, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were carried out for each layer of the 650 nm band AlGaInP laser. By layer optimization at growth and annealing conditions, the laser diode was able operate stably and kink-free at high power over 220 mW at 70 deg. C. The characteristic temperatures (T ) were 212 K for 25-60 deg. C and 106 K over 60 deg. C

  18. Improvements of high-power diode laser line generators open up new application fields

    Meinschien, J.; Bayer, A.; Bruns, P.; Aschke, L.; Lissotschenko, V. N.


    Beam shaping improvements of line generators based on high power diode lasers lead to new application fields as hardening, annealing or cutting of various materials. Of special interest is the laser treatment of silicon. An overview of the wide variety of applications is presented with special emphasis of the relevance of unique laser beam parameters like power density and beam uniformity. Complementary to vision application and plastic processing, these new application markets become more and more important and can now be addressed by high power diode laser line generators. Herewith, a family of high power diode laser line generators is presented that covers this wide spectrum of application fields with very different requirements, including new applications as cutting of silicon or glass, as well as the beam shaping concepts behind it. A laser that generates a 5m long and 4mm wide homogeneous laser line is shown with peak intensities of 0.2W/cm2 for inspection of railway catenaries as well as a laser that generates a homogeneous intensity distribution of 60mm x 2mm size with peak intensities of 225W/cm2 for plastic processing. For the annealing of silicon surfaces, a laser was designed that generates an extraordinary uniform intensity distribution with residual inhomogeneities (contrast ratio) of less than 3% over a line length of 11mm and peak intensities of up to 75kW/cm2. Ultimately, a laser line is shown with a peak intensity of 250kW/cm2 used for cutting applications. Results of various application tests performed with the above mentioned lasers are discussed, particularly the surface treatment of silicon and the cutting of glass.

  19. Semiconductor laser engineering, reliability and diagnostics a practical approach to high power and single mode devices

    Epperlein, Peter W


    This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performa...

  20. Atmospheric propagation of high power laser radiation at different weather conditions

    Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Handke, Jürgen


    Applications based on the propagation of high power laser radiation through the atmosphere are limited in range and effect, due to weather dependent beam wandering, beam deterioration, and scattering processes. Security and defense related application examples are countermeasures against hostile projectiles and the powering of satellites and aircrafts. For an examination of the correlations between weather condition and laser beam characteristics DLR operates at Lampoldshausen a 130 m long fr...

  1. Study of the high power laser-metal interactions in the gaseous atmospheres

    Lugomer, Stjepan; Bitelli, G.; Stipancic, M.; Jovic, F.


    The tantalum and titanium plates were treated by pulsed, high power CO2 laser in the pressurized atmospheres of N2 and O2. Studies performed by the optical microscopy, microhardness measurements, and the auger electron spectroscopy revealed: (1) topographic modification of the surface caused by the temperature field; (2) metal hardening, caused by the laser shock; and (3) alloying/cladding, caused by the chemical reaction between the metal surface and the gaseous atmosphere.

  2. High power CO2 lasers and their applications in nuclear industry

    Nath, A.K.


    Carbon dioxide laser is one of the most popular lasers in industry for material processing applications. It has very high power capability and high efficiency, can be operated in continuous wave (CW), modulated and pulsed modes, and has relatively low cost. Due to these characteristics high power CO 2 lasers are being used worldwide in different industries for a wide variety of materials processing operations. In nuclear industry, CO 2 laser has made its way in many applications. Some of the tasks performed by multikilowatt CO 2 laser are cutting operations necessary to remove unprocessible hardware from reactor fuel assemblies, sealing/fixing/removing radioactive contaminations onto/from concrete surfaces and surface modification of engineering components for improved surface mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. We have developed various models of CW CO 2 lasers of power up to 12 kW and a high repetitive rate TEA (Transversely Excited Atmospheric pressure) CO 2 laser of 500 W average power operating at 500 Hz repetition rates. We have carried many materials processing applications of direct relevance to DAE. Recent work includes laser welding of end plug PFBR fuel tubes, martensitic stainless steel and titanium alloy, surface cladding of turbine blades made of Ni-super alloy with stellite 694, fabrication on graded material of stainless steel and stellite, and laser scabbling, drilling and cutting of concrete which have potential application in decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. A brief overview of these indigenous developments will be presented. (author)

  3. Spectral, spatial and temporal control of high-power diode lasers through nonlinear optical feedback

    van Voorst, P.D.


    A high-power diode laser offers multi-Watt output power from a small and efficient device, which makes them an interesting source for numerous applications. The spatial and spectral output however, are of reduced quality which limits the applicability. This limited quality is connected to the design

  4. Modelling of high-power diode-pumped erbium 3-µm fibre lasers

    Jackson, S.D.; King, T.A.; Pollnau, Markus


    We present theoretical calculations that relate to the cw operation of a high-power Er3+,Pr3+:ZBLAN double-clad fibre laser. Using the measured energy-transfer, energy-transfer-upconversion and cross-relaxation parameters relevant to Er3+-doped and Er3+,Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN, we compare the theoretical

  5. Microstructural evolution in additive manufacturing with high power lasers : Deposition, characterization and performance

    Nenadl, Ondrej


    High power lasers provide time and cost effective method for metallic surface modification. In this work these modifications are explored as: 1) a simple melting and subsequent rapid solidification of a metallic surface – resulting in superior properties post-treatment; 2) deposition of an

  6. Degradation Processes in High-Power Diode Lasers under External Optical Feedback

    Tomm, Jens. W.; Hempel, Martin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    The effect of moderate external feedback on the gradual degradation of 808 nm emitting AlGaAs-based high-power broad-area diode lasers is analyzed. Eventually the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains unaffected by the aging, while severe impact...

  7. Analysis of High-Power Diode Laser Heating Effects on HY-80 Steel for Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding Applications

    Wiechec, Maxwell; Baker, Brad; McNelley, Terry; Matthews, Manyalibo; Rubenchik, Alexander; Rotter, Mark; Beach, Ray; Wu, Sheldon


    In this research, several conditions of high power diode laser heated HY-80 steel were characterized to determine the viability of using such lasers as a preheating source before friction stir welding in order to reduce frictional forces thereby reducing tool wear and increasing welding speeds. Differences in microstructures within heat affected zones were identified at specific laser powers and traverse speeds. Vickers hardness values were recorded and analyzed to validate the formation of additional martensite in diode laser heated regions of HY-80 steel. Conditions that produced little to no additional martensite were identified and relationships among high power diode laser power, traverse speed, and martensite formation were determined. The development of heat affected zones, change in grain structure, and creation of additional martensite in HY-80 can be prevented through the optimization of laser amperage and transverse speed.

  8. Complete indium-free CW 200W passively cooled high power diode laser array using double-side cooling technology

    Wang, Jingwei; Zhu, Pengfei; Liu, Hui; Liang, Xuejie; Wu, Dihai; Liu, Yalong; Yu, Dongshan; Zah, Chung-en; Liu, Xingsheng


    High power diode lasers have been widely used in many fields. To meet the requirements of high power and high reliability, passively cooled single bar CS-packaged diode lasers must be robust to withstand thermal fatigue and operate long lifetime. In this work, a novel complete indium-free double-side cooling technology has been applied to package passively cooled high power diode lasers. Thermal behavior of hard solder CS-package diode lasers with different packaging structures was simulated and analyzed. Based on these results, the device structure and packaging process of double-side cooled CS-packaged diode lasers were optimized. A series of CW 200W 940nm high power diode lasers were developed and fabricated using hard solder bonding technology. The performance of the CW 200W 940nm high power diode lasers, such as output power, spectrum, thermal resistance, near field, far field, smile, lifetime, etc., is characterized and analyzed.

  9. Development of high power KrF laser for fundamental research of ICF driver and laser plasma interaction

    Wang Naiyan; Shan Yusheng; Ma Weiyi; Yao Gang; Zhou Chuangzhi; Tang Xiuzhang; Tang Zhihong; Gao Junsi; Wang Ganchang.


    A high power KrF laser system is under development in China Institute of Atomic Energy. The system consists of a front end, two-stage KrF amplifiers and two-stage Raman amplifiers, providing 100J, 1ns KrF laser with maximum average power density about 10 14 W/cm 2 on target for laser plasma interaction research. Some important technologies, such as front-end system, Angular Multiplexer, and injection locked oscillator are discussed. (author)

  10. New horizons for high-power lasers: applications in civil engineering

    Wignarajah, Sivakumaran


    Although material processing with high power lasers has found widespread use in a variety of industries such as the automotive industry, electrical and electronics industries, aerospace industry etc., civil engineering construction is one field that has lagged behind in the use of lasers for material processing. This is in spite of the fact that a large variety of materials including ceramics, metals and plastics are used in very large quantities for civil engineering construction. The main reasons for the delay in the adopting of laser for processing construction material seem to be the high costs involved and the lack of sufficient power for processing heavy and thick materials. However, with the advent of more compact lasers with higher powers, higher efficiencies and lower photon costs, greater interest has been shown in recent years in the possible uses of high power lasers for material processing in the construction industry. The author traces some of the past work carried out both in Japan and abroad on the use of lasers in civil engineering, specially with respect to the processing of inorganic material such as concrete, natural stones, tiles and rocks. Recent developments regarding laser decontamination and laser assisted rock excavation are also introduced.

  11. Design of a high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser.

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Garcia, Dário


    A simple high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser pumping approach is presented in this paper. The incoming solar radiation is both collected and concentrated by four Fresnel lenses and redirected toward a Nd:YAG laser head by four plane-folding mirrors. A fused-silica secondary concentrator is used to compress the highly concentrated solar radiation to a laser rod. Optimum pumping conditions and laser resonator parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. Solar laser power of 96 W is numerically calculated, corresponding to the collection efficiency of 24  W/m². A record-high solar laser beam brightness figure of merit of 9.6 W is numerically achieved.

  12. Diffusion-cooled high-power single-mode waveguide CO2 laser for transmyocardial revascularization

    Berishvili, I. I.; Bockeria, L. A.; Egorov, E. N.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Galushkin, Michail G.; Kheliminsky, A. A.; Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Roshin, A. P.; Sigaev, I. Y.; Vachromeeva, M. N.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Yoshina, V. I.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Zelenov, Evgenii V.


    The paper presents the results on investigations and development of multichannel waveguide CO2 laser with diffusion cooling of active medium excited by discharge of audio-frequency alternating current. The description of high-power single-mode CO2 laser with average beam power up to 1 kW is presented. The result of measurement of the laser basic parameters are offered, as well as the outcomes of performances of the laser head with long active zone, operating in waveguide mode. As an example of application of these laser, various capabilities a description of the developed medical system 'Genom' used in the transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) procedure and clinical results of the possibilities of the TMLR in the surgical treatment are presented.

  13. Pulse forming networks for fast pumping of high power electron-beam-controlled CO2 lasers

    Riepe, K.B.


    The transverse electric discharge is a widely used technique for pumping CO 2 lasers at high pressures for the generation, simply and efficiently, of very high power laser pulses. The development of the electron-beam-controlled discharge has allowed the application of the transverse discharge to large aperture, very high energy systems. LASL is now in the process of assembly and checkout of a CO 2 laser which is designed to generate a one nanosecond pulse containing 10 kilojoules, for use in laser fusion experiments. The front end of this laser consists of a set of preamplifiers and a mode locked oscillator with electro-optic single pulse switchout. The final amplifier stage consists of four parallel modules, each one consisting of a two-sided electron gun, and two 35 x 35 x 200 cm gas pumping regions operating at a pressure of 1800 torr with a 3/ 1 / 4 /1 (He/N 2 /CO 2 ) laser mix. (auth)

  14. Transient magnetized plasma as an optical element for high power laser pulses

    Nobuhiko Nakanii


    Full Text Available Underdense plasma produced in gas jets by low intensity laser prepulses in the presence of a static magnetic field, B∼0.3  T, is shown experimentally to become an optical element allowing steering of tightly focused high power femtosecond laser pulses within several degrees along with essential enhancement of pulse’s focusability. Strong laser prepulses form a density ramp perpendicularly to magnetic field direction and, owing to the light refraction, main laser pulses propagate along the magnetic field even if it is tilted from the laser axis. Electrons generated in the laser pulse wake are well collimated and follow in the direction of the magnetic field; their characteristics are measured to be not sensitive to the tilt of magnetic field up to angles ±5°.

  15. High power CO II lasers and their material processing applications at Centre for Advanced Technology, India

    Nath, A. K.; Paul, C. P.; Rao, B. T.; Kau, R.; Raghu, T.; Mazumdar, J. Dutta; Dayal, R. K.; Mudali, U. Kamachi; Sastikumar, D.; Gandhi, B. K.


    We have developed high power transverse flow (TF) CW CO II lasers up to 15kW, a high repetition rate TEA CO II laser of 500Hz, 500W average power and a RF excited fast axial flow CO II laser at the Centre for Advanced Technology and have carried out various material processing applications with these lasers. We observed very little variation of discharge voltage with electrode gap in TF CO II lasers. With optimally modulated laser beam we obtained better results in laser piercing and cutting of titanium and resolidification of 3 16L stainless steel weld-metal for improving intergranular corrosion resistance. We carried out microstructure and phase analysis of laser bent 304 stainless steel sheet and optimum process zones were obtained. We carried out laser cladding of 316L stainless steel and Al-alloy substrates with Mo, WC, and Cr IIC 3 powder to improve their wear characteristics. We developed a laser rapid manufacturing facility and fabricated components of various geometries with minimum surface roughness of 5-7 microns Ra and surface waviness of 45 microns between overlapped layers using Colmonoy-6, 3 16L stainless steel and Inconel powders. Cutting of thick concrete blocks by repeated laser glazing followed by mechanical scrubbing process and drilling holes on a vertical concrete with laser beam incident at an optimum angle allowing molten material to flow out under gravity were also done. Some of these studies are briefly presented here.

  16. Solid state pump lasers with high power and high repetition rate

    Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi


    We built a laser diode pumped solid state green laser (LDPSSGL) rated at high repetition rate. Two laser heads are placed in one cavity with a rotator in between to design to avoid thermal lensing and thermal birefringence effect. Although average green laser power higher than 10 W was obtained at 1 kHz repetition rate with pulse width of 20-30 nsec, the beam quality was so much deteriorated that energy efficiency was as low as 2 %. Learning from this experience that high power oscillator causes a lot of thermal distortion not only in the laser rod but also in the Q-switch device, we proceeded to built a oscillator/amplifier system. A low power oscillator has a slab type crystal in the cavity. As a result spatial distribution of laser power was extremely improved. As we expect that the high repetition rate solid state laser should be CW operated Q-switch type laser from the view point of lifetime of diode lasers, a conventional arc lamp pumped CW Q-switch green YAG laser of which the repetition rate is changeable from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and the pulse width is 250-570 nsec was also tested to obtain pumping characteristics of a dye laser as a function of power, pulse width etc., and dye laser pulse width of 100-130 nsec were obtained. (author)

  17. Use of high-power diode lasers for hardening and thermal conduction welding of metals

    Klocke, Fritz; Demmer, Axel; Zaboklicki, A.


    CO2 and Nd:YAG high power lasers have become established as machining tools in industrial manufacturing over the last few years. The most important advantages compared to conventional processing techniques lie in the absence of forces introduced by the laser into the workpiece and in the simple arid highly accurate control in terms ofpositioning and timing making the laser a universally applicable, wear-free and extremely flexible tool /1,2/. The laser can be utilised costeffectively in numerous manufacturing processes but there are also further applications for the laser which produce excellent results from a technical point of view, but are not justified in terms of cost. The extensive use of lasers, particularly in small companies and workshops, is hindered by two main reasons: the complexity and size ofthe laser source and plant and the high investment costs /3/. A new generation of lasers, the high power diode lasers (HDL), combines high performance with a compact design, making the laser a cheap and easy to use tool with many applications /3,4,5,6/. In the diode laser, the laser beam is generated by a microelectronic diode which transforms electrical energy directly into laser energy. Diode lasers with low power outputs have, for some time, been making their mark in our everyday lives: they are used in CD players, laser printers and scanners at cash tills. Modern telecommunications would be impossible without these lasers which enable information to be transmitted in the form oflight impulses through optical fibres. They can also be found in compact precision measurement instrumentation - range fmders, interferometers and pollutant analysis devices /3,6/. In the field of material processing, the first applications ofthe laser, such as for soldering, inscribing, surface hardening and plastic or heat conduction welding, will exceed the limits ofthe relatively low performance output currently available. The diode laser has a shorter wavelength than the CO2 and

  18. Emission parameters and thermal management of single high-power 980-nm laser diodes

    Bezotosnyi, V V; Krokhin, O N; Oleshchenko, V A; Pevtsov, V F; Popov, Yu M; Cheshev, E A


    We report emission parameters of high-power cw 980-nm laser diodes (LDs) with a stripe contact width of 100 μm. On copper heat sinks of the C-mount type, a reliable output power of 10 W is obtained at a pump current of 10 A. Using a heat flow model derived from analysis of calculated and measured overall efficiencies at pump currents up to 20 A, we examine the possibility of raising the reliable power limit of a modified high-power LD mounted on heat sinks of the F-mount type using submounts with optimised geometric parameters and high thermal conductivity. The possibility of increasing the maximum reliable cw output power to 20 W with the use of similar laser crystals is discussed. (lasers)

  19. The impact of external optical feedback on the degradation behavior of high-power diode lasers

    Hempel, Martin; Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael


    The impact of external feedback on high-power diode laser degradation is studied. For this purpose early stages of gradual degradation are prepared by accelerated aging of 808-nm-emitting AlGaAs-based devices. While the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains...... unaffected, severe impact is observed to the cladding layers and the waveguide. Consequently hardening of diode lasers for operation under external optical feedback must necessarily involve claddings and waveguide, into which the quantum well is embedded.......The impact of external feedback on high-power diode laser degradation is studied. For this purpose early stages of gradual degradation are prepared by accelerated aging of 808-nm-emitting AlGaAs-based devices. While the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains...

  20. Application of high-power lasers to equation-of-state research at ultrahigh pressures

    Trainor, R.J.; Graboske, H.C.; Long, K.S.; Shaner, J.W.


    The application of high-power pulsed lasers to ultrahigh pressure equation-of-state (EOS) experiments is discussed. It is shown that pressures along the principal Hugoniot between 1 and 10 TPa can be produced with existing lasers used for inertial-confinement fusion research. The relevance of measurements in this pressure regime to improving our understanding of condensed matter physics is also discussed. New experimental techniques as well as potential experimental problems are described, and EOS experiments on the Janus and Argus laser systems are proposed

  1. Study of Dynamic Features of Surface Plasma in High-Power Disk Laser Welding

    Wang Teng; Gao Xiangdong; Seiji, Katayama; Jin, Xiaoli


    High-speed photography was used to obtain the dynamic changes in the surface plasma during a high-power disk laser welding process. A color space clustering algorithm to extract the edge information of the surface plasma region was developed in order to improve the accuracy of image processing. With a comparative analysis of the plasma features, i.e., area and height, and the characteristics of the welded seam, the relationship between the surface plasma and the stability of the laser welding process was characterized, which provides a basic understanding for the real-time monitoring of laser welding.

  2. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays Operating in Long Pulse Mode

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Baker, Nathaniel R.


    Operating high power laser diode arrays in long pulse regime of about 1 msec, which is required for pumping 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers, greatly limits their useful lifetime. This paper describes performance of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse mode and presents experimental data of the active region temperature and pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling that are the primary cause of their premature failure and rapid degradation. This paper will then offer a viable approach for determining the optimum design and operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  3. Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser arrays

    Zhou, W.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.


    We demonstrate phase-locked, high power quantum cascade laser arrays, which are combined using a monolithic, tree array multimode interferometer, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. A maximum output power of 15 W was achieved from an eight-element laser array, which has only a slightly higher threshold current density and a similar slope efficiency compared to a Fabry-Perot laser of the same length. Calculated multimode interferometer splitting loss is on the order of 0.27 dB for the in-phase supermode. In-phase supermode operation with nearly ideal behavior is demonstrated over the working current range of the array.

  4. High-power diode-side-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled continuous wave 532 nm laser

    Zhang Yuping; Zhang Huiyun; Zhong Kai; Li Xifu; Wang Peng; Yao Jianquan


    An efficient and high-power diode-side-pumped cw 532 nm green laser based on a V-shaped cavity geometry, and capable of generating 22.7 W green radiation with optical conversion efficiency of 8.31%, has been demonstrated. The laser is operated with rms noise amplitude of less than 1% and with M 2 -parameter of about 6.45 at the top of the output power. This laser has the potential for scaling to much higher output power. (authors)

  5. Widely Tunable High-Power Tapered Diode Laser at 1060 nm

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz


    We report a large tuning range from 1018 to 1093 nm from a InGaAs single quantum-well 1060-nm external cavity tapered diode laser. More than 2.5-W output power has been achieved. The tuning range is to our knowledge the widest obtained from a high-power InGaAs single quantum-well tapered laser...... operating around 1060 nm. The light emitted by the laser has a nearly diffraction limited beam quality and a narrow linewidth of less than 6 pm everywhere in the tuning range....

  6. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.


    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  7. Thermal investigation on high power dfb broad area lasers at 975 nm, with 60% efficiency

    Mostallino, R.; Garcia, M.; Deshayes, Y.; Larrue, A.; Robert, Y.; Vinet, E.; Bechou, L.; Lecomte, M.; Parillaud, O.; Krakowski, M.


    The demand of high power diode lasers in the range of 910-980nm is regularly growing. This kind of device for many applications, such as fiber laser pumping [1], material processing [1], solid-state laser pumping [1], defense and medical/dental. The key role of this device lies in the efficiency (𝜂𝐸) of converting input electrical power into output optical power. The high value of 𝜂𝐸 allows high power level and reduces the need in heat dissipation. The requirement of wavelength stabilization with temperature is more obvious in the case of multimode 975nm diode lasers used for pumping Yb, Er and Yb/Er co-doped solid-state lasers, due to the narrow absorption line close to this wavelength. Such spectral width property (etching and re-growth process techniques, is achievable in high power diode lasers using optical feedback. This paper reports on the development of the diode laser structure and the process techniques required to write the gratings taking into account of the thermal dissipation and optical performances. Performances are particularly determined in terms of experimental electro-optical characterizations. One of the main objectives is to determine the thermal resistance of the complete assembly to ensure the mastering of the diode laser temperature for operating condition. The classical approach to determine junction temperature is based on the infrared thermal camera, the spectral measurement and the pulse electrical method. In our case, we base our measurement on the spectral measurement but this approach is not well adapted to the high power diodes laser studied. We develop a new measurement based on the pulse electrical method and using the T3STERequipment. This method is well known for electronic devices and LEDs but is weakly developed for the high power diodes laser. This crucial measurement compared to spectral one is critical for understand the thermal management of diode laser device and improve the structure

  8. Fiber Optic Cables for Transmission of High-Power Laser Pulses in Spaceflight Applications

    Thomes, W. J., Jr.; Ott, M. N.; Chuska, R. F.; Switzer, R. C.; Blair, D. E.


    Lasers with high peak power pulses are commonly used in spaceflight missions for a wide range of applications, from LIDAR systems to optical communications. Due to the high optical power needed, the laser has to be located on the exterior of the satellite or coupled through a series of free space optics. This presents challenges for thermal management, radiation resistance, and mechanical design. Future applications will require multiple lasers located close together, which further complicates the design. Coupling the laser energy into a fiber optic cable allows the laser to be relocated to a more favorable position on the spacecraft. Typical fiber optic termination procedures are not sufficient for injection of these high-power laser pulses without catastrophic damage to the fiber endface. In the current study, we will review the causes of fiber damage during high-power injection and discuss our new manufacturing procedures that overcome these issues to permit fiber use with high reliability in these applications. We will also discuss the proper methods for launching the laser pulses into the fiber to avoid damage and how this is being implemented for current spaceflight missions.

  9. Fiber optic cables for transmission of high-power laser pulses in spaceflight applications

    Thomes, W. J.; Ott, M. N.; Chuska, R. F.; Switzer, R. C.; Blair, D. E.


    Lasers with high peak power pulses are commonly used in spaceflight missions for a wide range of applications, from LIDAR systems to optical communications. Due to the high optical power needed, the laser has to be located on the exterior of the satellite or coupled through a series of free space optics. This presents challenges for thermal management, radiation resistance, and mechanical design. Future applications will require multiple lasers located close together, which further complicates the design. Coupling the laser energy into a fiber optic cable allows the laser to be relocated to a more favorable position on the spacecraft. Typical fiber optic termination procedures are not sufficient for injection of these high-power laser pulses without catastrophic damage to the fiber endface. In the current study, we will review the causes of fiber damage during high-power injection and discuss our new manufacturing procedures that overcome these issues to permit fiber use with high reliability in these applications. We will also discuss the proper methods for launching the laser pulses into the fiber to avoid damage and how this is being implemented for current spaceflight missions.

  10. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    Imed Miraoui


    Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.

  11. Mono-energetic ion beam acceleration in solitary waves during relativistic transparency using high-contrast circularly polarized short-pulse laser and nanoscale targets

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Fernandez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Hegelich, B. M.


    In recent experiments at the Trident laser facility, quasi-monoenergetic ion beams have been obtained from the interaction of an ultraintense, circularly polarized laser with a diamond-like carbon target of nm-scale thickness under conditions of ultrahigh laser pulse contrast. Kinetic simulations of this experiment under realistic laser and plasma conditions show that relativistic transparency occurs before significant radiation pressure acceleration and that the main ion acceleration occurs after the onset of relativistic transparency. Associated with this transition are a period of intense ion acceleration and the generation of a new class of ion solitons that naturally give rise to quasi-monoenergetic ion beams. An analytic theory has been derived for the properties of these solitons that reproduces the behavior observed in kinetic simulations and the experiments.

  12. Amorphous structure evolution of high power diode laser cladded Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb coatings

    Zhu Yanyan; Li Zhuguo; Huang Jian; Li Min; Li Ruifeng; Wu Yixiong


    Highlights: ► Fabricated amorphous composited coating by high power diode laser cladding with single track. ► Lower dilution and higher scanning speed are desired to obtain higher amorphous phase fraction. ► White spots phase with high content of Nb embedded in the amorphous matrix. - Abstract: Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb coatings were fabricated on the surface of low carbon steel using high power diode laser cladding of [(Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 95.7 Nb 4.3 amorphous powders at three different scanning speeds of 6, 17 and 50 m/s. At each scanning speed, laser power was optimized to obtain low dilution ratio. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer and electron probe micro analysis were carried out to characterize the microstructure and chemical composition of the cladded coatings. Differential scanning calorimetry was also carried out to investigate the fraction of the amorphous phase. The results showed that dilution ratio and scanning speed were the two main factors for fabricating Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb amorphous coating by high power diode laser cladding. Low dilution ratio was crucial for the formation of amorphous phase. When the dilution ratio was low, the fraction of amorphous phase in the cladded coatings increased upon increasing the scanning speed.

  13. Above scaling short-pulse ion acceleration from flat foil and ``Pizza-top Cone'' targets at the Trident laser facility

    Flippo, Kirk; Hegelich, B. Manuel; Cort Gautier, D.; Johnson, J. Randy; Kline, John L.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Fernández, Juan C.; Gaillard, Sandrine; Rassuchine, Jennifer; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Malekos, Steve; Korgan, Grant


    Ion-driven Fast Ignition (IFI) has certain advantages over electron-driven FI due to a possible large reduction in the amount of energy required. Recent experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident facility have yielded ion energies and efficiencies many times in excess of recent published scaling laws, leading to even more potential advantages of IFI. Proton energies in excess of 35 MeV have been observed from targets produced by the University of Nevada, Reno - dubbed ``Pizza-top Cone'' targets - at intensities of only 1x10^19 W/cm^2 with 20 joules in 600 fs. Energies in excess of 24 MeV were observed from simple flat foil targets as well. The observed energies, above any published scaling laws, are attributed to target production, preparation, and shot to shot monitoring of many laser parameters, especially the laser ASE prepulse level and laser pulse duration. The laser parameters are monitored in real-time to keep the laser in optimal condition throughout the run providing high quality, reproducible shots.

  14. Comparisons of angularly and spectrally resolved Bremsstrahlung measurements to two-dimensional multi-stage simulations of short-pulse laser-plasma interactions

    Chen, C. D.; Kemp, A. J.; Pérez, F.; Link, A.; Key, M. H.; McLean, H.; Ping, Y.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; Sorokovikova, A.; Westover, B. [University of California, San Diego (United States); Morace, A. [University of Milan (Italy); Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics (United States); Streeter, M. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)


    A 2-D multi-stage simulation model incorporating realistic laser conditions and a fully resolved electron distribution handoff has been developed and compared to angularly and spectrally resolved Bremsstrahlung measurements from high-Z planar targets. For near-normal incidence and 0.5-1 × 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} intensity, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict the existence of a high energy electron component consistently directed away from the laser axis, in contrast with previous expectations for oblique irradiation. Measurements of the angular distribution are consistent with a high energy component when directed along the PIC predicted direction, as opposed to between the target normal and laser axis as previously measured.

  15. Eye safe high power laser diode in the 1410-1550nm range

    Boucart, Julien; de Largy, Brian; Kearley, Mark; Lichtenstein, Norbert


    The demand for high power lasers emitting in the 14xx-15xxnm range is growing for applications in fields such as medical or homeland security. We demonstrate high power laser diodes with emission at 1430, 1470 and 1560 nm. Single multimode emitters at 1470nm emit about 3.5W in CW operation. Power conversion efficiency can reach values as high as 38.5%. With this base material, single and multi-emitter fiber coupled modules are built. Additionally, bars on passive and microchannel coolers are fabricated that deliver 25W and 38W respectively in CW mode, while obtaining more than 80 W in pulsed mode. All reliability tests show an outstanding stability of the material with no signs of wearout after 3750 hrs under strong acceleration conditions.

  16. Dispersion compensated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output

    Q. Y. Lu


    Full Text Available Chromatic dispersion control plays an underlying role in optoelectronics and spectroscopy owing to its enhancement to nonlinear interactions by reducing the phase mismatching. This is particularly important to optical frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers which require negligible dispersions for efficient mode locking of the dispersed modes into equally spaced comb modes. Here, we demonstrated a dispersion compensated mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output at room temperature. A low-loss dispersive mirror has been engineered to compensate the device’s dispersion residue for frequency comb generation. Narrow intermode beating linewidths of 40 Hz in the comb-working currents were identified with a high power output of 460 mW and a broad spectral coverage of 80 cm-1. This dispersion compensation technique will enable fast spectroscopy and high-resolution metrology based on QCL combs with controlled dispersion and suppressed noise.

  17. Genetic algorithm for the design of high frequency diffraction gratings for high power laser applications

    Thomson, Martin J.; Waddie, Andrew J.; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.


    We present a genetic algorithm with small population sizes for the design of diffraction gratings in the rigorous domain. A general crossover and mutation scheme is defined, forming fifteen offspring from 3 parents, which enables the algorithm to be used for designing gratings with diverse optical properties by careful definition of the merit function. The initial parents are randomly selected and the parents of the subsequent generations are selected by survival of the fittest. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated by designing diffraction gratings with specific application to high power laser beam lines. Gratings are designed that act as beam deflectors, polarisers, polarising beam splitters, harmonic separation gratings and pulse compression gratings. By imposing fabrication constraints within the design process, we determine which of these elements have true potential for application within high power laser beam lines.

  18. Study on on-machine defects measuring system on high power laser optical elements

    Luo, Chi; Shi, Feng; Lin, Zhifan; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Guilin


    The influence of surface defects on high power laser optical elements will cause some harm to the performances of imaging system, including the energy consumption and the damage of film layer. To further increase surface defects on high power laser optical element, on-machine defects measuring system was investigated. Firstly, the selection and design are completed by the working condition analysis of the on-machine defects detection system. By designing on processing algorithms to realize the classification recognition and evaluation of surface defects. The calibration experiment of the scratch was done by using the self-made standard alignment plate. Finally, the detection and evaluation of surface defects of large diameter semi-cylindrical silicon mirror are realized. The calibration results show that the size deviation is less than 4% that meet the precision requirement of the detection of the defects. Through the detection of images the on-machine defects detection system can realize the accurate identification of surface defects.

  19. High-power Laser Welding of Thick Steel-aluminum Dissimilar Joints

    Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a worldwide reduction of CO2-emissions is indispensable to avoid global warming. Besides the automotive sector, lightweight construction is also of high interest for the maritime industry in order to minimize CO2-emissions. Using aluminum, the weight of ships can be reduced, ensuring lower fuel consumption. Therefore, hybrid joints of steel and aluminum are of great interest to the maritime industry. In order to provide an efficient lap joining process, high-power laser welding of thick steel plates (S355, t = 5 mm) and aluminum plates (EN AW-6082, t = 8 mm) is investigated. As the weld seam quality greatly depends on the amount of intermetallic phases within the joint, optimized process parameters and control are crucial. Using high-power laser welding, a tensile strength of 10 kN was achieved. Based on metallographic analysis, hardness tests, and tensile tests the potential of this joining method is presented.

  20. Development of a high power HCN waveguide laser for plasma diagnostic

    Deng Zhongchao; Zhou Yan; Tang Yiwu; Yi Jiang; Gao Bingyi; Tian Chongli


    Both design and development of a high power cw HCN waveguide laser is described for multichannel FIR laser interferometer on the HL-2A divertor tokamak. The geometry parameters of stracture of the HCN laser are calculated according to scaling laws for cw 337 μm HCN waveguide laser offered by P. Belland et al. The designed value of output power of the laser that is more than 400 mW with discharge length of 5.6 m and 6.3 cm inner diameter of tube have been chosen in case of external loss of the cavity of 2%. At the same time, in order to get a laser system of stable output both of configuration and operating condition is discussed. In developed laser a hot LaB 6 cathode is employed to en- sure a stable discharge, the cavity mirrors are spaced using four invar rod of φ25 mm in diameter and an structure of adjusting machine for axially movable flat mirror in cavity has been also designed, and that it can be taken down many times without badly destroying alignment of the cavity etc.. A suit of pipes sys- tem of cw HCN laser is schemed out so that some experiments of operating parameter optimization can be done. The results of primary test of operating waveguide HCN laser are briefly showed. (authors)

  1. Theoretical And Experimental Investigations On The Plasma Of A CO2 High Power Laser

    Abel, W.; Wallter, B.


    The CO2 high power laser is increasingly used in material processing. This application of the laser has to meet some requirements: at one hand the laser is a tool free of wastage, but at the other hand is to guarantee that the properties of that tool are constant in time. Therefore power, geometry and mode of the beam have to be stable over long intervalls, even if the laser is used in rough industrial environment. Otherwise laser material processing would not be competitive. The beam quality is affected by all components of the laser - by the CO2 plasma and its IR - amplification, by the resonator which at last generates the beam by optical feedback, and also by the electric power supply whose effects on the plasma may be measured at the laser beam. A transversal flow laser has been developed at the Technical University of Vienna in cooperation with VOest-Alpine AG, Linz (Austria). This laser produces 1 kW of beam power with unfolded resonator. It was subject to investigations presented in this paper.

  2. High power millimeter-wave free electron laser based on recirculating electrostatic accelerator

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Sun-Kook; Jeong, Young-Uk; Cho, Sung-Oh; Lee, Jongmin


    Progress in the development of a high power, millimeter-wave free electron laser driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator is reported. The energy and the current of electron beam are 430 keV and 2 A, respectively. The expected average output power is above 10 kW at the wavelength of 3-10 mm. Minimizing of the beam loss is a key issue for CW operation of the FEL with high efficiency. (author)

  3. High power laser source for space applications. Phase 1 study: Executive summary


    A study to design a high power laser diode, to manufacture samples, to test them, and to identify the problems raised by the manufacture of such power sources in order to evaluate the effort required to overcome the difficulties in view of a component qualification was initiated. Theoretical modeling, manufacturing and test of samples, and environmental evaluation were completed. To obtain 200 mW monomode, a reversed CSP structure manufactured by chemical vapor deposition is recommended.

  4. Ablation of burned skin with ultra-short pulses laser to promote healing: evaluation by optical coherence tomography, histology, μATR-FTIR and Nonlinear Microscopy

    Santos, Moises Oliveira dos


    Burns cause changes in the anatomical structure of the skin associated with trauma. The severity of the burn injury is divided into first, second and third-degree burns. The third-degree burns have been a major focus of research in search of more conservative treatments and faster results in repair for a functional and cosmetically acceptable. The conventional treatment is the use of topical natural or synthetic skin graft. An alternative therapy is the laser ablation process for burned tissue necrosis removal due to the no mechanical contact, fast application and access to difficult areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using high intensity femtosecond lasers as an adjunct treatment of burned patients. For this study, 65 Wistar rats were divided into groups of five animals: healthy skin, burned skin, two types of treatment (surgical debridement or femtosecond laser ablation) and four different times in the healing process monitoring. Three regions of the back of the animals were exposed to steam source causing third-degree burn. On the third day after the burn, one of the regions was ablated with high intensity ultrashort laser pulses (λ = 785 nm, 90 fs, 2 kHz and 10 μJ/ pulse), the other received surgical debridement, and the last was considered the burn control. The regions were analyzed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), histology, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy using Fourier transform (μ-ATR-FTIR), two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM) and second harmonic generation technique (SHG) on days 3, 5, 7 and 14 pos-treatments. The results showed that with the laser irradiation conditions used it was possible to remove debris from third degree burn. The techniques used to characterize the tissue allowed to verify that all treatments promoted wound healing. On the fourteenth day, the regeneration curve showed that the attenuation coefficient of laser ablated tissue converges to the values of

  5. Thermal properties of high-power diode lasers investigated by means of high resolution thermography

    Kozłowska, Anna; Maląg, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Elżbieta; Teodorczyk, Marian


    In the present work, thermal effects in high-power diode lasers are investigated by means of high resolution thermography. Thermal properties of the devices emitting in the 650 nm and 808 nm wavelength ranges are compared. The different versions of the heterostructure design are analyzed. The results show a lowering of active region temperature for diode lasers with asymmetric heterostructure scheme with reduced quantum well distance from the heterostructure surface (and the heat sink). Optimization of technological processes allowed for the improvement of the device performance, e.g. reduction of solder non-uniformities and local defect sites at the mirrors which was visualized by the thermography.

  6. Design of an Optical System for High Power CO2 Laser Cutting

    de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Nielsen, Jakob Skov


    The results of a design study for the optical system for cutting with high power CO2 lasers (6 kW and up) will be presented. As transparent materials cannot be used for these power levels, mirrors have been applied. A coaxial cutting gas supply has been designed with a laser beam entrance into th...... independent of the entering beam angle or position. manufacturing tolerances have been compensated in a one time adjustment during the assembly of the optical system. Preliminary cutting results in 13 mm thick steel in a shipyard application show a signinficant improvement in the cutting performance....

  7. High-Power 1180-nm GaInNAs DBR Laser Diodes

    Aho, Antti T.; Viheriala, Jukka; Korpijarvi, Ville-Markus


    We report high-power 1180-nm GaInNAs distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes with and without a tapered amplifying section. The untapered and tapered components reached room temperature output powers of 655 mW and 4.04 W, respectively. The diodes exhibited narrow linewidth emission with side...... and better carrier confinement compared with traditional GaInAs quantum wells. The development opens new opportunities for the power scaling of frequency-doubled lasers with emission at yellow-orange wavelengths....

  8. Short-pulse neodymium:yttrium-aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG 1064nm) laser irradiation photobiomodulates mitochondria activity and cellular multiplication of Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa).

    Amaroli, Andrea; Benedicenti, Alberico; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Selting, Wayne; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Stefano


    Few studies exist to explore the potential photobiomodulation (PBM) effect of neodymium:yttrium-aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation using a flat-top handpiece delivery system. In this study, we explored the photobiomodulation effect of that laser, on Paramecium primaurelia. The parameters for the different study groups were: 0.50W, 10Hz, 100msp, 30J/cm 2 ; 0.75W, 10Hz, 100msp, 45J/cm 2 ; 1.00W, 10Hz, 100msp, 60J/cm 2 ; 1.25W, 10Hz, 100msp, 75J/cm 2 and 1.50W, 10Hz, 100msp, 90J/cm 2 . Our results suggest that only the parameter 0.5W, 10Hz, 100msp, 30J/cm 2 positively photobiomodulates the Paramecium cells inducing an increment in oxygen consumption, endogenous ATP synthesis and fission rate rhythm. Applying the laser energy with parameters of 1.25W, 10Hz, 100msp, 75J/cm 2 and 1.50W, 10Hz, 100msp, 90J/cm 2 , induce adverse effect on the Paramecium cells, which protect themselves through the increase in Heat Shock Protein-70 (HSP70). The data presented in our work support our assumption that, when using appropriate parameters of irradiation, the 1064nm Nd:YAG laser with flat-top handpiece could be a valuable aid for effective clinical application of PBM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-channeling of high-power laser pulses through strong atmospheric turbulence

    Peñano, J.; Palastro, J. P.; Hafizi, B.; Helle, M. H.; DiComo, G. P.


    We present an unusual example of truly long-range propagation of high-power laser pulses through strong atmospheric turbulence. A form of nonlinear self-channeling is achieved when the laser power is close to the self-focusing power of air and the transverse dimensions of the pulse are smaller than the coherence diameter of turbulence. In this mode, nonlinear self-focusing counteracts diffraction, and turbulence-induced spreading is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the laser intensity is below the ionization threshold so that multiphoton absorption and plasma defocusing are avoided. Simulations show that the pulse can propagate many Rayleigh lengths (several kilometers) while maintaining a high intensity. In the presence of aerosols, or other extinction mechanisms that deplete laser energy, the pulse can be chirped to maintain the channeling.

  10. High-power fiber laser cutting parameter optimization for nuclear Decommissioning

    Ana Beatriz Lopez


    Full Text Available For more than 10 years, the laser process has been studied for dismantling work; however, relatively few research works have addressed the effect of high-power fiber laser cutting for thick sections. Since in the nuclear sector, a significant quantity of thick material is required to be cut, this study aims to improve the reliability of laser cutting for such work and indicates guidelines to optimize the cutting procedure, in particular, nozzle combinations (standoff distance and focus position, to minimize waste material. The results obtained show the performance levels that can be reached with 10 kW fiber lasers, using which it is possible to obtain narrower kerfs than those found in published results obtained with other lasers. Nonetheless, fiber lasers appear to show the same effects as those of CO2 and ND:YAG lasers. Thus, the main factor that affects the kerf width is the focal position, which means that minimum laser spot diameters are advised for smaller kerf widths.

  11. High power diode lasers emitting from 639 nm to 690 nm

    Bao, L.; Grimshaw, M.; DeVito, M.; Kanskar, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Patterson, J.; Dickerson, P.; Kennedy, K.; Li, S.; Haden, J.; Martinsen, R.


    There is increasing market demand for high power reliable red lasers for display and cinema applications. Due to the fundamental material system limit at this wavelength range, red diode lasers have lower efficiency and are more temperature sensitive, compared to 790-980 nm diode lasers. In terms of reliability, red lasers are also more sensitive to catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) due to the higher photon energy. Thus developing higher power-reliable red lasers is very challenging. This paper will present nLIGHT's released red products from 639 nm to 690nm, with established high performance and long-term reliability. These single emitter diode lasers can work as stand-alone singleemitter units or efficiently integrate into our compact, passively-cooled Pearl™ fiber-coupled module architectures for higher output power and improved reliability. In order to further improve power and reliability, new chip optimizations have been focused on improving epitaxial design/growth, chip configuration/processing and optical facet passivation. Initial optimization has demonstrated promising results for 639 nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 1.5 W and 690nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 4.0 W. Accelerated life-test has started and further design optimization are underway.

  12. High-power fiber laser cutting parameter optimization for nuclear decommissioning

    Lopez, Ana Beatriz; Assuncao, Eurico; Quintino, Luisa [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Khan, Ali; Blackbun, Jonathan [TWI Ltd., Cambridge (United States)


    For more than 10 years, the laser process has been studied for dismantling work; however, relatively few research works have addressed the effect of high-power fiber laser cutting for thick sections. Since in the nuclear sector, a significant quantity of thick material is required to be cut, this study aims to improve the reliability of laser cutting for such work and indicates guidelines to optimize the cutting procedure, in particular, nozzle combinations (standoff distance and focus position), to minimize waste material. The results obtained show the performance levels that can be reached with 10 kW fiber lasers, using which it is possible to obtain narrower kerfs than those found in published results obtained with other lasers. Nonetheless, fiber lasers appear to show the same effects as those of CO{sub 2} and ND:YAG lasers. Thus, the main factor that affects the kerf width is the focal position, which means that minimum laser spot diameters are advised for smaller kerf widths.

  13. Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    Cristofori, Valentina

    Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...... is implemented to obtain an all-fiber system. The advantages of all fiber-systems are related to their reliability, long-term stability and compactness. Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is promising for the amplification of such signals thanks to the inherent compatibility of FOPAs with fiber...

  14. Beam shaping by using small-aperture SLM and DM in a high power laser

    Li, Sensen; Lu, Zhiwei; Du, Pengyuan; Wang, Yulei; Ding, Lei; Yan, Xiusheng


    High-power laser plays an important role in many fields, such as directed energy weapon, optoelectronic contermeasures, inertial confinement fusion, industrial processing and scientific research. The uniform nearfield and wavefront are the important part of the beam quality for high power lasers, which is conducive to maintaining the high spatial beam quality in propagation. We demonstrate experimentally that the spatial intensity and wavefront distribution at the output is well compensated in the complex high-power solid-state laser system by using the small-aperture spatial light modulator (SLM) and deformable mirror (DM) in the front stage. The experimental setup is a hundred-Joule-level Nd:glass laser system operating at three wavelengths at 1053 nm (1ω), 527 nm (2ω) and 351 nm (3ω) with 3 ns pulse duration with the final output beam aperture of 60 mm. While the clear arperture of the electrically addressable SLM is less than 20 mm and the effective diameter of the 52-actuators DM is about 15 mm. In the beam shaping system, the key point is that the two front-stage beam shaping devices needs to precompensate the gain nonuniform and wavefront distortion of the laser system. The details of the iterative algorithm for improving the beam quality are presented. Experimental results show that output nearfield and wavefont are both nearly flat-topped with the nearfield modulation of 1.26:1 and wavefront peak-to-valley value of 0.29 λ at 1053nm after beam shaping.

  15. Multifunctional gold nanorods for selective plasmonic photothermal therapy in pancreatic cancer cells using ultra-short pulse near-infrared laser irradiation.

    Patino, Tania; Mahajan, Ujjwal; Palankar, Raghavendra; Medvedev, Nikolay; Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus; Mayerle, Julia; Delcea, Mihaela


    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have attracted considerable attention in plasmonic photothermal therapy for cancer treatment by exploiting their selective and localized heating effect due to their unique photophysical properties. Here we describe a strategy to design a novel multifunctional platform based on AuNRs to: (i) specifically target the adenocarcinoma MUC-1 marker through the use of the EPPT-1 peptide, (ii) enhance cellular uptake through a myristoylated polyarginine peptide (MPAP) and (iii) selectively induce cell death by ultra-short near infrared laser pulses. We used a biotin-avidin based approach to conjugate EPPT-1 and MPAP to AuNRs. Dual-peptide (EPPT-1+MPAP) labelled AuNRs showed a significantly higher uptake by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells when compared to their single peptide or avidin conjugated counterparts. In addition, we selectively induced cell death by ultra-short near infrared laser pulses in small target volumes (∼1 μm3), through the creation of plasmonic nanobubbles that lead to the destruction of a local cell environment. Our approach opens new avenues for conjugation of multiple ligands on AuNRs targeting cancer cells and tumors and it is relevant for plasmonic photothermal therapy.

  16. Recent progress of 638-nm high-power broad area laser diodes in Mitsubishi Electric

    Kuramoto, Kyosuke; Abe, Shinji; Miyashita, Motoharu; Nishida, Takehiro; Yagi, Tetsuya


    Laser based displays have gathered much attention because only the displays can express full color gamut of Ultra-HDTV, ITU-R BT.2020. One of the displays uses the lasers under pulse such as a single spatial light modulator (SLM) projector, and the other does ones under CW such as a multiple SLM projector and a liquid crystal display. Both types require high-power lasers because brightness is the most important factor in the market. We developed two types of 638-nm multi-emitter high-power BA-LDs assembled on Φ9.0-TO, that is, triple emitter for pulse and dual emitter for CW. The triple emitter LD emitted exceeding 6.0 W peak power under 25°C, frequency of 120 Hz, and duty of 30%. At high temperature, 55°C, the peak power was approximately 2.9W. The dual emitter emitted exceeding 3.0W under 25°C, CW. It emitted up to 1.7 W at 55°C. WPE of the dual emitter reached 40.5% at Tc of 25°C, which is the world highest in 638-nm LD under CW to the best of our knowledge, although that of the triple emitter was 38.1%. Both LDs may be suitable for laser based display applications.

  17. Study on the near-field non-linearity (SMILE) of high power diode laser arrays

    Zhang, Hongyou; Jia, Yangtao; Li, Changxuan; Zah, Chung-en; Liu, Xingsheng


    High power laser diodes have been found a wide range of industrial, space, medical applications, characterized by high conversion efficiency, small size, light weight and a long lifetime. However, due to thermal induced stress, each emitter in a semiconductor laser bar or array is displaced along p-n junction, resulting of each emitter is not in a line, called Near-field Non-linearity. Near-field Non-linearity along laser bar (also known as "SMILE") determines the outcome of optical coupling and beam shaping [1]. The SMILE of a laser array is the main obstacle to obtain good optical coupling efficiency and beam shaping from a laser array. Larger SMILE value causes a larger divergence angle and a wider line after collimation and focusing, respectively. In this letter, we simulate two different package structures based on MCC (Micro Channel Cooler) with Indium and AuSn solders, including the distribution of normal stress and the SMILE value. According to the theoretical results, we found the distribution of normal stress on laser bar shows the largest in the middle and drops rapidly near both ends. At last, we did another experiment to prove that the SMILE value of a laser bar was mainly affected by the die bonding process, rather than the operating condition.

  18. Object-oriented wavefront correction in an asymmetric amplifying high-power laser system

    Yang, Ying; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Deen; Zhang, Xin; Dai, Wanjun; Hu, Dongxia; Xue, Qiao; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Junpu; Zeng, Fa; Wang, Shenzhen; Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo


    An object-oriented wavefront control method is proposed aiming for excellent near-field homogenization and far-field distribution in an asymmetric amplifying high-power laser system. By averaging the residual errors of the propagating beam, smaller pinholes could be employed on the spatial filters to improve the beam quality. With this wavefront correction system, the laser performance of the main amplifier system in the Shen Guang-III laser facility has been improved. The residual wavefront aberration at the position of each pinhole is below 2 µm (peak-to-valley). For each pinhole, 95% of the total laser energy is enclosed within a circle whose diameter is no more than six times the diffraction limit. At the output of the main laser system, the near-field modulation and contrast are 1.29% and 7.5%, respectively, and 95% of the 1ω (1053 nm) beam energy is contained within a 39.8 µrad circle (6.81 times the diffraction limit) under a laser fluence of 5.8 J cm-2. The measured 1ω focal spot size and near-field contrast are better than the design values of the Shen Guang-III laser facility.

  19. Temperature evaluation of dental implant surface irradiated with high-power diode laser.

    Rios, F G; Viana, E R; Ribeiro, G M; González, J C; Abelenda, A; Peruzzo, D C


    The prevalence of peri-implantitis and the absence of a standard approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface have led to searches for effective therapies. Since the source of diode lasers is portable, has reduced cost, and does not cause damage to the titanium surface of the implant, high-power diode lasers have been used for this purpose. The effect of laser irradiation on the implants is the elevation of the temperature surface. If this elevation exceeds 47 °C, the bone tissue is irreversibly damaged, so for a safety therapy, the laser parameters should be controlled. In this study, a diode laser of GaAsAl was used to irradiate titanium dental implants, for powers 1.32 to 2.64 W (real) or 2.00 to 4.00 W (nominal), in continuous/pulsed mode DC/AC, with exposure time of 5/10 s, with/without air flow for cooling. The elevation of the temperature was monitored in real time in two positions: cervical and apical. The best results for decontamination using a 968-nm diode laser were obtained for a power of 1.65 and 1.98 W (real) for 10 s, in DC or AC mode, with an air flow of 2.5 l/min. In our perspective in this article, we determine a suggested approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface using a 968-nm diode laser.

  20. X-ray emission reduction and photon dose lowering by energy loss of fast electrons induced by return current during the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser on a metal solid target

    Compant La Fontaine, A.


    During the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser with the preplasma produced by the pulse's pedestal in front of a high-Z metal solid target, high-energy electrons are produced, which in turn create an X-ray source by interacting with the atoms of the converter target. The current brought by the hot electrons is almost completely neutralized by a return current j → driven by the background electrons of the conductive target, and the force exerted on the hot electrons by the electric field E → which induces Ohmic heating j → .E → , produced by the background electrons, reduces the energy of the hot electrons and thus lowers the X-ray emission and photon dose. This effect is analyzed here by means of a simple 1-D temperature model which contains the most significant terms of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with electron multiple scattering, and the energy equations of ions, hot, and cold electrons are then solved numerically. This Ohmic heating energy loss fraction τOh is introduced as a corrective term in an improved photon dose model. For instance, for a ps laser pulse with 10 μm spot size, the dose obtained with a tantalum target is reduced by less than about 10% to 40% by the Ohmic heating, depending upon the plasma scale length, target thickness, laser parameters, and in particular its spot size. The laser and plasma parameters may be optimized to limit the effect of Ohmic heating, for instance at a small plasma scale length or small laser spot size. Conversely, others regimes not suitable for dose production are identified. For instance, the resistive heating is enhanced in a foam target or at a long plasma scale length and high laser spot size and intensity, as the mean emission angle θ0 of the incident hot electron bunch given by the ponderomotive force is small; thus, the dose produced by a laser interacting in a gas jet may be inhibited under these circumstances. The resistive heating may also be maximized in order to reduce

  1. Lifetime laser damage performance of β-Ga2O3 for high power applications

    Jae-Hyuck Yoo


    Full Text Available Gallium oxide (Ga2O3 is an emerging wide bandgap semiconductor with potential applications in power electronics and high power optical systems where gallium nitride and silicon carbide have already demonstrated unique advantages compared to gallium arsenide and silicon-based devices. Establishing the stability and breakdown conditions of these next-generation materials is critical to assessing their potential performance in devices subjected to large electric fields. Here, using systematic laser damage performance tests, we establish that β-Ga2O3 has the highest lifetime optical damage performance of any conductive material measured to date, above 10 J/cm2 (1.4 GW/cm2. This has direct implications for its use as an active component in high power laser systems and may give insight into its utility for high-power switching applications. Both heteroepitaxial and bulk β-Ga2O3 samples were benchmarked against a heteroepitaxial gallium nitride sample, revealing an order of magnitude higher optical lifetime damage threshold for β-Ga2O3. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the exceptional damage performance of β-Ga2O3 is due to lower absorptive defect concentrations and reduced epitaxial stress.

  2. Lifetime laser damage performance of β -Ga2O3 for high power applications

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Rafique, Subrina; Lange, Andrew; Zhao, Hongping; Elhadj, Selim


    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is an emerging wide bandgap semiconductor with potential applications in power electronics and high power optical systems where gallium nitride and silicon carbide have already demonstrated unique advantages compared to gallium arsenide and silicon-based devices. Establishing the stability and breakdown conditions of these next-generation materials is critical to assessing their potential performance in devices subjected to large electric fields. Here, using systematic laser damage performance tests, we establish that β-Ga2O3 has the highest lifetime optical damage performance of any conductive material measured to date, above 10 J/cm2 (1.4 GW/cm2). This has direct implications for its use as an active component in high power laser systems and may give insight into its utility for high-power switching applications. Both heteroepitaxial and bulk β-Ga2O3 samples were benchmarked against a heteroepitaxial gallium nitride sample, revealing an order of magnitude higher optical lifetime damage threshold for β-Ga2O3. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the exceptional damage performance of β-Ga2O3 is due to lower absorptive defect concentrations and reduced epitaxial stress.

  3. High-power fiber-coupled 100W visible spectrum diode lasers for display applications

    Unger, Andreas; Küster, Matthias; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens


    Diode lasers in the blue and red spectral range are the most promising light sources for upcoming high-brightness digital projectors in cinemas and large venue displays. They combine improved efficiency, longer lifetime and a greatly improved color space compared to traditional xenon light sources. In this paper we report on high-power visible diode laser sources to serve the demands of this emerging market. A unique electro-optical platform enables scalable fiber coupled sources at 638 nm with an output power of up to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber. For the blue diode laser we demonstrate scalable sources from 5 W to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber.

  4. High-power optical coatings for a mega-joule class ICF laser

    Kozlowski, M.R.; Thomas, I.M.; Campbell, J.H.; Rainer, F.


    As a consequence of advancements in Inertial Confinement Fusion research, LLNL is developing plans for a new 1.5 to 2 mega-joule solid-state Nd:glass laser designed to achieve fusion ignition. The new design is possible in part due to advances in optical coatings suitable for high power laser systems. High damage threshold mirrors and polarizers are comprised of electron beam deposited dielectric multilayers. Subthreshold illumination, or laser conditioning, of the multilayer coatings results in an increase in the damage thresholds by factors of 2 to 3 at 1.06μm, thus meeting the fluence requirements of the advanced architecture. For anti-reflective coatings, protective organic coatings for non-linear crystals and phase plates for beam smoothing, sol-gel films provide high damage thresholds coatings at low cost

  5. In-depth analysis and discussions of water absorption-typed high power laser calorimeter

    Wei, Ji Feng


    In high-power and high-energy laser measurement, the absorber materials can be easily destroyed under long-term direct laser irradiation. In order to improve the calorimeter's measuring capacity, a measuring system directly using water flow as the absorber medium was built. The system's basic principles and the designing parameters of major parts were elaborated. The system's measuring capacity, the laser working modes, and the effects of major parameters were analyzed deeply. Moreover, the factors that may affect the accuracy of measurement were analyzed and discussed. The specific control measures and methods were elaborated. The self-calibration and normal calibration experiments show that this calorimeter has very high accuracy. In electrical calibration, the average correction coefficient is only 1.015, with standard deviation of only 0.5%. In calibration experiments, the standard deviation relative to a middle-power standard calorimeter is only 1.9%.

  6. CARS measurement of vibrational and rotational temperature with high power laser and high speed visualization of total radiation behind hypervelocity shock waves of 5-7km/s

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Bindu, Venigalla Hima; Niinomi, Shota; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo


    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) method is commonly used for measuring molecular structure or condition. In the aerospace technology, this method is applies to measure the temperature in thermic fluid with relatively long time duration of millisecond or sub millisecond. On the other hand, vibrational/rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity shock wave are important for heat-shield design in phase of reentry flight. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. In this paper CARS method is applied to measure the vibrational/rotational temperature of N2 behind hypervelocity shock wave. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles can be experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas. However CARS measurement is difficult for our experiment. Our measurement needs very short pulse which order of nanosecond and high power laser for CARS method. It is due to our measurement object is the momentary phenomena which velocity is 7km/s. In addition the observation section is low density test gas, and there is the strong background light behind the shock wave. So we employ the CARS method with high power, order of 1J/pulse, and very short pulse (10ns) laser. By using this laser the CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area. Also we simultaneously try to use the CCD camera to obtain total radiation with CARS method.

  7. Centimeter-scale MEMS scanning mirrors for high power laser application

    Senger, F.; Hofmann, U.; v. Wantoch, T.; Mallas, C.; Janes, J.; Benecke, W.; Herwig, Patrick; Gawlitza, P.; Ortega-Delgado, M.; Grune, C.; Hannweber, J.; Wetzig, A.


    A higher achievable scan speed and the capability to integrate two scan axes in a very compact device are fundamental advantages of MEMS scanning mirrors over conventional galvanometric scanners. There is a growing demand for biaxial high speed scanning systems complementing the rapid progress of high power lasers for enabling the development of new high throughput manufacturing processes. This paper presents concept, design, fabrication and test of biaxial large aperture MEMS scanning mirrors (LAMM) with aperture sizes up to 20 mm for use in high-power laser applications. To keep static and dynamic deformation of the mirror acceptably low all MEMS mirrors exhibit full substrate thickness of 725 μm. The LAMM-scanners are being vacuum packaged on wafer-level based on a stack of 4 wafers. Scanners with aperture sizes up to 12 mm are designed as a 4-DOF-oscillator with amplitude magnification applying electrostatic actuation for driving a motor-frame. As an example a 7-mm-scanner is presented that achieves an optical scan angle of 32 degrees at 3.2 kHz. LAMM-scanners with apertures sizes of 20 mm are designed as passive high-Q-resonators to be externally excited by low-cost electromagnetic or piezoelectric drives. Multi-layer dielectric coatings with a reflectivity higher than 99.9 % have enabled to apply cw-laser power loads of more than 600 W without damaging the MEMS mirror. Finally, a new excitation concept for resonant scanners is presented providing advantageous shaping of intensity profiles of projected laser patterns without modulating the laser. This is of interest in lighting applications such as automotive laser headlights.

  8. High power diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser systems active media robust modeling and analysis

    Kashef, Tamer M.; Mokhtar, Ayman M.; Ghoniemy, Samy A.


    Diode side-pumped solid-state lasers have the potential to yield high quality laser beams with high efficiency and reliability. This paper summarizes the results of simulation of the most predominant active media that are used in high power diode pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser systems. Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods laser systems were simulated using the special finite element analysis software program LASCAD. A performance trade off analysis for Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods was performed in order to predict the system optimized parameters and to investigate thermally induced thermal fracture that may occur due to heat load and mechanical stress. The simulation results showed that at the optimized values Nd:YAG rod achieved the highest output power of 175W with 43% efficiency and heat load of 1.873W/mm3. A negligible changes in laser output power, heat load, stress, and temperature distributions were observed when the Nd:YAG rod length was increased from 72 to 80mm. Simulation of Nd:glass at different rod diameters at the same pumping conditions showed better results for mechanical stress and thermal load than that of Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF which makes it very suitable for high power laser applications especially for large rod diameters. For large rod diameters Nd:YLF is mechanically weaker and softer crystal compared to Nd:YAG and Nd:glass due to its poor thermomechanical properties which limits its usage to only low to medium power systems.

  9. High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging

    Nakatsutsumi, M; Marques, J R; Antici, P; Bourgeois, N; Romagnani, L; Audebert, P; Fuchs, J [UPMC, CEA, CNRS, LULI, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M; Kodama, R [Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Engn, Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan); Antici, P [Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento SBAI, I-00161 Rome (Italy); Feugeas, J L; Nicolai, P [Univ Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Ctr Lasers Intenses and Applicat, F-33405 Talence (France); Lin, T [Fox Chase Canc Ctr, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States)


    Attraction and fusion between co-propagating light beams, mutually coherent or not, can take place in nonlinear media as a result of the beam power modifying the refractive index of the medium. In the context of high-power light beams, induced modifications of the beam patterns could potentially impact many topics, including long-range laser propagation, the study of astrophysical colliding blast waves and inertial confinement fusion. Here, through experiments and simulations, we show that in a fully ionized plasma, which is a nonlinear medium, beam merging can take place for high-power and mutually incoherent beams that are initially separated by several beam diameters. This is in contrast to the usual assumption that this type of interaction is limited to beams separated by only one beam diameter. This effect, which is orders of magnitude more significant than Kerr-like nonlinearity in gases, demonstrates the importance of potential cross-talk amongst multiple beams in plasma. (authors)

  10. Robust cladding light stripper for high-power fiber lasers using soft metals.

    Babazadeh, Amin; Nasirabad, Reza Rezaei; Norouzey, Ahmad; Hejaz, Kamran; Poozesh, Reza; Heidariazar, Amir; Golshan, Ali Hamedani; Roohforouz, Ali; Jafari, S Naser Tabatabaei; Lafouti, Majid


    In this paper we present a novel method to reliably strip the unwanted cladding light in high-power fiber lasers. Soft metals are utilized to fabricate a high-power cladding light stripper (CLS). The capability of indium (In), aluminum (Al), tin (Sn), and gold (Au) in extracting unwanted cladding light is examined. The experiments show that these metals have the right features for stripping the unwanted light out of the cladding. We also find that the metal-cladding contact area is of great importance because it determines the attenuation and the thermal load on the CLS. These metals are examined in different forms to optimize the contact area to have the highest possible attenuation and avoid localized heating. The results show that sheets of indium are very effective in stripping unwanted cladding light.

  11. High Power Amplifiers Chain nonlinearity influence on the accelerating beam stability in free electron laser (FLASH)

    Cichalewski, w


    The high power amplifiers transfer characteristics nonlinearities can have a negative influence on the overall system performance. This is also true for the TESLA superconducting cavities accelerating field parameters control systems. This Low Level Radio Frequency control systems uses microwave high power amplifiers (like 10 MW klystrons) as actuators in the mentioned feedback loops. The amplitude compression and phase deviations phenomena introduced to the control signals can reduce the feedback performance and cause electron beam energy instabilities. The transfer characteristics deviations in the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg experiment have been investigated. The outcome of this study together with the description of the developed linearization method based on the digital predistortion approach have been described in this paper. Additionally, the results from the linearization tool performance tests in the FLASH's RF systems have been placed.

  12. Development of high power ceramic lasers and possible application to nuclear fusion

    Yanagitani, Takagimi; Yagi, Hideki; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Kaminskii, Alexander A.


    We have succeeded in fabricating high-transparent Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG) and Y 2 O 3 laser ceramic materials using vacuum sintering method. Compared with single crystal, ceramics have the following advantages, namely: (1) Ease of fabrication; (2) Less expensive; (3) Fabrication of large size and high concentration; (4) Multi-layer and multi-functional ceramic structure; (5) Mass production, etc. On the base of Nd 3+ :YAG ceramics, we performed high efficient and high power (up to 1.46 kW) CW lasers with laser diode pumping. Optical properties of Nd:YAG ceramics, such as absorption, emission and fluorescence lifetime, were found to be similar to those of Nd:YAG single crystal. The thermal conductivity of Nd:YAG ceramics was measured, which is also found to be very similar to that of Nd:YAG single crystal. The simulated emission cross section of Nd 3+ :Y 2 O 3 happened to be in the range that is required for laser fusion driver. This makes Nd:Y 2 O 3 a potential candidate for being used in laser fusion system. Some optical properties of Nd:Y 2 O 3 ceramics were investigated and for the first time, CW room-temperature laser oscillation at two wavelength (1074.6 nm and 1078.6 nm) of 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 channel was obtained with a slope efficiency of 32%. (author)

  13. High-power diode-end-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser delivering 189 W at 1890 nm

    Koen, W


    Full Text Available Laser Delivering 189 W at 1890 nm W. Koen, H.J. Strauss, C. Bollig and M.J.D. Esser CSIR National Laser Centre, Meiring Naude Road, Brummeria, Pretoria, 0001 Abstract: We present a high-power Tm:YLF slab laser double...

  14. Interaction of a high-power laser pulse with supercritical-density porous materials

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Rozanov, Vladislav B; Caruso, A; Strangio, C


    The properties of a nonequilibrium plasma produced by high-power laser pulses with intensities I L ∼ 10 14 -10 15 W cm -2 irradiating plane targets made of a porous material are investigated. The mean density of matter in targets was substantially higher than the critical plasma density corresponding to a plasma resonance. The density of porous material was ρ a ∼ 1 - 20 mg cm -3 , whereas the critical density at the wavelength of incident radiation was ρ cr ∼ 3 mg cm -3 . An anomalously high absorption (no less than 80%) of laser radiation inside a target was observed. Within the first 3 - 4 ns of interaction, the plasma flow through the irradiated target surface in the direction opposite of the direction of the laser beam was noticeably suppressed. Only about 5% of absorbed laser energy was transformed into the energy of particles in this flow during the laser pulse. Absorbed energy was stored as the internal plasma energy at this stage (the greenhouse effect). Then, this energy was transformed, similar to a strong explosion, into the energy of a powerful hydrodynamic flow of matter surrounding the absorption region. The specific features of the formation and evolution of a nonequilibrium laser-produced plasma in porous media are theoretically analysed. This study allows the results of experiments to be explained. In particular, we investigated absorption of laser radiation in the bulk of a target, volume evaporation of porous material, the expansion of a laser-produced plasma inside the pores, stochastic collisions of plasma flows, and hydrothermal energy dissipation. These processes give rise to long-lived oscillations of plasma density and lead to the formation of an internal region where laser radiation is absorbed. (invited paper)

  15. Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers

    Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel


    Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

  16. Improving the beam quality of high-power laser diodes by introducing lateral periodicity into waveguides

    Sobczak, Grzegorz; DÄ browska, ElŻbieta; Teodorczyk, Marian; Kalbarczyk, Joanna; MalÄ g, Andrzej


    Low quality of the optical beam emitted by high-power laser diodes is the main disadvantage of these devices. The two most important reasons are highly non-Gaussian beam profile with relatively wide divergence in the junction plane and the filamentation effect. Designing laser diode as an array of narrow, close to each other single-mode waveguides is one of the solutions to this problem. In such devices called phase locked arrays (PLA) there is no room for filaments formation. The consequence of optical coupling of many single-mode waveguides is the device emission in the form of few almost diffraction limited beams. Because of losses in regions between active stripes the PLA devices have, however, somewhat higher threshold current and lower slope efficiencies compared to wide-stripe devices of similar geometry. In this work the concept of the high-power laser diode resonator consisted of joined PLA and wide stripe segments is proposed. Resulting changes of electro-optical characteristics of PLA are discussed. The devices are based on the asymmetric heterostructure designed for improvement of the catastrophic optical damage threshold as well as thermal and electrical resistances. Due to reduced distance from the active layer to surface in this heterostructure, better stability of current (and gain) distribution with changing drive level is expected. This could lead to better stability of optical field distribution and supermodes control. The beam divergence reduction in the direction perpendicular of the junction plane has been also achieved.

  17. Efficient generation of 3.5W laser light at 515nm by frequency doubling a single-frequency high power DBR tapered diode laser

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, André


    More than 3.5 W of green light at 515 nm is generated by frequency doubling a single-frequency high power DBR tapered diode laser. The frequency doubling is performed in a cascade of PPMgLN and PPMgSLT crystals in order to reach high power and avoid thermal effects present in PPMgLN at high power...

  18. Optical pumping of Rb by Ti:Sa laser and high-power laser diode

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Rychnovský, Jan; Lazar, Josef


    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2006), s. 350-354 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1065303; GA ČR GA102/04/2109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optical pumping * Ti:Sa laser * laser diode * emission linewidth * spectroscopy * laser frequency stabilization Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2006

  19. High-resolution wavefront control of high-power laser systems

    Brase, J.; Brown, C.; Carrano, C.; Kartz, M.; Olivier, S.; Pennington, D.; Silva, D.


    Nearly every new large-scale laser system application at LLNL has requirements for beam control which exceed the current level of available technology. For applications such as inertial confinement fusion, laser isotope separation, laser machining, and laser the ability to transport significant power to a target while maintaining good beam quality is critical. There are many ways that laser wavefront quality can be degraded. Thermal effects due to the interaction of high-power laser or pump light with the internal optical components or with the ambient gas are common causes of wavefront degradation. For many years, adaptive optics based on thing deformable glass mirrors with piezoelectric or electrostrictive actuators have be used to remove the low-order wavefront errors from high-power laser systems. These adaptive optics systems have successfully improved laser beam quality, but have also generally revealed additional high-spatial-frequency errors, both because the low-order errors have been reduced and because deformable mirrors have often introduced some high-spatial-frequency components due to manufacturing errors. Many current and emerging laser applications fall into the high-resolution category where there is an increased need for the correction of high spatial frequency aberrations which requires correctors with thousands of degrees of freedom. The largest Deformable Mirrors currently available have less than one thousand degrees of freedom at a cost of approximately $1M. A deformable mirror capable of meeting these high spatial resolution requirements would be cost prohibitive. Therefore a new approach using a different wavefront control technology is needed. One new wavefront control approach is the use of liquid-crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology for the controlling the phase of linearly polarized light. Current LC SLM technology provides high-spatial-resolution wavefront control, with hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom, more

  20. Numerical simulations of novel high-power high-brightness diode laser structures

    Boucke, Konstantin; Rogg, Joseph; Kelemen, Marc T.; Poprawe, Reinhart; Weimann, Guenter


    One of the key topics in today's semiconductor laser development activities is to increase the brightness of high-power diode lasers. Although structures showing an increased brightness have been developed specific draw-backs of these structures lead to a still strong demand for investigation of alternative concepts. Especially for the investigation of basically novel structures easy-to-use and fast simulation tools are essential to avoid unnecessary, cost and time consuming experiments. A diode laser simulation tool based on finite difference representations of the Helmholtz equation in 'wide-angle' approximation and the carrier diffusion equation has been developed. An optimized numerical algorithm leads to short execution times of a few seconds per resonator round-trip on a standard PC. After each round-trip characteristics like optical output power, beam profile and beam parameters are calculated. A graphical user interface allows online monitoring of the simulation results. The simulation tool is used to investigate a novel high-power, high-brightness diode laser structure, the so-called 'Z-Structure'. In this structure an increased brightness is achieved by reducing the divergency angle of the beam by angular filtering: The round trip path of the beam is two times folded using internal total reflection at surfaces defined by a small index step in the semiconductor material, forming a stretched 'Z'. The sharp decrease of the reflectivity for angles of incidence above the angle of total reflection leads to a narrowing of the angular spectrum of the beam. The simulations of the 'Z-Structure' indicate an increase of the beam quality by a factor of five to ten compared to standard broad-area lasers.

  1. Parametric Study and Multi-Criteria Optimization in Laser Cladding by a High Power Direct Diode Laser

    Farahmand, Parisa; Kovacevic, Radovan


    In laser cladding, the performance of the deposited layers subjected to severe working conditions (e.g., wear and high temperature conditions) depends on the mechanical properties, the metallurgical bond to the substrate, and the percentage of dilution. The clad geometry and mechanical characteristics of the deposited layer are influenced greatly by the type of laser used as a heat source and process parameters used. Nowadays, the quality of fabricated coating by laser cladding and the efficiency of this process has improved thanks to the development of high-power diode lasers, with power up to 10 kW. In this study, the laser cladding by a high power direct diode laser (HPDDL) as a new heat source in laser cladding was investigated in detail. The high alloy tool steel material (AISI H13) as feedstock was deposited on mild steel (ASTM A36) by a HPDDL up to 8kW laser and with new design lateral feeding nozzle. The influences of the main process parameters (laser power, powder flow rate, and scanning speed) on the clad-bead geometry (specifically layer height and depth of the heat affected zone), and clad microhardness were studied. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop the analytical models for desired output properties according to input process parameters. The Analysis of Variance was applied to check the accuracy of the developed models. The response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function were used for multi-criteria optimization of the cladding process. In order to investigate the effect of process parameters on the molten pool evolution, in-situ monitoring was utilized. Finally, the validation results for optimized process conditions show the predicted results were in a good agreement with measured values. The multi-criteria optimization makes it possible to acquire an efficient process for a combination of clad geometrical and mechanical characteristics control.

  2. Transverse mode instabilities in burst operation of high-power fiber laser systems

    Jauregui, Cesar; Stihler, Christoph; Tünnermann, Andreas; Limpert, Jens


    We propose, to the best of our knowledge, the first mitigation strategy for TMI based on controlling the phase shift between the thermally-induced index grating and the modal intensity pattern. In particular, in this work we present a study of transverse mode instabilities in burst operation in a high-power fiber laser system. It is shown that, with a careful choice of the parameters, this operation regime can potentially lead to the mitigation of TMI by forcing an energy transfer from the higher-order-modes into the fundamental mode during the burst.

  3. Reflective Optical Chopper Used in NIST High-Power Laser Measurements

    Cromer, Chris


    Full Text Available For the past ten years, NIST has used high-reflectivity, optical choppers as beamsplitters and attenuators when calibrating the absolute responsivity and response linearity of detectors used with high-power CW lasers. The chopper-based technique has several advantages over the use of wedge-shaped transparent materials (usually crystals often used as beam splitters in this type of measurement system. We describe the design, operation and calibration of these choppers. A comparison between choppers and transparent wedge beampslitters is also discussed.

  4. A high-power rf linear accelerator for FELS [free-electron lasers

    Sheffield, R.L.; Watson, J.M.


    This paper describes the design of a high average current rf linear accelerator suitable for driving short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL). It is concluded that the design of a room-temperature rf linear acelerator that can meet the stringent requirements of a high-power short-wavelength FEL appears possible. The accelerator requires the use of an advanced photoelectric injector that is under development; the accelerator components, however, do not require appreciable development. At these large beam currents, low-frequency, large-bore room-temperature cavities can be highly efficient and give all specified performance with minimal risk. 20 refs

  5. ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources

    Peter Dr. Michel


    Full Text Available In the ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources, the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE, serving  two free electron lasers, sources for intense coherent THz radiation, mono-energetic positrons, electrons, γ-rays, a neutron time-of-flight system as well as two synchronized ultra-short pulsed Petawatt laser systems are collocated. The characteristics of these beams make the ELBE center a unique research instrument for a variety of external users in fields ranging from material science over nuclear physics to cancer research, as well as scientists of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR.

  6. Uniform irradiation of adjustable target spots in high-power laser driver

    Jiang Xiujuan; Li Jinghui; Li Huagang; Li Yang; Lin Zunqi


    For smoothing and shaping the on-target laser patterns flexibly in high-power laser drivers, a scheme has been developed that includes a zoom lens array and two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). The size of the target pattern can be controlled handily by adjusting the focal length of the zoom lens array, while the profile of the pattern can be shaped by fine tuning the distance between the target and the focal plane of the principal focusing lens. High-frequency stripes inside the pattern caused by beamlet interference are wiped off by spectral dispersion. Detailed simulations indicate that SSD works somewhat differently for spots of different sizes. For small spots, SSD mainly smooths the intensity modulation of low-to-middle spatial frequency, while for large spots, SSD sweeps the fine speckle structure to reduce nonuniformity of middle-to-high frequency. Spatial spectra of the target patterns are given and their uniformity is evaluated.

  7. High power cascade diode lasers emitting near 2 μm

    Hosoda, Takashi; Feng, Tao; Shterengas, Leon, E-mail:; Kipshidze, Gela; Belenky, Gregory [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)


    High-power two-stage cascade GaSb-based type-I quantum well diode lasers emitting near 2 μm were designed and fabricated. Coated devices with cavity length of 3 mm generated about 2 W of continuous wave power from 100-μm-wide aperture at the current of 6 A. The power conversion efficiency peaked at 20%. Carrier recycling between quantum well gain stages was realized using band-to-band tunneling in GaSb/AlSb/InAs heterostructure complemented with optimized electron and hole injector regions. Design optimization eliminated parasitic optical absorption and thermionic emission, and included modification of the InAs quantum wells of electron and composition and doping profile of hole injectors. Utilization of the cascade pumping scheme yielded 2 μm lasers with improved output power and efficiency compared to existing state-of-the-art diodes.

  8. High Power Tm3+-Doped Fiber Lasers Tuned by a Variable Reflective Output Coupler

    Yulong Tang


    Full Text Available Wide wavelength tuning by a variable reflective output coupler is demonstrated in high-power double-clad Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers diode-pumped at ∼790  nm. Varying the output coupling from 96% to 5%, the laser wavelength is tuned over a range of 106  nm from 1949 to 2055  nm. The output power exceeds 20  W over 90-nm range and the maximum output power is 32  W at 1949  nm for 51-W launched pump power, corresponding to a slope efficiency of ∼70%. Assisted with different fiber lengths, the tuning range is expanded to 240  nm from 1866 to 2107  nm with the output power larger than 10  W.

  9. Dissociation of NH3 and NH2D by high power CO2 laser radiation

    Jacobs, R.R.


    Multiquantum dissociation of polyatomics using intense CO 2 lasers resulting in isotopic enrichment has been demonstrated for several molecules. In this presentation, the possibility of selective dissociation of NH 3 and NH 2 D by high power laser radiation at 10 μm will be considered. Relevant work performed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and elsewhere will be summarized. In this review, attention will be given to four distinct mechanisms that can play varying degrees of importance in such investigations. Discussion will deal with the usefulness of two-resonant-frequency molecular excitation, the role of buffer gases, and the need to monitor the yields into the ground and excited electronic states of the dissociated fragments

  10. Development of high power pumping system for capillary discharge EUV laser

    Sakai, Yusuke; Komatsu, Takanori; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Hotta, Eiki


    Development of high power pumping system for capillary discharge soft X-ray laser is reported. The pulsed power system consists of a 2.2 μF LC generator, a 2:54 step-up transformer and a 3 nF water capacitor. Taking advantage of high efficiency configuration, step-up ratio of water capacitor voltage to LC generator initial voltage is about 40 times. Consequently, obtained water capacitor voltage reaches about 450 kV when LC generator was charged to 12.5 kV. As a consequent, possibility of charging a water capacitor to 1 MV is demonstrated. With this extremely compact system, discharge current could be increased to nearly 100 kA through moderately long capillary, which leads to generation of high-density and high-temperature plasma column in order to realize EUV laser. (author)

  11. Mitigation of stimulated Raman scattering in high power fiber lasers using transmission gratings

    Heck, Maximilian; Bock, Victor; Krämer, Ria G.; Richter, Daniel; Goebel, Thorsten A.; Matzdorf, Christian; Liem, Andreas; Schreiber, Thomas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan


    The average output power of fiber lasers have been scaled deep into the kW regime within the recent years. However a further scaling is limited due to nonlinear effects like stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Using the special characteristics of femtosecond laser pulse written transmission fiber gratings, it is possible to realize a notch filter that mitigates efficiently this negative effect by coupling the Raman wavelength from the core into the cladding of the fiber. To the best of our knowledge, we realized for the first time highly efficient gratings in large mode area (LMA) fibers with cladding diameters up to 400 μm. The resonances show strong attenuation at design wavelength and simultaneously low out of band losses. A high power fiber amplifier with an implemented passive fiber grating is shown and its performance is carefully investigated.

  12. Emission properties of diode laser bars during pulsed high-power operation

    Hempel, Martin; Tomm, Jens W; Elsaesser, Thomas; Hennig, Petra


    High-power diode laser bars (cm-bars) are subjected to single pulse step tests carried out up to and beyond their ultimate limits of operation. Laser nearfields and thermal behaviour are monitored for pulse widths in the 10–100 µs range with streak- and thermo-cameras, respectively. Thresholds of catastrophic optical damage are determined, and their dependence on the length of the injected current pulses is explained qualitatively. This approach permits testing the hardness of facet coatings of cm-bars with or without consideration of accidental single pre-damaged emitter failure effects and thermal crosstalk between the emitters. This allows for the optimization of pulsed operation parameters, helps limiting sudden degradation and provides insight into the mechanisms governing the device emission behaviour at ultimate output powers. (fast track communication)

  13. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  14. High Power Q-Switched Dual-End-Pumped Ho:YAG Laser

    Xiao-Ming, Duan; Ying-Jie, Shen; Tong-Yu, Dai; Bao-Quan, Yao; Wang Yue-Zhu, E-mail: [National Key Laboratory of Tunable Laser Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)


    We report the high power acousto-optically Q-switched operation of a dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser at room temperature. For the Q-swithched mode, a maximum pulse energy of 2.4 mJ and a minimum pulse width of 23 ns at the repetition rate of 10 kHz are achieved, resulting in a peak power of 104.3 kW. The beam quality factor of M{sup 2} {approx} 1.5, which is demonstrated by a knife-edge method. In addition, the Ho:YAG laser is employed as a pumping source of ZGP optical parametric oscillator, and its total average output power is 13.2 W at 3.9 {mu}m and 4.4 {mu}m with a slope efficiency of 68.4%.

  15. High-repetition-rate short-pulse gas discharge.

    Tulip, J; Seguin, H; Mace, P N


    A high-average-power short-pulse gas discharge is described. This consists of a volume-preionized transverse discharge of the type used in gas lasers driven by a Blumlein energy storage circuit. The Blumlein circuit is fabricated from coaxial cable, is pulse-charged from a high-repetition-rate Marx-bank generator, and is switched by a high-repetition-rate segmented rail gap. The operation of this discharge under conditions typical of rare-gas halide lasers is described. A maximum of 900 pps was obtained, giving a power flow into the discharge of 30 kW.

  16. High-power SRS lasers – coherent summators (the way it was)

    Grasiuk, Arkadii Z; Zubarev, I G; Efimkov, V F; Smirnov, V G


    The history of the research works performed under the guidance of H.G. Basov and aimed at developing high-energy lasers – coherent summators (CSs) – based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen is reported. The work was performed jointly by researchers of FIAN [the Laboratory of Quantum Radiophysics (LQRP)] and VNIIEF. Many problems were solved as a result of these studies. Liquid nitrogen and oxygen were found to be optimal active media for high-power SRS lasers with high energy per pulse. A method for purifying these cryogenic liquids from micro- and nanoimpurities was developed, which made it possible to eliminate nonlinear loss of pump radiation and converted radiation in the active medium and ensure effective operation of SRS lasers – coherent summators (SRSL CSs) with high output energy. Cryogenic cells providing high optical homogeneity of liquid nitrogen and oxygen were developed, which ensured low (at a level of 0.1 mrad) divergence of converted radiation with high energy density. Raster focusing systems providing optimal concentration of pump radiation in the active medium were designed. These studies resulted in the development of high-power highenergy SRSL CSs with a low beam divergence, based on liquid nitrogen (λ S = 1.89 μm) and liquid oxygen (λ S = 1.65 μm), with pumping by explosively pumped iodine lasers (EPILs) (λ p = 1.315 μm). The characteristics of the SRSL CSs developed were record for that time (the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s): energy up to 2.5 kJ per 10-μs pulse, beam divergence ∼10 -4 rad, and beam energy density of several hundreds of J cm -2 . (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

  17. High-power laser and arc welding of thorium-doped iridium alloys

    David, S.A.; Liu, C.T.


    The arc and laser weldabilities of two Ir-0.3% W alloys containing 60 and 200 wt ppM Th have been investigated. The Ir-.03% W alloy containing 200 wt ppM Th is severely prone to hot cracking during gas tungsten-arc welding. Weld metal cracking results from the combined effects of heat-affected zone liquation cracking and solidification cracking. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fractured surface revealed patches of low-melting eutectic. The cracking is influenced to a great extent by the fusion zone microstructure and thorium content. The alloy has been welded with a continuous-wave high-power CO 2 laser system with beam power ranging from 5 to 10 kW and welding speeds of 8 to 25 mm/s. Successful laser welds without hot cracking have been obtained in this particular alloy. This is attributable to the highly concentrated heat source available in the laser beam and the refinement in fusion zone microstructure obtained during laser welding. Efforts to refine the fusion zone structure during gas tungsten-arc welding of Ir-0.3 % W alloy containing 60 wt ppM Th were partially successful. Here transverse arc oscillation during gas tungsten-arc welding refines the fusion zone structure to a certain extent. However, microstructural analysis of this alloy's laser welds indicates further refinement in the fusion zone microstructure than in that from the gas tungsten-arc process using arc oscillations. The fusion zone structure of the laser weld is a strong function of welding speed

  18. High-power, format-flexible, 885-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays

    Wang, Chad; Talantov, Fedor; Garrett, Henry; Berdin, Glen; Cardellino, Terri; Millenheft, David; Geske, Jonathan


    High-power, format flexible, 885 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays have been developed for solid-state pumping and illumination applications. In this approach, a common VCSEL size format was designed to enable tiling into flexible formats and operating configurations. The fabrication of a common chip size on ceramic submount enables low-cost volume manufacturing of high-power VCSEL arrays. This base VCSEL chip was designed to be 5x3.33 mm2, and produced up to 50 Watts of peak continuous wave (CW) power. To scale to higher powers, multiple chips can be tiled into a combination of series or parallel configurations tailored to the application driver conditions. In actively cooled CW operation, the VCSEL array chips were packaged onto a single water channel cooler, and we have demonstrated 0.5x1, 1x1, and 1x3 cm2 formats, producing 150, 250, and 500 Watts of peak power, respectively, in under 130 A operating current. In QCW operation, the 1x3 cm2 VCSEL module, which contains 18 VCSEL array chips packaged on a single water cooler, produced over 1.3 kW of peak power. In passively cooled packages, multiple chip configurations have been developed for illumination applications, producing over 300 Watts of peak power in QCW operating conditions. These VCSEL chips use a substrate-removed structure to allow for efficient thermal heatsinking to enable high-power operation. This scalable, format flexible VCSEL architecture can be applied to wavelengths ranging from 800 to 1100 nm, and can be used to tailor emission spectral widths and build high-power hyperspectral sources.

  19. A new automatic design method to develop multilayer thin film devices for high power laser applications

    Sahoo, N.K.; Apparao, K.V.S.R.


    Optical thin film devices play a major role in many areas of frontier technology like development of various laser systems to the designing of complex and precision optical systems. Design and development of these devices are really challenging when they are meant for high power laser applications. In these cases besides desired optical characteristics, the devices are expected to satisfy a whole range of different needs like high damage threshold, durability etc. In the present work a novel completely automatic design method based on Modified Complex Method has been developed for designing of high power thin film devices. Unlike most of the other methods it does not need any suitable starting design. A quarterwave design is sufficient to start with. If required, it is capable of generating its own starting design. The computer code of the method is very simple to implement. This report discusses this novel automatic design method and presents various practicable output designs generated by it. The relative efficiency of the method along with other powerful methods has been presented while designing a broadband IR antireflection coating. The method is also incorporated with 2D and 3D electric field analysis programmes to produce high damage threshold designs. Some experimental devices developed using such designs are also presented in the report. (author). 36 refs., 41 figs

  20. The generation and amplification of intergalactic magnetic fields in analogue laboratory experiments with high power lasers

    Gregori, G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.


    The advent of high-power laser facilities has, in the past two decades, opened a new field of research where astrophysical environments can be scaled down to laboratory dimensions, while preserving the essential physics. This is due to the invariance of the equations of magneto-hydrodynamics to a class of similarity transformations. Here we review the relevant scaling relations and their application in laboratory astrophysics experiments with a focus on the generation and amplification of magnetic fields in cosmic environment. The standard model for the origin of magnetic fields is a multi stage process whereby a vanishing magnetic seed is first generated by a rotational electric field and is then amplified by turbulent dynamo action to the characteristic values observed in astronomical bodies. We thus discuss the relevant seed generation mechanisms in cosmic environment including resistive mechanism, collision-less and fluid instabilities, as well as novel laboratory experiments using high power laser systems aimed at investigating the amplification of magnetic energy by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Future directions, including efforts to model in the laboratory the process of diffusive shock acceleration are also discussed, with an emphasis on the potential of laboratory experiments to further our understanding of plasma physics on cosmic scales.

  1. Pulse propagation properties in high-power CO2 laser system for laser fusion

    Daido, H.; Inoue, M.; Fujita, H.; Matoba, M.; Nakai, S.


    The simulation results of nonlinear propagation properties in the CO 2 laser system using a simulation model of the SF 6 saturable absorbers and the CO 2 laser amplifiers agree well with the experimental results. The technical problems of the simultaneous irradiation of the multi-beams to a target are also discussed. (author)

  2. Reliable high-power diode lasers: thermo-mechanical fatigue aspects

    Klumel, Genady; Gridish, Yaakov; Szafranek, Igor; Karni, Yoram


    High power water-cooled diode lasers are finding increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where repetitive cw (continuous wave) and pulsed cw operation modes are required. When operating in such modes, the lasers experience numerous complete thermal cycles between "cold" heat sink temperature and the "hot" temperature typical of thermally equilibrated cw operation. It is clearly demonstrated that the main failure mechanism directly linked to repetitive cw operation is thermo-mechanical fatigue of the solder joints adjacent to the laser bars, especially when "soft" solders are used. Analyses of the bonding interfaces were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that intermetallic compounds, formed already during the bonding process, lead to the solders fatigue both on the p- and n-side of the laser bar. Fatigue failure of solder joints in repetitive cw operation reduces useful lifetime of the stacks to hundreds hours, in comparison with more than 10,000 hours lifetime typically demonstrated in commonly adopted non-stop cw reliability testing programs. It is shown, that proper selection of package materials and solders, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and burn-in screening in the hard pulse operation mode allow considerable increase of lifetime and reliability, without compromising the device efficiency, optical power density and compactness.

  3. Development of longer Nd:LGGG crystal for high power laser application

    Yin, Yanru; Tian, Hanlin; Zhang, Jian; Mu, Wenxiang; Zhang, Baitao; Jia, Zhitai; He, Jingliang; Tao, Xutang


    In order to further improve the Nd3+:(LuxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 (Nd:LGGG) crystal performance in high power laser field, a long Nd:LGGG crystal with dimensions of Φ 23 × 112 mm3 has been grown successfully by the Czochralski (Cz) method for laser rod fabrication. Compared with the normal size LGGG crystals (like 30-50 mm in length), we overcame several difficulties in the growth of longer ones, including crystal cracking by a large longitudinal temperature gradient, spiral growth by a small radial temperature gradient, and growth instability and even constitutional super cooling by Ga2O3 volatilizing continuously. The doping concentrations of Nd3+ and Lu3+ in the as-grown crystal and the crystal optical quality have been measured. The performance of diode-side-pumped Nd:LGGG rod laser has been preliminarily tested for the first time, simply by replacing the Nd:YAG crystal rod inside a commercial laser module. Under an incident pump power of 160 W, the maximum continuous wave output power of 38 W has been obtained, corresponding to an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 23.8% and a slope efficiency of 40.8%, respectively.

  4. Research of high power and stable laser in portable Raman spectrometer based on SHINERS technology

    Cui, Yongsheng; Yin, Yu; Wu, Yulin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin


    The intensity of Raman light is very weak, which is only from 10-12 to 10-6 of the incident light. In order to obtain the required sensitivity, the traditional Raman spectrometer tends to be heavy weight and large volume, so it is often used as indoor test device. Based on the Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) method, Raman optical spectrum signal can be enhanced significantly and the portable Raman spectrometer combined with SHINERS method will be widely used in various fields. The laser source must be stable enough and able to output monochromatic narrow band laser with stable power in the portable Raman spectrometer based on the SHINERS method. When the laser is working, the change of temperature can induce wavelength drift, thus the power stability of excitation light will be affected, so we need to strictly control the working temperature of the laser, In order to ensure the stability of laser power and output current, this paper adopts the WLD3343 laser constant current driver chip of Wavelength Electronics company and MCU P89LPC935 to drive LML - 785.0 BF - XX laser diode(LD). Using this scheme, the Raman spectrometer can be small in size and the drive current can be constant. At the same time, we can achieve functions such as slow start, over-current protection, over-voltage protection, etc. Continuous adjustable output can be realized under control, and the requirement of high power output can be satisfied. Max1968 chip is adopted to realize the accurate control of the laser's temperature. In this way, it can meet the demand of miniaturization. In term of temperature control, integral truncation effect of traditional PID algorithm is big, which is easy to cause static difference. Each output of incremental PID algorithm has nothing to do with the current position, and we can control the output coefficients to avoid full dose output and immoderate adjustment, then the speed of balance will be improved observably. Variable

  5. Cutting performances with new industrial continuous wave ND:YAG high power lasers

    Chagnot, C.; Dinechin, G. de; Canneau, G.


    Dismantling is a great challenge for nuclear companies which are facing with the cleaning of former nuclear sites. Among the available cutting processes is the multi-kilowatts laser whose power is transmitted through optical fibers. Unlike other cutting processes such as the plasma arc cutting process or the oxy-cutting process, the laser process can be easily implemented by robotic equipments. The mechanised robotic arm carries a laser cutting head to perform, with remote-controlled equipments, the cutting operation. The present study deals with the performances which can be reached with high power continuous wave ND:YAG lasers. The cutting tests were carried out up to 8 kW. The laser power was delivered through a specific power supply chain: a 0.4 mm fiber was transporting the power from the laser to a first interface (coupler) then a second 0.6 mm fiber was bringing the laser power to the cutting head. This solution allowed a power delivery chain whose length could be as high as 100 + 20/50 m. Another advantage of this kind of power supply is that the first fiber can be set in a non-contaminated environment whereas the second fiber lies in the contaminated area. The cutting head used for these tests was a specific tool developed for this laser dismantling work: it is a laser cutting head cooled by pressurized air. This tool was developed with the requirement to be able to sustain a laser power of 14 kW. The pressurized air used to cool the head is also used as cutting gas. The cutting capability was about 10 mm by kW. At the power of 8 kW, austenitic steel plates of thickness 100 mm were cut. These performances were reached with the cut started on the plate's edge. If the cut started in the middle of the plate, the cutting performances were not so high: 8 kW became the power to drill and to cut plates of thickness 40 mm.

  6. Bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to enamel and dentin irradiated with a novel CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser for dental restorative procedures.

    Rechmann, Peter; Bartolome, N; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CO 2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin. Two hundred enamel and 210 dentin samples were irradiated with a 9.3 µm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with energies which either enhanced caries resistance or were effective for ablation. OptiBond Solo Plus [OptiBondTE] (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) and Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakTE] (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT) were used. In addition, Scotchbond Universal [ScotchbondSE] (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) and Peak SE self-etching primer with Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakSE] (Ultradent Products) were tested. Clearfil APX (Kuraray, New York, NY) was bonded to the samples. After 24 h, a single plane shear bond test was performed. Using the caries preventive setting on enamel resulted in increased shear bond strength for all bonding agents except for self-etch PeakSE. The highest overall bond strength was seen with PeakTE (41.29 ± 6.04 MPa). Etch-and-rinse systems achieved higher bond strength values to ablated enamel than the self-etch systems did. PeakTE showed the highest shear bond strength with 35.22 ± 4.40 MPa. OptiBondTE reached 93.8% of its control value. The self-etch system PeakSE presented significantly lower bond strength. The shear bond strength to dentin ranged between 19.15 ± 3.49 MPa for OptiBondTE and 43.94 ± 6.47 MPa for PeakSE. Etch-and-rinse systems had consistently higher bond strength to CO 2 9.3 µm laser-ablated enamel. Using the maximum recommended energy for dentin ablation, the self-etch system PeakSE reached the highest bond strength (43.9 ± 6.5 MPa).

  7. Relativistic acceleration and retardation effects on photoemission of intense electron short pulses, in RF-FEL photoinjectors

    Dolique, J.M.; Coacolo, M.


    In high-power free electron lasers, self-field effects in the electron beam are often the most important phenomenon on which the beam quality depends. These effects are generally conceived as space-charge effects, and described by a Poisson equation in a beam frame. In RF-FEL photoinjectors, the electrons of the intense short pulse produced by laser irradiation are submitted, just after their photoemission, to such a strong acceleration that relativistic acceleration and retardation effects are discussed, from the rigorous calculation of the Lienard-Wiechert velocity- and acceleration electric and magnetic fields, as a function of RF-electric field and beam parameters. The beam pulse is assumed to be axisymmetric, with a constant photoemitted current density. Consequences for the maximum current density that can be extracted are considered (the 'self-field limit,' a name more appropriate than 'space-charge limit' for the present conditions where electro-dynamic phenomena play an important role)

  8. Robust optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of dielectric mirrors for high power lasers.

    Chorel, Marine; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Éric; Bonod, Nicolas; Bousquet, Bruno; Néauport, Jérôme


    We report on a numerical optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of multi-dielectric high reflection mirrors in the sub-picosecond regime. We highlight the interplay between the electric field distribution, refractive index and intrinsic laser induced damage threshold of the materials on the overall laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the multilayer. We describe an optimization method of the multilayer that minimizes the field enhancement in high refractive index materials while preserving a near perfect reflectivity. This method yields a significant improvement of the damage resistance since a maximum increase of 40% can be achieved on the overall LIDT of the multilayer.

  9. Monolithic micro-laser with KTP ridge waveguides for injection seeding high power lasers, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop a technique to greatly improve the direct coupling of a diode laser to an optical waveguide...

  10. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier at 668 nm

    Chi, Mingjun; Erbert, G.; Sumpf, B.


    A 668 nm tunable high-power narrow-spectrum diode laser system based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier in external cavity is demonstrated. The laser system is tunable from 659 to 675 nm. As high as 1.38 W output power is obtained at 668.35 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than...

  11. High-power laser radiation in atmospheric aerosols: Nonlinear optics of aerodispersed media

    Zuev, V. E.; Zemlianov, A. A.; Kopytin, Iu. D.; Kuzikovskii, A. V.

    The bulk of this book contains the results of investigations carried out at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, USSR Academy of Science with the participation of the authors. The microphysical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols are considered, taking into account light scattering by a single aerosol particle, light scattering by a system of particles, the scattering phase matrix, light scattering by clouds and fogs, light scattering by hazes, and scattering phase functions of polydispersed aerosols. Other topics studies are related to low-energy (subexplosive) effects of radiation on individual particles, the formation of clear zones in clouds and fogs due to the vaporization of droplets under regular regimes, self-action of a wave beam in a water aerosol under conditions of regular droplet vaporization, laser beam propagation through an explosively evaporating water-droplet aerosol, the propagation of high-power laser radiation through hazes, the ionization and optical breakdown in aerosol media, and laser monitoring of a turbid atmosphere using nonlinear effects.

  12. Continuous wave power scaling in high power broad area quantum cascade lasers

    Suttinger, M.; Leshin, J.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Shu, H.; Lyakh, A.


    Experimental and model results for high power broad area quantum cascade lasers are presented. Continuous wave power scaling from 1.62 W to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15 mm-long, high reflection-coated 5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers with 15 stage active region for active region width increased from 10 μm to 20 μm. A semi-empirical model for broad area devices operating in continuous wave mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sub-linearity of pulsed power vs current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm x 25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300Å, pulsed roll-over current density of 6 kA/cm2 , and InGaAs waveguide layers; optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to 4.5 W from 3.15 mm × 31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  13. Explosive vaporization induced by high-power CO2-laser target interactions

    Hugenschmidt, M.; Vollrath, K.


    The interactions of high-power laser pulses with targets such as metals or dielectric materials causes a series of optical, thermal, and mechanical processes. Thereby, heating, melting, and vaporization can take place in a short time. At power densities of about 10 7 to several 10 8 W/cm 2 this can even be produced explosively. As compared to continuous ablation, this type of interaction can remove greater masses from the bulk of material. The investigations are performed by using an electron-beam preionized CO 2 -laser acting on different target materials. The energy of the laser pulses is about 30 J, the pulse-half-widths of the long-tail pulses 4 to 6 μs. Optical measurements yield some information on threshold values for these processes, for the formation and expansion of plasmas, and for the ejection of material in form of greater particles. High speed photographic techniques include a rotating mirror- and an image converter camera. Starting from shock-wave theory, gas dynamic equations (in unidimensional approximation) allow for a quantitative determination of the specific internal energies and pressures in the case of optical detonation. (orig.) [de

  14. Geometry modeling of single track cladding deposited by high power diode laser with rectangular beam spot

    Liu, Huaming; Qin, Xunpeng; Huang, Song; Hu, Zeqi; Ni, Mao


    This paper presents an investigation on the relationship between the process parameters and geometrical characteristics of the sectional profile for the single track cladding (STC) deposited by High Power Diode Laser (HPDL) with rectangle beam spot (RBS). To obtain the geometry parameters, namely cladding width Wc and height Hc of the sectional profile, a full factorial design (FFD) of experiment was used to conduct the experiments with a total of 27. The pre-placed powder technique has been employed during laser cladding. The influence of the process parameters including laser power, powder thickness and scanning speed on the Wc and Hc was analyzed in detail. A nonlinear fitting model was used to fit the relationship between the process parameters and geometry parameters. And a circular arc was adopted to describe the geometry profile of the cross-section of STC. The above models were confirmed by all the experiments. The results indicated that the geometrical characteristics of the sectional profile of STC can be described as the circular arc, and the other geometry parameters of the sectional profile can be calculated only using Wc and Hc. Meanwhile, the Wc and Hc can be predicted through the process parameters.

  15. Methods for slow axis beam quality improvement of high power broad area diode lasers

    An, Haiyan; Xiong, Yihan; Jiang, Ching-Long J.; Schmidt, Berthold; Treusch, Georg


    For high brightness direct diode laser systems, it is of fundamental importance to improve the slow axis beam quality of the incorporated laser diodes regardless what beam combining technology is applied. To further advance our products in terms of increased brightness at a high power level, we must optimize the slow axis beam quality despite the far field blooming at high current levels. The later is caused predominantly by the built-in index step in combination with the thermal lens effect. Most of the methods for beam quality improvements reported in publications sacrifice the device efficiency and reliable output power. In order to improve the beam quality as well as maintain the efficiency and reliable output power, we investigated methods of influencing local heat generation to reduce the thermal gradient across the slow axis direction, optimizing the built-in index step and discriminating high order modes. Based on our findings, we have combined different methods in our new device design. Subsequently, the beam parameter product (BPP) of a 10% fill factor bar has improved by approximately 30% at 7 W/emitter without efficiency penalty. This technology has enabled fiber coupled high brightness multi-kilowatt direct diode laser systems. In this paper, we will elaborate on the methods used as well as the results achieved.

  16. Combining high power diode lasers using fiber bundles for beam delivery in optoacoustic endoscopy applications

    Gawali, Sandeep Babu; Leggio, Luca; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Dadrasnia, Ehsan; Gallego, Daniel C.; Lamela, Horacio


    Optoacoustic (OA) effect refers to the generation of the acoustic waves due to absorption of light energy in a biological tissue. The incident laser pulse is absorbed by the tissue, resulting in the generation of ultrasound that is typically detected by a piezoelectric detector. Compared to other techniques, the advantage of OA imaging (OAI) technique consists in combining the high resolution of ultrasound technique with the high contrast of optical imaging. Generally, Nd:YAG and OPO systems are used for the generation of OA waves but their use in clinical environment is limited for many aspects. On the other hand, high-power diode lasers (HPDLs) emerge as potential alternative. However, the power of HPDLs is still relatively low compared to solid-state lasers. We show a side-by-side combination of several HPDLs in an optical fiber bundle to increase the amount of power for OA applications. Initially, we combine the output optical power of several HPDLs at 905 nm using two 7 to 1 round optical fiber bundles featuring a 675 μm and 1.2 mm bundle aperture. In a second step, we couple the output light of these fiber bundles to a 600 μm core diameter endoscopic fiber, reporting the corresponding coupling efficiencies. The fiber bundles with reasonable small diameter are likely to be used for providing sufficient light energy to potential OA endoscopy (OAE) applications.

  17. Numerical simulation of thermal loading produced by shaped high power laser onto engine parts

    Song Hongwei; Li Shaoxia; Zhang Ling; Yu Gang; Zhou Liang; Tan Jiansong


    Recently a new method for simulating the thermal loading on pistons of diesel engines was reported. The spatially shaped high power laser is employed as the heat source, and some preliminary experimental and numerical work was carried out. In this paper, a further effort was made to extend this simulation method to some other important engine parts such as cylinder heads. The incident Gaussian beam was transformed into concentric multi-circular patterns of specific intensity distributions, with the aid of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). By incorporating the appropriate repetitive laser pulses, the designed transient temperature fields and thermal loadings in the engine parts could be simulated. Thermal-structural numerical models for pistons and cylinder heads were built to predict the transient temperature and thermal stress. The models were also employed to find the optimal intensity distributions of the transformed laser beam that could produce the target transient temperature fields. Comparison of experimental and numerical results demonstrated that this systematic approach is effective in simulating the thermal loading on the engine parts.

  18. New generation all-silica based optical elements for high power laser systems

    Tolenis, T.; GrinevičiÅ«tÄ--, L.; Melninkaitis, A.; Selskis, A.; Buzelis, R.; MažulÄ--, L.; Drazdys, R.


    Laser resistance of optical elements is one of the major topics in photonics. Various routes have been taken to improve optical coatings, including, but not limited by, materials engineering and optimisation of electric field distribution in multilayers. During the decades of research, it was found, that high band-gap materials, such as silica, are highly resistant to laser light. Unfortunately, only the production of anti-reflection coatings of all-silica materials are presented to this day. A novel route will be presented in materials engineering, capable to manufacture high reflection optical elements using only SiO2 material and GLancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) method. The technique involves the deposition of columnar structure and tailoring the refractive index of silica material throughout the coating thickness. A numerous analysis indicate the superior properties of GLAD coatings when compared with standard methods for Bragg mirrors production. Several groups of optical components are presented including anti-reflection coatings and Bragg mirrors. Structural and optical characterisation of the method have been performed and compared with standard methods. All researches indicate the possibility of new generation coatings for high power laser systems.

  19. CO2 laser-fabricated cladding light strippers for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

    Boyd, Keiron; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Daniel, Jae; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Rees, Simon; Andrew Clarkson, W; Haub, John


    We present and characterize a simple CO2 laser processing technique for the fabrication of compact all-glass optical fiber cladding light strippers. We investigate the cladding light loss as a function of radiation angle of incidence and demonstrate devices in a 400 μm diameter fiber with cladding losses of greater than 20 dB for a 7 cm device length. The core losses are also measured giving a loss of cladding light stripping of a 300 W laser diode with minimal heating of the fiber coating and packaging adhesives.

  20. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance

    Yufei Ma


    Full Text Available A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB, continuous wave (CW 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF, a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA coefficient of 1.8 × 10−5 cm−1W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  1. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance.

    Ma, Yufei; Tong, Yao; He, Ying; Yu, Xin; Tittel, Frank K


    A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO) trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB), continuous wave (CW) 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF), a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.8 × 10 -5 cm -1 W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  2. Fault analysis and strategy of high pulsed power supply for high power laser

    Liu Kefu; Qin Shihong; Li Jin; Pan Yuan; Yao Zonggan; Zheng Wanguo; Guo Liangfu; Zhou Peizhang; Li Yizheng; Chen Dehuai


    according to the requirements of driving flash-lamp, a high pulsed power supply (PPS) based on capacitors as energy storage elements is designed. The author analyzes in detail the faults of high pulsed power supply for high power laser. Such as capacitor internal short-circuit, main bus breakdown to ground, flashlamp sudden short or break. The fault current and voltage waveforms were given by circuit simulations. Based on the analysis and computation, the protection strategy with the fast fuse and ZnO was put forward, which can reduce the damage of PPS to the lower extent and provide the personnel safe and collateral property from the all threats. The preliminary experiments demonstrated that the design of the PPS can satisfy the project requirements

  3. Volume Bragg grating narrowed high-power and highly efficient cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser.

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Weichao; Zhao, Chujun; Shen, Deyuan; Fan, Dianyuan


    High-power and highly efficient operation of a single-mode cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser with narrow lasing bandwidth is demonstrated. The spectral narrowing was realized by an external cavity containing a volume Bragg grating with a center wavelength of 1658 nm. A maximum output power of 10.4 W at 1658.3 nm with a spectral linewidth (FWHM) of ∼0.1  nm was obtained for the launched pump power of 18.4 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 109% with respect to the launched pump power. Lasing characteristics of free-running operation are also evaluated and discussed.

  4. Error tolerance analysis of wave diagnostic based on coherent modulation imaging in high power laser system

    Pan, Xingchen; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jianqiang


    Coherent modulation imaging providing fast convergence speed and high resolution with single diffraction pattern is a promising technique to satisfy the urgent demands for on-line multiple parameter diagnostics with single setup in high power laser facilities (HPLF). However, the influence of noise on the final calculated parameters concerned has not been investigated yet. According to a series of simulations with twenty different sampling beams generated based on the practical parameters and performance of HPLF, the quantitative analysis based on statistical results was first investigated after considering five different error sources. We found the background noise of detector and high quantization error will seriously affect the final accuracy and different parameters have different sensitivity to different noise sources. The simulation results and the corresponding analysis provide the potential directions to further improve the final accuracy of parameter diagnostics which is critically important to its formal applications in the daily routines of HPLF.

  5. Simulation of beam pointing stability on targeting plane of high power excimer laser system

    Wang Dahui; Zhao Xueqing; Zhang Yongsheng; Zheng Guoxin; Hu Yun; Zhao Jun


    Based on characteristics of image-relaying structure in high power excimer MOPA laser system, simulation and analysis software of targeting beam's barycenter stability was designed by using LABVIEW and MATLAB. Simulation was made to measured results of every optical component in laboratory environment. Simulation and validation of budget values for optical components was and optimization of error budget of system was accomplished via post-allocation for several times. It is shown that targeting beam's barycenter stability in the condition of current laboratory environment can't satisfy needs and index of high demand optical components can be allotted to 1.7 μrad when index of low demand optical components have some stability margin. These results can provide a guide to construction of system and design and machining of optical components and optimization of system. Optical components of laboratory on work can satisfy optimized distributed index, which reduce the demand of structure to some extent. (authors)

  6. Development of alkali halide-optics for high power-IR laser

    Pohl, L.


    In this work 'Development of Alkali Halide-Optics for High Power-IR Laser' we investigated the purification of sodiumchloride-, potassiumchloride- and potassiumbromide-raw materials. We succeeded to reduce the content of impurities like Cu, Pb, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni in these raw materials to the lower of ppb's by a Complex-Adsorption-Method (CAM). Crystals were grown from purified substances by 'Kyropoulos' method'. Windows were cur thereof, polished and measured by FTIR-spectroscopy. Analytical data showed, that the resulting crystals were of lower quality than the raw materials. Because of this fact crystal-growing-conditions have to undergo a special improvement. Alkali halide windows from other sources on the market had been tested. (orig.) [de

  7. Modeling of large aperture third harmonic frequency conversion of high power Nd:glass laser systems

    Henesian, M.A.; Wegner, P.J.; Speck, D.R.; Bibeau, C.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Laumann, C.W.; Lawson, J.K.; Weiland, T.L.


    To provide high-energy, high-power beams at short wavelengths for inertial-confinement-fusion experiments, we routinely convert the 1.053-μm output of the Nova, Nd:phosphate-glass, laser system to its third-harmonic wavelength. We describe performance and conversion efficiency modeling of the 3 x 3 arrays potassium-dihydrogen-phosphate crystal plates used for type II/type II phase-matched harmonic conversion of Nova 0.74-m diameter beams, and an alternate type I/type II phase-matching configuration that improves the third-harmonic conversion efficiency. These arrays provide energy conversion of up to 65% and intensity conversion to 70%. 19 refs., 11 figs

  8. High Power 1443.5 nm Laser with Nd:YAG Single Crystal Fiber

    Han Rao


    Full Text Available A high-power eye-safe 1443.5 nm laser was demonstrated with an Nd:YAG single crystal fiber (SCF as the gain medium. For continuous wave (CW operation, a maximum output power of 13.3 W was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 95.0 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 14.0%. For acousto-optically (AO Q-switched regime, an output power of 1.95 W was obtained at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF of 10 kHz. The pulse duration was 69.5 ns. The pulse energy and peak power were calculated to be 195 µJ and 2.81 kW, respectively.

  9. The new technology on creation of multiatmispheric wide aperture high power gas lasers

    Khakimovich, Kazakov Komil


    laser volume energy pumping. More over amplifier by the new approach is aimed to be more compact and lighter, easy on production and exploitation and low cost. It means a real progress in production of all kind of high power MAWA lasers and amplifiers, such as: CO 2 , HF-DF, N 2 O-CO, eximer-lasers, etc. Author is ready to sell out the technology and patent rights on the new approach about creation of MAWA lasers and amplifiers to organization which will be interested. The demonstration model of such laser may be created in Laser Plasma Company by a contract, which may be organized through ISTC. (author)

  10. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John


    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  11. Numerical analysis of high-power broad-area laser diode with improved heat sinking structure using epitaxial liftoff technique

    Kim, Younghyun; Sung, Yunsu; Yang, Jung-Tack; Choi, Woo-Young


    The characteristics of high-power broad-area laser diodes with the improved heat sinking structure are numerically analyzed by a technology computer-aided design based self-consistent electro-thermal-optical simulation. The high-power laser diodes consist of a separate confinement heterostructure of a compressively strained InGaAsP quantum well and GaInP optical cavity layers, and a 100-μm-wide rib and a 2000-μm long cavity. In order to overcome the performance deteriorations of high-power laser diodes caused by self-heating such as thermal rollover and thermal blooming, we propose the high-power broad-area laser diode with improved heat-sinking structure, which another effective heat-sinking path toward the substrate side is added by removing a bulk substrate. It is possible to obtain by removing a 400-μm-thick GaAs substrate with an AlAs sacrificial layer utilizing well-known epitaxial liftoff techniques. In this study, we present the performance improvement of the high-power laser diode with the heat-sinking structure by suppressing thermal effects. It is found that the lateral far-field angle as well as quantum well temperature is expected to be improved by the proposed heat-sinking structure which is required for high beam quality and optical output power, respectively.

  12. Optical design and development of a fiber coupled high-power diode laser system for laser transmission welding of plastics

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Eva; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Azkorbebeitia, Urko; Otaduy, Deitze; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando


    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is a direct bonding technique already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobiles, microfluidics, electronics, and biomedicine. LTW evolves localized heating at the interface of two pieces of plastic to be joined. One of the plastic pieces needs to be optically transparent to the laser radiation whereas the other part has to be absorbent, being that the radiation produced by high power diode lasers is a good alternative for this process. As consequence, a tailored laser system has been designed and developed to obtain high quality weld seams with weld widths between 0.7 and 1.4 mm. The developed laser system consists of two diode laser bars (50 W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a nonimaging solution: equalization of the beam parameter product (BPP) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of step-mirrors. The power scaling was carried out by means of a multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality was performed considering ray tracing simulation (ZEMAX) and experimental validation. The welding experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), a thermoplastic frequently used in automotive, electronics and aircraft applications, doped with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). Quality of the weld seams on ABS was analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. Mechanical properties of weld seams were analyzed by mechanical shear tests. High quality weld seams were produced in ABS, revealing the potential of the laser developed in this work for a wide range of plastic welding applications.

  13. Measurement of electromagnetic pulses generated during interactions of high power lasers with solid targets

    De Marco, M.; Krása, J.; Margarone, D.; Giuffrida, L.; Vrana, R.; Velyhan, A.; Korn, G.; Weber, S.; Cikhardt, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Krouský, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Ahmed, H.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.; Limpouch, J.; Velardi, L.; Side, D. Delle; Nassisi, V.


    A target irradiated with a high power laser pulse, blows off a large amount of charge and as a consequence the target itself becomes a generator of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) owing to high return current flowing to the ground through the target holder. The first measurement of the magnetic field induced by the neutralizing current reaching a value of a few kA was performed with the use of an inductive target probe at the PALS Laser Facility (Cikhardt et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014) 103507). A full description of EMP generation should contain information on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the electromagnetic field inside and outside of the interaction chamber. For this reason, we consider the interaction chamber as a resonant cavity in which different modes of EMP oscillate for hundreds of nanoseconds, until the EMP is transmitted outside through the glass windows and EM waves are attenuated. Since the experimental determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is limited by the number of employed antennas, a mapping of the electromagnetic field has to be integrated with numerical simulations. Thus, this work reports on a detailed numerical mapping of the electromagnetic field inside the interaction chamber at the PALS Laser Facility (covering a frequency spectrum from 100 MHz to 3 GHz) using the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2. Moreover we carried out a comparison of the EMP generated in the parallelepiped-like interaction chamber used in the Vulcan Petawatt Laser Facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, against that produced in the spherical interaction chamber of PALS.

  14. Modular high power diode lasers with flexible 3D multiplexing arrangement optimized for automated manufacturing

    Könning, Tobias; Bayer, Andreas; Plappert, Nora; Faßbender, Wilhelm; Dürsch, Sascha; Küster, Matthias; Hubrich, Ralf; Wolf, Paul; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens


    A novel 3-dimensional arrangement of mirrors is used to re-arrange beams from 1-D and 2-D high power diode laser arrays. The approach allows for a variety of stacking geometries, depending on individual requirements. While basic building blocks, including collimating optics, always remain the same, most adaptations can be realized by simple rearrangement of a few optical components. Due to fully automated alignment processes, the required changes can be realized in software by changing coordinates, rather than requiring customized mechanical components. This approach minimizes development costs due to its flexibility, while reducing overall product cost by using similar building blocks for a variety of products and utilizing a high grade of automation. The modules can be operated with industrial grade water, lowering overall system and maintenance cost. Stackable macro coolers are used as the smallest building block of the system. Each cooler can hold up to five diode laser bars. Micro optical components, collimating the beam, are mounted directly to the cooler. All optical assembly steps are fully automated. Initially, the beams from all laser bars propagate in the same direction. Key to the concept is an arrangement of deflectors, which re-arrange the beams into a 2-D array of the desired shape and high fill factor. Standard multiplexing techniques like polarization- or wavelengths-multiplexing have been implemented as well. A variety of fiber coupled modules ranging from a few hundred watts of optical output power to multiple kilowatts of power, as well as customized laser spot geometries like uniform line sources, have been realized.

  15. Real weld geometry determining mechanical properties of high power laser welded medium plates

    Liu, Sang; Mi, Gaoyang; Yan, Fei; Wang, Chunming; Li, Peigen


    Weld width is commonly used as one of main factors to assess joint performances in laser welding. However, it changes significantly through the thickness direction in conditions of medium or thick plates. In this study, high-power autogenous laser welding was conducted on 7 mm thickness 201 stainless steel to elucidate the factor of whole weld transverse shape critically affecting the mechanical properties with the aim of predicting the performance visually through the weld appearance. The results show that single variation of welding parameters could result in great changes of weld pool figures and subsequently weld transverse shapes. All the obtained welds are composed of austenite containing small amount of cellular dendritic δ-Ferrite. The 0.2% proof stresses of Nail- and Peanut-shaped joint reach 458 MPa and 454 MPa, 88.2% and 87.5% of the base material respectively, while that of Wedge-shaped joint only comes to 371 MPa, 71.5% of the base material. The deterioration effect is believed to be caused by the axial grain zone in the weld center. The fatigue strength of joint P is a bit lower than N, but much better than W. Significant deformation incompatibility through the whole thickness and microstructure resistance to crack initiation should be responsible for the poor performance of W-shaped joints.

  16. High-power free-electron lasers-technology and future applications

    Socol, Yehoshua


    Free-electron laser (FEL) is an all-electric, high-power, high beam-quality source of coherent radiation, tunable - unlike other laser sources - at any wavelength within wide spectral region from hard X-rays to far-IR and beyond. After the initial push in the framework of the “Star Wars” program, the FEL technology benefited from decades of R&D and scientific applications. Currently, there are clear signs that the FEL technology reached maturity, enabling real-world applications. E.g., successful and unexpectedly smooth commissioning of the world-first X-ray FEL in 2010 increased in one blow by more than an order of magnitude (40×) wavelength region available by FEL technology and thus demonstrated that the theoretical predictions just keep true in real machines. Experience of ordering turn-key electron beamlines from commercial companies is a further demonstration of the FEL technology maturity. Moreover, successful commissioning of the world-first multi-turn energy-recovery linac demonstrated feasibility of reducing FEL size, cost and power consumption by probably an order of magnitude in respect to previous configurations, opening way to applications, previously considered as non-feasible. This review takes engineer-oriented approach to discuss the FEL technology issues, keeping in mind applications in the fields of military and aerospace, next generation semiconductor lithography, photo-chemistry and isotope separation.

  17. Yb-doped phosphate double-cladding optical fiber for high-power laser applications

    Mura, E.; Scarpignato, G. C.; Lousteau, J.; Boetti, N. G.; Abrate, S.; Milanese, D.


    A Yb-doped phosphate glass double cladding optical fiber was prepared using a custom designed glass composition (P2O5 - Al2O3 - Li2O - B2O3 - BaO - PbO - La2O3) for high-power amplifier and laser applications. The preform drawing method was followed, with the preform being fabricated using the rotational casting technique. This technique, previously developed for tellurite, fluoride or chalcogenide glass preforms is reported for the first time using rare earth doped phosphate glasses. The main challenge was to design an adequate numerical aperture between first and second cladding while maintaining similar thermo-mechanical properties in view of the fiber drawing process. The preform used for the fiber drawing was produced by rod-in-tube technique at a rotation speed of 3000 rpm. The rotational casting technique allowed the manufacturing of an optical fiber featuring high quality interfaces between core and internal cladding and between the internal and external cladding, respectively. Loss attenuation was measured using the cut-back method and lasing was demonstrated at 1022 nm by core pumping with a fiber pigtailed laser diode at the wavelength of 976 nm.

  18. Wavelength switchable high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG Laser around 2µm.

    Wang, Caili; Du, Shifeng; Niu, Yanxiong; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Chao; Bian, Qi; Guo, Chuan; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Lei, Wenqiang; Xu, Zuyan


    We report a high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser operated at either 2.07 or 2.02 µm depending on the transmission of pumped output coupler. The laser yields 115W of continuous-wave output power at 2.07 µm with 5% output coupling, which is the highest output power for all solid-state 2.07 μm cw rod Tm:YAG laser reported so far. With an output coupler of 10% transmission, the center wavelength of the laser is switched to 2.02 μm with an output power of 77.1 W. This is the first observation of high-power wavelength switchable diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser around 2 µm.

  19. Pushing the boundaries of high power lasers: low loss, large area CVD diamond

    Wickham, Benjamin; Schoofs, Frank; Olsson-Robbie, Stefan; Bennett, Andrew; Balmer, Richard


    Synthetic CVD diamond has exceptional properties, including broad spectral transmission, physical and chemical robustness, and the highest thermal conductivity of any known material, making diamond an attractive material for medium to high power optical and laser applications, minimizing the detrimental effects of thermal lensing and radiation damage. Example applications include ATR prisms, Raman laser crystals, extra- and intra-cavity laser cooling. In each case the demands on the fundamental material properties and fabrication routes are slightly different. In recent years, there has been good progress in the development of low-loss, single crystal diamond, suitable for higher power densities, higher pulse rates and more demanding intra- and extra-cavity thermal management. The adoption of single crystal diamond in this area has however, been hindered by the availability of large area, low birefringence plates. To address this, we report a combination of CVD growth and processing methods that have enabled the manufacture of large, low defect substrates. A final homoepitaxial, low absorption synthesis stage has produced plates with large area (up to 16 mm edge length), low absorption (α<0.005 cm-1 at 1064 nm), and low birefringence (Δn <10-5), suitable for double-sided intra-cavity cooling. We demonstrate the practical advances in synthesis, including increasing the size while reducing in-use losses compared to previous generations of single crystal material, and practical developments in processing and implementation of the single crystal diamond parts, optimizing them for use in a state-of-the-art femto-second pulsed Ti:Sa thin disk gain module, all made in collaboration with the wider European FP7 funded Ti:Sa TD consortium.

  20. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Sircombe N.J.


    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  1. Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro


    In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.

  2. Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics 9

    Rachidi, Farhad; Kaelin, Armin; Sabath, Frank; UWB SP 9


    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 9 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP9 Conference, which was held from July 21-25, 2008, in Lausanne, Switzerland. The wide-ranging coverage includes contributions on electromagnetic theory, time-domain computational techniques, modeling, antennas, pulsed-power, UWB interactions, radar systems, UWB communications, and broadband systems and components. This book serves as a state-of-the-art r...

  3. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    Wilkinson, D.H.


    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  4. Technology of discharge and laser resonators for high power CO2 lasers. Koshutsuryoku CO2 laser ni tsukawareru hoden reiki laser kyoshinki gijutsu

    Takenaka, Y.; Kuzumoto, M. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes discharge excitation technology and resonator technology as basic technologies for high power CO2 lasers. As a result of progress in high-frequency power element techniques, the discharge excitation technology now generally uses laser excitation using AC discharge of capacity coupling type. Its representative example is silent discharge (SD) excitation. This is a system to excite laser by applying high voltages with as high frequency as 100 kHz to 1 MHz across a pair of electrodes covered with a dielectric material. The system maintains stability in discharge even if power supply voltage amplitude is modulated, and easily provides pulse outputs. Discharge excitation for diffusion cooled type CO2 laser generates a discharge in a gap with a gap length of about 2 mm, and can perform gas cooling by means of thermal conduction of gas, whereas a compact resonator can be fabricated. A resonator for the diffusion cooled type CO2 laser eliminates gas circulation and cooling systems, hence the device can be made more compact. A report has been given that several of these compact resonators were combined, from which a laser output of 85W was obtained by using RF discharge of 2kW. 43 refs., 21 figs.

  5. High-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser at 2.07 μm.

    Wang, Caili; Niu, Yanxiong; Du, Shifeng; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Zhichao; Li, Fangqin; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Xu, Zuyan


    We report a high-power diode-laser (LD) side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser of around 2 μm. The laser was water-cooled at 8°C and yielded a maximum output power of 267 W at 2.07 μm, which is the highest output power for an all solid-state cw 2.07 μm rod Tm:YAG laser reported as far as we know. The corresponding optical-optical conversion efficiency was 20.7%, and the slope efficiency was about 29.8%, respectively.

  6. Coherent addition of high power broad-area laser diodes with a compact VBG V-shaped external Talbot cavity

    Liu, Bo; Braiman, Yehuda


    We introduced a compact V-shaped external Talbot cavity for phase locking of high power broad-area laser diodes. The length of compact cavity is ∼25 mm. Near diffraction-limit coherent addition of 10 broad-area laser diodes indicated that high quality phase locking was achieved. We measured the near-field emission mode of each individual broad-area laser diode with different feedback, such as a volume Bragg grating and a high reflection mirror. We found out that the best result of phase locking broad-area laser diodes was achieved by the compact V-shaped external Talbot cavity with volume Bragg grating feedback.

  7. Multi-Fresnel lenses pumping approach for improving high-power Nd:YAG solar laser beam quality.

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana


    To significantly improve the present-day high-power solar laser beam quality, a three-stage multi-Fresnel lenses approach is proposed for side-pumping either a Nd:YAG single-crystal or a core-doped Sm(3+)Nd:YAG ceramic rod. Optimum pumping and laser beam parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. The proposed scheme offers a uniform absorption profile along the rod. 167 W laser power can be achieved, corresponding to 29.3 W/m(2) collection efficiency. High brightness figure of merit of 8.34 W is expected for the core-doped rod within a convex-concave resonator, which is 1300 times higher than that of the most-recent high-power solar laser.

  8. Study of novel plasma devices generated by high power lasers coupled with a micro-pulse power technology

    Nishida, A; Chen, Z L; Jin, Z; Kondo, K; Nakagawa, M; Kodama, R; Arima, H; Yoneda, H


    The authors have proposed introducing a micro pulse power technology in high power laser plasma experiments to boost up the return current, resulting in efficiently guiding of energetic electrons. High current pulse power generators with a pulse laser trigger system generate high-density plasma that is well conductor. To efficiently guiding by using a micro pulse power, we estimated parameter of a micro pulse power system that is voltage of rise time, current, charging voltage and capacitance

  9. Temporal characterization of plasma cw high-power CO2 laser-matter interaction: contribution to the welding process control

    Engel, Thierry; Kane, M.; Fontaine, Joel


    During high-power laser welding, gas ionization occurs above the sample. The resulting plasma ignition threshold is related to ionization potential of metallic vapors from the sample, and shielding gases used in the process. In this work, we have characterized the temporal behavior of the radiation emitted by the plasma during laser welding in order to relate the observed signals to the process parameters.

  10. Advanced chip designs and novel cooling techniques for brightness scaling of industrial, high power diode laser bars

    Heinemann, S.; McDougall, S. D.; Ryu, G.; Zhao, L.; Liu, X.; Holy, C.; Jiang, C.-L.; Modak, P.; Xiong, Y.; Vethake, T.; Strohmaier, S. G.; Schmidt, B.; Zimer, H.


    The advance of high power semiconductor diode laser technology is driven by the rapidly growing industrial laser market, with such high power solid state laser systems requiring ever more reliable diode sources with higher brightness and efficiency at lower cost. In this paper we report simulation and experimental data demonstrating most recent progress in high brightness semiconductor laser bars for industrial applications. The advancements are in three principle areas: vertical laser chip epitaxy design, lateral laser chip current injection control, and chip cooling technology. With such improvements, we demonstrate disk laser pump laser bars with output power over 250W with 60% efficiency at the operating current. Ion implantation was investigated for improved current confinement. Initial lifetime tests show excellent reliability. For direct diode applications 96% polarization are additional requirements. Double sided cooling deploying hard solder and optimized laser design enable single emitter performance also for high fill factor bars and allow further power scaling to more than 350W with 65% peak efficiency with less than 8 degrees slow axis divergence and high polarization.

  11. Quantum Transport Simulation of High-Power 4.6-μm Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Olafur Jonasson


    Full Text Available We present a quantum transport simulation of a 4.6- μ m quantum cascade laser (QCL operating at high power near room temperature. The simulation is based on a rigorous density-matrix-based formalism, in which the evolution of the single-electron density matrix follows a Markovian master equation in the presence of applied electric field and relevant scattering mechanisms. We show that it is important to allow for both position-dependent effective mass and for effective lowering of very thin barriers in order to obtain the band structure and the current-field characteristics comparable to experiment. Our calculations agree well with experiments over a wide range of temperatures. We predict a room-temperature threshold field of 62 . 5 kV/cm and a characteristic temperature for threshold-current-density variation of T 0 = 199 K . We also calculate electronic in-plane distributions, which are far from thermal, and show that subband electron temperatures can be hundreds to thousands of degrees higher than the heat sink. Finally, we emphasize the role of coherent tunneling current by looking at the size of coherences, the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. At the design lasing field, efficient injection manifests itself in a large injector/upper lasing level coherence, which underscores the insufficiency of semiclassical techniques to address injection in QCLs.

  12. Enhancement of thermal blooming effect on free space propagation of high power CW laser beam

    Kashef, Tamer M.; Mokhtar, Ayman M.; Ghoniemy, Samy A.


    In this paper, we present an enhanced model to predict the effect of thermal blooming and atmospheric turbulence, on high energy laser beams free space propagation. We introduce an implementation technique for the proposed mathematical models describing the effect of thermal blooming and atmospheric turbulence including wind blowing, and how it effect high power laser beam power, far field pattern, phase change effect and beam quality . An investigated model of adaptive optics was introduced to study how to improve the wave front and phase distortion caused by thermal blooming and atmospheric turbulence, the adaptive optics model with Actuator influence spacing 3 cm the that shows observed improvement in the Strehl ratio and in wave front and phase of the beam. These models was implemented using cooperative agents relying on GLAD software package. Without taking in consideration the effect of thermal blooming It was deduced that the beam at the source takes the Gaussian shape with uniform intensity distribution, we found that the beam converge on the required distance 4 km using converging optics, comparing to the laser beam under the effect of thermal blooming the far field pattern shows characteristic secondary blip and "sugar scoop" effect which is characteristic of thermal blooming. It was found that the thermal blooming causes the beam to steer many centimeters and to diverge beyond about 1.8 km than come to a focus at 4 km where the beam assumed to be focused on the required target. We assume that this target is moving at v = (4,-4) m/sec at distance 4 km and the wind is moving at v = (-10,-10) m/sec, it was found that the effect will be strongest when wind and target movement are at the same velocity. GLAD software is used to calculate the attenuation effects of the atmosphere as well as the phase perturbations due to temperature change in the air and effects caused as the beam crosses through the air due to wind and beam steering.

  13. A High Power InGaN-Based Blue-Violet Laser Diode Array with a Broad-Area Stripe

    Chen Ping; Zhao De-Gang; Feng Mei-Xin; Jiang De-Sheng; Liu Zong-Shun; Yang Hui; Zhang Li-Qun; Li De-Yao; Liu Jian-Ping; Wang Hui; Zhu Jian-Jun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Zhang Bao-Shun


    An array of high power InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well laser diodes with a broad waveguide is fabricated. The laser diode structure is grown on a GaN substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The laser diode array consists of five emitter stripes which share common electrodes on one laser chip. The electrical and optical characteristics of the laser diode array are investigated under the pulse current injection with 10kHz frequency and 100 ns pulse width. The laser diode array emits at the wavelength of 409 nm, which is located in the blue-violet region, and the threshold current is 2.9 A. The maximum output light peak power is measured to be 7.5 W at the wavelength of 411.8 nm under the current of 25 A

  14. Development of all solid-state, high average power ultra-short pulse laser for X-ray generation. High average power CPA system and wavefront control of ultra short laser pulse

    Harayama, Sayaka; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Matoba, Toru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    We developed a prototype CPA laser system which is pumped by a all solid-state Nd:YAG laser. In a preliminary experiment, the output energy of 52mJ before compression was obtained when the pumping energy was 250mJ. To compensate the wavefront distortion, an adaptive optics has been developed. By using this wavefront control system, the laser beam with the distortion of 0.15{lambda} was obtained. (author)

  15. Independent control of arbitrary orders of dispersion at the high power end of CPA lasers

    Goerbe, M.; Jojart, P.; Szeged University, Szeged; Kovacs, M.; Osvay, K.


    were designed and examined carefully. The first doublet consisted on an N-PK51 and a Lithosil-Q1E193 wedge and was designed to CEP tuning, the second one from N-SSK2 and N-LaK7 aimed to change the GDD only. The measured tuning slopes were 1.66 rad/nm and 3.6 fs 2 /mm, respectively. The triplet compiled of N-LaK7, N-LaSF46 and NSF57 wedges was made for TOD tuning: 130 fs 3 /mm was measured. All wedge assemblies only changed the selected spectral phase derivative while keeping the others practically zero. The residual angular dispersion was also measured, and found to be well below the detection limit of 0.2 μrad/nm. We have proved that a combination of optical wedges is capable to control the required order of dispersion, including CEP, independently to all the other orders. Since the loss is negligible and the (bulk) damage threshold is high, we believe that such specially designed wedge combinations can significantly contribute to the fine tuning of dispersion and CEP just prior to the compressor of high power laser systems like Petawatt Field Syntheser (PFS), Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI), but also of smaller scale laboratory few cycle systems.

  16. Blue 450nm high power semiconductor continuous wave laser bars exceeding rollover output power of 80W

    König, H.; Lell, A.; Stojetz, B.; Ali, M.; Eichler, C.; Peter, M.; Löffler, A.; Strauss, U.; Baumann, M.; Balck, A.; Malchus, J.; Krause, V.


    Industrial material processing like cutting or welding of metals is rather energy efficient using direct diode or diode pumped solid state lasers. However, many applications cannot be addressed by established infrared laser technology due to fundamental material properties of the workpiece: For example materials like copper or gold have too low absorption in the near infrared wavelength range to be processed efficiently by use of existing high power laser systems. The huge interest to enable high power kW systems with more suitable wavelengths in the blue spectral range triggered the German funded research project 'BLAULAS': Therein the feasibility and capability of CW operating high power laser bars based on the GaN material system was investigated by Osram and Laserline. High performance bars were enabled by defeating fundamental challenges like material quality as well as the chip processes, both of which differ significantly from well-known IR laser bars. The research samples were assembled on actively cooled heat sinks with hard solder technology. For the first time an output power of 98W per bar at 60A drive current was achieved. Conversion efficiency as high as 46% at 50W output power was demonstrated.

  17. Power Beamed Photon Sails: New Capabilities Resulting From Recent Maturation Of Key Solar Sail And High Power Laser Technologies

    Montgomery, Edward E. IV


    This paper revisits some content in the First International Symposium on Beamed Energy Propulsion in 2002 related to the concept of propellantless in-space propulsion utilizing an external high energy laser to provide momentum to an ultralightweight (gossamer) spacecraft. The design and construction of the NanoSail-D solar sail demonstration spacecraft has demonstrated in space flight hardware the concept of small, very light--yet capable--spacecraft. The results of the Joint High Power Solid State Laser (JHPSSL) have also increased the effectiveness and reduced the cost of an entry level laser source. This paper identifies the impact from improved system parameters on current mission applications.

  18. Nanoscale coatings for erosion and corrosion protection of copper microchannel coolers for high powered laser diodes

    Flannery, Matthew; Fan, Angie; Desai, Tapan G.


    High powered laser diodes are used in a wide variety of applications ranging from telecommunications to industrial applications. Copper microchannel coolers (MCCs) utilizing high velocity, de-ionized water coolant are used to maintain diode temperatures in the recommended range to produce stable optical power output and control output wavelength. However, aggressive erosion and corrosion attack from the coolant limits the lifetime of the cooler to only 6 months of operation. Currently, gold plating is the industry standard for corrosion and erosion protection in MCCs. However, this technique cannot perform a pin-hole free coating and furthermore cannot uniformly cover the complex geometries of current MCCs involving small diameter primary and secondary channels. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., presents a corrosion and erosion resistant coating (ANCERTM) applied by a vapor phase deposition process for enhanced protection of MCCs. To optimize the coating formation and thickness, coated copper samples were tested in 0.125% NaCl solution and high purity de-ionized (DIW) flow loop. The effects of DIW flow rates and qualities on erosion and corrosion of the ANCERTM coated samples were evaluated in long-term erosion and corrosion testing. The robustness of the coating was also evaluated in thermal cycles between 30°C - 75°C. After 1000 hours flow testing and 30 thermal cycles, the ANCERTM coated copper MCCs showed a corrosion rate 100 times lower than the gold plated ones and furthermore were barely affected by flow rates or temperatures thus demonstrating superior corrosion and erosion protection and long term reliability.

  19. Elucidation of Metallic Plume and Spatter Characteristics Based on SVM During High-Power Disk Laser Welding

    Gao Xiangdong; Liu Guiqian


    During deep penetration laser welding, there exist plume (weak plasma) and spatters, which are the results of weld material ejection due to strong laser heating. The characteristics of plume and spatters are related to welding stability and quality. Characteristics of metallic plume and spatters were investigated during high-power disk laser bead-on-plate welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates at a continuous wave laser power of 10 kW. An ultraviolet and visible sensitive high-speed camera was used to capture the metallic plume and spatter images. Plume area, laser beam path through the plume, swing angle, distance between laser beam focus and plume image centroid, abscissa of plume centroid and spatter numbers are defined as eigenvalues, and the weld bead width was used as a characteristic parameter that reflected welding stability. Welding status was distinguished by SVM (support vector machine) after data normalization and characteristic analysis. Also, PCA (principal components analysis) feature extraction was used to reduce the dimensions of feature space, and PSO (particle swarm optimization) was used to optimize the parameters of SVM. Finally a classification model based on SVM was established to estimate the weld bead width and welding stability. Experimental results show that the established algorithm based on SVM could effectively distinguish the variation of weld bead width, thus providing an experimental example of monitoring high-power disk laser welding quality. (plasma technology)

  20. Thermal Investigation of Interaction between High-power CW-laser Radiation and a Water-jet

    Brecher, Christian; Janssen, Henning; Eckert, Markus; Schmidt, Florian

    The technology of a water guided laser beam has been industrially established for micro machining. Pulsed laser radiation is guided via a water jet (diameter: 25-250 μm) using total internal reflection. Due to the cylindrical jet shape the depth of field increases to above 50 mm, enabling parallel kerfs compared to conventional laser systems. However higher material thicknesses and macro geometries cannot be machined economically viable due to low average laser powers. Fraunhofer IPT has successfully combined a high-power continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser (6 kW) and water jet technology. The main challenge of guiding high-power laser radiation in water is the energy transferred to the jet by absorption, decreasing its stability. A model of laser water interaction in the water jet has been developed and validated experimentally. Based on the results an upscaling of system technology to 30 kW is discussed, enabling a high potential in cutting challenging materials at high qualities and high speeds.