WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-power li-ion cells

  1. Flexible Aqueous Li-Ion Battery with High Energy and Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongyin; Ji, Xiao; Fan, Xiulin; Gao, Tao; Suo, Liumin; Wang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Chen, Ji; Chen, Long; Han, Fudong; Miao, Ling; Xu, Kang; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-11-01

    A flexible and wearable aqueous symmetrical lithium-ion battery is developed using a single LiVPO 4 F material as both cathode and anode in a "water-in-salt" gel polymer electrolyte. The symmetric lithium-ion chemistry exhibits high energy and power density and long cycle life, due to the formation of a robust solid electrolyte interphase consisting of Li 2 CO 3 -LiF, which enables fast Li-ion transport. Energy densities of 141 Wh kg -1 , power densities of 20 600 W kg -1 , and output voltage of 2.4 V can be delivered during >4000 cycles, which is far superior to reported aqueous energy storage devices at the same power level. Moreover, the full cell shows unprecedented tolerance to mechanical stress such as bending and cutting, where it not only does not catastrophically fail, as most nonaqueous cells would, but also maintains cell performance and continues to operate in ambient environment, a unique feature apparently derived from the high stability of the "water-in-salt" gel polymer electrolyte. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Thermal abuse performance of high-power 18650 Li-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E. P.; Doughty, D. H.

    High-power 18650 Li-ion cells have been developed for hybrid electric vehicle applications as part of the DOE Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. The thermal abuse response of two advanced chemistries (Gen1 and Gen2) were measured and compared with commercial Sony 18650 cells. Gen1 cells consisted of an MCMB graphite based anode and a LiNi 0.85Co 0.15O 2 cathode material while the Gen2 cells consisted of a MAG10 anode graphite and a LiNi 0.80Co 0.15 Al 0.05O 2 cathode. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to measure the thermal response and properties of the cells and cell materials up to 400 °C. The MCMB graphite was found to result in increased thermal stability of the cells due to more effective solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation. The Al stabilized cathodes were seen to have higher peak reaction temperatures that also gave improved cell thermal response. The effects of accelerated aging on cell properties were also determined. Aging resulted in improved cell thermal stability with the anodes showing a rapid reduction in exothermic reactions while the cathodes only showed reduced reactions after more extended aging.

  3. Safe, High Specific Energy & Power Li-ion Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Today’s best, safe commercial Li-ion cell designs achieve ~180 Wh/kg, ~500 Wh/L, and 400 W/kg. When accounting for the lightest (1.35) parasitic mass and smallest...

  4. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  5. SAFT Li-ion Technology for High Rate Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nechev, Kamen; Deveney, Bridget; Guseynov, Teymur; Erbacher, John; Vukson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    SAFT will present an update of its state-of-the art Very High Power (VHP) Lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology. The VHP cells are currently being qualified for use in military aircraft applications as well as in future military hybrid vehicles...

  6. Enhanced thermal safety and high power performance of carbon-coated LiFePO4 olivine cathode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Dubé, J.; Dallaire, A.; Galoustov, K.; Guerfi, A.; Ramanathan, M.; Benmayza, A.; Prakash, J.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon-coated LiFePO4 Li-ion oxide cathode was studied for its electrochemical, thermal, and safety performance. This electrode exhibited a reversible capacity corresponding to more than 89% of the theoretical capacity when cycled between 2.5 and 4.0 V. Cylindrical 18,650 cells with carbon-coated LiFePO4 also showed good capacity retention at higher discharge rates up to 5C rate with 99.3% coulombic efficiency, implying that the carbon coating improves the electronic conductivity. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) test performed on LiFePO4 18,650 cell indicated the suitability of this carbon-coated LiFePO4 for high power HEV applications. The heat generation during charge and discharge at 0.5C rate, studied using an Isothermal Microcalorimeter (IMC), indicated cell temperature is maintained in near ambient conditions in the absence of external cooling. Thermal studies were also investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC), which showed that LiFePO4 is safer, upon thermal and electrochemical abuse, than the commonly used lithium metal oxide cathodes with layered and spinel structures. Safety tests, such as nail penetration and crush test, were performed on LiFePO4 and LiCoO2 cathode based cells, to investigate on the safety hazards of the cells upon severe physical abuse and damage.

  7. Equivalent circuit model parameters of a high-power Li-ion battery: Thermal and state of charge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jamie; Nelson, Ruben; Kalu, Egwu E.; Weatherspoon, Mark H.; Zheng, Jim P.

    2011-05-01

    Equivalent circuit model (EMC) of a high-power Li-ion battery that accounts for both temperature and state of charge (SOC) effects known to influence battery performance is presented. Electrochemical impedance measurements of a commercial high power Li-ion battery obtained in the temperature range 20 to 50 °C at various SOC values was used to develop a simple EMC which was used in combination with a non-linear least squares fitting procedure that used thirteen parameters for the analysis of the Li-ion cell. The experimental results show that the solution and charge transfer resistances decreased with increase in cell operating temperature and decreasing SOC. On the other hand, the Warburg admittance increased with increasing temperature and decreasing SOC. The developed model correlations that are capable of being used in process control algorithms are presented for the observed impedance behavior with respect to temperature and SOC effects. The predicted model parameters for the impedance elements Rs, Rct and Y013 show low variance of 5% when compared to the experimental data and therefore indicates a good statistical agreement of correlation model to the actual experimental values.

  8. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): High Specific Energy Li-ion Battery Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project element is to increase the specific energy of Li-ion battery cells to 265 Wh/kg and the energy density to 500 Wh/L at 10oC while maintaining...

  9. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  10. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  11. Preparation of All-Ceramic, High Performance Li-ion Batteries for Deep Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium (Li) ion batteries are among the most promising power sources for many civilian, military and space applications due to their high power and high energy...

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Li-ion Electrodes for High-Power Energy Storage Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chun-Han

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies have been a rapidly emerging option to meet future energy demand. However, their systems require stable, high-power storage devices to overcome fluctuating energy outputs for consistent distribution. Since traditional Li-ion batteries (LIB) are not considered to be capable of fast charging and discharging, we have to develop devices with new chemistry for high-power operation. This dissertation focuses on the development of supercapacitors and high-rate batteries...

  13. Nanostructured Networks for Energy Storage: Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (VACNT as Current Collectors for High-Power Li4Ti5O12(LTO//LiMn2O4(LMO Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Pawlitzek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As a concept for electrode architecture in high power lithium ion batteries, self-supported nanoarrays enable ultra-high power densities as a result of their open pore geometry, which results in short and direct Li+-ion and electron pathways. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT on metallic current collectors with low interface resistance are used as current collectors for the chemical solution infiltration of electroactive oxides to produce vertically aligned carbon nanotubes decorated with in situ grown LiMn2O4 (LMO and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO nanoparticles. The production processes steps (catalyst coating, VACNT chemical vapor deposition (CVD, infiltration, and thermal transformation are all scalable, continuous, and suitable for niche market production to achieve high oxide loadings up to 70 wt %. Due to their unique transport structure, as-prepared nanoarrays achieve remarkably high power densities up to 2.58 kW kg−1, which is based on the total electrode mass at 80 C for LiMn2O4//Li4Ti5O12 full cells. The tailoring of LTO and LMO nanoparticle size (~20–100 nm and VACNT length (array height: 60–200 µm gives insights into the rate-limiting steps at high current for these kinds of nanoarray electrodes at very high C-rates of up to 200 C. The results reveal the critical structural parameters for achieving high power densities in VACNT nanoarray full cells.

  14. Single-crystalline LiFePO4 nanosheets for high-rate Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Peng, Lele; Liu, Borui; Yu, Guihua

    2014-05-14

    The lithiation/delithiation in LiFePO4 is highly anisotropic with lithium-ion diffusion being mainly confined to channels along the b-axis. Controlling the orientation of LiFePO4 crystals therefore plays an important role for efficient mass transport within this material. We report here the preparation of single crystalline LiFePO4 nanosheets with a large percentage of highly oriented {010} facets, which provide the highest pore density for lithium-ion insertion/extraction. The LiFePO4 nanosheets show a high specific capacity at low charge/discharge rates and retain significant capacities at high C-rates, which may benefit the development of lithium batteries with both favorable energy and power density.

  15. Li plating as unwanted side reaction in commercial Li-ion cells - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Hogg, Björn-Ingo; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2018-04-01

    Deposition of Lithium metal on anodes contributes significantly to ageing of Li-ion cells. Lithium deposition is connected not only to a drastic limitation of life-time, but also to fast-charging capability and safety issues. Lithium deposition in commercial Li-ion cells is not limited to operation conditions at low temperatures. In recent publications various types of commercial cells were investigated using complimentary analysis methods. Five cell types studied in literature (18650, 26650, pouch) serve as a basis for comparison when and why Li deposition happens in commercial Li-ion cells. In the present paper, we reviewed literature on (i) causes, (ii) hints and evidences for Li deposition, (iii) macroscopic morphology of Li deposition/plating, (iv) ageing mechanisms and shapes of capacity fade curves involving Li deposition, and (v) influences of Li deposition on safety. Although often discussed, safety issues regarding Li deposition are not only limited to dendrite growth and internal short circuits, but also to exothermic reactions in the presence of Lithium metal. Furthermore, we tried to connect knowledge from different length scales including the macroscopic level (Li-ion cells, operating conditions, gradients in cells, electrochemical tests, safety tests), the microscopic level (electrodes, particles, microstructure), and the atomic level (atoms, ions, molecules, energy barriers).

  16. A high energy and power Li-ion capacitor based on a TiO2 nanobelt array anode and a graphene hydrogel cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanwen; Guan, Cao; Wang, Xuefeng; Fan, Hong Jin

    2015-03-25

    A novel hybrid Li-ion capacitor (LIC) with high energy and power densities is constructed by combining an electrochemical double layer capacitor type cathode (graphene hydrogels) with a Li-ion battery type anode (TiO(2) nanobelt arrays). The high power source is provided by the graphene hydrogel cathode, which has a 3D porous network structure and high electrical conductivity, and the counter anode is made of free-standing TiO(2) nanobelt arrays (NBA) grown directly on Ti foil without any ancillary materials. Such a subtle designed hybrid Li-ion capacitor allows rapid electron and ion transport in the non-aqueous electrolyte. Within a voltage range of 0.0-3.8 V, a high energy of 82 Wh kg(-1) is achieved at a power density of 570 W kg(-1). Even at an 8.4 s charge/discharge rate, an energy density as high as 21 Wh kg(-1) can be retained. These results demonstrate that the TiO(2) NBA//graphene hydrogel LIC exhibits higher energy density than supercapacitors and better power density than Li-ion batteries, which makes it a promising electrochemical power source. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROTH, EMANUEL P.

    1999-01-01

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li(sub x)CoO(sub 2) cathodes (commercial SONY cells) and Li(sub x)Ni(sub 0.8)Co(sub 0.2)O(sub 2) cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity in the open circuit cell condition. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC). Microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of heat generating side reactions also as a function of SOC. Components of cells were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal reactivity of the individual electrodes to determine the temperature regimes and conditions of the major thermal reactions. Thermal decomposition of the SEI layer at the anodes was identified as the initiating source for thermal runaway. The cells with Li(sub x)CoO(sub 2) cathodes showed greater sensitivity to SOC and higher accelerating heating rates than seen for the cells with Li(sub x)Ni(sub 0.8)Co(sub 0.2)O(sub 2)cathodes. Lower temperature reactions starting as low as 40 C were also observed that were SOC dependent but not accelerating. These reactions were also measured in the microcalorimeter and observed to decay over time with a power-law dependence and are believed to result in irreversible capacity loss in the cells

  18. High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, Keith [Farasis Energy Inc; Slater, Michael [Farasis Energy Inc

    2018-03-14

    This Li-ion cell technology development project had three objectives: to develop advanced electrode materials and cell components to enable stable high-voltage operation; to design and demonstrate a Li-ion cell using these materials that meets the PHEV40 performance targets; and to design and demonstrate a Li-ion cell using these materials that meets the EV performance targets. The major challenge to creating stable high energy cells with long cycle life is system integration. Although materials that can give high energy cells are known, stabilizing them towards long-term cycling in the presence of other novel cell components is a major challenge. The major technical barriers addressed by this work include low cathode specific energy, poor electrolyte stability during high voltage operation, and insufficient capacity retention during deep discharge for Si-containing anodes. Through the course of this project, Farasis was able to improve capacity retention of NCM materials for 4.4+ V operation, through both surface treatment and bulk-doping approaches. Other material advances include increased rate capability and of HE-NCM materials through novel synthesis approach, doubling the relative capacity at 1C over materials synthesized using standard methods. Silicon active materials proved challenging throughout the project and ultimately were the limiting factor in the energy density vs. cycle life trade off. By avoiding silicon anodes for the lower energy PHEV design, we manufactured cells with intermediate energy density and long cycle life under high voltage operation for PHEV applications. Cells with high energy density for EV applications were manufactured targeting a 300 Wh/kg design and were able to achieve > 200 cycles.

  19. Effects of additives on thermal stability of Li ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Roth, E. Peter; Crafts, Chris C.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Henriksen, Gary; Amine, Khalil

    Li ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles, because these cells offer superior combination of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are proposed for battery systems in both internal combustion engine and fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicles. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial applications. The thermal-abuse response of Li ion cells has been improved by the incorporation of more stable anode carbons and electrolyte additives. Electrolyte solutions containing vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFP) as well as some proprietary flame-retardant additives were evaluated. Test cells in the 18,650 configuration were built at Sandia National Laboratories using new stable electrode materials and electrolyte additives. A special test fixture was designed to allow determination of self-generated cell heating during a thermal ramp profile. The flammability of vented gas and expelled electrolyte was studied using a novel arrangement of a spark generator placed near the cell to ignite vent gas if a flammable gas mixture was present. Flammability of vent gas was somewhat reduced by the presence of certain additives. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was also used to characterize 18,650-size test cell heat and gas generation. Gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and was found to consist of CO 2, H 2, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene and small amounts of C1-C4 organic molecules.

  20. Lithium metal microreference electrodes and their applications to Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2007-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are nowadays widely used as power sources for a wide variety of electronic devices by virtue of their high cell voltage, high energy density and excellent cyclability. Though the performance of Li-ion batteries has been greatly improved during the last decade, it is still, to some

  1. ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-CNT: A Novel High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery with Excellent Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Bresser, Dominic; von Zamory, Jan; Müller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-07-15

    An innovative and environmentally friendly battery chemistry is proposed for high power applications. A carbon-coated ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle-based anode and a LiFePO 4 -multiwalled carbon nanotube-based cathode, both aqueous processed with Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, are combined, for the first time, in a Li-ion full cell with exceptional electrochemical performance. Such novel battery shows remarkable rate capabilities, delivering 50% of its nominal capacity at currents corresponding to ≈20C (with respect to the limiting cathode). Furthermore, the pre-lithiation of the negative electrode offers the possibility of tuning the cell potential and, therefore, achieving remarkable gravimetric energy and power density values of 202 Wh kg -1 and 3.72 W kg -1 , respectively, in addition to grant a lithium reservoir. The high reversibility of the system enables sustaining more than 10 000 cycles at elevated C-rates (≈10C with respect to the LiFePO 4 cathode), while retaining up to 85% of its initial capacity.

  2. Diagnostic examination of thermally abused high-power lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. P.; Roth, E. P.; Kostecki, R.; McCarthy, K.; MacLaren, S.; Doughty, D. H.

    The inherent thermal instability of lithium-ion cells is a significant impediment to their widespread commercialization for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells containing conventional organic electrolyte-based chemistries are prone to thermal runaway at temperatures around 180 °C. We conducted accelerating rate calorimetry measurements on high-power 18650-type lithium-ion cells in an effort to decipher the sequence of events leading to thermal runaway. In addition, electrode and separator samples harvested from a cell that was heated to 150 °C then air-quenched to room temperature were examined by microscopy, spectroscopy, and diffraction techniques. Self-heating of the cell began at 84 °C. The gases generated in the cell included CO 2 and CO, and smaller quantities of H 2, C 2H 4, CH 4, and C 2H 6. The main changes on cell heating to 150 °C were observed on the anode surface, which was covered by a thick layer of surface deposits that included LiF and inorganic and organo-phosphate compounds. The sources of gas generation and the mechanisms leading to the formation of compounds observed on the electrode surfaces are discussed.

  3. Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Li-Rich Layered Cathode Oxides for High Volumetric and Power Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bao; Yin, Chong; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-02-01

    As rechargeable Li-ion batteries have expanded their applications into on-board energy storage for electric vehicles, the energy and power must be increased to meet the new demands. Li-rich layered oxides are one of the most promising candidate materials; however, it is very difficult to make them compatible with high volumetric energy density and power density. Here, we develop an innovative approach to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides Li[Li 0.144 Ni 0.136 Co 0.136 Mn 0.544 ]O 2 , directly occurring at deep chemical delithiation with carbon dioxide. It is found that the as-prepared material presents a micrometer-sized spherical structure that is typically composed of interconnected nanosized subunits with narrow distributed pores at 3.6 nm. As a result, this unique 3D micro-/nanostructure not only has a high tap density over 2.20 g cm -3 but also exhibits excellent rate capability (197.6 mA h g -1 at 1250 mA g -1 ) as an electrode. The excellent electrochemical performance is ascribed to the unique nanoporous micro-nanostructures, which facilitates the Li + diffusion and enhances the structural stability of the Li-rich layered cathode materials. Our work offers a comprehensive designing strategy to construct 3D nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides for both high volumetric energy density and power density in Li-ion batteries.

  4. Li-ion batteries: Phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Peiyu; Zhang Yantao; Zhang Lianqi; Chu Geng; Gao Jian

    2016-01-01

    Progress in the research on phase transitions during Li + extraction/insertion processes in typical battery materials is summarized as examples to illustrate the significance of understanding phase transition phenomena in Li-ion batteries. Physical phenomena such as phase transitions (and resultant phase diagrams) are often observed in Li-ion battery research and already play an important role in promoting Li-ion battery technology. For example, the phase transitions during Li + insertion/extraction are highly relevant to the thermodynamics and kinetics of Li-ion batteries, and even physical characteristics such as specific energy, power density, volume variation, and safety-related properties. (topical review)

  5. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  6. In situ catalytic synthesis of high-graphitized carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoplates for superior Li-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhipeng; Fan, Yuqian; Shao, Guangjie; Wang, Guiling; Song, Jianjun; Liu, Tingting

    2015-02-04

    The low electronic conductivity and one-dimensional diffusion channel along the b axis for Li ions are two major obstacles to achieving high power density of LiFePO4 material. Coating carbon with excellent conductivity on the tailored LiFePO4 nanoparticles therefore plays an important role for efficient charge and mass transport within this material. We report here the in situ catalytic synthesis of high-graphitized carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoplates with highly oriented (010) facets by introducing ferrocene as a catalyst during thermal treatment. The as-obtained material exhibits superior performances for Li-ion batteries at high rate (100 C) and low temperature (-20 °C), mainly because of fast electron transport through the graphitic carbon layer and efficient Li(+)-ion diffusion through the thin nanoplates.

  7. Dynamic behaviour of Li batteries in hydrogen fuel cell power trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneri, O.; Migliardini, F.; Capasso, C.; Corbo, P.

    A Li ion polymer battery pack for road vehicles (48 V, 20 Ah) was tested by charging/discharging tests at different current values, in order to evaluate its performance in comparison with a conventional Pb acid battery pack. The comparative analysis was also performed integrating the two storage systems in a hydrogen fuel cell power train for moped applications. The propulsion system comprised a fuel cell generator based on a 2.5 kW polymeric electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack, fuelled with compressed hydrogen, an electric drive of 1.8 kW as nominal power, of the same typology of that installed on commercial electric scooters (brushless electric machine and controlled bidirectional inverter). The power train was characterized making use of a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on driving cycles with different acceleration/deceleration rates and lengths. The power flows between fuel cell system, electric energy storage system and electric drive during the different cycles were analyzed, evidencing the effect of high battery currents on the vehicle driving range. The use of Li batteries in the fuel cell power train, adopting a range extender configuration, determined a hydrogen consumption lower than the correspondent Pb battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicle, with a major flexibility in the power management.

  8. Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel Oxide Spinel Electrodes for ≥3.5 V Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Blauwkamp, Joel; Castro, Fernando C.; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Kim, Soo; Wolverton, Christopher; Benedek, Roy; Dogan, Fulya; Park, Joong Sun; Croy, Jason R.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-10-19

    Recent reports have indicated that a manganese oxide spinel component, when embedded in a relatively small concentration in layered xLi2MnO3(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) electrode systems, can act as a stabilizer that increases their capacity, rate capability, cycle life, and first-cycle efficiency. These findings prompted us to explore the possibility of exploiting lithiated cobalt oxide spinel stabilizers by taking advantage of (1) the low mobility of cobalt ions relative to manganese and nickel ions in close-packed oxides and (2) their higher potential (~3.6 V vs. Li0) relative to manganese oxide spinels (~2.9 V vs. Li0) for the spinel-to-lithiated spinel electrochemical reaction. In particular, we have revisited the structural and electrochemical properties of lithiated spinels in the LiCo1-xNixO2 (0x0.2) system, first reported almost 25 years ago, by means of high-resolution (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrochemical cell tests, and theoretical calculations. The results provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of intergrown layered/lithiated spinel LiCo1-xNixO2 structures, when prepared in air between 400 and 800 C, and the impact of structural variations on their electrochemical behavior. These structures, when used in low concentration, offer the possibility of improving the cycling stability, energy, and power of high energy (≥3.5 V) lithium-ion cells.

  9. Fluoro-Carbonate Solvents for Li-Ion Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAGASUBRAMANIAN, GANESAN

    1999-01-01

    A number of fluoro-carbonate solvents were evaluated as electrolytes for Li-ion cells. These solvents are fluorine analogs of the conventional electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate in Li-ion cells. Conductivity of single and mixed fluoro carbonate electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF(sub 6) was measured at different temperatures. These electrolytes did not freeze at -40 C. We are evaluating currently, the irreversible 1st cycle capacity loss in carbon anode in these electrolytes and the capacity loss will be compared to that in the conventional electrolytes. Voltage stability windows of the electrolytes were measured at room temperature and compared with that of the conventional electrolytes. The fluoro-carbon electrolytes appear to be more stable than the conventional electrolytes near Li voltage. Few preliminary electrochemical data of the fluoro-carbonate solvents in full cells are reported in the literature. For example, some of the fluorocarbonate solvents appear to have a wider voltage window than the conventional electrolyte solvents. For example, methyl 2,2,2 trifluoro ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiPF(sub 6) electrolyte has a decomposition voltage exceeding 6 V vs. Li compared to and lt;5 V for conventional electrolytes. The solvent also appears to be stable in contact with lithium at room temperature

  10. Properties of large Li ion cells using a nickel based mixed oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussely, M.; Blanchard, Ph; Biensan, Ph; Planchat, J. P.; Nechev, K.; Staniewicz, R. J.

    The possible use of LiNiO 2 similar to LiCoO 2, as a positive material in rechargeable lithium batteries was recognized 20 years ago and starting 10 years later, many research studies led to material improvement through substitution of some of the nickel ions by other metallic ions. These modifications improve the thermal stability at high charge level or overcharge, as well as cycling and storage properties. Commercial material is now available at large industrial scale, which allows its use in big "industrial" Li ion batteries. Using low cost raw material (Ni), it is expected to be cost competitive with the manganese based systems usually mentioned as low cost on the total cell $/Wh basis. Providing higher energy density, and demonstrating excellent behavior on storage and extended cycle life, LiNiO 2 has definite advantages over the manganese system. Thanks to their properties, these batteries have demonstrated their ability to be used in lot of applications, either for transportation or standby. Their light weight makes them attractive for powering satellites. Although safety improvements are always desirable for all non-aqueous batteries using flammable organic electrolytes, suitable battery designs allow the systems to reach the acceptable level of safety required by many users. Beside the largely distributed lead acid and nickel cadmium batteries, Li ion will found its place in the "industrial batteries" market, in a proportion directly linked to its future cost reduction.

  11. Nickel-Tin Electrode Materials for Nonaqueous Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Grant M.; Durand, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Experimental materials made from mixtures of nickel and tin powders have shown promise for use as the negative electrodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical power cells. During charging (or discharging) of a lithium-ion cell, lithium ions are absorbed into (or desorbed from, respectively) the negative electrode, typically through an intercalation or alloying process. The negative electrodes (for this purpose, designated as anodes) in state-of-the-art Li-ion cells are made of graphite, in which intercalation occurs. Alternatively, the anodes can be made from metals, in which alloying can occur. For reasons having to do with the electrochemical potential of intercalated lithium, metallic anode materials (especially materials containing tin) are regarded as safer than graphite ones; in addition, such metallic anode materials have been investigated in the hope of obtaining reversible charge/discharge capacities greater than those of graphite anodes. However, until now, each of the tin-containing metallic anode formulations tested has been found to be inadequate in some respect.

  12. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A High Efficiency Li-Ion Battery LDO-Based Charger for Portable Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ziadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high efficiency Li-ion battery LDO-based charger IC which adopted a three-mode control: trickle constant current, fast constant current, and constant voltage modes. The criteria of the proposed Li-ion battery charger, including high accuracy, high efficiency, and low size area, are of high importance. The simulation results provide the trickle current of 116 mA, maximum charging current of 448 mA, and charging voltage of 4.21 V at the power supply of 4.8–5 V, using 0.18 μm CMOS technology.

  14. Directly connected series coupled HTPEM fuel cell stacks to a Li-ion battery DC bus for a fuel cell electrical vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Remón, Ian Natanael

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper examines the use of pure hydrogen fuelled high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stacks in an electrical car, charging a Li-ion battery pack. The car is equipped with two branches of two series coupled 1 kW fuel cell stacks which...... are connected directly parallel to the battery pack during operation. This enables efficient charging of the batteries for increased driving range. With no power electronics used, the fuel cell stacks follow the battery pack voltage, and charge the batteries passively. This saves the electrical and economical...... losses related to these components and their added system complexity. The new car battery pack consists of 23 Li-ion battery cells and the charging and discharging are monitored by a battery management system (BMS) which ensures safe operating conditions for the batteries. The direct connection...

  15. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF 6 electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF 6 salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature

  16. Adaptive thermal modeling of Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadman Rad, M.; Danilov, D.L.; Baghalha, M.; Kazemeini, M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple, accurate and adaptive thermal model is proposed for Li-ion batteries. • Equilibrium voltages, overpotentials and entropy changes are quantified from experimental results. • Entropy changes are highly dependent on the battery State-of-Charge. • Good agreement between simulated and measured heat development is obtained under all conditions. • Radiation contributes to about 50% of heat dissipation at elevated temperatures. -- Abstract: An accurate thermal model to predict the heat generation in rechargeable batteries is an essential tool for advanced thermal management in high power applications, such as electric vehicles. For such applications, the battery materials’ details and cell design are normally not provided. In this work a simple, though accurate, thermal model for batteries has been developed, considering the temperature- and current-dependent overpotential heat generation and State-of-Charge dependent entropy contributions. High power rechargeable Li-ion (7.5 Ah) batteries have been experimentally investigated and the results are used for model verification. It is shown that the State-of-Charge dependent entropy is a significant heat source and is therefore essential to correctly predict the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries under a wide variety of operating conditions. An adaptive model is introduced to obtain these entropy values. A temperature-dependent equation for heat transfer to the environment is also taken into account. Good agreement between the simulations and measurements is obtained in all cases. The parameters for both the heat generation and heat transfer processes can be applied to the thermal design of advanced battery packs. The proposed methodology is generic and independent on the cell chemistry and battery design. The parameters for the adaptive model can be determined by performing simple cell potential/current and temperature measurements for a limited number of charge/discharge cycles

  17. Performance-degradation model for Li4Ti5O12-based battery cells used in wind power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to mitigate the negative impact of wind power grid integration on the power system stability, which is caused by the characteristics of the wind. This paper presents a performance model for a Li4Ti5O12/LiMO2 battery cell....... For developing the performance model an EIS-based electrical modelling approach was followed. The obtained model is able to predict with high accuracy charge and discharge voltage profiles for different ages of the battery cell and for different charging/discharging current rates. Moreover, the ageing behaviour...... of the battery cell was analysed for the case of accelerated cycling ageing with a certain mission profile....

  18. Organophosphonic acid as precursor to prepare LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposites for high-power lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming; Shao, Leng-Leng; Yang, Hua-Bin; Zhao, Qian-Yong; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2015-01-01

    purity, nanosize and core-shell structure of LiFePO 4 /C composites yielded by the novel synthesis strategy account for their outstanding electrochemical performance in high-power lithium-ion batteries

  19. Local Electric Field Facilitates High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youwen; Zhou, Tengfei; Zheng, Yang; He, Zhihai; Xiao, Chong; Pang, Wei Kong; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Pan, Bicai; Guo, Zaiping; Xie, Yi

    2017-08-22

    By scrutinizing the energy storage process in Li-ion batteries, tuning Li-ion migration behavior by atomic level tailoring will unlock great potential for pursuing higher electrochemical performance. Vacancy, which can effectively modulate the electrical ordering on the nanoscale, even in tiny concentrations, will provide tempting opportunities for manipulating Li-ion migratory behavior. Herein, taking CuGeO 3 as a model, oxygen vacancies obtained by reducing the thickness dimension down to the atomic scale are introduced in this work. As the Li-ion storage progresses, the imbalanced charge distribution emerging around the oxygen vacancies could induce a local built-in electric field, which will accelerate the ions' migration rate by Coulomb forces and thus have benefits for high-rate performance. Furthermore, the thus-obtained CuGeO 3 ultrathin nanosheets (CGOUNs)/graphene van der Waals heterojunctions are used as anodes in Li-ion batteries, which deliver a reversible specific capacity of 1295 mAh g -1 at 100 mA g -1 , with improved rate capability and cycling performance compared to their bulk counterpart. Our findings build a clear connection between the atomic/defect/electronic structure and intrinsic properties for designing high-efficiency electrode materials.

  20. An area and power-efficient analog li-ion battery charger circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Valle, Bruno; Wentz, Christian T; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2011-04-01

    The demand for greater battery life in low-power consumer electronics and implantable medical devices presents a need for improved energy efficiency in the management of small rechargeable cells. This paper describes an ultra-compact analog lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery charger with high energy efficiency. The charger presented here utilizes the tanh basis function of a subthreshold operational transconductance amplifier to smoothly transition between constant-current and constant-voltage charging regimes without the need for additional area- and power-consuming control circuitry. Current-domain circuitry for end-of-charge detection negates the need for precision-sense resistors in either the charging path or control loop. We show theoretically and experimentally that the low-frequency pole-zero nature of most battery impedances leads to inherent stability of the analog control loop. The circuit was fabricated in an AMI 0.5-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process, and achieves 89.7% average power efficiency and an end voltage accuracy of 99.9% relative to the desired target 4.2 V, while consuming 0.16 mm(2) of chip area. To date and to the best of our knowledge, this design represents the most area-efficient and most energy-efficient battery charger circuit reported in the literature.

  1. Li-rich layer-structured cathode materials for high energy Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu; Lee, Kim Seng; Lu, Li

    2014-08-01

    Li-rich layer-structured xLi2MnO3 ṡ (1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, etc.) materials have attracted much attention due to their extraordinarily high reversible capacity as the cathode material in Li-ion batteries. To better understand the nature of this type of materials, this paper reviews history of development of the Li-rich cathode materials, and provides in-depth study on complicated crystal structures and reaction mechanisms during electrochemical charge/discharge cycling. Despite the fabulous capability at low rate, several drawbacks still gap this type of high-capacity cathode materials from practical applications, for instance the large irreversible capacity loss at first cycle, poor rate capability, severe voltage decay and capacity fade during electrochemical charge/discharge cycling. This review will also address mechanisms for these inferior properties and propose various possible solutions to solve above issues for future utilization of these cathode materials in commercial Li-ion batteries.

  2. Facile Solution Route to Synthesize Nanostructure Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High rate Li-ion batteries have been given great attention during the last decade as a power source for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, EVs, etc. due to the highest energy and power density. These lithium batteries required a new design of material structure as well as innovative electrode materials. Among the promising candidates, spinel Li4Ti5O12 has been proposed as a high rate anode to replace graphite anode because of high capacity and a negligible structure change during intercalation of lithium. In this work, we synthesized a spinel Li4Ti5O12 in nanosize by a solution route using LiOH and Ti(OBu4 as precursor. An evaluation of structure and morphology by XRD and SEM exhibited pure spinel phase Li4Ti5O12 and homogenous nanoparticles around 100 nm. In the charge-discharge test, nanospinel Li4Ti5O12 presents excellent discharge capacity 160 mAh/g at rate C/10, as well as good specific capacities of 120, 110, and 100 mAh/g at high rates C, 5C and 10C, respectively.

  3. Effects of rest time after Li plating on safety behavior—ARC tests with commercial high-energy 18650 Li-ion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2017-01-01

    During charging at low temperatures, metallic Lithium can be deposited on the surface of graphite anodes of Li-ion cells. This Li plating does not only lead to fast capacity fade, it can also impair the safety behavior. The present study observes the effect of rest periods between Li plating and subsequent accelerated rate calorimetry (ARC) tests. As an example, commercial 3.25 Ah 18650-type cells with graphite anodes and NCA cathodes are cycled at 0 °C to provoke Li plating. It is found that the rest period at 25 °C between Li plating and the ARC tests has a significant influence on the onset temperature of exothermic reactions (T SH ), the onset temperature of thermal runaway (T TR ), the maximum temperature, the self-heating rate, and on damage patterns of 18650 cells. The results are discussed in terms of chemical intercalation of Li plating into adjacent graphite particles during the rest period. The exponential increase of capacity recovery and T SH as a function of time suggests a reaction of 1st order for the relaxation process.

  4. Thermal modelling of Li-ion polymer battery for electric vehicle drive cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Salvio; Chung, Yongmann M.

    2012-09-01

    Time-dependent, thermal behaviour of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) polymer cell has been modelled for electric vehicle (EV) drive cycles with a view to developing an effective battery thermal management system. The fully coupled, three-dimensional transient electro-thermal model has been implemented based on a finite volume method. To support the numerical study, a high energy density Li-ion polymer pouch cell was tested in a climatic chamber for electric load cycles consisting of various charge and discharge rates, and a good agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimental data. The cell-level thermal behaviour under stressful conditions such as high power draw and high ambient temperature was predicted with the model. A significant temperature increase was observed in the stressful condition, corresponding to a repeated acceleration and deceleration, indicating that an effective battery thermal management system would be required to maintain the optimal cell performance and also to achieve a full battery lifesapn.

  5. Advanced cathode materials for high-power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, K.; Liu, J.; Belharouak, I.; Kang, S.-H.; Bloom, I.; Vissers, D.; Henriksen, G.

    In our efforts to develop low cost high-power Li-ion batteries with excellent safety, as well as long cycle and calendar life, lithium manganese oxide spinel and layered lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials were investigated. Our studies with the graphite/LiPF 6/spinel cells indicated a very significant degradation of capacity with cycling at 55 °C. This degradation was caused by the reduction of manganese ions on the graphite surface which resulted in a significant increase of the charge-transfer impedance at the anode/electrolyte interface. To improve the stability of the spinel, we investigated an alternative salt that would not generate HF acid that may attack the spinel. The alternative salt we selected for this work was lithium bisoxalatoborate, LiB(C 2O 4) 2 ("LiBoB"). In this case, the graphite/LiBoB/spinel Li-ion cells exhibited much improved cycle/calendar life at 55 °C and better abuse tolerance, as well as excellent power. A second system based on LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 layered material was also investigated and its performance was compared to commercial LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2. Cells based on LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 showed lower power fade and better thermal safety than the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2-based commercial cells under similar test conditions. Li-ion cells based on the material with excess lithium (Li 1.1Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2) exhibited excellent power performance that exceeded the FreedomCAR requirements.

  6. Electrochemical performance of high specific capacity of lithium-ion cell LiV3O8//LiMn2O4 with LiNO3 aqueous solution electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingshu; Zheng Qingyang; Wang Fei; Dai Weimin; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this paper, the electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. → The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. → In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. The results indicate that these two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and no hydrogen or oxygen produced, moreover, intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium ions occurred within the range of electrochemical stability of water. The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries.

  7. Quantitative description on structure-property relationships of Li-ion battery materials for high-throughput computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Shi, Siqi; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    Li-ion batteries are a key technology for addressing the global challenge of clean renewable energy and environment pollution. Their contemporary applications, for portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale power grids, stimulate the development of high-performance battery materials with high energy density, high power, good safety, and long lifetime. High-throughput calculations provide a practical strategy to discover new battery materials and optimize currently known material performances. Most cathode materials screened by the previous high-throughput calculations cannot meet the requirement of practical applications because only capacity, voltage and volume change of bulk were considered. It is important to include more structure-property relationships, such as point defects, surface and interface, doping and metal-mixture and nanosize effects, in high-throughput calculations. In this review, we established quantitative description of structure-property relationships in Li-ion battery materials by the intrinsic bulk parameters, which can be applied in future high-throughput calculations to screen Li-ion battery materials. Based on these parameterized structure-property relationships, a possible high-throughput computational screening flow path is proposed to obtain high-performance battery materials.

  8. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P

    2017-02-07

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg -1 . The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density.

  9. Solid-state synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} for high power lithium ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung-Woo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Heon [Graduate School of Knowledge-Based Technology and Energy, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 429-793 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Joayoung [Cell Precedence Development Group, Samsung SDI, Yongin 446-577 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dang-Hyok, E-mail: dhyoon@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-05

    Highlights: •High energy milling using 0.30 and 0.45 mm beads for Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} synthesis. •Synthesis of 162 nm-sized pure Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} by solid-state reaction. •Spray drying using fine starting materials to confer paste tackiness. •High capacity of 174 mAh/g and adequate rate properties for high power LIBs applications. -- Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was synthesized by a solid-state reaction between Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and anatase TiO{sub 2} for applications to high power lithium ion batteries. The starting materials underwent 6 h of high energy milling using ZrO{sub 2} beads with two different sizes, 0.30 and 0.45 mm. The smaller ZrO{sub 2} beads resulted in finer starting materials. Spray drying was also performed on the 0.30 mm beads-treated particles to enhance the screen printability of a paste containing this powder. The finer starting materials showed a pure 162 nm-sized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} due to the decreased diffusion length for a solid-state reaction, whereas the 0.45 mm beads-treated starting materials resulted in a 242 nm-sized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase containing 2 wt.% of rutile TiO{sub 2} that had transformed from the anatase phase during heat treatment at 800 °C for 3 h. The finer Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} showed higher charge capacity and better charge/discharge rates than the coarser particles, which highlights the importance of the primary particle size on the electrochemical properties of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} for high power applications. The fine Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles had a discharge capacity of 174 mAh/g at 0.1 C and capacity retention of 80% at 10.0 C.

  10. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the T g and T m are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO 4 /15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  11. A study on specific heat capacities of Li-ion cell components and their influence on thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Seegert, Philipp; Wetzel, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Thermal models of Li-ion cells on various geometrical scales and with various complexity have been developed in the past to account for the temperature dependent behaviour of Li-ion cells. These models require accurate data on thermal material properties to offer reliable validation and interpretation of the results. In this context a thorough study on the specific heat capacities of Li-ion cells starting from raw materials and electrode coatings to representative unit cells of jelly rolls/electrode stacks with lumped values was conducted. The specific heat capacity is reported as a function of temperature and state of charge (SOC). Seven Li-ion cells from different manufactures with different cell chemistry, application and design were considered and generally applicable correlations were developed. A 2D thermal model of an automotive Li-ion cell for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application illustrates the influence of specific heat capacity on the effectivity of cooling concepts and the temperature development of Li-ion cells.

  12. Li ion batteries for electric-powered vehicles. Demands and status; Li-Ionen Batterien fuer elektrifizierte Fahrzeuge. Anforderungen und Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamp, Peter [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany). ' ' Speichertechnologie und -konzepte' '

    2011-07-01

    The idea of a rechargeable battery powered pure electrical vehicle exists for more than a century. In the course of the different oil crisis and the increasing efforts for emission and CO{sub 2} reduction there have been several attempts in the last 30 years to revive the idea of battery powered electric vehicles. Although new battery technologies like NaS or NaNiCl were used there was no real success as these technologies provided an improvement compared to lead-acid but still did not meet the automotive requirement. Compared to the other presently available battery technologies, Li-Ion batteries have outstanding performance regarding energy and power density. After being successfully introduced in the consumer market since more than a decade and in the meantime also penetrating the power-tool market, this technology now carries the hope of all political and industrial players, envisaging the future of increasing electrification of vehicles. In this paper the present status of the Li-Ion technology will be compared with the automotive requirements. Most of the relevant design features from electric performance as well as different cell technologies and geometries to cycle and calendar life will be addressed. Moreover necessary future development needs will be addressed. (orig.)

  13. Unique aqueous Li-ion/sulfur chemistry with high energy density and reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongyin; Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Wang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Gao, Tao; Fan, Xiulin; Hou, Singyuk; Ma, Zhaohui; Amine, Khalil; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-06-13

    Leveraging the most recent success in expanding the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes, in this work we create a unique Li-ion/sulfur chemistry of both high energy density and safety. We show that in the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte, lithiation of sulfur experiences phase change from a high-order polysulfide to low-order polysulfides through solid-liquid two-phase reaction pathway, where the liquid polysulfide phase in the sulfide electrode is thermodynamically phase-separated from the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte. The sulfur with solid-liquid two-phase exhibits a reversible capacity of 1,327 mAh/(g of S), along with fast reaction kinetics and negligible polysulfide dissolution. By coupling a sulfur anode with different Li-ion cathode materials, the aqueous Li-ion/sulfur full cell delivers record-high energy densities up to 200 Wh/(kg of total electrode mass) for >1,000 cycles at ∼100% coulombic efficiency. These performances already approach that of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using a nonaqueous electrolyte, along with intrinsic safety not possessed by the latter. The excellent performance of this aqueous battery chemistry significantly promotes the practical possibility of aqueous LIBs in large-format applications.

  14. Graphene Modified LiFePO4 Cathode Materials for High Power Lithium ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Graphene-modified LiFePO 4 composite has been developed as a Li-ion battery cathode material with excellent high-rate capability and cycling stability. The composite was prepared with LiFePO 4 nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanosheets by spray-drying and annealing processes. The LiFePO 4 primary nanoparticles embedded in micro-sized spherical secondary particles were wrapped homogeneously and loosely with a graphene 3D network. Such a special nanostructure facilitated electron migration throughout the secondary particles, while the presence of abundant voids between the LiFePO 4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets was beneficial for Li + diffusion. The composite cathode material could deliver a capacity of 70 mAh g -1 at 60C discharge rate and showed a capacity decay rate of <15% when cycled under 10C charging and 20C discharging for 1000 times.

  15. High speed pulsed laser cutting of LiCoO2 Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Carmignato, Simone; Fiorini, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Laser cutting of Li-ion battery electrodes represents an alternative to mechanical blanking that avoids complications associated with tool wear and allows assembly of different cell geometries with a single device. In this study, laser cutting of LiCoO2 Li-ion battery electrodes is performed at up to 5m /s with a 1064nm wavelength nanosecond pulsed fiber laser with a maximum average power of 500W and a repetition rate of up to 2MHz . Minimum average cutting power for cathode and anode multi-layer films is established for 12 parameter groups with velocities over the range 1 - 5m /s , varying laser pulse fluence and overlap. Within the tested parameter range, minimum energy per unit cut length is found to decrease with increasing repetition rate and velocity. SEM analysis of the resulting cut edges reveals visible clearance widths in the range 20 - 50 μm , with cut quality found to improve with velocity due to a reduction in lateral heat conduction losses. Raman line map spectra reveal changes in the cathode at 60 μm from the cut edge, where bands at 486cm-1 and 595cm-1 , corresponding to the Eg and A1g modes of LiCoO2 , are replaced with a single wide band centered at 544cm-1 , and evidence of carbon black is no longer present. No changes in Raman spectra are observed in the anode. The obtained results suggest that further improvements in cutting efficiency and quality could be achieved by increasing the repetition rate above 2MHz , thereby improving ablation efficiency of the metallic conductor layers. The laser source utilized in the present study nonetheless represents an immediately available solution for repeatability and throughput that are superior to mechanical blanking.

  16. Sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes for high-rate and cycling-stable li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li(1.2)Ni(0.13)Mn(0.54)Co(0.13)O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAh g(-1)) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  17. Li-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety and Tolerance to High-Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, Surya; Krause, Frederick C.

    2013-01-01

    Given that lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology is the most viable rechargeable energy storage device for near-term applications, effort has been devoted to improving the safety characteristics of this system. Therefore, extensive effort has been devoted to developing nonflammable electrolytes to reduce the flammability of the cells/battery. A number of promising electrolytes have been developed incorporating flame-retardant additives, and have been shown to have good performance in a number of systems. However, these electrolyte formulations did not perform well when utilizing carbonaceous anodes with the high-voltage materials. Thus, further development was required to improve the compatibility. A number of Li-ion battery electrolyte formulations containing a flame-retardant additive [i.e., triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] were developed and demonstrated in high-voltage systems. These electrolytes include: (1) formulations that incorporate varying concentrations of the flame-retardant additive (from 5 to 15%), (2) the use of mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a co-solvent, and (3) the use of LiBOB as an electrolyte additive intended to improve the compatibility with high-voltage systems. Thus, improved safety has been provided without loss of performance in the high-voltage, high-energy system.

  18. Large-scale production of paper-based Li-ion cells

    CERN Document Server

    Zolin, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    This book describes in detail the use of natural cellulose fibers for the production of innovative, low-cost, and easily recyclable lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells by means of fast and reliable papermaking procedures that employ water as a solvent. In addition, it proposes specific methods to optimize the safety features of these paper-based cells and to improve the electronic conductivity of the electrodes by means of a carbonization process– an interesting novel technology that enables higher current rate capabilities to be achieved. The in-depth descriptions of materials, methods, and techniques are complemented by the inclusion of a general overview of electrochemical devices and, in particular, of different Li-ion battery configurations. Presenting the outcomes of this important research, the work is of wide interest to electrochemical engineers in both research institutions and industry.

  19. Accelerating Rate Calorimetry Tests of Lithium-Ion Cells Before and After Storage Degradation at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Hernandez Omar Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of Li-ion cells during thermal runaway is critical to evaluate the safety of these energy storage devices under outstanding conditions. Li-ion cells possess a high energy density and are used to store and supply energy to many aerospace applications. Incidents related to the overheating or thermal runaway of these cells can cause catastrophic damages that could end up costly space missions; therefore, thermal studies of Li-ion cells are very important for ensuring safety and reliability of space missions. This work evaluates the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells before and after storage degradation at high temperature using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC equipment to analyze the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells under adiabatic conditions. Onset temperature points of self-heating and thermal runaway reactions are obtained. The onset points are used to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge. The results obtained can be useful to develop accurate thermo-electrochemical models of Li-ion cells.

  20. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO4 for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Meng; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-guang

    2015-01-01

    LiFePO 4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO 4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO 4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding can guide the design and improvement of LiFePO 4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation

  1. Monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres derived by microwave-assisted hydrothermal process combined with carbothermal reduction for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongrong; Wu, Yixiong; Kong, Xiang Yang

    2014-07-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach combined with carbothermal reduction has been developed to synthesize monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres, which possess the diameter range of 1.0-1.5 μm, high tap density of ∼1.3 g cm-3, and mesoporous characteristic with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 30.6 m2 g-1. The obtained microspheres show meatball-like morphology aggregated by the carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) results indicate that carbon coating can effectively enhance both of the electronic and ionic conductivities for LiFePO4/C microspheres. The Li-ion diffusion coefficient of the LiFePO4/C microspheres calculated from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves is ∼6.25 × 10-9 cm2 s-1. The electrochemical performance can achieve about 100 and 90 mAh g-1 at 5C and 10C charge/discharge rates, respectively. As cathode material, the as-prepared LiFePO4/C microspheres show excellent rate capability and cycle stability, promising for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt % of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0-4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li(+) ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li(+) ion conductivity through such materials.

  3. Li-Ion, Ultra-capacitor Based Hybrid Energy Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daboussi, Zaher; Paryani, Anil; Khalil, Gus; Catherino, Henry; Gargies, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    .... To determine the optimum utilization of ultra-capacitors in applications where high power density and high energy density are required, an optimized Li-Ion/Ultra-capacitor Hybrid Energy Module (HEM...

  4. Activated graphene as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Meryl D; Murali, Shanthi; Quarles, Neil; Zhu, Yanwu; Potts, Jeffrey R; Zhu, Xianjun; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2012-03-14

    Chemically activated graphene ('activated microwave expanded graphite oxide', a-MEGO) was used as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors. The performance of a-MEGO was first verified with Li-ion electrolyte in a symmetrical supercapacitor cell. Hybrid supercapacitors were then constructed with a-MEGO as the cathode and with either graphite or Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) (LTO) for the anode materials. The results show that the activated graphene material works well in a symmetrical cell with the Li-ion electrolyte with specific capacitances as high as 182 F g(-1). In a full a-MEGO/graphite hybrid cell, specific capacitances as high as 266 F g(-1) for the active materials at operating potentials of 4 V yielded gravimetric energy densities for a packaged cell of 53.2 W h kg(-1).

  5. Effect of 50 MeV Li3+ ion irradiation on electrical characteristics of high speed NPN power transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinesh, C.M.; Ramani; Radhakrishna, M.C.; Dutt, R.N.; Khan, S.A.; Kanjilal, D.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon NPN overlay RF power high speed commercial bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) find applications in military, space and communication equipments. Here we report the effect of 50 MeV Li 3+ ion irradiation in the fluence range 1 x 10 11 -1.8 x 10 12 ions cm -2 on NPN power transistor. The range (R), electronic energy loss (S e ), nuclear energy loss (S n ), total ionizing dose (TID) and total displacement damage (D d ) in the silicon target are calculated from TRIM Monte Carlo Code. Output resistance is 3.568 x 10 4 Ω for unirradiated device and it increases to 6 x 10 7 Ω as the fluence is increased from 1 x 10 11 to 1.8 x 10 12 ions cm -2 . The capacitance of the emitter-base junction of the transistor decreases and dielectric loss of the emitter-base junction increases with increase in ion fluence. The built in voltage of the unirradiated sample is 0.5 V and it shifts to 0.4 V after irradiation at fluence of 1.8 x 10 12 ions cm -2 and the corresponding doping density reduced to 5.758 x 10 16 cm -3 . The charge carrier removal rate varies linearly with the increase in ion fluence

  6. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO₄ for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Meng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Shi, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy and Environmental Directorate; Beijing Jiaotong University (China). School of Electrical Engineering, National Active Distribution Network Technology Research Center; Zheng, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy and Environmental Directorate; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Zhang, Ji-guang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy and Environmental Directorate; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL)

    2015-05-18

    LiFePO4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding is of great importance for the design and improvement of new LiFePO4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation.

  7. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    synthesized for this investigation: dilithium 1,2,5-thiadiazolidine-3,4-dione-1,1-dioxide (Li2TDD), lithium ethyl N-trifluoroacetylcarbamate (LiETAC), lithium hexafluoroisopropoxide (LiHFI), lithium pentafluorophenolate (LiPFPO), and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide (LiTDI). Using crystalline solvate structure analysis and electrolyte solvation numbers, each of these lithium salts were compared to more well-characterized lithium salts, such as LiPF6 and LiBF4. From this study, links between anion structural characteristics and the anion...Li+ cation interactions (i.e., ionic association strength) were made. From the screening of the five lithium salts that were synthesized, LiTDI was determined to be a promising candidate for Li-ion battery electrolytes. Further characterization of carbonate- and mixed carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes (e.g., ionic conductivity) confirmed this to be the case. Coin cells containing LiTDI or LiPF6 electrolytes showed that cells with either electrolyte could deliver nearly identical power density at 25 °C. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and NMR suggested that the LiTDI salt and carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes are thermally stable up to at least 60 °C. Further supporting this finding, coin cells cycled at 60 °C with LiPF6 lost significantly more capacity than those with LiTDI. Therefore, LiTDI is a prime candidate for the complete replacement of LiPF6 to significantly increase Li-ion battery tolerance to heat, improving the safety characteristics. In addition to searching for new lithium salts, the effect of lithium salt concentration on electrolyte physicochemical properties was investigated. This radically different approach to modifying electrolyte properties determined that amorphous, highly concentrated carbonate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) electrolytes have drastically different behavior than more dilute electrolytes. For example, the thermal stability and anodic stability vs. a Pt

  8. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO{sub 4} for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Meng; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin, E-mail: chongmin.wang@pnnl.gov [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Shi, Wei [Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); National Active Distribution Network Technology Research Center, School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100044 (China); Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-guang [Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    LiFePO{sub 4} is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO{sub 4} materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO{sub 4} cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding can guide the design and improvement of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation.

  9. Integrated modeling for the cyclic behavior of high power Li-ion batteries under extended operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Á.G.; Hong, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Redefine the traditional concepts of state of charge modeling. • Accurate non-intrusive extraction method of an integrated battery model. • Indexes of performance can be employed to compare different types of batteries. • High power electrical battery model dependent on current and temperature effects. - Abstract: The dynamic thermal and electrical behavior of high power LiFePO 4 cathode-type Li-ion batteries is studied with extended considerations such as demanded current ranging from 12 to 30 A, battery temperatures ranging from 283 to 313 K and a redefinition of the concept of state of charge during cycling conditions. The equivalent electrical model, consisting of a series resistance, a parallel resistance–capacitor, a voltage source and state of charge calculators, can be improved with the addition of current and temperature gains for each element. In addition, a non-intrusively-obtained alternative thermal model extraction is proposed to uncouple from the experimental battery temperature based on electrochemical research found in the literature. This improved model extraction for high power cylindrical batteries can achieve a temperature and voltage relative runtime error in the range of 1% and 5% in average, respectively. The effects of lithium concentration in the anode and cathode are accurately predicted with state of charge accelerators, which vary linearly with temperature. Aiming for a power systems environment, the integrated battery model is built and validated experimentally to demonstrate its accurate prediction. This improved integrated battery model can be employed for battery stack simulations, improved state of charge algorithm testing and optimization of hybrid systems - with a light computational demand. Finally, a performance index radar plot is proposed to conveniently compare electrical and thermal properties of different types of batteries

  10. Etched colloidal LiFePO4 nanoplatelets toward high-rate capable Li-ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Andrea; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Dilena, Enrico; Colombo, Massimo; Prato, Mirko; Riedinger, Andreas; Povia, Mauro; Ansaldo, Alberto; Zaghib, Karim; Manna, Liberato; George, Chandramohan

    2014-12-10

    LiFePO4 has been intensively investigated as a cathode material in Li-ion batteries, as it can in principle enable the development of high power electrodes. LiFePO4, on the other hand, is inherently "plagued" by poor electronic and ionic conductivity. While the problems with low electron conductivity are partially solved by carbon coating and further by doping or by downsizing the active particles to nanoscale dimensions, poor ionic conductivity is still an issue. To develop colloidally synthesized LiFePO4 nanocrystals (NCs) optimized for high rate applications, we propose here a surface treatment of the NCs. The particles as delivered from the synthesis have a surface passivated with long chain organic surfactants, and therefore can be dispersed only in aprotic solvents such as chloroform or toluene. Glucose that is commonly used as carbon source for carbon-coating procedure is not soluble in these solvents, but it can be dissolved in water. In order to make the NCs hydrophilic, we treated them with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), which removes the surfactant ligand shell while preserving the structural and morphological properties of the NCs. Only a roughening of the edges of NCs was observed due to a partial etching of their surface. Electrodes prepared from these platelet NCs (after carbon coating) delivered a capacity of ∼ 155 mAh/g, ∼ 135 mAh/g, and ∼ 125 mAh/g, at 1 C, 5 C, and 10 C, respectively, with significant capacity retention and remarkable rate capability. For example, at 61 C (10.3 A/g), a capacity of ∼ 70 mAh/g was obtained, and at 122 C (20.7 A/g), the capacity was ∼ 30 mAh/g. The rate capability and the ease of scalability in the preparation of these surface-treated nanoplatelets make them highly suitable as electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

  11. Flexible Nb2O5 nanowires/graphene film electrode for high-performance hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Fu, Jijiang; Ding, Kang; Huang, Chao; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xuming; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Peng, Xiang; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-10-01

    The hybrid Li-ion electrochemical supercapacitor (Li-HSC) combining the battery-like anode with capacitive cathode is a promising energy storage device boasting large energy and power densities. Orthorhombic Nb2O5 is a good anode material in Li-HSCs because of its large pseudocapacitive Li-ion intercalation capacity. Herein, we report a high-performance, binder-free and flexible anode consisting of long Nb2O5 nanowires and graphene (L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO). The paper-like L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO film electrode has a large mass loading of Nb2O5 of 93.5 wt% as well as short solid-state ion diffusion length, and enhanced conductivity (5.1 S cm-1). The hybrid L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO paper electrode shows a high reversible specific capacity of 160 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, superior rate capability with capacitance retention of 60% when the current density increases from 0.2 to 5 A g-1, as well as excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC device based on the L-Nb2O5/rGO anode and the cathode of biomass-derived carbon nanosheets delivers an energy density of 106 Wh kg-1 at 580 W kg-1 and 32 Wh kg-1 at a large power density of 14 kW kg-1. Moreover, the Li-HSC device exhibits excellent cycling performance without obvious capacitance decay after 1000 cycles.

  12. Thermal management of Li-ion cells from the view of the development of energy storages for electric-powered vehicles in an overview; Thermomanagement von Li-Ionen-Zellen aus Sicht der Energiespeicher-Entwicklung fuer Elektrofahrzeuge im Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Matthias [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    As the operation of a Li-ion energy storage system in automotive applications has to be efficient, safe and reliable, the thermal management of the battery cells becomes one of the main factors influencing the success of electrified powertrains. Therefore, one of the most important system variables is the cell internal temperature, as it influences efficiency, aging and power capability of the energy storage in a major way. The challenges and potentials of thermal management for Li-ion cells are illustrated in this article. It consists on one hand of the exact thermal and electric cell state determination. On the other hand it includes the control of battery temperature during operation by active cooling and heating and its operation strategy. Therefore the active cooling system can be implemented as air-, liquid or refrigerant fluid coolant cycles. An essential tools of thermal battery-management is the modeling of cell behavior. This article gives a survey on the simulation landscape of thermal-electric co-simulation of Li-ion cells mentioned in literature. Thermal cell models spread from lumped 0D-modes to complex 3D finite element models comprising different detailing degree and computation effort. Electric battery models range from simple cell models of an ideal voltage source up to complex microscopic spatialized electrochemical models. Focus is also set on the parameterization of the different cell models. The article mentions the established approaches to achieve electrical and thermal characteristics. Subsequently, two different variations of thermal-electric simulation models comprising different simulation aims are introduced. (orig.)

  13. Li-Ion, Ultra-capacitor Based Hybrid Energy Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daboussi, Zaher; Paryani, Anil; Khalil, Gus; Catherino, Henry; Gargies, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    .... Combining their superb specific power of 2-5kW/kg, high efficiency and very long cycle life with the high energy density of Li-Ion batteries, practical solutions to a variety of applications can be foreseen...

  14. Hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C nanocomposite as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuena; Niu, Feier; Zhang, Dapeng; Chu, Chenxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2018-04-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors, as a hybrid electrochemical energy storage device, realize high specific energy and power density within one device, thus attracting extensive attention. Here, hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C nanocomposite is prepared by a solvo-thermal reaction, followed with a post-annealing process. This composite has macropores at the center and mesopores in the wall, thus effectively promoting electrolyte penetration and structure stability upon cycling simultaneously. Compared to mesoporous Li3VO4, the enhanced rate capability and specific capacity of hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C indicate the synergistic effect of mesopores and macropores. Inspired by these results, this composite is coupled with mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) for lithium-ion capacitors, generating a specific energy density of 105 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 188 W kg-1. Even if the power density increases to 9.3 kW kg-1, the energy density still remains 62 Wh kg-1. All these results demonstrate the promising potential of hierarchically porous Li3VO4 in lithium ion capacitors.

  15. High-energy lithium-ion battery using substituted LiCoPO4: From coin type to 1 Ah cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Zhu, W.; Kim, C.; Cho, M.; Guerfi, A.; Delp, S. A.; Allen, J. L.; Jow, T. R.; Zaghib, K.

    2018-06-01

    Cr, Fe and Si were added to improve the performance of olivine LiCoPO4 in cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. A substituted-LiCoPO4 in a half cell delivered a reversible capacity of 125 mAh/g at C/3 rate, with no capacity loss after over 100 cycles at 25 °C. The well-known capacity fade of LiCoPO4-based cathodes was almost completely eliminated by substituting Cr, Fe and Si.

  16. LIBRA-LiTE: A commercial size light ion fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, B.; Choi, B.; Engelstad, R.L.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Lovell, E.G.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Mogehed, E.A.; Moses, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.; Rutledge, S.; Sawan, M.E.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1992-05-01

    LIBRA-LiTE is a concept study for future 1000 MWe nuclear fusion reactors operating on the principle of inertial confinement. Light ions, e.g. lithium ions, are given an energy of 25-35 MeV in an accelerator and focused symmetrically onto a target (deuterium-tritium filled sphere of 7 mm diameter) in a reactor chamber. The fusion reaction is ignited by shock wave induced compression of the target. The radiation (photons, neutrons, ions) is absorbed in a blanket where the thermal power is removed by a coolant and tritium is rebred. The LIBRA-LiTE concept study is the continuation of the earlier LIBRA study (330 MWe) with a modified concept of light ion beam focusing. Starting from an ion source (diode), the lithium ion beams are focused ballistically onto the target. For this to be achieved, lithium must be used as the coolant in the reactor chamber and the blanket concept must be slightly modified by providing steel tubes (HT-9) as guiding tubes for the coolant flow. A particular engineering problem to be solved are the ion beam focusing magnets, which have to extend rather closely up to the center of the reactor chamber. (orig.) [de

  17. Preparation and Characterisation of LiFePO4/CNT Material for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushanah Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion battery cathode materials were synthesised via a mechanical activation and thermal treatment process and systematically studied. LiFePO4/CNT composite cathode materials were successfully prepared from LiFePO4 material. The synthesis technique involved growth of carbon nanotubes onto the LiFePO4 using a novel spray pyrolysis-modified CVD technique. The technique yielded LiFePO4/CNT composite cathode material displaying good electrochemical activity. The composite cathode exhibited excellent electrochemical performances with 163 mAh/g discharge capacity with 94% cycle efficiency at a 0.1 C discharge rate in the first cycle, with a capacity fade of approximately 10% after 30 cycles. The results indicate that carbon nanotube addition can enable LiFePO4 to display a higher discharge capacity at a fast rate with high efficiency. The research is of potential interest for the application of carbon nanotubes as a new conducting additive in cathode preparation and for the development of high-power Li-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles.

  18. Silicon-Based Lithium-Ion Capacitor for High Energy and High Power Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Demattia, Brianne; Loyselle, Patricia; Reid, Concha; Kohout, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Si-based Li-ion capacitor has been developed and demonstrated. The results show it is feasible to improve both power density and energy density in this configuration. The applied current density impacts the power and energy density: low current favors energy density while high current favors power density. Active carbon has a better rate capability than Si. Next StepsFuture Directions. Si electrode needs to be further studied and improved. Further optimization of SiAC ratio and evaluation of its impact on energy density and power density.

  19. Carbon nanotube: nanodiamond Li-ion battery cathodes with increased thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ruben; Lee, Eungiee; Shevchenko, Elena V.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2016-10-01

    Prevention of excess heat accumulation within the Li-ion battery cells is a critical design consideration for electronic and photonic device applications. Many existing approaches for heat removal from batteries increase substantially the complexity and overall weight of the battery. Some of us have previously shown a possibility of effective passive thermal management of Li-ion batteries via improvement of thermal conductivity of cathode and anode material1. In this presentation, we report the results of our investigation of the thermal conductivity of various Li-ion cathodes with incorporated carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds in different layered structures. The cathodes were synthesized using the filtration method, which can be utilized for synthesis of commercial electrode-active materials. The thermal measurements were conducted with the "laser flash" technique. It has been established that the cathode with the carbon nanotubes-LiCo2 and carbon nanotube layered structure possesses the highest in-plane thermal conductivity of 206 W/mK at room temperature. The cathode containing nanodiamonds on carbon nanotubes structure revealed one of the highest cross-plane thermal conductivity values. The in-plane thermal conductivity is up to two orders-of-magnitude greater than that in conventional cathodes based on amorphous carbon. The obtained results demonstrate a potential of carbon nanotube incorporation in cathode materials for the effective thermal management of Li-ion high-powered density batteries.

  20. A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Winter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on studies of an inorganic electrolyte: LiAlCl4 in liquid sulfur dioxide. Concentrated solutions show a very high conductivity when compared with typical electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that are based on organic solvents. Our investigations include conductivity measurements and measurements of transference numbers via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and by a classical direct method, Hittorf’s method. For the use of Hittorf’s method, it is necessary to measure the concentration of the electrolyte in a selected cell compartment before and after electrochemical polarization very precisely. This task was finally performed by potentiometric titration after hydrolysis of the salt. The Haven ratio was determined to estimate the association behavior of this very concentrated electrolyte solution. The measured unusually high transference number of the lithium cation of the studied most concentrated solution, a molten solvate LiAlCl4 × 1.6SO2, makes this electrolyte a promising alternative for lithium ion cells with high power ability.

  1. Chemical recycling of cell phone Li-ion batteries: Application in environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Mariana C Abreu; Garcia, Eric M; Taroco, Hosane A; Gorgulho, Honória F; Melo, Júlio O F; Silva, Rafael R A; Souza, Amauri G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, the recycling and use of spent Li-ion battery cathode tape as a catalyst in the degradation of an organic dye. In our proposal, two major environmental problems can be solved: the secure disposal of cell phone batteries and the treatment of effluents with potentially toxic organic dyes. The spent Li-ion battery cathode investigated in this paper corresponds to 29% of the mass of Li-ion batteries and is made up of 83% LiCoO2, 14.5% C and less than 2.5% Al, Al2O3 and Co3O4. The use of spent Li-ion battery cathode tape increased the degradation velocity constant of methylene blue in the absence of light by about 200 times in relation to pure H2O2. This increase can be explained by a reduction in the activation energy from 83 kJ mol(-1) to 26 kJ mol(-1). The mechanism of degradation promoted by LiCoO2 is probably related to the generation of superoxide radical (O2(-)). The rupture of the aromatic rings of methylene blue was analyzed by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Hollow-Cuboid Li3VO4/C as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Liu, Chaofeng; Nan, Xihui; Song, Huanqiao; Liu, Yaguang; Zhang, Cuiping; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-13

    Li3VO4 has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with a low, safe voltage and large capacity. However, its poor electronic conductivity hinders its practical application particularly at a high rate. This work reports that Li3VO4 coated with carbon was synthesized by a one-pot, two-step method with F127 ((PEO)100-(PPO)65-(PEO)100) as both template and carbon source, yielding a microcuboid structure. The resulting Li3VO4/C cuboid shows a stable capacity of 415 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C and excellent capacity stability at high rates (e.g., 92% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 10 C = 4 A g(-1)). The lithiation/delithiation process of Li3VO4/C was studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed that Li3VO4/C underwent a reversible intercalation reaction during discharge/charge processes. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed largely to the unique microhollow structure. The voids inside hollow structure can not only provide more space to accommodate volume change during discharge/charge processes but also allow the lithium ions insertion and extraction from both outside and inside the hollow structure with a much larger surface area or more reaction sites and shorten the lithium ions diffusion distance, which leads to smaller overpotential and faster reaction kinetics. Carbon derived from F127 through pyrolysis coats Li3VO4 conformably and thus offers good electrical conduction. The results in this work provide convincing evidence that the significant potential of hollow-cuboid Li3VO4/C for high-power batteries.

  3. Polymethylmethacrylate/Polyacrylonitrile Membranes via Centrifugal Spinning as Separator in Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yanilmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofiber membranes have been extensively studied as separators in Li-ion batteries due to their large porosity, unique pore structure, and high electrolyte uptake. However, the electrospinning process has some serious drawbacks, such as low spinning rate and high production cost. The centrifugal spinning technique can be used as a fast, cost-effective and safe technique to fabricate high-performance fiber-based separators. In this work, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA/polyacrylonitrile (PAN membranes with different blend ratios were produced via centrifugal spinning and characterized by using different electrochemical techniques for use as separators in Li-ion batteries. Compared with commercial microporous polyolefin membrane, centrifugally-spun PMMA/PAN membranes had larger ionic conductivity, higher electrochemical oxidation limit, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. Centrifugally-spun PMMA/PAN membrane separators were assembled into Li/LiFePO4 cells and these cells delivered high capacities and exhibited good cycling performance at room temperature. In addition, cells using centrifugally-spun PMMA/PAN membrane separators showed superior C-rate performance compared to those using microporous polypropylene (PP membranes. It is, therefore, demonstrated that centrifugally-spun PMMA/PAN membranes are promising separator candidate for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

  4. Preparation of Ce- and La-Doped Li4Ti5O12 Nanosheets and Their Electrochemical Performance in Li Half Cell and Li4Ti5O12/LiFePO4 Full Cell Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Qin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the synthesis of rare earth-doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets with high electrochemical performance as anode material both in Li half and Li4Ti5O12/LiFePO4 full cell batteries. Through the combination of decreasing the particle size and doping by rare earth atoms (Ce and La, Ce and La doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets show the excellent electrochemical performance in terms of high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate performance in half cells. Notably, the Ce-doped Li4Ti5O12 shows good electrochemical performance as anode in a full cell which LiFePO4 was used as cathode. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to doping as well as the nanosized particle, which facilitates transportation of the lithium ion and electron transportation. This research shows that the rare earth doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets can be suitable as a high rate performance anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Preparation of Ce- and La-Doped Li4Ti5O12 Nanosheets and Their Electrochemical Performance in Li Half Cell and Li4Ti5O12/LiFePO4 Full Cell Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Li, Yueming; Lv, Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    This work reports on the synthesis of rare earth-doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets with high electrochemical performance as anode material both in Li half and Li4Ti5O12/LiFePO4 full cell batteries. Through the combination of decreasing the particle size and doping by rare earth atoms (Ce and La), Ce and La doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets show the excellent electrochemical performance in terms of high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate performance in half cells. Notably, the Ce-doped Li4Ti5O12 shows good electrochemical performance as anode in a full cell which LiFePO4 was used as cathode. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to doping as well as the nanosized particle, which facilitates transportation of the lithium ion and electron transportation. This research shows that the rare earth doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets can be suitable as a high rate performance anode material in lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28632167

  6. Preparation of cathode materials for Li-ion cells by acid dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Si Hyoung; Jeong, Woon Tae; Cho, Won Il; Cho, Byung Won; Woo, Kyoungja

    2005-01-01

    New synthesis route called acid dissolution method, preparing the high-performance cathode materials for the lithium-ion cells, was successfully developed. In this method, insoluble starting materials such as metal carbonates or metal hydroxides are dissolved in strong organic acidic solution which contains a chelating agent. And then, the solvent of the solution containing starting materials is eliminated to obtain the xerogel of the initial solution whose chemical form is expressed as Li[MA 3 ], where M is a transition metal atom and A is the anion of the organic acid. The xerogel is then calcined at the high temperature to obtain polycrystalline cathode materials. In this work, the applicability of this method was demonstrated synthesizing a polycrystalline single-phase LiCoO 2 using lithium carbonate, cobalt hydroxide as the insoluble starting materials and the acrylic acid as a chelating agent. The synthesized powders calcined at 800 deg. C showed a good electrochemical performance in the half-cell test

  7. Scalable integration of Li5FeO4 towards robust, high-performance lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Sik; Lim, Young-Geun; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors have attracted great interest due to their high specific energy relative to conventional electrical double-layer capacitors. Nevertheless, the safety issue still remains a drawback for lithium-ion capacitors in practical operational environments because of the use of metallic lithium. Herein, single-phase Li5FeO4 with an antifluorite structure that acts as an alternative lithium source (instead of metallic lithium) is employed and its potential use for lithium-ion capacitors is verified. Abundant Li(+) amounts can be extracted from Li5FeO4 incorporated in the positive electrode and efficiently doped into the negative electrode during the first electrochemical charging. After the first Li(+) extraction, Li(+) does not return to the Li5FeO4 host structure and is steadily involved in the electrochemical reactions of the negative electrode during subsequent cycling. Various electrochemical and structural analyses support its superior characteristics for use as a promising lithium source. This versatile approach can yield a sufficient Li(+)-doping efficiency of >90% and improved safety as a result of the removal of metallic lithium from the cell. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 3D inverse-opal structured Li4Ti5O12 Anode for fast Li-Ion storage capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dahye; Quang, Nguyen Duc; Hien, Truong Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Kim, Chunjoong; Kim, Dojin

    2017-11-01

    Since the demand for high power Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is increasing, spinel-structured lithium titanate, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), as the anode material has attracted great attention because of its excellent cycle retention, good thermal stability, high rate capability, and so on. However, LTO shows relatively low conductivity due to empty 3 d orbital of Ti4+ state. Nanoscale architectures can shorten electron conduction path, thus such low electronic conductivity can be overcome while Li+ can be easily accessed due to large surface area. Herein, three dimensional bicontinuous LTO electrodes were prepared via close-packed self-assembly with polystyrene (PS) spheres followed by removal of them, which leads to no blockage of Li+ ion transportation pathways as well as fast electron conduction. 3D bicontinuous LTO electrodes showed high-rate lithium storage capability (103 mAh/g at 20 C), which is promising as the power sources that require rapid electrochemical response.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Metal-Organic Frameworks Triggered High-Efficiency Li storage in Fe-Based Polyhedral Nanorods for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lisha; Song, Huawei; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, metal organic framework (MOF) nanostructures have been frequently reported in the field of energy storage, specifically for Li-ion or Na-ion storage. By inter-separating the active sites of metal cluster and organic ligands, MOF nanostructures are exceptionally promising for realizing fast ion exchange and high-efficiency transportation and addressing the intricate issues that the energy-intensive Li-ion batteries have faced over many years. The related ion-storage mechanism remains to be explored. Is the traditional redox reaction mechanism operative for these nanostructure, as it is for transitional metal oxide? Herein, taking [Fe_3O(BDC)_3(H_2O)_2(NO_3)]n (Fe-MIL-88B) as an example, an Fe-based metal organic polyhedral nanorods of MIL–88 B structure was designed as an anode for Li-ion storage. When tested at 60 mA g"−"1, the nanoporous Fe-MIL–88 B polyhedral nanorods retained a reversible capacity of 744.5 mAh g"−"1 for more than 400 cycles. Ex situ characterizations of the post-cycled electrodes revealed that both the transition metal ions and the organic ligands contributed to the high reversible specific capacity. The polyhedral nanorods electrodes held the metal-organic skeleton together throughout the battery operation, although in a somewhat different manner than the pristine ones. This further substantiated that some MOF nanostructures are more appropriate than others for stable lithiation/delithiation processes. State-of-the-art CR2032 full cells showed that a high capacity of 86.8 mAh g"−"1 that was retained after 100 cycles (herein, the capacity for the full cell was calculated based on both the weight of the anode and the cathode, and the charge-discharge rate was 0.25C), when commercial LiFePO_4 powders were used as the cathode.

  10. Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolyte with organic additive and LiTFSI for high-safety lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Binbin; Li, Cuihua; Zhou, Junhui; Liu, Jianhong; Zhang, Qianling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New ionic liquid electrolytes composed by PYR 13 TFSI and EC/DMC-5%VC. • Mixed electrolyte for use in high-safety lithium-ion batteries. • LiTFSI concentration in IL electrolyte greatly affects the rate capability of the cell. • The optimal mixed electrolyte is ideal for applications at high temperature. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the physicochemical properties of mixed electrolytes based on an ionic liquid N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidiniumbis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR 13 TFSI), organic additives, and lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) for high safety lithium-ion batteries. The proposed optimal content of ionic liquid in the mixed electrolyte is 65 vol%, which results in non- flammability, high thermal stability, a wide electrochemical window of 4.8 V, low viscosity, low bulk resistance and the lowest interface resistance to lithium anode. The effects of the concentration of LiTFSI in the above electrolyte are critical to the rate performance of the LiFePO 4 -based battery. We have found the suitable LiTFSI concentration (0.3 M) for good capacity retention and rate capability

  11. Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12 Nanoparticles for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weijian; Shao, Dan; Luo, Guoen; Gao, Qiongzhi; Yan, Guangjie; He, Jiarong; Chen, Dongyang; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Yueping

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. • The mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles exhibited a diameter of 40 ± 5 nm and a pore-size distribution of 6 - 8 nm. • Cells with the mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode showed excellent high rate electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Mesoporous spinel lithium titanate (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 ) nanoparticles with the diameter of 40 ± 5 nm and the pore-size distribution of 6 - 8 nm were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 mesoporous nanoparticles exhibited desirable lithium storage properties with an initial discharge capacity of 176 mAh g −1 at 1 C rate and a capacity of approximately 145 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. These excellent electrochemical properties at high charge/discharge rates are due to the mesoporous nano-scale structures with small size particles, uniform mesopores and larger electrode/electrolyte contact area, which shortens the diffusion path for both electrons and Li + ions, and offers more active sites for Li + insertion-extraction process

  12. Lithium ion battery energy storage system for augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) into the so called Virtual Power Plants (VPP). Relatively new energy storage technologies based on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries are constantly improving their performance and are becoming attractive for stationary energy storage applications due...... to their characteristics such as high power, high efficiency, low self-discharge, and long lifetime. The family of the Li-ion batteries is wide and the selection of the most appropriate Liion chemistries for VPPs is one of the topics of this thesis, where different chemistries are compared and the most suitable ones...... if the batteries are able to meet several performance requirements, which are application dependent. Furthermore, for the VPP, the degradation or failure of the interconnected BESS can lead to costly downtime. Thus, an accurate estimation of the battery cells lifetime becomes mandatory. However, lifetime...

  13. Improving the specific energy of Li-Ion capacitor laminate cell using hybrid activated Carbon/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 as positive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, M.; Cao, W. J.; Shellikeri, A.; Adams, D.; Chen, X. J.; Brandt, W.; Yturriaga, S. R.; Wu, Q.; Read, J. A.; Jow, T. R.; Zheng, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the performance impact of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NMC) as an additive to activated carbon (AC) electrodes within a high-performance Li-ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated with activated carbon positive electrodes (PEs) and hard carbon negative electrodes (NEs) having lithium thin films as Li sources loaded on the surface of the negative electrodes. The NMC additive impact in initial testing showed an increase in specific energy of the LIC of nearly 50.5% with a 32% maximum specific power loss. Contrary to its typical low rate battery decay at high rate cycling the cell having a hybrid PE is still able to maintain over 90% capacity at a 0.7C rate after 11,000 cycles at rate of 18C and an additional 9000 cycles at a rate of 36C. We conclude at high rate cycling minimal impacts occurs to the NMC properties which can be seen with low rate intercepts.

  14. Re-building Daniell Cell with a Li-ion exchange Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2014-11-01

    Daniell cell (i.e. Zn-Cu battery) is widely used in chemistry curricula to illustrate how batteries work, although it has been supplanted in the late 19th century by more modern battery designs because of Cu2+-crossover-induced self-discharge and un-rechargeable characteristic. Herein, it is re-built by using a ceramic Li-ion exchange film to separate Cu and Zn electrodes for preventing Cu2+-crossover between two electrodes. The re-built Zn-Cu battery can be cycled for 150 times without capacity attenuation and self-discharge, and displays a theoretical energy density of 68.3 Wh kg-1. It is more important that both electrodes of the battery are renewable, reusable, low toxicity and environmentally friendly. Owing to these advantages mentioned above, the re-built Daniell cell can be considered as a promising and green stationary power source for large-scale energy storage.

  15. Re-building Daniell cell with a Li-ion exchange film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2014-11-05

    Daniell cell (i.e. Zn-Cu battery) is widely used in chemistry curricula to illustrate how batteries work, although it has been supplanted in the late 19th century by more modern battery designs because of Cu(2+)-crossover-induced self-discharge and un-rechargeable characteristic. Herein, it is re-built by using a ceramic Li-ion exchange film to separate Cu and Zn electrodes for preventing Cu(2+)-crossover between two electrodes. The re-built Zn-Cu battery can be cycled for 150 times without capacity attenuation and self-discharge, and displays a theoretical energy density of 68.3 Wh kg(-1). It is more important that both electrodes of the battery are renewable, reusable, low toxicity and environmentally friendly. Owing to these advantages mentioned above, the re-built Daniell cell can be considered as a promising and green stationary power source for large-scale energy storage.

  16. Thermal management for high power lithium-ion battery by minichannel aluminum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Chuanjin; Xu, Jian; Qiao, Yu; Ma, Yanbao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new design of minichannel cooling is developed for battery thermal management system. • Parametric studies of minichannel cooling for a cell are conducted at different discharge rates. • Minichannel cooling can maintain almost uniform temperature (T_d_i_f_f < 1 °C). • Pumping power assumption is only about 5 milliwatt. - Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are widely used for battery electric (all-electric) vehicles (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) due to their high energy and power density. An battery thermal management system (BTMS) is crucial for the performance, lifetime, and safety of lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, a novel design of BTMS based on aluminum minichannel tubes is developed and applied on a single prismatic Li-ion cell under different discharge rates. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the performance of the BTMS using different flow rates and configurations. With minichannel cooling, the maximum cell temperature at a discharge rate of 1C is less than 27.8 °C, and the temperature difference across the cell is less than 0.80 °C using flow rate at 0.20 L/min, at the expense of 8.69e-6 W pumping power. At higher discharge rates, e.g., 1.5C and 2C, higher flow rates are required to maintain the same temperature rise and temperature difference. The flow rate needed is 0.8 L/min for 1.5C and 2.0 L/min for 2C, while the required pumping power is 4.23e-4 W and 5.27e-3 W, respectively. The uniform temperature distribution (<1 °C) inside the single cell and efficient pumping power demonstrate that the minichannel cooling system provides a promising solution for the BTMS.

  17. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles enhancing electrochemical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.G.; Zhang, X.D.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    We report a green biomimetic method to synthesize biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source for high-power lithium-ion batteries.......We report a green biomimetic method to synthesize biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source for high-power lithium-ion batteries....

  18. LiFePO4/polymer/natural graphite: low cost Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghib, K.; Striebel, K.; Guerfi, A.; Shim, J.; Armand, M.; Gauthier, M

    2004-01-01

    The aging and performance of natural graphite/PEO-based gel electrolyte/LiFePO 4 cells are reported. The gel polymer electrolytes were produced by electron-beam irradiation and then soaked in a liquid electrolyte. The natural graphite anode in gel electrolyte containing LiBF4-EC/GBL exhibited high reversible capacity (345 mAh/g) and high coulombic efficiency (91%). The LiFePO 4 cathode in the same gel-polymer exhibited a reversible capacity of 160 mAh/g and 93% coulombic efficiency. Better performance was obtained at high-rate discharge with 6% carbon additive in the cathode, however the graphite anode performance suffers at high rate. The Li-ion gel polymer battery shows a capacity fade of 13% after 180 cycles and has poor performance at low temperature due to low diffusion of the lithium to the graphite in the GBL system. The LiFePO 4 /gel/Li system has an excellent rate capacity. LiFePO 4 cathode material is suitable for HEV application

  19. Effects of separator breakdown on abuse response of 18650 Li-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.P.; Doughty, D.H.; Pile, D.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0613 (United States)

    2007-12-06

    The thermal abuse tolerance of Li-ion cells depends not only on the stability of the active materials in the anode and cathode but also on the stability of the separator which prevents direct interaction between these electrodes. Separator response has been measured as a function of temperature and high voltage both for isolated materials and in full 18650 cells. Separators with different compositions and properties were measured to determine the effect of separator melt integrity on cell response under abusive conditions. These studies were performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. (author)

  20. Microstructural Analysis of the Effects of Thermal Runaway on Li-Ion and Na-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finegan, Donal [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robinson, James B. [University College London; Heenan, Thomas M. M. [University College London; Smith, Katherine [Sharp Laboratories of Europe; Kendrick, Emma [Sharp Laboratories of Europe; University College London; Brett, Daniel J. L. [University College London; Shearing, Paul R. [University College London

    2017-12-06

    Thermal runaway is a phenomenon that occurs due to self-sustaining reactions within batteries at elevated temperatures resulting in catastrophic failure. Here, the thermal runaway process is studied for a Li-ion and Na-ion pouch cells of similar energy density (10.5 Wh, 12 Wh, respectively) using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Both cells were constructed with a z-fold configuration, with a standard shutdown separator in the Li-ion and a low-cost polypropylene (PP) separator in the Na-ion. Even with the shutdown separator, it is shown that the self-heating rate and rate of thermal runaway in Na-ion cells is significantly slower than that observed in Li-ion systems. The thermal runaway event initiates at a higher temperature in Na-ion cells. The effect of thermal runaway on the architecture of the cells is examined using X-ray microcomputed tomography, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to examine the failed electrodes of both cells. Finally, from examination of the respective electrodes, likely due to the carbonate solvent containing electrolyte, it is suggested that thermal runaway in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) occurs via a similar mechanism to that reported for Li-ion cells.

  1. Diffusion of Li+ ion on graphene: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiming; Ren Zhaoyu; Guo Ping; Fang Li; Fan Jun

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory investigations show that the Li + ion is stabilized at Center of hexagonal carbon ring with the distance of 1.84 Å from graphene surface. The potential barrier of Li + ion diffusion on the graphene surface, about 0.32 eV, is much lower than that of Li + ion penetrating the carbon ring which is 10.68 eV. When a vacancy of graphene exists, potential barrier about 10.25 eV for Li + ion penetrating the defect is still high, and the ability of the vacancy to sizing the Li + ion is also observed. Electronic densities of states show that the formation of a localized bond between Li atom and edge carbon of vacancy is the main reason for high potential barrier when Li + ion penetrate a vacancy. While Coulomb repulsion is the control factor for high potential barrier in case of Li + ion penetrating a carbon ring.

  2. Peapod-like Li3 VO4 /N-Doped Carbon Nanowires with Pseudocapacitive Properties as Advanced Materials for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Lv, Haifeng; Chen, Shuangqiang; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Wu, Xiaojun; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors are new energy storage devices combining the complementary features of both electric double-layer capacitors and lithium ion batteries. A key limitation to this technology is the kinetic imbalance between the Faradaic insertion electrode and capacitive electrode. Here, we demonstrate that the Li 3 VO 4 with low Li-ion insertion voltage and fast kinetics can be favorably used for lithium ion capacitors. N-doped carbon-encapsulated Li 3 VO 4 nanowires are synthesized through a morphology-inheritance route, displaying a low insertion voltage between 0.2 and 1.0 V, a high reversible capacity of ≈400 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 , excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. Benefiting from the small nanoparticles, low energy diffusion barrier and highly localized charge-transfer, the Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires exhibit a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium ion capacitor device based on these Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires delivers a high energy density of 136.4 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 532 W kg -1 , revealing the potential for application in high-performance and long life energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Electrical safety of commercial Li-ion cells based on NMC and NCA technology compared to LFP technology

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Martin; Gläser, Simon; Geder, Jan; Menacher, Stefan; Obpacher, Sebastian; Jossen, Andreas; Quinger, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Since a laptop caught fire in 2006 at the latest, Li-ion cells were considered as more dangerous than other accumulators [1]. Recent incidents, such as the one involving a BYD e6 electric taxi [2] or the Boeing Dreamliner [3], give rise to questions concerning the safety of L#i-ion cells. This is a crucial point, since Li-ion cells are increasingly integrated in all kinds of (electric) vehicles. Therefore the economic success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BE...

  4. Uncovering a facile large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhong, Ben-He; Fang, Baizeng; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Heng

    2015-02-01

    Developing advanced electrode materials that deliver high energy at ultra-fast charge and discharge rates are very crucial to meet an increasing large-scale market demand for high power lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A three-dimensional (3D) nanoflower structure is successfully developed in the large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material for the first time. The fast co-precipitation is the key technique to prepare the nanoflower structure in our method. After heat treatment, the obtained LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers (NL333) pronouncedly present a pristine flower-like nano-architecture and provide fast pathways for the transport of Li-ions and electrons. As a cathode material in a LIB, the prepared NL333 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high-rate capability. Particularly, in a narrow voltage range of 2.7-4.3 V, the discharge capacity at an ultra-fast charge-discharge rate (20C) is up to 126 mAh g-1, which reaches 78% of that at 0.2C, and is much higher than that (i.e., 44.17%) of the traditional bulk LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2.

  5. High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries do not fully meet the energy density, power density and safety requirements specified by NASA for future exploration missions....

  6. Advanced Electrode Materials for High Energy Next Generation Li ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayner, Cary Michael

    Lithium ion batteries are becoming an increasingly ubiquitous part of modern society. Since their commercial introduction by Sony in 1991, lithium-ion batteries have grown to be the most popular form of electrical energy storage for portable applications. Today, lithium-ion batteries power everything from cellphones and electric vehicles to e-cigarettes, satellites, and electric aircraft. Despite the commercialization of lithium-ion batteries over twenty years ago, it remains the most active field of energy storage research for its potential improvement over current technology. In order to capitalize on these opportunities, new materials with higher energy density and storage capacities must be developed. Unfortunately, most next-generation materials suffer from rapid capacity degradation or severe loss of capacity when rapidly discharged. In this dissertation, the development of novel anode and cathode materials for advanced high-energy and high-power lithium-ion batteries is reported. In particular, the application of graphene-based materials to stabilize active material is emphasized. Graphene, a unique two-dimensional material composed of atomically thin carbon sheets, has shown potential to address unsatisfactory rate capability, limited cycling performance and abrupt failure of these next-generation materials. This dissertation covers four major subjects: development of silicon-graphene composites, impact of carbon vacancies on graphene high-rate performance, iron fluoride-graphene composites, and ternary iron-manganese fluoride synthesis. Silicon is considered the most likely material to replace graphite as the anode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its ability to alloy with large amounts of lithium, leading to significantly higher specific capacities than the graphite standard. However, Si also expands in size over 300% upon lithiation, leading to particle fracture and isolation from conductive support, resulting in cell failure within a few

  7. Lithium Sulfide (Li2S)/Graphene Oxide Nanospheres with Conformal Carbon Coating as a High-Rate, Long-Life Cathode for Li/S Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Yoon; Zhao, Juan; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-05-13

    In recent years, lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cells have attracted great attention as a candidate for the next generation of rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical specific energy of 2600 W·h kg(-1), which is much higher than that of Li ion cells (400-600 W·h kg(-1)). However, problems of the S cathode such as highly soluble intermediate species (polysulfides Li2Sn, n = 4-8) and the insulating nature of S cause poor cycle life and low utilization of S, which prevents the practical use of Li/S cells. Here, a high-rate and long-life Li/S cell is proposed, which has a cathode material with a core-shell nanostructure comprising Li2S nanospheres with an embedded graphene oxide (GO) sheet as a core material and a conformal carbon layer as a shell. The conformal carbon coating is easily obtained by a unique CVD coating process using a lab-designed rotating furnace without any repetitive steps. The Li2S/GO@C cathode exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 650 mA·h g(-1) of Li2S (corresponding to the 942 mA·h g(-1) of S) and very low capacity decay rate of only 0.046% per cycle with a high Coulombic efficiency of up to 99.7% for 1500 cycles when cycled at the 2 C discharge rate.

  8. The ion exchange properties and equilibrium constants of Li+, Na+ and K+ on zirconium phosphate highly dispersed on a cellulose acetate fibers surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgo Claudemir Adriano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly dispersed zirconium phosphate was prepared by reacting celullose acetate/ZrO2 (ZrO2 = 11 wt%, 1.0 mmol g-1 of zirconium atom per gram of the material with phosphoric acid. High power decoupling magic angle spinning (HPDEC-MAS 31P NMR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicated that HPO4(2- is the species present on the membrane surface. The specific concentration of acidic centers, determined by ammonia gas adsorption, is 0.60 mmol g-1. The ion exchange capacities for Li+, Na+ and K+ ions were determined from ion exchange isotherms at 298 K and showed the following values (in mmol g-1: Li+= 0.05, Na+= 0.38 and K+= 0.57. Due to the strong cooperative effect, the H+/Na+ and H+/K+ ion exchange is of non ideal nature. These ion exchange equilibria were treated with the use of models of fixed tridentate centers, which consider the surface of the sorbent as polyfunctional sorption centers. Both the observed ion exchange capacities with respect to the alkaline metal ions and the equilibrium constants are discussed by taking into consideration the sequence of the ionic hydration radii for Li+, Na+ and K+. The matrix affinity for the ions decreases with increasing the cations hydration radii from K+ to Li+. The high values of the separation factors S Na+/Li+ and S K+/Li+ (up to several hundreds support the application of this material for the quantitative separation of Na+ and K+ from Li+ from a mixture containing these three ions.

  9. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Park, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-30

    Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid-solution range. The solid-solution range, which is reduced at higher current by the rate of transfer of the working ion across electrode/electrolyte interfaces and within a host, limits the amount of charge per electrode formula unit that can be transferred over the time Δt = Δt(I). Moreover, the difference between energies of the LUMO and the HOMO of the electrolyte, i.e., electrolyte window, determines the maximum voltage for a long shelf and cycle life. The maximum stable voltage with an aqueous electrolyte is 1.5 V; the Li-ion rechargeable battery uses an organic electrolyte with a larger window, which increase the density of stored energy for a given Δt. Anode or cathode electrochemical potentials outside the electrolyte window can increase V, but they require formation of a passivating surface layer that must be permeable to Li(+) and capable of adapting rapidly to the changing electrode surface area as the electrode changes volume during cycling. A passivating surface layer adds to the impedance of the

  11. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corp.

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  12. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system....... The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent...... circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found....

  13. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries from Renewable Energy Storage to Automotive and Back-up Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries have been extensively used in consumer electronics because of their characteristics, such as high efficiency, long life, and high gravimetric and volumetric energy. In addition, Li-ion batteries are becoming the most attractive candidate as electrochemical storage...... systems for stationary applications, as well as power source for sustainable automotive and back-up power supply applications. This paper gives an overview of the Li-ion battery chemistries that are available at present in the market, and describes the three out of four main applications (except...... the consumers’ applications), grid support, automotive, and back-up power, for which the Li-ion batteries are suitable. Each of these applications has its own specifications and thus, the chemistry of the Li-ion battery should be chosen to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding application. Consequently...

  14. Distinction of impedance responses of Li-ion batteries for individual electrodes using symmetric cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momma, Toshiyuki; Yokoshima, Tokihiko; Nara, Hiroki; Gima, Yuhei; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Impedance of lithium ion battery and symmetric cells were analyzed. • Anode symmetric cells and cathode one were prepared with ca. 7 × 7 cm 2 electrodes. • Except for R ct in cathode, electrochemical parameters did not change by reassembling. • Fitting data for symmetric cell were found to be useful for full cell analysis. • Electrochemical parameters of battery were traced during cycling degradation. - Abstract: Symmetric cells were prepared with a newly designed separable cell module, which enabled ca. 70 mm by 70 mm electrode sheets to be used for a pouch type 5 Ah class Li-ion battery (LIB). Impedance analysis of the LIB as a full cell state was successfully performed with electrochemical parameters obtained by an impedance analysis of symmetric cells of anodes and cathodes obtained from the operated Li-ion batteries. While the charge transfer resistance of the cathode was found to increase after reassembling the cells symmetrically, other electrochemical parameters were found not to change when comparing the values obtained for full cells with symmetric cells. Eelectrodes degraded by charge/discharge cycling of the battery were also investigated, and the parameter change caused by the degradation was confirmed

  15. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  16. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  17. A phenomenological force model of Li-ion battery packs for enhanced performance and health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2017-10-01

    A 1-D phenomenological force model of a Li-ion battery pack is proposed to enhance the control performance of Li-ion battery cells in pack conditions for efficient performance and health management. The force model accounts for multiple swelling sources under the operational environment of electric vehicles to predict swelling-induced forces in pack conditions, i.e. mechanically constrained. The proposed force model not only incorporates structural nonlinearities due to Li-ion intercalation swelling, but also separates the overall range of states of charge into three ranges to account for phase transitions. Moreover, an approach to study cell-to-cell variations in pack conditions is proposed with serial and parallel combinations of linear and nonlinear stiffness, which account for battery cells and other components in the battery pack. The model is shown not only to accurately estimate the reaction force caused by swelling as a function of the state of charge, battery temperature and environmental temperature, but also to account for cell-to-cell variations due to temperature variations, SOC differences, and local degradation in a wide range of operational conditions of electric vehicles. Considering that the force model of Li-ion battery packs can account for many possible situations in actual operation, the proposed approach and model offer potential utility for the enhancement of current battery management systems and power management strategies.

  18. Potential application of microporous structured poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite nonwoven separators to high-voltage and high-power lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Eun-Sun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Sang-Young

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Microporous-structured PVdF-HFP/PET composite nonwoven separators for Li-batteries. → Well-developed microporous structure and liquid electrolyte wettability. → Provision of facile ion transport and suppressed growth of cell impedance. → Superior cell performance at high-voltages/high-current densities. - Abstract: We demonstrate potential application of a new composite non-woven separator, which is comprised of a phase inversion-controlled, microporous polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) gel polymer electrolyte and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven support, to high-voltage and high-power lithium-ion batteries. In comparison to a commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator, the composite non-woven separator exhibits distinct improvements in microporous structure and liquid electrolyte wettability. Based on the understanding of the composite non-woven separator, cell performances of the separator at challenging charge/discharge conditions are investigated and discussed in terms of ion transport of the separator and AC impedance of the cell. The aforementioned advantageous features of the composite non-woven separator play a key role in providing facile ion transport and suppressing growth of cell impedance during cycling, which in turn contribute to superior cell performances at harsh charge/discharge conditions such as high voltages and high current densities.

  19. Relevance of LiPF6 as Etching Agent of LiMnPO4 Colloidal Nanocrystals for High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Dilena, Enrico; Paolella, Andrea; Bertoni, Giovanni; Ansaldo, Alberto; Colombo, Massimo; Marras, Sergio; Scrosati, Bruno; Manna, Liberato; Monaco, Simone

    2016-02-17

    LiMnPO4 is an attractive cathode material for the next-generation high power Li-ion batteries, due to its high theoretical specific capacity (170 mA h g(-1)) and working voltage (4.1 V vs Li(+)/Li). However, two main drawbacks prevent the practical use of LiMnPO4: its low electronic conductivity and the limited lithium diffusion rate, which are responsible for the poor rate capability of the cathode. The electronic resistance is usually lowered by coating the particles with carbon, while the use of nanosize particles can alleviate the issues associated with poor ionic conductivity. It is therefore of primary importance to develop a synthetic route to LiMnPO4 nanocrystals (NCs) with controlled size and coated with a highly conductive carbon layer. We report here an effective surface etching process (using LiPF6) on colloidally synthesized LiMnPO4 NCs that makes the NCs dispersible in the aqueous glucose solution used as carbon source for the carbon coating step. Also, it is likely that the improved exposure of the NC surface to glucose facilitates the formation of a conductive carbon layer that is in intimate contact with the inorganic core, resulting in a high electronic conductivity of the electrode, as observed by us. The carbon coated etched LiMnPO4-based electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 118 mA h g(-1) at 1C, with a stable cycling performance and a capacity retention of 92% after 120 cycles at different C-rates. The delivered capacities were higher than those of electrodes based on not etched carbon coated NCs, which never exceeded 30 mA h g(-1). The rate capability here reported for the carbon coated etched LiMnPO4 nanocrystals represents an important result, taking into account that in the electrode formulation 80% wt is made of the active material and the adopted charge protocol is based on reasonable fast charge times.

  20. Degradation reactions in SONY-type Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.P.; Nagasubramanian, G.

    2000-07-01

    Thermal instabilities were identified in SONY-type lithium-ion cells and correlated with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the state of charge (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 100 C involving the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer and the LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte (EC:PC:DEC/LiPF{sub 6}). These reactions could account for the thermal runaway observed in these cells beginning at 100 C. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 C--300 C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF{sub 6} salt, and the PVDF. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 C--400 C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. The solvent was not directly involved in these reactions but served as a moderator and transport medium. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 C and increased with the state of charge (decreasing Li content). This offers an explanation for the observed lower thermal runaway temperatures for charged cells.

  1. Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 Nanorods as Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Kyung

    2008-11-12

    Spinel LiMn 2O 4 is a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and highly abundant material for Li-ion battery cathodes. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline β-MnO 2 nanorods and their chemical conversion into free-standing single-crystalline LiMn 2O 4 nanorods using a simple solid-state reaction. The LiMn 2O 4 nanorods have an average diameter of 130 nm and length of 1.2 μm. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMn 2O 4 nanorods have a high charge storage capacity at high power rates compared with commercially available powders. More than 85% of the initial charge storage capacity was maintained for over 100 cycles. The structural transformation studies showed that the Li ions intercalated into the cubic phase of the LiMn 2O 4 with a small change of lattice parameter, followed by the coexistence of two nearly identical cubic phases in the potential range of 3.5 to 4.3V. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  2. Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 Nanorods as Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Kyung; Muralidharan, P.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ruffo, Riccardo; Yang, Yuan; Chan, Candace K.; Peng, Hailin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Spinel LiMn 2O 4 is a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and highly abundant material for Li-ion battery cathodes. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline β-MnO 2 nanorods and their chemical conversion into free-standing single-crystalline LiMn 2O 4 nanorods using a simple solid-state reaction. The LiMn 2O 4 nanorods have an average diameter of 130 nm and length of 1.2 μm. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMn 2O 4 nanorods have a high charge storage capacity at high power rates compared with commercially available powders. More than 85% of the initial charge storage capacity was maintained for over 100 cycles. The structural transformation studies showed that the Li ions intercalated into the cubic phase of the LiMn 2O 4 with a small change of lattice parameter, followed by the coexistence of two nearly identical cubic phases in the potential range of 3.5 to 4.3V. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  3. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells with Two Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2001-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for Space Shuttle in the future, Samsung 18650 cylindrical Li-ion cells with two different capacities have been evaluated. The capacities are 1800 mAh, and 2000 mAh. The studies focused on the performance and safety tests of the cells.

  4. Synthesis of hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO_4/carbon nanotubes composite with less antisite defects for high power lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jianjun; Shao, Guangjie; Ma, Zhipeng; Wang, Guiling; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO4/CNTs composite with less antisite defects is synthesized by a modified solvothemal process and delivers superior electrochemical performance with high rate capability and good capacity retention. - Abstract: The low electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusion ability are two major obstacles to realize its wide application for LiFePO_4 materials. The material with hierarchical conductive structure and lower antisite defects concentration can effectively enhance the electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusion ability. We firstly report here a modified solvothemal process for the fabrication of hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO_4/CNTs composite with less antisite defects. It is found that the modified solvothemal process is facilitated to decrease Fe_L_i antisite defects and enhance the electronic continuity between LFP and CNTs. In favor of its unique properties, the C/LFP/CNTs composites can deliver superior rate capability and cycling stability. Remarkably, even at a high rate of 20C (3400 mA g"−"1), a high initial discharge capacity of 91.6 mAh g"−"1 and good cycle retention of 95% with almost 100% coulombic efficiency are still obtained after 100 cycles.

  5. Nano-structured 3D Electrodes for Li-ion Micro-batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Perre, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    A new challenging application for Li-ion battery has arisen from the rapid development of micro-electronics. Powering Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) such as autonomous smart-dust nodes using conventional Li-ion batteries is not possible. It is not only new batteries based on new materials but there is also a need of modifying the actual battery design. In this context, the conception of 3D nano-architectured Li-ion batteries is explored. There are several micro-battery concepts that a...

  6. An alternative cooling system to enhance the safety of Li-ion battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilel, Riza; Sabbah, Rami; Selman, J. Robert; Al-Hallaj, Said

    A passive thermal management system is evaluated for high-power Li-ion packs under stressful or abusive conditions, and compared with a purely air-cooling mode under normal and abuse conditions. A compact and properly designed passive thermal management system utilizing phase change material (PCM) provides faster heat dissipation than active cooling during high pulse power discharges while preserving sufficiently uniform cell temperature to ensure the desirable cycle life for the pack. This study investigates how passive cooling with PCM contributes to preventing the propagation of thermal runaway in a single cell or adjacent cells due to a cell catastrophic failure. Its effectiveness is compared with that of active cooling by forced air flow or natural convection using the same compact module and pack configuration corresponding to the PCM matrix technology. The effects of nickel tabs and spacing between the cells were also studied.

  7. An alternative cooling system to enhance the safety of Li-ion battery packs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizilel, Riza; Sabbah, Rami [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 33rd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Selman, J. Robert [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 33rd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); All Cell Technologies, LLC, IIT University Technology Park, 3440 S. Dearborn Street, Suite 117N, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Al-Hallaj, Said [All Cell Technologies, LLC, IIT University Technology Park, 3440 S. Dearborn Street, Suite 117N, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A passive thermal management system is evaluated for high-power Li-ion packs under stressful or abusive conditions, and compared with a purely air-cooling mode under normal and abuse conditions. A compact and properly designed passive thermal management system utilizing phase change material (PCM) provides faster heat dissipation than active cooling during high pulse power discharges while preserving sufficiently uniform cell temperature to ensure the desirable cycle life for the pack. This study investigates how passive cooling with PCM contributes to preventing the propagation of thermal runaway in a single cell or adjacent cells due to a cell catastrophic failure. Its effectiveness is compared with that of active cooling by forced air flow or natural convection using the same compact module and pack configuration corresponding to the PCM matrix technology. The effects of nickel tabs and spacing between the cells were also studied. (author)

  8. Relating the 3D electrode morphology to Li-ion battery performance; a case for LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Singh, Deepak P.; Wang, Hongqian; Wagemaker, Marnix; Barnett, Scott

    2016-08-01

    One of the main goals in lithium ion battery electrode design is to increase the power density. This requires insight in the relation between the complex heterogeneous microstructure existing of active material, conductive additive and electrolyte providing the required electronic and Li-ion transport. FIB-SEM is used to determine the three phase 3D morphology, and Li-ion concentration profiles obtained with Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) are compared for two cases, conventional LiFePO4 electrodes and better performing carbonate templated LiFePO4 electrodes. This provides detailed understanding of the impact of key parameters such as the tortuosity for electron and Li-ion transport though the electrodes. The created hierarchical pore network of the templated electrodes, containing micron sized pores, appears to be effective only at high rate charge where electrolyte depletion is hindering fast discharge. Surprisingly the carbonate templating method results in a better electronic conductive CB network, enhancing the activity of LiFePO4 near the electrolyte-electrode interface as directly observed with NDP, which in a large part is responsible for the improved rate performance both during charge and discharge. The results demonstrate that standard electrodes have a far from optimal charge transport network and that significantly improved electrode performance should be possible by engineering the microstructure.

  9. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corporation

    2017-09-06

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4% RMS error and resistance growth with 15% RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  10. Phase I Advanced Battery Materials For Rechargeable Advanced Space-Rated Li-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy (up to 200 Wh/kg),...

  11. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li + -ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li 6.25 Al 0.25 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZ) with Li + -ion conductivity of ~10 –4 S ⋅cm −1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO 2 /LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO 2 –LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li 3 BO 3 , which is a mechanically soft solid electrolyte with a low melting point at around 700

  12. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  13. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-08-27

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte-separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4-400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3-38.1 mN∙m(-1). It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations.

  14. High Performance Li4Ti5O12/Si Composite Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy capacity of spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO is very important to utilize it as a high-performance Li-ion battery (LIB electrode. In this work, LTO/Si composites with different weight ratios were prepared and tested as anodes. The anodic and cathodic peaks from both LTO and silicon were apparent in the composites, indicating that each component was active upon Li+ insertion and extraction. The composites with higher Si contents (LTO:Si = 35:35 exhibited superior specific capacity (1004 mAh·g−1 at lower current densities (0.22 A·g−1 but the capacity deteriorated at higher current densities. On the other hand, the electrodes with moderate Si contents (LTO:Si = 50:20 were able to deliver stable capacity (100 mAh·g−1 with good cycling performance, even at a very high current density of 7 A·g−1. The improvement in specific capacity and rate performance was a direct result of the synergy between LTO and Si; the former can alleviate the stresses from volumetric changes in Si upon cycling, while Si can add to the capacity of the composite. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the addition of Si and concentration optimization is an easy yet an effective way to produce high performance LTO-based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Synthesis of rock-salt type lithium borohydride and its peculiar Li+ ion conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miyazaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The high energy density and excellent cycle performance of lithium ion batteries makes them superior to all other secondary batteries and explains why they are widely used in portable devices. However, because organic liquid electrolytes have a higher operating voltage than aqueous solution, they are used in lithium ion batteries. This comes with the risk of fire due to their flammability. Solid electrolytes are being investigated to find an alternative to organic liquid. However, the nature of the solid-solid point contact at the interface between the electrolyte and electrode or between the electrolyte grains is such that high power density has proven difficult to attain. We develop a new method for the fabrication of a solid electrolyte using LiBH4, known for its super Li+ ion conduction without any grain boundary contribution. The modifications to the conduction pathway achieved by stabilizing the high pressure form of this material provided a new structure with some LiBH4, more suitable to the high rate condition. We synthesized the H.P. form of LiBH4 under ambient pressure by doping LiBH4 with the KI lattice by sintering. The formation of a KI - LiBH4 solid solution was confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically. The obtained sample was shown to be a pure Li+ conductor despite its small Li+ content. This conduction mechanism, where the light doping cation played a major role in ion conduction, was termed the “Parasitic Conduction Mechanism.” This mechanism made it possible to synthesize a new ion conductor and is expected to have enormous potential in the search for new battery materials.

  16. Storage and Effective Migration of Li-Ion for Defected β-LiFePO4 Phase Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Song, Xiaohe; Zhuo, Zengqing; Hu, Jiangtao; Liu, Tongchao; Duan, Yandong; Zheng, Jiaxin; Chen, Zonghai; Yang, Wanli; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2016-01-13

    Lithium iron phosphate, a widely used cathode material, crystallizes typically in olivine-type phase, α-LiFePO4 (αLFP). However, the new phase β-LiFePO4 (βLFP), which can be transformed from αLFP under high temperature and pressure, is originally almost electrochemically inactive with no capacity for Li-ion battery, because the Li-ions are stored in the tetrahedral [LiO4] with very high activation barrier for migration and the one-dimensional (1D) migration channels for Li-ion diffusion in αLFP disappear, while the Fe ions in the β-phase are oriented similar to the 1D arrangement instead. In this work, using experimental studies combined with density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that βLFP can be activated with creation of effective paths of Li-ion migration by optimized disordering. Thus, the new phase of βLFP cathode achieved a capacity of 128 mAh g(-1) at a rate of 0.1 C (1C = 170 mA g(-1)) with extraordinary cycling performance that 94.5% of the initial capacity retains after 1000 cycles at 1 C. The activation mechanism can be attributed to that the induced disorder (such as FeLiLiFe antisite defects, crystal distortion, and amorphous domains) creates new lithium migration passages, which free the captive stored lithium atoms and facilitate their intercalation/deintercalation from the cathode. Such materials activated by disorder are promising candidate cathodes for lithium batteries, and the related mechanism of storage and effective migration of Li-ions also provides new clues for future design of disordered-electrode materials with high capacity and high energy density.

  17. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriramulu, Suresh [Tiax LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Stringfellow, Richard [Tiax LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  18. Selection and Performance-Degradation Modeling of LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C Battery Cells as Suitable Energy Storage Systems for Grid Integration With Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the development of energy storage technologies are making them attractive for grid integration together with wind power plants. Thus, the new system, the virtual power plant, is able to emulate the characteristics of today’s conventional power plants. However, at present, energy stora......-degradation models were developed for the two most suitable Li–ion chemistries for the primary frequency regulation service: LiMO2 /Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C....

  19. A mesoporous WO3−X/graphene composite as a high-performance Li-ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fei; Kim, Jong Gu; Lee, Chul Wee; Im, Ji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The highly flexible and conductive graphene layer can enhance electron transfer, protect metal oxides against disintegration and aggregation and buffer the strain induced by volume expansion during cycles. The mesoporous surface layer provides an open network for Li+ diffusion. - Highlights: • Novel cocktail effects of 2D mesoporous WO 3−X /graphene for lithium ion battery. • New approach for lithium ion battery by easy and unique synthesis method. • Mechanism study with proper data for understanding a reaction on anode surface. - Abstract: A novel mesoporous WO 3−X /graphene composite was developed. This material allowed rapid electron and Li + ion diffusion when used as a Li-ion battery (LIB) anode material. Remarkably, the graphene support protected WO 3−X from changing volume during the electrochemical cycling process; this process generally induces capacity loss. The current work describes a high-performance anode material for LIB that has highly dense WO 3−X , as well as high capacity, rate capability and stability

  20. Nb-based MXenes for Li-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2015-11-16

    Li-ion batteries depend critically on the stability and capacity of the electrodes. In this respect the recently synthesized two-dimensional MXenes are promising materials, as they combine an excellent Li-ion capacity with very high charging rates. We employ density functional theory to investigate the impact of Li adsorption on the structural and electronic properties of monolayer Nb2C and Nb2CX2. The Li ions are predicted to migrate easily on the pristine MXene due to a diffusion barrier of only 36 meV, whereas larger diffusion barriers are obtained for the functionalized MXenes.

  1. Facile synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opra, Denis P.; Gnedenkov, Sergey V.; Sokolov, Alexander A.; Minaev, Alexander N.; Kuryavyi, Valery G.; Sinebryukhov, Sergey L.

    2017-09-01

    At all times, energy storage is one of the greatest scientific challenge. Recently, Li-ion batteries are under special attention due to high working voltage, long cycle life, low self-discharge, reliability, no-memory effect. However, commercial LIBs usage in medium- and large-scale energy storage are limited by the capacity of lithiated metal oxide cathode and unsafety of graphite anode at high-rate charge. In this way, new electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance should be designed to satisfy a requirement in both energy and power. As it known, nanostructured transition metal oxides are promising electrode materials because of their elevated specific capacity and high potential vs. Li/Li+. In this work, the perspective of an original facile technique of pulsed high-voltage plasma discharge in synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries has been demonstrated.

  2. High power Nb-doped LiFePO4 Li-ion battery cathodes; pilot-scale synthesis and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian D.; Blagovidova, Ekaterina; Dingwall, Paul A.; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-09-01

    High power, phase-pure Nb-doped LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles are synthesised using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process (production rate of 6 kg per day) in the range 0.01-2.00 at% Nb with respect to total transition metal content. EDS analysis suggests that Nb is homogeneously distributed throughout the structure. The addition of fructose as a reagent in the hydrothermal flow process, followed by a post synthesis heat-treatment, affords a continuous graphitic carbon coating on the particle surfaces. Electrochemical testing reveals that cycling performance improves with increasing dopant concentration, up to a maximum of 1.0 at% Nb, for which point a specific capacity of 110 mAh g-1 is obtained at 10 C (6 min for the charge or discharge). This is an excellent result for a high power cathode LFP based material, particularly when considering the synthesis was performed on a large pilot-scale apparatus.

  3. Low Li+ Insertion Barrier Carbon for High Energy Efficient Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Huang, Xiaolei; Tan, Teck Leong; Xue, Jun Min

    2018-01-17

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is an attractive energy-storage device (ESD) that promises high energy density at moderate power density. However, the key challenge in its design is the low energy efficient negative electrode, which barred the realization of such research system in fulfilling the current ESD technological inadequacy due to its poor overall energy efficiency. Large voltage hysteresis is the main issue behind high energy density alloying/conversion-type materials, which reduces the electrode energy efficiency. Insertion-type material though averted in most research due to the low capacity remains to be highly favorable in commercial application due to its lower voltage hysteresis. To further reduce voltage hysteresis and increase capacity, amorphous carbon with wider interlayer spacing has been demonstrated in the simulation result to significantly reduce Li + insertion barrier. Hence, by employing such amorphous carbon, together with disordered carbon positive electrode, a high energy efficient LIC with round-trip energy efficiency of 84.3% with a maximum energy density of 133 Wh kg -1 at low power density of 210 W kg -1 can be achieved.

  4. Determination of the core temperature of a Li-ion cell during thermal runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizi, M.; Ahmed, M. B.; Jain, A.

    2017-12-01

    Safety and performance of Li-ion cells is severely affected by thermal runaway where exothermic processes within the cell cause uncontrolled temperature rise, eventually leading to catastrophic failure. Most past experimental papers on thermal runaway only report surface temperature measurement, while the core temperature of the cell remains largely unknown. This paper presents an experimentally validated method based on thermal conduction analysis to determine the core temperature of a Li-ion cell during thermal runaway using surface temperature and chemical kinetics data. Experiments conducted on a thermal test cell show that core temperature computed using this method is in good agreement with independent thermocouple-based measurements in a wide range of experimental conditions. The validated method is used to predict core temperature as a function of time for several previously reported thermal runaway tests. In each case, the predicted peak core temperature is found to be several hundreds of degrees Celsius higher than the measured surface temperature. This shows that surface temperature alone is not sufficient for thermally characterizing the cell during thermal runaway. Besides providing key insights into the fundamental nature of thermal runaway, the ability to determine the core temperature shown here may lead to practical tools for characterizing and mitigating thermal runaway.

  5. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles enhancing electrochemical performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueguang; Zhang, Xudong; He, Wen; Yue, Yuanzheng; Liu, Hong; Ma, Jingyun

    2012-10-18

    We report a simple, inexpensive green biomimetic way for developing the high performance LiFePO(4) for high-power lithium-ion batteries. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO(4) nucleus nanoparticles are synthesized by using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source.

  6. Final Report - Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jagat [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) technology’s potential to enable a commercially viable high energy density is the key to a lower $/Wh, thereby a low cost battery. The design of a LIB with high energy, high power, safety and long life is a challenge that requires cell design from the ground up and synergy between all components. 3M Company (3M), the Recipient, led by its Principal Investigator, Jagat Singh, pursued this challenging task of a LIB by ‘teaming’ key commercial businesses [General Motors (GM), Umicore and Iontensity] and labs [Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL)]. The technology from each team member was complimentary and a close working relationship spanning the value chain drove productivity.The completion of this project is a significant step towards more energy efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles, making America less dependent on imported oil.

  7. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  8. Li-Ion Batteries for Forensic Neutron Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Li-Ion Batteries for Forensic Neutron Dosimetry Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. March...ion batteries are the common technology for powering portable electronics. The nuclear reactions within the batteries are sensitive to neutrons. By...and chemical changes within the battery . These changes can be determined by mass spectrometry or gamma and beta spectroscopy of long-lived

  9. Li2SnO3 derived secondary Li-Sn alloy electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.W.; Zhang, S.Q.; Jin, Y.; Yi, T.H.; Xie, S.; Chen, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    As a possible high-capacity Li-ion battery anode material, Li 2 SnO 3 was prepared via a solid-state reaction route and a sol-gel route, separately. Its electrochemical performance was tested in coin-type cells with metallic Li as the counter electrode. The results show that the sol-gel derived Li 2 SnO 3 has uniform nano-sized particles (200-300 nm) and can deliver a better reversible capacity (380 mAh/g after 50 cycles in the voltage window of 0-1 V) than that from the solid-state reaction route. The characterizations by means of galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry and ex situ X-ray diffraction indicate that the electrochemical process of the Li 2 SnO 3 lithiation proceeds with an initial structural reduction of the composite oxide into Sn-metal and Li 2 O followed by a reversible Li-Sn alloy formation in the Li 2 O matrix. Due to the buffer role of the Li 2 O matrix, the reversibility of the secondary Li-Sn alloy electrode is largely secured

  10. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  11. Ion production from LiF-coated field emitter tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Bieg, K.W.; Olson, R.E.; Panitz, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ion emission has been obtained from a LiF-coated tungsten field-emitter tip. Ion formation is thought to be caused by the high electric field experienced by the LiF. At the time of emission the electric field at the surface of the LiF is calculated to be on the order of 100 MV/cm. Inside the LiF the field is on the order of 10 MV/cm. These fields exceed the value needed to produce bulk dielectric breakdown in LiF. The surface field is of sufficient magnitude to produce ion emission by field evaporation from the crystal surface. Even prior to dielectric breakdown, precursor processes can lead to ion formation. Electric-field-stress fragmentation of the LiF layer is thought to occur, followed by ionization of the fragments

  12. Comparative Issues of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available After an introduction to lithium insertion compounds and the principles of Li-ion cells, we present a comparative study of the physical and electrochemical properties of positive electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. Electrode materials include three different classes of lattices according to the dimensionality of the Li+ ion motion in them: olivine, layered transition-metal oxides and spinel frameworks. Their advantages and disadvantages are compared with emphasis on synthesis difficulties, electrochemical stability, faradaic performance and security issues.

  13. Silver effect of Co–Ni composite material on energy storage and structural behavior for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamuthu, RM.; Prasanna, K.; Subburaj, T.; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Chang Woo

    2013-01-01

    Ag powder has been comparatively applied to the Co–Ni materials preparing by mixing method and the prepared electrodes were used as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries applications. The prepared Co–Ni and Ag–Co–Ni with 10 wt.% of Ag composite electrodes are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM with EDX, impedance and electrochemical charge-discharge studies. These electrochemical studies are demonstrated at current rates of 0.1 C and 0.5 C between 0.01 and 2.0 V vs. Li/Li + . The porous Co–Ni and Ag–Co–Ni composite materials are electrochemically tested in lithium half cells. The porous Ag–Co–Ni composite material demonstrates that the initial and end of discharge capacity up to 20th cycles is, respectively, 860 and 715 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C rate maintaining at approximately 83%. The porous Ag–Co–Ni composite electrode may be a good candidate for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed task will involve the design of a hybrid power system with lithium-ion (li-ion) capacitors (LICs), li-ion batteries and solar cells. The challenge in...

  15. Re-building Daniell Cell with a Li-ion exchange Film

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2014-01-01

    Daniell cell (i.e. Zn-Cu battery) is widely used in chemistry curricula to illustrate how batteries work, although it has been supplanted in the late 19th century by more modern battery designs because of Cu2+-crossover-induced self-discharge and un-rechargeable characteristic. Herein, it is re-built by using a ceramic Li-ion exchange film to separate Cu and Zn electrodes for preventing Cu2+-crossover between two electrodes. The re-built Zn-Cu battery can be cycled for 150 times without capac...

  16. Electrochemical behavior of LiV3O8 positive electrode in hybrid Li,Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletti, S.; Sarapulova, A.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Oswald, S.; Fauth, F.; Giebeler, L.; Bramnik, N. N.; Ehrenberg, H.; Mikhailova, D.

    2018-01-01

    Vanadium(V)-containing oxides show superior intercalation properties for alkaline ions, although the performance of the material strongly depends on its surface morphology. In this work, intercalation activity of LiV3O8, prepared by a conventional solid state synthesis, is demonstrated for the first time in non-aqueous Li,Na-ion hybrid batteries with Na as negative electrode, and different Na/Li ratios in the electrolyte. In the pure Na-ion cell, one Na per formula unit of LiV3O8 can be reversibly inserted at room temperature via a two-step process, while further intercalation leads to gradual amorphisation of the material, with a specific capacity of 190 mAhg-1 after 10 cycles in the potential window of 0.8-3.4 V. Hybrid Li,Na-ion batteries feature simultaneous intercalation of Li+ and Na+ cations into LiV3O8, resulting in the formation of a second phase. Depending on the electrolyte composition, this second phase bears structural similarities either to Li0.7Na0.7V3O8 in Na-rich electrolytes, or to Li4V3O8 in Li-rich electrolytes. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Na+ and Li+ in crystalline LiV3O8 are very close, hence explaining the co-intercalation of these cations. As DFT calculations show, once formed, the Li0.7Na0.7V3O8-type structure favors intercalation of Na+, whereas the LiV3O8-type prefers to accommodate Li+ cations.

  17. A flexible Li-ion battery with design towards electrodes electrical insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Correia, J. H.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    The application of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology in several consumer electronics leads to the development of micro/nano power sources with high power and MEMS integration possibility. This work presents the fabrication of a flexible solid-state Li-ion battery (LIB) (~2.1 μm thick) with a design towards electrodes electrical insulation, using conventional, low cost and compatible MEMS fabrication processes. Kapton® substrate provides flexibility to the battery. E-beam deposited 300 nm thick Ge anode was coupled with LiCoO2/LiPON (cathode/solid-state electrolyte) in a battery system. LiCoO2 and LiPON films were deposited by RF-sputtering with a power source of 120 W and 100 W, respectively. LiCoO2 film was annealed at 400 °C after deposition. The new design includes Si3N4 and LiPO thin-films, providing electrode electrical insulation and a battery chemical stability safeguard, respectively. Microstructure and battery performance were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electric resistivity and electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential, charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). A rechargeable thin-film and lightweight flexible LIB using MEMS processing compatible materials and techniques is reported.

  18. Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifei Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue “Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond” of Nanomaterials is focused on advancements in the synthesis, optimization, and characterization of nanostructured materials, with an emphasis on the application of nanomaterials for building high performance Li-ion batteries (LIBs and future systems.[...

  19. Fast charging technique for high power LiFePO4 batteries: A mechanistic analysis of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseán, D.; Dubarry, M.; Devie, A.; Liaw, B. Y.; García, V. M.; Viera, J. C.; González, M.

    2016-07-01

    One of the major issues hampering the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) is the anxiety associated with long charging time. Hence, the ability to fast charging lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems is gaining notable interest. However, fast charging is not tolerated by all LIB chemistries because it affects battery functionality and accelerates its aging processes. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of multistage fast charging on a commercial high power LiFePO4-based cell and compare it to another cell tested under standard charging. Coupling incremental capacity (IC) and IC peak area analysis together with mechanistic model simulations ('Alawa' toolbox with harvested half-cell data), we quantify the degradation modes that cause aging of the tested cells. The results show that the proposed fast charging technique caused similar aging effects as standard charging. The degradation is caused by a linear loss of lithium inventory, coupled with a less degree of linear loss of active material on the negative electrode. This study validates fast charging as a feasible mean of operation for this particular LIB chemistry and cell architecture. It also illustrates the benefits of a mechanistic approach to understand cell degradation on commercial cells.

  20. Li interactions with the B40 fullerene and its application in Li-ion batteries: DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Morteza; Bagheri, Zargham; Bodaghi, Ali

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of Li and Li+ with a B40 all-boron fullerene was theoretically investigated at the B3LYP, and Minnesota 2006 levels of theory. It was found that, unexpectedly, the interaction Li+ cation with the electron deficient B40 fullerene is stronger than the Li atom. It indicates that the B40 fullerene does not act as a conventional Lewis acid because of its highly correlated structure. Frontier molecular orbitals, partial density of states, and natural bond orbital analyses were used to discuss this unusual behavior. Our calculations indicate that this behavior makes the B40 fullerene more appropriate for application in the Li-ion batteries as anode material. The calculated cell voltage is about 530 mV. Also, it was found that Hartree Fock (HF) exchange percentage of density functionals has a reverse effect on the adsorption energies of Li and Li+. This energy is increased and decreased, respectively, for Li+ and Li adsorptions by increasing %HF exchange. Finally, a potential energy surface for Li and Li+ penetration into B40 fullerene was predicted.

  1. OCV Hysteresis in Li-Ion Batteries including Two-Phase Transition Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Roscher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between batteries' state of charge (SOC and open-circuit voltage (OCV is a specific feature of electrochemical energy storage devices. Especially NiMH batteries are well known to exhibit OCV hysteresis, and also several kinds of lithium-ion batteries show OCV hysteresis, which can be critical for reliable state estimation issues. Electrode potential hysteresis is known to result from thermodynamical entropic effects, mechanical stress, and microscopic distortions within the active electrode materials which perform a two-phase transition during lithium insertion/extraction. Hence, some Li-ion cells including two-phase transition active materials show pronounced hysteresis referring to their open-circuit voltage. This work points out how macroscopic effects, that is, diffusion limitations, superimpose the latte- mentioned microscopic mechanisms and lead to a shrinkage of OCV hysteresis, if cells are loaded with high current rates. To validate the mentioned interaction, Li-ion cells' state of charge is adjusted to 50% with various current rates, beginning from the fully charged and the discharged state, respectively. As a pronounced difference remains between the OCV after charge and discharge adjustment, obviously the hysteresis vanishes as the target SOC is adjusted with very high current rate.

  2. Electrolytes and interphasial chemistry in Li ion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, K. [Electrochemistry Branch, Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, U. S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland, 20783-1197 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Since its appearance in 1991, the Li ion battery has been the major power source driving the rapid digitalisation of our daily life; however, much of the processes and mechanisms underpinning this newest battery chemistry remains poorly understood. As in any electrochemical device, the major challenge comes from the electrolyte/electrode interfaces, where the discontinuity in charge distribution and extreme disequality in electric forces induce diversified processes that eventually determine the kinetics of Li{sup +} intercalation chemistry. This article will summarize the most recent efforts on the fundamental understanding of the interphases in Li ion devices. Emphasis will be placed on the formation chemistry of the so-called 'SEI' on graphitic anode, the effect of solvation sheath structure of Li{sup +} on the intercalation energy barrier, and the feasibility of tailoring a desired interphase. Biologically inspired approaches to an ideal interphase will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  3. Electrolytes and Interphasial Chemistry in Li Ion Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its appearance in 1991, the Li ion battery has been the major power source driving the rapid digitalization of our daily life; however, much of the processes and mechanisms underpinning this newest battery chemistry remains poorly understood. As in any electrochemical device, the major challenge comes from the electrolyte/electrode interfaces, where the discontinuity in charge distribution and extreme disequality in electric forces induce diversified processes that eventually determine the kinetics of Li+ intercalation chemistry. This article will summarize the most recent efforts on the fundamental understanding of the interphases in Li ion devices. Emphasis will be placed on the formation chemistry of the so-called “SEI” on graphitic anode, the effect of solvation sheath structure of Li+ on the intercalation energy barrier, and the feasibility of tailoring a desired interphase. Biologically inspired approaches to an ideal interphase will also be briefly discussed.

  4. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  5. Performance Model for High-Power Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries based on Extended Characterization Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are found nowadays not only in portable/consumer electronics but also in more power demanding applications, such as stationary renewable energy storage, automotive and back-up power supply, because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy...... storage technologies. Nevertheless, prior to be used in any of the aforementioned application, a Li-ion battery cell must be intensively characterized and its behavior needs to be understood. This can be realized by performing extended laboratory characterization tests and developing Li-ion battery...... performance models. Furthermore, accurate performance models are necessary in order to analyze the behavior of the battery cell under different mission profiles, by simulation; thus, avoiding time and cost demanding real life tests. This paper presents the development and the parametrization of a performance...

  6. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li 2 S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2012-09-19

    Li 2S is a high-capacity cathode material for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than traditional metal oxides/phosphates cathodes. However, Li 2S is usually considered to be electrochemically inactive due to its high electronic resistivity and low lithium-ion diffusivity. In this paper, we discover that a large potential barrier (∼1 V) exists at the beginning of charging for Li 2S. By applying a higher voltage cutoff, this barrier can be overcome and Li 2S becomes active. Moreover, this barrier does not appear again in the following cycling. Subsequent cycling shows that the material behaves similar to common sulfur cathodes with high energy efficiency. The initial discharge capacity is greater than 800 mAh/g for even 10 μm Li 2S particles. Moreover, after 10 cycles, the capacity is stabilized around 500-550 mAh/g with a capacity decay rate of only ∼0.25% per cycle. The origin of the initial barrier is found to be the phase nucleation of polysulfides, but the amplitude of barrier is mainly due to two factors: (a) charge transfer directly between Li 2S and electrolyte without polysulfide and (b) lithium-ion diffusion in Li 2S. These results demonstrate a simple and scalable approach to utilizing Li 2S as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. A chemically activated graphene-encapsulated LiFePO4 composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeonghyun; Park, Seung-Keun; Yu, Seung-Ho; Jin, Aihua; Jang, Byungchul; Bong, Sungyool; Kim, In; Sung, Yung-Eun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2013-09-21

    A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly, the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite has exhibited better electrochemical properties than the conventional graphene/LiFePO4 composite as well as bare LiFePO4, including exceptional speed of charging-discharging and excellent cycle stability. That is because the CA-graphene in the composite provides abundant porous channels for the diffusion of lithium ions. Moreover, it acts as a conducting network for easy charge transfer and as a divider, preventing the aggregation of LiFePO4 particles. Owing to these properties of CA-graphene, LiFePO4 could demonstrate enhanced and stably long-lasting electrochemical performance.

  8. MW-assisted synthesis of LiFePO 4 for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninati, Sabina; Damen, Libero; Mastragostino, Marina

    LiFePO 4/C was prepared by solid-state reaction from Li 3PO 4, Fe 3(PO 4) 2·8H 2O, carbon and glucose in a few minutes in a scientific MW (microwave) oven with temperature and power control. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and by TGA analysis to evaluate carbon content. The electrochemical characterization as positive electrode in EC (ethylene carbonate)-DMC (dimethylcarbonate) 1 M LiPF 6 was performed by galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at C/10 to evaluate specific capacity and by sequences of 10 s discharge-charge pulses, at different high C-rates (5-45C) to evaluate pulse-specific power in simulate operative conditions for full-HEV application. The maximum pulse-specific power and, particularly, pulse efficiency values are quite high and make MW synthesis a very promising route for mass production of LiFePO 4/C for full-HEV batteries at low energy costs.

  9. Unique reduced graphene oxide as efficient anode material in Li ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-29

    Mar 29, 2018 ... as an electrode material in dye-sensitized solar cell [1], super- capacitor [2] and Li ion battery ... Ar-filled glove box. In each of the coin cell, ... Li reacts with suitable materials' defects at low potential and as they charge, bonds ...

  10. A new, high energy rechargeable lithium ion battery with a surface-treated Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 cathode and a nano-structured Li4Ti5O12 anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Tao; Yu, Aishui

    2015-01-01

    Through elaborate design, a new rechargeable lithium ion battery has been developed by comprising a surface-treated Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 cathode and a nano-structured Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode. After precondition Na 2 S 2 O 8 treatment, the initial coulombic efficiency of Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 cathode has been significantly increased and can be compatible with that of the nano-structured Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode. The optimization of structure and morphology for both active electrode materials result in their remarkable electrochemical performances in respective lithium half-cells. Ultimately, the rechargeable lithium ion full battery consisting of both electrodes delivers a specific capacity of 99.0 mAh g −1 and a practical energy density of 201 Wh kg −1 , based on the total weight of both active electrode materials. Furthermore, as a promising candidate in the lithium ion battery field, this full battery also achieves highly attractive electrochemical performance with high coulombic efficiency, excellent cycling stability and outstanding rate capability. Thus the proposed battery displays broad practical application prospects for next generation of high-energy lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • The Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 cathode is surface-treated by Na 2 S 2 O 8 . • The nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode is obtained by a solid-state method. • A new Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 lithium ion battery is developed. • The battery shows high coulombic efficiency, specific capacity and energy density. • The battery shows high capacity retention rate and good high-rate capability

  11. Li-ion batteries from LiFePO{sub 4} cathode and anatase/graphene composite anode for stationary energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Viswanathan, Vish V.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Bae, In-Tae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Duong, Tien [US Departments of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20858 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Li-ion batteries made from LiFePO{sub 4} cathode and anatase TiO{sub 2}/graphene composite anode were investigated for potential application in stationary energy storage. Fine-structured LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized by a novel molten surfactant approach whereas anatase TiO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite was prepared via self-assembly method. The full cell that operated at 1.6 V demonstrated negligible fade even after more than 700 cycles at measured 1 C rate. While with relative lower energy density than traditional Li-ion chemistries interested for vehicle applications, the Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} combination potentially offers long life and low cost, along with safety, all which are critical to the stationary applications. (author)

  12. Sputtering from swift-ion trails in LiF: A hybrid PIC/MD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherednikov, Yaroslav; Sun, Si Neng; Urbassek, Herbert M., E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.de

    2013-11-15

    We model the sputtering of a LiF crystal induced by swift-ion impact. The impinging ion creates a trail of doubly ionized F{sup +} ions, while simultaneously the corresponding electrons are set free. Ions move according to molecular dynamics, while excited electrons are treated by a particle-in-cell scheme. We treat the recombination time of electrons as a free parameter in our model. We find that the energy distribution of sputtered ions consists of 2 groups: a low-energy group centered at <1 eV, and a high-energy group at 7–8 eV. Fast ions (mainly Li{sup +}) are emitted early; these charge the surface negatively. Later, larger cluster ions and also neutral LiF molecules are emitted. Emission occurs at low angles to the surface normal. A jet along the normal direction can be observed, which is due to the electric field building up at the track surface. With increasing recombination time, processes are colder; sputtering decreases and the non-thermal jet structure becomes stronger.

  13. Effects of electrode properties and fabricated pressure on Li ion diffusion and diffusion-induced stresses in cylindrical Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Zhansheng

    2014-01-01

    The effects of electrode properties and fabricated pressure on Li ion diffusion and diffusion-induced stress in a cylindrical Li-ion battery are studied. It is found that hydrostatic pressure or elastic modulus variation in the active layer have little effect on the distribution of Li ions for a higher diffusivity coefficient, but both can facilitate Li ion diffusion for a lower diffusivity coefficient. The elastic modulus variation has a significant effect on the distribution of stress and hydrostatic pressure can reduce the surface stress for the lower diffusivity coefficient. A higher charging rate causes a more transient response in the stress history, but a linear charging history is observed for slow charging rates. A higher charging rate would not inflict extra damage on the electrode for the higher diffusivity coefficient and the stress history becomes highly transient and charging rate dependent for the lower diffusivity coefficient. The effect of fabricated pressure can be neglected. (paper)

  14. Mesoporous LiMnPO4/C nanoparticles as high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Fang; Shu, Hongbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wan, Jiajia; Huang, Weihua; Yang, Xiukang; Yu, Ruizhi; Liu, Li; Wang, Xianyou

    2016-01-01

    LiMnPO 4 has been considered as one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for next-generation lithium ion batteries. However, LiMnPO 4 suffers from intrinsic drawbacks of extremely low electronic conductivity and ionic diffusivity between LiMnPO 4 /MnPO 4 . In this paper, mesoporous LiMnPO 4 nanoparticles are synthesized successfully via a facile glycine-assisted solvothermal rout. The as-prepared mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C nanoparticles present well-defined abundant mesoporous structure (diameter of 3 ∼ 10 nm), uniform carbon layer (thickness of 3 ∼ 4 nm), high specific surface area (90.1 m 2 /g). As a result, the mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C nanoparticles achieve excellent electrochemical performance as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. It demonstrates a high discharge capacity of 167.7, 161.6, 156.4, 148.4 and 128.7 mAh/g at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5C, and maintains a discharge capacity of 130.0 mAh/g after 100 cycles at 1C. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to its special interpenetrating mesoporous structure in LiMnPO 4 nanoparticles, which significantly enhances the ionic and electronic transport and additional capacitive behavior to compensate the sluggish kinetics.

  15. Fabricating high-energy quantum dots in ultra-thin LiFePO4 nanosheets using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule-ATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; Bi, Z.Y.; He, W.

    2014-01-01

    By using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule—adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—we fabricated highenergy quantum dots (HEQDs) with a feature size of less than 10 nm and used them in high-power lithium-ion batteries. We introduced high-energy phosphate bonds into the crystal structure of LiFePO4...... nanoparticles and synthesized the mesoporous biocarbon nanowire coated LiFePO4 with HEQDs (MBCNW-LFP-HEQDs) by using ATP as a phosphorus source, a nucleating agent, a structural template and a biocarbon source. HEGDs were homogeneously formed inside the ultra-thin LiFePO4 nanosheet and the mesoporous biocarbon...... nanowire network structure was coated on the surface of the nanosheet. In LiFePO4 nanoparticles, HEQDs result in more storage sites of Li+ ions and easier transfer kinetics of electrons and lithium ions, where the kinetic transformation path between LiFePO4 and FePO4 is rather different from the path...

  16. A mesoporous WO{sub 3−X}/graphene composite as a high-performance Li-ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fei [C-Industry Incubation Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Gu [C-Industry Incubation Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chul Wee [C-Industry Incubation Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology (UST), Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ji Sun, E-mail: jsim@krict.re.kr [C-Industry Incubation Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology (UST), Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The highly flexible and conductive graphene layer can enhance electron transfer, protect metal oxides against disintegration and aggregation and buffer the strain induced by volume expansion during cycles. The mesoporous surface layer provides an open network for Li+ diffusion. - Highlights: • Novel cocktail effects of 2D mesoporous WO{sub 3−X}/graphene for lithium ion battery. • New approach for lithium ion battery by easy and unique synthesis method. • Mechanism study with proper data for understanding a reaction on anode surface. - Abstract: A novel mesoporous WO{sub 3−X}/graphene composite was developed. This material allowed rapid electron and Li{sup +} ion diffusion when used as a Li-ion battery (LIB) anode material. Remarkably, the graphene support protected WO{sub 3−X} from changing volume during the electrochemical cycling process; this process generally induces capacity loss. The current work describes a high-performance anode material for LIB that has highly dense WO{sub 3−X}, as well as high capacity, rate capability and stability.

  17. Highly porous carbon with large electrochemical ion absorption capability for high-performance supercapacitors and ion capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie; Wang, Rutao; Zhang, Yabin; Zhang, Li

    2017-11-03

    Carbon-based supercapacitors have attracted extensive attention as the complement to batteries, owing to their durable lifespan and superiority in high-power-demand fields. However, their widespread use is limited by the low energy storage density; thus, a high-surface-area porous carbon is urgently needed. Herein, a highly porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area up to 3643 m 2 g -1 has been synthesized by chemical activation of papayas for the first time. This sp 2 -bonded porous carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form narrow mesopores of 2 ∼ 5 nm in width, which can be systematically tailored with varied activation levels. Two-electrode symmetric supercapacitors constructed by this porous carbon achieve energy density of 8.1 Wh kg -1 in aqueous electrolyte and 65.5 Wh kg -1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte. Furthermore, half-cells (versus Li or Na metal) using this porous carbon as ion sorption cathodes yield high specific capacity, e.g., 51.0 and 39.3 mAh g -1 in Li + and Na + based organic electrolyte. These results underline the possibility of obtaining the porous carbon for high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors and ion capacitors in a readily scalable and economical way.

  18. Highly porous carbon with large electrochemical ion absorption capability for high-performance supercapacitors and ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie; Wang, Rutao; Zhang, Yabin; Zhang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Carbon-based supercapacitors have attracted extensive attention as the complement to batteries, owing to their durable lifespan and superiority in high-power-demand fields. However, their widespread use is limited by the low energy storage density; thus, a high-surface-area porous carbon is urgently needed. Herein, a highly porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area up to 3643 m2 g-1 has been synthesized by chemical activation of papayas for the first time. This sp2-bonded porous carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form narrow mesopores of 2 ˜ 5 nm in width, which can be systematically tailored with varied activation levels. Two-electrode symmetric supercapacitors constructed by this porous carbon achieve energy density of 8.1 Wh kg-1 in aqueous electrolyte and 65.5 Wh kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte. Furthermore, half-cells (versus Li or Na metal) using this porous carbon as ion sorption cathodes yield high specific capacity, e.g., 51.0 and 39.3 mAh g-1 in Li+ and Na+ based organic electrolyte. These results underline the possibility of obtaining the porous carbon for high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors and ion capacitors in a readily scalable and economical way.

  19. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Li-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ohno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR imaging has high sensitivity to proton (1H and lithium (7Li. It is a useful measurement for electrolyte in Li-ion battery. 1H NMR images of lithium ion battery which is composed of LiMn2O4 / LiClO4 + propylene carbonate (PC / Li-metal have been studied. 1H NMR images of electrolyte near cathode material (LiMn2O4 showed anomalous intensity distribution, which was quite inhomogeneous. From NMR images as a function of repetition time (TR, it was concluded that the anomalous intensity distribution was not due to change of relaxation time but an indirect (spatial para-magnetization effect from cathode material. The paramagnetization induced by high magnetic field distorts linearity of magnetic gradient field, leading to apparent intensity variance. This functional image is an easy diagnostic measurement for magnetization of cathode material, which allows the possibility to check uniformity of cathode material and change of magnetization under electrochemical process.

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of mesoporous Li2FeSiO4/C composite cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Jayakumar, O. D.; Bazzi, Khadije; Nazri, Gholam-Abbas; Naik, Vaman M.; Naik, Ratna

    2015-03-01

    Lithium iron silicate (Li2FeSiO4) has the potential as cathode for Li ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (~ 330 mAh/g) and improved safety. The application of Li2FeSiO4 as cathode material has been challenged by its poor electronic conductivity and slow lithium ion diffusion in the solid phase. In order to solve these problems, we have synthesized mesoporous Li2FeSiO4/C composites by sol-gel method using the tri-block copolymer (P123) as carbon source. The phase purity and morphology of the composite materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of ~ 12 nm size Li2FeSiO4 crystallites in composites annealed at 600 °C for 6 h under argon atmosphere. The electrochemical properties are measured using the composite material as positive electrode in a standard coin cell configuration with lithium as the active anode and the cells were tested using AC impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. The Li2FeSiO4/C composites showed a discharge capacity of ~ 240 mAh/g at a rate of C/30 at room temperature. The effect of different annealing temperature and synthesis time on the electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4/C will be presented.

  1. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  2. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate at low temperatures to satisfy the requirements of such applications as landers, rovers, and penetrators. A number of terrestrial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) also require energy storage devices that can operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 C), while still providing high power capability and long life. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-30 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. These limitations at very low temperatures are due to poor electrolyte conductivity, poor lithium intercalation kinetics over the electrode surface layers, and poor ionic diffusion in the electrode bulk. Two wide-operating-temperature-range electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed include further optimization of electrolytes containing methyl propionate (MP) and ethyl butyrate (EB), which are effective co-solvents, to widen the operating temperature range beyond the baseline systems. Attention was focused on further optimizing ester-based electrolyte formulations that have exhibited the best performance at temperatures ranging from -60 to +60 C, with an emphasis upon improving the rate capability at -20 to -40 C. This was accomplished by increasing electrolyte salt concentration to 1.20M and increasing the ester content to 60 percent by volume to increase the ionic conductivity at low temperatures. Two JPL-developed electrolytes 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MP (20:20:60 v/v %) and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+EB (20:20:60 v/v %) operate effectively over a wide

  3. Facile design and synthesis of Li-rich nanoplates cathodes with habit-tuned crystal for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jili; Jia, Tiekun; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Jian; Cao, Chuanbao

    2016-11-01

    Li-ion batteries with high-energy and high-power density are pursued to apply in the electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems. In this work, layered Li-rich transition-metal oxide cathode Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 nanoplates with enhanced growth of {010} planes (LNMO-NP) is successfully synthesized through a facile and versatile strategy. Ethylene glycol plays an important role in the formation of LNMO-NP nanoplates with {010} electrochemically active surface planes exposure. As cathode for Li-ion batteries, LNMO-NP demonstrates a high specific discharge capacity of 270.2 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 300 mA g-1) and an excellent rate capability. The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the nanoplates with the growth of {010} electrochemically active planes which is in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation.

  4. Highly conductive cathode materials for Li-ion batteries prepared by thermal nanocrystallization of selected oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak, T.K.; Wasiucionek, M.; Michalski, P.P.; Kaleta, A.; Garbarczyk, J.E., E-mail: garbar@if.pw.edu.pl

    2016-11-15

    Glassy analogs of two important cathode materials for Li-ion cells: V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and phosphoolivine LiFePO{sub 4} were heat-treated in order to prepare nanocrystallized materials with high electronic conductivity of up to 7 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} and ca 7 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C, respectively. There is a clear correlation between the crystallization phenomena and the increase in the electrical conductivity for both groups of glasses. Electrochemical tests of heat-treated glasses of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system, used as cathodes in lithium cells confirm their good gravimetric capacity and reversibility. Heat-treatment of glasses of the Li{sub 2}O–FeO–V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system also leads to a high increase in the conductivity and to formation of nanocrystalline grains in the glassy matrix, evidenced by HR-TEM images. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of these materials follows the Arrhenius formula. The presented results indicate that the overall increase in conductivity in nanocrystallized materials is due to good charge transport properties of their interfacial regions.

  5. Rate-dependent, Li-ion insertion/deinsertion behavior of LiFePO4 cathodes in commercial 18650 LiFePO4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; He, Hao; Li, Zhe-Fei; Liu, Yadong; Ren, Yang; Lu, Wenquan; Lu, Jun; Stach, Eric A; Xie, Jian

    2014-03-12

    We have performed operando synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) to obtain nonintrusive, real-time monitoring of the dynamic chemical and structural changes in commercial 18650 LiFePO4/C cells under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate a nonequilibrium lithium insertion and extraction in the LiFePO4 cathode, with neither the LiFePO4 phase nor the FePO4 phase maintaining a static composition during lithium insertion/extraction. On the basis of our observations, we propose that the LiFePO4 cathode simultaneously experiences both a two-phase reaction mechanism and a dual-phase solid-solution reaction mechanism over the entire range of the flat voltage plateau, with this dual-phase solid-solution behavior being strongly dependent on charge/discharge rates. The proposed dual-phase solid-solution mechanism may explain the remarkable rate capability of LiFePO4 in commercial cells.

  6. Enhancement of the Rate Capability of LiFePO4 by a New Highly Graphitic Carbon-Coating Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianjun; Sun, Bing; Liu, Hao; Ma, Zhipeng; Chen, Zhouhao; Shao, Guangjie; Wang, Guoxiu

    2016-06-22

    Low lithium ion diffusivity and poor electronic conductivity are two major drawbacks for the wide application of LiFePO4 in high-power lithium ion batteries. In this work, we report a facile and efficient carbon-coating method to prepare LiFePO4/graphitic carbon composites by in situ carbonization of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride during calcination. Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride containing naphthalene rings can be easily converted to highly graphitic carbon during thermal treatment. The ultrathin layer of highly graphitic carbon coating drastically increased the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4. The short pathway along the [010] direction of LiFePO4 nanoplates could decrease the Li(+) ion diffusion path. In favor of the high electronic conductivity and short lithium ion diffusion distance, the LiFePO4/graphitic carbon composites exhibit an excellent cycling stability at high current rates at room temperature and superior performance at low temperature (-20 °C).

  7. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Lithium Ion Batteries Ageing Analysis when used in a PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Aparicio, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the integration of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries into large scale grid-connected PV plants. It performs a systematic analysis on both the operation improvement obtained by a PV+ES power plant and the ageing experienced by the Li-ion batteries used as Energy Storage (ES) system...... when operating under different energy management strategies (EMS). In this paper, the PV+ES power plant structure is presented and the selection of Li-on batteries as ES system (ESS) is justified. Moreover, the simulation model used for studying the Li-ion battery ageing is explained and tested...

  9. Potential Usage of Thermoelectric Devices in a High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Gao; Chen, Min; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2012-01-01

    Methanol fuelled high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) power systems are promising as the next generation of vehicle engines, efficient and environmentally friendly. Currently, their performance still needs to be improved and they still rely on a large Li-ion battery...... for system startup. In this paper, to handle these two issues, the potential of thermoelectric (TE) devices applied in a HTPEMFC power system has been preliminarily evaluated. Firstly, right after the fuel cell stack or the methanol reformer, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are embedded inside a gas......-liquid heat exchanger to jointly form a heat recovery subsystem for electricity production. It is calculated that the recovered power can increase the system efficiency and mitigate the dependence on Li-ion battery during system startup. To further improve the TEG subsystem performance, a finite...

  10. Bio-synthesis participated mechanism of mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite microspheres for lithium ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; He, W.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    specific surface area (203 m2 g-1). The microsphere is composed of densely aggregated nanoparticles and interconnected nanopores. The open mesoporous structure allows lithium ions easily to penetrate into the spheres, while a thorough coating of the biocarbon network on the surface of the LiFePO4...... nanoparticles facilitates lithium ion and electron diffusion. The MP-LFP/C-NC-MS have high discharge capacity of about 158.5 mA h g−1 at the current density of 0.1 C, discharge capacity of 122 mA h g−1 at 10 C, and high capacity retention rate. Therefore the mesoporous microspheres are an ideal type of cathode......-active materials for making high-power Li-ion batteries....

  11. Lithium and sodium ion capacitors with high energy and power densities based on carbons from recycled olive pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuria, Jon; Redondo, Edurne; Arnaiz, Maria; Mysyk, Roman; Rojo, Teófilo; Goikolea, Eider

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitors (LIC and NIC) entirely based on electrodes designed from recycled olive pit bio-waste derived carbon materials. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. On the other hand, the same hard carbon was chemically activated with KOH to obtain a high specific surface area activated carbon that was further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. Both electrodes were custom-made to be assembled in a hybrid cell to either build a LIC or NIC in the corresponding Li- and Na-based electrolytes. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5 M Et4NBF4/acetonitrile electrolyte was also built. Both LIC and NIC systems demonstrate remarkable energy and power density enhancement over its EDLC counterpart while showing good cycle life. This breakthrough offers the possibility to easily fabricate versatile hybrid ion capacitors, covering a wide variety of applications where different requirements are demanded.

  12. Nanoscale surface modification of Li-rich layered oxides for high-capacity cathodes in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiwei; Xin, Yue; Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-03-01

    Li-rich layered oxides (LLOs) have been developed as a high-capacity cathode material for Li-ion batteries, but the structural complexity and unique initial charging behavior lead to several problems including large initial capacity loss, capacity and voltage fading, poor cyclability, and inferior rate capability. Since the surface conditions are critical to electrochemical performance and the drawbacks, nanoscale surface modification for improving LLO's properties is a general strategy. This review mainly summarizes the surface modification of LLOs and classifies them into three types of surface pre-treatment, surface gradient doping, and surface coating. Surface pre-treatment usually introduces removal of Li2O for lower irreversible capacity while surface doping is aimed to stabilize the structure during electrochemical cycling. Surface coating layers with different properties, protective layers to suppress the interface side reaction, coating layers related to structural transformation, and electronic/ionic conductive layers for better rate capability, can avoid the shortcomings of LLOs. In addition to surface modification for performance enhancement, other strategies can also be investigated to achieve high-performance LLO-based cathode materials.

  13. Silicon-Carbon Nanotube Coaxial Sponge as Li-Ion Anodes with High Areal Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Gao, Yifan; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Hongbian; McDough, James; Xie, Xing; Zhou, Min; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous, conductive Si-CNT sponge-like structures with a large areal mass loading are demonstrated as effective Li-ion battery anode materials. Nano-pore formation and growth in the Si shell has been identified as the primary failure mode

  14. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Su, Xiuli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-20

    A flexible and wearable aqueous lithium-ion battery is introduced based on spinel Li1.1 Mn2 O4 cathode and a carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 anode (NASICON=sodium-ion super ionic conductor). Energy densities of 63 Wh kg(-1) or 124 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 3 275 W kg(-1) or 11.1 W cm(-3) can be obtained, which are seven times larger than the largest reported till now. The full cell can keep its capacity without significant loss under different bending states, which shows excellent flexibility. Furthermore, two such flexible cells in series with an operation voltage of 4 V can be compatible with current nonaqueous Li-ion batteries. Therefore, such a flexible cell can potentially be put into practical applications for wearable electronics. In addition, a self-chargeable unit is realized by integrating a single flexible aqueous Li-ion battery with a commercial flexible solar cell, which may facilitate the long-time outdoor operation of flexible and wearable electronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Attainable high capacity in Li-excess Li-Ni-Ru-O rock-salt cathode for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingbo; Huang, Weifeng; Tao, Shi; Xie, Hui; Wu, Chuanqiang; Yu, Zhen; Su, Xiaozhi; Qi, Jiaxin; Rehman, Zia ur; Song, Li; Zhang, Guobin; Chu, Wangsheng; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Peroxide structure O2n- has proven to appear after electrochemical process in many lithium-excess precious metal oxides, representing extra reversible capacity. We hereby report construction of a Li-excess rock-salt oxide Li1+xNi1/2-3x/2Ru1/2+x/2O2 electrode, with cost effective and eco-friendly 3d transition metal Ni partially substituting precious 4d transition metal Ru. It can be seen that O2n- is formed in pristine Li1.23Ni0.155Ru0.615O2, and stably exists in subsequent cycles, enabling discharge capacities to 295.3 and 198 mAh g-1 at the 1st/50th cycle, respectively. Combing ex-situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical characterization, we demonstrate that the excellent electrochemical performance comes from both percolation network with disordered structure and cation/anion redox couples occurring in charge-discharge process. Li-excess and substitution of common element have been demonstrated to be a breakthrough for designing novel high performance commercial cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion battery field.

  16. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kanamura@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li{sup +}-ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li{sub 6.25}Al{sub 0.25}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZ) with Li{sup +}-ion conductivity of ~10{sup –4} S ⋅cm{sup −1} at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO{sub 2}/LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO{sub 2}–LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, which is a

  17. Porous-Nickel-Scaffolded Tin-Antimony Anodes with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties for Li/Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiachen; Pu, Jun; Liu, Ziqiang; Wang, Jian; Wu, Wenlu; Zhang, Huigang; Ma, Haixia

    2017-08-02

    The energy and power densities of rechargeable batteries urgently need to be increased to meet the ever-increasing demands of consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Alloy anodes are among the most promising candidates for next-generation high-capacity battery materials. However, the high capacities of alloy anodes usually suffer from some serious difficulties related to the volume changes of active materials. Porous supports and nanostructured alloy materials have been explored to address these issues. However, these approaches seemingly increase the active material-based properties and actually decrease the electrode-based capacity because of the oversized pores and heavy mass of mechanical supports. In this study, we developed an ultralight porous nickel to scaffold with high-capacity SnSb alloy anodes. The porous-nickel-supported SnSb alloy demonstrates a high specific capacity and good cyclability for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Its capacity retains 580 mA h g -1 at 2 A g -1 after 100 cycles in Li-ion batteries. For a Na-ion battery, the composite electrode can even deliver a capacity of 275 mA h g -1 at 1 A g -1 after 1000 cycles. This study demonstrates that combining the scaffolding function of ultralight porous nickel and the high capacity of the SnSb alloy can significantly enhance the electrochemical performances of Li/Na-ion batteries.

  18. A Practical Circuit-based Model for State of Health Estimation of Li-ion Battery Cells in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Long

    2011-08-23

    In this thesis the development of the state of health of Li-ion battery cells under possible real-life operating conditions in electric cars has been characterised. Furthermore, a practical circuit-based model for Li-ion cells has been developed that is capable of modelling the cell voltage behaviour under various operating conditions. The Li-ion cell model can be implemented in simulation programs and be directly connected to a model of the rest of the electronic system in electric vehicles. Most existing battery models are impractical for electric vehicle system designers and require extensive background knowledge of electrochemistry to be implemented. Furthermore, many models do not take the effect of regenerative braking into account and are obtained from testing fully charged cells. However, in real-life applications electric vehicles are not always fully charged and utilise regenerative braking to save energy. To obtain a practical circuit model based on real operating conditions and to model the state of health of electric vehicle cells, numerous 18650 size LiFePO4 cells have been tested under possible operating conditions. Capacity fading was chosen as the state of health parameter, and the capacity fading of different cells was compared with the charge processed instead of cycles. Tests have shown that the capacity fading rate is dependent on temperature, charging C-rate, state of charge and depth of discharge. The obtained circuit model is capable of simulating the voltage behaviour under various temperatures and C-rates with a maximum error of 14mV. However, modelling the effect of different temperatures and C-rates increases the complexity of the model. The model is easily adjustable and the choice is given to the electric vehicle system designer to decide which operating conditions to take into account. By combining the test results for the capacity fading and the proposed circuit model, recommendations to optimise the battery lifetime are proposed.

  19. Coaxial MoS2@Carbon Hybrid Fibers: A Low-Cost Anode Material for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost bio-mass-derived carbon substrate has been employed to synthesize MoS2@carbon composites through a hydrothermal method. Carbon fibers derived from natural cotton provide a three-dimensional and open framework for the uniform growth of MoS2 nanosheets, thus hierarchically constructing coaxial architecture. The unique structure could synergistically benefit fast Li-ion and electron transport from the conductive carbon scaffold and porous MoS2 nanostructures. As a result, the MoS2@carbon composites—when serving as anodes for Li-ion batteries—exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 820 mAh·g−1, high-rate capability (457 mAh·g−1 at 2 A·g−1, and excellent cycling stability. The use of bio-mass-derived carbon makes the MoS2@carbon composites low-cost and promising anode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

  20. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  1. A porous C/LiFePO4/multiwalled carbon nanotubes cathode material for Lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Guohui; Ma, Qianqian; Wang, Chengyang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •C/LiFePO 4 /MWCNT was synthesized by a incorporation of sol-gel approach and an electro-polymerization progress with a subsequent carbonization progress. •The prepared C/LiFePO 4 /MWCNTs electrode presents high-rate ability, cyclic stability, and a relative volume density. •Such cathode material is an alternative candidate for high power lithium ion batteries. -- Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) porous C/LiFePO 4 /MWCNTs was synthesized by a hybrid of in situ sol gel strategy and a facile electro-polymerization polyaniline technique and a simultaneous sintering progress. In combined with the 3D hierarchical pore topologies and high electronic conduction facilitating the kinetics of both electron transport and lithium ion diffusion within the particles, the optimized electrodes exhibit an ultrahigh rate capacity, stable charge/discharge cycle ability, and a comparative volume capacity. The synthesized LiFePO 4 composite offers a discharge capacity of 169.6mAhg −1 (nearly to its the theoretical capability 170mAhg −1 ) at the C/10 rate and delivers a good rate performance with a capacity of 141.9mAh g −1 at a high rate of 20 C, and stable charge/discharge cycle ability (>95% capacity retention after 200 charge/discharge cycles).This non-organic facile synthesize avenue can be high desirable to prepare high-power electrode materials

  2. Self-assembled LiFePO4 nanowires with high rate capability for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2014-08-28

    Controlling the dimensions in the nanometer scale of olivine-type LiFePO4 has been regarded as one of the most effective strategies to improve its electrochemical performance for Li-ion batteries. In this communication, we demonstrate a novel LiFePO4 nanoarchitecture, which is composed of self-assembled single-crystalline nanowires and exhibits good rate capability with a reversible capacity of ∼110 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of 30 C, and a stable capacity retention of ∼86% after 1000 cycles at a current rate of 10 C.

  3. Development of Li+ alumino-silicate ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Kwan, J.

    2009-01-01

    To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, one strategy is to deposit most of the ion energy at the peak of energy loss (dE/dx) with a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy beam and a thin target. Lower mass ions have a peak dE/dx at a lower kinetic energy. To this end, a small lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate source has been fabricated, and its emission limit has been measured. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1000-1150 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Alumino-silicates sources of K+ and Cs+ have been used extensively in beam experiments, but there are additional challenges for the preparation of high-quality Li+ sources: There are tighter tolerances in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. We report on recent measurements ofhigh ( up to 35 mA/cm2) current density from a Li+ source. Ion species identification of possible contaminants is being verified with a Wien (E x B) filter, and via time-of-flight.

  4. Li2 NH-LiBH4 : a Complex Hydride with Near Ambient Hydrogen Adsorption and Fast Lithium Ion Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Cao, Hujun; Zhang, Weijin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Hui; Pistidda, Claudio; Ju, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Guotao; Etter, Martin; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin; Chen, Ping

    2018-01-26

    Complex hydrides have played important roles in energy storage area. Here a complex hydride made of Li 2 NH and LiBH 4 was synthesized, which has a structure tentatively indexed using an orthorhombic cell with a space group of Pna2 1 and lattice parameters of a=10.121, b=6.997, and c=11.457 Å. The Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample (in a molar ratio of 1:1) shows excellent hydrogenation kinetics, starting to absorb H 2 at 310 K, which is more than 100 K lower than that of pristine Li 2 NH. Furthermore, the Li + ion conductivity of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample is about 1.0×10 -5  S cm -1 at room temperature, and is higher than that of either Li 2 NH or LiBH 4 at 373 K. Those unique properties of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 complex render it a promising candidate for hydrogen storage and Li ion conduction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Three-dimensional sandwich-structured NiMn2O4@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for highly reversible Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiarui; Wang, Wei; Lin, Xirong; Gu, Cuiping; Liu, Jinyun

    2018-02-01

    A sandwich-structured NiMn2O4@reduced graphene oxide (NiMn2O4@rGO) nanocomposite consisting of ultrathin NiMn2O4 sheets uniformly anchored on both sides of a three-dimensional (3D) porous rGO is presented. The NiMn2O4@rGO nanocomposites prepared through a dipping process combining with a hydrothermal method show a good electrochemical performance including a high reversible capability of 1384 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 over 1620 cycles, and an superior rate performance. Thus, a full cell consisting of a commercial LiCoO2 cathode and the NiMn2O4@rGO anode delivers a stable capacity of about 1046 mAh g-1 (anode basis) after cycling at 50 mA g-1 for 60 times. It is demonstrated that the 3D porous composite structure accommodates the volume change during the Li+ insertion/extraction process and facilitates the rapid transport of ions and electrons. The high performance would enable the presented NiMn2O4@rGO nanocomposite a promising anode candidate for practical applications in Li-ion batteries.

  6. Effect of electrolyte additives in improving the cycle and calendar life of graphite/Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} Li-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Zonghai; Busking, Sara; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-12-06

    Lithium-rich layered metal oxide Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} was investigated as a potential positive electrode material for high-power batteries for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. In order to evaluate the power and life characteristics of the graphite/Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} cell chemistry, hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) and accelerated calendar life tests were conducted on several pouch cells containing electrolytes with and without additives. The data show that the cells containing 0.5 wt% lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) or vinyl ethyl carbonate (VEC) additives, or the novel lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) additive, have much improved cycle and calendar life performance. (author)

  7. Enhanced Lithium Ion Transport by Superionic Pathways Formed on the Surface of Two-dimensional Structured Li0.85Na0.15V3O8 for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xuena; Shang, Yu; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet with superionic conductive layer was constructed. • Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer provides facile pathways for lithium migration. • Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability. - Abstract: Poor ion transport and rate capability are the main challenges for LiV 3 O 8 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Here we report a novel strategy for enhancing lithium ion transport by building superionic pathways on the surface of Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet. The two-dimensional Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanoparticle with an ion conductive layer of Li x V 2 O 5 on its surface is constructed by a modified sol–gel strategy with carefully controlled sodium incorporation and elements stoichiometry. Ultrathin Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer not only provides facile pathways for lithium migration, but also increases the structure stability during cycling. The Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability of 172.3 mAh g −1 at 5C and excellent cycling stability of 98.9% over fifty cycles. This superior electrochemical property is attributed to the occupation of lithium site by Na + in LiV 3 O 8 host crystals and the surface superionic pathways of Li x V 2 O 5 phase. Therefore, the advantages of both high ion transport and the structure stabilization in present study put forward a new strategy for achieving high-performance LiV 3 O 8 electrode material with tailored nanoarchitecture

  8. Fragmentation of copper current collectors in Li-ion batteries during spherical indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsin; Watkins, Thomas R.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Bingham, Philip R.; Allu, Srikanth; Turner, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Large, areal, brittle fracture of copper current collector foils was observed by 3D x-ray computed tomography (XCT) of a spherically indented Li-ion cell. This fracture was hidden and non-catastrophic to a degree because the graphite layers deformed plastically, and held the materials together so that the cracks in the foils could not be seen under optical and electron microscopy. 3D XCT on the indented cell showed “mud cracks” within the copper layer. The cracking of copper foils could not be immediately confirmed when the cell was opened for post-mortem examination. However, an X-ray radiograph on a single foil of the Cu anode showed clearly that the copper foil had broken into multiple pieces similar to the brittle cracking of a ceramic under indentation. This new failure mode of anodes on Li-ion cell has very important implications on the behavior of Li-ion cells under mechanical abuse conditions. Furthermore, the fragmentation of current collectors in the anode must be taken into consideration for the electrochemical responses which may lead to capacity loss and affect thermal runaway behavior of the cells.

  9. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  10. Adsorption and diffusion of lithium on layered silicon for Li-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsaris, Georgios A; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Meng, Sheng; Wang, Enge

    2013-05-08

    The energy density of Li-ion batteries depends critically on the specific charge capacity of the constituent electrodes. Silicene, the silicon analogue to graphene, being of atomic thickness could serve as high-capacity host of Li in Li-ion secondary batteries. In this work, we employ first-principles calculations to investigate the interaction of Li with Si in model electrodes of free-standing single-layer and double-layer silicene. More specifically, we identify strong binding sites for Li, calculate the energy barriers accompanying Li diffusion, and present our findings in the context of previous theoretical work related to Li-ion storage in other structural forms of silicon: the bulk and nanowires. The binding energy of Li is ~2.2 eV per Li atom and shows small variation with respect to Li content and silicene thickness (one or two layers) while the barriers for Li diffusion are relatively low, typically less than 0.6 eV. We use our theoretical findings to assess the suitability of two-dimensional silicon in the form of silicene layers for Li-ion storage.

  11. Peculiar Li-storage mechanism at graphene edges in turbostratic carbon black and their application in high energy Li-ion capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Dupré, Nicolas; Moreau, Philippe; Guyomard, Dominique; Brousse, Thierry; Gaubicher, Joel

    2018-02-01

    We report experimental evidence for the specific Li-storage at turbostratic graphene edges of a well-known and cheap Super P® carbon black (Csp) material, which is usually used as a conductive additive in composite electrodes. Indeed, operando XRD and HR-TEM consistently demonstrate Li insertion occurs with zero expansion of graphene layer up to a composition of Li0.4C6 (150 mA h/g) that is reached at 0.01 V vs. Li+/Li. 7Li NMR substantiates these results and suggests that the weak electronic transfer from the carbon host to the intercalant could help local reorganization of the layer order as suggested by the unexpected reversible changes of the (002) Bragg peak intensity during the charge-discharge process. Our observations also indicate this insertion mechanism is kinetically favored resulting in remarkable cycling stability over 1000 cycles and power capability allowing to sustain 110 mA h/g at 8 A/g (21 C) in half cell. The capability of Csp as an efficient anode is ultimately demonstrated in a lithium hybrid capacitor against a positive electrode of activated carbon. The full cell delivers a maximum energy of 120 Wh/kg (4.3-2 V) and remarkable capacity retention over 1800 cycles.

  12. Coupled electrochemical thermal modelling of a novel Li-ion battery pack thermal management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Sohn, Dong Kee; Yeo, Taejung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional electrochemical thermal model of Li-ion battery pack using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). • Novel pack design for compact liquid cooling based thermal management system. • Simple temperature estimation algorithm for the cells in the pack using the results from the model. • Sensitivity of the thermal performance to contact resistance has been investigated. - Abstract: Thermal management system is of critical importance for a Li-ion battery pack, as high performance and long battery pack life can be simultaneously achieved when operated within a narrow range of temperature around the room temperature. An efficient thermal management system is required to keep the battery temperature in this range, despite widely varying operating conditions. A novel liquid coolant based thermal management system, for 18,650 battery pack has been introduced herein. This system is designed to be compact and economical without compromising safety. A coupled three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical thermal model is constructed for the proposed Li-ion battery pack. The model is used to evaluate the effects of different operating conditions like coolant flow-rate and discharge current on the pack temperature. Contact resistance is found to have the strongest impact on the thermal performance of the pack. From the numerical solution, a simple and novel temperature correlation of predicting the temperatures of all the individual cells given the temperature measurement of one cell is devised and validated with experimental results. Such coefficients have great potential of reducing the sensor requirement and complexity in a large Li-ion battery pack, typical of an electric vehicle.

  13. A comprehensive study on Li-ion battery nail penetrations and the possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are the state-of-the-art power sources for portable electronics, electric vehicles, and aerospace applications. The safety issues regarding Li-ion batteries arouse particular attentions after several accidents reported in recent years. Among various abuse conditions, nail penetration is one of the most dangerous for Li-ion batteries due to the accumulated heat generation, which could give rise to the thermal runaway and could damage entire energy storage system. In this paper, an electrochemical-thermal coupling model is developed to study the nail penetration process of Li-ion batteries. By introducing joule heating at the nail location, the model shows good agreement with the testing results. With this verified model, a comprehensive parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of battery capacity, internal resistance, and nail diameter on the electrochemical and thermal behaviors of Li-ion batteries during the penetration processes. Furthermore, three possible solutions to prevent the thermal runaway, which includes decreasing the state of charge, improving heat dissipation, and increasing contact resistance, are compared and discussed in detail based on a series of simulations. - Highlights: • A coupling model is developed to simulate Li-ion battery nail penetrations. • A contact resistance – contact area curve is plotted based on experiments. • Simulation results show good agreements with nail tests. • The behaviors of Li-ion batteries in different penetration scenarios are studied. • Possible strategies to prevent thermal runaway are investigated and discussed.

  14. The use of deuterated ethyl acetate in highly concentrated electrolyte as a low-cost solvent for in situ neutron diffraction measurements of Li-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petibon, R.; Li, Jing; Sharma, Neeraj; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Dahn, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost deuterated electrolyte suitable for in situ neutron diffraction measurements of normal and high voltage Li-ion battery electrodes is reported here. Li[Ni 0.4 Mn 0.4 Co 0.2 ]O 2 /graphite (NMC(442)/graphite) pouch cells filled with 1:0.1:2 (molar ratio) of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (LiFSi):LiPF 6 : ethyl acetate (EA) and LiFSi:LiPF 6 :deuterated EA (d8-EA) electrolytes were successfully cycled between 2.8 V and 4.7 V at 40°C for 250 h without significant capacity loss, polarization growth, or gas production. The signal-to-noise ratio of neutron powder diffraction patterns taken on NMC(442) powder with a conventional deuterated organic carbonate-based electrolyte and filled with LiFSi:LiPF 6 :d8-EA electrolyte were virtually identical. Out of all the solvents widely available in deuterated form tested in highly-concentrated systems, EA was the only one providing a good balance between cost and charge-discharge capacity retention to 4.7 V. The use of such an electrolyte blend would half the cost of deuterated solvents needed for in situ neutron diffraction measurements of Li-ion batteries compared to conventional deuterated carbonate-based electrolytes

  15. Primary frequency regulation with Li-ion battery energy storage system: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    Meeting ambitious goals of transition to distributed and environmentally-friendly renewable energy generation can be difficult to achieve without energy storage systems due to technical and economical challenges. Moreover, energy storage systems have a high potential of not only smoothing and imp...... electricity market. Moreover, in this paper a possible improvement of the Li-ion BESS energy management strategy is shown, which allows for obtaining the higher NPV....... lifetime, which introduces significant risk into the business model. This paper deals with the investigation of the lifetime of LiFeP04/C battery systems when they are used to provide primary frequency regulation service. A semi-empirical lifetime model for these battery cells was developed based...... on the results obtained from accelerated lifetime testing. The developed Li­-ion battery lifetime model is later a base for the analyses of the economic profitability of the investment in the Li-ion battery energy storage system (BESS), which delivers the primary frequency regulation service on the Danish...

  16. Thin-film type Li-ion battery, using a polyethylene separator grafted with glycidyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, J.M.; Min, B.G.; Kim, D.-W.; Ryu, K.S.; Kim, K.M.; Lee, Y.G.; Chang, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    For the improvement of organic electrolyte holding ability, the hydrophobic surface of a porous polyethylene (PE)-membrane separator was modified by grafting a hydrophilic monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), PE-g-GMA, by using electron beam technology, and applied to a thin film type Li-ion battery to elucidate the effect of a surface modification of a PE membrane separator on the cyclic life of Li-ion batteries. The Li-ion battery using the PE-g-GMA membrane separator showed a better cycle life than that of the unmodified PE membrane separator, indicating that the surface hydrophilicity of the PE membrane separator improved the electrolyte holding capability between the electrodes in the Li-ion cell and prevented the electrolyte leakage

  17. Association and Diffusion of Li(+) in Carboxymethylcellulose Solutions for Environmentally Friendly Li-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Mosè; Castiglione, Franca; Passarello, Marco; Mele, Andrea; Passerini, Stefano; Raos, Guido

    2016-07-21

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been proposed as a polymeric binder for electrodes in environmentally friendly Li-ion batteries. Its physical properties and interaction with Li(+) ions in water are interesting not only from the point of view of electrode preparation-processability in water is one of the main reasons for its environmental friendliness-but also for its possible application in aqueous Li-ion batteries. We combine molecular dynamics simulations and variable-time pulsed field gradient spin-echo (PFGSE) NMR spectroscopy to investigate Li(+) transport in CMC-based solutions. Both the simulations and experimental results show that, at concentrations at which Li-CMC has a gel-like consistency, the Li(+) diffusion coefficient is still very close to that in water. These Li(+) ions interact preferentially with the carboxylate groups of CMC, giving rise to a rich variety of coordination patterns. However, the diffusion of Li(+) in these systems is essentially unrestricted, with a fast, nanosecond-scale exchange of the ions between CMC and the aqueous environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Direct view on the phase evolution in individual LiFePO4 nanoparticles during Li-ion battery cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Van Hulzen, M.; Singh, D.P.; Brownrigg, A.W.; Wright, J.P.; Van Dijk, N.H.; Wagemaker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Phase transitions in Li-ion electrode materials during (dis)charge are decisive for battery performance, limiting high-rate capabilities and playing a crucial role in the cycle life of Li-ion batteries. However, the difficulty to probe the phase nucleation and growth in individual grains is

  19. Copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide composites for high performance Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Hee-Sang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a composite electrode structure consisting of copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide (CuNFs@CoO x . The copper nanofibers (CuNFs were fabricated on a substrate with formation of a network structure, which may have potential for improving electron percolation and retarding film deformation during the discharging/charging process over the electroactive cobalt oxide. Compared to bare CoO x thin-film (CoO x TF electrodes, the CuNFs@CoO x electrodes exhibited a significant enhancement of rate performance by at least six-fold at an input current density of 3C-rate. Such enhanced Li-ion storage performance may be associated with modified electrode structure at the nanoscale, improved charge transfer, and facile stress relaxation from the embedded CuNF network. Consequently, the CuNFs@CoO x composite structure demonstrated here can be used as a promising high-performance electrode for Li-ion batteries.

  20. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inda, Yasushi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Katoh, Takashi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Baba, Mamoru [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

    2007-12-06

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO{sub 2} positive electrode, a Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic. (author)

  1. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  2. Smart Construction of Integrated CNTs/Li4Ti5O12 Core/Shell Arrays with Superior High-Rate Performance for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhujun; Xia, Xinhui; Zhou, Cheng-Ao; Zhong, Yu; Wang, Yadong; Deng, Shengjue; Wang, Weiqi; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-03-01

    Exploring advanced high-rate anodes is of great importance for the development of next-generation high-power lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) core/shell arrays on carbon cloth (CC) as integrated high-quality anode are constructed via a facile combined chemical vapor deposition-atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. ALD-synthesized LTO is strongly anchored on the CNTs' skeleton forming core/shell structures with diameters of 70-80 nm the combined advantages including highly conductive network, large surface area, and strong adhesion are obtained in the CC-LTO@CNTs core/shell arrays. The electrochemical performance of the CC-CNTs/LTO electrode is completely studied as the anode of LIBs and it shows noticeable high-rate capability (a capacity of 169 mA h g -1 at 1 C and 112 mA h g -1 at 20 C), as well as a stable cycle life with a capacity retention of 86% after 5000 cycles at 10 C, which is much better than the CC-LTO counterpart. Meanwhile, excellent cycling stability is also demonstrated for the full cell with LiFePO 4 cathode and CC-CNTs/LTO anode (87% capacity retention after 1500 cycles at 10 C). These positive features suggest their promising application in high-power energy storage areas.

  3. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Manual dismantling is superior in spent high-power LiBs recycling. • Heated ionic liquid can effectively separate Al and cathode materials. • Fourier’s law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism. • The process of spent LiBs recycling with heated ionic liquid dismantling was proposed. - Abstract: Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier’s law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180 °C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling.

  4. TL response of Eu activated LiF nanocubes irradiated by 85 MeV carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Numan, E-mail: nsalah@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Najlaa D. [Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Sami S. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-09-01

    Carbon ions were found to be effective for cancer treatment. These heavy ions have a high relative biological effectiveness compared to those of photons. They have higher linear energy transfer and sharper Bragg peak with a very excellent local tumor control. However, the dose of these swift heavy ions needs to be measured with great accuracy. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is a highly sensitive phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry. In this work Eu activated LiF nanocubes were exposed to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam and evaluated for their thermoluminescence (TL) response. Pellet forms of this nanomaterial were exposed to these ions in the fluence range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The obtained result shows a prominent TL glow peak at around 320 °C, which is different than that induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.273–273 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The supralinearity function and stopping power in this nanomaterial were also studied. The modification induced in the glow curve structure as a result of changing irradiation type might be utilized to use LiF:Eu nanocubes as a dosimeter for mixed filed radiations. Moreover, the wide linear response of LiF:Eu nanocubes along with the low fading are another imperative results suggesting that this nanomaterial might be a good candidate for carbon ions dosimetry.

  5. TL response of Eu activated LiF nanocubes irradiated by 85 MeV carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Habib, Sami S.; Lochab, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions were found to be effective for cancer treatment. These heavy ions have a high relative biological effectiveness compared to those of photons. They have higher linear energy transfer and sharper Bragg peak with a very excellent local tumor control. However, the dose of these swift heavy ions needs to be measured with great accuracy. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is a highly sensitive phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry. In this work Eu activated LiF nanocubes were exposed to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam and evaluated for their thermoluminescence (TL) response. Pellet forms of this nanomaterial were exposed to these ions in the fluence range 10 9 –10 13 ions/cm 2 . The obtained result shows a prominent TL glow peak at around 320 °C, which is different than that induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10 9 –10 12 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.273–273 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The supralinearity function and stopping power in this nanomaterial were also studied. The modification induced in the glow curve structure as a result of changing irradiation type might be utilized to use LiF:Eu nanocubes as a dosimeter for mixed filed radiations. Moreover, the wide linear response of LiF:Eu nanocubes along with the low fading are another imperative results suggesting that this nanomaterial might be a good candidate for carbon ions dosimetry

  6. Surface and interface sciences of Li-ion batteries. -Research progress in electrode-electrolyte interface-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The application potential of Li-ion batteries is growing as demand increases in different fields at various stages in energy systems, in addition to their conventional role as power sources for portable devices. In particular, applications in electric vehicles and renewable energy storage are increasing for Li-ion batteries. For these applications, improvements in battery performance are necessary. The Li-ion battery produces and stores electric power from the electrochemical redox reactions between the electrode materials. The interface between the electrodes and electrolyte strongly affects the battery performance because the charge transfer causing the electrode redox reaction begins at this interface. Understanding of the surface structure, electronic structure, and chemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface is necessary to improve battery performance. However, the interface is located between the electrode and electrolyte materials, hindering the experimental analysis of the interface; thus, the physical properties and chemical processes have remained poorly understood until recently. Investigations of the physical properties and chemical processes at the interface have been performed using advanced surface science techniques. In this review, current knowledge and future research prospects regarding the electrode-electrolyte interface are described for the further development of Li-ion batteries.

  7. Enhanced electrochemical performance of LiMnPO4 by Li+-conductive Li3VO4 surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Youzhong; Zhao, Yanming; Duan, He; Liang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    By a simple wet ball-milling method, Li 3 VO 4 -coated LiMnPO 4 samples were prepared successfully for the first time. The thin Li 3 VO 4 coating layer with a three-dimensional Li + -ion transport path and high mobility of Li + -ion strongly adhered to the LiMnPO 4 material reduces Mn dissolution and increases the Li + flux through the surface of the LiMnPO 4 itself by preventing formation of phases on the surface that would normally block Li + as well as Li + -ion permeation into the surface of the LiMnPO 4 electrode and therefore improve the rate capability as well as the cycling stability of LiMnPO 4 materials. The electrochemical testing shows that the 5% Li 3 VO 4 -coated LiMnPO 4 sample shows a clear voltage plateau in the charge curves and a much higher reversible capacity at different discharge rates compared with the pristine LiMnPO 4 . EIS results also show that the surface charge transfer resistance and Warburg impedance of the Li 3 VO 4 -coated LiMnPO 4 samples significantly decreased. The surface charge transfer resistance and Warburg impedance for the pristine LiMnPO 4 are 955.1 Ω and 400.3 Ω, respectively. While, for the 5% Li 3 VO 4 -coated LiMnPO 4 , the value are only 400.2 Ω and 283.6 Ω, respectively. The surface charge transfer resistance decreases more than half. All of the improved performance will be favorable for application of the LiMnPO 4 in high-power lithium ion batteries

  8. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  9. Synthesis and electrospinning carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) modified 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) high-rate lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Liu, Minglong; Wang, Jianquan; Li, Pengfa; Zhao, Ming

    2014-02-15

    New cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized, and nanometer CMC-Li fiber was applied to lithium-ion battery and coated with AQ by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified AQ/carbon nanofibers (CNF)/Li nanometer composite material was obtained by carbonization in 280 °C as lithium battery anode materials for the first time. The morphologies and structures performance of materials were characterized by using IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, CV and EIS, respectively. Specific capacity was increased from 197 to 226.4 mAhg(-1) after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2C. Irreversible reduction reaction peaks of modified material appeared between 1.5 and 1.7 V and the lowest oxidation reduction peak of the difference were 0.42 V, the polarization was weaker. Performance of cell with CMC-Li with the high degree of substitution (DS) was superior to that with low DS. Cellulose materials were applied to lithium battery to improve battery performance by electrospinning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal and electrochemical behaviour of C/Li xCoO 2 cell during safety test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Chil-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Hun; Kim, Hyo-Suck; Shin, Hye-Min; Jeong, Young-Dong; Moon, Seong-In; Jin, Bong-Soo; Eom, Seung Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Ki-Won; Oh, Dae-Hee; Veluchamy, Angathevar

    Thermal and electrochemical processes in a 1000 mAh lithium-ion pouch cell with a graphite anode and a Li xCoO 2 cathode during a safety test are examined. In overcharge tests, the forced current shifts the cell voltage to above 4.2 V. This causes a cell charged at the 1 C rate to lose cycleability and a cell charged at the 3 C rate to undergo explosion. In nail penetration and impact tests, a high discharge current passing through the cells gives rise to thermal runaway. These overcharge and high discharge currents promote joule heat within the cells and leads to decomposition and release of oxygen from the de-lithiated Li xCoO 2 and combustion of carbonaceous materials. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of Co 3O 4 in the cathode material of a 4.5 V cell heated to 400 °C. The major cathode product formed after the combustion process cells abused by forced current is Co 3O 4 and by discharge current the products are LiCoO 2 and Co 3O 4. The formation of a trace quantity of CoO through the reduction of Co 3O 4 by virtue of the reducing power of the organic solvent is also discussed.

  11. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  12. LiCaFeF6: A zero-strain cathode material for use in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biasi, Lea; Lieser, Georg; Dräger, Christoph; Indris, Sylvio; Rana, Jatinkumar; Schumacher, Gerhard; Mönig, Reiner; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Binder, Joachim R.; Geßwein, Holger

    2017-09-01

    A new zero-strain LiCaFeF6 cathode material for reversible insertion and extraction of lithium ions is presented. LiCaFeF6 is synthesized by a solid-state reaction and processed to a conductive electrode composite via high-energy ball-milling. In the first cycle, a discharge capacity of 112 mAh g-1 is achieved in the voltage range from 2.0 V to 4.5 V. The electrochemically active redox couple is Fe3+/Fe2+ as confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The compound has a trigonal colquiriite-type crystal structure (space group P 3 bar 1 c). By means of in situ and ex situ XRD as well as X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy a reversible response to Li uptake/release is found. For an uptake of 0.8 mol Li per formula unit only minimal changes occur in the lattice parameters causing a total change in unit cell volume of less than 0.5%. The spatial distribution of cations in the crystal structure as well as the linkage between their corresponding fluorine octahedra is responsible for this very small structural response. With its zero-strain behaviour this material is expected to exhibit only negligible mechanical degradation. It may be used as a cathode material in future lithium-ion batteries with strongly improved safety and cycle life.

  13. Electrochemical behaviors of wax-coated Li powder/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Eol; Seong, Il Won; Yoon, Woo Young

    The wax-coated Li powder specimen was effectively synthesized using the drop emulsion technique (DET). The wax layer on the powder was verified by SEM, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), EDX and XPS. The porosity of a sintered wax-coated Li electrode was measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and compared with that of a bare, i.e., un-coated Li electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode cell was examined by the impedance analysis and cyclic testing methods. The cyclic behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode with the Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO) cathode cell was examined at a constant current density of 0.35 mA cm -2 with the cut-off voltages of 1.2-2.0 V at 25 °C. Over 90% of the initial capacity of the cell remained even after the 300th cycle. The wax-coated Li powder was confirmed to be a stable anode material.

  14. Electrospun LiFePO₄/C Composite Fiber Membrane as a Binder-Free, Self-Standing Cathode for Power Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Li; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Jing, Mao-Xiang; Zhu, Sheng-Wen; Pi, Zhi-Chao; Li, Jing-Quan; Zhai, Hong-Ai; Xiao, Ke-Song

    2018-07-01

    A LiFePO4/C composite fiber membrane was fabricated by the electrospinning method and subsequent thermal treatment. The thermal decomposition process was analyzed by TG/DSC, the morphology, microstructure and composition were studied using SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, respectively. The results indicated that the prepared LiFePO4/C composite fibers were composed of nanosized LiFePO4 crystals and amorphous carbon coatings, which formed a three dimensional (3D) long-range networks, greatly enhanced the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 electrode up to 3.59× 10-2 S · cm-2. The 3D LiFePO4/C fiber membrane could be directly used as a binder-free, self-standing cathode for lithium-ion battery, and exhibited an improved capacity and rate performance. The LiFePO4/C composite electrode delivered a discharge capacity of 116 mAh·g-1, 109 mAh·g-1, 103 mAh·g-1, 91 mAh·g-1, 80 mAh·g-1 at 0.1 C, 0.5 C, 1 C, 3 C, 5 C, respectively. And a stable cycling performance was also achieved that the specific capacity could retain 75 mA·g-1 after 500 cycles at 5 C. Therefore, this LiFePO4/C composite fiber membrane was promising to be used as a cathode for power lithium ion battery.

  15. Li4Ti5O12 on graphene for high rate lithium ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wen, L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinel Li(sub4)Ti(sub5)O(sub12) has been considered as a promising anode material to substitute graphite in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for large scale electrical energy storage due to its high safety and long cycling stability. However...

  16. Direct view on the phase evolution in individual LiFePO4 nanoparticles during Li-ion battery cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; van Hulzen, Martijn; Singh, Deepak P; Brownrigg, Alex; Wright, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Niels H; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2015-09-23

    Phase transitions in Li-ion electrode materials during (dis)charge are decisive for battery performance, limiting high-rate capabilities and playing a crucial role in the cycle life of Li-ion batteries. However, the difficulty to probe the phase nucleation and growth in individual grains is hindering fundamental understanding and progress. Here we use synchrotron microbeam diffraction to disclose the cycling rate-dependent phase transition mechanism within individual particles of LiFePO4, a key Li-ion electrode material. At low (dis)charge rates well-defined nanometer thin plate-shaped domains co-exist and transform much slower and concurrent as compared with the commonly assumed mosaic transformation mechanism. As the (dis)charge rate increases phase boundaries become diffuse speeding up the transformation rates of individual grains. Direct observation of the transformation of individual grains reveals that local current densities significantly differ from what has previously been assumed, giving new insights in the working of Li-ion battery electrodes and their potential improvements.

  17. Countering the Segregation of Transition-Metal Ions in LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 Cathode for Ultralong Life and High-Energy Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Fang, Shaohua; Tamiya, Yu; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    High-voltage layered lithium transition-metal oxides are very promising cathodes for high-energy Li-ion batteries. However, these materials often suffer from a fast degradation of cycling stability due to structural evolutions. It seriously impedes the large-scale application of layered lithium transition-metal oxides. In this work, an ultralong life LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 microspherical cathode is prepared by constructing an Mn-rich surface. Its capacity retention ratio at 700 mA g(-1) is as large as 92.9% after 600 cycles. The energy dispersive X-ray maps of electrodes after numerous cycles demonstrate that the ultralong life of the as-prepared cathode is attributed to the mitigation of TM-ions segregation. Additionally, it is discovered that layered lithium transition-metal oxide cathodes with an Mn-rich surface can mitigate the segregation of TM ions and the corrosion of active materials. This study provides a new strategy to counter the segregation of TM ions in layered lithium transition-metal oxides and will help to the design and development of high-energy cathodes with ultralong life. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Hierarchical carbon-coated acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yujing; Xu, Xiaomin; Li, Li; Cai, Rui; Shao, Zongping

    2016-05-01

    In this work, carbon-coated hierarchical acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres (denoted as AM-LTO) were prepared via a two-step hydrothermal process with low-cost glucose as the organic carbon source. The hierarchical porous microspheres had open structures with diameters of 4-6 μm, which consisted of a bunch of willow leaf-like nanosheets. Each nanosheet was comprised of Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles that are 20 nm in size and coated by a thin carbon layer. When applied as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the AM-LTO presented outstanding rate and cycling performance due to its unique morphologies. A high capacity of 145.6 mAh g-1 was achieved for AM-LTO at a rate of 40C (1C = 175 mAh g-1). In contrast, the sample synthesized without glucose as carbon source (denoted as S-LTO) experienced an obvious structural collapse during the hydrothermal reaction and presented a specific capacity of only 67 mAh g-1 at 1C, which further decreased to 14 mAh g-1 at 40C. Further morphological growth of the acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres and their excellent performance as an anode in LIBs were also discussed in this work.

  19. Probing potential Li-ion battery electrolyte through first principles simulation of atomic clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Anoop Kumar; Sahoo, Mihir Ranjan; Nayak, Saroj

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion battery has wide area of application starting from low power consumer electronics to high power electric vehicles. However, their large scale application in electric vehicles requires further improvement due to their low specific power density which is an essential parameter and is closely related to the working potential windows of the battery system. Several studies have found that these parameters can be taken care of by considering different cathode/anode materials and electrolytes. Recently, a unique approach has been reported on the basis of cluster size in which the use of Li3 cluster has been suggested as a potential component of the battery electrode material. The cluster based approach significantly enhances the working electrode potential up to 0.6V in the acetonitrile solvent. In the present work, using ab-initio quantum chemical calculation and the dielectric continuum model, we have investigated various dielectric solvent medium for the suitable electrolyte for the potential component Li3 cluster. This study suggests that high dielectric electrolytic solvent (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) could be better for lithium cluster due to improvement in the total electrode potential in comparison to the other dielectric solvent.

  20. Gallium oxide nanorods as novel, safe and durable anode material for Li- and Na-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meligrana, Giuseppina; Lueangchaichaweng, Warunee; Colò, Francesca; Destro, Matteo; Fiorilli, Sonia; Pescarmona, Paolo P.; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Gallium oxide nanorods applied for the first time as anode material for Li-/Na-ion batteries. • Durable ambient temperature cycling (400 cycles) was observed in Li-based cells. • Stable reversible cycling (> 200 mAh g"−"1) was achieved for the first time in Na-based cells. - Abstract: Gallium oxide nanorods prepared by template-free synthesis are reported for the first time as safe and durable anode material for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries. The ambient temperature electrochemical response of the nanorods, tested by cyclic voltammetry and constant-current reversible cycling, is highly satisfying in terms of remarkable stability and capacity retention upon long-term operation (400 cycles), even at high current densities. The newly proposed application of gallium oxide nanorods as electrode material is notable also because this material can preserve the electrical pathway without the need of any “buffer matrix” to compensate for the expansion upon lithium or sodium reversible storage. The highly promising electrochemical performance is attributed to the high aspect ratio and high surface area that stem from the nanorod morphology and which can lead to short diffusion path and fast kinetics of both cations (Li"+ or Na"+) and electrons.

  1. Thin, Flexible Secondary Li-Ion Paper Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2010-10-26

    There is a strong interest in thin, flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society needs for applications such as interactive packaging, radio frequency sensing, and consumer products. In this article, we report a new structure of thin, flexible Li-ion batteries using paper as separators and free-standing carbon nanotube thin films as both current collectors. The current collectors and Li-ion battery materials are integrated onto a single sheet of paper through a lamination process. The paper functions as both a mechanical substrate and separator membrane with lower impedance than commercial separators. The CNT film functions as a current collector for both the anode and the cathode with a low sheet resistance (∼5 Ohm/sq), lightweight (∼0.2 mg/cm2), and excellent flexibility. After packaging, the rechargeable Li-ion paper battery, despite being thin (∼300 μm), exhibits robust mechanical flexibility (capable of bending down to <6 mm) and a high energy density (108 mWh/g). © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Advanced Li-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors Based on 3D Graphene-Foam Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jingde; Feng, Kun; Sy, Abel; Liu, Yangshuai; Lim, Lucas; Lui, Gregory; Tjandra, Ricky; Rasenthiram, Lathankan; Chiu, Gordon; Yu, Aiping

    2016-10-05

    Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs) have recently attracted increasing attention as a new and promising energy storage device. However, it is still a great challenge to construct novel LIHSs with high-performance due to the majority of battery-type anodes retaining the sluggish kinetics of Li-ion storage and most capacitor-type cathodes with low specific capacitance. To solve this problem, 3D graphene-wrapped MoO 3 nanobelt foam with the unique porous network structure has been designed and prepared as anode material, which delivers high capacity, improved rate performance, and enhanced cycle stability. First-principles calculation reveals that the combination of graphene dramatically reduces the diffusion energy barrier of Li + adsorbed on the surface of MoO 3 nanobelt, thus improving its electrochemical performance. Furthermore, 3D graphene-wrapped polyaniline nanotube foam derived carbon is employed as a new type of capacitor-type cathode, demonstrating high specific capacitance, good rate performance, and long cycle stability. Benefiting from these two graphene foam-enhanced materials, the constructed LIHSs show a wide operating voltage range (3.8 V), a long stable cycle life (90% capacity retention after 3000 cycles), a high energy density (128.3 Wh·kg -1 ), and a high power density (13.5 kW·kg -1 ). These encouraging performances indicate that the obtained LIHSs may have promising prospect as next-generation energy-storage devices.

  3. A facile approach to nanoarchitectured three-dimensional graphene-based Li–Mn–O composite as high-power cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a facile method to prepare a nanoarchitectured lithium manganate/graphene (LMO/G hybrid as a positive electrode for Li-ion batteries. The Mn2O3/graphene hybrid is synthesized by exfoliation of graphene sheets and deposition of Mn2O3 in a one-step electrochemical process, which is followed by lithiation in a molten salt reaction. There are several advantages of using the LMO/G as cathodes in Li-ion batteries: (1 the LMO/G electrode shows high specific capacities at high gravimetric current densities with excellent cycling stability, e.g., 84 mAh·g−1 during the 500th cycle at a discharge current density of 5625 mA·g−1 (~38.01 C capacity rating in the voltage window of 3–4.5 V; (2 the LMO/G hybrid can buffer the Jahn–Teller effect, which depicts excellent Li storage properties at high current densities within a wider voltage window of 2–4.5 V, e.g., 93 mAh·g−1 during the 300th cycle at a discharge current density of 5625 mA·g−1 (~38.01 C. The wider operation voltage window can lead to increased theoretical capacity, e.g., 148 mAh·g−1 between 3 and 4.5 V and 296 mAh·g−1 between 2 and 4.5 V; (3 more importantly, it is found that the attachment of LMO onto graphene can help to reduce the dissolution of Mn2+ into the electrolyte, as indicated by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP measurements, and which is mainly attributed to the large specific surface area of the graphene sheets.

  4. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  5. Towards High Capacity Li-ion Batteries Based on Silicon-Graphene Composite Anodes and Sub-micron V-doped LiFePO4 Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, M. J.; Lain, M. J.; Johnson, I. D.; Roberts, A.; Beattie, S. D.; Dashwood, R.; Darr, J. A.; Bhagat, R.

    2016-11-01

    Lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4 (LFP) has demonstrated promising performance as a cathode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), by overcoming the rate performance issues from limited electronic conductivity. Nano-sized vanadium-doped LFP (V-LFP) was synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal process using supercritical water as a reagent. The atomic % of dopant determined the particle shape. 5 at. % gave mixed plate and rod-like morphology, showing optimal electrochemical performance and good rate properties vs. Li. Specific capacities of >160 mAh g-1 were achieved. In order to increase the capacity of a full cell, V-LFP was cycled against an inexpensive micron-sized metallurgical grade Si-containing anode. This electrode was capable of reversible capacities of approximately 2000 mAh g-1 for over 150 cycles vs. Li, with improved performance resulting from the incorporation of few layer graphene (FLG) to enhance conductivity, tensile behaviour and thus, the composite stability. The cathode material synthesis and electrode formulation are scalable, inexpensive and are suitable for the fabrication of larger format cells suited to grid and transport applications.

  6. All 2D materials as electrodes for high power hybrid energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Keiko; Sayed, Farheen N.; Babu, Ganguli; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2018-04-01

    Achieving both high energy and power densities from energy storage devices is a core strategy to meet the increasing demands of high performance portable electronics and electric transportation systems. Li-ion capacitor is a promising hybrid technology that strategically exploits high energy density from a Li-ion battery electrode and high power density from a supercapacitor electrode. However, the performance and safety of hybrid devices are still major concerns due to the use of graphite anodes which form passivation layers with organic electrolytes at lower potentials. Here, we explore 2D nanosheets as both anode and cathode electrodes to build a high power system without compromising energy density. Owing to the high electrical conductivity and multivalent redox activity at higher potentials, the Li-ion intercalation electrode is capable of maintaining large energy density at higher current rates with less safety risk than conventional systems. Hybrid devices consisting of all in all 2D electrodes deliver energy density as high as 121 Wh g-1 (at 240 W kg-1) and retains 29 Wh g-1 at high power density of 3600 W kg-1.

  7. High-Thermal- and Air-Stability Cathode Material with Concentration-Gradient Buffer for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Qi, Ran; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fu, Wei-Gui; Yin, Ya-Xia; Xu, Jian; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-12-13

    Delivery of high capacity with high thermal and air stability is a great challenge in the development of Ni-rich layered cathodes for commercialized Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we present a surface concentration-gradient spherical particle with varying elemental composition from the outer end LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 (NCM) to the inner end LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 (NCA). This cathode material with the merit of NCM concentration-gradient protective buffer and the inner NCA core shows high capacity retention of 99.8% after 200 cycles at 0.5 C. Furthermore, this cathode material exhibits much improved thermal and air stability compared with bare NCA. These results provide new insights into the structural design of high-performance cathodes with high energy density, long life span, and storage stability materials for LIBs in the future.

  8. Thin, Flexible Secondary Li-Ion Paper Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; La Mantia, Fabio; Yang, Yuan; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    , flexible Li-ion batteries using paper as separators and free-standing carbon nanotube thin films as both current collectors. The current collectors and Li-ion battery materials are integrated onto a single sheet of paper through a lamination process

  9. Novel Nanocomposite Materials for Advanced Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured materials lie at the heart of fundamental advances in efficient energy storage and/or conversion, in which surface processes and transport kinetics play determining roles. Nanocomposite materials will have a further enhancement in properties compared to their constituent phases. This Review describes some recent developments of nanocomposite materials for high-performance Li-ion rechargeable batteries, including carbon-oxide nanocomposites, polymer-oxide nanocomposites, metal-oxide nanocomposites, and silicon-based nanocomposites, etc. The major goal of this Review is to highlight some new progress in using these nanocomposite materials as electrodes to develop Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  10. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  11. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and to determine their suitability for various applications, battery models are needed. An equivalent electrical circuit model is the most common way of representing the behavior of a Li-ion battery. There are different...... characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-of-charge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  12. High-performance graphene/sulphur electrodes for flexible Li-ion batteries using the low-temperature spraying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Wu, Feng-Yu; Hu, Lung-Hao; Ali Abbas, Syed; Ming, Jun; Lin, Chia-Nan; Fang, Jason; Chu, Chih-Wei; Li, Lain-Jong

    2015-04-01

    Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become a crucial and new focus of S-based Li-ion batteries. Herein, we propose to use a low temperature spraying process to fabricate graphene/S electrode material, where the ink is composed of graphene flakes and the micron-sized S particles prepared by grinding of low-cost S powders. The S particles are found to be well hosted by highly conductive graphene flakes and consequently superior cyclability (~70% capacity retention after 250 cycles), good coulombic efficiency (~98%) and high capacity (~1500 mA h g-1) are obtained. The proposed approach does not require high temperature annealing or baking; hence, another great advantage is to make flexible Li-ion batteries. We have also demonstrated two types of flexible batteries using sprayed graphene/S electrodes.Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y; Qin, H; Liu, Q; Singh, M; Zhu, B

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC, 300-600 degrees C) is developed with advantages compared to conventional SOFC (800-1000 degrees C). The electrodes with good catalytic activity, high electronic and ionic conductivity are required to achieve high power output. In this work, a LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst is prepared by slurry method. The structure and morphology of the prepared LiNiCuZn oxides are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The LiNiCuZn oxides prepared by slurry method are nano Li0.28Ni0.72O, ZnO and CuO compound. The nano-crystallites are congregated to form ball-shape particles with diameter of 800-1000 nm. The LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes exhibits high ion conductivity and low polarization resistance to hydrogen oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction at low temperature. The LTSOFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes demonstrates good cell performance of 1000 mW cm(-2) when it operates at 470 degrees C. It is considered that nano-composite would be an effective way to develop catalyst for LTSOFC.

  14. In Situ Studies of Fe4+ Stability in β-Li3Fe2(PO4)3 Cathodes for Li Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Johnsen, Rune E.; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    In commercial Fe-based batteries the Fe2+/Fe3+ oxidation states are used, however by also utilizing the Fe4+ oxidation state, intercalation of up to two Li ions per Fe ion could be possible. In this study, we investigate whether Fe4+ can be formed and stabilized in β-Li3Fe2(PO4)3. The work includes...... of Fe4+ formation. Oxidation of the organic electrolyte is inevitable at 4.5 V but this alone cannot explain the volume change. Instead, a reversible oxygen redox process (O2− → O−) could possibly explain and charge compensate for the reversible extraction of lithium ions from β-Li3Fe2(PO4)3....... in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies (XRPD) during charging of β-Li3Fe2(PO4)3 up to 5.0 V vs. Li/Li+. A novel capillary-based micro battery cell for in situ XRPD has been designed for this. During charge, a plateau at 4.5 V was found and a small contraction in volume was observed...

  15. Modelling Li-ion cell thermal runaway triggered by an internal short circuit device using an efficiency factor and Arrhenius formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Darcy, Eric; Veje, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model for analyzing the thermal runaway in Li-ion battery cells with an internal short circuit device implanted in the cell. The model is constructed using Arrhenius formulations for representing the self-heating chemical reactions and the State of Charge. The model...

  16. Hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sookyung; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Jung, Hee Joon; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-08-27

    With the ever increasing demands on Li-ion batteries with higher energy densities, alternative anode with higher reversible capacity is required to replace the conventional graphite anode. Here, we demonstrate a cost-effective hydrothermal-carbonization approach to prepare the hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite (HC-nSi/G) composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries. In this hierarchical structured composite, the hard carbon coating layer not only provides an efficient pathway for electron transfer, but also alleviates the volume variation of silicon during charge/discharge processes. The HC-nSi/G composite electrode shows excellent electrochemical performances including a high specific capacity of 878.6 mAh g-1 based on the total weight of composite, good rate performance and a decent cycling stability, which is promising for practical applications.

  17. In situ synthesized Li2S@porous carbon cathode for graphite/Li2S full cells using ether-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ning; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; He, Fang; Ma, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile method is proposed to prepare lithium sulfide@porous carbon composites (Li 2 S@PC) by in-situ reaction of lithium sulfate (Li 2 SO 4 ) and the pyrolytic carbon from glucose. We assembled graphite-Li 2 S@PC full-cells using the obtained Li 2 S@PC composites as the cathode, graphite as the anode and DOL/DME with LiNO 3 additive as the electrolyte. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •A simple synthesis method was proposed to form Li 2 S@porous carbon composites. •Graphite-Li 2 S full-cells were constructed in DME-based electrolyte. •A novel method was proposed to activate the full cells. -- Abstract: Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been recognized as one of the promising next-generation energy storage devices owing to their high energy density, low cost and eco-friendliness. As for cathode’s performance, the main challenges for developing highly-efficient and long-life Li-S batteries are to retard the polysulfides diffusion into electrolyte and the reaction with metallic lithium (Li). Especially, the safety issues, derived from metallic Li in anode, must be overcome. Herein, we fabricated lithium sulfide@porous carbon composites (Li 2 S@PC) by an in-situ reaction between the lithium sulfate (Li 2 SO 4 ) and the pyrolytic carbon from glucose. The nanosized Li 2 S particles were uniformly distributed in the carbon matrix, which not only significantly improve electronic conductivity of the electrode but also effectively trap the dissolved polysulfides. Furthermore, on the basis of the graphite’s electrochemical features in ether-based electrolyte, we assembled graphite-Li 2 S@PC full cells using the obtained Li 2 S@PC composites as the cathode, graphite as the anode and the DOL/DME with LiNO 3 additive as the electrolyte. A unique strategy was proposed to activate the full-cells in descending order using constant voltage and current to charge the cut-off voltage. This Li-S full cell exhibits stable cycling performance at 0.5 C over

  18. Novel configuration of polyimide matrix-enhanced cross-linked gel separator for high performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yin; Yao, Zhikan; John, Angelin Ebanezar; Li, Yang; Li, Weishan; Zhu, Baoku

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, a cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte with additional lithium ions, was introduced into a nonwoven separator. • The PI nonwoven is employed to ensure enhanced thermal stability and mechanical strength of the IACS. • With the introduction of PAMPS(Li"+), the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the -SO_3"− group, giving rise to a high lithium ion transference number. • This IACS is recommended as a promising candidate for the high-power and high-safety lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel composite nonwoven separator exhibiting high heat resistance, high ionic conductivity and high lithium ion transference number is fabricated by a simple dip-coating and heat treatment method. The thermal stable polyimide (PI) nonwoven matrix is chosen as a mechanical support and contributes to improving the thermal shrinkage of the composite nonwoven separator (abbreviated as IACS). The cross-linked poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) PAMPS(Li"+) gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), lithium ion sources of a single ion conductor, is introduced into the PI nonwoven matrix and acts as a functional filler. This PAMPS (Li"+) GPE is proved to be able to provide internal short circuit protection, to alleviate liquid electrolyte leakage effectively, to supply more lithium ions dissociating from PAMPS (Li"+) by liquid electrolyte solvent, to contribute a more stable interfacial resistance, and thus resulting in an excellent cyclability. More notably, the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the −SO_3"− group in the PAMPS (Li"+) polymer based on electrostatic interaction, giving rise to a very high lithium ion transference number. These fascinating characteristics endow the IACS a great promise for the application in the high power and high safety lithium ion batteries.

  19. Lead-free LiNbO3 nanowire-based nanocomposite for piezoelectric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In a flexible nanocomposite-based nanogenerator, in which piezoelectric nanostructures are mixed with polymers, important parameters to increase the output power include using long nanowires with high piezoelectricity and decreasing the dielectric constant of the nanocomposite. Here, we report on piezoelectric power generation from a lead-free LiNbO3 nanowire-based nanocomposite. Through ion exchange of ultra-long Na2Nb2O6-H2O nanowires, we synthesized long (approximately 50 μm in length) single-crystalline LiNbO3 nanowires having a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 approximately 25 pmV-1). By blending LiNbO3 nanowires with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer (volume ratio 1:100), we fabricated a flexible nanocomposite nanogenerator having a low dielectric constant (approximately 2.7). The nanogenerator generated stable electric power, even under excessive strain conditions (approximately 105 cycles). The different piezoelectric coefficients of d33 and d31 for LiNbO3 may have resulted in generated voltage and current for the e33 geometry that were 20 and 100 times larger than those for the e31 geometry, respectively. This study suggests the importance of the blending ratio and strain geometry for higher output-power generation in a piezoelectric nanocomposite-based nanogenerator. PACS 77.65.-j; 77.84.-s; 73.21.Hb PMID:24386884

  20. Confined Li ion migration in the silicon-graphene complex system: An ab initio investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Xu, Bo; Shi, Jing; Lei, Xueling; Ouyang, Chuying

    2018-04-01

    Silicon-Carbon complex systems play an important role in enhancing the performance of Si-based anode materials for Li ion batteries. In this work, the Li migration property of the Silicon-Graphene (Si-Gr) complex systems are investigated by using first-principles calculations. Especially, the effects of graphene coating on the migration of Li ions are discussed in detail. The distance between Si surface and graphene in the Si-Gr system significantly affects the lateral migration of Li ions. With the decrease of the distance from 4.715 to 3.844 Å, the energy barrier of Li ion migration also decreases from 0.115 to 0.067 eV, which are all lower than that of the case without graphene d(0.135 eV). However, smaller distance (3.586 Å) brings the high energy barrier (0.237 eV). Through AIMD calculations, it is found that the graphene coating in the Si-Gr complex system would result in the larger intercalation depths, more uniform distributions, and higher migration coefficients of Li ions. Further calculations of migration coefficients of Li ions at different temperature are used to obtained the activation energy for Li ions migration in the Si-Gr system, which is as low as 0.028 eV. This low activation energy shows that it is easy for Li ions migrating in the Si-Gr system. Our study provided the basically information to understand the migration mechanism of Li ions in Si-C system.

  1. Modeling Li-ion conductivity in LiLa(PO3)4 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounir, Ferhi; Karima, Horchani-Naifer; Khaled, Ben Saad; Mokhtar, Férid

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline powder and single-crystal of LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 are synthesized by solid state reaction and flux technique, respectively. A morphological description of the obtained product was made based on scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Ionic conductivity of the LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 powder was measured and evaluated over a temperature range from 553 to 913 K. Single crystals of LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 structure was found to be isotypic with LiNd(PO 3 ) 4 . It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c and cell parameters: a=16.635(6) Å, b=7.130(3) Å, c=9.913(3) Å, β=126.37(4)°, V=946.72(6) Å 3 and Z=4. The LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 structure was described as an alternation between spiraling chains (PO 3 ) n and (La 3+ , Li + ) cations along the b direction. The small Li + ions, coordinated to four oxygen atoms, were located in the large connected cavities created between the LaO 8 polyhedra and the polyphosphate chains. The jumping of Li + through tunnels of the crystalline network was investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. The close value of the activation energies calculated through the analysis of conductivity data and loss spectra indicate that the transport in the investigated system is through hopping mechanism. The correlation between ionic conductivity of LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 and its crystallographic structure was investigated and the most probably transport pathway model was determined.

  2. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2014-04-30

    Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier's law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180°C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solion ion source for high-efficiency, high-throughput solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, John, E-mail: john-koo@amat.com; Binns, Brant; Miller, Timothy; Krause, Stephen; Skinner, Wesley; Mullin, James [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce the Solion ion source for high-throughput solar cell doping. As the source power is increased to enable higher throughput, negative effects degrade the lifetime of the plasma chamber and the extraction electrodes. In order to improve efficiency, we have explored a wide range of electron energies and determined the conditions which best suit production. To extend the lifetime of the source we have developed an in situ cleaning method using only existing hardware. With these combinations, source life-times of >200 h for phosphorous and >100 h for boron ion beams have been achieved while maintaining 1100 cell-per-hour production.

  4. Behavior of pellet injected Li ions into heliotron E plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Christou, C.; Ida, K.

    1996-07-01

    Li pellet injection has provided a complex plasma with a large fraction of Li ions, which is characterized by intense emissions from Li I and III. The spatial profiles of the fully ionized Li 3+ ions are measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy with a resolution of 13 mm, and the local decay time of the injected Li ion has been estimated. The spectral profile of the charge exchange recombination line of Li 2+ from n=5 to n=4 shows a complicated structure, which depends of Li 3+ density. The effects on other intrinsic impurities and recycled Li are also discussed. (author)

  5. Cr-substituted LiCoPO4 core with a conductive carbon layer towards high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Chen, Junhong; Qiu, Jingyi; Yu, Zhongbao; Ming, Hai; Li, Meng; Zhang, Songtong; Yang, Yusheng

    2018-02-01

    Electrical and ionic conductivity are two major limiting factors for LiCoPO4 cathode material. To overcome these shortcomings, a Cr-substituted LiCoPO4 core with a conductive carbon layer cathode material is synthesized using the sol-gel method. The physical chemistry properties of these materials are systematically investigated by using various characterization methods. For instance, the XRD and Rietveld refinement results reveal that Cr successfully substitutes the Co within the LiCoPO4 core to form LiCo1-1.5xCrxPO4/C (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) without changing the olivine structure but exhibits a decrease in the unit cell volume with increasing Cr substitution. SEM and TEM images indicate that Cr substitution does not lead to changes in the basic morphology of LiCo1-1.5xCrxPO4/C (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) material, which is composed of agglomerated nanoparticles with an 8 nm carbon layer on the surface. The EDS and XPS results confirm that Cr is uniformly distributed on the surface and that the oxidation state of Cr is +3. FTIR spectra indicate that the antisite defect concentration decreases with increasing Cr substitution. Furthermore, Cr substitution significantly improves the electrochemical performances of LiCo1-1.5xCrxPO4/C (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) cathode. Notably, the LiCo0.94Cr0.04PO4/C delivers an initial discharge capacity of 144 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 71% after 100 cycles between 3.0 and 5.0 V. The CV and EIS results indicate that the polarization is reduced and that the electronic and ionic conductivities are improved by Cr substitution. The good electrochemical performances for Cr-substituted LiCoPO4/C electrodes are attributed to the lower antisite defect concentration, as the reduction of polarization, the improvement of electronic and ion conductivity and the uniform carbon layer. These features will accelerate the commercial application of LiCoPO4 towards the start-art of the high voltage lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Effect of Acetylene Black Content in Li4Ti5O12 Xerogel Solid-State Anode Materials on Half-Cell Li-ion Batteries Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrahman, N. M.; Priyono, B.; Syahrial, A. Z.; Subhan, A.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of Acetylene Black (AB) additive contents in lithium titanate/Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode on Li-ion Batteries performance is studied in this work. The LTO active material for Li-ion batteries anode was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method to form TiO2 xerogel continued by mixing process with LiOH in ball-mill and then sintered to obtain spinel LTO. The LTO powder is characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The spinel LTO and TiO2 rutile were detected by XRD diffractogram. The LTO powder is in the form of agglomerates structure. This powder then was mixed with PVDF binder (10%wt) and AB additives with various amount from 10%wt (LTO2 Ac-1), 12%wt (LTO2 Ac-2), and 15%wt (LTO2 Ac-3) of total weight solid content to form electrode sheet. Half-cell coin battery was made with lithium metal foil as a counter electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge discharge (CD) test used to examine the battery performance. The highest resistance value is obtained in LTO2 Ac-3 sample with 15%wt of AB. It might be caused by the formation of side reaction product on electrode surface at initial cycle due to high reactivity of LTO2 Ac-3 electrode. The highest initial capacity at CV test and CD test was obtained in LTO2 Ac-1 (10%wt AB) sample, due to the best proportion of active material content in the compound. While, in the charge-discharge test at high current rate, the best sample rate-capability performance belongs to LTO2 Ac-3 sample (15%wt AB), which still have 24.12 mAh/g of discharge capacity at 10 C with 71.34% capacity loss.

  7. Optimal Switching Table-Based Sliding Mode Control of an Energy Recovery Li-Ion Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil To Chong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs, which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI and a two-level buck-boost converter without an isolating transformer. An inner current decoupled control scheme for the aforementioned system is proposed and two sliding mode planes for active and reactive current control are designed based on the control scheme. An optimized switching table for current convergence is used according to the error sign of the equivalent input voltage and feedback voltage. The proposed ERLPABTS could be used to integrate discharging energy into the power grid when performing high accuracy current testing. The active and reactive power references for the grid-connected inverter are determined based on the discharging energy from the DC-DC converter. Simulations and experiments on a laboratory hardware platform using a 175 kW insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT-based ERLPABTS have been implemented and verified, and the performance is found satisfactory and superior to conventional ERLPABPTS.

  8. Towards High Capacity Li-ion Batteries Based on Silicon-Graphene Composite Anodes and Sub-micron V-doped LiFePO4 Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, M. J.; Lain, M. J.; Johnson, I. D.; Roberts, A.; Beattie, S. D.; Dashwood, R.; Darr, J. A.; Bhagat, R.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4 (LFP) has demonstrated promising performance as a cathode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), by overcoming the rate performance issues from limited electronic conductivity. Nano-sized vanadium-doped LFP (V-LFP) was synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal process using supercritical water as a reagent. The atomic % of dopant determined the particle shape. 5 at. % gave mixed plate and rod-like morphology, showing optimal electrochemical performance and good rate properties vs. Li. Specific capacities of >160 mAh g−1 were achieved. In order to increase the capacity of a full cell, V-LFP was cycled against an inexpensive micron-sized metallurgical grade Si-containing anode. This electrode was capable of reversible capacities of approximately 2000 mAh g−1 for over 150 cycles vs. Li, with improved performance resulting from the incorporation of few layer graphene (FLG) to enhance conductivity, tensile behaviour and thus, the composite stability. The cathode material synthesis and electrode formulation are scalable, inexpensive and are suitable for the fabrication of larger format cells suited to grid and transport applications. PMID:27898104

  9. Synthesis, Structure, and Li-Ion Conductivity of LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Cl, Br, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GharibDoust, Seyed Hosein Payandeh; Brighi, Matteo; Sadikin, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new type of addition reaction between La(BH4)3 and LiX, X = Cl, Br, I, is used to synthesize LiLa(BH4)3Cl and two new compounds LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Br, I. This method increases the amounts of LiLa(BH4)3X and the sample purity. The highest Li-ion conductivity is observed for LiLa(BH4...... with increasing lattice parameter, that is, increasing size of the halide ion in the structure. Thus, we conclude that the sizes of both windows are important for the lithium ion conduction in LiLa(BH4)3X compounds. The lithium ion conductivity is measured over one to three heating cycles and with different...

  10. Lithium Thiophosphate Compounds as Stable High Rate Li-Ion Separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Battery separators based upon lithium thiophosphate (LiPS4) have previously been demonstrated at UC Boulder, but the thickness of the separators was too high to be of practical use in a lithium ion battery. The separators are solid phase, which makes them intrinsically less prone to thermal runaway and thereby improves safety. Results of attempting to develop sputtered thin film layers of this material by starting with targets of pure Li, Li2S, and P2S5 are reported. Sputtering rates and film quality and composition are discussed, along with efforts to use Raman spectroscopy to determine quantitative film composition. The latter is a rate limiting step in the investigation of these films, as they are typically thin and require long times to get to sufficient thickness to be analyzed using traditional methods, whereas Raman is particularly well suited to this analysis, if it can be made quantitative. The final results of the film deposition methods are reported, and a path towards new films is discussed. Finally, it should be noted that this program originally began with one graduate student working on the program, but this student ultimately chose to not continue with a PhD. A second student took over in the middle of the effort, and a new program has been proposed with a significantly altered chemistry to take the program in a new direction.

  11. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Charge-Discharge Cycles on Lithium Ion Batteries using 7Li Stray-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joel A.; Dugar, Sneha; Zhong, Guiming; Dalal, Naresh S.; Zheng, Jim P.; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive method for in situ monitoring of electrochemical processes involved in charge/discharge cycling of batteries. Determining how the electrochemical processes become irreversible, ultimately resulting in degraded battery performance, will aid in developing new battery materials and designing better batteries. Here we introduce the use of an alternative in situ diagnostic tool to monitor the electrochemical processes. Utilizing a very large field-gradient in the fringe field of a magnet, stray-field-imaging (STRAFI) technique significantly improves the image resolution. These STRAFI images enable the real time monitoring of the electrodes at a micron level. It is demonstrated by two prototype half-cells, graphite∥Li and LiFePO4∥Li, that the high-resolution 7Li STRAFI profiles allow one to visualize in situ Li-ions transfer between the electrodes during charge/discharge cyclings as well as the formation and changes of irreversible microstructures of the Li components, and particularly reveal a non-uniform Li-ion distribution in the graphite. PMID:24005580

  12. Application of lithiated perfluorosulfonate ionomer binders to enhance high rate capability in LiMn2O4 cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Su, Shih Hsuan; Leu, Hoang-Juh; Chen, Yi Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Lithiated perfluorosulfonate ionomer has been used as the binder for LiMn 2 O 4 cathodes. Casted membranes of the lithiated ionomer exhibit ionic conductivity of 1.4 × 10 −4 S/cm. Composite cathodes composed of LiMn 2 O 4 , carbon black and the ionomer binder have been fabricated. All components of the cathodes are well bound and dispersed as characterized by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscope. The cathodes using the conventional poly-vinylidene fluoride binder have also been prepared for comparison. Under high rate (5 C-20 C) and high temperature (60 °C) operation, the LiMn 2 O 4 cathodes with the ionomer binder exhibit higher capacity and improved cycling stability. As indicated by the electrochemical impedance spectra, the ionomer binder forms ion-conducting interface layers on the LiMn 2 O 4 particles and results in lower interface resistance. It enables the cells utilizing the ionomer binder to achieve higher capacity and enhanced cycling stability even under harsh conditions

  13. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a fraction of the confined borohydride that shows no phase transition, and most likely located close to the interface with the SiO2 pore walls. These results point to a new strategy to design low-temperature ion conducting solids for application in all solid-state lithium ion batteries, which......Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition...

  14. Li-ion site disorder driven superionic conductivity in solid electrolytes: a first-principles investigation of β-Li3PS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani Dathar, Gopi Krishna; Balachandran, Janakiraman; Kent, Paul R. C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ganesh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The attractive safety and long-term stability of all solid-state batteries has added a new impetus to the discovery and development of solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Recently several superionic lithium conducting solid electrolytes have been discovered. All the superionic lithium containing compounds (β-Li 3 PS 4 and Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 and oxides, predominantly in the garnet phase) have partially occupied sites. This naturally begs the question of understanding the role of partial site occupancies (or site disorder) in optimizing ionic conductivity in these family of solids. In this paper, we find that for a given topology of the host lattice, maximizing the number of sites with similar Li-ion adsorption energies, which gives partial site occupancy, is a natural way to increase the configurational entropy of the system and optimize the conductivity. For a given topology and density of Li-ion adsorption sites, the ionic conductivity is maximal when the number of mobile Li-ions are equal to the number of mobile vacancies, also the very condition for achieving maximal configurational entropy. We demonstrate applicability of this principle by elucidating the role of Li-ion site disorder and the local chemical environment in the high ionic conductivity of β-Li 3 PS 4 . In addition, for β-Li 3 PS 4 we find that a significant density of vacancies in the Li-ion sub-lattice (~25%) leads to sub-lattice melting at (~600 K) leading to a molten form for the Li-ions in an otherwise solid anionic host. This gives a lithium site occupancy that is similar to what is measured experimentally. We further show that quenching this disorder can improve conductivity at lower temperatures. As a consequence, we discover that (a) one can optimize ionic conductivity in a given topology by choosing a chemistry/composition that maximizes the number of mobile-carriers i.e. maximizing both mobile Li-ions and vacancies, and (b) when the concentration of vacancies becomes significant in

  15. Calendar aging of a 250 kW/500 kWh Li-ion battery deployed for the grid storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Pierre; Cen, Zhaohui; López, Carmen M.; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-12-01

    The introduction of Li-ion batteries for grid applications has become evidence as the cost per kWh is continuously decreasing. Although the Li-ion battery is a mature technology for automotive applications and portable electronics, its use for stationary applications needs more validation. The Li-ion technology is considered safe enough for grid storage application, but its lifetime is generally evaluated to be around 10 years. Higher market penetration will be achieved if a longer lifespan could be demonstrated. Therefore, aging evaluation of the batteries becomes crucial. In this paper we investigated the effects of aging after a three years' standby field deployment of a 250 kW/500 kWh Li-ion battery integrated with the grid and solar farm under the harsh climate conditions of Qatar. The development of tools for acquisition and analysis of data from the battery management system (BMS) allows the assessment of the battery performance at the battery stack, string and cell levels. The analysis of the residual capacity after aging showed that the stack suffered from a low decrease of capacity, whereas some inconsistencies have been found between the strings. These inconsistencies are caused by misalignment of a small number of cells that underwent self-discharge during standby at high state of charge.

  16. In situ methods for Li-ion battery research: A review of recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harks, P. P. R. M. L.; Mulder, F. M.; Notten, P. H. L.

    2015-08-01

    A considerable amount of research is being directed towards improving lithium-ion batteries in order to meet today's market demands. In particular in situ investigations of Li-ion batteries have proven extremely insightful, but require the electrochemical cell to be fully compatible with the conditions of the testing method and are therefore often challenging to execute. Advantageously, in the past few years significant progress has been made with new, more advanced, in situ techniques. Herein, a comprehensive overview of in situ methods for studying Li-ion batteries is given, with the emphasis on new developments and reported experimental highlights.

  17. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Savage, M.; Saylor, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystron-like interaction with the accelerating cavities leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, the author describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  18. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S.; Savage, M.; Saylor, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystronlike interaction with the accelerating cavities, leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, we describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  19. Correlating capacity and Li content in layered material for Li-ion battery using XRD and particle size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tabbakh, A. A. A.; Al-Zubaidi, A. B.; Kamarulzaman, N.

    2016-03-01

    A lithiated transition-metal oxide material was successfully synthesized by a combustion method for Li-ion battery. The material was characterized using thermogravimetric and particle size analyzers, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The calcined powders of the material exhibited a finite size distribution and a single phase of pure layered structure of space group Roverline{3} m . An innovative method was developed to calculate the material electrochemical capacity based on considerations of the crystal structure and contributions of Li ions from specified unit cells at the surfaces and in the interiors of the material particles. Results suggested that most of the Li ions contributing to the electrochemical current originated from the surface region of the material particles. It was possible to estimate the thickness of the most delithiated region near the particle surfaces at any delithiation depth accurately. Furthermore, results suggested that the core region of the particles remained electrochemically inaccessible in the conventional applied voltages. This result was justified by direct quantitative comparison of specific capacity values calculated from the particle size distribution with those measured experimentally. The present analysis is believed to be of some value for estimation of the failure mechanism in cathode compounds, thus assisting the development of Li-ion batteries.

  20. Development of Large Li-Ion Batteries for Aircraft and Spacecraft Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruce, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    .... Concurrent was a chemical direction which changed the emphasis of the program from the rechargeable Li/SO2 chemistry to that of the family of cell chemistries which are collectively referred to as lithium ion...

  1. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g −1 , B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states

  2. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup −1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  3. Capacity Decline and Characteristics Changes of Lithium-ion Cells with Large Capacity during Trickle Charge at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshio

    Large-scale 40-Ah Li-ion cells have been developed for use in industrial applications. To contribute to techniques for ascertaining the state of these cells and detecting deterioration during actual use, we produce a cell whose capacity is reduced by trickle charging at high temperature, and we determine the relationship between the cell's properties such as its capacity and charging/discharging characteristics when the capacity is reduced. When the capacity of a Li-ion cell is reduced, the discharge voltage also decreases. We show that the residual capacity is well correlated to the discharge voltage and to the duration of continuous discharge before reaching a fixed end-voltage. We also show that the constant-current constant-voltage charging characteristics are maintained even when the capacity is degraded, and that the constant-current charging time and discharge voltage are closely related to the residual capacity. We confirm that the reaction coefficient of the capacity degradation formula can be calculated from the capacity change characteristics at multiple temperatures, and that an 8°C change in temperature causes the lifetime to decrease by half.

  4. High Rate and Stable Li-Ion Insertion in Oxygen-Deficient LiV3O8 Nanosheets as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huanqiao; Luo, Mingsheng; Wang, Aimei

    2017-01-25

    Low performance of cathode materials has become one of the major obstacles to the application of lithium-ion battery (LIB) in advanced portable electronic devices, hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. The present work reports a versatile oxygen-deficient LiV 3 O 8 (D-LVO) nanosheet that was synthesized successfully via a facile oxygen-deficient hydrothermal reaction followed by thermal annealing in Ar. When used as a cathode material for LIB, the prepared D-LVO nanosheets display remarkable capacity properties at various current densities (a capacity of 335, 317, 278, 246, 209, 167, and 133 mA h g -1 at 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mA g -1 , respectively) and excellent lithium-ion storage stability, maintaining more than 88% of the initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties are believed to arise largely from the introduction of tetravalent V (∼15% V 4+ ) and the attendant oxygen vacancies into LiV 3 O 8 nanosheets, leading to intrinsic electrical conductivity more than 1 order of magnitude higher and lithium-ion diffusion coefficient nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of LiV 3 O 8 without detectable V 4+ (N-LVO) and thus contributing to the easy lithium-ion diffusion, rapid phase transition, and the excellent electrochemical reversibility. Furthermore, the more uniform nanostructure, as well as the larger specific surface area of D-LVO than N-LVO nanosheets may also improve the electrolyte penetration and provide more reaction sites for fast lithium-ion diffusion during the discharge/charge processes.

  5. Fast sol-gel synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4}/C for high power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninati, Sabina; Damen, Libero; Mastragostino, Marina [University of Bologna, Department of Metal Science, Electrochemistry and Chemical Techniques, Via San Donato 15, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-12-01

    LiFePO{sub 4}/C of high purity grade was successfully synthesized by microwave accelerated sol-gel synthesis and showed excellent electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacity and stability. This cathode material was characterized in battery configuration with a graphite counter electrode by USABC-DOE tests for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle. It yielded a non-conventional Ragone plot that represents complexity of battery functioning in power-assist HEV and shows that the pulse power capability and available energy of such a battery surpasses the DOE goal for such an application. (author)

  6. High-performance graphene/sulphur electrodes for flexible Li-ion batteries using the low-temperature spraying method

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2015-01-01

    Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become a crucial and new focus of S-based Li-ion batteries. Herein, we propose to use a low temperature spraying process to fabricate graphene/S electrode material, where the ink is composed of graphene flakes and the micron-sized S particles prepared by grinding of low-cost S powders. The S particles are found to be well hosted by highly conductive graphene flakes and consequently superior cyclability (∼70% capacity retention after 250 cycles), good coulombic efficiency (∼98%) and high capacity (∼1500 mA h g-1) are obtained. The proposed approach does not require high temperature annealing or baking; hence, another great advantage is to make flexible Li-ion batteries. We have also demonstrated two types of flexible batteries using sprayed graphene/S electrodes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  7. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) with controllable properties are highly desirable to improve battery performance. In this paper, we use a combined experimental and simulation approach to study the SEI formation on hard carbon in Li and Na-ion batteries. We show that with proper additives, stable SEI can be formed on hard carbon by pre-cycling the electrode materials in Li or Na-ion electrolyte. Detailed mechanistic studies suggest that the ion transport in the SEI layer is kinetically controlled and can be tuned by the applied voltage. Selective Na and Li-ion SEI membranes are produced using the Na or Li-ion based electrolytes respectively. The large Na ion SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the small Li ion SEI shuts off the Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI with film-forming electrolyte additives or preforming a SEI on the electrodes’ surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to <25 mAh/g, ~1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh/g). Unusual selective/preferential transport of Li-ion is demonstrated by preforming a SEI on the electrode’s surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion selective conductors using electrochemical approaches in the future.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Haiyan, E-mail: hyyan1979@163.com; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is explored as cathode material for Lithium-ion batteries. • The introduce of PEDOT is effectively way to enhance the electron condcutivity of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. • The Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: Monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g{sup −1} for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Facile synthesis of hierarchically porous Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} microspheres for high rate lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.F.; Luo, H.J.; Yuan, C.Z.; Su, X.F.; Xu, K.; Zhang, X.G. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are used in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) due to their excellent energy storage capacity. Graphite is widely used as an anode material in EV and HEV applications. This study investigated the use of a lithium-titanium alloy (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) designed to avoid reductions of the electrolyte on the surface of the electrode. The study showed that the composite material shows excellent cycling performance, excellent reversibility, structural stability, and Li-ion mobility in the charge-discharge process. A simple template-free hydrothermal method for fabricating Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} hierarchical microspheres assembled by uniform nanoparticles was presented. The 1-step process produced microspheres with a high yield and uniform diameter. Details of the synthesis process, and the electrochemical and structural properties of the resulting materials were presented. 5 refs.

  10. New hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate electrodes for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Mieritz, Daniel; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Chan, Candace K.

    2017-03-01

    NASICON-type materials with general formula AxM2(PO4)3 (A = Li or Na, M = Ti, V, and Fe) are promising candidates for Li- and Na-ion batteries due to their open three-dimensional framework structure. Here we report the electrochemical properties of hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H0.4Ti2(PO4)2.4(SO4)0.6 (HTPS), a new mixed polyanion material with NASICON structure. Micron-sized HTPS aggregates with crystallite grain size of ca. 23 nm are synthesized using a sol-gel synthesis in an acidic medium. The properties of the as-synthesized HTPS, ball-milled HTPS, and samples prepared as carbon composites using an in-situ glucose decomposition reaction are investigated. A capacity of 148 mAh g-1 corresponding to insertion of 2 Li+ per formula unit is observed in the ball-milled HTPS over the potential window of 1.5-3.4 V vs. Li/Li+. Lithiation at ca. 2.8 and 2.5 V is determined to occur through filling of the M1 and M2 sites, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used characterize the HTPS before and after cycling. Evaluation of the HTPS in a Na-ion cell is also performed. A discharge capacity of 93 mAh g-1 with sodiation at ca. 2.9 and 2.2 V vs. Na/Na+ is observed.

  11. Mitigating Voltage Decay of Li-Rich Cathode Material via Increasing Ni Content for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Zhang, Jie-Nan; He, Min; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Hong; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Li-rich layered materials have been considered as the most promising cathode materials for future high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, they suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling, which hinders their further commercialization. Here, we report a Li-rich layered material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 with high nickel content, which exhibits much slower voltage decay during long-term cycling compared to conventional Li-rich materials. The voltage decay after 200 cycles is 201 mV. Combining in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), ex situ XRD, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that nickel ions act as stabilizing ions to inhibit the Jahn-Teller effect of active Mn(3+) ions, improving d-p hybridization and supporting the layered structure as a pillar. In addition, nickel ions can migrate between the transition-metal layer and the interlayer, thus avoiding the formation of spinel-like structures and consequently mitigating the voltage decay. Our results provide a simple and effective avenue for developing Li-rich layered materials with mitigated voltage decay and a long lifespan, thereby promoting their further application in lithium-ion batteries with high energy density.

  12. Relaxation-Induced Memory Effect of LiFePO4 Electrodes in Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianfeng; Tan, Chuhao; Liu, Mengchuang; Li, De; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-26

    In Li-ion batteries, memory effect has been found in several commercial two-phase materials as a voltage bump and a step in the (dis)charging plateau, which delays the two-phase transition and influences the estimation of the state of charge. Although memory effect has been first discovered in olivine LiFePO 4 , the origination and dependence are still not clear and are critical for regulating the memory effect of LiFePO 4 . Herein, LiFePO 4 has been synthesized by a home-built spray drying instrument, of which the memory effect has been investigated in Li-ion batteries. For as-synthesized LiFePO 4 , the memory effect is significantly dependent on the relaxation time after phase transition. Besides, the voltage bump of memory effect is actually a delayed voltage overshooting that is overlaid at the edge of stepped (dis)charging plateau. Furthermore, we studied the kinetics of LiFePO 4 electrode with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which shows that the memory effect is related to the electrochemical kinetics. Thereby, the underlying mechanism has been revealed in memory effect, which would guide us to optimize two-phase electrode materials and improve Li-ion battery management systems.

  13. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO_4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO_4 has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO_4@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO_4@C. • The LiFePO_4@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO_4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO_4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO_4@B_0_._4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g"−"1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g"−"1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO_4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  14. S-functionalized MXenes as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-09-03

    MXenes are promising electrode materials for Li-ion batteries because of their high Li capacities and cycling rates. We use density functional theory to investigate the structural and energy storage properties of Li decorated Zr2C and Zr2CX2 (X = F, O and S). We find for Zr2C and Zr2CS2 high Li specific capacities and low diffusion barriers. To overcome the critical drawbacks of the OH, F, and O groups introduced during the synthesis we propose substitution by S groups and demonstrate that an exchange reaction is indeed possible. Zr2CS2 shows a similar Li specific capacity as Zr2CO2 but a substantially reduced diffusion barrier. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Influence of memory effect on the state-of-charge estimation of large-format Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Jiulin; Zheng, Jianming; Jiang, Jiuchun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we systematically investigated the influence of the memory effect of LiFePO4 cathodes in large-format full batteries. The electrochemical performance of the electrodes used in these batteries was also investigated separately in half-cells to reveal their intrinsic properties. We noticed that the memory effect of LiFePO4/graphite cells depends not only on the maximum state of charge reached during the memory writing process, but is also affected by the depth of discharge reached during the memory writing process. In addition, the voltage deviation in a LiFePO4/graphite full battery is more complex than in a LiFePO4/Li half-cell, especially for a large-format battery, which exhibits a significant current variation in the region near its terminals. Therefore, the memory effect should be taken into account in advanced battery management systems to further extend the long-term cycling stabilities of Li-ion batteries using LiFePO4 cathodes.

  16. Carbon coated Li4Ti5O12 nanorods as superior anode material for high rate lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hongjun; Shen, Laifa; Rui, Kun; Li, Hongsen; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel approach has been developed to fabricate 1D Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanorods by a wet-chemical route. •Carbon coating layer effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance electronic conductivity. •The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanorods exhibit remarkable rate capability and long cycle life. -- Abstract: We describe a novel approach for the synthesis of carbon coated Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C) nanorods for high rate lithium ion batteries. The carbon coated TiO 2 nanotubes using the glucose as carbon source are first synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The commercial anatase TiO 2 powder is immersed in KOH sulotion and subsequently transforms into Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C in LiOH solution under hydrothermal condition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and Raman spectra are performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. Compared with the pristine Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , one-dimensional (1D) Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanostructures show much better rate capability and cycling stability. The 1D Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C architectures effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance their electronic conductivity, enabling fast ion and electron transport

  17. Measurement of air cooling characteristics for the several surface types of Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byelyayev, Andrey A.; Fedorchenko, Dmitrij V.; Khazhmuradov, Manap A.; Lukhanin, Olekdandr A.; Lukhanin, Oleksiy A.; Martynov, Sergey O.; Rudychev, Yegor V.; Sporov, Eugen O.; Rohatgi, Upendra S.

    2013-01-01

    The system of air cooling for Li-Ion batteries is considered. Experimental setup included thermal chamber and Li-Ion battery cell simulators with temperature sensors. We investigated static and dynamic cooling regimes for several types of cooling surfaces, for different gaps between the simulators and flow rates. Experimental results are compared to the data of computer modelling using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The cooling efficiencies of the various surfaces for static and transient heat emission modes are compared.

  18. Photovoltaic Plants Generation Improvement Using Li-Ion Batteries as Energy Buffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Luna, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the PV power plants operability improvement obtained when introducing energy storage (ES) systems which allow decoupling the power received from the sun on the photovoltaic (PV) panels from the power injected by the power plant into the grid. Two energy management strategies a...... are presented and analyzed, using Li-ion batteries as the energy storage buffer. The generated power redistribution and its variability reduction are All the results obtained in this paper are based on one year long simulations which used real irradiance data sampled every two minutes....

  19. Engineering three-dimensionally electrodeposited Si-on-Ni inverse opal structure for high volumetric capacity Li-ion microbattery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Cho, Hyung-Man; Meng, Ying Shirley; Li, Quan

    2014-06-25

    Aiming at improving the volumetric capacity of nanostructured Li-ion battery anode, an electrodeposited Si-on-Ni inverse opal structure has been proposed in the present work. This type of electrode provides three-dimensional bi-continuous pathways for ion/electron transport and high surface area-to-volume ratios, and thus exhibits lower interfacial resistance, but higher effective Li ions diffusion coefficients, when compared to the Si-on-Ni nanocable array electrode of the same active material mass. As a result, improved volumetric capacities and rate capabilities have been demonstrated in the Si-on-Ni inverse opal anode. We also show that optimization of the volumetric capacities and the rate performance of the inverse opal electrode can be realized by manipulating the pore size of the Ni scaffold and the thickness of the Si deposit.

  20. Raman and NMR studies of aged LiFePO4 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpure, Shrikant C.; Bhushan, Bharat; Babu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Raman spectroscopy used to characterize the quality of carbon coating in LiFePO 4 commercial cells aged with C-rate. ► Structural change in the carbon coating leading to low electrical conductivity is observed for the cells aged at higher C-rate. ► Nuclear magnetic spectroscopy used to characterize LiFePO 4 nanoparticles for the presence of Li. ► 7 Li peak is observed in an unaged cell, while the similar peak is absent in the aged cells. - Abstract: The carbon coated LiFePO 4 nanoparticles are used in advanced lithium-ion batteries due to low cost, high energy and power density. In this paper Raman spectroscopy is used to analyze the degradation of carbon coating around these nanoparticles in several commercial cells aged with different C-rate. Magic angle spinning 7 Li Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to characterize these nanoparticles for the presence of Li. In Raman spectroscopy data, structural change in the carbon leading to low electrical conductivity is observed for the cells aged at higher C-rate. In NMR spectroscopy data, isotropic 7 Li peak is observed in an unaged cell, while the similar peak is absent in the aged cells.

  1. Capacity Fading Mechanism of the Commercial 18650 LiFePO4-Based Lithium-Ion Batteries: An in Situ Time-Resolved High-Energy Synchrotron XRD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Yadong; Yang, Fan; He, Hao; Xiao, Xianghui; Ren, Yang; Lu, Wenquan; Stach, Eric; Xie, Jian

    2018-02-07

    In situ high-energy synchrotron XRD studies were carried out on commercial 18650 LiFePO 4 cells at different cycles to track and investigate the dynamic, chemical, and structural changes in the course of long-term cycling to elucidate the capacity fading mechanism. The results indicate that the crystalline structural deterioration of the LiFePO 4 cathode and the graphite anode is unlikely to happen before capacity fades below 80% of the initial capacity. Rather, the loss of the active lithium source is the primary cause for the capacity fade, which leads to the appearance of inactive FePO 4 that is proportional to the absence of the lithium source. Our in situ HESXRD studies further show that the lithium-ion insertion and deinsertion behavior of LiFePO 4 continuously changed with cycling. For a fresh cell, the LiFePO 4 experienced a dual-phase solid-solution behavior, whereas with increasing cycle numbers, the dynamic change, which is characteristic of the continuous decay of solid solution behavior, is obvious. The unpredicted dynamic change may result from the morphology evolution of LiFePO 4 particles and the loss of the lithium source, which may be the cause of the decreased rate capability of LiFePO 4 cells after long-term cycling.

  2. Surface studies of Li-ion and Mg battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Jennifer

    This dissertation focuses on studies of the surfaces of both Li-ion and Mg-ion battery electrodes. A fundamental understanding of processes occurring at the electrode surface is vital to the development of advanced battery systems. Additionally, modifications to the electrode surfaces are made and further characterized for improved performance. LiMn2O4 Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries: Effect of Mn in electrolyte on anode and Au coating to minimize dissolution: LiMn2O4 (LMO) is known to dissolve Mn ions with cycling. This section focuses on both the effect of the dissolution of Mn2+ into the electrolyte as well as Au coating on the LMO to improve electrochemical performance. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) was used to monitor changes in mass on the anode, SEM and AES were used to observe changes in surface morphology and chemical composition, and potentiostatic voltammetry was used to monitor charge and discharge capacity. The effect of Cu2+ addition in place of Mn2+ was also studied, as Cu is known to form an underpotential deposition (UPD) monolayer on Au electrodes. Following this, LMO particles were coated with a Au shell by a simple and scalable electroless deposition for use as Li-ion battery cathodes. The Au shell was intended to limit the capacity fade commonly seen with LMO cathodes by reducing the dissolution of Mn. Characterization by SEM, TEM, EELS, and AFM showed that the Au shell was approximately 3 nm thick. The Au shell prevented much of the Mn from dissolving in the electrolyte with 82% and 88% less dissolved Mn in the electrolyte at room temperature and 65 ºC, respectively, as compared to the uncoated LMO. Electrochemical performance studies with half cells showed that the Au shell maintained a higher discharge capacity over 400 cycles by nearly 30% with 110 mA hr g-1 for the 400th cycle as compared to a commercial LMO at 85 mA hr g-1. Similarly, the capacity fade was reduced in full cells: the coated LMO had 47% greater capacity

  3. Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material) thermal management of high power lithium-ion packs: Limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbah, Rami; Kizilel, R.; Selman, J.R.; Al-Hallaj, S. [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 33rd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of passive cooling by phase change materials (PCM) is compared with that of active (forced air) cooling. Numerical simulations were performed at different discharge rates, operating temperatures and ambient temperatures of a compact Li-ion battery pack suitable for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) propulsion. The results were also compared with experimental results. The PCM cooling mode uses a micro-composite graphite-PCM matrix surrounding the array of cells, while the active cooling mode uses air blown through the gaps between the cells in the same array. The results show that at stressful conditions, i.e. at high discharge rates and at high operating or ambient temperatures (for example 40-45 C), air-cooling is not a proper thermal management system to keep the temperature of the cell in the desirable operating range without expending significant fan power. On the other hand, the passive cooling system is able to meet the operating range requirements under these same stressful conditions without the need for additional fan power. (author)

  4. Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material) thermal management of high power lithium-ion packs: Limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Rami; Kizilel, R.; Selman, J. R.; Al-Hallaj, S.

    The effectiveness of passive cooling by phase change materials (PCM) is compared with that of active (forced air) cooling. Numerical simulations were performed at different discharge rates, operating temperatures and ambient temperatures of a compact Li-ion battery pack suitable for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) propulsion. The results were also compared with experimental results. The PCM cooling mode uses a micro-composite graphite-PCM matrix surrounding the array of cells, while the active cooling mode uses air blown through the gaps between the cells in the same array. The results show that at stressful conditions, i.e. at high discharge rates and at high operating or ambient temperatures (for example 40-45 °C), air-cooling is not a proper thermal management system to keep the temperature of the cell in the desirable operating range without expending significant fan power. On the other hand, the passive cooling system is able to meet the operating range requirements under these same stressful conditions without the need for additional fan power.

  5. A feasibility study on direct methanol fuel cells for laptop computers based on a cost comparison with lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, Jung-Ho

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the total cost of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and lithium (Li)-ion battery systems when applied as the power supply for laptop computers in the Korean environment. The average power output and operational time of the laptop computers were assumed to be 20 W and 3000 h, respectively. Considering the status of their technologies and with certain conditions assumed, the total costs were calculated to be US$140 for the Li-ion battery and US$362 for DMFC. The manufacturing costs of the DMFC and Li-ion battery systems were calculated to be $16.65 W -1 and $0.77 W h -1 , and the energy consumption costs to be $0.00051 W h -1 and $0.00032 W h -1 , respectively. The higher fuel consumption cost of the DMFC system was due to the methanol (MeOH) crossover loss. Therefore, the requirements for DMFCs to be able to compete with Li-ion batteries in terms of energy cost include reducing the crossover level to at an order magnitude of -9 and the MeOH price to under $0.5 kg -1 . Under these conditions, if the DMFC manufacturing cost could be reduced to $6.30 W -1 , then the DMFC system would become at least as competitive as the Li-ion battery system for powering laptop computers in Korea. (author)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian

    Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics. Electrode reactions in these electrochemical systems are based on reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into the host electrode material with a concomitant addition/removal of electrons into the host. If such batteries are to find a wider market such as the automotive industry, less expensive and higher capacity electrode materials will be required. The olivine phase lithium iron phosphate has attracted the most attention because of its low cost and safety (high thermal and chemical stability). However, it is an intriguing fundamental problem to understand the fast electrochemical response from the poorly electronic conducting two-phase LiFePO4/FePO 4 system. This thesis focuses on determining the rate-limit step of LiFePO4. First, a LiFePO4 material, with vanadium substituting on the P-site, was synthesized, and found that the crystal structure change may cause high lithium diffusivity. Since an accurate Li diffusion coefficient cannot be measured by traditional electrochemical method in a three-electrode cell due to the phase transformation during measurement, a new method to measure the intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity of mixed conductive LiFePO 4 was developed. This was based on the conductivity measurements of mixed conductive solid electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blocking electrode. The effects of ionic/electronic conductivity and phase transformation on the rate performance of LiFePO4 were also first investigated by EIS and other electrochemical technologies. Based on the above fundamental kinetics studies, an optimized LiFePO4 was used as a target to deposit 1mum LiFePO4 thin film at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Similar to the carbon coated LiFePO4 powder electrode, the carbon-contained RF LiFePO4 film with no preferential orientation showed excellent capacity and rate capability both at 25°C and -20

  7. LiCoO/sub 2/ structures by spray pyrolysis technique for rechargeable Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Turgut, G.; Aydin, S.; Ertugrul, M.

    2012-01-01

    As the lithium-ion batteries have high energy density, Lithium-batteries have become a very attractive field of study for the researchers. Batteries' high energy density is up to the anode and cathode materials used in the batteries and the technique which is chosen for getting these materials. In this study, LiCoO/sub 2/, used for cathode active material in lithium ion batteries, has been prepared with spraying on a glass base by spray pyrolysis technique. LiCoO/sub 2 /was annealed at 600 deg. C for 3h in an air atmosphere; and crystal structures of the obtained samples were examined with XRD, the surface morphology of them was examined with SEM. Effect of annealing on crystallization has been investigated in prepared samples. (author)

  8. Effect of particle size on dc conductivity, activation energy and diffusion coefficient of lithium iron phosphate in Li-ion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cathode materials in nano size improve the performance of batteries due to the increased reaction rate and short diffusion lengths. Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4 is a promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries. However, it has its own limitations such as low conductivity and low diffusion coefficient which lead to high impedance due to which its application is restricted in batteries. In the present work, increase of conductivity with decreasing particle size of LiFePO4/C is studied. Also, the dependence of conductivity and activation energy for hopping of small polaron in LiFePO4/C on variation of particle size is investigated. The micro sized cathode material is ball milled for different durations to reduce the particle size to nano level. The material is characterized for its structure and particle size. The resistivities/dc conductivities of the pellets are measured using four probe technique at different temperatures, up to 150 °C. The activation energies corresponding to different particle sizes are calculated using Arrhenius equation. CR2032 cells are fabricated and electrochemical characteristics, namely, ac impedance and diffusion coefficients, are studied.

  9. Production and characterization of thin 7Li targets fabricated by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.; Fonseca, M.; Luis, H.; Mateus, R.; Marques, H.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.; Teodoro, O.M.N.D.; Rolfs, C.

    2009-01-01

    Very high fluence implantation of 7 Li + ions was used to promote the formation of a thin and high density 7 Li target in the surface region of Al samples. The implanted volume was characterized by particle induced gamma-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis, revealing that the implanted surface is a combination of Li 2 CO 3 , metallic lithium, LiOH and C, with almost no Al present. Radiation damage effects by proton beams were studied by observing the evolution of the 7 Li(p, α) 4 He nuclear reaction yield with the accumulated charge, at different proton energies, revealing high stability of the produced Li target.

  10. Selection and impedance based model of a lithium ion battery technology for integration with virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    is to integrate lithium-ion batteries into virtual power plants; thus, the power system stability and the energy quality can be increased. The selection of the best lithium-ion battery candidate for integration with wind power plants is a key aspect for the economic feasibility of the virtual power plant...... investment. This paper presents a methodology for selection, between three candidates, of a Li-ion battery which offers long cycle lifetime at partial charge/discharge (required by many grid support applications) while providing a low cost per cycle also. For the selected Li-ion battery an impedance......-based diagnostic tool for lifetime estimation was developed and verified. This diagnostic tool can be extended into an impedance-based lifetime model that will be able to predict the remaining useful lifetime of Li-ion batteries for specific grid support applications....

  11. Cubic Crystal-Structured SnTe for Superior Li- and Na-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ah-Ram; Park, Cheol-Min

    2017-06-27

    A cubic crystal-structured Sn-based compound, SnTe, was easily synthesized using a solid-state synthetic process to produce a better rechargeable battery, and its possible application as a Sn-based high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and Na-ion batteries (NIBs) was investigated. The electrochemically driven phase change mechanisms of the SnTe electrodes during Li and Na insertion/extraction were thoroughly examined utilizing various ex situ analytical techniques. During Li insertion, SnTe was converted to Li 4.25 Sn and Li 2 Te; meanwhile, during Na insertion, SnTe experienced a sequential topotactic transition to Na x SnTe (x ≤ 1.5) and conversion to Na 3.75 Sn and Na 2 Te, which recombined into the original SnTe phase after full Li and Na extraction. The distinctive phase change mechanisms provided remarkable electrochemical Li- and Na-ion storage performances, such as large reversible capacities with high Coulombic efficiencies and stable cyclabilities with fast C-rate characteristics, by preparing amorphous-C-decorated nanostructured SnTe-based composites. Therefore, SnTe, with its interesting phase change mechanisms, will be a promising alternative for the oncoming generation of anode materials for LIBs and NIBs.

  12. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films with controllable properties are highly desirable for improving battery performance. In this paper, a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study SEI films formed on hard carbon in Li- and Na-ion batteries. It is shown that a stable SEI layer can be designed by precycling an electrode in a desired Li- or Na-based electrolyte, and that ionic transport can be kinetically controlled. Selective Li- and Na-based SEI membranes are produced using Li- or Na-based electrolytes, respectively. The Na-based SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the Li-based SEI shuts off Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI layer with film-forming electrolyte additives, or by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to < 25 mAh g(-1); approximate to 1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh g(-1)). Unusual selective/ preferential transport of Li ions is demonstrated by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion-selective conductors using electrochemical approaches.

  13. Unleashing the Power and Energy of LiFePO4-Based Redox Flow Lithium Battery with a Bifunctional Redox Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Du, Yonghua; Jia, Chuankun; Zhou, Mingyue; Fan, Li; Wang, Xingzhu; Wang, Qing

    2017-05-10

    Redox flow batteries, despite great operation flexibility and scalability for large-scale energy storage, suffer from low energy density and relatively high cost as compared to the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. Here we report a redox flow lithium battery, which operates via the redox targeting reactions of LiFePO 4 with a bifunctional redox mediator, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and presents superb energy density as the Li-ion battery and system flexibility as the redox flow battery. The battery has achieved a tank energy density as high as 1023 Wh/L, power density of 61 mW/cm 2 , and voltage efficiency of 91%. Operando X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements were conducted to monitor the evolution of LiFePO 4 , which provides insightful information on the redox targeting process, critical to the device operation and optimization.

  14. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. HNbO3 and HTaO3: new cubic perovskites prepared from LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 via ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, C.E.; Jackel, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of HNbO 3 and HTaO 3 from LiNbO 3 via ion exchange in hot aqueous acid solutions is reported. This reaction is accompanied by a topotactic structural transformation from the rhombohedral LiNbO 3 structure to the cubic perovskite structure; cell constants are a = 3.822(1) angstrom for HNbO 3 and 3.810(2) angstrom for HTaO 3 . These new compounds have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR. They are electronic insulators and have low ionic conductivity. Evidence of partially proton-exchange phases Li/sub 1-x/H/sub x/MO 3 was also seen. The possible significance of this ion exchange reaction for devices using LiNbO 3 or LiTaO 3 is discussed

  16. A new, high energy rechargeable lithium ion battery with a surface-treated Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} cathode and a nano-structured Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Tao; Yu, Aishui, E-mail: asyu@fudan.edu.cn

    2015-11-05

    Through elaborate design, a new rechargeable lithium ion battery has been developed by comprising a surface-treated Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} cathode and a nano-structured Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode. After precondition Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} treatment, the initial coulombic efficiency of Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} cathode has been significantly increased and can be compatible with that of the nano-structured Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode. The optimization of structure and morphology for both active electrode materials result in their remarkable electrochemical performances in respective lithium half-cells. Ultimately, the rechargeable lithium ion full battery consisting of both electrodes delivers a specific capacity of 99.0 mAh g{sup −1} and a practical energy density of 201 Wh kg{sup −1}, based on the total weight of both active electrode materials. Furthermore, as a promising candidate in the lithium ion battery field, this full battery also achieves highly attractive electrochemical performance with high coulombic efficiency, excellent cycling stability and outstanding rate capability. Thus the proposed battery displays broad practical application prospects for next generation of high-energy lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • The Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} cathode is surface-treated by Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}. • The nano-sized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode is obtained by a solid-state method. • A new Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2}/Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} lithium ion battery is developed. • The battery shows high coulombic efficiency, specific capacity and energy density. • The battery shows high capacity retention rate and good high-rate capability.

  17. Super high energy density of Li3V2(PO4)3 as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Amin, Mochammad Karim Al; Susanti, Diah; Triwibowo, Joko

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion batteries have many advantages such as high energy density, no memory effect, long time cycleability and friendly environment. One type of cathode material that can be developed is Li3V2(PO4)3. In this study has been carried out the synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 with a hydrothermal temperature variation of 140, 160 and 180 °C and calcination temperature at 800 °C. SEM images show that the morphology of Li3V2(PO4)3 has irregular flakes with a size between 1-10 µm. CV results show redox reaction occurs in the range between 3 V to 4.8 V with the highest specific discharge capacity of 136 mAh/g for specimen with temperature hydrothermal and calcination are 180 °C and 800 °C. This result demonstrates that Li3V2(PO4)3 has a great potential as cathode material for lithium ion battery.

  18. Outstanding Li-storage performance of LiFePO4@MWCNTs cathode material with 3D network structure for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Le

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the MWCNTs-decorated LiFePO4 microspheres (LiFePO4@MWCNTs) with a 3D network structure have been synthesized by a facile and efficient spray-drying approach followed by solid-state reaction in a reduction atmosphere. In the as-prepared composite, the MWCNTs around LiFePO4 nanoparticles can provide 3D conductive networks which greatly facilitate the transport of Li+-ion and electron during the electrochemical reaction. Compared to the pure LiFePO4 material, the LiFePO4@MWCNTs composite as cathode for lithium-ion batteries exhibits significantly improved Li-storage performance in terms of rate capability and cyclic stability. Therefore, we can speculate that the spray-drying approach is a promising route to prepare the high-performance electrode materials with 3D network structure for electrochemical energy storage.

  19. A rocking chair type all-solid-state lithium ion battery adopting Li2O-ZrO2 coated LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 and a sulfide based electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Seitaro; Fujiki, Satoshi; Yamada, Takanobu; Aihara, Yuichi; Park, Youngsin; Kim, Tae Young; Baek, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jae-Myung; Doo, Seokgwang; Machida, Nobuya

    2014-02-01

    An all-solid-state lithium-ion battery (ASSB) using non-flammable solid electrolytes is a candidate for a next-generation battery. Although the excellent cycle performance and its high energy density are suggested in the literature, a practical size battery has not been appeared yet. In this paper, we have adopted a sulfide based electrolyte, Li2S-P2S5 (80:20 mol%) to a rocking chair type lithium ion battery. The electrochemical cell consists of a Li2O-ZrO2 coated LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cathode, an artificial graphite anode and the sulfide based electrolyte without any organic and inorganic liquids. The cathode charge transfer resistance is significantly reduced by the Li2O-ZrO2 coating. The total cell resistance of the Li2O-ZrO2 (LZO) coated NCA adopted cell is approximately one quarter of non-treated one. A standard type single cell with the nominal capacity of 100 mAh at 25 °C is fabricated by wet printing process, and its capacity retention is approximately 80% at 100 cycles. Also, a 1 Ah class battery was constructed by stacking the single cells, and demonstrated.

  20. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  1. Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF6

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of the neat LiPF6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line FTIR. Pure LiPF6 salt is thermally stable up to 380 oK in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing LiF as solid and PF5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct t...

  2. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  3. LiFePO4 nanoparticles encapsulated in graphene nanoshells for high-performance lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Huilong; Peng, Zhiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Lei; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2014-07-11

    LiFePO4 encapsulated in graphene nanoshells (LiFePO4@GNS) nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction between graphene-coated Fe nanoparticles and LiH2PO4. The resulting nanocomposite was demonstrated to be a superior lithium-ion battery cathode with improved cycle and rate performances.

  4. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-02-01

    Despite the large number of studies on the behavior of LiCoO2 in organic electrolytes and its recent application as a positive electrode in rechargeable water battery prototypes, a little information is available about the lithium intercalation reaction in this layered compound in aqueous electrolytes. This work shows that LiCoO2 electrodes can be reversibly cycled in LiNO3 aqueous electrolytes for tens of cycles at remarkably high rates with impressive values specific capacity higher than 100 mAh/g, and with a coulomb efficiency greater than 99.7%. Stable and reproducible cycling measurements have been made using a simple cell design that can be easily applied to the study of other intercalation materials, assuming that they are stable in water and that their intercalation potential range matches the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte. The experimental arrangement uses a three-electrode flooded cell in which another insertion compound acts as a reversible source and sink of lithium ions, i.e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic solvent electrolytes. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In-situ measurement of the lithium distribution in Li-ion batteries using micro-IBA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, A.; Orikasa, Y.; Chen, K.; Uchimoto, Y.; Kamiya, T.; Koka, M.; Satoh, T.; Mima, K.; Kato, Y.; Fujita, K.

    2016-01-01

    Direct observation of lithium concentration distribution in lithium-ion battery composite electrodes has been performed for the first time. Lithium-ion battery model cells for particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) measurements were designed and fabricated. Two dimensional images of lithium concentration in LiFePO_4 composite electrodes were obtained with PIXE and PIGE by scanning the proton microbeam for various charged states of the electrodes. Lithium concentration in LiFePO_4 composite electrodes was decreased from the contact interface between LiFePO_4 electrode and liquid electrolyte during the charge reaction.

  6. Silicon-conductive nanopaper for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the development of thin, flexible energy storage devices for new applications. For large scale and low cost devices, structures with the use of earth abundant materials are attractive. In this study, we fabricated flexible and conductive nanopaper aerogels with incorporated carbon nanotubes (CNT). Such conductive nanopaper is made from aqueous dispersions with dispersed CNT and cellulose nanofibers. Such aerogels are highly porous with open channels that allow the deposition of a thin-layer of silicon through a plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) method. Meanwhile, the open channels also allow for an excellent ion accessibility to the surface of silicon. We demonstrated that such lightweight and flexible Si-conductive nanopaper structure performs well as Li-ion battery anodes. A stable capacity of 1200. mA. h/g for 100 cycles in half-cells is achieved. Such flexible anodes based on earth abundant materials and aqueous dispersions could potentially open new opportunities for low-cost energy devices, and potentially can be applied for large-scale energy storage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Biological effects induced by the inner-target reaction of accelerated 7Li+3 ions with wheat embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Juncheng; Pan Wei; Zheng Qicheng; Liu Luxiang; Wang Jing; Zhao Linshu; Yu Weixiang; Zhao Wenrong; Bai Xixiang

    2004-01-01

    Using the mechanism of the nuclear reaction of accelerated 7 Li +3 ions with the inner target in mutant material i.e 1 H( 7 Li, 7 Be)n, the biological effects were studied. The wheat seeds were irradiated with the doses ranged from 1.416 x 10 10 ions/cm 2 to 1.416 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 . It was found that the cell membrane ruptured, the plasmolysis occurred, the nucleus shape changed. The serious changes of the chloroplast were as follows: the membrane protuberance, the grand disorder, the membrane disappearance, crista of mitochondrion rupture etc. by checking of the sub-microstructure of leaf cell. The single micronucleus and multi-micronucleus were observed at the interphase. The chromosome aberrational cells including chromosome fragment, lagging chromosome, chromosome bridge and circular chromosome were found during the mitosis. RAPD analysis of seedling genomic DNA variation in M 2 generation of three mutants showed their DNA sequences had changed. The result confirmed that the implantation of 7 Li +3 ions could induce genetic mutation in wheat

  8. Influence of aging on the heat and gas emissions from commercial lithium ion cells in case of thermal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lammer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for thermal ramp experiments on cylindrical 18650 Li-ion cells has been established. The method was applied on pristine cells as well as on devices aged by cyclisation or by storage at elevated temperature respectively. The tested cells comprise three types of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cells for either high power or high energy applications. The heat flux to and from the cell was investigated. Degradation and exothermic breakdown released large amounts of heat and gas. The total gas and heat emission from cycled cells was significantly larger than emission from cells aged by storage. After aging, the low energy cell ICR18650HE4 did not transgress into thermal runaway. Gas composition changed mainly in the early stage of the experiment. The composition of the initial gas release changed from predominantly CO2 towards hydrocarbons. The thermal runaway emitted for all tests a comparable mixture of H2, CO and CO2.

  9. Practical high temperature (80 °C) storage study of industrially manufactured Li-ion batteries with varying electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genieser, R.; Loveridge, M.; Bhagat, R.

    2018-05-01

    A previous study is focused on high temperature cycling of industrially manufactured Li-ion pouch cells (NMC-111/Graphite) with different electrolytes at 80 °C [JPS 373 (2018) 172-183]. Within this article the same test set-up is used, with cells stored for 30 days at different open circuit potentials and various electrolytes instead of electrochemical cycling. The most pronounced cell degradation (capacity fade and resistance increase) happens at high potentials. However appropriate electrolyte formulations are able to suppress ageing conditions by forming passivating surface films on both electrodes. Compared with electrochemical cycling at 80 °C, cells with enhanced electrolytes only show a slight resistance increase during storage and the capacity fade is much lower. Additionally it is shown for the first time, that the resistance is decreasing and capacity is regained once these cells are cycled again at room temperature. This is not the case for electrolytes without additives or just vinylene carbonate (VC) as an additive. It is further shown that the resistance increase of cells with the other electrolytes is accompanied by a reduction of the cell volume during further cycling. This behaviour is likely related to the reduction of CO2 at the anode to form additional SEI layer components.

  10. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO{sub 4} nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jinpeng, E-mail: goldminer@sina.com; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO{sub 4} has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO{sub 4}@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO{sub 4}@C. • The LiFePO{sub 4}@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO{sub 4}. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4} is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO{sub 4}@B{sub 0.4}-C can reach 164.1 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g{sup −1}). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g{sup −1} and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO{sub 4}@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  11. A three-dimensional LiFePO4/carbon nanotubes/graphene composite as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with superior high-rate performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Xingling; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Yiming; Wang, Wenguang; Ye, Yipeng; Zheng, Chuchun; Deng, Peng; Shi, Zhicong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The excellent electrochemical performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect of CNTs and graphene. - Highlights: • The LFP–CNT–G composite was successfully prepared by solid station method. • The interlaced CNTs reduced the crumple of graphene and improved tap density of the composite. • The LFP–CNT–G electrode exhibited superior electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A three-dimensional lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 )/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/graphene composite was successfully synthesized via solid-state reaction. The LiFePO 4 /carbon nanotubes/graphene (LFP–CNT–G) composite used as Li-ions battery cathode material exhibits superior high-rate capability and favorable charge–discharge cycle performance under relative high current density compared with that of LiFePO 4 /carbon nanotubes (LFP–CNT) composite and LiFePO 4 /graphene (LFP–G) composite. Graphene nanosheets and CNTs construct 3D conducting networks are favor for faster electron transfer, higher Li-ions diffusion coefficient and lower resistance during the Li-ions reversible reaction. The synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CNTs improves the rate capability and cycling stability of LiFePO 4 -based cathodes. The LFP–CNT–G electrode shows reversible capacity of 168.9 mA h g −1 at 0.2 C and 115.8 mA h g −1 at 20 C. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrate that the LFP–CNT–G electrode has the smallest charge-transfer resistance, indicating that the fast electron transfer from the electrolyte to the LFP–CNT–G active materials in the Li-ions intercalation/deintercalation reactions owing to the three-dimensional networks of graphene and carbon nanotubes

  12. Thermal stability of LiPF 6 salt and Li-ion battery electrolytes containing LiPF 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross, Philip N.

    The thermal stability of the neat lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6) salt and of 1 molal (m) solutions of LiPF 6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Pure LiPF 6 salt is thermally stable up to 107 °C in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing lithium fluoride (LiF) as solid and PF 5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF 6 and water vapor to form phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF 3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF). No new products were observed in 1 m solutions of LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 85 °C for 300-420 h did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, no alkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF 6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

  13. Characteristics and properties of nano-LiCoO2 synthesized by pre-organized single source precursors: Li-ion diffusivity, electrochemistry and biological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brog, Jean-Pierre; Crochet, Aurélien; Seydoux, Joël; Clift, Martin J D; Baichette, Benoît; Maharajan, Sivarajakumar; Barosova, Hana; Brodard, Pierre; Spodaryk, Mariana; Züttel, Andreas; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Kwon, Nam Hee; Fromm, Katharina M

    2017-08-22

    LiCoO 2 is one of the most used cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Its conventional synthesis requires high temperature (>800 °C) and long heating time (>24 h) to obtain the micronscale rhombohedral layered high-temperature phase of LiCoO 2 (HT-LCO). Nanoscale HT-LCO is of interest to improve the battery performance as the lithium (Li + ) ion pathway is expected to be shorter in nanoparticles as compared to micron sized ones. Since batteries typically get recycled, the exposure to nanoparticles during this process needs to be evaluated. Several new single source precursors containing lithium (Li + ) and cobalt (Co 2+ ) ions, based on alkoxides and aryloxides have been structurally characterized and were thermally transformed into nanoscale HT-LCO at 450 °C within few hours. The size of the nanoparticles depends on the precursor, determining the electrochemical performance. The Li-ion diffusion coefficients of our LiCoO 2 nanoparticles improved at least by a factor of 10 compared to commercial one, while showing good reversibility upon charging and discharging. The hazard of occupational exposure to nanoparticles during battery recycling was investigated with an in vitro multicellular lung model. Our heterobimetallic single source precursors allow to dramatically reduce the production temperature and time for HT-LCO. The obtained nanoparticles of LiCoO 2 have faster kinetics for Li + insertion/extraction compared to microparticles. Overall, nano-sized LiCoO 2 particles indicate a lower cytotoxic and (pro-)inflammogenic potential in vitro compared to their micron-sized counterparts. However, nanoparticles aggregate in air and behave partially like microparticles.

  14. PEMODELAN KONDUKTIVITAS ION DALAM STRUKTUR Li2Sc3(PO43 (Modeling Ionic Conductivity in Li2Sc3(PO43 Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram La Kilo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Fasa Li2Sc3(PO43 merupakan material konduktor superionik yang dapat diaplikasikan sebagai baterai yang dapat diisi ulang (rechargeable. Ion Li+ dalam struktur Li2Sc3(PO4 dapat mengalami migrasi dari posisi terisi ke posisi kosong. Penelitian ini telah memodelkan migrasi ion Li+ dalam struktur Li2Sc3(PO4 dengan menggunakan metode bond valence sum (BVS. Metode ini dapat memprediksi bilangan oksidasi suatu atom berdasarkan jarak dengan atom-atom tetangga. Source code berbasis BVS yang digunakan adalah JUMPITER yang mensimulasi efek gaya listrik eksternal yang bertindak pada ion litium sehingga nilai BVS litium dapat dipetakan terhadap jarak. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa konduksi ion Li+ dapat terjadi pada arah [010], [101], dan [120]. Namun, lintasan konduksi ion Li+ lebih mudah terjadi pada arah [120] atau bidang ab dengan nilai maksimum BVS adalah 0,982. ABSTRACT g-phase of Li2Sc3(PO43 is a lithium super ionic conductor which can be applied as a rechargeable lithium battery. Lithium ions of g-Li2Sc3(PO43 can migrate from occupied site to vacant site. In this research, simulation of Li+ ions migration in the structure of g-Li2Sc3(PO43 carried out using bond valence sum (BVS to predict the oxidation state of Li+ion based on the distance of the ion to neighboring atoms. BVS-based code used JUMPITER to simulate the effect of external electrical force acting on the lithium ions to produce the lithium BVS value which can be mapped to the distance. The simulation results shows that Li+ ion conduction can be occurred on [010], [101], and [120] directions. However, the Li ion conduction pathway occur more easily in the direction of [120] or ab plane with the BVS maximum value is 0.982.

  15. Contribution of Li-ion batteries to the environmental impact of electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Dominic A; Gauch, Marcel; Widmer, Rolf; Wäger, Patrick; Stamp, Anna; Zah, Rainer; Althaus, Hans-Jörg

    2010-09-01

    Battery-powered electric cars (BEVs) play a key role in future mobility scenarios. However, little is known about the environmental impacts of the production, use and disposal of the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery. This makes it difficult to compare the environmental impacts of BEVs with those of internal combustion engine cars (ICEVs). Consequently, a detailed lifecycle inventory of a Li-ion battery and a rough LCA of BEV based mobility were compiled. The study shows that the environmental burdens of mobility are dominated by the operation phase regardless of whether a gasoline-fueled ICEV or a European electricity fueled BEV is used. The share of the total environmental impact of E-mobility caused by the battery (measured in Ecoindicator 99 points) is 15%. The impact caused by the extraction of lithium for the components of the Li-ion battery is less than 2.3% (Ecoindicator 99 points). The major contributor to the environmental burden caused by the battery is the supply of copper and aluminum for the production of the anode and the cathode, plus the required cables or the battery management system. This study provides a sound basis for more detailed environmental assessments of battery based E-mobility.

  16. The characterization of secondary lithium-ion battery degradation when operating complex, ultra-high power pulsed loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek N.

    The US Navy is actively developing all electric fleets, raising serious questions about what is required of onboard power supplies in order to properly power the ship's electrical systems. This is especially relevant when choosing a viable power source to drive high power propulsion and electric weapon systems in addition to the conventional loads deployed aboard these types of vessels. Especially when high pulsed power loads are supplied, the issue of maintaining power quality becomes important and increasingly complex. Conventionally, a vessel's electrical power is generated using gas turbine or diesel driven motor-generator sets that are very inefficient when they are used outside of their most efficient load condition. What this means is that if the generator is not being utilized continuously at its most efficient load capacity, the quality of the output power may also be effected and fall outside of the acceptable power quality limits imposed through military standards. As a solution to this potential problem, the Navy has proposed using electrochemical storage devices since they are able to buffer conventional generators when the load is operating below the generator's most efficient power level or able to efficiently augment a generator when the load is operating in excess of the generator's most efficient power rating. Specifically, the US Navy is interested in using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium-ion batteries within an intelligently controlled energy storage module that could act as either a prime power supply for on-board pulsed power systems or as a backup generator to other shipboard power systems. Due to the unique load profile of high-rate pulsed power systems, the implementation of lithium-ion batteries within these complex systems requires them to be operated at very high rates and the effects these things have on cell degradation has been an area of focus. There is very little published research into the effects that high power transient

  17. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-09-21

    Substrates able to rectify transport of ions based on charge and/or size are ubiquitous in biological systems. Electrolytes and interphases that selectively transport electrochemically active ions are likewise of broad interest in all electrical energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode and stabilize metal deposition by fundamental mechanisms. We report that 20- to 300-nm-thick, single-ion-conducting membranes deposited at the anode enable electrolytes with the highest combination of cation transference number, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical stability reported. By means of direct visualization we find that single-ion membranes also reduce dendritic deposition of Li in liquids. Galvanostatic measurements further show that the electrolytes facilitate long (3 mAh) recharge of full Li/LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells with high cathode loadings (3 mAh cm−2/19.9 mg cm−2) and at high current densities (3 mA cm−2).

  18. Thermophysical properties of LiCoO₂-LiMn₂O₄ blended electrode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotcu, Petronela; Seifert, Hans J

    2016-04-21

    Thermophysical properties of two cathode types for lithium-ion batteries were measured by dependence on temperature. The cathode materials are commercial composite thick films containing LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 blended active materials, mixed with additives (binder and carbon black) deposited on aluminium current collector foils. The thermal diffusivities of the cathode samples were measured by laser flash analysis up to 673 K. The specific heat data was determined based on measured composite specific heat, aluminium specific heat data and their corresponding measured mass fractions. The composite specific heat data was measured using two differential scanning calorimeters over the temperature range from 298 to 573 K. For a comprehensive understanding of the blended composite thermal behaviour, measurements of the heat capacity of an additional LiMn2O4 sample were performed, and are the first experimental data up to 700 K. Thermal conductivity of each cathode type and their corresponding blended composite layers were estimated from the measured thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity and the estimated density based on metallographic methods and structural investigations. Such data are highly relevant for simulation studies of thermal management and thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries, in which the bulk properties are assumed, as a common approach, to be temperature independent.

  19. Nasicon-Type Surface Functional Modification in Core-Shell LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2@NaTi2(PO4)3 Cathode Enhances Its High-Voltage Cycling Stability and Rate Capacity toward Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Longwei; Sun, Xuan; Wu, Chen; Hou, Linrui; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yuan, Changzhou

    2018-02-14

    Surface modifications are established well as efficient methodologies to enhance comprehensive Li-storage behaviors of the cathodes and play a significant role in cutting edge innovations toward lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we first logically devised a pilot-scale coating strategy to integrate solid-state electrolyte NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (NTP) and layered LiNi 0.5 Mn 0.3 Co 0.2 O 2 (NMC) for smart construction of core-shell NMC@NTP cathodes. The Nasicon-type NTP nanoshell with exceptional ion conductivity effectively suppressed gradual encroachment and/or loss of electroactive NMC, guaranteed stable phase interfaces, and meanwhile rendered small sur-/interfacial electron/ion-diffusion resistance. By benefiting from immanently promoting contributions of the nano-NTP coating, the as-fabricated core-shell NMC@NTP architectures were competitively endowed with superior high-voltage cyclic stabilities and rate capacities within larger electrochemical window from 3.0 to 4.6 V when utilized as advanced cathodes for advanced LIBs. More meaningfully, the appealing electrode design concept proposed here will exert significant impact upon further constructing other high-voltage Ni-based cathodes for high-energy/power LIBs.

  20. Insight into effects of graphene in Li4Ti5O12/carbon composite with high rate capability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.; Li, G.R.; Xiao, C.W.; Gao, X.P.

    2013-01-01

    Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /carbon composites have shown promising high rate capability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. In this paper, unique effects of graphene in Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /carbon composites on electrochemical performances are focused by means of comparing Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene with Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /conductive carbon black (CCB) and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 . The investigated anode materials are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The amount of graphene or CCB in the Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /carbon composites is about 3 wt% measured by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene consists of small sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanocrystals supported on graphene nanosheets, while Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /CCB comprises Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanocrystal aggregates coated nearly by graphited carbon. The electrochemical performances of these samples as anode materials for lithium ion batteries are investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge method. Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene provides a superior rate capability. At the high current density of 1600 mA g −1 , the reversible capacity after 200 cycles is still more than 120 mAh g −1 , which is about 40% higher than that of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /CCB. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) demonstrates that stronger pseudocapacitive effect occurs on Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene than on Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /CCB. This derived from the structure features that graphene-supported small Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanocrystals provide more surface active sites for the lithium ion insertion/extraction. The strong pseudocapacitive effect is responsible for the improvements of capacity and high-rate capability. Further, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) show that Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene electrode have lower charge transfer resistance and smaller diffusion impedance, indicating the obvious advantages in electrode kinetics over Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12

  1. On the complex ageing characteristics of high-power LiFePO4/graphite battery cells cycled with high charge and discharge currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groot, Jens; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are known to undergo complex ageing processes, where the operating conditions have a profound and non-linear effect on both calendar life and cycle life. This is especially a challenge for the automotive industry, where the requirements on product lifetime and reliability...

  2. Silicon-Carbon Nanotube Coaxial Sponge as Li-Ion Anodes with High Areal Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2011-07-01

    Highly porous, conductive Si-CNT sponge-like structures with a large areal mass loading are demonstrated as effective Li-ion battery anode materials. Nano-pore formation and growth in the Si shell has been identified as the primary failure mode of the Si-CNT sponge anode, and the formation of such nanopores can be minimized by tuning the cutoff voltages. In conjunction with experiments, a theoretical analysis was carried out to explain the pore formation mechanism. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Graphite as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries; Le graphite comme electrode negative dans les accumulateurs Li-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Monnier, A. [Timcal SA (France)

    1996-12-31

    The last developments in lithium batteries design have demonstrated the advantages of graphite: competitive cost, flat output curve, high capacity thanks to the obtention of a final compound close to LiC{sub 6}, good behaviour during cycling and a high mass energy. However, these advantages are slightly tarnished by parasite secondary reactions during the evolution of the element. Two different cases are encountered: the formation of a passivation layer (loss of Li ions and formation of irreversible bounds) and the formation of a passivation layer with a reaction between graphite and the solvent (partial destruction of the graphite crystal lattice). In the first case, the theoretical graphite insertion capacity remains at 372 mAh/g while in the second case the insertion capacity is greatly reduced. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  4. Graphite as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries; Le graphite comme electrode negative dans les accumulateurs Li-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F; Monnier, A [Timcal SA (France)

    1997-12-31

    The last developments in lithium batteries design have demonstrated the advantages of graphite: competitive cost, flat output curve, high capacity thanks to the obtention of a final compound close to LiC{sub 6}, good behaviour during cycling and a high mass energy. However, these advantages are slightly tarnished by parasite secondary reactions during the evolution of the element. Two different cases are encountered: the formation of a passivation layer (loss of Li ions and formation of irreversible bounds) and the formation of a passivation layer with a reaction between graphite and the solvent (partial destruction of the graphite crystal lattice). In the first case, the theoretical graphite insertion capacity remains at 372 mAh/g while in the second case the insertion capacity is greatly reduced. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  5. High performance Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries studied in pilot scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenyu; Dai Changsong; Wu Gang; Nelson, Mark; Hu Xinguo; Zhang Ruoxin; Liu Jiansheng; Xia Jicai

    2010-01-01

    Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite cathode material was synthesized via carbothermal reduction process in a pilot scale production test using battery grade raw materials with the aim of studying the feasibility for their practical applications. XRD, FT-IR, XPS, CV, EIS and battery charge-discharge tests were used to characterize the as-prepared material. The XRD and FT-IR data suggested that the as-prepared Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C material exhibits an orderly monoclinic structure based on the connectivity of PO 4 tetrahedra and VO 6 octahedra. Half cell tests indicated that an excellent high-rate cyclic performance was achieved on the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathodes in the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, retaining a capacity of 95% (96 mAh/g) after 100 cycles at 20C discharge rate. The low-temperature performance of the cathode was further evaluated, showing 0.5C discharge capacity of 122 and 119 mAh/g at -25 and -40 o C, respectively. The discharge capacity of graphite//Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 batteries with a designed battery capacity of 14 Ah is as high as 109 mAh/g with a capacity retention of 92% after 224 cycles at 2C discharge rates. The promising high-rate and low-temperature performance observed in this work suggests that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is a very strong candidate to be a cathode in a next-generation Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications.

  6. Modeling Li-ion conductivity in LiLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mounir, Ferhi, E-mail: ferhi.mounir@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, BP No. 73, 8027 Soliman (Tunisia); Karima, Horchani-Naifer [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, BP No. 73, 8027 Soliman (Tunisia); Khaled, Ben Saad [Laboratoire de Photovoltaieque, Centre des Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole Borj Cedria, BP No. 95, 2050 Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Mokhtar, Ferid [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, BP No. 73, 8027 Soliman (Tunisia)

    2012-07-01

    Polycrystalline powder and single-crystal of LiLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} are synthesized by solid state reaction and flux technique, respectively. A morphological description of the obtained product was made based on scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Ionic conductivity of the LiLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} powder was measured and evaluated over a temperature range from 553 to 913 K. Single crystals of LiLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The LiLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} structure was found to be isotypic with LiNd(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c and cell parameters: a=16.635(6) A, b=7.130(3) A, c=9.913(3) A, {beta}=126.37(4) Degree-Sign , V=946.72(6) A{sup 3} and Z=4. The LiLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} structure was described as an alternation between spiraling chains (PO{sub 3}){sub n} and (La{sup 3+}, Li{sup +}) cations along the b direction. The small Li{sup +} ions, coordinated to four oxygen atoms, were located in the large connected cavities created between the LaO{sub 8} polyhedra and the polyphosphate chains. The jumping of Li{sup +} through tunnels of the crystalline network was investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. The close value of the activation energies calculated through the analysis of conductivity data and loss spectra indicate that the transport in the investigated system is through hopping mechanism. The correlation between ionic conductivity of LiLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} and its crystallographic structure was investigated and the most probably transport pathway model was determined.

  7. Wavelength stabilized high pulse power laser diodes for automotive LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, A.; Klehr, A.; Wenzel, H.; Zeghuzi, A.; Fricke, J.; Maaßdorf, A.; Liero, A.; Tränkle, G.

    2018-03-01

    Diode lasers generating optical pulses with high peak power and lengths in the nanosecond range are key components of systems for free-space communication, metrology, material processing, spectroscopy, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) as needed for object detection and autonomous driving. Automotive LiDAR systems demand additionally a good beam quality and low wavelength shift with temperature due to the wide operating temperature span. We present here internally wavelength stabilized lasers emitting ns optical pulses from an emission aperture between 30 μm and 100 μm with peak powers of tens of Watts at wavelengths around 905 nm. The vertical structure based on AlGaAs (confinement and cladding layers) and InGaAs (active quantum well) is especially optimized for pulsed operation with respect to the implementation of a surface Bragg grating with a high reflectivity. The fabricated 6 mm long distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) broad area (BA) lasers are electrically driven by an in-house developed high-speed unit generating 3 to 10 ns long nearly rectangular shaped current pulses with amplitudes of up to 250 A. Such lasers emit optical pulses with a peak power of more than 30 W at 95 A pulse current up to a temperature of 85°C with a wavelength shift as low as 65 pm/K and a lateral beam propagation factor less than 10. The influence of the lateral aperture width and the pulse length on the beam quality will be shown. A monolithic integration of 3 DBR BA lasers on a single chip whose emission can be combined into a single beam raises the output power to more than 100 W.

  8. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christoph J.; Geiger, Sigrid; Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m2 mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  9. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christoph J., E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com; Geiger, Sigrid, E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com [Freudenberg Vliesstoffe SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany); Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael [Freudenberg Forschungsdienste SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m{sup 2} mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  10. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke; Song, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous LiFePO 4 /N-CNTs is synthesized by a freeze-drying method. • The N-CNTs conductive network enhances the electron transport within the LiFePO 4 electrode. • The continuous pores accelerate the diffusion of lithium ions. • LiFePO 4 /N-CNTs demonstrates an excellent electrochemical Li-insertion performance. - Abstract: The three-dimensional porous LiFePO 4 modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO 4 to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  11. In-situ measurement of the lithium distribution in Li-ion batteries using micro-IBA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, A., E-mail: yamazaki@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Orikasa, Y.; Chen, K.; Uchimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-nihonmatsucho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Koka, M.; Satoh, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233, Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Mima, K.; Kato, Y.; Fujita, K. [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1, Kurematsu, NIshi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Direct observation of lithium concentration distribution in lithium-ion battery composite electrodes has been performed for the first time. Lithium-ion battery model cells for particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) measurements were designed and fabricated. Two dimensional images of lithium concentration in LiFePO{sub 4} composite electrodes were obtained with PIXE and PIGE by scanning the proton microbeam for various charged states of the electrodes. Lithium concentration in LiFePO{sub 4} composite electrodes was decreased from the contact interface between LiFePO{sub 4} electrode and liquid electrolyte during the charge reaction.

  12. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  13. Microwave-assisted preparation of Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite with high-rate capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ji; Mao, Wen-feng; Xie, Hui; Tang, Zhi-yuan; Yuan, Wei; Chen, Xue-cheng; Xu, Qiang; Ma, Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High-rate Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is firstly reported via a microwave-assisted method. ► The reduced particle size is responsible for the improved high-rate performance. ► A discharge capacity of 100 mAh g −1 is obtained at 20 C charge–discharge rate. -- Abstract: A fast sol–gel assisted microwave heating approach has been developed for the synthesis of high-rate Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathode material. This approach can synthesize Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C particles with high purity and good crystallinity in 12 min at a low microwave power of 320 W. In the voltage range of 3.0–4.3 V, the obtained Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C delivers a reversible discharge capacity of 100 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 20 °C, exhibiting excellent rate capability and cycling performance. The rate-recovery performance also suggests that the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C material possesses excellent structure stability after high-rate cycles, presenting excellent application value in high-power lithium ion batteries.

  14. Fabrication of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 Nanosheets with Structural Defects as High-Rate and Long-Life Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Chen, Jian; Li, Yanhuai; Guo, Xinli; Shen, Yuanfang; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Zengmei

    2017-06-07

    Development of high-power lithium-ion batteries with high safety and durability has become a key challenge for practical applications of large-scale energy storage devices. Accordingly, we report here on a promising strategy to synthesize a high-rate and long-life Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -TiO 2 anode material. The novel material exhibits remarkable rate capability and long-term cycle stability. The specific capacities at 20 and 30 C (1 C = 175 mA g -1 ) reach 170.3 and 168.2 mA h g -1 , respectively. Moreover, a capacity of up to 161.3 mA h g -1 is retained after 1000 cycles at 20 C, and the capacity retention ratio reaches up to 94.2%. The extraordinary rate performance of the Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -TiO 2 composite is attributed to the existence of oxygen vacancies and grain boundaries, significantly enhancing electrical conductivity and lithium insertion/extraction kinetics. Meanwhile, the pseudocapacitive effect is induced owing to the presence of abundant interfaces in the composite, which is beneficial to enhancing specific capacity and rate capability. Additionally, the ultrahigh capacity at low rates, greater than the theoretical value of spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , may be correlated to the lithium vacancies in 8a sites, increasing the extra docking sites of lithium ions.

  15. High definition surface micromachining of LiNbO 3 by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, M.; Bentini, G. G.; Bianconi, M.; De Nicola, P.

    2010-10-01

    High Energy Ion Implantation (HEII) of both medium and light mass ions has been successfully applied for the surface micromachining of single crystal LiNbO 3 (LN) substrates. It has been demonstrated that the ion implantation process generates high differential etch rates in the LN implanted areas, when suitable implantation parameters, such as ion species, fluence and energy, are chosen. In particular, when traditional LN etching solutions are applied to suitably ion implanted regions, etch rates values up to three orders of magnitude higher than the typical etching rates of the virgin material, are registered. Further, the enhancement in the etching rate has been observed on x, y and z-cut single crystalline material, and, due to the physical nature of the implantation process, it is expected that it can be equivalently applied also to substrates with different crystallographic orientations. This technique, associated with standard photolithographic technologies, allows to generate in a fast and accurate way very high aspect ratio relief micrometric structures on LN single crystal surface. In this work a description of the developed technology is reported together with some examples of produced micromachined structures: in particular very precisely defined self sustaining suspended structures, such as beams and membranes, generated on LN substrates, are presented. The developed technology opens the way to actual three dimensional micromachining of LN single crystals substrates and, due to the peculiar properties characterising this material, (pyroelectric, electro-optic, acousto-optic, etc.), it allows the design and the production of complex integrated elements, characterised by micrometric features and suitable for the generation of advanced Micro Electro Optical Systems (MEOS).

  16. Structural and thermal stabilities of layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials in 18650 high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Ning, Feng; Yang, Quan-Hong; Song, Quan-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Su, Fangyuan; Du, Hongda; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Kang, Feiyu

    The structural and thermal stabilities of the layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode materials under high rate cycling and abusive conditions are investigated using the commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries. The Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials maintain their layered structure even when the power batteries are subjected to 200 cycles with 10 C discharge rate at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C, whereas their microstructure undergoes obvious distortion, which leads to the relatively poor cycling performance of power batteries at high charge/discharge rates and working temperature. Under abusive conditions, the increase in the battery temperature during overcharge is attributed to both the reactions of electrolyte solvents with overcharged graphite anode and Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode and the Joule heat that results from the great increase in the total resistance (R cell) of batteries. The reactions of fully charged Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathodes and graphite anodes with electrolyte cannot be activated during short current test in the fully charged batteries. However, these reactions occur at around 140 °C in the fully charged batteries during oven test, which is much lower than the temperature of about 240 °C required for the reactions outside batteries.

  17. Charge Equalization Controller Algorithm for Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems: Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an accurate model of a charge equalization controller (CEC that manages individual cell monitoring and equalizing by charging and discharging series-connected lithium-ion (Li-ion battery cells. In this concept, an intelligent control algorithm is developed to activate bidirectional cell switches and control direct current (DC–DC converter switches along with pulse width modulation (PWM generation. Individual models of an electric vehicle (EV-sustainable Li-ion battery, optimal power rating, a bidirectional flyback DC–DC converter, and charging and discharging controllers are integrated to develop a small-scale CEC model that can be implemented for 10 series-connected Li-ion battery cells. Results show that the charge equalization controller operates at 91% efficiency and performs well in equalizing both overdischarged and overcharged cells on time. Moreover, the outputs of the CEC model show that the desired balancing level occurs at 2% of state of charge difference and that all cells are operated within a normal range. The configuration, execution, control, power loss, cost, size, and efficiency of the developed CEC model are compared with those of existing controllers. The proposed model is proven suitable for high-tech storage systems toward the advancement of sustainable EV technologies and renewable source of applications.

  18. Nano-Sized Structurally Disordered Metal Oxide Composite Aerogels as High-Power Anodes in Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haijian; Wang, Xing; Tervoort, Elena; Zeng, Guobo; Liu, Tian; Chen, Xi; Sologubenko, Alla; Niederberger, Markus

    2018-03-27

    A general method for preparing nano-sized metal oxide nanoparticles with highly disordered crystal structure and their processing into stable aqueous dispersions is presented. With these nanoparticles as building blocks, a series of nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite aerogels are fabricated and directly used as high-power anodes for lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (Li-HSCs). To clarify the effect of the degree of disorder, control samples of crystalline nanoparticles with similar particle size are prepared. The results indicate that the structurally disordered samples show a significantly enhanced electrochemical performance compared to the crystalline counterparts. In particular, structurally disordered Ni x Fe y O z @rGO delivers a capacity of 388 mAh g -1 at 5 A g -1 , which is 6 times that of the crystalline sample. Disordered Ni x Fe y O z @rGO is taken as an example to study the reasons for the enhanced performance. Compared with the crystalline sample, density functional theory calculations reveal a smaller volume expansion during Li + insertion for the structurally disordered Ni x Fe y O z nanoparticles, and they are found to exhibit larger pseudocapacitive effects. Combined with an activated carbon (AC) cathode, full-cell tests of the lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors are performed, demonstrating that the structurally disordered metal oxide nanoparticles@rGO||AC hybrid systems deliver high energy and power densities within the voltage range of 1.0-4.0 V. These results indicate that structurally disordered nanomaterials might be interesting candidates for exploring high-power anodes for Li-HSCs.

  19. Synthesis of ultrasmall Li-Mn spinel oxides exhibiting unusual ion exchange, electrochemical, and catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumi; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Tsubasa; Oshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    The efficient surface reaction and rapid ion diffusion of nanocrystalline metal oxides have prompted considerable research interest for the development of high functional materials. Herein, we present a novel low-temperature method to synthesize ultrasmall nanocrystalline spinel oxides by controlling the hydration of coexisting metal cations in an organic solvent. This method selectively led to Li-Mn spinel oxides by tuning the hydration of Li+ ions under mild reaction conditions (i.e., low temperature and short reaction time). These particles exhibited an ultrasmall crystallite size of 2.3 nm and a large specific surface area of 371 ± 15 m2 g-1. They exhibited unique properties such as unusual topotactic Li+/H+ ion exchange, high-rate discharge ability, and high catalytic performance for several aerobic oxidation reactions, by creating surface phenomena throughout the particles. These properties differed significantly from those of Li-Mn spinel oxides obtained by conventional solid-state methods.

  20. A Novel Supercapacitor/Lithium-Ion Hybrid Energy System with a Fuzzy Logic-Controlled Fast Charging and Intelligent Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric powered wheelchair (EPW is an essential assistive tool for people with serious injuries or disability. This manuscript describes the validation of applied research for reducing the charging time of an electric wheelchair using a hybrid electric system (HES composed of a supercapacitor (SC bank and a lithium-ion battery with a fuzzy logic controller (FLC-based fast charging system for Li-ion batteries and a fuzzy logic-based intelligent energy management system (FLIEMS for controlling the power flow within the HES. The fast charging FLC was designed to drive the voltage difference (Vd among the different cells of a multi-cell battery and the cell voltage (Vc of an individual cell. These parameters (voltage difference and cell voltage were used as input voltages to reduce the charge time and activate a bypass equalization (BPE scheme. BPE was introduced in this paper so that the battery operates within the safe voltage range. For SC/Li-ion HES, the FLIEMS presented in this paper controls the bi-directional power flow to smooth the power extracted from Li-ion batteries. Moreover, a dual active bridge isolated bidirectional DC converter (DAB-IBDC was used for power conversion. The DAB-IBDC presented in this paper has the characteristics of galvanic isolation, and high power conversion efficiency compared to the conventional converter circuits due to the reduced reverse power flow and current stresses.

  1. High-Power Ion Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, J. R.; Matossian, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    Performance data are presented for the NASA/Hughes 30-cm-diam 'common' thruster operated over the power range from 600 W to 4.6 kW. At the 4.6-kW power level, the thruster produces 172 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of just under 4000 s. Xenon pressure and temperature measurements are presented for a 6.4-mm-diam hollow cathode operated at emission currents ranging from 5 to 30 A and flow rates of 4 sccm and 8 sccm. Highly reproducible results show that the cathode temperature is a linear function of emission current, ranging from approx. 1000 C to 1150 C over this same current range. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements obtained from a 30-cm-diam thruster are presented, suggesting that LIF could be a valuable diagnostic for real-time assessment of accelerator-arid erosion. Calibration results of laminar-thin-film (LTF) erosion badges with bulk molybdenum are presented for 300-eV xenon, krypton, and argon sputtering ions. Facility-pressure effects on the charge-exchange ion current collected by 8-cm-diam and 30-cm-diam thrusters operated on xenon propellant are presented to show that accel current is nearly independent of facility pressure at low pressures, but increases rapidly under high-background-pressure conditions.

  2. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  3. Lifetime Models for Lithium-ion Batteries used in Virtual Power Plant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    ; however, because of their advantages, which include fast response, high efficiency, long lifetime and environmental friendliness, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries represent suitable candidates for integration within VPPs, especially when they are required to provide short- and medium-time services....... The family of Li-ion batteries is broad with many different chemistries available at present on the market. Nonetheless, the Li-ion battery based on the lithium iron phosphate/graphite (further referred LFP/C) chemistry is investigated in this thesis. The lifetime of the Li-ion battery ESS represents a key...... parameter in the analysis of the economic feasibility of integrating such systems in WPPs. Even though their price is decreasing due to the research carried out mainly in the automotive sector, Li-ion batteries are still expensive energy storage devices. Therefore, accurate information about Li...

  4. Thermal Characteristics of Conversion-Type FeOF Cathode in Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated by thermogravimetric mass spectrometric (TG-MS and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC systems. No remarkable HF release was detected, even up to 700 °C, which indicated a low toxic risk for the FeOF cathode. Changes in the thermal properties of the FeOF cathode via different conversion reaction depths in the associated electrolyte were studied by changing the cathode/electrolyte ratio in the mixture. LiFeOF was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 210 °C. Similar exothermic reactions were found with charged FeOF cathodes because of the irreversible Li ions. Among the products of the conversion reaction of FeOF, Li2O was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 120 °C, which induced the main thermal risk of the FeOF cathode. It suggests that the oxygen-containing conversion-type cathodes have a higher thermal risk than the oxygen-free ones, but controlling the cathode/electrolyte ratio in cells successfully reduced the thermal risk. Finally, the thermal stability of the FeOF cathode was evaluated in comparison with FeF3 and LiFePO4 cathodes.

  5. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  6. Flexible probe for measuring local conductivity variations in Li-ion electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Emilee; Clement, Derek; Vogel, John; Wheeler, Dean; Mazzeo, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion battery performance is governed by electronic and ionic properties of the battery. A key metric that characterizes Li-ion battery cell performance is the electronic conductivity of the electrodes, which are metal foils with thin coatings of electrochemically active materials. To accurately measure the spatial variation of electronic conductivity of these electrodes, a micro-four-line probe (μ4LP) was designed and used to non-destructively measure the properties of commercial-quality Li-ion battery films. This previous research established that the electronic conductivity of film electrodes is not homogeneous throughout the entirety of the deposited film area. In this work, a micro-N-line probe (μNLP) and a flexible micro-flex-line probe (μFLP) were developed to improve the non-destructive micro-scale conductivity measurements that we can take. These devices were validated by comparing test results to that of the predecessor, the micro-four-line probe (μ4LP), on various commercial-quality Li-ion battery electrodes. Results show that there is significant variation in conductivity on a millimeter and even micrometer length scale through the electrode film. Compared to the μ4LP, the μNLP and μFLP also introduce additional measurement configuration possibilities, while providing a more robust design. Researchers and manufacturers can use these probes to identify heterogeneity in their electrodes during the fabrication process, which will lead to the development of better batteries.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of high-density LiFePO4/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zhaorong; Lv Haojie; Tang Hongwei; Li Huaji; Yuan Xiaozi; Wang Haijiang

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a high-energy-density lithium electrode, high-density LiFePO 4 /C composite cathode material for a lithium-ion battery was synthesized using self-produced high-density FePO 4 as a precursor, glucose as a C source, and Li 2 CO 3 as a Li source, in a pipe furnace under an atmosphere of 5% H 2 -95% N 2 . The structure of the synthesized material was analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the synthesized LiFePO 4 /carbon composite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the charge/discharge process. The tap-density of the synthesized LiFePO 4 /carbon composite powder with a carbon content of 7% reached 1.80 g m -3 . The charge/discharge tests show that the cathode material has initial charge/discharge capacities of 190.5 and 167.0 mAh g -1 , respectively, with a volume capacity of 300.6 mAh cm -3 , at a 0.1C rate. At a rate of 5C, the LiFePO 4 /carbon composite shows a high discharge capacity of 98.3 mAh g -1 and a volume capacity of 176.94 mAh cm -3 .

  8. Adiponitrile-Lithium Bis(trimethylsulfonyl)imide Solutions as Alkyl Carbonate-free Electrolytes for Li4 Ti5 O12 (LTO)/LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NMC) Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Douaa; Ghamouss, Fouad; Maibach, Julia; Edström, Kristina; Lemordant, Daniel

    2017-05-19

    Recently, dinitriles (NC(CH 2 ) n CN) and especially adiponitrile (ADN, n=4) have attracted attention as safe electrolyte solvents owing to their chemical stability, high boiling points, high flash points, and low vapor pressure. The good solvation properties of ADN toward lithium salts and its high electrochemical stability (≈6 V vs. Li/Li + ) make it suitable for safer Li-ions cells without performance loss. In this study, ADN is used as a single electrolyte solvent with lithium bis(trimethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). This electrolyte allows the use of aluminium collectors as almost no corrosion occurs at voltages up to 4.2 V. The physicochemical properties of the ADN-LiTFSI electrolyte, such as salt dissolution, conductivity, and viscosity, were determined. The cycling performances of batteries using Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) as the anode and LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 (NMC) as the cathode were determined. The results indicate that LTO/NMC batteries exhibit excellent rate capabilities with a columbic efficiency close to 100 %. As an example, cells were able to reach a capacity of 165 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C and a capacity retention of more than 98 % after 200 cycles at 0.5 C. In addition, electrodes analyses by SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy after cycling confirming minimal surface changes of the electrodes in the studied battery system. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nanostructural evolution and behavior of H and Li in ion-implanted γ-LiAlO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Weilin; Zhang, Jiandong; Edwards, Danny J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Zhu, Zihua; Price, Lloyd; Gigax, Jonathan; Castanon, Elizabeth; Shao, Lin; Senor, David J.

    2017-10-01

    In-situ He+ ion irradiation is performed under a helium ion microscope to study nanostructural evolution in polycrystalline gamma-LiAlO2 pellets. Various locations within a grain, across grain boundaries and at a cavity are selected. The results exhibit He bubble formation, grain-boundary cracking, nanoparticle agglomeration, increasing surface brightness with dose, and material loss from the surface. Similar brightening effects at grain boundaries are also observed under a scanning electron microscope. Li diffusion and loss from polycrystalline gamma-LiAlO2 is faster than its monocrystalline counterpart during H2+ ion implantation at elevated temperatures. There is also more significant H diffusion and release from polycrystalline pellets during thermal annealing of 300 K implanted samples. Grain boundaries and cavities could provide a faster pathway for H and Li diffusion. H release is slightly faster from the 573 K implanted monocrystalline gamma-LiAlO2 during annealing at 773 K. Metal hydrides could be formed preferentially along the grain boundaries to immobilize hydrogen.

  10. The different Li/Na ion storage mechanisms of nano Sb2O3 anchored on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Qian, Kun; Qin, Xianying; Liu, Dongqing; Shi, Ruiying; Ran, Aihua; Han, Cuiping; He, Yan-Bing; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua

    2018-05-01

    The antimony oxide/reduced graphene oxide (Sb2O3/rGO) nanocomposites are used as anode of Li-ion and Na-ion batteries (LIBs and NIBs). However, it is unclear about Li-ion and Na-ion storage mechanism in Sb2O3/rGO nanocomposites. Herein, the conversion-alloying mechanisms of Sb2O3/rGO anodes for Na-ion and Li-ion storage are comparatively studied with a combined in-situ XRD and quasi in-situ XPS method. The distinct behaviours are monitored during (de)lithiation and (de)sodiation with respect to crystal structure and chemical composition evolution. It is evidenced that the Na-ion can be easily transported to the inner part of the Sb2O3, where the Li-ion almost cannot reach, leading to a fully transformation during sodiation. In addition, the conversion reaction product of amorphous Na2O display their better chemical stability than amorphous Li2O during electrochemical cycles, which contribute to a stable and long cycling life of NIBs. This work gain insight into the high-capacity anodes with conversation-alloying mechanism for NIBs.

  11. Investigating the low-temperature impedance increase of lithium-ion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Heaton, J. R.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Chemical Engineering

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature performance loss is a significant barrier to commercialization of lithium-ion cells in hybrid electric vehicles. Increased impedance, especially at temperatures below 0 C, reduces the cell pulse power performance required for cold engine starts, quick acceleration, or regenerative braking. Here we detail electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data on binder- and carbon-free layered-oxide and spinel-oxide electrodes, obtained over the +30 to ?30 C temperature range, in coin cells containing a lithium-preloaded Li 4/3 Ti 5/3 O 4 composite (LTOc) counter electrode and a LiPF 6 -bearing ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte. For all electrodes studied, the impedance increased with decreasing cell temperature; the increases observed in the midfrequency arc dwarfed the increases in ohmic resistance and diffusional impedance. Our data suggest that the movement of lithium ions across the electrochemical interface on the active material may have been increasingly hindered at lower temperatures, especially below 0 C. Low-temperature performance may be improved by modifying the electrolyte-active material interface (for example, through electrolyte composition changes). Increasing surface area of active particles (for example, through nanoparticle use) can lower the initial electrode impedance and lead to lower cell impedances at -30 C

  12. The effects of gamma-radiation on lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, N.; Zhu, J.; Yao, Y.X.; Chen, C.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Planetary explorations of human beings necessitate the research of the influence of {gamma}-radiation on lithium-ion cells. In this study, the radioactive Co-60 was used as the radiation source. The electrochemical performances of LiCoO{sub 2}/graphite full cells and LiCoO{sub 2}/Li half-cells with a LiPF{sub 6}-based electrolyte were measured before and after the radiation. The structural and compositional changes of the cell components were evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). The experimental results indicate that the cell performance is substantially deteriorated after the radiation due to two aspects of changes, i.e. radiation-induced defects in LiCoO{sub 2} and production of carboxyl in the electrolyte. The cell degradation is more pronounced for the LiCoO{sub 2}/C full cells than for LiCoO{sub 2}/Li half-cells owing to the reaction between active lithium and the carboxyl. (author)

  13. Self-Assembly of Antisite Defectless nano-LiFePO4 @C/Reduced Graphene Oxide Microspheres for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Runwei; Yan, Xiao; Wang, Ziqi; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Haibiao; Jiang, Shang; Ni, Ling; Qiu, Hailong; Tang, Haitong; Wei, Yingjin; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun; Pan, Feng

    2018-05-18

    LiFePO 4 @C/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hierarchical microspheres with superior electrochemical activity and a high tap density were first synthesized by using a Fe 3+ -based single inorganic precursor (LiFePO 4 OH@RF/GO; RF=resorcinol-formaldehyde, GO=graphene oxide) obtained from a template-free self-assembly synthesis followed by direct calcination. The synthetic process requires no physical mixing step. The phase transformation pathway from tavorite LiFePO 4 OH to olivine LiFePO 4 upon calcination was determined by means of the in situ high-temperature XRD technique. Benefitting from the unique structure of the material, these microspheres can be densely packed together, giving a high tap density of 1.3 g cm -3 , and simultaneously, defectless LiFePO 4 primary nanocrystals modified with a highly conductive surface carbon layer and ultrathin rGO provide good electronic and ionic kinetics for fast electron/Li + ion transport. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thermal management analysis of a Li-ion battery cell using phase change material loaded with carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samimi, Fereshteh; Babapoor, Aziz; Azizi, Mohammadmehdi; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    High latent heat of PCMs (phase change materials) has made them as one of the most important materials for thermal management purposes. However, PCMs’ low thermal diffusivities could limit their use in applications which require fast thermal response. The goal of this study is to simulate thermal performance of a lithium ion battery cell in the presence of carbon fiber-PCM composites. The effect of carbon fiber loading within the PCM on thermal performance is studied and the results are compared with the experimental data. The results showed that the presence of carbon fibers increases the effective thermal conductivity of PCM and hence influences temperature distribution within the cell. PCM composites containing higher percentages of carbon fibers present a more uniform temperature distribution. The results showed that the minimum and maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 85% and 155% respectively (105% on average). A reasonable agreement is obtained between the simulation results and the experimental data. - Highlights: • Phase change materials (PCMs) are used for thermal management purposes. • Effective thermal conductivity of PCMs can be enhanced by loading carbon fibers. • Thermal performance of a battery is studied in presence of carbon fiber loaded PCM. • The presence of carbon fibers in the PCM can improve Li-ion battery performance.

  15. Atomistic Insights into FeF3 Nanosheet: An Ultrahigh-Rate and Long-Life Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Shu; Pan, Yanjun; Wang, Xianyou; Liu, Hanghui; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhijuan; Deng, Bei; Guo, Chunsheng; Shi, Xingqiang

    2018-01-24

    Iron fluoride with high operating voltage and theoretical energy density has been proposed as a high-performance cathode material for Li-ion batteries. However, the inertness of pristine bulk FeF 3 results in poor Li kinetics and cycling life. Developing nanosheet-based electrode materials is a feasible strategy to solve these problems. Herein, on the basis of first-principles calculations, first the stability of FeF 3 (012) nanosheet with different atomic terminations under different environmental conditions was systematically studied, then the Li-ion adsorption and diffusion kinetics were thoroughly probed, and finally the voltages for different Li concentrations were given. We found that F-terminated nanosheet is energetically favorable in a wide range of chemical potential, which provide a vehicle for lithium ion diffusion. Our Li-ion adsorption and diffusion kinetics study revealed that (1) the formation of Li dimer is the most preferred, (2) the Li diffusion energy barrier of Li dimer is lower than isolated Li atom (0.17 eV for Li dimer vs 0.22 eV for Li atom), and (3) the diffusion coefficient of Li is 1.06 × 10 -6 cm 2 ·s -1 , which is orders of magnitude greater than that of Li diffusion in bulk FeF 3 (10 -13 -10 -11 cm 2 ·s -1 ). Thus, FeF 3 nanosheet can act as an ultrahigh-rate cathode material for Li-ion batteries. More importantly, the calculated voltage and specific capacity of Li on the FeF 3 (012) nanosheet demonstrate that it has a much more stable voltage profile than bulk FeF 3 for a wide range of Li concentration. So, few layers FeF 3 nanosheet provides the desired long-life energy density in Li-ion batteries. These above findings in the current study shed new light on the design of ultrahigh-rate and long-life FeF 3 cathode material for Li-ion batteries.

  16. In operando phase transitions and Lithium ion transport in LiFePO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy storage in Li-ion batteries is a key technology for the future renewable society. Their energy and power density is largely determined by electrode materials that are able to host lithium in their crystal structure. Aiming at faster and more efficient energy storage, one of the key

  17. Multilayered ion-imprinted membranes with high selectivity towards Li+ based on the synergistic effect of 12-crown-4 and polyether sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Qin, Yingying; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Yilin; Cui, Jiuyun; Li, Chunxiang; Wang, Liang; Yan, Yongsheng

    2018-01-01

    High-selective multilayered Li+-imprinted membranes (Li-IIMs) with enhanced hydrophilicity and stability were developed based on polyether sulfone substrate membranes. The multilayered structure was prepared with polydopamine (pDA) as the interfacial adhesion layer, SiO2 nanoparticles as the hydrophilic layer and Li+-imprinted polymers as the imprinted layer. The selective ;Li+-recognition sites; were formed using 12-crown-4 (12C4) as the adsorbing units. The optimal relative selectivity coefficients (α) of Li+/Na+ and Li+/K+ reached up to 1.85 and 2.07 with the imprinting factor (β) of 2.51, and the high permselectivity factors (γ) of Na+/Li+ (7.39) and K+/Li+ (9.86) were achieved on Li-IIMs. The Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetics model best fitted the rebinding data of Li-IIMs, as well as the rebinding capacities reached up to 90.3% of initial binding after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption and just declined to 88.1% after another 5 cycles a month later. Therefore, the as-prepared Li-IIMs would have potential applications for the separation of lithium ions from salt lake brines.

  18. Critical evaluation of the stability of highly concentrated LiTFSI - Acetonitrile electrolytes vs. graphite, lithium metal and LiFePO4 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Viktor; Younesi, Reza; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina; Johansson, Patrik

    2018-04-01

    Highly concentrated LiTFSI - acetonitrile electrolytes have recently been shown to stabilize graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) much better than comparable more dilute systems. Here we revisit this system in order to optimise the salt concentration vs. both graphite and lithium metal electrodes with respect to electrochemical stability. However, we observe an instability regardless of concentration, making lithium metal unsuitable as a counter electrode, and this also affects evaluation of e.g. graphite electrodes. While the highly concentrated electrolytes have much improved electrochemical stabilities, their reductive decomposition below ca. 1.2 V vs. Li+/Li° still makes them less practical vs. graphite electrodes, and the oxidative reaction with Al at ca. 4.1 V vs. Li+/Li° makes them problematic for high voltage LIB cells. The former originates in an insufficiently stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) dissolving and continuously reforming - causing self-discharge, as observed by paused galvanostatic cycling, while the latter is likely caused by aluminium current collector corrosion. Yet, we show that medium voltage LiFePO4 positive electrodes can successfully be used as counter and reference electrodes.

  19. Influence of Electrode Density on the Performance of Li-Ion Batteries: Experimental and Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Smekens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery (LIB technology further enabled the information revolution by powering smartphones and tablets, allowing these devices an unprecedented performance against reasonable cost. Currently, this battery technology is on the verge of carrying the revolution in road transport and energy storage of renewable energy. However, to fully succeed in the latter, a number of hurdles still need to be taken. Battery performance and lifetime constitute a bottleneck for electric vehicles as well as stationary electric energy storage systems to penetrate the market. Electrochemical battery models are one of the engineering tools which could be used to enhance their performance. These models can help us optimize the cell design and the battery management system. In this study, we evaluate the ability of the Porous Electrode Theory (PET to predict the effect of changing positive electrode density in the overall performance of Li-ion battery cells. It can be concluded that Porous Electrode Theory (PET is capable of predicting the difference in cell performance due to a changing positive electrode density.

  20. Features and applications of the large capacity Li-MnO/sub 2/ cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Koichi; Takeuchi, Ken' ichi

    1987-04-10

    Recently, Litium cells are used for power source of wristwatches, pocket-computors and cameras. The large capacity Li-MnO/sub 2/ primary cell developed by Yuasa Battery Company features its prismatic shape with a completely-sealed construction and a large capacity up to 1300Ah in addition to its high energy density and small self-discharge inherent to this type of cell, and is used in various application where a maintenance-free property is required for a long period of time. This paper deals with characteristecs, structure, safety and application examples of this Li-MnO/sub 2/ cell. As application examples, power supplies for head lamps for mountaineering, buoys for oceanographic survey, back-up for computor-memories and back-up for emergency alarm, are mentioned. (10 figs, 1 tab, 3 photos)

  1. Freestanding rGO-SWNT-STN Composite Film as an Anode for Li Ion Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseup Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Freestanding Si-Ti-Ni alloy particles/reduced graphene oxide/single wall carbon nanotube composites have been prepared as an anode for lithium ion batteries via a simple filtration method. This composite electrode showed a 9% increase in reversible capacity, a two-fold higher cycle retention at 50 cycles and a two-fold higher rate capability at 2 C compared to pristine Si-Ti-Ni (STN alloy electrodes. These improvements were attributed to the suppression of the pulverization of the STN active material by the excellent mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide-single wall carbon nanotube networks and the enhanced kinetics associated with both electron and Li ion transport.

  2. High rate performance of the carbon encapsulated Li4Ti5O12 for lithium ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cheng

    Full Text Available Li4Ti5O12 (LTO is attractive alternative anode material with excellent cyclic performance and high rate after coating modifications of the conductive materials. Anatase TiO2 and glucose were applied of the synthesis of the carbon coated LTO (C@LTO. XRD results showed that all the major diffractions from the spinel structure of LTO can be found in the C@LTO such as (111, (311, (400 but there are no observations of the Carbon diffraction peaks. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS data shows C@LTO resistance was nearly half of the LTO value. Rate performance showed that capacity of C@LTO was higher than that of the pure LTO from 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C, 5 C and 10 C, which indicates that this is a promising approach to prepare the high performance LTO anode. Keywords: Li-ion batteries, Rate performance, Carbon materials, Li4Ti5O12 anode

  3. Tuning Li2MO3 phase abundance and suppressing migration of transition metal ions to improve the overall performance of Li- and Mn-rich layered oxide cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiming; Tang, Tian; Ma, Zhihua; Gu, Haitao; Du, Wubing; Gao, Mingxia; Liu, Yongfeng; Jian, Dechao; Pan, Hongge

    2018-03-01

    The poor cycling stability of Li- and Mn-rich layered oxide cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has severely limited their practical application. Unfortunately, current strategies to improve their lifecycle sacrifice initial capacity. In this paper, we firstly report the synergistic improvement of the electrochemical performance of a Li1.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 (LNCMO) cathode material, including gains for capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability, by the partial substitution of Li+ ions by Mg2+ ions. Electrochemical performance is evaluated by a galvanostatic charge and discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Compared with the substitution of transition metal (TM) ions with Mg2+ ions reported previously, the substitution of Li+ ions by Mg2+ ions not only drastically ameliorates the capacity retention and rate performance challenges of LNCMO cathodes but also markedly suppresses their voltage fading, due to the inhibition of the migration of TM ions during cycling, while also increasing the capacity of the cathode due to an increased abundance of the Li2MO3 phase.

  4. Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yongchun; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Xiaobo; Liang, Jianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2014-01-01

    Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds (FeCl3 -GICs) with stage 1 and stage 2 structures were synthesized by reacting FeCl3 and expanded graphite (EG) in air in a stainless-steel autoclave. As rechargeable Li-ion batteries, these FeCl3 -GICs exhibit high capacity, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability, which could be attributed to their unique intercalation features. This work may enable new possibilities for the fabrication of Li-ion batteries. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Power Management of Hybrid Power Systems with Li-Fe Batteries and Supercapacitors for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy management strategy of a Li-Fe battery and supercapacitor hybrid power system to provide both high power density and energy density for mobile robots with fluctuating workloads. A two-phase power-optimization approach is proposed to exploit the high power density of supercapacitors and the high energy density of Li-Fe batteries. With our strategy, large peak power can be provided for a short time period whenever needed, while low power can be provided for very long time. A set of experiments have been conducted. The experimental results show that our strategy can effectively improve the performance of mobile robots and extend the lifetime of batteries.

  6. The synergic effect of activated carbon and Li3V1.95Ni0.05(PO4)3/C for the development of high energy and power electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secchiaroli, M.; Marassi, R.; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M.; Dsoke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bi-material electrode composed by activated carbon and Li 3 V 1.95 Ni 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is proposed. • It is studied as high energy/power positive and negative electrodes, between 3.0–4.3 and 3.0–1.5 V vs. Li/Li + . • This electrode shows high specific capacity and capacity retention up to 26.6 A g −1 . • Excellent cycle stability is shown over 2000 cycles at 26.6 A g −1 . - Abstract: Exceptionally high specific capacities at ultrahigh charge/discharge currents have been obtained with a bi-material electrode prepared using Li 3 V 1.95 Ni 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C (LVNP/C) and activated carbon (AC) as coexisting active materials. Thanks to the amphoteric properties of LVNP/C, this electrode designated as LVNP/C-AC, has been evaluated both as positive and negative electrode in 1 M LiPF 6 in EC:DMC (1:1). At high specific currents (26.6 A g −1 ), the bi-material electrode delivers specific capacities as high as 61 and 24 mAh g −1 , between 3.0–4.3 V and 3.0–1.5 V vs Li/Li + , respectively. By contrast, the corresponding values for LVNP/C are 49 and 18 mAh g −1 . In both potential windows, the bi-material electrode shows an excellent cycling stability over 2000 cycles at 26.6 A g −1 , with capacity retention of 95 and 89%, between 3.0–4.3 and 3.0–1.5 V vs Li/Li + , respectively. The synergic effect of the activated carbon on the electrochemical performances of Li 3 V 1.95 Ni 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is investigated by comparing the cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electronic conductivity, galvanostatic cycling, and scanning electron microscopy of the bi-material electrode with the ones of LVNP/C. This study highlights the huge potentialities of this bi-material electrode for the development of high energy and high power Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

  7. Ionic conduction studies in Li3+ ion irradiated P(VDF-HFP)-(PC + DEC)-LiCF3SO3 gel polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, D.; Hussain, A.M.P.; Kumar, A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the Li ion diffusivity in gel polymer electrolytes, the effects of Li 3+ ion irradiation in P(VDF-HFP)-(PC + DEC)-LiCF 3 SO 3 electrolyte system, with five different fluences, is studied. Irradiation with swift heavy ions shows enhancement in conductivity at low fluences and decreased in conductivity at higher fluences with respect to pristine polymer electrolyte films. Maximum room temperature ionic conductivity after irradiation is found to be 2.6 x 10 -3 S/cm. This interesting result could be attributed to the fact that, higher fluence provides critical activation energy for cross-linking and crystallization to occur, which results in decrease in ionic conductivity. XRD results show decrease in the degree of crystallinity upon ion irradiation at low fluences (≤10 11 ions/cm 2 ) and increase in crystallinity at high fluences (>10 11 ions/cm 2 ). In FTIR spectra the absorption band intensities around 3025 cm -1 and 2985 cm -1 decrease upon irradiation with a fluence of 5 x 10 1 ions/cm 2 suggesting chain scission and increase upon irradiation with a fluence of 5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 indicating cross-linking. FTIR analyses corroborate the conductivity and XRD results

  8. Assessment of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P.; Uhlmann, C.; Weiss, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2018-07-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) are considered as next generation energy storage systems. A model might be very useful, which describes all contributions to the internal cell resistance, enables an optimization of the cell design, and calculates the performance of an open choice of cell architectures. A newly developed one-dimensional model for ASSBs is presented, based on a design concept which employs the use of composite electrodes. The internal cell resistance is calculated by linking two-phase transmission line models representing the composite electrodes with an ohmic resistance representing the solid electrolyte (separator). Thereby, electrical parameters, i.e. ionic and electronic conductivity, electrochemical parameters, i.e. charge-transfer resistance at interfaces and lithium solid-state diffusion, and microstructure parameters, i.e. electrode thickness, particle size, interface area, phase composition and tortuosity, are considered as the most important material and design parameters. Subsequently, discharge curves are simulated, and energy- and power-density characteristics of all-solid-state cell architectures are calculated. These model calculations are discussed and compared with experimental data from literature for a high power LiCoO2-Li10GeP2S12/Li10GeP2S12/Li4Ti5O12-Li10GeP2S12 cell.

  9. A reduced order electrochemical and thermal model for a pouch type lithium ion polymer battery with LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2/LiFePO4 blended cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Choe, Song-Yul; Joe, Won Tae

    2015-10-01

    LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) and LiFePO4 (LFP) as a cathode material have been widely employed for cells designed for high power applications. However, NMC needs further improvements in rate capability and stability that can be accomplished by blending it with LFP. Working mechanism of the blended cells is very complex and hard to understand. In addition, characteristics of the blended cells, particularly the plateau and path dependence of LFP materials, make it extremely difficult to estimate the state of charge and state of health using classical electric equivalent circuit models. Therefore, a reduced order model based on electrochemical and thermal principles is developed with objectives for real time applications and validated against experimental data collected from a large format pouch type of lithium ion polymer battery. The model for LFP is based on a shrinking core model along with moving boundary and then integrated into NMC model. Responses of the model that include SOC estimation and responses of current and voltage are compared with those of experiments at CC/CV charging and CC discharging along with different current rates and temperatures. In addition, the model is used to analyze effects of mass ratios between two materials on terminal voltage and heat generation rate.

  10. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  11. On the utility of C_2_4 fullerene framework for Li-ion batteries: Quantum chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Zargham

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation of C_2_4 network makes it’s a promising anode for Li-ion batteries. • Hydrogenation of C_2_4 network produces a cell voltage of about 1.70 V based on the DFT. • Aromaticity of the structure plays an important role in the performance of the anode. - Abstract: The potential application of carbonaceous C_2_4 nanocluster framework as an anode in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find that this fullerene unexpectedly gives an imaginary cell voltage and cannot be used as an anode in LIBs. Here, we explain the origin of this unusual behavior and introduce a strategy to make it suitable for anode materials. We show that there is no energy barrier for Li"+ diffusion through two neighboring hydrogenated C_2_4 fullerenes. The percentage of Hartree Fock (HF) exchange of density functionals reversely affects the adsorption energies of Li and Li"+, so that it is decreased and increased by increasing %HF exchange, respectively. Also, a linear relationship between %HF and HOMO or LUMO level of the studied systems is predicted.

  12. Highly-crystalline ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets decorated with silver nanocrystals as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G. B.; Li, W.; Yang, L. W.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, J. W.; Zhong, J. X.; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-02-01

    A novel composite of highly-crystalline ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets and Ag nanocrystals (denoted as LTO NSs/Ag) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, post calcination and electroless deposition. The characterizations of structure and morphology reveal that the LTO nanosheets have single-crystal nature with a thickness of about 10 nm and highly dispersed Ag nanocrystals have an average diameter of 5.8 nm. The designed LTO NSs/Ag composite takes advantage of both components, thereby providing large contact area between the electrolyte and electrode, low polarization of voltage difference, high electrical conductivity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient during electrochemical processes. The evaluation of its electrochemical performance demonstrates that the prepared LTO NSs/Ag composite has superior lithium storage performance. More importantly, this unique composite has an ability to deliver high reversible capacities with superlative cyclic capacity retention at different current rates, and exhibit excellent high-rate performance at a current rate as high as 30 C. Our results improve the current performance of LTO based anode material for LIBs.

  13. The STABALID project: Risk analysis of stationary Li-ion batteries for power system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, F.J.; Carvalho, L.; Costa, I.C.; Iria, J.P.; Bodet, J.-M.; Jacinto, G.; Lecocq, A.; Roessner, J.; Caillard, B.; Salvi, O.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a risk analysis performed to stationary Li-ion batteries within the framework of the STABALID project. The risk analysis had as main objective analysing the variety of hazards and dangerous situations that might be experienced by the battery during its life cycle and providing useful information on how to prevent or manage those undesired events. The first task of the risk analysis was the identification of all the hazards (or risks) that may arise during the battery life cycle. Afterwards, the hazards identified were mapped in the different stages of the battery life cycle and two analyses were performed for each stage: an internal problem analysis and an external peril analysis. For both, the dangerous phenomena and the undesirable events resulting from each hazard was evaluated in terms of probability of occurrence and severity. Then, a risk assessment was carried out according to a predefined risk matrix and a preliminary set of risk mitigation measures were proposed to reduce their probability of occurrence and/or their severity level. The results obtained show that it is possible to reduce the probability of occurrence/severity of all the risks associated to the battery life cycle to acceptable or tolerable levels. - Highlights: • Methodology for a detailed risk analysis of stationary Li-ion batteries. • Various hazards and dangerous situations are analysed with high detail. • Useful information on how to prevent or manage the undesired events is provided. • Measures to reduce probability of occurrence/severity of the risks are presented

  14. Improvement of high voltage cycling performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion cells by use of a thiophene additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Kim, Dong-Won [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Noh, Jaegeun [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Song, Kwang Soup [Advanced Medical Device Center, Korea Electrotechnology, Research Institute, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-170 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    This study demonstrates that the addition of thiophene improves the cycle life of lithium-ion cells at high voltage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that addition of thiophene significantly suppresses the increase of the charge transfer resistance that occurs during cycling up to high voltage. Differential scanning calorimetric studies showed that the thermal stability of fully charged LiCoO{sub 2} cathode was also enhanced in the presence of thiophene. (author)

  15. Comparative study on experiments and simulation of blended cathode active materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, Williams Agyei; Park, Joonam; Van Khue, Luu; Lee, Yunju; Choi, Jaecheol; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    We simulate the electrochemical properties of Li-ion cells consisting of a blended cathode composed of LiMn 2 O 4 and LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 and an artificial graphite anode using the Li-ion battery model available in COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 4.4 along with a capacity fade model. The discharge profiles of the pure and blended cathodes at various current rates obtained through simulations and experimental results are well matched. By combining two capacity fade models available in literature, namely the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth model and the Mn 2+ dissolution model, the cycling performance of the pure LiMn 2 O 4 cells at 25 °C are successfully simulated and found to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. The blended cathode exhibits better capacity retention than the pure LiMn 2 O 4 during cycling. We also observed that at high powers, the gravimetric energy density of the LiMn 2 O 4 cathode exceeds that of the LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 cathode; the reverse effect is seen at low powers. Further, we were able to easily modulate the energy and power densities of the blended cathode system by changing the blend ratio in our simulation model.

  16. Excess Li-Ion Storage on Reconstructed Surfaces of Nanocrystals To Boost Battery Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yandong; Zhang, Bingkai; Zheng, Jiaxin; Hu, Jiangtao; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean; Yan, Pengfei; Liu, Tongchao; Guo, Hua; Li, Wen; Song, Xiaohe; Zhou, Zengquing; Liu, Chaokun; Tang, Hanting; Tan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai; Ren, Yang; Lin, Yuan; Yang, Wanli; Wang, Chongmin; Wang, Lin-Wang; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2017-08-03

    Abstract. Due to the enhanced kinetic properties, nanocrystallites have received much attention as potential electrode materials for energy storage. However, because of the large specific surface areas of nanocrystallites, they usually suffer from decreased energy density, reduced cycling stability and total electrode capacity. In this work, we report a size-dependent excess capacity beyond the theoretical value of 170 mAhg-1 in a special carbon coated LiFePO4 composite cathode material, which delivers capacities of 191.2 and 213.5 mAhg-1 with the mean particle sizes of 83 nm and 42 nm, respectively. Moreover, this LiFePO4 composite also shows excellent cycling stability and high rate performance. Our further experimental tests and ab initio calculations reveal that the excess capacity comes from the charge passivation for which the C-O-Fe bonds would lead to charge redistribution on the surface of LiFePO4 and hence to enhance the bonding interaction between surface O atoms and Li-ions. The surface reconstruction for excess Li-ion storage makes full use of the large specific surface area for the nanocrystallites, which can maintain the fast Li-ion transport and enhance the capacity greatly that the nanocrystallites usually suffers.

  17. Redox-assisted Li+-storage in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qizhao; Wang Qing

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer is the key kinetic process dictating the operation of lithium-ion battery. Redox-mediated charge propagations of the electronic (e − and h + ) and ionic species (Li + ) at the electrode–electrolyte interface have recently gained increasing attention for better exploitation of battery materials. This article briefly summarises the energetic and kinetic aspects of lithium-ion batteries, and reviews the recent progress on various redox-assisted Li + storage approaches. From molecular wiring to polymer wiring and from redox targeting to redox flow lithium battery, the role of redox mediators and the way of the redox species functioning in lithium-ion batteries are discussed. (topical review)

  18. High-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries from nanostructured LiFePO4 synthesized by highly-flexible and scalable flame spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, N. A.; Wennig, S.; Hardt, S.; Heinzel, A.; Schulz, C.; Wiggers, H.

    2012-10-01

    Olivine, LiFePO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its low cost, environmental acceptability and high stability. Its low electric conductivity prevented it for a long time from being used in large-scale applications. Decreasing its particle size along with carbon coating significantly improves electronic conductivity and lithium diffusion. With respect to the controlled formation of very small particles with large specific surface, gas-phase synthesis opens an economic and flexible route towards high-quality battery materials. Amorphous FePO4 was synthesized as precursor material for LiFePO4 by flame spray pyrolysis of a solution of iron acetylacetonate and tributyl phosphate in toluene. The pristine FePO4 with a specific surface from 126-218 m2 g-1 was post-processed to LiFePO4/C composite material via a solid-state reaction using Li2CO3 and glucose. The final olivine LiFePO4/C particles still showed a large specific surface of 24 m2 g-1 and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrocopy (XPS) and elemental analysis. Electrochemical investigations of the final LiFePO4/C composites show reversible capacities of more than 145 mAh g-1 (about 115 mAh g-1 with respect to the total coating mass). The material supports high drain rates at 16 C while delivering 40 mAh g-1 and causes excellent cycle stability.

  19. Ion beam analysis of zeolites type Li-ABW synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E.; De Lucio, O. G.; Solis, C.; Zavala, E. P.; Cruz, J. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alfaro, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Valenzuela, M. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Laboratorio de Catalisis y Materiales, Zacantenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rocha, M. F. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Murillo, G.; Policroniades, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    This work reports a method to synthesize and characterize Li-ABW zeolites by a hydrothermal method. These materials are good candidates for CO{sub 2} capture because of the high reactivity between the Li{sup +} with CO{sub 2} to form Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. We performed and elemental profile concentration using ion beam analysis. The elastic backscattered proton energy spectra from the Al, Si, O and Li nuclei, in combination with the {alpha} particles from the {sup 7}Li ({rho}, {alpha}){sup 4}He nuclear reaction energy spectra, were employed for this task. X-ray diffraction was also applied to determine the crystalline structure. (Author)

  20. Glucose assisted synthesis of hollow spindle LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposites for high performance Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xiaoning; Chang, Zhaorong; Chang, Kun; Li, Bao; Tang, Hongwei; Shangguan, Enbo; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 with a well-developed olivine-type structure exhibits a high specific capacity and cycling performance. - Highlights: • A pure and well-crystallized LiMnPO_4 are synthesized via a solution-phase method. • The LiMnPO_4/C composite constitutes highly and uniformly distributed hollow spindles. • The LiMnPO_4/C composite exhibits a high specific capacity and cycling performance. • The growth process of the hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 particles is revealed. - Abstract: Nano-sized hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 with a well-developed olivine-type structure was synthesized with the assistance of glucose in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/H_2O under ambient pressure and 108 °C. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the LiMnPO_4 particles consist of hollow spindles with a mean width of 200 nm, length of 500-700 nm, and wall thickness of about 30-60 nm. The LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite was obtained by sintering nano-sized LiMnPO_4 with glucose at 650 °C under an inert atmosphere for 4 h. With a coated carbon thickness of about 10 nm, the obtained composite maintained the morphology and size of the hollow spindle. The electrochemical tests show the specific capacity of LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite is 161.8 mAh g"−"1 at 0.05C, 137.7 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C and 110.8 mAh g"−"1 at 0.2 C. The retention of discharge capacity maintains 92% after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. After different rate cycles the high capacity of the LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite can be recovered. This high performance is attributed to the composite material's hollow spindle structure, which facilitates the electrolyte infiltration, resulting in an increased solid-liquid interface. The carbon layer covering the hollow spindle also contributes to the high performance of the LiMnPO_4/C material as the carbon layer improves its electronic conductivity and the nano-scaled wall thickness decreases the paths of Li

  1. 2D MoS2 as an efficient protective layer for lithium metal anodes in high-performance Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunho; Patel, Mumukshu D.; Park, Juhong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Prasad, Vish; Cho, Kyeongjae; Choi, Wonbong

    2018-04-01

    Among the candidates to replace Li-ion batteries, Li-S cells are an attractive option as their energy density is about five times higher ( 2,600 Wh kg-1). The success of Li-S cells depends in large part on the utilization of metallic Li as anode material. Metallic lithium, however, is prone to grow parasitic dendrites and is highly reactive to several electrolytes; moreover, Li-S cells with metallic Li are also susceptible to polysulfides dissolution. Here, we show that 10-nm-thick two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 can act as a protective layer for Li-metal anodes, greatly improving the performances of Li-S batteries. In particular, we observe stable Li electrodeposition and the suppression of dendrite nucleation sites. The deposition and dissolution process of a symmetric MoS2-coated Li-metal cell operates at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 with low voltage hysteresis and a threefold improvement in cycle life compared with using bare Li-metal. In a Li-S full-cell configuration, using the MoS2-coated Li as anode and a 3D carbon nanotube-sulfur cathode, we obtain a specific energy density of 589 Wh kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 98% for over 1,200 cycles at 0.5 C. Our approach could lead to the realization of high energy density and safe Li-metal-based batteries.

  2. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4} modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke, E-mail: zhouyk888@hotmail.com; Song, Yijie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4}/N-CNTs is synthesized by a freeze-drying method. • The N-CNTs conductive network enhances the electron transport within the LiFePO{sub 4} electrode. • The continuous pores accelerate the diffusion of lithium ions. • LiFePO{sub 4}/N-CNTs demonstrates an excellent electrochemical Li-insertion performance. - Abstract: The three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4} modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO{sub 4} to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  3. HyLIFT-0. 'Development and benchmarking of a 1st gen. HT-PEM/Li-lon hybrid motive power system for forklifts'. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Karsten (H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark)); Elkjaer Toennesen, A. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Torrendrup, C. (Lithium Balance A/S, Ishoej (Denmark)); Sangers, A. (Grundfos DK A/S, Bjerringbro (Denmark)); Junge, S. (Atlet Danmark A/S, Engesvang (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    In the HyLIFT-0 project a HT-PEM/Li-Ion hybrid system for a forklift was developed and built. The system has been benchmark'et and tested both at H2 Logic, in a test bench at the Teknologisk Institut and by an end user, Grene A/S, who already has a hydrogen hybrid vehicle in service with LT-PEM system. The HT-PEM/Li-Ion system is based on a 1 kW SerEnergy fuel cell, with a 2.5 kWh Li-Ion battery pack and the newly developed BMS. Both Fuel cell systems were measured in the test bench at Teknologisk Institut. The conclusions are not fully accurate because there are many factors influencing such as the HT-PEM system not being fully optimized. The benchmark at Grene, showed that the heat up time is critical for the vehicle, but once it is in operation, there are no difference to the LT-PEM system, either in experienced performance or in user experience. The purpose of HyLIFT-0 project is met since the measurements and the benchmark has revealed the technology's advantages and disadvantages. Above all the conclusion is that HT-PEM/Li-Ion hybrid fuel cell system at the present stage of development is not a disruptive technology compared to known LT-PEM systems. There are numerous advantages of the system, but there are also some disadvantages, doing that, overall, it is not a usable technology in forklifts - it is especially the long start-up time of up to 45 minutes that is unacceptable for the fork lifter user; the user wants to have immediate maximum output and the battery cannot handle this during the time it lasts until the HT-PEM fuel cell is warm and producing power. The HT-PEM/Li-Ion system is relatively simple to build and it saves a number of components compared to the LT-PEM system, but the economic advantage of this is counterbalanced by the fuel cell being rather expensive and furthermore it has a relatively low efficiency. This will probably change over time when the technology completed development and volume increase. (LN)

  4. Modeling all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilov, D.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is presented. The model includes the charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface, diffusion of lithium in the intercalation electrode, and diffusion and migration of ions in the electrolyte. The model has been applied to

  5. Performance of a position sensitive Si(Li) x-ray detector dedicated to Compton polarimetry of stored and trapped highly-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G; Braeuning, H; Hess, S; Maertin, R; Spillmann, U; Stoehlker, Th

    2010-01-01

    We report on a novel two-dimensional position sensitive Si(Li) detector dedicated to Compton polarimetry of x-ray radiation arising from highly-charged ions. The performance of the detector system was evaluated in ion-atom collision experiments at the ESR storage ringe at GSI, Darmstadt. Based on the data obtained, the polarimeter efficiency is estimated in this work.

  6. Cracking in Si-based anodes for Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aifantis, KE; Dempsey, JP; Hackney, SA

    2005-01-01

    In attempts to increase the anode capacity of rechargeable Li-ion batteries, composite materials with micro- and nano-scale domains of Li active material surrounded by Li inactive material are being investigated. Materials such as Si, Al and Sn that provide capacities between 900 and 4000 mAh g(-1)

  7. One-step argon/nitrogen binary plasma jet irradiation of Li4Ti5O12 for stable high-rate lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chun-Kai; Chuang, Shang-I.; Bao, Qi; Liao, Yen-Ting; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure Ar/N2 binary plasma jet irradiation has been introduced into the manufacturing process of lithium ions batteries as a facile, green and scalable post-fabrication treatment approach, which enhanced significantly the high-rate anode performance of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12). Main emission lines in Ar/N2 plasma measured by optical emission spectroscopy reveal that the dominant excited high-energy species in Ar/N2 plasma are N2*, N2+, N∗ and Ar∗. Sufficient oxygen vacancies have been evidenced by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectra. Nitrogen doping has been achieved simultaneously by the surface reaction between pristine Li4Ti5O12 particles and chemically reactive plasma species such as N∗ and N2+. The variety of Li4Ti5O12 particles on the surface of electrodes after different plasma processing time has been examined by grazing incident X-Ray diffraction. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) confirm that the Ar/N2 atmospheric plasma treatment facilitates Li+ ions diffusion and reduces the internal charge-transfer resistance. The as-prepared Li4Ti5O12 anodes exhibit a superior capacity (132 mAh g-1) and excellent stability with almost no capacity decay over 100 cycles under a high C rate (10C).

  8. Influence of Li10GeP2S12-type solid electrolyte on cell thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishnu Bhattacharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We elucidate few critical facts about the lithium superionic conductor (Li10GeP2S12 and few other compounds of the same family as the electrolyte in Li-ion cells. The dimensionality of diffusion process and existence of ‘structural’ lithiums are not well understood in this material. From the ab-initio MD simulations, we find that the material transport Li-ions predominantly in the crystallographic c-direction. Nevertheless, the cross-channel diffusion is significant as well. We explored the mobility of individual Li-ions and do not find evidence that supports the proposition of structural Li-ions in LGPS. We find nominal effect of local Ge-P ordering and of Li-concentration change on diffusivity, which not only provides information about the invariance of diffusivity at different conditions of operation, but also ensures that identification of the ground state structure in LGPS having partially occupied Li and Ge/P sublattices should have minimal effect on the diffusion analysis. We computed the dilute Li insertion and extraction voltages for LGPS from ab-initio total energy calculation. The dilute voltages indicate that the material is prone to react by exchanging Li-ions with the electrodes at typical operating range of voltages indicating formation of some interphase at the electrode-electrolyte interface, which necessitates further experimental investigation

  9. Physics of electron and lithium-ion transport in electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Musheng; Xu Bo; Ouyang Chuying

    2016-01-01

    The physics of ionic and electrical conduction at electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are briefly summarized here, besides, we review the current research on ionic and electrical conduction in electrode material incorporating experimental and simulation studies. Commercial LIBs have been widely used in portable electronic devices and are now developed for large-scale applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and stationary distributed power stations. However, due to the physical limits of the materials, the overall performance of today’s LIBs does not meet all the requirements for future applications, and the transport problem has been one of the main barriers to further improvement. The electron and Li-ion transport behaviors are important in determining the rate capacity of LIBs. (topical review)

  10. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  11. The ARIES-RS power core - recent development in Li/V designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze Dai-Kai; Billone, M.C.; Hua, T.Q.; Tillack, M.; Najmabadi, F.; Wang Xueren; Malang, S.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Blanchard, J.P.; Crowell, J.A.; Khater, H.Y.; Mogahed, E.A.; Waganer, L.M.; Lee, D.; Cole, D.

    1998-01-01

    The ARIES-RS fusion power plant design study is based on reversed-shear (RS) physics with a Li/V (lithium breeder and vanadium structure) blanket. The reversed-shear discharge has been documented in many large tokamak experiments. The plasma in the RS mode has a high beta, low current, and low current drive requirement. Therefore, it is an attractive physics regime for a fusion power plant. The blanket system based on Li/V has high temperature operating capability, good tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation, low after heat and good safety characteristics. For these reasons, the ARIES-RS reactor study selected Li/V as the reference blanket. The combination of attractive physics and attractive blanket engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design. This paper summarizes the power core design of the ARIES-RS power plant study. (orig.)

  12. Degradation Mechanisms of Electrochemically Cycled Graphite Anodes in Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sandeep

    This research is aimed at developing advanced characterization methods for studying the surface and subsurface damage in Li-ion battery anodes made of polycrystalline graphite and identifying the degradation mechanisms that cause loss of electrochemical capacity. Understanding microstructural aspects of the graphite electrode degradation mechanisms during charging and discharging of Li-ion batteries is of key importance in order to design durable anodes with high capacity. An in-situ system was constructed using an electrochemical cell with an observation window, a large depth-of-field digital microscope and a micro-Raman spectrometer. It was revealed that electrode damage by removal of the surface graphite fragments of 5-10 mum size is the most intense during the first cycle that led to a drastic capacity drop. Once a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer covered the electrode surface, the rate of graphite particle loss decreased. Yet, a gradual loss of capacity continued by the formation of interlayer cracks adjacent to SEI/graphite interfaces. Deposition of co-intercalation compounds, LiC6, Li2CO3 and Li2O, near the crack tips caused partial closure of propagating graphite cracks during cycling and reduced the crack growth rate. Bridging of crack faces by delaminated graphite layers also retarded crack propagation. The microstructure of the SEI layer, formed by electrochemical reduction of the ethylene carbonate based electrolyte, consisted of ˜5-20 nm sized crystalline domains (containing Li2CO3, Li2O 2 and nano-sized graphite fragments) dispersed in an amorphous matrix. During the SEI formation, two regimes of Li-ion diffusion were identified at the electrode/electrolyte interface depending on the applied voltage scan rate (dV/dt). A low Li-ion diffusion coefficient ( DLi+) at dV/dt microscopic information to the electrochemical performance, novel Li2CO3-coated electrodes were fabricated that were durable. The SEI formed on pre-treated electrodes reduced

  13. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development and application of high power and high intensity ion beam sources at NPI, Tomsk, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchikov, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    High - current ion beams have become a powerful tool for improving the surface properties of different materials. The prospects of wide commercial use of such beams for material treatment is not only due to the possibility of improving their properties, but, also for economic expediency. To achieve a high throughput and reduce the cost on ion beam material treatment, ion beams of high average and pulsed power are necessary. This paper gives an overview of work on generation of pulsed and repetitively pulsed beams of ion beams with currents ranging from fractions of an ampere to several tens of kA and with pulse duration from several tens of nanoseconds to several hundreds of microseconds. A number of different methods of materials surface properties modification using high power and intense ion beam and plasma are considered. (author)

  15. Controlling Factors of Cell Design on Large-format Li-ion Battery Safety During Nail Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the controlling design parameters of large-format Li-ion batteries on safety while undergoing nail penetration. We have identified three critical design parameters that control the safety during the nail penetration process: nail diameter, single sheet foil area, and cell capacity.Using commercial AutoLion software, we have investigated two typical design problems related to the selection of cell thickness and aspect ratio, namely: (1 the safety ramifications of increasing cell capacity via greater cell thickness for a fixed footprint, and (2 the effect of aspect ratio, or single sheet foil size, on safety at a given capacity. For a fixed footprint, our results indicate that the safety of the cell can be predicted by (Qcell Dnail^-0.5. For a given cell capacity, our results indicate that typically a larger single sheet foil area leads to a greater likelihood for thermal runaway due to its effect of making the heating more local in nature; however, for small cells (~ 5Ah and large nails (~ 20mm, the greater aspect ratio can lead to a safer cell, as the greater surface area strongly cools the global heating of the cell.

  16. Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Feng, Zimin; Yang, Shi-Ze; Gagnon, Catherine; Gariépy, Vincent; Laul, Dharminder; Zhu, Wen; Veillette, René; Trudeau, Michel L.; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-01

    High-performance and long-cycling rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been in steadily increasing demand for the past decades. Nevertheless, the two dominant anodes at the moment, graphite and L4T5O12, suffer from a safety issue of lithium plating (operating voltage at ∼ 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li) and low capacity (175 mAh/g), respectively. Here, we report LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as an alternative anode material which has a working voltage of ∼1.1 V and a capacity as high as 330 mAh/g at the current rate of C/15. Symmetric cells with both electrodes containing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can deliver average discharge voltage of 2.2 V. In-situ XRD, HRTEM and first principles calculations indicate that the reaction mechanism of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 anode is comprised mainly of conversion. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Spinel-structured surface layers for facile Li ion transport and improved chemical stability of lithium manganese oxide spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Ri [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Ree; Lee, Boeun; Cho, Byung Won [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan-Young [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Si Hyoung, E-mail: sho74@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Strategically-designed spinel-structured nano-scale surface layer, LiM{sub x}Mn{sup IV}{sub 1−x}O{sub 4}, featuring a high Li{sup +} ion conductivity and a good chemical stability was applied on Al-doped LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel for the drastic improvement of the electrochemical performance at the elevated temperature as a promising cathode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. - Highlights: • Spinel-structured surface layer with a high Li-ion conductivity and a good chemical stability was prepared. • Simple wet process was developed to apply nano-scale surface layer on aluminum doped lithium manganese oxide spinel. • The properties of nano-scale surface layer were characterized by analytical tools including GITT, HR-TEM and XAS. • Materials with surface coating layer exhibit an excellent electrochemical performance at the elevated temperature. - Abstract: Li-ion conducting spinel-structured oxide layer with a manganese oxidation state close to being tetravalent was prepared on aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide spinel for improving the electrochemical performances at the elevated temperatures. This nanoscale surface layer provides a good ionic conduction path for lithium ion transport to the core and also serves as an excellent chemical barrier for protecting the high-capacity core material from manganese dissolution into the electrolyte. In this work, a simple wet process was employed to prepare thin LiAlMnO{sub 4} and LiMg{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} layers on the surface of LiAl{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 1.9}O{sub 4}. X-ray absorption studies revealed an oxidation state close to tetravalent manganese on the surface layer of coated materials. Materials with these surface coating layers exhibited excellent capacity retentions superior to the bare material, without undermining the lithium ion transport characteristics and the high rate performances.

  18. Solvothermal coating LiNi_0_._8Co_0_._1_5Al_0_._0_5O_2 microspheres with nanoscale Li_2TiO_3 shell for long lifespan Li-ion battery cathode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Naiteng; Wu, Hao; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    LiNi_0_._8Co_0_._1_5Al_0_._0_5O_2 (NCA) microspheres covered by a nanoscale Li_2TiO_3-based shell were synthesized by a facile strategy based on a solvothermal pre-coating treatment combined with a post-sintering lithiation process. The morphology, structure and composition of the Li_2TiO_3-coated NCA samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Owing to the complete, uniform and nanoscale Li_2TiO_3 coating shell, the resultant surface-modified NCA microspheres used as Li-ion battery cathode materials manifest remarkably enhanced cycling performances, attaining 94% and 84% capacity retention after 200 and 400 cycles at 0.5 C, respectively, which is much better than the pristine NCA counterpart (60% retention, 200 cycles). More impressively, the surface-modified NCA also shows an intriguing storage stability. After being stored at 30 °C for 50 days, the coated NCA-based cells are subjected to be cycled both at room and elevated temperatures, in which the aged cells can still remain 84% capacity retention after 200 cycles at 25 °C and 77% capacity retention after 200 cycles at 55 °C, respectively. All these results demonstrate that the Li_2TiO_3-coated LiNi_0_._8Co_0_._1_5Al_0_._0_5O_2 microsphere is a promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries with long lifespan. - Graphical abstract: Nanoscale Li_2TiO_3-based shell encapsulated LiNi_0_._8Co_0_._1_5Al_0_._0_5O_2 (NCA) microspheres are fabricated through a solvothermal pre-coating treatment combined with post-lithiation process. The surface-coated NCA as cathode materials shows a remarkably enhanced cycling performance and storage stability for long lifespan Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Li_2TiO_3 is used as coating materials for layer structured LiNi_0_._8Co_0_._1_5Al_0_._0_5O_2 cathode. • Solvothermal coating

  19. Synthesis and structure of novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yuki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, Kota [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Matsui, Naoki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hirayama, Masaaki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kanno, Ryoji, E-mail: kanno@echem.titech.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    The novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was synthesized by slow cooling from the ternary Li{sub 2}S–GeS{sub 2}–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} system, and was shown to exhibit a cubic argyrodite-type structure. The phase composition was determined by varying the ratio of starting materials; the observed monophasic properties were close to those for the Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} composition. The lattice parameter (a =9.80192(3) Å) of Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was slightly smaller than that of Li{sub 7}PS{sub 6} (a =9.993 Å), indicating that substitution of a Li cation by the smaller Ge cation contracted the cubic lattice. In addition, the novel structure consisted of a framework composed of four isolated (Ge/P)S{sub 4} tetrahedra. Li{sup +} ions occupied tetrahedral sites within the framework, forming a three-dimensional conduction pathway. Finally, Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.1×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C and an activation energy of 25 kJ mol{sup −1}. - Graphical abstract: A novel Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} solid lithium ion conductor, with cubic argyrodite strucuture, shows high ion conductivity of 1.1×10{sup –4} S cm{sup –1} with an activation energy of 25 kJ mol{sup –1}. The argyrodite structure consists of (Ge/P)S{sub 4} tetrahedra units along with partial occupation of lithium and germanium at 48 h site. - Highlights: • A novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was detected. • This was achieved through slow cooling of the ternary Li{sub 2}S–GeS{sub 2}–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} system. • This novel conductor revealed a cubic argyrodite-type structure. • Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.1×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C. • These properties will aid in the design of superior lithium-ion conductors.

  20. Ionic debye screening in dense liquid plasmas observed for Li+p, d reactions with liquid Li target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, J.; Yonemura, H.; Toriyabe, Y.; Nakagawa, A.; Sugawara, T.; Wang Tieshan

    2009-01-01

    Thick target yields of α particles emitted in the 6 Li(d,α) 4 He and 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions were measured for Li target in the solid and liquid phase. Observed reaction rates for the liquid Li are always larger than those for the solid. This suggests that the stopping power of hydrogen ion in the liquid Li metal might be smaller than in the solid. Using the empirically obtained stopping power for the liquid Li, we have deduced the screening potentials of the Li+p and Li+d reactions in both phases. The deduced screening potential for the liquid Li is about 500 eV larger than for the solid. This difference is attributed to the effect of liquefied Li + ions. It is concluded that the ionic screening is much stronger than the electronic screening in a low-temperature dense plasmas. (authors)

  1. Ionic Debye Screening in Dense Liquid Plasmas Observed for Li+p,d Reactions with Liquid Li Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Kasagi; H.Yonemura; Y.Toriyabe; A.Nakagawa; T.Sugawara; WANG Tie-shan

    2009-01-01

    Thick target yields of a particles emitted in the ~6Li(d,a)~4 He and ~7Li(p,a)~4 He reactions were measured for Li target in the solid and liquid phase.Observed reaction rates for the liquid Li are always larger than those for the solid.This suggests that the stopping power of hydrogen ion in the liquid Li metal might be smaller than in the solid.Using the empirically obtained stopping power for the liquid Li,we have deduced the screening potentials of the Li+p and Li+d reactions in both phases.The deduced screening potential for the liquid Li is about 500 eV larger than for the solid.This difference is attributed to the effect of liquefied Li~+ ions.It is concluded that the ionic screening is much stronger than the electronic screening in a low-temperature dense plasmas.

  2. Effects of high power ion Bernstein waves on a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bell, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) has been investigated on PLT with up to 650 kW of rf power coupled to the plasma, exceeding the ohmic power of 550 kW. Plasma antenna loading of 2 Ω has been observed, resulting in 80 to 90% of the rf power being coupled to the plasma. An ion heating efficiency of ΔT/sub i/(0)n/sub e//P/sub rf/ = 6 x 10 13 eV cm -3 /kW, without high energy tail ions, has been observed up to the maximum rf power. The deuterium particle confinement during high power IBWH increases significantly (as much as 300%). Associated with it, a longer injected impurity confinement time, reduced drift wave turbulence activity, frequency shifts of drfit wave turbulence, and development of a large negative edge potential were observed. The energy confinement time, however, shows some degradation from the ohmic value, which can be attributed to the enhanced radiation loss observed during IBWH. The ion heating and energy confinement time are relatively independent of plasma current

  3. Crystallography and Growth of Epitaxial Oxide Films for Fundamental Studies of Cathode Materials Used in Advanced Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bendersky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion battery systems, synthesized as epitaxial thin films, can provide powerful insights into their electrochemical processes. Crystallographic analysis shows that many important cathode oxides have an underlying similarity: their structures can be considered as different ordering schemes of Li and transition metal ions within a pseudo-cubic sublattice of oxygen anions arranged in a face-center cubic (FCC fashion. This oxygen sublattice is compatible with SrTiO3 and similar perovskite oxides, thus perovskites can be used as supporting substrates for growing epitaxial cathode films. The predicted epitaxial growth and crystallographic relations were experimentally verified for different oxide films deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD on SrTiO3 or SrRuO3/SrTiO3 of different orientations. The results based on cross-sectional high-resolution TEM of the following films are presented in the paper: (a trigonal LiCoO2; (b orthorhombic LiMnO2; (c monoclinic Li2MnO3; (d compositionally-complex monoclinic Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2. All results demonstrated the feasibility of epitaxial growth for these materials, with the growth following the predicted cube-on-cube orientation relationship between the cubic and pseudo-cubic oxygen sublattices of a substrate and a film, respectively.

  4. Structural and compositional characterization of X-cut LiNbO3 crystals implanted with high energy oxygen and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentini, G.G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Sada, C.; Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Mazzoldi, P.; Guzzi, R.

    2005-01-01

    High energy implantation of medium-light elements such as oxygen and carbon was performed in X-cut LiNbO 3 single crystals in order to prepare high quality optical waveguides. The compositional and damage profiles, obtained by exploiting the secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford back-scattering techniques respectively, were correlated to the structural properties measured by the high resolution X-ray diffraction. This study evidences the development of tensile strain induced by the ion implantation that can contribute to the decrease of the ordinary refractive index variation through the photo-elastic effect

  5. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  6. Online cell SOC estimation of Li-ion battery packs using a dual time-scale Kalman filtering for EV applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang; Wang, Jiayuan; Gu, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use an equivalent circuit model to describe the characteristics of battery. ► A dual time-scale estimator is used to calculate pack average SOC and cell SOC. ► The estimator is based on the dynamic descriptions and extended Kalman filter. ► Three different test cases are designed to validate the proposed method. ► Test results indicate a good performance of the method for EV applications. -- Abstract: For the vehicular operation, due to the voltage and power/energy requirements, the battery systems are usually composed of up to hundreds of cells connected in series or parallel. To accommodate the operation conditions, the battery management system (BMS) should estimate State of Charge (SOC) to facilitate safe and efficient utilization of the battery. The performance difference among the cells makes a pure pack SOC estimation hardly provide sufficient information, which at last affects the computation of available energy and power and the safety of the battery system. So for a reliable and accurate management, the BMS should “know” the SOC of each individual cell. Several possible solutions on this issue have been reported in the recent years. This paper studies a method to determine online all individual cell SOCs of a series-connected battery pack. This method, with an equivalent circuit based “averaged cell” model, estimates the battery pack’s average SOC first, and then incorporates the performance divergences between the “averaged cell” and each individual cell to generate the SOC estimations for all cells. This method is developed based on extended Kalman filter (EKF), and to reduce the computation cost, a dual time-scale implementation is designed. The method is validated using results obtained from the measurements of a Li-ion battery pack under three different tests, and analysis indicates the good performance of the algorithm.

  7. Single-crystal LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} as high performance cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, Borong, E-mail: wubr@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, Beijing 100081 (China); Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials, Beijing 100081 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 (China); Mu, Daobin, E-mail: mudb@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, Beijing 100081 (China); Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Xiaojiang [Institute of Electric Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Peng, Yiyuan [Key Laboratory of Small Fuctional Organic Molecule, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Xu, Hongliang; Liu, Qi; Gai, Liang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, Beijing 100081 (China); Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials, Beijing 100081 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-07-25

    Single-crystal nickel-high materials (ST-LNCMO) LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} have been synthesized using a versatile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The results show that the sample annealed at an optimized temperature of 850 °C reveals uniform fine well-crystallized single-particles with diameters of ~800 nm. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the cell using this nickel-high material as the cathode exhibits excellent performance. The sample displays a high capacity of 183.7 mA h·g{sup −1} at 36 mA·g{sup −1} (0.2 C) and excellent cycling stability at different rates. It yields an initial discharge capacity of 153.6 mA h·g{sup −1} at a rate of 10C-rate and a voltage of 2.8 V – 4.3 V. The sample also has an outstanding rate capacity at a high cut-off voltage (4.6 V). This superior performance is attributed to the merits of the single-crystal structure, which may be beneficial to the transportation of the Li{sup +} ion along the grain. - Highlights: • A single-crystal LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} is prepared by a hydrothermal method. • A high discharge capacity of 183.7 mA h·g{sup −1} at 0.2 C and good cycling stability. • It yields an initial discharge capacity of 153.6 mA h·g{sup −1} at 10 C-rate under 2.8 V–4.3 V. • Superior electrochemical performance may be obtained attributed to the single-crystal structure.

  8. Li3V2(PO4)3/LiFePO4 composite hollow microspheres for wide voltage lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wen; Wei, Chuanliang; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Yaoyao; Liu, Qinze; Shen, Jianxing; Wang, Lianzhou; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Using yeast cells to control the in-situ growth of crystal particle. • Heterogeneous isomorphism nanocomposite hollow microspheres are synthesized. • The cathode exhibits a higher discharge capacity and energy density. - Abstract: Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (LVP)/LiFePO 4 (LVP) composite hollow microspheres (LVP/LFP-CHMs) for lithium-ion batteries have been synthesized by a combination method, using yeast cells as both structure templates and biocarbon source. The stable heterogeneous isomorphism solid solution with superlattice structure is formed in the joint of LVP and LFP particles. A detailed analysis of the formation mechanism of solid solution with superlattice structure and the influences of different Fe:V mole ratios on the structure and electrochemical properties of composites are presented. When the LVP/LFP-CHMs with a Fe:V mole ratio of 1:3 were used as cathode material in coin cells with metallic Li as anode, the cell exhibits a discharge capacity of 221.5 mAh g −1 for 5 cycles and discharge specific energy of 682 Wh kg −1 at 0.1C in a wide voltage range (1.5–4.3 V). Its capacity is far higher than the capacity of unsubstituted LFP and LVP in the same wide voltage range. The energy density of this cell is about 4 times higher than that of modern commercial lithium-ion batteries (157 Wh kg −1 ). The wide voltage range not only increases the discharge capacity and energy density of cathode materials, but also could expand the range of its applications in electronic equipment.

  9. Formation of dislocations and hardening of LiF under high-dose irradiation with 5-21 MeV {sup 12}C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabels, R.; Manika, I.; Maniks, J.; Grants, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Schwartz, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Dauletbekova, A.; Baizhumanov, M. [L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana (Kazakhstan); Zdorovets, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-15

    The emergence of dislocations and hardening of LiF crystals irradiated to high doses with {sup 12}C ions have been investigated using chemical etching, AFM, nanoindentation, and thermal annealing. At fluences ensuring the overlapping of tracks (Φ ≥6 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}), the formation of dislocation-rich structure and ion-induced hardening is observed. High-fluence (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) irradiation with {sup 12}C ions causes accumulation of extended defects and induces hardening comparable to that reached by heavy ions despite of large differences in ion mass, energy, energy loss, and track morphology. The depth profiles of hardness indicate on a notable contribution of elastic collision mechanism (nuclear loss) in the damage production and hardening. The effect manifests at the end part of the ion range and becomes significant at high fluences (≥10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}). (orig.)

  10. High performance sandwich structured Si thin film anodes with LiPON coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinyi; Lang, Jialiang; Lv, Shasha; Li, Zhengcao

    2018-04-01

    The sandwich structured silicon thin film anodes with lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) coating are synthesized via the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method, whereas the thicknesses of both layers are in the nanometer range, i.e. between 50 and 200 nm. In this sandwich structure, the separator simultaneously functions as a flexible substrate, while the LiPON layer is regarded as a protective layer. This sandwich structure combines the advantages of flexible substrate, which can help silicon release the compressive stress, and the LiPON coating, which can provide a stable artificial solidelectrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the electrode. As a result, the silicon anodes are protected well, and the cells exhibit high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. All the results demonstrate that this sandwich structure can be a promising option for high performance Si thin film lithium ion batteries.

  11. Carbon coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} nanorods as superior anode material for high rate lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongjun; Shen, Laifa; Rui, Kun; Li, Hongsen; Zhang, Xiaogang, E-mail: azhangxg@nuaa.edu.cn

    2013-09-25

    Highlights: •A novel approach has been developed to fabricate 1D Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanorods by a wet-chemical route. •Carbon coating layer effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance electronic conductivity. •The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanorods exhibit remarkable rate capability and long cycle life. -- Abstract: We describe a novel approach for the synthesis of carbon coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C) nanorods for high rate lithium ion batteries. The carbon coated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes using the glucose as carbon source are first synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The commercial anatase TiO{sub 2} powder is immersed in KOH sulotion and subsequently transforms into Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C in LiOH solution under hydrothermal condition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and Raman spectra are performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. Compared with the pristine Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, one-dimensional (1D) Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanostructures show much better rate capability and cycling stability. The 1D Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C architectures effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance their electronic conductivity, enabling fast ion and electron transport.

  12. Influence of the lithium salt nature over the surface film formation on a graphite electrode in Li-ion batteries: An XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, S.; Martinez, H.; Dedryvere, R.; Lemordant, D.; Gonbeau, D.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of a passivation film (solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) at the surface of the negative electrode of full LiCoO 2 /graphite lithium-ion cells using different salts (LiBF 4 , LiPF 6 , LiTFSI, LiBETI) in carbonate solvents as electrolyte was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The analyzes were carried out at different potential stages of the first cycle, showing the potential-dependent character of the surface film species formation and the specificity of each salt. At 3.8 V, for all salts, we have mainly identified carbonated species. Beyond this potential, the specific behavior of LiPF 6 was identified with a high LiF deposit, whereas for other salts, the formation process of the SEI appears controlled by the solvent decomposition of the electrolyte

  13. Research results for the applications of high power ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Sun Jianfeng; He Xiaoping; Tang Junping; Wang Haiyang; Zhang Jiasheng; Xu Ri; Peng Jianchang; Ren Shuqing; Li Peng; Yang Li; Huang Jianjun; Zhang Guoguang; Ouyang Xiaoping; Li Hongyu

    2003-01-01

    The results obtained in the theoretical and experimental studies for the application of high power ion beams in certain areas of nuclear physics and material science are reported. The preliminary experimental results of generating 6-7 MeV quasi-monoenergetic pulsed γ-rays with high power pulsed proton beams striking 19 F target on the Flash II accelerator are presented. By placing the target far enough downstream, the quasi-monoenergetic pulsed γ-rays can be discriminated experimentally from the diode Bremsstrahlung. This article also describes the other applications of high power ion beams and the preliminary experimental and theoretical results in simulation of soft X-ray thermal-mechanical effects, generation of high intense pulsed neutrons, equation of state and shock-wave physics experiments, surface modification and so on

  14. On fabrication procedures of Li-ion conducting garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanc, Emil [The Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Kraków (Poland); Zając, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.zajac@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Lu, Li; Yan, Binggong; Kotobuki, Masashi [Materials Science Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ziąbka, Magdalena [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Molenda, Janina [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-04-15

    Ceramic oxides exhibiting high lithium-ion mobility at room temperature receive broad attention as candidate electrolytes for lithium batteries. Lithium-stuffed garnets from the Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} group seem to be especially promising because of their high ionic conductivity at room temperature and their electrochemical stability. In this work, we discuss factors that affect formation of the garnet in its bulk form or in the form of thick and thin films. We demonstrate that zinc oxide can be applied as a sintering aid that facilitate the formation of the highly conducting cubic Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} garnet phase in a single-step sintering procedure. Based on our experience with the single-step sintering experiments, we successfully fabricated a thick-film membrane consisting of a garnet solid electrolyte using the tape casting technique. In order to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte even further we investigated the fabrication of a thin-film Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} electrolyte by means of the pulsed laser deposition technique.

  15. Synthesis, Structure, and Li-Ion Conductivity of LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Cl, Br, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payandeh GharibDoust, SeyedHosein; Brighi, Matteo; Sadikin, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new type of addition reaction between La(BH4)3 and LiX, X = Cl, Br, I, is used to synthesize LiLa(BH4)3Cl and two new compounds LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Br, I. This method increases the amounts of LiLa(BH4)3X and the sample purity. The highest Li-ion conductivity is observed for LiLa(BH4)...

  16. Epoxy-silica hybrid organic–inorganic electrolytes with a high Li-ion conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vélez, J.F.; Procaccini, R.A.; Aparicio, M.; Mosa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid electrolytes were prepared by co-hydrolysis and co-condensation of 3-glycidoxipropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) doped with lithium acetate as self-supported materials and thin-films. The effects of the relative molar content of LiAc on the physicochemical properties of electrolytes, such as morphology, thermal, chemical and electrochemical properties were investigated. Two and four probes test cells were designed for comparative studies of ionic conductivity of hybrid electrolytes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Similar ionic conductivities were obtained using both measurement methods, reaching a maximum ionic conductivity value of around 10 −6 S/cm at 25 °C. The conductivity mechanism presents Arrehenius behavior with the increase of the temperature from 25 °C to 120 °C. The electrochemical stability window is found to be in the range of 0–5 V, which ensures that hybrid organic–inorganic materials are potential electrolytes for solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  17. Synthesis and characterization of high-density LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zhaorong [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)], E-mail: czr_56@163.com; Lv Haojie; Tang Hongwei; Li Huaji [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Yuan Xiaozi; Wang Haijiang [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2009-08-01

    To achieve a high-energy-density lithium electrode, high-density LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite cathode material for a lithium-ion battery was synthesized using self-produced high-density FePO{sub 4} as a precursor, glucose as a C source, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a Li source, in a pipe furnace under an atmosphere of 5% H{sub 2}-95% N{sub 2}. The structure of the synthesized material was analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the synthesized LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the charge/discharge process. The tap-density of the synthesized LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite powder with a carbon content of 7% reached 1.80 g m{sup -3}. The charge/discharge tests show that the cathode material has initial charge/discharge capacities of 190.5 and 167.0 mAh g{sup -1}, respectively, with a volume capacity of 300.6 mAh cm{sup -3}, at a 0.1C rate. At a rate of 5C, the LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite shows a high discharge capacity of 98.3 mAh g{sup -1} and a volume capacity of 176.94 mAh cm{sup -3}.

  18. Li ion transport in sputter deposited LiCoO{sub 2} thin films and glassy borate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockhoff, Tobias; Gallasch, Tobias; Schmitz, Guido [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Materialphysik, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    LiCoO{sub 2} membranes are key components of current battery technology. We investigate sputter-deposited thin films of these materials aiming at the application in all-solid-state thin film batteries. For this, LiCoO{sub 2} films (10-200 nm) were deposited onto ITO-coated glass substrates by ion beam sputtering. In addition, a part of these films are coated by an ion-conductive membrane of Li{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses in the thickness range of 50 to 300 nm. Structural, chemical and electrical properties of the layers are studied by means of TEM(EELS) and various electrical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chrono-amperometry/-potentiometry). Since the color of the LiCoO{sub 2} films changes from red-brown to grey during de-intercalation of Li and the substrate as well as the glassy membrane deposited on top are optical transparent, reversible Li de- and intercalation can be directly demonstrated and quantified by a measurement of light transmission through the layered system. Samples coated with an ion-conductive membrane reveal a characteristic delay in switching optical transparency which is due to the slower transport across the membrane. Varying the thickness of the glassy membrane, the d.c. ion-conductivity and permeation through the membrane is determined quantitatively. Using thin membranes in the range of a few tens of nanometers the critical current densities are way sufficient for battery applications.

  19. Synthesis of Spherical Al-Doping LiMn2O4 via a High-Pressure Spray-Drying Method as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Mingyu; Xu, Mingli; Li, Xue; Yu, Xiaohua; Dong, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Uniform and spherical LiAl0.075Mn1.925O4 particles have been successfully synthesized by the high-pressure spray-drying method. The structures and electrochemical properties of the particles were characterized by various techniques. Benefiting from the sphere-like morphology and Al-doping, LiAl0.075Mn1.925O4 delivers a capacity retention of 81.6% after 1000 cycles at 2°C, while LiMn2O4 exhibits a capacity retention of only 32.2%. The rate capability and reversible cycling performance are also improved. Furthermore, this work significantly alleviates the dissolution of Mn in LiMn2O4 materials, and effectively improves the transfer rate of lithium ions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The spherical LiAl0.075Mn1.925O4 prepared by a facile method shows great potential for practical application in low-cost and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of SnO2 on MXene for Li-Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2017-02-24

    In this report, we show that oxide battery anodes can be grown on two-dimensional titanium carbide sheets (MXenes) by atomic layer deposition. Using this approach, we have fabricated a composite SnO2/MXene anode for Li-ion battery applications. The SnO2/MXene anode exploits the high Li-ion capacity offered by SnO2, while maintaining the structural and mechanical integrity by the conductive MXene platform. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) conditions used to deposit SnO2 on MXene terminated with oxygen, fluorine, and hydroxyl-groups were found to be critical for preventing MXene degradation during ALD. We demonstrate that SnO2/MXene electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as Li-ion battery anodes, where conductive MXene sheets act to buffer the volume changes associated with lithiation and delithiation of SnO2. The cyclic performance of the anodes is further improved by depositing a very thin passivation layer of HfO2, in the same ALD reactor, on the SnO2/MXene anode. This is shown by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to also improve the structural integrity of SnO2 anode during cycling. The HfO2 coated SnO2/MXene electrodes demonstrate a stable specific capacity of 843 mAh/g when used as Li-ion battery anodes.

  1. Predicting electrical and thermal abuse behaviours of practical lithium-ion cells from accelerating rate calorimeter studies on small samples in electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, M. N.; Dahn, J. R.

    An accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) is used to measure the thermal stability of de-intercalated Li 1+ xMn 2- xO 4 in LiPF 6 EC:DEC (33:67) electrolyte. Self-heating is detected well after the 80°C onset of self-heating measured for lithium intercalated mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) electrodes in LiPF 6 EC:DEC (33:67) electrolyte. As a result, the initial self-heating measured in a practical carbon/Li 1+ xMn 2- xO 4 lithium-ion cell is caused by reactions at the anode. In previous work, we have proposed a model for the reactions that cause self-heating in MCMB electrodes in electrolyte. By assuming that a cell self-heats only because reactions occur at the anode, the model can be used to predict the power generated by the amount of MCMB in practical cells with an inert cathode. The calculated chemically generated power can be combined with power loss measurements, due to the transfer of heat to the environment, to predict the short-circuit behaviour and the oven exposure behaviour for a cell containing an MCMB anode and an inert cathode. The results agree qualitatively with short-circuit and oven exposure results measured on NEC Moli energy 18650 cells containing an Li 1+ xMn 2- xO 4 cathode.

  2. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO4 nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.H.; Ren, H.M.; Huang, Y.Y.; Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO 4 composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: • Flexible LiFePO 4 /graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. • The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. • Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO 4 nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO 4 was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO 4 nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g −1 at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents

  3. The design of a Li-ion full cell battery using a nano silicon and nano multi-layer graphene composite anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, KwangSup; Joshi, Tapesh; Bordes, Arnaud; Do, Inhwan; Fuller, Thomas F.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a Si-graphene composite, which is composed of nano Si particles and nano-sized multi-layer graphene particles, and micro-sized multi-layer graphene plate conductor, was used as the anode for Li-ion battery. The Si-graphene electrode showed the high capacity and stable cyclability at charge/discharge rate of C/2 in half cell tests. Nickel cobalt aluminum material (NCA) was used as a cathode in the full cell to evaluate the practicality of the new Si-graphene material. Although the Si-graphene anode has more capacity than the NCA cathode in this designed full cell, the Si-graphene anode had a greater effect on the full-cell performance due to its large initial irreversible capacity loss and continuous SEI formation during cycling. When fluoro-ethylene carbonate was added to the electrolyte, the cyclability of the full cell was much improved due to less SEI formation, which was confirmed by the decreases in the 1st irreversible capacity loss, overpotential for the 1st lithiation, and the resistance of the SEI.

  4. First-principles investigation of the electronic and Li-ion diffusion properties of LiFePO4 by sulfur surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guigui; Zhong, Kehua; Zhang, Jian-Min; Huang, Zhigao

    2014-01-01

    We present a first-principles calculation for the electronic and Li-ion diffusion properties of the LiFePO 4 (010) surface modified by sulfur. The calculated formation energy indicates that the sulfur adsorption on the (010) surface of the LiFePO 4 is energetically favored. Sulfur is found to form Fe-S bond with iron. A much narrower band gap (0.67 eV) of the sulfur surface-modified LiFePO 4 [S-LiFePO 4 (010)] is obtained, indicating the better electronic conductive properties. By the nudged elastic band method, our calculations show that the activation energy of Li ions diffusion along the one-dimensional channel on the surface can be effectively reduced by sulfur surface modification. In addition, the surface diffusion coefficient of S-LiFePO 4 (010) is estimated to be about 10 −11 (cm 2 /s) at room temperature, which implies that sulfur modification will give rise to a higher Li ion carrier mobility and enhanced electrochemical performance

  5. Li-ion battery recycling and cobalt flow analysis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Asari, Misuzu; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Batteries sometimes contain precious or toxic substances (e.g. nickel, cobalt, lead, mercury, cadmium). However, the collection and recycling rate of small batteries were low in Japan. We focus on cobalt in lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries and conduct chemical analysis, questioner survey and flow analysis in Japan.Results of chemical analysis showed that the concentration of cobalt in Li-ion batteries was around 20% regardless of the year manufactured or the manufacturer. As a result of the con...

  6. Effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Xuelei; Song, Dawei; Miao, Yanli; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2018-06-01

    Recycling high-valuable metal elements (such as Li, Ni, Co, Al and Cu elements) from scrapped lithium ion batteries can bring significant economic benefits. However, recycling and reusing anode material has not yet attracted wide attention up to now, due to the lower added-value than the above valuable metal materials and the difficulties in regenerating process. In this paper, a novel regeneration process with significant green advance is proposed to regenerate anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries for the first time. After regenerated, most acetylene black (AB) and all the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) in recycled anode material are removed, and the surface of anode material is coated with pyrolytic carbon from phenolic resin again. Finally, the regenerated anode material (graphite with coating layer, residual AB and a little CMC pyrolysis product) is obtained. As expected, all the technical indexs of regenerated anode material exceed that of a midrange graphite with the same type, and partial technical indexs are even closed to that of the unused graphite. The results indicate the effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries is really achieved.

  7. Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Packs as Basis for Design of Battery Thermal Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu

    . The shortcomings of safety were reflected in the recent accidents, where fires and explosions were reported in cell phones, electric cars, laptops, e-hovers and even airplanes. The goal of this thesis is to generate knowledge, understanding and methods to ensure safety in Li-ion cells and packs. For achieving...

  8. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety. PMID:27354162

  9. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Controlling Factors of Cell Design on Large-Format Li-Ion Battery Safety during Nail Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qing; Shaffer, Christian Edward, E-mail: ceshaffer@ecpowergroup.com; Sinha, Puneet K. [EC Power, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-08-21

    In this paper, we investigate the controlling design parameters of large-format Li-ion batteries on safety while undergoing nail penetration. We have identified three critical design parameters that control the safety during the nail penetration process: nail diameter (D{sub nail}), single sheet foil area (A{sub foil}), and cell capacity (Q{sub cell}).Using commercial AutoLion™ software, we have investigated two typical design problems related to the selection of cell thickness and aspect ratio, namely, (1) the safety ramifications of increasing cell capacity via greater cell thickness for a fixed footprint and (2) the effect of aspect ratio, or single sheet foil size, on safety at a given capacity. For a fixed footprint, our results indicate that the safety of the cell can be predicted by (Q{sub cell} D{sub nail}{sup -0.5}). For a given cell capacity, our results indicate that typically a larger single sheet foil area leads to a greater likelihood for thermal runaway due to its effect of making the heating more local in nature; however, for small cells (~5 Ah) and large nails (~20 mm), the greater aspect ratio can lead to a safer cell, as the greater surface area strongly cools the global heating of the cell.

  11. Characterization of the LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/FeS(2) System for Potential Use as a Geothermal Borehole Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.

    1999-01-01

    We are continuing to study the suitability of modified thermal-battery technology as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications. Previous work focused on the LiSi/FeS(sub 2) couple over a temperature range of 350 C to 400 C with the LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, which melts at 324.5 C. In this work, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic/FeS(sub 2) thermal cells were studied at temperatures between 250 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. The CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic was selected because of its lower melting point (228.5 C). Incorporation of a quasi-reference electrode allowed the determination of the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization. The results of single-cell tests and limited battery tests are presented, along with preliminary data for battery stacks tested in a simulated geothermal borehole environment

  12. Interaction between High-Voltage Cathode Materials and Ionic Liquids for Novel Li-Ion Batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locati, C.

    2012-01-01

    The fast-growing market on electronic portable devices is possibly due to the development of Li-ion batteries. Besides, such batteries are the most promising candidates as energy storage media in (hybrid) electric vehicles, in the near future. However, improvements on electrochemical performances

  13. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  14. Dynamic Solubility Limits in Nanosized Olivine LiFePO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, Marnix; Singh, Deepak P.; Borghols, Wouter J.H.; Lafont, Ugo; Haverkate, Lucas; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Mulder, Fokko M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its stability, nanosized olivine LiFePO4 opens the door toward high-power Li-ion battery technology for large-scale applications as required for plug-in hybrid vehicles. Here, we reveal that the thermodynamics of first-order phase transitions in nanoinsertion materials is distinctly

  15. Surface Modification Technique of Cathode Materials for LI-ION Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongzhong; Han, Jinduo; Jing, Yan; Jin, Shan; Qi, Taiyuan

    Cathode materials for Li-ion battery LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.1Mn1.9O4 were prepared by soft chemical method. Carbon, which was made by decomposing organic compounds, was used as modifying agent. Cathode material matrix was mixed with water solution that had contained organic compound such as cane sugar, soluble amylum, levulose et al. These mixture were reacted at 150 200 °C for 0.5 4 h in a Teflon-lined autoclave to get a series of homogeneously C-coated cathode materials. The new products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR). Morphology of cathode materials was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transition electron microscope (TEM). The new homogeneously C-coated products that were used as cathode materials of lithium-ion battery had good electrochemical stability and cycle performance. This technique has free-pollution, low cost, simpleness and easiness to realize the industrialization of the cathode materials for Li-ion battery.

  16. Li2FeSiO4 nanorod as high stability electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chun-Han; Shen, Yu-Wen; Chien, Li-Hsuan; Kuo, Ping-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Li 2 FeSiO 4 (LFS) nanorods, with a diameter of 80–100 nm and length of 0.8–1.0 μm, were synthesized successfully from a mixture of LiOH, FeSO 4 , and SiO 2 nanoparticles via a simple hydrothermal process. The secondary structure with micro-sized bundles of nanorods was developed with high crystallinity under the hydrothermal condition of 180 °C for 72 h. Then, sucrose, as carbon source, was coated and carbonized on the surface of the LFS nanorods to fabricate LFS/C nanorod composite. The resulting LFS/C nanorod composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and surface area measurements. When used as the cathode materials for lithium-ion battery, the electrochemical performance of the LFS/C nanorod material delivers discharge capacities of 156 mAh g −1 in the voltage window of 1.8−4.7 V and also demonstrates good cycle stability when it is cycled between 1.8 and 4.1 V. In short, superior electrochemical properties could be caused by the short lithium-ion diffusion path of its nanorod structure

  17. Ion exchange and electrochemical evaluation of the microporous phosphate Li9Fe7(PO4)10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becht, Gregory A.; Vaughey, John T.; Britt, Robin L.; Eagle, Cassandra T.; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2008-01-01

    A new lithium iron(III) phosphate, Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 , has been synthesized and is currently under electrochemical evaluation as an anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. The sample was prepared via the ion exchange reaction of Cs 5 K 4 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 1 in the 1 M LiNO 3 solution under hydrothermal conditions at 200 deg. C. The fully Li + -exchanged sample Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 2 cannot yet be synthesized by conventional high-temperature, solid-state methods. The parent compound 1 is a member of the Cs 9-x K x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 series that was previously isolated from a high-temperature (750 deg. C) reaction employing the eutectic CsCl/KCl molten salt. The polycrystalline solid 1 was first prepared in a stoichiometric reaction via conventional solid-state method then followed by ion exchange giving rise to 2. Both compounds adopt three-dimensional structures that consist of orthogonally interconnected channels where electropositive ions reside. It has been demonstrated that the Cs 9-x K x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 series possesses versatile ion exchange capabilities with all the monovalent alkali metal and silver cations due to its facile pathways for ion transport. 1 and 2 were subject to electrochemical analysis and preliminary results suggest that the latter can be considered as an anode material. Electrochemical results indicate that Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 is reduced below 1 V (vs. Li) to most likely form a Fe(0)/Li 3 PO 4 composite material, which can subsequently be cycled reversibly at relatively low potential. An initial capacity of 250 mAh/g was measured, which is equivalent to the insertion of thirteen Li atoms per Li 9+x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 (x = 13) during the charge/discharge process (Fe 2+ + 2e → Fe 0 ). Furthermore, 2 shows a lower reduction potential (0.9 V), by approximately 200 mV, and much better electrochemical reversibility than iron(III) phosphate, FePO 4 , highlighting the value of improving the ionic conductivity of the sample

  18. Using Small Capacity Fuel Cells Onboard Drones for Battery Cooling: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayok Mukhopadhyay

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, quadrotor-based drones have attracted a lot of attention because of their versatility, which makes them an ideal medium for a variety of applications, e.g., personal photography, surveillance, and the delivery of lightweight packages. The flight duration of a drone is limited by its battery capacity. Increasing the payload capacity of a drone requires more current to be supplied by the battery onboard a drone. Elevated currents through a Li-ion battery can increase the battery temperature, thus posing a significant risk of fire or explosion. Li-ion batteries are suited for drone applications, due to their high energy density. There have been attempts to use hydrogen fuel cells onboard drones. Fuel cell stacks and fuel tank assemblies can have a high energy to weight ratio. So, they may be able to power long duration drone flights, but such fuel cell stacks and associated systems, are usually extremely expensive. Hence, this work proposes the novel use of a less expensive, low capacity, metal hydride fuel stick-powered fuel cell stack as an auxiliary power supply onboard a drone. A primary advantage of this is that the fuel sticks can be used to cool the batteries, and a side effect is that this slightly reduces the burden on the onboard Li-ion battery and provides a small increment in flight time. This work presents the results of an experimental study which shows the primary effect (i.e., decrease in battery temperature and the secondary side effect (i.e., a small increment in flight time obtained by using a fuel cell stack. In this work, a metal hydride fuel stick powered hydrogen fuel cell is used along with a Li-ion battery onboard a drone.

  19. SnTe-TiC-C composites as high-performance anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung Yeon; Hur, Jaehyun; Kim, Kwang Ho; Son, Hyung Bin; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Il Tae

    2017-10-01

    Intermetallic SnTe composites dispersed in a conductive TiC/C hybrid matrix are synthesized by high-energy ball milling (HEBM). The electrochemical performances of the composites as potential anodes for Li-ion batteries are evaluated. The structural and morphological characteristics of the SnTe-TiC-C composites with various TiC contents are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which reveal that SnTe and TiC are uniformly dispersed in a carbon matrix. The electrochemical performance is significantly improved by introducing TiC to the SnTe-C composite; higher TiC contents result in better performances. Among the prepared composites, the SnTe-TiC (30%)-C and SnTe-TiC (40%)-C electrodes exhibit the best electrochemical performance, showing the reversible capacities of, respectively, 652 mAh cm-3 and 588 mAh cm-3 after 400 cycles and high rate capabilities with the capacity retentions of 75.4% for SnTe-TiC (30%)-C and 82.2% for SnTe-TiC (40%)-C at 10 A g-1. Furthermore, the Li storage reaction mechanisms of Te or Sn in the SnTe-TiC-C electrodes are confirmed by ex situ XRD.

  20. Recent Progresses and Development of Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition towards High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Liang, Longwei; Sun, Xuan; Sun, Xiaofei; Wu, Chen; Hou, Linrui; Sun, Jinfeng

    2017-01-01

    Electrode materials and electrolytes play a vital role in device-level performance of rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, electrode structure/component degeneration and electrode-electrolyte sur-/interface evolution are identified as the most crucial obstacles in practical applications. Thanks to its congenital advantages, atomic layer deposition (ALD) methodology has attracted enormous attention in advanced LIBs. This review mainly focuses upon the up-to-date progress and development of the ALD in high-performance LIBs. The significant roles of the ALD in rational design and fabrication of multi-dimensional nanostructured electrode materials, and finely tailoring electrode-electrolyte sur-/interfaces are comprehensively highlighted. Furthermore, we clearly envision that this contribution will motivate more extensive and insightful studies in the ALD to considerably improve Li-storage behaviors. Future trends and prospects to further develop advanced ALD nanotechnology in next-generation LIBs were also presented. PMID:29036916

  1. Impact of morphological changes of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 on lithium-ion cathode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Etienne, Cabelguen; David, Peralta; Mikael, Cugnet; Pascal, Maillet

    2017-04-01

    Major advances in Li-ion battery technology rely on the nanostructuration of active materials to overcome the severe kinetics limitations of new - cheaper and safer - chemistries. However, opening porosities results in the decrease of volumetric performances, closing the door to significant applications such as portable electronics, electromobility, and grid storage. In this study, we analyze the link between morphologies and performances of model LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials. By quantifying exhaustively their microstructures using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and helium pycnometry, we can discuss how porosities and surface areas are linked to the electrochemical behavior. There is no geometrical parameters that can predict the performances of all our materials. The shape of agglomeration dictates the electrochemical behavior. A huge drop in volumetric performances is measured when microstructure is considered. We show that gravimetric and volumetric power performances are contrary to each other. Highly dense materials exhibit, by far, the best power performances in terms of volumetric figures, so that opening porosities might not be the best strategy, even in non-nanosized materials, for Li-ion battery technology.

  2. Lithium-ions diffusion kinetic in LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Guizhen; Wang, Lin

    2018-03-01

    Olivine structure LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles are synthesized successfully using a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. Microwave is an effective method to synthesize nanomaterials, the LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles with high crystallinity can shorten diffusion routes for ionic transfer and electron tunneling. Meanwhile, a high quality, complete and homogenous carbon layer with appropriate thickness coating on the surface of LiFePO4 particles during in situ chemical vapor deposition process, which can ensure that electrons are able to transfer fast enough from all sides. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is carried out to collect information about the kinetic behavior of lithium diffusion in LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles during the charging and discharging processes. The chemical diffusion coefficients of lithium ions, DLi, are calculated in the range of 10-15-10-9 cm2s-1. Nanoscale LiFePO4/carbon particles show the longer regions of the faster solid-solution diffusion, and corresponding to the narrower region of the slower two-phase diffusion during the insertion/exaction of lithium ions. The CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements show that the LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles perform an excellent electrochemical performance, especially the high rate capacity and cycle life.

  3. Enhanced electrochemical properties of F-doped Li2MnSiO4/C for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Youlong; Sun, Xiaofei; Zhang, Baofeng; Chen, Yanjun; He, Shengnan

    2018-02-01

    The Li2MnSiO4 as a novel cathode material for lithium ion batteries, performs high specific capacity, high thermal stability, low cost and etc. However, it suffers from relatively low electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusion rate. Herein, we successfully introduce fluorine to Li2MnSiO4 (Li2MnSiO4-xFx, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) to overcome these obstacles. The results show that F doping not only enlarges the lattice parameters but also decreases the particle size, synergistically improving the lithium ion diffusion of Li2MnSiO4. Moreover, F doping increase electronic conductivity of Li2MnSiO4/C by inhibiting the formation of C-O bonds in the carbon layers. Meanwhile, F doping improves the crystallinity and stabilizes the crystal structure of Li2MnSiO4. Finally, the Li2MnSiO3.97F0.03/C with the best electrochemical performances delivers the initial specific discharge capacity of 279 mA h g-1 at 25mA g-1 current density from 1.5 V to 4.8 V. Also, it maintains a higher capacity (201 mA h g-1) than F-free Li2MnSiO4 (145 mA h g-1) after 50 cycles.

  4. Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black with open conductive frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Huang; Liu, Yijun; Ji, Mandi; Xu, Yunlong; Wang, Qingqing; Luo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black composites are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. As an anode for lithium ion battery, the composite exhibits ultrahigh capacity and excellent low temperature performance. - Highlights: • Mesoporous LTO/KB composites were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • KB is used as carbon template and conductive additive. • The LTO/KB electrode without carbon black was fabricated. • This as-prepared electrode shows excellent rate capacity performance. • LTO/KB composite exhibits ultrahigh cycle performance at low temperature. - Abstract: The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black composites are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. The materials are characterized by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, EDS, galvanostatic charge/discharge test, CV and EIS. The results indicate that Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) particles grow both in the pores and on the surface of mesoporous Ketjen Black (KB) forming open conductive frameworks and the Ketjen Black works as host forthe growth of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 primary nanoparticles. The LTO/KB electrode is fabricated without extra carbon black conductive agents and exhibits excellent electrochemical performances, especially at low temperature. The improved performances can be attributed to the presence of mesoporous Ketjen Black conductive templates with high electronic conductivity and formed 3D frameworks beneficial to the lithium ion diffusion.

  5. Recent progress in sulfide-based solid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D., E-mail: liu.dongqiang@ireq.ca; Zhu, W.; Feng, Z.; Guerfi, A.; Vijh, A.; Zaghib, K.

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Li{sub 2}S-GeS{sub 2}-P{sub 2}S{sub 5} ternary diagram showing various sulphide compounds as solid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Recent progress of sulfide-based solid electrolytes is described from point of view of structure. • Thio-LISICON type electrolytes exhibited high ionic conductivity due to their bcc sublattice and unique Li{sup +} diffusion pathway. • “Mixed-anion effect” is also an effective way to modify the energy landscape as well as the ionic conductivity. - Abstract: Sulfide-based ionic conductors are one of most attractive solid electrolyte candidates for all-solid-state batteries. In this review, recent progress of sulfide-based solid electrolytes is described from point of view of structure. In particular, lithium thio-phosphates such as Li{sub 7}P{sub 3}S{sub 11}, Li{sub 10}GeP{sub 2}S{sub 12} and Li{sub 11}Si{sub 2}PS{sub 12} etc. exhibit extremely high ionic conductivity of over 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at room temperature, even higher than those of commercial organic carbonate electrolytes. The relationship between structure and unprecedented high ionic conductivity is delineated; some potential drawbacks of these electrolytes are also outlined.

  6. High Tap Density Li4Ti5O12 Microspheres: Synthetic Conditions and Advanced Electrochemical Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun; Zheng, Junwei; Zhou, Qun; Ren, Jianxin; Ming, Hai; Jia, Zhenyong; Zhang, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    Preparation of uniform spherical Li4Ti5O12 with high tap density is significant to achieve a high volumetric energy density in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, Li4Ti5O12 micro-spheres with variable tap-density and tunable size distribution were synthesized by a newly designed industrial spray drying approach. The slurry concentration, sintering time and sintering conditions after spray, the effect of Li/Ti molar ratio on the lithium ion (Li+) storage capability were investigated. A narrow particle size distribution around 10 μm and high tap-density close to 1.4 g cm-3 of the Li4Ti5O12 spheres can be obtained under the optimized conditions. The Li4Ti5O12 spheres can deliver much higher capacity of 168 mAh g-1 at 1 C-rate and show high capacity retention of 97.7% over 400 cycles. The synthetic conditions are confirmed to be critical for improving the electron conductivity and Li+ diffusivity by adjusting the crystal and spatial structures. As-prepared high performance Li4Ti5O12 is an ideal electrode for Li-ion batteries or capacitors; meanwhile the presented approach is also applicable for preparing other kind of spherical materials.

  7. High Tap Density Li4Ti5O12 Microspheres: Synthetic Conditions and Advanced Electrochemical Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2017-03-17

    Preparation of uniform spherical Li4Ti5O12 with high tap density is significant to achieve a high volumetric energy density in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, Li4Ti5O12 micro-spheres with variable tap-density and tunable size distribution were synthesized by a newly designed industrial spray drying approach. The slurry concentration, sintering time and sintering conditions after spray, the effect of Li/Ti molar ratio on the lithium ion (Li+) storage capability were investigated. A narrow particle size distribution around 10 μm and high tap-density close to 1.4 g cm-3 of the Li4Ti5O12 spheres can be obtained under the optimized conditions. The Li4Ti5O12 spheres can deliver much higher capacity of 168 mAh g-1 at 1 C-rate and show high capacity retention of 97.7% over 400 cycles. The synthetic conditions are confirmed to be critical for improving the electron conductivity and Li+ diffusivity by adjusting the crystal and spatial structures. As-prepared high performance Li4Ti5O12 is an ideal electrode for Li-ion batteries or capacitors; meanwhile the presented approach is also applicable for preparing other kind of spherical materials.

  8. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoplates with {010} active planes exposing prepared in polyol medium as a high-performance cathode for Li-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jili; Yao, Ruimin; Cao, Chuanbao

    2014-04-09

    As we know, Li(+)-ion transport in layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) is through two-dimensional channels parallel to the Li(+)-ion layers that are indexed as {010} active planes. In this paper, NCM nanoplates with exposed {010} active facets are synthesized in a polyol medium (ethylene glycol) and characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, and HR-TEM. In addition, the effects of reaction conditions on the morphologies, structures and electrochemical performances are also evaluated. The results show that more {010} facets can be exposed with the thickness of NCM nanoplates increasing which can lead to more channels for Li(+)-ion migration. However, when the annealing temperatures exceed 900 °C, many new crystal planes grow along the thickness direction covering the {010} facets. In all of the NCM nanoplates obtained at different conditions, the NCM nanoplates calcined at 850 °C for 12 h (NCM-850-12H) display a high initial discharge capacity of 207.6 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C (1 C = 200 mA g(-1)) between 2.5 and 4.5 V higher than most of NCM materials as cathodes for lithium ion batteries. The discharge capacities of NCM-850-12H are 169.8, 160.5, and 149.3 mAh g(-1) at 2, 5, and 7 C, respectively, illustrating the excellent rate capability. The superior electrochemical performance of NCM-850-12H cathode can be attributed to more {010} active planes exposure.

  9. Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-21

    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO(4) (C-NaFePO(4)) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ∼80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO(4) (C-LiFePO(4)), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO(4) electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO(4) except that Li ions in C-LiFePO(4) are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO(4) cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO(4) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO(4) are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO(4) cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO(4) cathodes, the rate performance