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Sample records for high-performance nbi plasmas

  1. Plasma heating: NBI ampersand RF, an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1996-01-01

    The additional heating and non-inductive current-drive methods are reviewed. First, the limitations of ohmic heating in tokamaks are examined and the motivations for using additional heating in tokamaks or other machines are discussed. Next we sketch the principles of heating by injection of fast neutrals - or Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The principle of the injector is briefly outlined. Positive and negative ion based concepts are discussed. The remainder of the lecture focuses on the processes by which the beam transfers energy to the plasma: the ionisation and slowing-down processes. Next, I make a review of the different heating schemes based on the transfer of electromagnetic energy to the plasma. The different wave heating frequency ranges are listed and the propagation and damping peculiarities are sketched in each domain. Heating in the Alfven and lower hybrid wave domains are described in some more details. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Conceptual design of NBI beamline for VEST plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.S., E-mail: tskim@kaeri.re.kr; In, S.R.; Jeong, S.H.; Park, M.; Chang, D.H.; Jung, B.K.; Lee, K.W.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • VEST NBI injector is conceptually designed to support further VEST plasma experiment. • VEST NBI injector composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, electrostatic ion dumps, NB vessel with cryopump, and rotating calorimerter. • The vacuum vessel of the beamline is divided into two parts for high injection efficiency and different direction (co- and counter-current) of neutral beam injection. • An ion source for the VEST NBI system was also designed to deliver neutral hydrogen beams with a power of 0.3 MW. The plasma generator of the VEST NB ion source has modified TFTR bucket multi-cusp chamber. The plasma generator has twelve hair-pin shaped tungsten filaments used as a cathode and an arc chamber including a bucket and an electron dump which serve as anode. The accelerator system consists of three grids, each having extraction area of 100 mm × 320 mm and 64 shaped slits of 3 mm spacing. • The preliminary structure design and the layout of the main components of the injector have been completed. Simulation and calculation for optimization of the NB beamline design results prove that the parameters of ion source, neutralization efficiency (76%:95% equilibrium neutralization efficiency), and beam power transmission efficiency (higher than 90%) are in agreement with design targets of the VEST NB beamline. • This VEST NBI system will provide a neutral beam of ∼0.6 MW for both heating and current drive in torus plasma. - Abstract: A 10 m s-pulsed NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) system for VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) plasma heating is designed to provide a beam power of more than 0.6 MW with 20 keV H° neutrals. The VEST NBI injector is composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, residual ion dump, NB vessel with a cryopump, and rotating calorimeter. The position and size of these beamline components are roughly determined with geometric

  3. Conceptual design of NBI beamline for VEST plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.S.; In, S.R.; Jeong, S.H.; Park, M.; Chang, D.H.; Jung, B.K.; Lee, K.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • VEST NBI injector is conceptually designed to support further VEST plasma experiment. • VEST NBI injector composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, electrostatic ion dumps, NB vessel with cryopump, and rotating calorimerter. • The vacuum vessel of the beamline is divided into two parts for high injection efficiency and different direction (co- and counter-current) of neutral beam injection. • An ion source for the VEST NBI system was also designed to deliver neutral hydrogen beams with a power of 0.3 MW. The plasma generator of the VEST NB ion source has modified TFTR bucket multi-cusp chamber. The plasma generator has twelve hair-pin shaped tungsten filaments used as a cathode and an arc chamber including a bucket and an electron dump which serve as anode. The accelerator system consists of three grids, each having extraction area of 100 mm × 320 mm and 64 shaped slits of 3 mm spacing. • The preliminary structure design and the layout of the main components of the injector have been completed. Simulation and calculation for optimization of the NB beamline design results prove that the parameters of ion source, neutralization efficiency (76%:95% equilibrium neutralization efficiency), and beam power transmission efficiency (higher than 90%) are in agreement with design targets of the VEST NB beamline. • This VEST NBI system will provide a neutral beam of ∼0.6 MW for both heating and current drive in torus plasma. - Abstract: A 10 m s-pulsed NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) system for VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) plasma heating is designed to provide a beam power of more than 0.6 MW with 20 keV H° neutrals. The VEST NBI injector is composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, residual ion dump, NB vessel with a cryopump, and rotating calorimeter. The position and size of these beamline components are roughly determined with geometric

  4. NBI - plasma vaporization hybrid approach in bladder cancer endoscopic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănescu, F; Geavlete, B; Georgescu, D; Jecu, M; Moldoveanu, C; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-06-15

    A prospective study was performed aiming to evaluate the surgical efficacy, perioperative safety profile, diagnostic accuracy and medium term results of a multi-modal approach consisting in narrow band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy and bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) when compared to the standard protocol represented by white light cystoscopy (WLC) and transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A total of 260 patients with apparently at least one bladder tumor over 3 cm were included in the trial. In the first group, 130 patients underwent conventional and NBI cystoscopy followed by BPV, while in a similar number of cases of the second arm, classical WLC and TURBT were applied. In all non-muscle invasive bladder tumors' (NMIBT) pathologically confirmed cases, standard monopolar Re-TUR was performed at 4-6 weeks after the initial intervention, followed by one year' BCG immunotherapy. The follow-up protocol included abdominal ultrasound, urinary cytology and WLC, performed every 3 months for a period of 2 years. The obturator nerve stimulation, bladder wall perforation, mean hemoglobin level drop, postoperative bleeding, catheterization period and hospital stay were significantly reduced for the plasma vaporization technique by comparison to conventional resection. Concerning tumoral detection, the present data confirmed the NBI superiority when compared to standard WLC regardless of tumor stage (95.3% vs. 65.1% for CIS, 93.3% vs. 82.2% for pTa, 97.4% vs. 94% for pT1, 95% vs. 84.2% overall). During standard Re-TUR the overall (6.3% versus 17.4%) and primary site (3.6% versus 12.8%) residual tumors' rates were significantly lower for the NBI-BPV group. The 1 (7.2% versus 18.3%) and 2 (11.5% versus 25.8%) years' recurrence rates were substantially lower for the combined approach. NBI cystoscopy significantly improved diagnostic accuracy, while bipolar technology showed a higher surgical efficiency, lower morbidity and faster postoperative recovery. The combined

  5. Recent results with NBI plasmas in TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liniers, M.; Ascasibar, E.; Estrada, T.; Tabares, F. L.; Acedo, M.; Alonso, J.; Balbin, R.; Blanco, B.; Branas, B.; Cappa, A.; Carrasco, R.; Castejon, F.; Fernandez, A.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Fuentes, C.; Garcia, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Guasp, J.; Hidalgo, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Jimenez, R.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Marcon, G.; McCarthy, K. J.; Medina, F.; Medrano, M.; Ochando, M.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Rapisarda, D.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Sanchez, J.; Tafalla, D.; Wolfers, G.; Zurro, B.

    2005-07-01

    During the last experimental campaign Neutral Beam Injection into TJ-II plasmas has been available, with a single H0 beam aiming tangentially in the Co-direction. As the ion source conditioning was improved along the campaign, the injected power increased from 200 kW to 400 kW port-through, and the beam energy was raised from 26 kV to 30 kV [1]. Target plasmas are created by ECR heating, using two gyrotrons of 200 kW power, at the second harmonic frequency (53 GHz). The injection direction of the microwaves can be steered by means of movable mirrors placed inside the vacuum chamber, making it possible to vary the power deposition region from the plasma core (on-axis) to the outer regions near ?=0.5 (off-axis). The plasma temperature and density profiles obtained with on-axis or off axis ECRH are seen to differ widely, allowing us to study the neutral beam absorption in two qualitatively different plasma target scenarios. Other factors affecting the plasma profiles have also been investigated, such as the magnetic configuration or the OH-driven current. TJ-II has the capability of varying the magnetic configuration by changing the ratio of the current through the circular and helical conductors that form the Central Conductor. The iota values can be swept between 0.9 and 2.2 and the magnetic well between -1% and 6% giving rise to configurations with different confinement properties. A negative OH driven current has the effect of increasing the magnetic shear value, allowing low-order rationals in the central region which have been seen to modify density profiles in ECH plasmas. In most NBI discharges the central plasma density increases continuously from ECH typical values below 1.1 x 10 19 m-3 up to 6.5 x 10 19 m-3, as the beam is injected, until a thermal collapse that terminates the discharge is reached. So far, density control with NBI plasmas has not been achieved, although an improved behaviour is observed with wall cleaning. (Author)

  6. Recent results with NBI plasmas in TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liniers, M.; Ascasibar, E.; Estrada, T.; Tabares, F. L.; Acedo, M.; Alonso, J.; Balbin, R.; Blanco, B.; Branas, B.; Cappa, A.; Carrasco, R.; Castejon, F.; Fernandez, A.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Fuentes, C.; Garcia, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Guasp, J.; Hidalgo, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Jimenez, R.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Marcon, G.; McCarthy, K. J.; Medina, F.; Medrano, M.; Ochando, M.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Rapisarda, D.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Sanchez, J.; Tafalla, D.; Wolfers, G.; Zurro, B.

    2005-01-01

    During the last experimental campaign Neutral Beam Injection into TJ-II plasmas has been available, with a single H0 beam aiming tangentially in the Co-direction. As the ion source conditioning was improved along the campaign, the injected power increased from 200 kW to 400 kW port-through, and the beam energy was raised from 26 kV to 30 kV [1]. Target plasmas are created by ECR heating, using two gyrotrons of 200 kW power, at the second harmonic frequency (53 GHz). The injection direction of the microwaves can be steered by means of movable mirrors placed inside the vacuum chamber, making it possible to vary the power deposition region from the plasma core (on-axis) to the outer regions near ?=0.5 (off-axis). The plasma temperature and density profiles obtained with on-axis or off axis ECRH are seen to differ widely, allowing us to study the neutral beam absorption in two qualitatively different plasma target scenarios. Other factors affecting the plasma profiles have also been investigated, such as the magnetic configuration or the OH-driven current. TJ-II has the capability of varying the magnetic configuration by changing the ratio of the current through the circular and helical conductors that form the Central Conductor. The iota values can be swept between 0.9 and 2.2 and the magnetic well between -1% and 6% giving rise to configurations with different confinement properties. A negative OH driven current has the effect of increasing the magnetic shear value, allowing low-order rationals in the central region which have been seen to modify density profiles in ECH plasmas. In most NBI discharges the central plasma density increases continuously from ECH typical values below 1.1 x 10 19 m-3 up to 6.5 x 10 19 m-3, as the beam is injected, until a thermal collapse that terminates the discharge is reached. So far, density control with NBI plasmas has not been achieved, although an improved behaviour is observed with wall cleaning. (Author)

  7. Modelling of combined ICRF and NBI heating in JET hybrid plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallart Dani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2015-2016 JET campaigns many efforts have been devoted to the exploration of high performance plasma scenarios envisaged for ITER operation. In this paper we model the combined ICRF+NBI heating in selected key hybrid discharges using PION. The antenna frequency was tuned to match the cyclotron frequency of minority hydrogen (H at the center of the tokamak coinciding with the second harmonic cyclotron resonance of deuterium. The modelling takes into account the synergy between ICRF and NBI heating through the second harmonic cyclotron resonance of deuterium beam ions which allows us to assess its impact on the neutron rate RNT. We evaluate the influence of H concentration which was varied in different discharges in order to test their role in the heating performance. According to our modelling, the ICRF enhancement of RNT increases by decreasing the H concentration which increases the ICRF power absorbed by deuterons. We find that in the recent hybrid discharges this ICRF enhancement was in the range of 10-25%. Finally, we extrapolate the results to D-T and find that the best performing hybrid discharges correspond to an equivalent fusion power of ∼7.0 MW in D-T.

  8. Edge density profiles in high-performance JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, D.D.R.; Viaccoz, B.; Vince, J.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed electron density profiles of the scrape-off layer in high-performance JET plasmas (plasma current, I p nbi ∝17 MW) have been measured by means of a lithium beam diagnostic system featuring high spatial resolution [Kadota (1978)[. Measurements were taken over a period of several seconds, allowing examination of the evolution of the edge profile at a location upstream from the divertor target. The data clearly show the effects of the H-mode transition - an increase in density near the plasma separatrix and a reduction in density scrape-off length. The profiles obtained under various plasma conditions are compared firstly with data from other diagnostics, located elsewhere in the vessel, and also with the predictions of an 'onion-skin' model (DIVIMP), which used, as initial parameters, data from an array of probes located in the divertor target. (orig.)

  9. Zeff measurements and low-Z impurity transport for NBI and ICRF heated plasma in JIPP T-IIU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Amano, T.; Kawahata, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1988-12-01

    A visible bremsstrahlung detector array system for Z eff measurements and a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system for fully ionized impurity profile measurements were installed on JIPP TII-U to study impurity transport for NBI and ICRF heated plasma. More impurities are sputtered by ICRF heating than by NBI and/or ohmic heatings. The carbon contribution to Z eff is 80-90 % for NBI heated plasmas, and 60 % for NBI + ICRF heated plasmas. With a carbon coating of vacuum vessel, the Z eff value decreases 2.4 to 1.7 and the carbon contribution to Z eff increases up to 80-90 %. We obtain the diffusion coefficient D a = 1.0 m 2 /s and the convective velocity V a (a) = 13 m/s at the plasma edge for carbon impurity from the radial profile and time evolution of fully ionized carbon after the ICRF pulse is turned on. (author)

  10. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-09-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also, it is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II

  11. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between, the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also. It is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II. (Author) 2 refs

  12. The Role of Combined ICRF and NBI Heating in JET Hybrid Plasmas in Quest for High D-T Fusion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantsinen Mervi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined ICRF and NBI heating played a key role in achieving the world-record fusion yield in the first deuterium-tritium campaign at the JET tokamak in 1997. The current plans for JET include new experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T plasmas with more ITER-like conditions given the recently installed ITER-like wall (ILW. In the 2015-2016 campaigns, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of high-performance plasma scenarios compatible with ILW in preparation of the forthcoming D-T campaign. Good progress was made in both the inductive (baseline and the hybrid scenario: a new record JET ILW fusion yield with a significantly extended duration of the high-performance phase was achieved. This paper reports on the progress with the hybrid scenario which is a candidate for ITER longpulse operation (∼1000 s thanks to its improved normalized confinement, reduced plasma current and higher plasma beta with respect to the ITER reference baseline scenario. The combined NBI+ICRF power in the hybrid scenario was increased to 33 MW and the record fusion yield, averaged over 100 ms, to 2.9x1016 neutrons/s from the 2014 ILW fusion record of 2.3x1016 neutrons/s. Impurity control with ICRF waves was one of the key means for extending the duration of the high-performance phase. The main results are reviewed covering both key core and edge plasma issues.

  13. Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Shigeru; Zushi, Hideki; Kondo, Katsumi

    1993-01-01

    Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E are studied. The peaked density profile produced by pellet injection increases the stored energy by 20-30% compared to the gas puffed plasmas which obey the empirical stellarator/heliotron scaling in a moderate density range. In contrast to confinement, the peaked pressure profile tends to destabilize the plasma. By limiter insertion, MHD instability occurs (seems to locate near ι/2π=1) even in case of low β (β 0 ≤1%, where β 0 is the central β value) plasmas. On the other hand, the mode of m/n=3/2 at ι/2π=2/3, seems to be a key parameter to the major MHD instability in case of high β (β 0 ≥2%) plasmas. (author)

  14. Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, K.M.; Batha, S.

    1996-11-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I i ) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I i discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed

  15. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  16. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  17. Heavy ion beam probe investigations of plasma potential in ECRH and NBI in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, A.V.; Eliseev, L.; Perfilov, S.V.; Chmyga, A.A.; Dreval, N.; Khrebtov, S.M.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Krupnik, L.; Alonso, A.; Pablos, J.L. de; Cappa, A.; Fernandez, A.; Fuentes, C.; Hidalgo, C.; Liniers, M.; Pedrosa, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Direct measurements of electric potential and its fluctuations are of a primary importance in magnetic confinement systems. The Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic is used in TJ-2 stellarator to study directly plasma electric potential profiles with spatial (up to 1cm) and temporal (up to 10 ∝s) resolution. The singly charged heavy ions Cs + with energies up to 125 keV are used to probe the plasma column from the edge to the core. Both ECRH and NBI heated plasmas (P ECRH = 200 - 400kW, P NBI = 400kW, E NBI = 28 kV) were studied. The significant improvement in the HIBP beam control system and the acquisition electronics leads us to increase the possibilities of the diagnostic. The most crucial one is the extension of the signal dynamic range, which allows us to have the reliable profiles from the plasma center to the plasma edge both in the high and low field side regions. Low density ECRH (n = 0.5-1.1.10 13 cm -3 ) plasmas in TJ-2 are characterised by core positive plasma potential of order of 500 - 1000 V and positive electric fields up to 50 V/cm. Edge radial electric fields remain positive at low densities and became negative at the threshold density that depends of plasma configuration. NBI plasmas are characterized by negative electric potential in the full plasma column and negative radial electric fields (in the range of 10 - 40 V/cm). The density rise during the NBI phase is accompanied by the decay of core plasma potential. When density is getting the level of n ∼ 2.0.10 13 cm -3 , the potential stops its evolution and remains constant. The evolution of plasma potential near density limit is under investigation. These observations, reported in different magnetic configurations, show the clear link between plasma potential and plasma density. (author)

  18. Integrated plasma control for high performance tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Deranian, R.D.; Ferron, J.R.; Johnson, R.D.; LaHaye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sustaining high performance in a tokamak requires controlling many equilibrium shape and profile characteristics simultaneously with high accuracy and reliability, while suppressing a variety of MHD instabilities. Integrated plasma control, the process of designing high-performance tokamak controllers based on validated system response models and confirming their performance in detailed simulations, provides a systematic method for achieving and ensuring good control performance. For present-day devices, this approach can greatly reduce the need for machine time traditionally dedicated to control optimization, and can allow determination of high-reliability controllers prior to ever producing the target equilibrium experimentally. A full set of tools needed for this approach has recently been completed and applied to present-day devices including DIII-D, NSTX and MAST. This approach has proven essential in the design of several next-generation devices including KSTAR, EAST, JT-60SC, and ITER. We describe the method, results of design and simulation tool development, and recent research producing novel approaches to equilibrium and MHD control in DIII-D. (author)

  19. Physics of integrated high-performance NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J. E.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Heidbrink, W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skiner, C. H.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Wade, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.

    2005-01-01

    An overarching goal of magnetic fusion research is the integration of steady state operation with high fusion power density, high plasma β, good thermal and fast particle confinement, and manageable heat and particle fluxes to reactor internal components. NSTX has made significant progress in integrating and understanding the interplay between these competing elements. Sustained high elongation up to 2.5 and H-mode transitions during the I p ramp-up have increased β p and reduced l i at high current resulting in I p flat-top durations exceeding 0.8s for I p >0.8MA. These shape and profile changes delay the onset of deleterious global MHD activity yielding β N values >4.5 and β T ∼20% maintained for several current diffusion times. Higher ∫ N discharges operating above the non-wall limit are sustained via rotational stabilization of the RWM. H-mode confinement scaling factors relative to H98(y,2) span the range 1±0.4 for B T >4kG and show a stron (Nearly linear) residual scaling with B T . Power balance analysis indicates the electron thermal transport dominates the loss power in beam-heated H m ode discharges, but the core χ e can be significantly reduced through current profile modification consistent with reversed magnetic shear. Small ELM regimes have been obtained in high performance plasmas on NSTX, but the ELM type and associated pedestal energy loss are found to depend sensitively on the boundary elongation, magnetic balance, and edge collisionality. NPA data and TRANSP analysis suggest resonant interactions with mid-radius tearing modes may lead to large fast-ion transport. The associated fast-ion diffusion and/or loss likely impact(s) both the driven current and power deposition profiles from NBI heating. Results from experiments to initiate the plasma without the ohmic solenoid and integrated scenario with the TSC code will also be described. (Author)

  20. Miniaturized high performance sensors for space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Operating under ever more constrained budgets, NASA has turned to a new paradigm for instrumentation and mission development in which smaller, faster, better, cheaper is of primary consideration for future space plasma investigations. The author presents several examples showing the influence of this new paradigm on sensor development and discuss certain implications for the scientific return from resource constrained sensors. The author also discusses one way to improve space plasma sensor performance which is to search out new technologies, measurement techniques and instrument analogs from related fields including among others, laboratory plasma physics

  1. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II; Puntos de salida en el plasma de los iones rapidos durante NBI en el TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-07-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between, the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also. It is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II. (Author) 2 refs.

  2. Edge localized modes and edge pedestal in NBI and ICRF heated H, D and T-plasmas in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.; Lingertat, J.; Barnsley, R.

    1998-12-01

    Based on experiments carried out in JET in D:T mixtures varying from 100:0 to 5:95 and those carried out in hydrogen plasmas, the isotopic mass dependence of ELM parameters and the edge pedestal pressure in neutral beam (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas is presented. The ELM frequency is found to decrease with the atomic mass number both in ICRH and NBI discharges. However, the frequency in the case of ICRH is about 8 - 10 times higher than in the NBI case. Assuming that ELMs occur at a critical edge pressure gradient, limited by the ballooning instability, the scaling of the maximum edge pressure is most consistent with the assumption that the width of the transport barrier scales as the ion poloidal Larmor radius governed by the average energy of fast ions at the edge. The critical edge pressure in NBI heated discharges increases with the isotopic mass which. is consistent with the higher deduced width of the edge transport, barrier in tritium than in deuterium and hydrogen. The critical edge pressure in ICRH discharges is smaller, presumably, due to the smaller fast-ion contribution to the edge region. As a consequence of the edge pressure scaling with isotopic mass, the edge operational space in the n e - T e diagram increases with operation in tritium. If the evidence that the edge pedestal width is governed by the average energy of fast ions in the edge prevails, the pedestal in ITER would be controlled by the slowing down energy spectrum of α-particles in the edge. (author)

  3. Confinement improvement in high-ion temperature plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Ikeda, K.

    2006-10-01

    The increase in the ion temperature due to transport improvement has been observed in plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI, in which electrons are dominantly heated, in Large Helical Device (LHD). When the centrally focused ECRH is superposed on the NBI plasma, the ion temperature is observed to rise, accompanied by formation of the electron-ITB. This is ascribed to the ion transport improvement with the transition to the neoclassical electron root with a positive radial electric field. In high-Z plasmas, the ion temperature is increased with an increase in the ion heating power, and reaches 13.5keV. The central ion temperature increases with an increase in a gradient of the electron temperature in an outer plasma region of ρ=0.8, suggesting the ion transport improvement in the outer plasma region induced by the neoclassical electron root. These results indicate the effectiveness of the electron-root scenario for obtaining high-ion temperature plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  4. Characteristics of edge pedestals in LHW and NBI heated H-mode plasmas on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Q.; Wang, T.; Liang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Chen, H.; Xiao, S.; Han, X.; Hu, A.; Hsieh, C.; Zhou, H.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, T.; Gong, X.; Hu, L.; Liu, F.; Hu, C.; Gao, X.; Wan, B.; the EAST Team

    2016-10-01

    By using the recently developed Thomson scattering diagnostic, the pedestal structure of the H-mode with neutral beam injection (NBI) or/and lower hybrid wave (LHW) heating on EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) is analyzed in detail. We find that a higher ratio of the power of the NBI to the total power of the NBI and the lower hybrid wave (LHW) will produce a large and regular different edge-localized mode (ELM), and a lower ratio will produce a small and irregular ELM. The experiments show that the mean pedestal width has good correlation with β \\text{p,\\text{ped}}0.5 , The pedestal width appears to be wider than that on other similar machines, which could be due to lithium coating. However, it is difficult to draw any conclusion of correlation between ρ * and the pedestal width for limited ρ * variation and scattered distribution. It is also found that T e/\

  5. Pellet fueling of JET plasmas during ohmic, ICRF and NBI heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Cheetham, A.; Bures, M.

    1986-01-01

    Pellet fueling experiments have been performed on JET using a single-shot pneumatic injector giving 4.6mm (4.5 x 10 21 D atoms) and 3.6mm (2.2 x 10 21 D atoms) diameter cylindrical deuterium pellets with velocity 0.8 ≤ V(km.s -1 ) ≤ 1.2. Z/sub eff/ 20 m -3 and T/sub e/(0) ≅ 1keV. Separately, high value of n/sub D/(0)tau/sub E/T/sub i/(0) = 1.3 x 10 20 m -3 .s.keV at T/sub i/90) = 6.5keV has been obtained with pellet fueling followed by NBI heating

  6. Optimization of the plasma parameters for the high current and uniform large-scale pulse arc ion source of the VEST-NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Bongki; Park, Min; Heo, Sung Ryul; Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High power magnetic bucket-type arc plasma source for the VEST NBI system is developed with modifications based on the prototype plasma source for KSTAR. • Plasma parameters in pulse duration are measured to characterize the plasma source. • High plasma density and good uniformity is achieved at the low operating pressure below 1 Pa. • Required ion beam current density is confirmed by analysis of plasma parameters and results of a particle balance model. - Abstract: A large-scale hydrogen arc plasma source was developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for a high power pulsed NBI system of VEST which is a compact spherical tokamak at Seoul national university. One of the research target of VEST is to study innovative tokamak operating scenarios. For this purpose, high current density and uniform large-scale pulse plasma source is required to satisfy the target ion beam power efficiently. Therefore, optimizing the plasma parameters of the ion source such as the electron density, temperature, and plasma uniformity is conducted by changing the operating conditions of the plasma source. Furthermore, ion species of the hydrogen plasma source are analyzed using a particle balance model to increase the monatomic fraction which is another essential parameter for increasing the ion beam current density. Conclusively, efficient operating conditions are presented from the results of the optimized plasma parameters and the extractable ion beam current is calculated.

  7. Re-entering fast ion effects on NBI heating power in high-beta plasmas of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Funaba, Hisamichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sakakibara, Satoru; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka

    2011-10-01

    We calculate the heating power of the neutral beam injection (NBI) in the = 4.8% high-beta discharge achieved in the Large Helical Device (LHD). We investigate the difference of the heating efficiency and the heating power profile between with and without the re-entering fast ion effects. When the re-entering fast ion effects are taken into account, the heating efficiency in the co injection of the NBI (co-NBI case) is improved and it is about 1.8 times larger than that without the re-entering effects. In contrast, the heating efficiency with the re-entering effects in the counter injection of the NBI (ctr-NBI case) rarely differs from that without the re-entering ones. We also study the re-entering fast ion effects on the transport properties in the LHD high beta discharges. It is found that the tendency of the thermal conductivities on the beta value is not so much sensitive with and without the re-entering effects. In addition, we investigate the difference in the re-entering fast ion effects caused by the field strength and the magnetic configuration. In the co-NBI case, the re-entering fast ion effects on the heating efficiency increases with the decrease of the field strength. In the contrast, the re-entering fast ion effects in the ctr-NBI case rarely differs by changing the field strength. (author)

  8. The next step in a development of negative ion beam plasma neutraliser for ITER NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulygin, V.M.; Dlougach, E.D.; Gorbunov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Injectors of deuterium atom beams developing for ITER plasma heating and current drive are based on the negative ion acceleration and further neutralization with a gas target. The maximal efficiency of a gas stripping process is 60%. The replacement of the gas neutralizer by plasma one must increase the neutral yield to 80%. The experimental study overview of the microwave discharge in a multi-cusp magnetic system chosen as a base device for Plasma Neutralizer realization and the design development for ITER Neutral Beam Injectors are presented. The experimental results achieved at a plasma neutralizer model PNX-U is discussed. Plasma confinement, gas flows, ionization degree were investigated. The plasma in the volume 0.5m 3 with density n e ∼ 10 18 m -3 has been achieved at power density 80kW/m 3 in operation with Argon. (author)

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of glucosamine in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh-Habashi, Ali; Sattari, Saeed; Pasutto, Franco; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2002-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of glucosamine (GlcN) in rat plasma. Internal standard, galactosamine, was added to 100 micro L of plasma containing GlcN followed by precipitation of plasma proteins with acetonitrile. Evaporation of the decanted supernatant solution was accelerated by the addition of methanol. GlcN was derivatized by addition of a solution containing 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate. Sample cleanup included passage through an anion exchange cartridge. Analysis was accomplished by injection of 0.1 mL of the sample solution into an isocratic HPLC system consisting of a C18 column, a mobile phase of acetonitrile: water: acetic acid: triethylamine (4.5: 95.5:0.1:0.05), a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min, and a UV detector set at 254 nm. Galactosamine and GlcN appeared 26 and 29 min post-injection, respectively. The assay was linear over the range of 1.25-400 micro g/mL (CV<10%) with a detection limit of 0.63 microg/mL and a limit of quantification of 1.25 microg/mL. The method was applied to the determination of GlcN in rat plasma after oral administration of 350 mg/kg of GlcN hydrochloride. The present assay is specific, sensitive, precise, and accurate and is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies.

  10. On impurity handling in high performance stellarator/heliotron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhenn, R.; Feng, Y.; Ida, K.

    2008-10-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) and Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X, under construction) are experiments specially designed to demonstrate long pulse (quasi steady-state) operation, which is an intrinsic property of Stellarators and Heliotrons. Significant progress was made in establishment of high performance plasmas. A crucial point is the increasing impurity confinement towards high density as observed at several machines (TJ-II, W7-AS, LHD) which can lead to impurity accumulation and early pulse termination by radiation collapse at high density. In addition, theoretical predictions for non-axisymmetric configurations prognosticate the absence of impurity screening by ion temperature gradients in standard ion root plasmas. Nevertheless, scenarios were found where impurity accumulation was successfully avoided in LHD and/or W7-AS by the onset of drag forces in the high density and low temperature scrape-off-layer, the generation of magnetic islands at the plasma boundary and to a certain degree also by ELMs, flushing out impurities and reducing the net-impurity influx into the core. Additionally, a reduction of impurity core confinement was observed in the W7-AS High Density H-mode (HDH) regime and by application of sufficient ECRH heating power. The exploration of such purification mechanisms is a demanding task for successful steady-state operation. The impurity transport at the plasma edge/SOL was identified to play a major role for the global impurity behaviour in addition to the core confinement. (author)

  11. High-performance liquid chromatographic radioenzymatic assay for plasma catecyholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaniecki, T.S.; Corder, C.N.; McDonald, R.H. Jr.; Feldman, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new assay method for plasma catecholamimes (CA) requiring only 50 μl has been developed, which uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (D), and epinephrine (E) compounds found in plasma are radioactively o-methylated with S-[methyl- 3 H]-adenosyl-L-methionine ( 3 H-SAM) 3 H-SAM by the reaction of catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT). The reaction is terminated and a standard mixture of nonradioactive o-methylated analogues of NE, D, and E is added to act as a carrier. Following separation by HPLC, the D,L-normetanephrine (NMN), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyl-amine or 3-methoxytyramine (3-MOT), and metanephrine (MN) radioactive peaks are collected which represent NE, D, and E, respectively. Then MNM and MN are oxidized to vanillin, and 3-MOT is acetylated. The products are subsequently separated by solvent extraction. This is necessary in order to avoid high radioactive blanks and to allow quantitation of the radioactivity by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The mean supine levels of NE, D, and E in normal subjects were respectively 182, 33, and 87 pg/ml of plasma. Similar assays on patients with pheochromocytoma revealed 797, 80, and 470 pg/ml

  12. Plasma grid design for optimized filter field configuration for the NBI test facility ELISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, R.; Gutser, R.; Heinemann, B.; Froeschle, M.; Riedl, R.

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance-free RF sources for negative hydrogen ions with moderate extraction areas (100-200 cm 2 ) have been successfully developed in the last years at IPP Garching in the test facilities BATMAN and MANITU. A facility with larger extraction area (1000 cm 2 ), ELISE, is being designed with a 'half-size' ITER-like extraction system, pulsed ion acceleration up to 60 kV for 10 s and plasma generation up to 1 h. Due to the large size of the source, the magnetic filter field (FF) cannot be produced solely by permanent magnets. Therefore, an additional magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid (PG current) is required. The filter field homogeneity and the interaction with the electron suppression magnetic field have been studied in detail by finite element method (FEM) during the ELISE design phase. Significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity have been introduced compared to the ITER reference design. Also, for the same PG current a 50% higher field in front of the grid has been achieved by optimizing the plasma grid geometry. Hollow spaces have been introduced in the plasma grid for a more homogeneous PG current distribution. The introduction of hollow spaces also allows the insertion of permanent magnets in the plasma grid.

  13. Global and local confinement scaling laws of NBI-heated gas-puffing plasmas on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Miyazawa, J.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamada, H.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osakabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between global confinement scaling laws and local transport characteristics is evaluated on the Large Helical Device (LHD). Previous 'new LHD' global scaling laws are revised using the precise plasma edge definition and the recent LHD data of 4th, 5th and 6th experimental campaigns. Strong Gyro-Bohm-like feature of global confinement is reconfirmed. The magnetic field dependence and geometrical scale dependence are stronger than the conventional scaling laws. Using same database of LHD data, the radial profiles of transport coefficients are evaluated, and it is reconfirmed that the local transport in the core is Gyro-Bohm-like, and that near the boundary is strong Gyro-Bohm-like. The global confinement property is consistent with effective transport coefficient near the edge. (author)

  14. High performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Bell, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    Plasmas composed of nominally equal concentrations of deuterium and tritium (DT) have been created in TFTR with the goals of producing significant levels of fusion power and of examining the effects of DT fusion alpha particles. Conditioning of the limiter by the injection of lithium pellets has led to an approximate doubling of the energy confinement time, τ E , in supershot plasmas at high plasma current (I p ≤ 2.5 MA) and high heating power (P b ≤ 33 MW). Operation with DT typically results in an additional 20% increase in τ E . In the high poloidal beta, advanced tokamak regime in TFTR, confinement enhancement H triple-bond τ E /τ E ITER-89P > 4 has been obtained in a limiter H-mode configuration at moderate plasma current I p = 0.85 - 1.5 MA. By peaking the plasma current profile, β N dia triple-bond 10 8 tperpendicular > aB 0 /I p = 3 has been obtained in these plasmas, exceeding the β N limit for TFTR plasmas with lower internal inductance, l i . Confinement of alpha particles appears to be classical and losses due to collective effects have not been observed. While small fluctuations in fusion product loss were observed during ELMs, no large loss was detected in DT plasmas

  15. Controllers for high-performance nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, de M.R.

    2012-01-01

    A succesful nuclear fusion reactor will confine plasma at hig temperatures and densities, with low thermal losses. The workhorse of the nuclear fusion community is the tokamak, a toroidal device in which plasmas are confined by poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. Ideally, the confirming magnetic

  16. Physics of high performance JET plasmas in D-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    JET has recently operated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures, carried out an ITER physics campaign in hydrogen, deuterium, D-T and tritium, installed the Mark IIGB ''Gas Box'' divertor fully by remote handling and started physics experiments with this more closed divertor. The D-T experiments set records for fusion power (16.1 MW), ratio of fusion power to plasma input power (0.62, and 0.95±0.17 if a similar plasma could be obtained in steady-state) and fusion duration (4 MW for 4 s). A large scale tritium supply and processing plant, the first of its kind, allowed the repeated use of the 20 g tritium on site to supply 99.3 g of tritium to the machine. The H-mode threshold power is significantly lower in D-T, but the global energy confinement time is practically unchanged (no isotope effect). Dimensionless scaling ''Wind Tunnel'' experiments in D-T extrapolate to ignition with ITER parameters. The scaling is close to gyroBohm, but the mass dependence is not correct. Separating the thermal plasma energy into core and pedestal contributions could resolve this discrepancy (leading to proper gyroBohm scaling for the core) and also account for confinement degradation at high density and at high radiated power. Four radio frequency heating schemes have been tested successfully in D-T, showing good agreement with calculations. Alpha particle heating has been clearly observed and is consistent with classical expectations. Internal transport barriers have been established in optimised magnetic shear discharges for the first time in D-T and steady-state conditions have been approached with simultaneous internal and edge transport barriers. First results with the newly installed Mark IIGB divertor show that the in/out symmetry of the divertor plasma can be modified using differential gas fuelling, that optimised shear discharges can be produced, and that krypton gas puffing is effective in restoring L-mode edge conditions and establishing an internal transport barrier in

  17. Physics of high performance jet plasmas in D-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    JET has recently operated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures, carried out an ITER physics campaign in hydrogen, deuterium, D-T and tritium, installed the Mark IIGB 'Gas Box' divertor fully by remote handling and started physics experiments with this more closed divertor. The D-T experiments set records for fusion power (16.1 MW), ratio of fusion power to plasma input power (0.62, and 0.95±0.17 if a similar plasma could be obtained in steady-state) and fusion duration (4 MW for 4 s). A large scale tritium supply and processing plant, the first of its kind, allowed the repeated use of the 20 g tritium on site to supply 99.3 g of tritium to the machine. The H-mode threshold power is significantly lower in D-T, but the global energy confinement time is practically unchanged (no isotope effect). Dimensionless scaling 'Wind Tunnel' experiments in D-T extrapolate to ignition with ITER parameters. The scaling is close to gyroBohm, but the mass dependence is not correct. Separating the thermal plasma energy into core and pedestal contributions could resolve this discrepancy (leading to proper gyroBohm scaling for the core) and also account for confinement degradation at high density and at high radiated power. Four radio frequency heating schemes have been tested successfully in D-T, showing good agreement with calculations. Alpha particle heating has been clearly observed and is consistent with classical expectations. Internal transport barriers have been established in optimised magnetic shear discharges for the first time in D-T and steady-state conditions have been approached with simultaneous internal and edge transport barriers. First results with the newly installed Mark IIGB divertor show that the in/out symmetry of the divertor plasma can be modified using differential gas fuelling, that optimised shear discharges can be produced, and that krypton gas puffing is effective in restoring L-mode edge conditions and establishing an internal transport barrier in such

  18. Mixed-Language High-Performance Computing for Plasma Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanming Lu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Java is receiving increasing attention as the most popular platform for distributed computing. However, programmers are still reluctant to embrace Java as a tool for writing scientific and engineering applications due to its still noticeable performance drawbacks compared with other programming languages such as Fortran or C. In this paper, we present a hybrid Java/Fortran implementation of a parallel particle-in-cell (PIC algorithm for plasma simulations. In our approach, the time-consuming components of this application are designed and implemented as Fortran subroutines, while less calculation-intensive components usually involved in building the user interface are written in Java. The two types of software modules have been glued together using the Java native interface (JNI. Our mixed-language PIC code was tested and its performance compared with pure Java and Fortran versions of the same algorithm on a Sun E6500 SMP system and a Linux cluster of Pentium~III machines.

  19. Optimization and Control of Burning Plasmas Through High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-18

    This project has revived the FACETS code, that has been developed under SciDAC fund- ing in 2008-2012. The code has been dormant for a number of years after the SciDAC funding stopped. FACETS depends on external packages. The external packages and libraries such as PETSc, FFTW, HDF5 and NETCDF that are included in FACETS have evolved during these years. Some packages in FACETS are also parts of other codes such as PlasmaState, NUBEAM, GACODES, and UEDGE. These packages have been also evolved together with their host codes which include TRANSP, TGYRO and XPTOR. Finally, there is also a set of packages in FACETS that are being developed and maintained by Tech-X. These packages include BILDER, SciMake, and FcioWrappers. Many of these packages evolved significantly during the last several years and FACETS had to be updated to synchronize with the re- cent progress in the external packages. The PI has introduced new changes to the BILDER package to support the updated interfaces to the external modules. During the last year of the project, the FACETS version of the UEDGE code has been extracted from FACETS as a standalone package. The PI collaborates with the scientists from LLNL on the updated UEDGE model in FACETS. Drs. T. Rognlien, M. Umansky and A. Dimits from LLNL are contributing to this task.

  20. Determination of trimethyllead reference material using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hai; Wei Chao; Wang Jun; Chao Jingbo; Zhou Tao; Chen Dazhou

    2005-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) was combined, and the chromatography conditions were optimized. The stability and homogeneity of a trimethyllead reference material were determined using this method. (authors)

  1. Kinetic equilibrium reconstruction for the NBI- and ICRH-heated H-mode plasma on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, ZHENG; Nong, XIANG; Jiale, CHEN; Siye, DING; Hongfei, DU; Guoqiang, LI; Yifeng, WANG; Haiqing, LIU; Yingying, LI; Bo, LYU; Qing, ZANG

    2018-04-01

    The equilibrium reconstruction is important to study the tokamak plasma physical processes. To analyze the contribution of fast ions to the equilibrium, the kinetic equilibria at two time-slices in a typical H-mode discharge with different auxiliary heatings are reconstructed by using magnetic diagnostics, kinetic diagnostics and TRANSP code. It is found that the fast-ion pressure might be up to one-third of the plasma pressure and the contribution is mainly in the core plasma due to the neutral beam injection power is primarily deposited in the core region. The fast-ion current contributes mainly in the core region while contributes little to the pedestal current. A steep pressure gradient in the pedestal is observed which gives rise to a strong edge current. It is proved that the fast ion effects cannot be ignored and should be considered in the future study of EAST.

  2. Development of high performance Schottky barrier diode and its application to plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Junji; Kawahata, Kazuo; Okajima, Shigeki

    1993-10-01

    At the conclusion of the Supporting Collaboration Research on 'Development of High Performance Detectors in the Far Infrared Range' carried out from FY1990 to FY1992, the results of developing Schottky barrier diode and its application to plasma diagnostics are summarized. Some remarks as well as technical know-how for the correct use of diodes are also described. (author)

  3. Conceptual design of cesium removal device for ITER NBI maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Cesium is required in order to generate a stable negative ion of hydrogen in an ion source of the neutral beam injector (NBI), which is one of the plasma-heating devices for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After long time operation of the NBI, the cesium deposits to the insulators supporting the electrode. Due to the deterioration of the insulation resistance, the continuous operation of the NBI will be difficult. In addition, the NBI device is activated by neutrons from D-T plasma, so that periodic removal and cleaning of the cesium on the insulators by remove handling is required. A study of the cesium removal scenario and the device is therefore required considering remote handling. In this report, a cesium removal procedure and conceptual design of the cesium removal device using laser ablation technique are studied, and the feasibility of the laser ablation method is shown. (author)

  4. Physico-chemical characteristics of high performance polymer modified by low and atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Nitu; Sangeeta, Jha; Bhowmik, Shantanu; Gupta, Govind; Moon, J.B.; Kim, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric p ressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The experimental results show that the PEEK surface treated by atmospheric pressure plasma lead to an increase in the polar component of the surface energy, resulting in improving the adhesion characteristics of the PEEK/Epoxy adhesive system. Also, the roughness of the treated surfaces is largely increased as confirmed by AFM observation. These results can be explained by the fact that the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of PEEK surface yields several oxygen functionalities on hydrophobic surface, which play an important role in increasing the surface polarity, wettability, and the adhesion characteristics of the PEEK/Epoxy adhesive system. (authors)

  5. D-T plasma of self-sustained burning under high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xueyu

    2003-01-01

    By adopting a Bohm-type thermal diffusion coefficient related to the energy confinement enhancement factor H within the conventional magnetic shear regime, and a mixed Bohm-gyro-Bohm thermal diffusion coefficient related to the shear within the negative central magnetic shear regime, considering the effect of the α particle anomalous diffusion and the dynamic feedback heating, and starting from energy transport of electrons and ions, we have studied the high performance self-sustaining burning deuterium-tritium plasma under a given plasma density profile for the two different kinds of magnetic shear regimes. Some conclusions are obtained: under the conventional shear, only when H≥3, the D-T burning can produce a large power output, and when H is larger than a certain value (H≅4), D-T plasma self-sustained burning can be maintained without the dynamic feedback heating; under the negative central shear, the plasmas have a higher plasma performance and a larger power output than that under conventional shear, and D-T plasma self-sustained burning can be maintained without the dynamic feedback heating power, the suitable alpha particle diffusion is advantage ous to D-T plasma burning under the conventional shear, and D-T self-sustained burning cannot be maintained under a large α particle anomalous diffusion for the negative central shear. The dynamic feedback heating power is important for sustaining D-T plasma burning under the conventional shear

  6. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Dipyridamole in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVOOD BEIGI BAND ARAB ADI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure is reported for"nquantitative determination of dipyridamole in human -plasma. The assay uses a reversed-phase"nhigh-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC and UV detection at 280nm and has a limit"nof detection of approximately 5ng/mL. The mobile phase consists of MeOH-H20 (60:40"nadjusted to pH 3.3. Dipyridamole was extracted from plasma by back-extraction procedure, with"npropranolol as the internal standard. The reproducibility of the method is satisfactory

  7. Coupling nanoliter high-performance liquid chromatography to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heyong; Shen, Lihuan; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Wang, Yuanchao

    2018-04-01

    Nanoliter high-performance liquid chromatography shows low consumption of solvents and samples, offering one of the best choices for arsenic speciation in precious samples in combination with inuctively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A systematic investigation on coupling nanoliter high-performance liquid chromatography to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry from instrument design to injected sample volume and mobile phase was performed in this study. Nanoflow mobile phase was delivered by flow splitting using a conventional high-pressure pump with reuse of mobile phase waste. Dead volume was minimized to 60 nL for the sheathless interface based on the previously developed nanonebulizer. Capillary columns for nanoliter high-performance liquid chromatography were found to be sensitive to sample loading volume. An apparent difference was also found between the mobile phases for nanoliter and conventional high-performance liquid chromatography. Baseline separation of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsenic, and dimethylarsenic was achieved within 11 min on a 15 cm C 18 capillary column and within 12 min on a 25 cm strong anion exchange column. Detection limits of 0.9-1.8 μg/L were obtained with precisions variable in the range of 1.6-4.2%. A good agreement between determined and certified values of a certified reference material of human urine (GBW 09115) validated its accuracy along with good recoveries (87-102%). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Determination of 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, T L; Benet, L Z

    1979-07-21

    Using 1-ml plasma samples, levels of 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) as low as 5 ng/ml and azathioprine (AZA) as low as 40 ng/ml can be detected using a high-performance liquid chromatography reversed-phase column procedure following extraction. Both compounds were stable in frozen plasma for seven weeks. AZA stability in blood was temperature dependent; the half-lives of AZA breakdown to 6MP at 37 degrees were 28 and 46 min in blood drawn from two rhesus monkeys. Plasma levels of 6MP were measured in a rhesus monkey following 6MP (1.47 mg/kg) and AZA (3 mg/kg) intravenous administration. 6MP levels were also measured in three renal transplant patients on daily 50- and 100-mg AZA doses. Peak levels (45-75 ng/ml) were reached within an hour and 6MP levels were detected for up to 7 h.

  9. Results from core-edge experiments in high Power, high performance plasmas on DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Petrie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant challenges to reducing divertor heat flux in highly powered near-double null divertor (DND hybrid plasmas, while still maintaining both high performance metrics and low enough density for application of RF heating, are identified. For these DNDs on DIII-D, the scaling of the peak heat flux at the outer target (q⊥P ∝ [PSOL x IP] 0.92 for PSOL= 8−19MW and IP= 1.0–1.4MA, and is consistent with standard ITPA scaling for single-null H-mode plasmas. Two divertor heat flux reduction methods were tested. First, applying the puff-and-pump radiating divertor to DIII-D plasmas may be problematical at high power and H98 (≥ 1.5 due to improvement in confinement time with deuterium gas puffing which can lead to unacceptably high core density under certain conditions. Second, q⊥P for these high performance DNDs was reduced by ≈35% when an open divertor is closed on the common flux side of the outer divertor target (“semi-slot” but also that heating near the slot opening is a significant source for impurity contamination of the core.

  10. Generalized MHD for numerical stability analysis of high-performance plasmas in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A set of generalized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is formulated to accommodate the effects associated with high ion and electron temperatures in high-performance plasmas in tokamaks. The effects of neoclassical bootstrap current, neoclassical ion viscosity, the ion finite Larmor radius effect and electron and ion drift effects are taken into account in two-fluid MHD equations together with gyroviscosity, parallel viscosity, electron parallel inertia and collisionless ion heat flux. The ion velocity is identified as the plasma velocity, while the electron velocity is expressed in terms of the plasma velocity and electric current. Ion and electron momentum equations are combined to give the plasma momentum equation. The perpendicular (with respect to the equilibrium magnetic field) ion momentum equation is used as perpendicular Ohm's law and the parallel electron momentum equation - as parallel Ohm's law. Perpendicular Ohm's law allows for the Hall and ion drift effects. Parallel Ohm's law includes the electron drift effect, collisionless skin effect and bootstrap current. In addition, both perpendicular and parallel Ohm's laws contain the resistivity. Due to the quasineutrality condition, the ions and electrons are characterized by the same number density which is described by the ion continuity equation. On the other hand, the ion and electron temperatures are allowed to be different. The ion temperature is described by the ion energy equation allowing for the oblique heat flux, in addition to the perpendicular ion heat flux. The electron temperature is determined by the condition of high parallel electron heat conductivity. The ion and electron parallel viscosities are represented in a form valid for all the collisionality regimes (Pfirsch-Schluter, plateau, and banana). An optimized form of the generalized MHD equations is then represented in terms of the toroidal coordinate system used in the JET equilibrium and stability codes. The derived equations

  11. High-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration and laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Blaclard, Guillaume; Godfrey, Brendan; Kirchen, Manuel; Lee, Patrick; Lehe, Remi; Lobet, Mathieu; Vincenti, Henri

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale numerical simulations are essential to the design of plasma-based accelerators and laser-plasma interations for ultra-high intensity (UHI) physics. The electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations, as it is based on first principles, and captures all kinetic effects, and also scale favorably to many cores on supercomputers. The standard PIC algorithm relies on second-order finite-difference discretization of the Maxwell and Newton-Lorentz equations. We present here novel formulations, based on very high-order pseudo-spectral Maxwell solvers, which enable near-total elimination of the numerical Cherenkov instability and increased accuracy over the standard PIC method for standard laboratory frame and Lorentz boosted frame simulations. We also present the latest implementations in the PIC modules Warp-PICSAR and FBPIC on the Intel Xeon Phi and GPU architectures. Examples of applications will be given on the simulation of laser-plasma accelerators and high-harmonic generation with plasma mirrors. Work supported by US-DOE Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by the European Commission through the Marie Slowdoska-Curie fellowship PICSSAR Grant Number 624543. Used resources of NERSC.

  12. [Determination of acyclovir in mouse plasma and tissues by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Zhou, S W; Tang, J L; Huang, L Q

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an high performance liquid chromatographic method for determining acyclovir (ACV) concentration in mouse plasma and tissues. A solution of 0.25 mL 60 g/L perchloric acid and 0.25 mL acetonitrile was added into 0.2 mL plasma or 0.2 g tissues to precipitate proteins. Following centrifugation, the supernatant obtained was injected into a reversed-phase column. Operating conditions were Hypersil ODS column(250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microns), methanol-water-acetic acid(1:99:0.5, volume ratio) solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, UV detection at 252 nm. The detection limit of ACV concentration in plasma was 20 micrograms/L and that in tissues was 50 ng/g. The standard curves for ACV were linear in plasma and homogenate of tissues (r > 0.99). The precision of the method was good and the recoveries of ACV were higher than 97.5%. So this method is rapid, accurate and convenient for determination of ACV concentrations in plasma and tissues.

  13. Magnetic-Flux Pumping in High-Performance, Stationary Plasmas with Tearing Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C. C.; Austin, M. E.; Holcomb, C. T.; Jayakumar, R. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Makowski, M. A.; Politzer, P. A.; Wade, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the change in the magnetic field pitch angles during edge localized mode events in high performance, stationary plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak shows rapid (<1 ms) broadening of the current density profile, but only when a m/n=3/2 tearing mode is present. This observation of poloidal magnetic-flux pumping explains an important feature of this scenario, which is the anomalous broadening of the current density profile that beneficially maintains the safety factor above unity and forestalls the sawtooth instability

  14. Stereospecific high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of sotalol in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R A; Foster, R T; Bhanji, N H

    1991-09-01

    A convenient high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for determination of sotalol (STL) enantiomers in plasma. Following addition of the internal standard (IS; racemic atenolol), enantiomers of STL and IS were extracted using ethyl acetate. After evaporation of the organic layer, samples were derivatized with a solution of S-(+)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethyl isocyanate (NEIC). The resulting diastereomers were chromatographed with normal-phase HPLC with chloroform:hexane:methanol [65:33:2 (v/v)] as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 2 ml/min. The fluorescence detection wavelength was set at 220 nm for excitation with no emission filter. The suitability of the assay for pharmacokinetic studies was determined by measuring STL enantiomers in the plasma of a healthy subject after administration of a single 160-mg oral, racemic dose of STL.

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of Aloe Emodin in mouse plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffaroni, M; Mucignat, C; Pecere, T; Zagotto, G; Frapolli, R; D'Incalci, M; Zucchetti, M

    2003-10-25

    An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine Aloe Emodin (AE) in mouse plasma. The analysis required 0.3 ml of plasma and involves extraction with dichloromethane. The HPLC separation was carried out on Symmetry Shield RP18, a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:35:0.2) and fluorescence detection at lambda(ex)=410 nm and lambda(em)=510 nm. The retention time of AE was 11.7 min. The assay was linear from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.999), showed intra- and inter-day precision within 7.8 and 4.7%, and accuracy of 87.3-105.7%. Detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were 4.5 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The method was applied to determine for the first time the pharmacokinetic of AE in mice.

  16. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  17. National Bridge Inventory System (NBI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI System is the collection of bridge inspection information and costs associated with bridge replacements of structurally deficient bridges on and off the NHS....

  18. Simple Quantification of Pentosidine in Human Urine and Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sang Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentosidine is an advanced glycation end-product (AGE and fluorescent cross-link compound. A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method was developed for the detection and quantification of pentosidine in human urine and plasma. The mobile phase used a gradient system to improve separation of pentosidine from endogenous peaks, and chromatograms were monitored by fluorescent detector set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 328 and 378 nm, respectively. The retention time for pentosidine was 24.3 min and the lower limits of quantification (LLOQ in human urine and plasma were 1 nM. The intraday assay precisions (coefficients of variation were generally low and found to be in the range of 5.19–7.49% and 4.96–8.78% for human urine and plasma, respectively. The corresponding values of the interday assay precisions were 9.45% and 4.27%. Accuracies (relative errors ranged from 87.9% to 115%. Pentosidine was stable in a range of pH solutions, human urine, and plasma. In summary, this HPLC method can be applied in future preclinical and clinical evaluation of pentosidine in the diabetic patients.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic quantification of rifampicin in human plasma: method for Therapecutic drug monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameh, T.; Hanene, E.; Jebali, N.

    2013-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed that allows quantification of Rifampicin in human plasma. The method is based on the precipitation of proteins in human plasma with methanol. Optimal assay conditions were found with a C18 column and a simple mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M dipotassic hydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (53/47, V/V) with 0.086 % diethylamin, pH = 4.46. The flow-rate was 0.6 ml /mm and the drug was monitored at 340 nm. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the assay method is linear in the concentration range of 1-40 micro g/ml, (r2 >0.99). The limit of quantification and limit of detection of Rifampicin were 0.632 micro g/ml and 0.208 micro g/ml, respectively. Intraday and interday coefficient of variation and bias were below 10% for all samples, suggesting good precision and accuracy of the method. Recoveries were greater than 90% in a plasma sample volume of 100 micro l. The method is being successfully applied to therapeutic drug monitoring of Rifapicin in plasma samples of tuberculosis and staphylococcal infections patients. (author)

  20. Determination of modafinil in plasma and urine by reversed phase high-performance liquid-chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, Harvey A; Kong, Suk Bin

    2005-03-09

    Modafinil (Provigil) is a new wake-promoting drug that is being used for the management of excessive sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. It has pharmacological properties similar to that of amphetamine, but without some of the side effects associated with amphetamine-like stimulants. Since modafinil has the potential to be abused, accurate drug-screening methods are needed for its analysis. In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid-chromatographic procedure (HPLC) for the quantitative analysis of modafinil in plasma and urine. (Phenylthio)acetic acid was used as an internal standard for the analysis of both plasma and urine. Modafinil was extracted from urine and plasma with ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate-acetic acid (100:1, v/v), respectively, and analyzed on a C18 reverse phase column with methanol-water-acetic acid (500:500:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. Recoveries from urine and plasma were 80.0 and 98.9%, respectively and the limit of quantitation was 0.1 microg/mL at 233 nm. Forty-eight 2-h post-dose urine samples from sham controls and from individuals taking 200 or 400 mg of modafinil were analyzed without knowledge of drug administration. All 16-placebo urine samples and all 32 2-h post-dose urine samples were correctly classified. The analytical procedure is accurate and reproducible and can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacokinetic studies, and drug abuse screening.

  1. Low energy, high power injection in JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Makoto; Dairaku, Masayuki; Horiike, Hiroshi

    1988-05-01

    JT-60 neutral beam injector (JT-60 NBI) is designed to inject 20 MW neutral hydrogen beam at energies of 70 ∼ 100 keV and the injection power decreases significantly at low energies (∼40 keV). For the extention of operation region aiming at the low density plasma heating and achieving H-mode by plasma periphery heating, increment of the injection power at low beam energies was required. The single-stage acceleration system was investigated in advance at the Prototype Injector Unit. From this result, the total injection power of 17 MW at 40 keV, 48 A per source was expected at the JT-60 NBI. This system was adopted in the JT-60 NBI from June, 1987 to July, 1987 and 17.6 MW neutral beam injection power was achieved. In the NB heating experiment, the H-mode transition phenomena was observed in JT-60 plasma. (author)

  2. Long Pulse Operation on NBI Systems for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, N.; Ebisawa, N.; Honda, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kazawa, M.; Mogaki, K.; Ohga, T.; Umeda, N.; Usui, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Grisham, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the neutral beam injection (NBI) system, an extension of the pulse duration up to 30 sec has been intended to study quasi-steady state plasma on JT-60U. The four positive-ion based (P-NBI) units, which tangentially inject neutral beam to plasma, were mainly modified on the electric power supplies and the beam limiters to extend the pulse duration up to 30 sec with 2 MW at 80 keV per each. The seven P-NBI units, each of which perpendicularly injects for 10 sec, were conducted to operate in series for the total pulse duration of 30 sec. The ion source of the negative-ion based (N-NBI) unit, whose target beam energy is 500 keV for 10 sec, was also modified to reduce the heat load of the grid for long pulse operation. The reduction of the re-ionization of the neutral beam in the beam drift duct was a key to achieve a long pulse injection. It was found that the pressure rise in the beam drift duct, which gives the re-ionization rate, depended on the temperature of the re-ionization plates during NBI injection. Up to now, it was attained successfully that the pulse duration of the tangential P-NBI unit was extended up to 30 sec. 310 MJ of the total integrated injection energy into JT-60U plasma was achieved, including the negative-ion based NBI operation for 17 sec at 366 keV

  3. Plasma capric acid concentrations in healthy subjects determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rojeet; Hui, Shu-Ping; Imai, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Satoru; Uemura, Naoto; Takeda, Seiji; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Capric acid (FA10:0, decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goat, cow, and human. Orally ingested FA10:0 is transported to the liver and quickly burnt within it. Only few reports are available for FA10:0 concentrations in human plasma. Fasting (n = 5, male/female = 3/2, age 31 ± 9.3 years old) and non-fasting (n = 106, male/female = 44/62, age 21.9 ± 3.2 years old) blood samples were collected from apparently healthy Japanese volunteers. The total FA10:0 in the plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2-nitrophenylhydrazine followed by UV detection. Inter and intra-assay coefficient of variation of FA10:0 assay at three different concentrations ranged in 1.7-3.9 and 1.3-5.4%, respectively, with an analytical recovery of 95.2-104.0%. FA10:0 concentration was below detection limit (0.1 µmol/L) in each fasting human plasma. FA10:0 was not detected in 50 (47.2%) of 106 non-fasting blood samples, while 29 (27.4%) plasma samples contained FA10:0 less than or equal to 0.5 µmol/L (0.4 ± 0.1), and 27 (25.5%) contained it at more than 0.5 µmol/L (0.9 ± 0.3). A half of the non-fasting plasma samples contained detectable FA10:0. This simple, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method might be useful for monitoring plasma FA10:0 during medium-chain triglycerides therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Determination of Flurbiprofen in Human Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bilal; Erdem, Ali Fuat

    2015-10-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of flurbiprofen in human plasma. The method was validated on an Ace C18 column using UV detection. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution (60:40, v/v) adjusted to pH 3.5 with phosphoric acid. The calibration curve was linear between the concentration range of 0.10-5.0 μg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision values for flurbiprofen in plasma were flurbiprofen from human plasma were between 93.0 and 98.9%. The limits of detection and quantification of flurbiprofen were 0.03 and 0.10 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, this assay was applied to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of flurbiprofen in six healthy Turkish volunteers who had been given 100 mg flurbiprofen. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Applications of plasma spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography in environmental and food science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, Andreea-Maria; Biraruti, Elisabeta-Irina; Ionete, Roxana-Elena

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Plasma spectrometry has many applications in food science in analysis of a wide range of samples in the food chain. Food science in the broadest sense can be extended to include soil chemistry, plant uptake and, at the other end of the food chain, studies into the metabolic fate of particular elements or elemental species when the foods are consumed by humans or animals. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry allows multi-element measurements of most elements in the periodic table. A very sensitive analytical technique for trace analysis of samples can be performed by inductively plasma mass spectrometer with quadrupolar detector using ultrasonic nebulization. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is an analytical technique for the separation and determination of organic and inorganic solutes in any samples especially biological, pharmaceutical, food, environmental. The present paper emphasizes that the future tendencies HPLC-ICP-MS is often the preferred analytical technique for these applications due to the simplicity of the coupling between the HPLC and ICP-MS Varian 820 using ultrasonic nebulization, potential for on-line separations with high species specificity and the capability for optimum limits of detection without the necessity of using complex hydride generation mechanisms. (authors)

  6. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometric detection of simulated high performance liquid chromatographic peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, D.M.; Yates, D.; Manahan, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    Because of its multielement capability, element-specificity, and low detection limits, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP) is a very promising technique for the detection of specific elemental species separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This paper evaluated ICP as a detector for HPLC peaks containing specific elements. Detection limits for a number of elements have been evaluated in terms of the minimum detectable concentration of the element at the chromatographic peak maximum. The elements studies were Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. In addition, ICP was compared with atomic absorption spectrometry for the detection of HPLC peaks composed of EDTA and NTA chelates of copper. Furthermore, ICP was compared to uv solution absorption for the detection of copper chelates. 6 figures, 4 tables

  7. A simple, high performance Thomson scattering diagnostic for high temperature plasma research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, D.J.D.; Cekic, M.

    1994-02-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the plasma in the MST reversed-field pinch, a magnetic confinement fusion research device. This diagnostic system is unique for its type in that it combines high performance with simple design and low cost components. In the design of this instrument, careful attention was given to the suppression of stray laser line light with simple and effective beam dumps, viewing dumps, aperatures, and a holographic edge filter. This allows the use of a single grating monochromator for dispersion of the Thomson scattered spectrum onto the microchannel plate detector. Alignment and calibration procedures for the laser beam delivery system, the scattered light collection system, and the spectrometer and detector are described. A sample Thomson scattered spectrum illustrates typical data

  8. Role of radial electric field in LH transition triggered by counter-NBI at low plasma density in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukachinsky, A.S.; Askinazi, L.G.; Chernyshev, F.V. and others; Krupnik, L.I.; Rushkevich, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Threshold power needed to attain H-mode in a tokamak is a critical parameter for designing of future devices and in particular fusion reactor ITER [1]. According to commonly accepted scaling [2] the threshold power P t hr increases with average density n e when the density exceeds some n em in at which P t hr is minimal. An increase in the P t hr towards low density was observed in many experiments [3-6], prevents the transition at lower n e as well. Physics of the threshold power increase at low ne is not well understood. Since the radial electric field E r and E r xB sheared flow play important roles in the LH transition one could expect these quantities effect the low n-bar e transitions. Toroidal rotation and radial electric field generation during counter-NBI have been studied in [7] and recently reconsidered theoretically in [8]. Thus, motivation for the presented study is to analyze effect of counter-NBI on the LH transition at low density

  9. Progress Toward Long Pulse, High Performance Plasmas in the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Politzer; T.C. Luce; M.E. Austin; J.R. Ferron, A.M. Garofalo; C.M. Greenfield; A.W. Hyatt; R.J. La Haye; L.L. Lao; E.A. Lazarus; M.A. Makowski; M. Murakami; C.C. Petty; R.I. Pinsker; B.W. Rice; E.J. Strait, M.R. Wade; J.G. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    A major portion of the research program of the DIII-D tokamak collaboration is devoted to the development and demonstration of high performance advanced tokamak plasmas, with profiles as close as possible to those anticipated for steady-state operation. The work during the 1999 campaign has resulted in significant progress toward this goal. High normalized performance ((beta)(sub N)(approx) 4 and(beta)(sub N) H(sub 89)(approx) 9) discharges have been sustained for up to 2 s. These plasmas are in H-mode with rapid ELMs. The most common limiting phenomena are resistive wall modes (RWMs) rather than neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). NTMs do occur, apparently triggered by the RWMs. The observed pressure is well above the calculated beta limit without a wall, and(beta)(sub N) and gt; 4(ell)(sub i) throughout the high performance phase. The bootstrap current is estimated to be and gt;50% of the total, and measurements of the internal loop voltage show that only about 25% of the current is inductively driven. The central q profile is flat, as is the calculated bootstrap current profile, due to the absence of any localized pressure gradients. The residual inductive current is localized around r/a(approx) 0.5. To demonstrate quasi-stationary operation, it will be necessary to replace the residual inductive current with ECCD at the same minor radius. To effectively apply ECH and ECCD to these discharges, density control will be needed. Preliminary experiments using the DIII-D cryopump have reduced the density by(approx)20%. A new EC power system and a new private flux cryopump will be available for the 2000 campaign

  10. [Determination of oxaprozin in human plasma with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mian; Wang, Ling; Jiang, Xuehua; Yang, Lin

    2013-06-01

    The present research was aimed to develop a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine oxaprozin in plasma and to evaluate the bioavailability of two oxaprozin enteric coated tablets. A C18 column was used to separate the plasma after protein precipitation and the mobile phase was methanol-12. 5mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH=3.0)(71:29). The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0. 50-70. 56 microg . mL-1, and the intra and inter-day RSDs were less than 12. 33% and 10. 42% respectively. A single dose of 0. 4 g reference preparation or test preparation of oxaprozin enteric coated tablets was administered to 20 healthy volunteers according to a randomized crossover study. AUC0-->264h were (4 917. 44 +/- 629. 57) microg . h . mL-1 and (4 604. 30+/-737. 83) microg . h . mL-1, respectively; Cmax were (52. 34+/-7. 68) microg . mL-1 and (48. 66+/-4. 87) microg . mL-1, respectively; Tmax were (18. 70+/-2.27) h and (19. 30+/-1. 63) h, respectively; The relative bioavailability of test preparation was 94.0% +/- 13. 7%. The method is simple, rapid and selective for oxaprozin determination. There is no significant difference in the main pharmacokinetic parameters between the test formulation and reference formulation and the two formulations are in bioequivalence.

  11. [Determination of sulpride in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Luo, Z; Tang, J; Yu, P

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a reliable method for the pharmacokinetic study of Sulpride in human plasma by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. To compensate the loss of Sulpride during the extraction procedure we used an internal standard very similar in chemical structure and UV absorbance to those of Sulpride. The mobile phase was methanol-water-acetic acid (60:30:1) with a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. A UV detector was used at 290 nm. The linear range was 5-100 mg/L and the detectable limit was 1.0 mg/L. The recovery and RSD were 97.95%-99.96% and 2.6%-5.1% respectively. The results showed that this method is a sensitive and accurate one which makes the pharmacokinetic study of Sulpride possible. If the concentration was too low to be detected by UV monitor, a fluorescence detector could be used with the excitation wavelength at 299 nm and emission at 342 nm. We analyzed the plasma samples from 30 day-treated psychotic patients and got the satisfactory results.

  12. Determination of puerarin in rat plasma using PEGylated magnetic carbon nanotubes by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Panfeng; Wang, Qi; Ma, Hongwei; Wu, Ji; Shen, Shun

    2014-05-15

    This paper described a novel application of PEGylated magnetic carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction nanosorbents for the determination of puerarin in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A solvothermal method was employed for the synthesis of monodisperse magnetites anchored onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs@Fe3O4). In order to enhance the water solubility of MWCNTs@Fe3O4 that ensured sufficient contact between nanosorbents and analytes in the sampling procedure, the obtained nanomaterials were further noncovalently functionalized using a phospholipids-polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG). The PEGylated MWCNTs@Fe3O4 nanomaterials had an extremely large surface area and exhibit a strong interaction capability for puerarin with π-π stacking interactions. The captured puerarin/nanosorbents were easily isolated from the plasma by placing a magnet, and desorbed by acetonitrile. The experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. The calibration curve of puerarin was linear from 0.01 to 20 μg/ml, and the limit of detection was 0.005 μg/ml. The precisions ranged from 2.7% to 3.5% for within-day measurement, and for between-day variation was in the range of 3.1-5.9%. The method recoveries were acquired from 95.2% to 98.0%. Moreover, the analytical performance obtained by PEGylated magnetic MWCNTs was also compared with that of magnetic MWCNTs. All results showed that our proposed method was an excellent alternative for the analysis of puerarin in rat plasma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High fusion performance at high T i/T e in JET-ILW baseline plasmas with high NBI heating power and low gas puffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Tae; Sips, A. C. C.; Romanelli, M.; Challis, C. D.; Rimini, F.; Garzotti, L.; Lerche, E.; Buchanan, J.; Yuan, X.; Kaye, S.; contributors, JET

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the transport analysis of high density baseline discharges in the 2016 experimental campaign of the Joint European Torus with the ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW), where a significant increase in the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion neutron rate (~2.8  ×  1016 s-1) was achieved with stable high neutral beam injection (NBI) powers of up to 28 MW and low gas puffing. Increase in T i exceeding T e were produced for the first time in baseline discharges despite the high electron density; this enabled a significant increase in the thermal fusion reaction rate. As a result, the new achieved record in fusion performance was much higher than the previous record in the same heating power baseline discharges, where T i  =  T e. In addition to the decreases in collisionality and the increases in ion heating fraction in the discharges with high NBI power, T i  >  T e can also be attributed to positive feedback between the high T i/T e ratio and stabilisation of the turbulent heat flux resulting from the ion temperature gradient driven mode. The high T i/T e ratio was correlated with high rotation frequency. Among the discharges with identical beam heating power, higher rotation frequencies were observed when particle fuelling was provided by low gas puffing and pellet injection. This reveals that particle fuelling played a key role for achieving high T i/T e, and the improved fusion performance.

  14. Design study of a negative-ion based NBI system for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Noboru; Araki, Masanori; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1994-03-01

    A high energy negative-ion based NBI system for JT-60U has been designed. The objective of the NBI system is to demonstrate mega-ampere level NB current drive and plasma core heating in a reactor-grade high density plasma. This is the first negative-ion based NBI system in the world. The required specifications of the NBI system are; a beam energy of 500 keV, an injection power of 10 MW, a beam pulse duration of 10 sec with a duty cycle of 1/60 and a beam species of deuterium or hydrogen. The neutral beam power of 10 MW is injected tangentially using one beam-line with two large negative-ion sources. The construction of the NBI system has been started, and will be operational in 1996. (author)

  15. Arsenic speciation in soil using high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Parish, K.J.; Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mohrman, G.B.; Besmer, M.G. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method has been developed to identify and quantify As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic compounds in soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) by high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP/MS). The soils were extracted using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) and sonication. The percentages of As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic species extracted from soil samples were 30, 50, and 100 respectively. The arsenic species were not altered during the extraction process. They were separated by reversed-phase, ion-pairing, HPLC using a microbore Inertsil-ODS{trademark} column. The HPLC column effluent was introduced into an ICP/MS system using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Detection limits of less than 1 pg were readily obtained for each arsenic species. Internal standards are recommended to increase accuracy and precision. Soil samples spiked with arsenic oxide, sodium arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and chlorovinyl arsenious acid (CVAA) were extracted, identified and quantified with the HPLC/ICP/MS system. The soil samples were analyzed in support of the analytical needs of a thermal desorption treatability study being conducted at the RMA.

  16. Calculation of the non-inductive current profile in high-performance NSTX plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Yuh, H.

    2011-03-01

    The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557); these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast-ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast-ion diffusivity of ~0.5-1 m2 s-1 is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, the time rate of change in the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped and reconstructed on-axis current density.

  17. Calculation of the Non-Inductive Current Profile in High-Performance NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, S.P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Le Blanc, B.P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Yuh, H.

    2011-01-01

    The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]; these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β, or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven, and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfven eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n=1/1+2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast ion diffusivity of ∼0.5-1 m 2 /sec is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, time rate of change of the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped, and reconstructed on-axis current density.

  18. Simultaneous determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in whole blood and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Rønn, A; Flachs, H

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in human whole blood and plasma. The procedure involved extraction of the compounds and the internal standard...

  19. Determination of boldine in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, H; Cassels, B K; Nieto, S; Valenzuela, A; Nuñez-Vergara, L J

    1993-02-26

    A sensitive method for the determination of boldine in blood plasma is described. The procedure involves a direct pH-buffered chloroform extraction of boldine from blood plasma, followed by its assay under isocratic conditions by HPLC with UV detection. The extraction recovery is excellent, and sensitivity and precision of the method are very high, when applied to plasma samples containing pharmacologically relevant concentrations of boldine.

  20. The Implementation of Computer Data Processing Software for EAST NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodan; Hu Chundong; Sheng Peng; Zhao Yuanzhe; Wu Deyun; Cui Qinglong

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important project missions of neutral beam injectors is the implementation of 100 s neutral beam injection (NBI) with high power energy to the plasma of the EAST superconducting tokamak. Correspondingly, it's necessary to construct a high-speed and reliable computer data processing system for processing experimental data, such as data acquisition, data compression and storage, data decompression and query, as well as data analysis. The implementation of computer data processing application software (CDPS) for EAST NBI is presented in this paper in terms of its functional structure and system realization. The set of software is programmed in C language and runs on Linux operating system based on TCP network protocol and multi-threading technology. The hardware mainly includes industrial control computer (IPC), data server, PXI DAQ cards and so on. Now this software has been applied to EAST NBI system, and experimental results show that the CDPS can serve EAST NBI very well. (fusion engineering)

  1. Proceeding of JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar on production and control of high performance plasmas with advanced plasma heating and diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiang; Morita, Shigeru

    2011-02-01

    The JSPS-CAS Core University Program (CUP) seminar on 'Production and control of high performance plasmas with advanced plasma heating and diagnostic systems' took place in Guilin Bravo Hotel, Guilin, China, 1-4 November 2010. This seminar was organized in the framework of CUP in the field of plasma and nuclear fusion. Two special talks and 46 oral talks were presented in the seminar including 36 Chinese, 18 Japanese and 4 Korean attendees. Production and control of high performance plasmas is a crucial issue for realizing an advanced nuclear fusion reactor in addition to developments of advanced plasma heating and diagnostics. This seminar was motivated along the issues. Results in the field of fusion experiments obtained through CUP activities during recent two years were summarized. Possible direction of future collaboration and further encouragement of scientific activity of younger scientists were also discussed in this seminar with future experimental plans in both countries. (author)

  2. Proceeding of JSPS-CAS core university program seminar on production and control of high performance plasmas with advanced plasma heating and diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiang; Morita, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The JSPS-CAS Core University Program (CUP) seminar on 'Production and control of high performance plasmas with advanced plasma heating and diagnostic systems' took place in Shiner hotel, Lijiang, China, 4-7 November 2008. This seminar was organized in the framework of CUP in the field of plasma and nuclear fusion. One special talk and 34 oral talks were presented in the seminar including 16 Japanese attendees. Production and control of high performance plasmas is a crucial issue for realizing an advanced nuclear fusion reactor in addition to developments of advanced plasma heating and diagnostics. This seminar was motivated along the issues. Results obtained from CUP activities during recent four years were summarized. Several crucial issues to be resolved near future were also extracted in this seminar. The 31 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. JT-60U high performance regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, S.

    1999-01-01

    High performance regimes of JT-60U plasmas are presented with an emphasis upon the results from the use of a semi-closed pumped divertor with W-shaped geometry. Plasma performance in transient and quasi steady states has been significantly improved in reversed shear and high- βp regimes. The reversed shear regime elevated an equivalent Q DT eq transiently up to 1.25 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)=8.6x10 20 m-3·s·keV) in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime. Long sustainment of enhanced confinement with internal transport barriers (ITBs) with a fully non-inductive current drive in a reversed shear discharge was successfully demonstrated with LH wave injection. Performance sustainment has been extended in the high- bp regime with a high triangularity achieving a long sustainment of plasma conditions equivalent to Q DT eq ∼0.16 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)∼1.4x10 20 m -3 ·s·keV) for ∼4.5 s with a large non-inductive current drive fraction of 60-70% of the plasma current. Thermal and particle transport analyses show significant reduction of thermal and particle diffusivities around ITB resulting in a strong Er shear in the ITB region. The W-shaped divertor is effective for He ash exhaust demonstrating steady exhaust capability of τ He */τ E ∼3-10 in support of ITER. Suppression of neutral back flow and chemical sputtering effect have been observed while MARFE onset density is rather decreased. Negative-ion based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) experiments have created a clear H-mode transition. Enhanced ionization cross- section due to multi-step ionization processes was confirmed as theoretically predicted. A current density profile driven by N-NBI is measured in a good agreement with theoretical prediction. N-NBI induced TAE modes characterized as persistent and bursting oscillations have been observed from a low hot beta of h >∼0.1-0.2% without a significant loss of fast ions. (author)

  4. High performance solution-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by oxygen plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2012-05-16

    Solution-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors(TFTs) with high performance were fabricated using O2-plasma treatment of the films prior to high temperature annealing. The O2-plasma treatment resulted in a decrease in oxygen vacancy and residual hydrocarbon concentration in the a-IGZO films, as well as an improvement in the dielectric/channel interfacial roughness. As a result, the TFTs with O2-plasma treated a-IGZO channel layers showed three times higher linear field-effect mobility compared to the untreated a-IGZO over a range of processing temperatures. The O2-plasma treatment effectively reduces the required processing temperature of solution-deposited a-IGZO films to achieve the required performance.

  5. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based NBI in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar- and/or Ne-gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in the LHD plasmas heated with the high-energy negative-ion-based NBI. Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is much enhanced effectively in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionisation) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive Ne- and/or Ar-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with the wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density, and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with an addition of the centrally focused ECRH to the low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with the high-energy NBI heating indicate that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to the ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature would be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planed in near future in LHD. (author)

  6. Plasma-spraying synthesis of high-performance photocatalytic TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Maeda, Masakatsu; Ohmori, Akira; Shibata, Yoshitaka; Miyano, Yasuyuki; Murai, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    Anatase (A-) TiO 2 is a photocatalytic material that can decompose air-pollutants, acetaldehyde, bacteria, and so on. In this study, three kinds of powder (A-TiO 2 without HAp, TiO 2 + 10mass%HAp, and TiO 2 +30mass%HAp, where HAp is hydroxyapatite and PBS is polybutylene succinate) were plasma sprayed on biodegradable PBS substrates. HAp powder was mixed with A-TiO 2 powder by spray granulation in order to facilitate adsorption of acetaldehyde and bacteria. The crystal structure was almost completely maintained during the plasma spray process. HAp enhanced the decomposition of acetaldehyde and bacteria by promoting adsorption. A 10mass% HAp content was the most effective for decomposing acetaldehyde when plasma preheating of the PBS was not carried out before the plasma spraying. The plasma preheating of PBS increased the yield rate of the spray process and facilitated the decomposition of acetaldehyde by A-TiO 2 coatings without HAp. HAp addition improved photocatalytic sterilization when plasma preheating of the PBS was performed

  7. Long pulse operation of high performance plasmas in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Shunsuke

    2005-01-01

    Recent experimental progress in JT-60U advanced tokamak research is presented; sustainment of the normalized beta (β N ) - 3 in a normal magnetic shear plasma, the bootstrap current fraction (f BS ) - 45% in a weak shear plasma and ∼75% in a reversed magnetic shear plasma in a nearly full non-inductive current drive condition for longer than the current relaxation time. Achievement of high-density high-radiation fraction together with high-confinement in advanced plasmas was demonstrated. Achievement and foundings in long pulse operations after system modification are presented as well. A 65 s discharge of I p =0.7 MA was successfully obtained. As a result, high-β N of 2.3 was successfully sustained for a very long period of 22.3 s. In addition, a 30 s standard ELMy H-mode plasma of I p up to 1.4 MA has also been obtained. Effectiveness of divertor pumping to control particle recycling and the electron density under the wall retention was saturated was demonstrated. These achievement and issues in the development will be discussed. (author)

  8. Plasma transport properties at the L-H transition and high performance phase of JET discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balet, B; Cordey, J G; Erba, M; Jones, T T.C.; Lomas, P J; Smeulders, P; Springmann, E M; Stubberfield, P M; Taroni, A; Thomsen, K [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Parail, V V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Numerical analysis are performed which show that both electron and ion thermal diffusivities are reduced by one order of magnitude everywhere, not only in a narrow region near separatrix during the L-H transition. There is no separate H-VH transition on JET, this transition coincides with the cessation of ELMs. In the ELM free phase ion transport in the core is close to its neoclassical value, but probably rises towards plasma edge (however still remaining much less than it was in L-mode). The best agreement with experiment is obtained with the model which simultaneously takes into account both the global reduction of Bohm type anomalous transport in plasma core and formation of temperature pedestal near plasma edge. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. High density high performance plasma with internal diffusion barrier in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Kobayashi, M.; Miyazawa, J.

    2008-10-01

    A attractive high density plasma operational regime, namely an internal diffusion barrier (IDB), has been discovered in the intrinsic helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device (LHD). The IDB which enables core plasma to access a high density/high pressure regime has been developed. It is revealed that the IDB is reproducibly formed by pellet fueling in the magnetic configurations shifted outward in major radius. Attainable central plasma density exceeds 1x10 21 m -3 . Central pressure reaches 1.5 times atmospheric pressure and the central β value becomes fairly high even at high magnetic field, i.e. β(0)=5.5% at B t =2.57 T. (author)

  10. Analysis of 26-hydroxycholesterol in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, I.L.; Holmes, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method utilizing HPLC has been developed for the analysis of 26-hydroxycholesterol in plasma. The method involves initially saponifying samples for estimation of the total sterol or extracting samples with acetonitrile to estimate the free sterol. This is followed by a C-18 Sep Pak fractionation of the extracts, further purification on a Nova Pak C-18 HPLC column, and finally by quantitation on a silicic acid HPLC column by measuring the absorbance at 210 nm. Losses of sterol during this multi-step procedure were determined by estimating the recovery of 3 H-26-hydroxycholesterol added to samples before extraction or saponification. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by repetitive analysis of one plasma sample. The coefficient of variation was 6.8% for six analyses. In agreement with the mass spectrometric determinations of Javitt et al. The authors observed total plasma levels in the range of 140-260 ng/ml in young adult humans, rats, and rabbits. In the plasma of older human patients undergoing coronary by-pass surgery levels ranged from 335-950 ng/ml, suggesting that an increase in the level of 26-hydroxycholesterol is either age-related or related to the development of acute atherosclerosis

  11. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, S.; Lin, K.; Malladi, S.R.K.; Lu, Y.; Sun, S.; Xu, Q.; Steinberger-Wilckens, R.; Dong, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support

  12. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of linezolid in human plasma and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shuuji; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yoshinari, Masami; Matsumoto, Taichi; Jimi, Shiro; Togawa, Atsushi; Takata, Tohru; Takamatsu, Yasushi

    2015-09-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-positive infections. A practical high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of linezolid in human plasma and saliva. Linezolid and an internal standard (o-ethoxybenzamide) were extracted from plasma and saliva with ethyl acetate and analyzed on a Capcell Pak C18 MG column with UV detection at 254 nm. The calibration curve was linear through the range 0.5-50 µg/mL using a 200 μL sample volume. The intra- and interday precisions were all plasma and 5.60% for saliva. The accuracies ranged from 98.8 to 110% for both matrices. The mean recoveries of linezolid were 80.8% for plasma and 79.0% for saliva. This method was used to determine the plasma and saliva concentrations of linezolid in healthy volunteers who were orally administered a 600 mg dose of linezolid. Our liquid-liquid extraction procedure is easy and requires a small volume of plasma or saliva (200 μL). This small volume can be advantageous in clinical pharmacokinetic studies, especially if children participate. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. High performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantitation of total glutathione in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Menter, Julian M.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Socci, Robin R.; Ganafa, Agaba A.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and widely used homocysteine HPLC procedure was applied for the HPLC identification and quantitation of glutathione in plasma. The method, which utilizes SBDF as a derivatizing agent utilizes only 50 microl of sample volume. Linear quantitative response curve was generated for glutathione over a concentration range of 0.3125-62.50 micromol/l. Linear regression analysis of the standard curve exhibited correlation coefficient of 0.999. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) values were 5.0 and 15 pmol, respectively. Glutathione recovery using this method was nearly complete (above 96%). Intra-assay and inter-assay precision studies reflected a high level of reliability and reproducibility of the method. The applicability of the method for the quantitation of glutathione was demonstrated successfully using human and rat plasma samples.

  14. High performance with modified magnetic shear in JET DD and DT plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1999-01-01

    Internal transport barriers (ITBs) in which both the ion thermal diffusivity and electron thermal diffusivity are substantially reduced have been observed in JET. Such discharges have been obtained with DD and DT plasmas. Central ion temperatures of 40 keV and plasma pressure gradients of 10 6 Pa/m were observed in DT plasmas leading to a fusion triple product n i0 T i0 τ E 1.1 x 10 21 m -3 ·keV·s and producing 8.2 MW of fusion power. ITBs have been produced in both the MkII and the new Gas Box divertor configuration with similar behaviour. With the Gas Box divertor an L mode edge has so far only been produced using edge radiation cooling. For the first time, ITBs have been triggered by radiating about 40% of the power with a krypton puff. A possible scaling of the power needed to trigger an ITB with magnetic field is suggested. (author)

  15. A quick and easy high performance liquid chromatography method for evaluation of cefixime in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Danafar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cefixime is essential member of orally energetic third generation cephalosporin and has tremendous activity aligned with many pathogens. The virtual bioavailability of a newly industrial dispersible tablet as compared with a recognized identified formulation.  A simple and available reversed-phase HPLC method with UV detection has been urbanized and validate for cefixime evaluate in human plasma using a C18 analytical column and a mobile phase of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (pH 6.5-acetonitrile (3:1 v/v. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. To method observed major linear response-concentration association all through the cefixime concentration range of 15-100 ng/ml, with the average accuracy within-run and between-run values of 97.29% and 99.27%. The average drug recovery from plasma was 98.2% throughout the linear concentration range. The limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ of the method were 5 and 15 ng/ml, respectively. The method is quick, easy, very steady and precise for the partition, assignment, evaluation of cefixime in human plasma.

  16. Recent progresses on high performance steady-state plasmas in the superconducting tokamak TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Sato, Kohnosuke; Nakamura, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    The overview of TRIAM-1M experiments is described. The up-to-date issues for steady-state operation are presented through the experience of the achievement of super ultra long tokamak discharges (SULD) sustained by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) over 2 hours. The importance of the control of an initial phase of plasma, the avoidance of the concentration of huge heat load, the wall conditioning, and abrupt stop of the long discharges are proposed as the indispensable issues for the achievement of the steady-state operation of tokamak. A high ion temperature (HIT) discharge fully sustained by 2.45 GHz LHCD with both high ion temperature and steep temperature gradient is successfully demonstrated for longer than 1 min in the limiter configuration. The HIT discharges can be obtained in the narrow window of density and position. Moreover, the avoidance of the concentration of heat load on a limiter is the key point for the achievement and its long sustainment. As the effective thermal insulation between the wall and the plasma is improved on the single null configuration, HIT discharges with peak ion temperature > 5keV and steeper gradient up to 85 keV/m can be achieved by the exquisite control of density and position. The plasmas with high κ ∼1.5 can be also demonstrated for longer than 1 min. The current profile is also well-controlled for about 2 orders in magnitude longer than the current diffusion time using combined LHCD. The serious damage to the material of the first wall caused by energetic neutral particles produced via charge exchange process is also described. As the neutral particles cannot be affected by magnetic field, this damage by neutral particles must be avoided by the new technique. (author)

  17. Plasma Treatment of Carbon Nanotubes Applied to Improve the High Performance of Carbon Nanofiber Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei-Min; Wang, Cheng-Chien; Chen, Chuh-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This article focused on improving conductivity of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by added plasma-treatment carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The plasma modification method avoided the destruction of the length and structure of the CNTs and maintained their good electrical properties. Through this method, the relation between conductivity and surface activity site of CNFs was investigated. The results shown that he CNTs-MA added to the CNFs successfully maintained the activity sites on the surface of the CNFs and provide a good electric network to enhance the supercapacitor performance of the CNFs. - Highlights: • The plasma modification method avoided the destruction of the length and structure of the CNTs and maintained their good electrical properties. • The highest conductivity of the CNTs-MA/CNF was 5.2 s/cm at 2.5 wt.% of CNTs-MA addition. It was increased to 8.7 time. • The CNTs-MA added to the CNFs successfully maintained the activity sites on the surface of the CNFs and provide a good electric network to enhance the supercapacitor performance of the CNFs. The highest capacitance was 382 F/g. - Abstract: Plasma-treatment carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) were embedded in polyacryonitrile nanofibers via electrospinning and subsequently carbonizated at 800 °C to fabricate carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The grafted degree of MA on CNTs (CNTs-MA) was determined via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology, surface composition and conductivity of the CNTs-MA/CNF were characterized using electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. CNTs-MA not only affected the conductivity of the CNFs but also the types of the nitrogen functional groups that could be represented as active sites on the CNFs to enhance the performance of the supercapacitors. When 2.5 wt.% CNTs-MA was embedded in the CNFs, the highest conductivity was obtained at

  18. Microturbulence and Flow Shear in High-performance JET ITB Plasma; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.V. Budny; A. Andre; A. Bicoulet; C. Challis; G.D. Conway; W. Dorland; D.R. Ernst; T.S. Hahm; T.C. Hender; D. McCune; G. Rewoldt; S.E. Sharapov

    2001-01-01

    The transport, flow shear, and linear growth rates of microturbulence are studied for a Joint European Torus (JET) plasma with high central q in which an internal transport barrier (ITB) forms and grows to a large radius. The linear microturbulence growth rates of the fastest growing (most unstable) toroidal modes with high toroidal mode number are calculated using the GS2 and FULL gyrokinetic codes. These linear growth rates, gamma (subscript lin) are large, but the flow-shearing rates, gamma (subscript ExB) (dominated by the toroidal rotation contribution) are also comparably large when and where the ITB exists

  19. "Determination of mycophenolic acid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mehdi Ahadi Barzoki

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method is presented for determination of mycophenolic acid(MPA in human plasma. Samples were prepared after precipitation of the plasma protein by addition of acetonitrile and naproxen was used as internal standard (I.S.. Separation was performed by reversedphase HPLC, using a Hamilton PRP-C18 Column, 51% acetonitrile and 49% potassium phosphate buffer (20 mM at pH 3.0 as mobile phase, flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and UV detection at 215 nm. MPA and I.S. had retention times of 7.5 and 11.35 min, respectively. The method showed an acceptable linearity in the range of 0.1µg/ml-40µg/ml with r2 of .9992. The concentration of 0.1µg/ml was determined as quantification limit. Mean absolute recovery was 94.8%. The mean intra- and inter-day reproducibility of method was 4.6 and 11.4% respectively.

  20. A high-performance channel engineered charge-plasma-based MOSFET with high-κ spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chan; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xin; Bao, Meng-tian; Yu, Cheng-hao; Cao, Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of graded channel double-gate MOSFET (GC-DGFET) that utilizes the charge-plasma concept and a high-κ spacer is investigated through 2-D device simulations. The results demonstrate that GC-DGFET with high-κ spacer can effectively improve the ON-state driving current (ION) and reduce the OFF-leakage current (IOFF). We find that reduction of the initial energy barrier between the source and channel is the origin of this ION enhancement. The reason for the IOFF reduction is identified to be the extension of the effective channel length owing to the fringing field via high-κ spacers. Consequently, these devices offer enhanced performance by reducing the total gate-to-gate capacitance (Cgg) and decreasing the intrinsic delay (τ).

  1. Toward High-Performance Coatings for Biomedical Devices: Study on Plasma-Deposited Fluorocarbon Films and Ageing in PBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mantovani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High performance coatings tailored to medical devices represent a recognised approach to modulate surface properties. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films have been proposed as a potential stent coating. Previous studies have shown promising adhesion properties: the 35 nm-thick film sustained plastic deformation up to 25% such as induced during the clinical implantation. In this study, the compositional and morphological changes of plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films were examined during ageing in a pseudo-physiological medium, a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, by angle-resolved XPS, FT-IR data and AFM images. The evolution of the ageing process is discussed: defluorination and crosslinking yielded an oxidized protective top layer onto the films, which showed further degradation.

  2. High performance with modified shear in JET D-D and D-T plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The observation of Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in which ion thermal diffusivity is reduced to a neo- classical level and the electron thermal diffusivity is substantially reduced has been made in JET with the optimised shear scenario with the MkII divertor both in D-D and in D-T. Central ion temperatures of 40keV and plasma pressure gradient of 10 6 Pa/m were observed in D-T leading to a fusion triple product n i T i τ E =1x10 21 m -3 keVs and 8.2MW of fusion power. ITBs have also been produced in the new Gas Box divertor configuration with a similar behaviour. With the new divertor an L-mode edge has only been produced using edge radiation cooling. For the first time, ITBs have been triggered by radiating about 40% of the power with a krypton puff. A tentative scaling of the power needed to trigger an ITB with magnetic field is indicated. (author)

  3. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shangfeng; Lin, Kaijie; Malladi, Sairam K.; Lu, Yaxiang; Sun, Shuhui; Xu, Qiang; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert; Dong, Hanshan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support surface, significantly promoting the uniform growth of tiny Pt nuclei which directs the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Pt nanowire (2.5-3 nm in diameter) arrays, forming a three-dimensional (3D) nano-architecture. Pt nanowire arrays in-situ grown on the large-area gas diffusion layer (GDL) (5 cm2) can be directly used as the catalyst electrode in fuel cells. The unique design brings in an extremely thin electrocatalyst layer, facilitating the charge transfer and mass transfer properties, leading to over two times higher power density than the conventional Pt nanoparticle catalyst electrode in real fuel cell environment. Due to the similar challenges faced with other nanostructures and the high availability of ASP for other material surfaces, this work will provide valuable insights and guidance towards the development of other new nano-architectures for various practical applications.

  4. Improved method for the determination of serotonin in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using on-line sample pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takkenberg, B.; Endert, E.; van Ingen, H. E.; Ackermans, M.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method for the determination of serotonin in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP), by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and direct plasma injection, is described. The chromatographic system comprises a strong

  5. Simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantitation of the phenylalanine in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Danafar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine (Phe is the most reliable indicator for the diagnosis of phenylketonuria (PKU. The purpose of this study is to establish a reliable and quick method for the assignment of Phe in peripheral capillary blood from newborns and children by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV. PKU is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by the inability of the body to use Phe. A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method has been developed for determination of Phe in plasma. The method uses a protein precipitation step with sulfosalicilic acid for sample preparation by separation on a Nova-pack C18 column using sodium acetate buffer and acetonitrile (94: 6 v/v adjusted to pH 6.5 with glacial acetic acid. The eluted peaks detected by a UV detector was set at wavelength of 215 nm. The method was validated in the range of Phe concentrations from 0.1 to 20 µg/ml. The limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ of the method were 0.05 and 0.1 µg/ml, respectively. The average drug recovery from plasma was 88.60 percent throughout the linear concentration range., with the average within-run and between-run accuracy values of 103.3 and 115.350, respectively. The method is quick, easy, very steady and precise for the screen, assignment, and evaluation of Phe in human plasma by HPLC, which is particularly a useful way for screening and diagnosis of PKU and monitoring of a diet therapy.

  6. Construction of negative-ion based NBI for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mikito; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    2001-11-01

    The world's first negative-ion based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) system has been developed for studies of non-inductive current drive and plasma core heating with high energy neutral beam injection in higher density plasma. Construction of the N-NBI system for JT-60U was completed in March 1996. The system is composed of a beamline with two ion sources, a set of ion source power supplies, control system and auxiliary sub-system such as cooling water, refrigeration and vacuum system. In July 2001, deuterium neutral beam injection of 400keV and 5.8MW into JT-60U plasma was achieved. In order to increase both beam power and energy we have to go on more improvement of the N-NBI. (author)

  7. Quantitation of Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide in Rat Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with UV Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Kamei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and robust method using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed and validated for the determination of six pyrrole-imidazole (PI polyamides (HN.49, TGF-β1f, TGF-β1t, HN.50f, HN.50t, and LOX-1 in rat plasma. After the plasma proteins were precipitated with methanol containing phenacetin as an internal standard, the analytes were separated on a Luna C18 (2 (5 μm, 4.6×150 mm. Calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.5 to 200 μg/mL for HN.49, 0.25 to 200 μg/mL for TGF-β1f, TGF-β1t, HN.50t, and LOX-1, 1 to 200 μg/mL for HN.50f in rat plasma. The inter- and intraday precision were below 15%, and the accuracy was within 15% at the quality controls. The validated method was successfully applied to sample analysis for the pharmacokinetic study.

  8. Optimized method for the determination of itopride in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptácek, Pavel; Klíma, Josef; Macek, Jan

    2009-03-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the determination of itopride in human plasma is reported. The sample preparation was based on liquid-liquid extraction of itopride from plasma with t-butylmethylether and dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) mixture followed by a back extraction of the analyte to the phosphate buffer (pH 3.2). Liquid chromatography was performed on an octadecylsilica column (55 mm x 4 mm, 3 microm particles), the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-triethylamine-15 mM dihydrogenpotassium phosphate (14.5:0.5:85, v/v/v), pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.8. The run time was 3 min. The fluorimetric detector was operated at 250/342 nm (excitation/emission wavelength). Naratriptan was used as the internal standard. The limit of quantitation was 9.5 ng/ml using 0.5 ml of plasma. The method precision and inaccuracy were less than 8%. The assay was applied to the analysis of samples from a bioequivalence study.

  9. Predictive study on high performance modes of operation in HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Qingdi; Li Fangzhu; Zhang Jinhua; Qu Hongpeng; Budny, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    High performance scenarios in the HL-2A tokamak are studied by numerical modeling. Through shifting the plasma column outwards a shaping plasma with significant triangularity is achieved with sufficient room left for the RF antenna. For the out-shifted shaping plasma, ripple loss of high energy ions during NBI is analyzed. The results show that the ripple loss fraction of NBI power for the shaping plasma is not higher than that for the unshifted circular plasma. The time dependent TRANSP code is used to model realistic reversed magnetic shear operation in HL-2A. In order to sustain the RS operation towards steady-state, off-axis current drive with a lower hybrid wave at 2.45GHz is used to control the current profile. A steady-state RS discharge is formed and sustained until the LH power is turned off; the plasma confinement is enhanced with the development of an internal transport barrier. In the RS discharges with shaping plasma geometry a double transport barrier is produced. (author)

  10. Determination of five antiarrhythmic drugs in human plasma by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Fazeli-Bakhtiyari, Rana

    2015-03-01

    A fast and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of five antiarrhythmic drugs (metoprolol, propranolol, carvedilol, diltiazem, and verapamil) in human plasma samples. It involves dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of the desired drugs from 660 µL plasma and separation using isocratic elution with UV detection at 200 nm. The complete separation of all analytes was achieved within 7 min. Acetonitrile (as disperser solvent) resulting from the protein precipitation procedure was mixed with 100 µL dichloromethane (as an extraction solvent) and rapidly injected into 5 mL aqueous solution (pH 11.5) containing 1% (w/v), NaCl. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase containing enriched analytes was collected and evaporated to dryness. The residue was re-dissolved in 50 µL de-ionized water (acidified to pH 3) and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors and extraction recoveries ranged between 4.4-10.8 and 33-82%, respectively. The suggested method was linear (r(2) ≥0.997) over a dynamic range of 0.02-0.80 µg mL(-1) in plasma. The intra- and inter-days relative standard deviation (RSD%) and relative error (RE%) values of the method were below 20%, which shows good precision and accuracy. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of real plasma samples obtained from the patients treated with these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cobalamin speciation using reversed-phase micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2004-01-01

    Micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was optimized for the determination and separation of a mixture of cobalt containing species. Four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) representing the various forms of vitamin B12 as well as the harmful corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were separated using reversed-phase microcapillary chromatography with columns containing C18 packing material with a 2-μm particle size. Selection of organic solvents for the separation took into consideration compatibility with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer being used for element specific detection. Optimized method conditions included use of a methanol gradient and make-up solution for the nebulizer. Some issues associated with dead volume were overcome by the extension of the gradient program. The total analysis time was 52 min. The column-to-column variability was evaluated and was found to be very reasonable (9% RSD on average), confirming that this method is rugged and that the technology should be easily transferred to other laboratories

  12. New approach to the determination phosphorothioate oligonucleotides by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzińska, Sylwia; Mounicou, Sandra; Szpunar, Joanna; Łobiński, Ryszard; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2015-01-15

    This text presents a novel method for the separation and detection of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides with the use of ion pair ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry The research showed that hexafluoroisopropanol/triethylamine based mobile phases may be successfully used when liquid chromatography is coupled with such elemental detection. However, the concentration of both HFIP and TEA influences the final result. The lower concentration of HFIP, the lower the background in ICP-MS and the greater the sensitivity. The method applied for the analysis of serum samples was based on high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Utilization of this method allows determination of fifty times lower quantity of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides than in the case of quadrupole mass analyzer. Monitoring of (31)P may be used to quantify these compounds at the level of 80 μg L(-1), while simultaneous determination of sulfur is very useful for qualitative analysis. Moreover, the results presented in this paper demonstrate the practical applicability of coupling LC with ICP-MS in determining phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and their metabolites in serum within 7 min with a very good sensitivity. The method was linear in the concentration range between 0.2 and 3 mg L(-1). The limit of detection was in the range of 0.07 and 0.13 mg L(-1). Accuracy varied with concentration, but was in the range of 3%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Determination of atracurium and laudanosine in dog plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Chen, Mei; Kuang, Yushan; Ye, Liming; Zhang, Wensheng

    2013-06-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with fluorometric detection has been developed for the determination of atracurium and its major metabolite laudanosine in dog plasma. The separation of atracurium and laudanosine was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column, and the mobile phase consisted of 0.03 mol/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile (72: 28, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Verapamil was used as the internal standard. The sample was extracted by dichloromethane, concentrated and dissolved in the mobile phase. The detection is performed at 240 nm for excitation and 320 nm for emission. The results showed that the linear concentration ranges of the calibration curve were 25 - 5 000 microg/L for atracurium (r = 0.999 0), and 25 - 6 000 microg/L for laudanosine (r = 0.9984). The recoveries were 92.1% - 109.5%. The limits of detection were 3 microg/L for atracurium and 1 microg/L for laudanosine. The RSDs of intra-day and inter-day were less than 10%. The stability tests under various conditions have been performed. The method is specific, sensitive and accurate in the determination of atracurium and laudanosine, and also can be used for the pharmacokinetic investigations of atracurium and laudanosine in plasma.

  14. Analysis of drugs of abuse in human plasma by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P; Regenjo, M; Bermejo, A M; Fernández, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Carro, A M

    2015-04-01

    Opioids and cocaine are widely used at present, both for recreational purposes and as drugs of abuse. This raises the need to develop new analytical methods specifically designed for the simultaneous detection of several drugs of abuse in biological samples. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was assessed as a new sample treatment for the simultaneous extraction of morphine (MOR), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE) and methadone (MET) from human plasma. Preliminary assays were done before developing an experimental design based on a Uniform Network Doehlert which allowed the optimum extraction conditions to be identified, namely: a volume of extractant solvent (chloroform) and dispersant solvent (acetonitrile) of 220 µl and 3.2 ml, respectively; 0.2 g of NaCl as a salting-out additive; pH 10.6 and ultrasound stirring for 3.5 min. The resulting extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA), using an XBridge® RP18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size). Calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range 0.1-10 µg ml⁻¹, and detection limits ranged from 13.9 to 28.5 ng ml⁻¹. Precision calculated at three different concentration levels in plasma was included in the range 0.1-6.8% RSD. Recoveries of the five drugs were all higher than 84% on average. Finally the proposed method was successfully applied to 22 plasma samples from heroin, cocaine and/or methadone users, and the most frequently detected drug was benzoylecgonine, followed by methadone, cocaine and morphine. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Development of plasma-treated polypropylene nonwoven-based composites for high-performance lithium-ion battery separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaofei; He, Jinlin; Wu, Dazhao; Zhang, Mingzu; Meng, Juwen; Ni, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    (290 wt%) and ionic conductivity (1.76 mS cm −1 ). More importantly, the LiFePO 4 /Li half-cell assembled with PHS-10 composite separator displays a good C-rate performance, which shows an enhancement in the chemical stability and discharge capacity. The capacity keeps above 150 mA h g −1 after 100 charge–discharge cycles. These performances endow this composite membrane as a promising candidate for high-performance lithium-ion battery separators

  16. Scoping studies for NBI launch geometries on DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, I., E-mail: ian.jenkins@ukaea.uk; Challis, C.D.; Keeling, D.L.; Surrey, E.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • NBCD scans are done for beam energies of 1.5 MeV and 1.0 MeV in two DEMO scenarios. • NBCD scan profiles are fed into genetic algorithm to fit a target current profile. • The result gives location and power of sources to give best fit to target profile. • This method can help provide requirements for DEMO beamline geometry. - Abstract: Engineering and technical constraints on Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in DEMO may determine the available beam energy and may also strongly impact the Neutral Beam Current Drive (NBCD) efficiency by restricting available beam tangential radii. These latter are determined by factors such as the inter-TF coil spacing, as well as the degree of required shielding. In order to illustrate how these factors may affect the contribution of NBCD on DEMO operating scenarios, scans of NBI tangency radii and elevation on two possible DEMO scenarios have been performed with two beam energies, 1.5 MeV and 1.0 MeV, in order to determine the most favourable options for NBCD efficiency. In addition, a method using a genetic algorithm has been used to seek optimised solutions of NBI source locations and powers to attempt to synthesize a target total plasma driven-current profile. It is found that certain beam trajectories may be proscribed by limitations on shinethrough onto the vessel wall. This may affect the ability of NBCD to extend the duration of a pulse in a scenario where it must complement the induced plasma current. Operating at the lower beam energy reduces the restrictions due to shinethrough and is attractive for technical reasons as it will required less development, but in the scenarios examined here this results in a spatial broadening of the NBCD profile, which may make it more challenging to achieve desired total driven-current profiles.

  17. High performance liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay for the quantitation of BMS-204352 in dog K(3)EDTA plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming; Mantha, Subbarao; Shah, Vinod R; Vachharajani, Nimish N; Arnold, Mark E; Pursley, Janice M; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2002-05-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC/MS) assay was developed and validated for the determination of BMS-204352 in dog K(3)EDTA plasma. A 0.5 mL aliquot of control plasma was spiked with BMS-204352 and internal standard (IS) and buffered with 1 mL of 5 mM ammonium acetate. The mixture was then extracted with 3 mL of toluene. After separation and evaporation of the organic phase to dryness using nitrogen at 40 degrees C, the residue was reconstituted in the mobile phase and 25 microL of the sample were injected onto a Hypersil C(18) column (2 x 50 mm; 3 microm) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The mobile phase was consisted of two solvent mixtures (A and B). Solvent A was composed of 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% triethylamine in 75:25 v/v water:methanol, pH adjusted to 5.5 with glacial acetic acid, and solvent B was 5 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. A linear gradient system was used to elute the analytes. The mass spectrometer was programmed to admit the de-protonated molecules at m/z 352.7 (IS) and m/z 357.9 (BMS-204352). Standard curves of BMS-204352 were linear (r(2) > or = 0.998) over the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL. The mean predicted quality control (QC) concentrations deviated less than 5.1% from the corresponding nominal values (ie 4, 80, 400 and 2000 ng/mL); the within- and between-assay precision of the assay were within 5.5% relative standard deviation. Stability of BMS-204352 was confirmed after at least three freeze/thaw cycles and BMS-204532 was stable in dog plasma when stored frozen at or below -20 degrees C for at least 16 weeks in spiked QC samples and for at least 4 1/2 weeks for in vivo study samples. BMS-204352 and IS were stable in the injection solvent at room temperature for at least 24 h. The assay was applied to delineate the pharmacokinetic disposition of BMS-204352 in dogs following a single intravenous dose administration. In conclusion, the assay is accurate, precise, specific, sensitive and

  18. Simultaneous determination of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol in mouse plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Cifelli, Roberta; Di Legge, Cristina; Barbacane, Renato Carmine; Costa, Nicola; Fresta, Massimo; Celia, Christian; Capolupo, Carlo; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2015-04-03

    This paper reports the validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous analysis, in mouse plasma, of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol by protein precipitation using zinc sulphate-methanol-acetonitrile. The analytes were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 μm particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 15 min, comprising re-equilibration, at 60°C (± 1°C). The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.5 to 25 μg/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, in mouse plasma. Ciprofloxacin was used as Internal Standard. Results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.5 μg/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, and matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity, up to 25 μg/mL with correlation coefficients (r(2))≥ 0.9891. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ≤ 1.15% and ≤ 1.46% for eperisone hydrochloride, and ≤ 0.35% and ≤ 1.65% for paracetamol. For both analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (bias%) values ranged, respectively, from -5.33% to 4.00% and from -11.4% to -4.00%. The method was successfully tested in pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration in mouse. Furthermore, the application of this method results in a significant reduction in terms of animal number, dosage, and improvement in speed, rate of analysis, and quality of pharmacokinetic parameters related to serial blood sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High-performance metabolic profiling of plasma from seven mammalian species for simultaneous environmental chemical surveillance and bioeffect monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngja H; Lee, Kichun; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Strobel, Frederick H; Brigham, Kenneth L; Parker, Richard E; Wilson, Mark E; Sutliff, Roy L; Mansfield, Keith G; Wachtman, Lynn M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2012-05-16

    High-performance metabolic profiling (HPMP) by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography gives relative quantification of thousands of chemicals in biologic samples but has had little development for use in toxicology research. In principle, the approach could be useful to detect complex metabolic response patterns to toxicologic exposures and to detect unusual abundances or patterns of potentially toxic chemicals. As an initial study to develop these possible uses, we applied HPMP and bioinformatics analysis to plasma of humans, rhesus macaques, marmosets, pigs, sheep, rats and mice to determine: (1) whether more chemicals are detected in humans living in a less controlled environment than captive species and (2) whether a subset of plasma chemicals with similar inter-species and intra-species variation could be identified for use in comparative toxicology. Results show that the number of chemicals detected was similar in humans (3221) and other species (range 2537-3373). Metabolite patterns were most similar within species and separated samples according to family and order. A total of 1485 chemicals were common to all species; 37% of these matched chemicals in human metabolomic databases and included chemicals in 137 out of 146 human metabolic pathways. Probability-based modularity clustering separated 644 chemicals, including many endogenous metabolites, with inter-species variation similar to intra-species variation. The remaining chemicals had greater inter-species variation and included environmental chemicals as well as GSH and methionine. Together, the data suggest that HPMP provides a platform that can be useful within human populations and controlled animal studies to simultaneously evaluate environmental exposures and biological responses to such exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of metabolite of nicergoline in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and its application in pharmacokinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A fast, simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method has been developed for determination of 10α-methoxy-6-methyl ergoline-8β-methanol (MDL, a main metabolite of nicergoline in human plasma. One-step liquid–liquid extraction (LLE with diethyl ether was employed as the sample preparation method. Tizanidine hydrochloride was selected as the internal standard (IS. Analysis was carried out on a Diamonsil ODS column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm using acetonitrile–ammonium acetate (0.1 mol/L (15/85, v/v as mobile phase at detection wavelength of 224 nm. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 2.288–73.2 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ of 2.288 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision values were below 13% and the recoveries were from 74.47% to 83.20% at three quality control levels. The method herein described was successfully applied in a randomized crossover bioequivalence study of two different nicergoline preparations after administration of 30 mg in 20 healthy volunteers. Keywords: Nicergoline, 10α-methoxy-6-methylergoline-8β-methanol (MDL, HPLC, Plasma-drug concentration, Bioequivalence study

  1. High performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for V and Ni quantification as tetrapyrroles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, Christiane Béatrice; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Miekeley, Norbert; da Fonseca, Teresa Cristina Oliveira; Szatmari, Peter

    2011-05-01

    A method was developed for the determination of V and Ni as tetrapyrroles by High Performance Liquid Chromatography hyphenated to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) using reversed phase and elution gradient. Chlorinated solvents and tetrahydrofuran were investigated as regard to separation time and ICP-MS detection efficiencies. The final elution gradient program started from pure methanol to a mixture of 20:80 (v/v) chloroform:methanol. External quantification of V and Ni with inorganic standards by flow injection ICP-MS, used online with HPLC, resulted in 95% of recoveries. The Limits of Detection for V during methanol elution and for Ni during the 20% chloroform gradient elution were evaluated by their minimum detectable concentrations, which were, respectively, 5 μg L - 1 and 8 μg L - 1 . The methodology was applied to polar and resin fractions separated from a Brazilian crude oil and a sediment extract from an oil-polluted area in the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Vanadium as tetrapyrroles represented the totality of V content in the polar fraction, whereas Ni was in different polar forms in the resin and sediment extract.

  2. Determination of isoquercitrin in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a novel synergistic cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Sun, Jiang Bing; Wang, Qiao Feng

    2018-01-01

    A novel improved preconcentration method known as synergistic cloud point extraction was established for isoquercitrin preconcentration and determination in rat plasma prior to its determination by high performance liquid chromatography. Synergistic cloud point extraction greatly simplified isoquercitrin extraction and detection. This method was accomplished at room temperature (about 22°C) in 1min with the nonionic surfactant Tergitol TMN-6 as the extractant, n-octanol as cloud point revulsant and synergic reagent. Parameters that affect the synergistic cloud point extraction processes, such as the concentrations of Tergitol TMN-6, volume of n-octanol, sample pH, salt content and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve for the analyte was linear in the range from 5 to 500ngmL -1 with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.9996. Meanwhile, limit of detection (S/N=3) was less than 1.6ngmL -1 and limit of quantification (S/N=10) was less than 5ngmL -1 . It demonstrated that the method can be successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic investigation of isoquercitrin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fingerprinting of complex mixtures with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yongnian; Peng Yunyan; Kokot, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The molecular and metal profile fingerprints were obtained from a complex substance, Atractylis chinensis DC-a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with the use of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques. This substance was used in this work as an example of a complex biological material, which has found application as a TCM. Such TCM samples are traditionally processed by the Bran, Cut, Fried and Swill methods, and were collected from five provinces in China. The data matrices obtained from the two types of analysis produced two principal component biplots, which showed that the HPLC fingerprint data were discriminated on the basis of the methods for processing the raw TCM, while the metal analysis grouped according to the geographical origin. When the two data matrices were combined into a one two-way matrix, the resulting biplot showed a clear separation on the basis of the HPLC fingerprints. Importantly, within each different grouping the objects separated according to their geographical origin, and they ranked approximately in the same order in each group. This result suggested that by using such an approach, it is possible to derive improved characterisation of the complex TCM materials on the basis of the two kinds of analytical data. In addition, two supervised pattern recognition methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) method, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were successfully applied to the individual data matrices-thus, supporting the PCA approach

  4. [Simultaneous determination of tryptophan and its metabolites in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with on-column derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengya; Gao, Jieying; Zhen, Qianna; Fan, Zimian; Zhu, Mingsong; Yang, Xiangchun; Ding, Min

    2013-06-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/fluorescence detection (HPLC-UV/FLD) with on-column derivatization was established to simultaneously determine tryptophan (Trp), kynurenine (Kyn), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-Hiaa) and kynurenic acid (Kyna). A Hypersil C-18 column (250 mm x 4.0 mm, 5 microm) was used for the analysis at 30 degrees C. The separation was carried out with the mobile phase consisting of 250 mmol/L zinc acetate (pH 5.5) and acetonitrile (95: 5, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min using 3-nitrotyrosine as internal standard (IS). The excitation (Ex) and emission (Em) wavelengths were set at 278 nm (lambda(ex))/343 nm (lambda(em)) for 5-Hiaa and 244 nm (lambda(ex))/400 nm (lambda(em)) for Kyna, while the wavelengths of ultraviolet detection were set at 360 nm for Kyn and IS, 302 nm for Trp. The recoveries were in the range of 91.62% to 114.17%. The linearities were from 2.50 micromol/L to 320.00 micromol/L for Trp, 0.32 micromol/L to 15.36 micromol/L for Kyn, 3.27 nmol/L to 104.60 nmol/L for 5-Hiaa, and 14.00 nmol/L to 464.80 nmol/L for Kyna. The detection limits were 0.078 micromol/L, 0.056 micromol/L, 0.690 nmol/L and 1.290 nmol/L for Trp, Kyn, 5-Hiaa, and Kyna, respectively. Thirty plasma samples of normal pregnant women and 28 plasma samples of healthy controls were tested, and the results exhibited that the concentrations of Trp, Kyn and Kyna in the plasma of the normal pregnant women were significantly different from those of the control group (all P < 0.01). The method is simple and sensitive with good reproducibility, and it is suitable for clinical measurements.

  5. Determination of technetium-99 in soil samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Toshio; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    1997-01-01

    A new powerful analytical technique viz. high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(HPLC/ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of technetium-99( 99 Tc) in soils as a typical environmental sample. Technetium was enriched in a solution from incinerated soil samples by leaching in HNO 3 and passed through 'TEVA resin' column. The solution was injected into HPLC/ICP-MS system to eliminate the interfering elements (i.e. Ru and Mo) and to determine the 99 Tc concentration at the same time. The concentrations of 99 Tc in the incinerated soils were found to be 0.49Bq/kg(0.77ng/kg)-1.4Bq/kg(2.2ng/kg) with the determination limit of 0.02Bq/kg(0.03ng/kg(0.03ppt)). The results indicate the following findings; 1) the determination of 99 Tc by ICP-MS after strict elimination of the interfering elements by HPLC brings about the improvement in their reliability; 2) the detection limits identified are much lower compared with those by conventional ICP-MS methods because of the concentration of 99 Tc to smaller volume, which is due to only 100μl of samples could be measured by HPLC/ICP-MS system; 3) sample preparation could be simplified because of strict elimination of the interfering elements by HPLC. This research showed that HPLC/ICP-MS system is very effective to determine 99 Tc in environmental samples. (author)

  6. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 5.Speciation of Arsenic Compounds in Biological Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaise, Toshikazu

    Arsenic originating from the lithosphere is widely distributed in the environment. Many arsenicals in the environment are in organic and methylated species. These arsenic compounds in drinking water or food products of marine origin are absorbed in human digestive tracts, metabolized in the human body, and excreted viatheurine. Because arsenic shows varying biological a spects depending on its chemical species, the biological characteristics of arsenic must be determined. It is thought that some metabolic pathways for arsenic and some arsenic circulation exist in aqueous ecosystems. In this paper, the current status of the speciation analysis of arsenic by HPLC/ICP-MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry) in environmental and biological samples is summarized using recent data.

  7. Analysis of ferromagnetic shielding of the ITER NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Lucca, F.; Roccella, R.; Cocilovo, V.; Ramogida, G.; Portone, A.; Tanga, A.; Formisano, A.; Martone, R.

    2006-01-01

    In ITER two heating and one diagnostic Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) are foreseen [P. L. Mondino et al., ''ITER neutral beam system '', Nucl. Fus., vol. 40, p. 501 (2000)]. Inside these components there are very stringent limits on the magnetic field (the flux density must be below some Gauss (G) along the ion path and below 20 G in the neutralizing region). To achieve these performances in an environment with high stray field due to the plasma and the poloidal field coils, both passive and active shielding systems are foreseen. The present design of the Magnetic Field Reduction System (MFRS) is made of seven active coils and of a box surrounding the NBI region, consisting of ferromagnetic plates 15 cm thick. The electromagnetic analysis of the effectiveness of these shields has been performed by a full 3D FEM model using the ANSYS code. To perform the FEM modeling of the component special care has been used to face the particular geometrical features of the component (a box of about 15 x 5 x 5 m vs. a ferromagnetic layer of only 15 cm thick). To insert an adequate number of FEM elements (at least 5) in the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, without a prohibitive increase in the total FEM elements number, a particular modeling approach (a sort of '' Chinese boxes '' technique) has been developed. Due to this technique the FEM model enclosing the ferromagnetic box results completely independent on the fine FEM structure inside the shielding layer. It has been even possible, using this technique, introducing a thin (below 1 cm thick) slot all through the shielding plates, without perturbing the rest of the model. This slot has been used to analyze the effects of possible manufacturing lacks on the residual magnetic field inside the component. This technique has allowed the use of only structured meshes made by brick elements, much more accurate than the tetra elements, needed in the usual free meshing techniques. To have the possibility of changing the shielding

  8. Determination of phenolic derivatives of antipyrine in plasma with solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, S.A.J.; Ligor, T.; Lieshout, van H.P.M.; Huf, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This manuscript describes a method to determine antipyrine and its phenolic derivatives in plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC–MS). The sample pretreatment consisted of a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE), to remove the salts and proteins. The

  9. Analysis of 6-mercaptopurine in human plasma with a high-performance liquid chromatographic method including post-column derivatization and fluorimetric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R. E.; Oosterhuis, B.; ten Berge, R. J.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    A relatively simple assay with improved reliability and sensitivity for measuring levels of 6-mercaptopurine in human plasma is presented. After extraction of the compound and the added internal standard with phenyl mercury acetate, samples were separated by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance

  10. Ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Horiike, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shinzaburo; Morita, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1981-10-01

    The design of the active cooling type ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI which receives the total beam power of 5.6 MW for 10 sec continuously is described. It is composed of array of many finned tubes which is made of oxygen free copper with 0.2% silver content. The safety margin against thermal and mechanical troubles is estimated by the heat transfer and the thermal stress calculation. (author)

  11. JT-60 negative ion beam NBI apparatus. Present state of its construction and initial experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-02-01

    The NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) apparatus used for negative ion at first in the world, has an aim to actually prove heating and electric current drive with high density plasma at the JT-60 and to constitute physical and technical bases for selection and design of heating apparatus of ITER (International Thermal Nuclear Fusion Experimental Reactor). Construction of 500 KeV negative ion NBI apparatus for the JT-60 started to operate on 1993 was completed at March, 1996. On the way, at a preliminary test on forming and acceleration of the negative ion beam using a portion of this apparatus, 400 KeV and 13.5 A/D of the highest deuterium negative ion beam acceleration in the world was obtained successfully, which gave a bright forecasting of the plasma heating and electric current drive experiment using the negative ion NBI apparatus. After March, 1996, some plans to begin beam incident experiment at the JT-60 using the negative ion NBI apparatus and to execute the heating and electric current drive experiment at the JT-60 under intending increase of beam output are progressed. (G.K.)

  12. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Wang, Yuesheng; Wei, Huizhen; Ouyang, Hui; He, Mingzhen; Zeng, Lianqing; Shen, Fengyun; Guo, Qiang; Rao, Yi

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Maxing shigan decoction. The analytes were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the qualitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS III HPLC column (75 mm x 2.0 mm, 1.6 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on a Triple TOF 5600 quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. The quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed by separation on an Agilent C18 HPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on an AB Q-TRAP 4500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis results showed that amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin were detected in the plasma sample. The quantitative analysis results showed that the linear range of amygdalin was 1.05-4 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 0 and the linear range of prunasin was 1.25-2 490 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 0. The method had a good precision with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 9.20% and the overall recoveries varied from 82.33% to 95.25%. The limits of detection (LODs) of amygdalin and prunasin were 0.50 ng/mL. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amygdalin and prunasin in plasma sample of rats which were administered by Maxing shigan decoction.

  13. Fluctuations observed in NBI heated Doublet III divertor discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoshima, Shigeru; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Azumi, Masafumi

    1983-10-01

    A specific type of activity associated with fairly large pulsive energy loss has been observed, predominantly during improved confinement (H-mode) discharges in the NBI heated Doublet III tokamak. Large repetitive bursts of edge recycling light with 2-5ms duration and --10ms intervals appear in the course of increasing βsub(p). The amount of energy released by a single burst is estimated to be at least 2-3% of stored energy. As a result of these periodic energy losses, attained values of plasma energy is evaluated to be depressed as much as 10%. Prior to a burst, large m=n=0 magnetic field oscillations of --20kHz were observed with highly peaked distribution near the divertor region. No other particular activities which might be responsible for either the confinement deterioration or improvement have been found throughout the entire operational space. (author)

  14. Design of remote handling equipment for the ITER NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-08-01

    The ITER machine has three Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) placed tangential to the plasma at a minimum radius of 6.25 m. During operation, neutrons produced by the D-T reactions will irradiate the NBI structure and it will become radioactive. Radiation levels will be such that all subsequent maintenance of the NBIs must be carried out remotely. The presence of tritium and possibly radioactive dust requires that precautions be taken during maintenance to prevent the escape of these contaminants beyond the prescribed boundaries. The scope of this task is both the development of remote maintenance procedures and the design of the remote handling equipment to handle the NBIs. This report describes the design of remote handling tools for the ion source and its filaments, transfer cask, maintenance time, manufacturing schedule and cost estimation. (author)

  15. Comparison of turbulence measurements from DIII-D low-mode and high-performance plasmas to turbulence simulations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, T.L.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Sydora, R.D.; Groebner, R.J.; Doyle, E.J.; McKee, G.R.; Peebles, W.A.; Rettig, C.L.; Zeng, L.; Wang, G.

    2002-01-01

    Measured turbulence characteristics (correlation lengths, spectra, etc.) in low-confinement (L-mode) and high-performance plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak [Luxon et al., Proceedings Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] show many similarities with the characteristics determined from turbulence simulations. Radial correlation lengths Δr of density fluctuations from L-mode discharges are found to be numerically similar to the ion poloidal gyroradius ρ θ,s , or 5-10 times the ion gyroradius ρ s over the radial region 0.2 θ,s or 5-10 times ρ s , an experiment was performed which modified ρ θs while keeping other plasma parameters approximately fixed. It was found that the experimental Δr did not scale as ρ θ,s , which was similar to low-resolution UCAN simulations. Finally, both experimental measurements and gyrokinetic simulations indicate a significant reduction in the radial correlation length from high-performance quiescent double barrier discharges, as compared to normal L-mode, consistent with reduced transport in these high-performance plasmas

  16. A quantitative assay of cortisol in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography using a selective chemically bonded stationary phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J.H.M.; Mol, C.R.; Deelder, R.S.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The extraction and subsequent liquid chromatographic analysis of human plasma samples for cortisol is described. Extraction and chromatography are optimized, resulting in a recovery for cortisol of 96% and a detection limit of 1 microgram cortisol in 100 ml plasma. The application of two chemically

  17. QUANTITATIVE-DETERMINATION OF THE DOPAMINE AGONIST LISURIDE IN PLASMA USING HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH FLUORESCENCE DETECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTHERS, BG; KAMERBEEK, WDJV; VANBEUSEKOM, CM; ELSHOF, F; BUITENHUIS, AWD; BRUNT, EPR; LAKKE, JPWF

    1993-01-01

    An HPLC method for the determination of lisuride hydrogen maleate in plasma is described. After addition of ergotamine tartrate as internal standard, plasma is extracted with diethyl ether. Following evaporation of the solvent and redissolving in methanol the extract is injected on a silica HPLC

  18. Analysis of native human plasma proteins and haemoglobin for the presence of bityrosine by high-performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneshvar, B; Frandsen, H; Dragsted, L O

    1997-01-01

    fluorescent substance, bityrosine. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of acid hydrolyzed serum albumin after oxidation with peroxidase/H2O2 or with Cu++/H2O2 showed that bityrosine had been formed whereas oxidation of this protein with Fe(III)/ascorbate did not result in the formation...

  19. Proceedings of JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar on production and steady state confinement of high performance plasmas in magnetic confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Baonian; Toi, Kazuo

    2005-09-01

    The JSPS-CAS Core University Program (CUP) seminar on 'Production and steady-state confinement of high performance plasmas in magnetic confinement systems' was held from 27 July to 29 July 2005 in Institute of Plasma Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China. This seminar was organized in the framework of CUP in the field of plasma and nuclear fusion. About 50 persons including 20 Japanese attendees attended this seminar. Long time sustainment of high confinement and high beta plasmas is crucial for realization of an advanced nuclear fusion reactor. This seminar was motivated to summarize the results of CUP obtained in four years activities of CUP, and to extract crucial issues to be resolved near future, which must drive near and mid- term collaborations in the framework of CUP. The 32 of presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Simple measurement of isepamicin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, in guinea pig and human plasma, using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisotti, S.; Bamonte, F.; Scaglione, F.; Ongini, E.

    1991-01-01

    Isepamicin, the 1-N-(S-alpha-hydroxy-beta-aminopropionyl) derivative of gentamicin B, is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, which not only has most of the properties of amikacin but also is effective against several amikacin-resistant strains of bacteria. The drug was assayed in guinea-pig and human plasma with a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure using precolumn derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and ultraviolet detection. Linearity was established over the range 0.5-40 micrograms/ml using 50 microliters of plasma. Accuracy has a mean relative error of less than 3% and precision a mean coefficient of variation of 5%. Isepamicin was determined without interference from plasma constituents or other drugs commonly prescribed during aminoglycoside therapy. This procedure correlates well with radioimmunoassay and can be used either in experimental studies or therapeutic monitoring of plasma levels

  1. Recent progress in EAST towards long-pulse high-performance operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Wan Baonian; Li Jiangang; Guo Houyang; Liang Yunfeng; Xu Guosheng; Gong Xianzu; Garofalo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Significant advance has been made in EAST on both physics and technology fronts towards the long-pulse operation of high-confinement plasma regimes since the last IAEA-FEC. The EAST capabilities have been greatly upgraded, including the significantly enhanced CW H and CD system with up to 26 MW heating power, more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W monoblock top divertor, two internal cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long-pulse H-mode operation with dominant electron heating and low input torque, and to address some of critical issues for ITER. Remarkable physics progress has been made on controlling transient ELM and stationary divertor heat fluxes, e.g., ELM mitigation/suppression/pacing with LHCD and SMBI, real-time Li aerosol injection for long pulse ELM-free H-mode, edge coherent mode for continuous pedestal particle and power removal, and the combination of LHCD and SMBI to actively modify the stationary power footprint by regulating the divertor conditions. In the 2014 commissioning campaign, long-pulse high-performance H-mode up to 28 s has been obtained with H_9_8∼1.15, i.e., about ∼ 30% higher than the record 32 s H-mode achieved in the 2012 campaign. Other key new experimental achievements are: (1) high performance H-mode with β_N ∼ 2 and plasma stored energy ∼ 220 kJ, (2) high performance operation with core T_e ∼ 4.5 keV, (3) H-mode plasma enabled by NBI alone or LHW+NBI modulation for the first time in EAST, (4) demonstration of a quasi snowflake divertor configuration, (5) new findings on L-H transition and pedestal physics. (author)

  2. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A H; Subramanian, S; Morgan, L R

    1995-08-18

    An analytical method has been developed for the determination of 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (I, trade name A-007) in plasma. Plasma samples are primed with the internal standard, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (II), deproteinized with acetonitrile, centrifuged and filtered prior to assay. The components are then separated on a reversed-phase column with retention times of 4.4 and 6.0 min for I and II, respectively. Ultraviolet detection at 365 nm was employed and little interference with the analyte or the internal standard was noted from other plasma components. This method has been applied to the plasma of rats and monkeys doses for pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies.

  3. Demonstration of high-performance p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors using argon-plasma surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Dae; Kwon, Soo-Hun; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of low-temperature argon (Ar)-plasma surface treatments on the physical and chemical structures of p-type tin oxide thin-films and the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). From the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, we found that SnO was the dominant phase in the deposited tin oxide thin-film, and the Ar-plasma treatment partially transformed the tin oxide phase from SnO to SnO2 by oxidation. The resistivity of the tin oxide thin-film increased with the plasma-treatment time because of the reduced hole concentration. In addition, the root-mean-square roughness of the tin oxide thin-film decreased as the plasma-treatment time increased. The p-type oxide TFT with an Ar-plasma-treated tin oxide thin-film exhibited excellent electrical performance with a high current on-off ratio (5.2 × 106) and a low off-current (1.2 × 10-12 A), which demonstrates that the low-temperature Ar-plasma treatment is a simple and effective method for improving the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide TFTs.

  4. High-performance metabolic profiling of plasma from seven mammalian species for simultaneous environmental chemical surveillance and bioeffect monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngja H.; Lee, Kichun; Soltow, Quinlyn A.; Strobel, Frederick H.; Brigham, Kenneth L.; Parker, Richard E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Sutliff, Roy L.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.

    2012-01-01

    High-performance metabolic profiling (HPMP) by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography gives relative quantification of thousands of chemicals in biologic samples but has had little development for use in toxicology research. In principle, the approach could be useful to detect complex metabolic response patterns to toxicologic exposures and to detect unusual abundances or patterns of potentially toxic chemicals. As an initial study to develop these possible uses,...

  5. CO2 Plasma-Treated TiO2 Film as an Effective Electron Transport Layer for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Jia; Niu, Jinzhi; Liu, Yucheng; Ren, Xiaodong; Feng, Jiangshan; Liu, Zhike; Sun, Jie; Wang, Dapeng; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-10-04

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received great attention because of their excellent photovoltaic properties especially for the comparable efficiency to silicon solar cells. The electron transport layer (ETL) is regarded as a crucial medium in transporting electrons and blocking holes for PSCs. In this study, CO 2 plasma generated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was introduced to modify the TiO 2 ETL. The results indicated that the CO 2 plasma-treated compact TiO 2 layer exhibited better surface hydrophilicity, higher conductivity, and lower bulk defect state density in comparison with the pristine TiO 2 film. The quality of the stoichiometric TiO 2 structure was improved, and the concentration of oxygen-deficiency-induced defect sites was reduced significantly after CO 2 plasma treatment for 90 s. The PSCs with the TiO 2 film treated by CO 2 plasma for 90 s exhibited simultaneously improved short-circuit current (J SC ) and fill factor. As a result, the PSC-based TiO 2 ETL with CO 2 plasma treatment affords a power conversion efficiency of 15.39%, outperforming that based on pristine TiO 2 (13.54%). These results indicate that the plasma treatment by the PECVD method is an effective approach to modify the ETL for high-performance planar PSCs.

  6. Quantitative determination of the dopamine agonist lisuride in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthers, B G; Verhagen Kamerbeek, W D; van Beusekom, C M; Elshof, F; de Ruyter Buitenhuis, A W; Brunt, E P; Lakke, J P

    1993-12-08

    An HPLC method for the determination of lisuride hydrogen maleate in plasma is described. After addition of ergotamine tartrate as internal standard, plasma is extracted with diethyl ether. Following evaporation of the solvent and redissolving in methanol the extract is injected on a silica HPLC column and lisuride is monitored by fluorescence detection using an excitation wavelength of 322 nm and an emission wavelength of 405 nm. The method is sufficiently accurate and precise with a detection limit of 20 pg/ml lisuride in plasma. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by measurements of lisuride levels after oral intake of a 0.6 mg dose of the drug by a healthy male volunteer, showing a peak level of 1266 pg/ml, 45 min after intake.

  7. Simultaneous determination of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and 10,11-carbamazepine epoxide in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M M; Hanson, G D; Schultz, L

    1998-03-01

    The Bioanalytical Chemistry Department at the Madison facility of Covance Laboratories, has developed and validated a simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ) and 10,11-carbamazepine epoxide (CBZ-E) in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with 10,11 dihydrocarbamazepine as the internal standard. Acetonitrile was added to plasma samples containing PHT, CBZ and CBZ-E to precipitate the plasma proteins. After centrifugation, the acetonitrile supernatant was transferred to a clean tube and evaporated under N2. The dried sample extract was reconstituted in 0.4 ml of mobile phase and injected for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Separation was achieved on a Spherisorb ODS2 analytical column with a mobile phase of 18:18:70 acetonitrile:methanol:potassium phosphate buffer. Detection was at 210 nm using an ultraviolet detector. The mean retention times of CBZ-E, PHT and CBZ were 5.8, 9.9 and 11.8 min, respectively. Peak height ratios were fit to a least squares linear regression algorithm with a 1/(concentration)2 weighting. The method produces acceptable linearity, precision and accuracy to a minimum concentration of 0.050 micrograms ml-1 in human plasma. It is also simple and convenient, with no observable matrix interferences.

  8. Proceeding of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru; Hu Liqun; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2014-10-01

    The A3 Foresight Program titled by 'Critical Physics Issues Specific to Steady State Sustainment of High-Performance Plasmas', based on the scientific collaboration among China, Japan and Korea in the field of plasma physics, has been started from August 2012 under the auspice of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, Japan), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, Korea) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, China). The main purpose of this project is to enhance joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to several key physics issues on steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas. The fourth seminar on the A3 collaboration, as the fifth meeting of A3 program, took place in Kagoshima, Japan, 23-26 June 2014, which was hosted by National Institute for Fusion Science, to discuss achievement during past two years and to summarize intermediate report. New collaborative research was also encouraged as well as participation of young scientists. The topics include steady state sustainment of magnetic configuration, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles. This issue is the collection of 41 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 41 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Quasistationary Plasma Predator-Prey System of Coupled Turbulence, Drive, and Sheared E ×B Flow During High Performance DIII-D Tokamak Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barada, K.; Rhodes, T. L.; Burrell, K. H.; Zeng, L.; Bardóczi, L.; Chen, Xi; Muscatello, C. M.; Peebles, W. A.

    2018-03-01

    A new, long-lived limit cycle oscillation (LCO) regime has been observed in the edge of near zero torque high performance DIII-D tokamak plasma discharges. These LCOs are localized and composed of density turbulence, gradient drives, and E ×B velocity shear damping (E and B are the local radial electric and total magnetic fields). Density turbulence sequentially acts as a predator (via turbulence transport) of profile gradients and a prey (via shear suppression) to the E ×B velocity shear. Reported here for the first time is a unique spatiotemporal variation of the local E ×B velocity, which is found to be essential for the existence of this system. The LCO system is quasistationary, existing from 3 to 12 plasma energy confinement times (˜30 - 900 LCO cycles) limited by hardware constraints. This plasma system appears to contribute strongly to the edge transport in these high performance and transient-free plasmas, as evident from oscillations in transport relevant edge parameters at LCO time scale.

  10. Determination of nifedipine in dog plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xigui; Zhou, Shunchang; Fu, Qinqin; Hu, Xianming; Wu, Jianhong

    2014-07-01

    Nifedipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used widely in the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders. In this work, a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to determine nifedipine in dog plasma using nimodipine as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C₈ column. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, water and formic acid (60:40:0.2, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring mode via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. The method has a lower limit of quantification of 0.20 ng/mL with consumption of plasma as low as 0.05 mL. The linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.20-50.0 ng/mL (r = 0.9948). The recoveries of the liquid extraction method were 74.5-84.1%. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 4.1-8.8 and 6.7-7.4%, respectively. The quantification was not interfered with by other plasma components and the method was applied to determine nifedipine in plasma after a single oral administration of two controlled-release nifedipine tablets to beagle dogs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. High performance solution-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by oxygen plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    decrease in oxygen vacancy and residual hydrocarbon concentration in the a-IGZO films, as well as an improvement in the dielectric/channel interfacial roughness. As a result, the TFTs with O2-plasma treated a-IGZO channel layers showed three times higher

  12. Atomic layer deposition of ruthenium on plasma-treated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for high-performance ultracapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Kim, Byungwoo; Park, Suk Won; Kim, Woong; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2014-10-31

    It is challenging to realize a conformal metal coating by atomic layer deposition (ALD) because of the high surface energy of metals. In this study, ALD of ruthenium (Ru) on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out. To activate the surface of CNTs that lack surface functional groups essential for ALD, oxygen plasma was applied ex situ before ALD. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed surface activation of CNTs by the plasma pretreatment. Transmission electron microscopy analysis with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy composition mapping showed that ALD Ru grew conformally along CNTs walls. ALD Ru/CNTs were electrochemically oxidized to ruthenium oxide (RuOx) that can be a potentially useful candidate for use in the electrodes of ultracapacitors. Electrode performance of RuOx/CNTs was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements.

  13. The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance edge localized mode-stable operation in future burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, A. M., E-mail: garofalo@fusion.gat.com; Burrell, K. H.; Meneghini, O.; Osborne, T. H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Eldon, D.; Grierson, B. A.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, New York 10027-6900 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Liu, F.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, P.O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    For the first time, DIII-D experiments have achieved stationary quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) operation for many energy confinement times at simultaneous ITER-relevant values of beta, confinement, and safety factor, in an ITER-like shape. QH-mode provides excellent energy confinement, even at very low plasma rotation, while operating without edge localized modes (ELMs) and with strong impurity transport via the benign edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). By tailoring the plasma shape to improve the edge stability, the QH-mode operating space has also been extended to densities exceeding 80% of the Greenwald limit, overcoming the long-standing low-density limit of QH-mode operation. In the theory, the density range over which the plasma encounters the kink-peeling boundary widens as the plasma cross-section shaping is increased, thus increasing the QH-mode density threshold. The DIII-D results are in excellent agreement with these predictions, and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic analysis of reconstructed QH-mode equilibria shows unstable low n kink-peeling modes growing to a saturated level, consistent with the theoretical picture of the EHO. Furthermore, high density operation in the QH-mode regime has opened a path to a new, previously predicted region of parameter space, named “Super H-mode” because it is characterized by very high pedestals that can be more than a factor of two above the peeling-ballooning stability limit for similar ELMing H-mode discharges at the same density.

  14. Proceedings of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru; Hu Liqun; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2013-06-01

    The A3 Foresight Program titled by 'Critical Physics Issues Specific to Steady State Sustainment of High-Performance Plasmas', based on the scientific collaboration among China, Japan and Korea in the field of plasma physics, has been newly started from August 2012 under the auspice of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, Japan), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, Korea) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, China). A seminar on the A3 collaboration took place in Hotel Gozensui, Kushiro, Japan, 22-25 January 2013. This seminar was organized by National Institute for Fusion Science. One special talk and 36 oral talks were presented in the seminar including 13 Chinese, 14 Japanese and 9 Korean attendees. Steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas is a crucial issue for realizing a nuclear fusion reactor. This seminar was motivated along the issues. Results on fusion experiments and theory obtained through A3 foresight program during recent two years were discussed and summarized. Possible direction of future collaboration and further encouragement of scientific activity of younger scientists were also discussed in this seminar with future experimental plans in three countries. This issue is the collection of 29 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 29 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Molecularly imprinted polymer cartridges coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for simple and rapid analysis of dextromethorphan in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a novel method is described for automated determination of dextromethorphan in biological fluids using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) as a sample clean-up technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, chloroform as porogen and dextromethorphan as template molecule. These imprinted polymers were used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the extraction of dextromethorphan from human plasma samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the MIP cartridges were evaluated. The high selectivity of the sorbent coupled to the high performance liquid chromatographic system permitted a simple and rapid analysis of this drug in plasma samples with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.12 ng/mL and 0.35 ng/mL, respectively. The MIP selectivity was evaluated by analyzing of the dextromethorphan in presence of several substances with similar molecular structures and properties. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the recoveries of dextromethorphan using MIP cartridges from human plasma samples in the range of 1-50 ng/mL were higher than 87%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation and application of a high-performance liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry assay for mosapride in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, N V S; Vishwottam, K N; Manoj, S; Koteshwara, M; Chidambara, J; Varma, D P

    2005-09-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of mosapride (I), a novel and potent gastroprokinetic agent that enhances the upper gastrointestinal motility by stimulating 5-HT(4) receptor. The analyte and internal standard, tamsulosin (II), were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether-dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) using a Glas-Col Multi-Pulse Vortexer. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase Waters symmetry C(18) column with a mobile phase of 0.03% formic acid-acetonitrile (10:90, v/v). The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 422.3 -->198.3 and m/z 409.1 -->228.1 were used to measure I and II, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.5-100.0 ng/mL for mosapride in human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation was 500 pg/mL with a relative standard deviation of less than 15%. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve ranges. A run time of 2.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a throughput of more than 400 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. High performance SiC detectors for MeV ion beamsgenerated by intense pulsed laser plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, M.; Musumeci, P.; Zimbone, M.; Torrisi, L.; La Via, F.; Margarone, Daniele; Velyhan, Andriy; Ullschmied, Jiří; Calcagno, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2013), s. 87-93 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : silicon carbide * ion detectors * high power laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2013

  18. A novel freeze-dried storage and preparation method for the determination of mycophenolic acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Qiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Cheng, Zeneng; Xie, Mengmeng

    2017-09-01

    Plasma samples were conventionally stored at freezing conditions until the time of detection. Such a technique, when carried out over an extended period, is energy consuming; in addition, preparation and transportation of stored samples is inconvenient. In this study, a freeze-dried storage and preparation method was proposed to determine the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in plasma. Fresh plasma samples were freeze-dried using a device, and then stored at ambient temperature. After the stored samples were soaked with methanol spiked with the internal standard, high-performance liquid chromatography was conducted to detect MPA. The proposed method was demonstrated to be precise and accurate over the linear range of 0.5-50 μg mL -1 , with both intra- and inter-day precision being plasma concentration, time point of maximum plasma concentration and elimination half-life, among others, were consistent with the results in the published study. This proposed technique was proved to be simple, reproducible and energy saving. This approach could also simplify the storage and analysis of samples in clinical and scientific drug research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Development and validation of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for analysis of cephradine in human plasma samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Usman, M.; Madni, A.; Akhtar, N.; Khalid, N.; Asghar, W.

    2010-01-01

    An HPLC method with high precision, accuracy and selectivity was developed and validated for the assessment of cephradine in human plasma samples. The extraction procedure was simple and accurate with single step followed by direct injection of sample into HPLC system. The extracted cephradine in spiked human plasma was separated and quantitated using reversed phase C/sub 18/ column and UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. The optimized mobile phase of new composition of 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.4)-acetonitrile (88: 12) was pumped at an optimum flow rate of 1 mL.min/sup 1/. The method resulted linearity in the concentration range 0.15- 20 micro g mL/sup -1/. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 and 0.150 Microg.mL/sup -1/, respectively. The accuracy of method was 98.68 %. This method can 1>e applied for bioequivalence studies and therapeutic drug monitoring as well as for the routine analysis of cephradine. (author)

  20. Determination of total and unbound warfarin and warfarin alcohols in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonaco, Tommaso; Ghimenti, Silvia; Piga, Isabella; Onor, Massimo; Melai, Bernardo; Fuoco, Roger; Di Francesco, Fabio

    2013-11-01

    Two analytical procedures are presented for the determination of the total content and unbound fraction of both warfarin and warfarin alcohols in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried out in isocratic conditions at 25°C on a C-18 reversed-phase column with a mobile phase consisting of a 70% buffer phosphate 25mM at pH=7, 25% methanol and 5% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min. Fluorescence detection was performed at 390nm (excitation wavelength 310nm). Neither method showed any detectable interference or matrix effect. Inter-day recovery of the total warfarin and warfarin alcohols at a concentration level of 1000ng/mL was 89±3% and 73±3%, respectively, whereas for their unbound fraction (at a concentration level of 10ng/mL) was 66±8% and 90±7%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision (assessed as relative standard deviation) was alcohols, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to a pooled plasma sample obtained from 69 patients undergoing warfarin therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of biologically important arsenic species utilizing on-line inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spall, W.D.; Lynn, J.G.; Andersen, J.L.; Valdez, J.G.; Gurley, L.R.

    1986-06-01

    An anion exchange, high-performance liquid chromatography technique using a 15-min linear gradient from water to 0.5 M ammonium carbonate to separate arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid from neutral arsenic containing compounds was developed for application to a study of arsenic metabolism in cultured cell suspensions. Arsenic detection was accomplished by the direct coupling of the column effluent to an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICAP-AES) set to monitor the arsenic emission line at 197.19 nm. The analysis requires 20 min and is sensitive to as low as 60 ng of arsenic injected to the column.

  2. Progressing state of design and R and D of NBI for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-02-01

    In the International Thermal Nuclear Fusion Experimental Reactor (ITER), Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) apparatus is thought to be a powerful means of electric current drive for heating and stabilizing of plasma, and of controlling the plasma stably. Then, design and development of 1 MeV class negative ion NBI apparatus with compactness and better consistency with reactor have been conducted. On its engineering design, numbers of ports for NBI apparatus were changed form 3 to 4 on a stage of intermediate design completion on June, 1995, and then incident power per unit port was increased from 12.5 MW to 16.7 MW, which brought severer characteristics required for negative ion source. At present, designs of beam deflector, magnetic shield, neutron shielding, remote maintenance and so forth as well as negative ion source and accelerator have been progressed. On its engineering R and D, for development of negative ion source, both deuterium negative ion current and its density established about 1/3 of the characteristics in ITER actural apparatus at an aimed operational gas pressure. And, for development of negative ion accerelator, over 80% of the negative ion acceleration energy which corresponds to an aim of ITER could be established. (G.K.)

  3. Validated assay for the simultaneous quantification of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human EDTA plasma and of vincristine concentrations in human plasma ultrafiltrate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Carola W. N.; Israëls, Trijn; Caron, Huib N.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay for the simultaneous determination of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human plasma and an assay for the determination of unbound vincristine are presented.

  4. Simultaneous determination of ribavirin and ribavirin base in monkey plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenkui; Luo, Suyi; Li, Shaoyong; Athill, Lawrence; Wu, Amy; Ray, Tapan; Zhou, Wei; Ke, June; Smith, Harold T; Tse, Francis L S

    2007-02-01

    For the first time, a liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of ribavirin and rabavirin base was developed and validated over the concentration range of 10-5,000 ng/ml, respectively, using a 0.025 ml monkey plasma sample. Ribavirin, ribavirin base, and the internal standards were extracted from monkey plasma via protein precipitation. After evaporation of the supernatant, the extract was reconstituted with 5% methanol (containing 0.1% formic acid) and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Atlantis dc18 (150 mm x 2.1mm, 5 microm) column with mobile phase run in gradient with 100% water containing 0.5% formic acid (A) and 90% acetonitrile (containing 0.5% formic acid (B). The flow rate was 0.4-0.6 ml/min with total cycle time of approximately 7.0 min. Post-column addition of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) at 0.3 ml/min was used to increase the ionization efficiency in the MS source. The method was validated for sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility, stability and recovery. Lack of adverse matrix effect and carry-over was also demonstrated. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control (QC) samples were <9.0% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and 10.8% bias for ribavirin, and 10.3% R.S.D. and 11.3% bias for ribavirin base. The current specific, accurate and precise assay is useful in support of the toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies of these compounds.

  5. Impacts of the Shine Through neutrals on the Vacuum Vessel of TJ-II during NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the impact patterns on the Vacuum Vessel produced by Shine Through neutrals during the tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II Helical Axis Stellarator has been done. The results show two main concentrations. The first one the circular part of the Hard Core, near the zone of closest approach of the beam. The second one, the most important, around the beam exit, on the border between the plate of the HC cover and the sector wall. As expected, the Shine Through loads decrease strongly with plasma density, predominating at low density at NBI start, decreasing quickly when density increases and increasing slightly with the beam energy. No overlapping with lost fast ions impacts is observed, that, in addition, show an opposite behaviour with density. (Author) 3 refs

  6. Impacts of the Shine Through neutrals on the Vacuum Vessel of TJ-II during NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1995-09-01

    A numerical analysis of the impact patterns on the Vacuum Vessel produced by Shine through neutrals during the tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II Helical Axis Stellarator has been done. The results show two main concentrations. The first one the circular part of the Hard Core, near the zone of closest approach of the beam. The second one, the most important, around the beam exit, on the border between the plate of the HC cover and the sector wall. As expected, the Shine through loads decrease strongly with plasma density, predominating at low density at NBI start, decreasing quickly when density increases and increasing slightly with the beam energy. No overlapping with lost fast ions impacts is observed, that, in addition, show an opposite behaviour with density

  7. Analysis of 6-mercaptopurine in human plasma with a high-performance liquid chromatographic method including post-column derivatization and fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, R E; Oosterhuis, B; ten Berge, R J; van Boxtel, C J

    1982-12-10

    A relatively simple assay with improved reliability and sensitivity for measuring levels of 6-mercaptopurine in human plasma is presented. After extraction of the compound and the added internal standard with phenyl mercury acetate, samples were separated by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. On-line the analytes were oxidized to fluorescent products and detected in a flow-fluorimeter. The within-day coefficient of variation was 3.8% at a concentration of 25 ng/ml. The lower detection limit was 2 ng/ml when 1.0 ml of plasma was used. Mercaptopurine concentration versus time curves of two subjects after a single oral dose of azathioprine are shown.

  8. Sensitive determination of 4-O-methylhonokiol in rabbit plasma by high performance liquid chromatography and application to its pharmacokinetic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yue Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel high Performance liquid Chromatographie method was developed for the determination of 4-O-methylhonokiol in rabbit plasma and was applied to its pharmacokinetic investigation. Plasma samples were treated by one-fold volume of methanol and acetonitrile to remove the interference proteins. A reverse phase column of SHIM-PACK VP-ODS (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5.0 Mm was used to separate 4-O-methylhonokiol in the plasma samples. The detection limit of 4-O-methylhonokiol was 0.2 μg/L and the linear ränge was 0.012 – 1.536 μg/L. The good extraction recoveries were obtained for the spiked samples (84.7%, 89.3% and 87.7% for low, middle and high concentrations of added Standards, respectively. The relative standard deviation of intra-day and inter-day precisions was in the ränge from 0.6% to 13.5%. The pharmacokinetic study of 4-O-methylhonokiol was made and the results from the plasma-concentration curve of 4-O-methylhonokiol showed a two-apartment open model. This work developed a sensitive, stable and rapid HPLC method for the determination of 4-O-methylhonokiol and the developed method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of 4-O-methylhonokiol. Keywords: 4-O-methylhonokiol, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, high Performance liquid chromatography, pharmacokinetic

  9. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection to determination of opium alkaloids in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Jouibari, Toraj; Fattahi, Nazir; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Pirsaheb, Meghdad

    2013-11-01

    A novel, simple, rapid and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine opium alkaloids in human plasma. During the extraction procedure, plasma protein was precipitated by using a mixture of zinc sulfate solution and acetonitrile. Some effective parameters on extraction were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions (extraction solvent: 30.0 μl 1-undecanol; disperser solvent: 470 μl acetone; pH: 9; salt addition: 1%(w/v) NaCl and extraction time: 0.5 min), calibration curves are linear in the range of 1.5-1000 μgl(-1) and limit of detections (LODs) are in the range of 0.5-5 μgl(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 100 μgl(-1) of morphine and codeine, 10.0 μgl(-1) of papaverine and 20.0 μgl(-1) of noscapine in diluted human plasma are in the range of 4.3-7.4% (n=5). Finally, the method was successfully applied in the determination of opium alkaloids in the actual human plasma samples. The relative recoveries of plasma samples spiked with alkaloids are 88-110.5%. The obtained results show that DLLME-SFO combined with HPLC-UV is a fast and simple method for the determination of opium alkaloids in human plasma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Ultraviolet Detection of Nilotinib in Human Plasma from Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, and Comparison with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Ryosuke; Satho, Yuhki; Itoh, Hiroki

    2016-11-01

    A method for determining nilotinib concentration in human plasma is proposed using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. Nilotinib and the internal standard dasatinib were separated using a mobile phase of 0.5% Na 2 PO 4 H 2 O (pH 2.5)-acetonitrile-methanol (55:25:20, v/v/v) on a Capcell Pak C18 MG II column (250 × 4.6 mm) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and ultraviolet measurement at 250 nm. The calibration curve exhibited linearity over the nilotinib concentration range of 50-2,500 ng/ml at 250 nm, with relative standard deviations (n = 5) of 7.1%, 2.5%, and 2.9% for 250, 1,500, and 2,500 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limit for nilotinib was 5 ng/ml due to three blank determinations (ρ = 3). This method was successfully applied to assaying nilotinib in human plasma samples from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. In addition, we compared the results with those measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) at BML, Inc. (a commercial laboratory). A strong correlation was observed between the nilotinib concentrations measured by our high-performance liquid chromatographic method and those obtained by LC/MS-MS (r 2 = 0.988, P < 0.01). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A newly validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode array ultraviolet detection for analysis of the antimalarial drug primaquine in the blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Ana Paula Barbosa do; Borborema, Manoella; Ribeiro, Stephan; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecilia Xavier; Paumgartten, Francisco Jose Roma; Moreira, Davyson de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Primaquine (PQ) diphosphate is an 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial drug with unique therapeutic properties. It is the only drug that prevents relapses of Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale infections. In this study, a fast, sensitive, cost-effective, and robust method for the extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet detection (HPLC-DAD-UV ) analysis of PQ in the blood plasma was developed and validated. After plasma protein precipitation, PQ was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-UV with a modified-silica cyanopropyl column (250mm × 4.6mm i.d. × 5μm) as the stationary phase and a mixture of acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 3.80) (45:55) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0mL·min-1, the oven temperature was 50OC, and absorbance was measured at 264nm. The method was validated for linearity, intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, recovery, and robustness. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 1.0 and 3.5ng·mL-1, respectively. The method was used to analyze the plasma of female DBA-2 mice treated with 20mg.kg-1 (oral) PQ diphosphate. By combining a simple, low-cost extraction procedure with a sensitive, precise, accurate, and robust method, it was possible to analyze PQ in small volumes of plasma. The new method presents lower LOD and LOQ limits and requires a shorter analysis time and smaller plasma volumes than those of previously reported HPLC methods with DAD-UV detection. The new validated method is suitable for kinetic studies of PQ in small rodents, including mouse models for the study of malaria.

  12. Determination of oxycodone and its major metabolites noroxycodone and oxymorphone by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in plasma and urine: application to real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, Flaminia; Brauneis, Stefano; Forneris, Alexandre; Pacifici, Roberta; Marinelli, Enrico; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pichini, Simona; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2017-08-28

    Oxycodone is a narcotic drug widely used to alleviate moderate and severe acute and chronic pain. Variability in analgesic efficacy could be explained by inter-subject variations in plasma concentrations of parent drug and its active metabolite, oxymorphone. To evaluate patient compliance and to set up therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the parent drug and its major metabolites noroxycodone and oxymorphone. Extraction of analytes from plasma and urine samples was obtained by simple liquid-liquid extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a reversed phase column using a linear gradient elution with two solvents: acetic acid 1% in water and methanol. The separated analytes were detected with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Separation of analytes was obtained in less than 5 min. Linear calibration curves for all the analytes under investigation in urine and plasma samples showed determination coefficients (r2) equal or higher than 0.990. Mean absolute analytical recoveries were always above 86%. Intra- and inter-assay precision (measured as coefficient of variation, CV%) and accuracy (measured as % error) values were always better than 13%. Limit of detection at 0.06 and 0.15 ng/mL and limit of quantification at 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL for plasma and urine samples, respectively, were adequate for the purpose of the present study. Rapid extraction, identification and quantification of oxycodone and its metabolites both in urine and plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS assay was tested for its feasibility in clinical samples and provided excellent results for rapid and effective drug testing in patients under oxycodone treatment.

  13. A newly validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode array ultraviolet detection for analysis of the antimalarial drug primaquine in the blood plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Barbosa do Carmo

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Primaquine (PQ diphosphate is an 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial drug with unique therapeutic properties. It is the only drug that prevents relapses of Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale infections. In this study, a fast, sensitive, cost-effective, and robust method for the extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet detection (HPLC-DAD-UV analysis of PQ in the blood plasma was developed and validated. METHODS: After plasma protein precipitation, PQ was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-UV with a modified-silica cyanopropyl column (250mm × 4.6mm i.d. × 5μm as the stationary phase and a mixture of acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 3.80 (45:55 as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0mL·min-1, the oven temperature was 50OC, and absorbance was measured at 264nm. The method was validated for linearity, intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, recovery, and robustness. The detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ limits were 1.0 and 3.5ng·mL-1, respectively. The method was used to analyze the plasma of female DBA-2 mice treated with 20mg.kg-1 (oral PQ diphosphate. RESULTS: By combining a simple, low-cost extraction procedure with a sensitive, precise, accurate, and robust method, it was possible to analyze PQ in small volumes of plasma. The new method presents lower LOD and LOQ limits and requires a shorter analysis time and smaller plasma volumes than those of previously reported HPLC methods with DAD-UV detection. CONCLUSIONS: The new validated method is suitable for kinetic studies of PQ in small rodents, including mouse models for the study of malaria.

  14. Divertor pumping system with NBI cryopump for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Noboru; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Ohga, Tokumichi; Seki, Hiroshi; Tanai, Yutaka

    1998-08-01

    The pumping system for JT-60 W-shape divertor with the NBI cryopump have been developed. The pumping speed achieved in the divertor region was 13-15 m 3 /s for deuterium gas with three units of the NBI cryopumps. In a simulation experiment of helium ash exhaust through the divertor, pumping of a mixed gas of helium and deuterium has been demonstrated using the NBI cryosorption pumps covered with an argon condensed layer. Control of neutral particle pressure in the divertor region became possible by having remodeled an aperture of the existing fast shutter, which is installed between the JT-60 vacuum vessel and NBI beam-line, to be regulated. (author)

  15. Integration of cryopump instrumentation for SST-1 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Laxmi Kant; Patel, Paresh J.; Prahlad, V.

    2015-01-01

    A positive ion neutral injector (PINI) capable in delivering 5MW (55kV, 90A) ion beam power is being operated for SST-1 neutral beam injection (NBI). The production and neutralization of the ion beams in the injector requires a gas throughput of 20 torr I/s in the plasma box and 50-100 torr I/s in the neutralizer section. It is necessary to maintain operating pressure of vessel at 10 -5 torr to reduce the re-ionization loss of beam within tolerable limits. Conventional Turbo molecular pumps cannot maintain this vacuum level at required gas feed rate so two cryo condensation pumps are being operated to achieve require vacuum in vessel. In order to monitor and optimize the performance of cryopumps, it is necessary to measure the temperature at various locations in LN 2 and LHe path. It is also required to monitor the level of LHe and LN 2 in cryopumps. Several temperature and level sensors are mounted at various places in cryopumps and integrated with PLC and SCADA based control system. This paper presents the details of sensor mounting, signals conditioning, scheme of their integration with PLC and SCADA and results in detail. (author)

  16. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) analysis of cyanide and thiocyanate from swine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Raj K; Manandhar, Erica; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in swine plasma was developed and validated. Cyanide and thiocyanate were simultaneously analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode after rapid and simple sample preparation. Isotopically labeled internal standards, Na(13)C(15)N and NaS(13)C(15)N, were mixed with swine plasma (spiked and nonspiked), proteins were precipitated with acetone, the samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed and dried. The dried samples were reconstituted in 10 mM ammonium formate. Cyanide was reacted with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and taurine to form N-substituted 1-cyano[f]benzoisoindole, while thiocyanate was chemically modified with monobromobimane to form an SCN-bimane product. The method produced dynamic ranges of 0.1-50 and 0.2-50 μM for cyanide and thiocyanate, respectively, with limits of detection of 10 nM for cyanide and 50 nM for thiocyanate. For quality control standards, the precision, as measured by percent relative standard deviation, was below 8 %, and the accuracy was within ±10 % of the nominal concentration. Following validation, the analytical procedure successfully detected cyanide and thiocyanate simultaneously from the plasma of cyanide-exposed swine.

  17. The importance of the radial electric field (Er) on interpretation of motional Stark effect measurements of the q profile in DIII-D high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H.; Greenfield, C.M.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.

    1997-06-01

    The development of enhanced confinement regimes such as negative central magnetic shear (NCS) and VH-mode illustrates the importance of the q profile and ExB velocity shear in improving stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas. Recently, it was realized that the large values of radial electric field observed in these high performance plasmas, up to 200 kV/m in DIII-D, have an effect on the interpretation of motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements of the q profile. It has also been shown that, with additional MSE measurements, one can extract a direct measurement of E r in addition to the usual poloidal field measurement. During a recent vent on DIII-D, 19 additional MSE channels with new viewing angles were added (for a total of 35 channels) in order to descriminate between the neutral beam v b x B electric field and the plasma E r field. In this paper, the system upgrade will be described and initial measurements demonstrating simultaneous measurement of the q and E r profiles will be presented

  18. Quantitative determination of famotidine in human maternal plasma, umbilical cord plasma and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Rytting, Erik; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    The liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of famotidine in human urine, maternal and umbilical cord plasma was developed and validated. The plasma samples were alkalized with ammonium hydroxide and extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The extraction recovery of famotidine in maternal and umbilical cord plasma ranged from 53% to 64% and 72% to 79%, respectively. Urine samples were directly diluted with the initial mobile phase then injected into the HPLC system. Chromatographic separation of famotidine was achieved by using a Phenomenex Synergi™ Hydro-RP™ column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 10 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution (pH 8.3, adjusted with ammonium hydroxide). Mass Spectrometric detection of famotidine was set in the positive mode and used a selected ion monitoring method. Carbon-13-labeled famotidine was used as internal standard. The calibration curves were linear (r2> 0.99) in the concentration ranges of 0.631-252 ng/mL for umbilical and maternal plasma samples, and of 0.075-30.0 μg/mL for urine samples. The relative deviation of method was less than 14% for intra- and inter-day assays, and the accuracy ranged between 93% and 110%. The matrix effect of famotidine in human urine, maternal and umbilical cord plasma is less than 17%. PMID:23401067

  19. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  20. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of talazoparib in rat plasma: Application to plasma protein binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidau, Mahendra Kumar; Kolluru, Srikanth; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2018-02-01

    A sensitive and selective RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantification of a highly potent poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor talazoparib (TZP) in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed with isocratic elution method. Absorbance for TZP was measured with a UV detector (SPD-20A UV-vis) at a λ max of 227 nm. Protein precipitation was used to extract the drug from plasma samples using methanol-acetonitrile (65:35) as the precipitating solvent. The method proved to be sensitive and reproducible over a 100-2000 ng/mL linearity range with a lower limit of quantification (LLQC) of 100 ng/mL. TZP recovery was found to be >85%. Following analytical method development and validation, it was successfully employed to determine the plasma protein binding of TZP. TZP has a high level of protein binding in rat plasma (95.76 ± 0.38%) as determined by dialysis method. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Plasma L-ergothioneine measurement by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis after a pre-column derivatization with 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein (5-IAF) and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgia, Salvatore; Pisanu, Elisabetta; Pintus, Gianfranco; Erre, Gian Luca; Pinna, Gerard Aime; Deiana, Luca; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Two sensitive and reproducible capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence procedures were established for quantitative determination of L-egothioneine in plasma. After derivatization of L-ergothioneine with 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein, the separation was carried out by HPLC on an ODS-2 C-18 sperisorb column by using a linear gradient elution and by HPCE on an uncoated fused silica capillary, 50 µm id, and 60 cm length. The methods were validated and found to be linear in the range of 0.3 to 10 µmol/l. The limit of quantification was 0.27 µmol/l for HPCE and 0.15 µmol/l for HPLC. The variations for intra- and inter-assay precision were around 6 RSD%, and the mean recovery accuracy close to 100% (96.11%).

  2. Determination of pharmacological levels of harmane, harmine and harmaline in mammalian brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, J

    1989-11-24

    Increased blood aldehyde levels, as occur in alcohol intoxication, could lead to the formation of beta-carbolines such as harmane by condensation with indoleamines. Endogenous beta-carbolines, therefore, should occur in specific brain areas where indoleamine concentrations are high, whilst exogenous beta-carbolines should exhibit an even distribution. The author presents direct and sensitive methods for assaying the beta-carbolines harmane, harmine and harmaline in brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma at picogram sample concentrations using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection and minimal sample preparation. Using these assay methods, it was found that the distribution of beta-carbolines from a source exogenous to the brain results in a relatively even distribution within the brain tissue.

  3. Speciation of eight arsenic compounds in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection using antimonate for internal chromatographic standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pritzl, G.; Hansen, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Four anionic and four cationic arsenic compounds in urine were separated by anion- and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at m/z 75. The species were the anions arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate...... and dimethylarsinate and the cations arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion. Hexahydroxyantimonate(III) was co-chromatographed with the arsenic anions but detected at m/z 121 and used as an internal standard for their qualitative analysis. Arsenite was prone to oxidation....... The argon chloride interference at m/z 75 was eliminated by chromatographic separation of the chloride present in the sample from the arsenic analytes. The ClO+ ion detected at m/z 51 and 53 was used to monitor the retention time of chloride in the anion-exchange system. The chloride eluted about 100 s...

  4. Metabolite characterization of a novel sedative drug, remimazolam in human plasma and urine using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with synapt high-definition mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Pei; Jiang, Ji

    2017-04-15

    Remimazolam is a new chemical entity belonging to the benzodiazepine class of sedative drugs, which shows faster-acting onset and recovery than currently available short-acting sedatives. In the present study, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with synapt high-definition mass spectrometry method combined with MassLynx software was established to characterize metabolites of remimazolam in human plasma and urine. In total, 5 human metabolites were detected, including 3 phase I and 2 phase II metabolites. There was no novel human metabolite detected compared to that in rat. Hydrolysis, glucuronidation and oxidation were the major metabolic reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the human metabolic profile of remimazolam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A rapid monitoring method for inorganic arsenic in rice flour using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Chiba, Koichi; Sinaviwat, Savarin; Feldmann, Jörg

    2017-01-06

    A new rapid monitoring method by means of high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) following the heat-assisted extraction was developed for measurement of total inorganic arsenic species in rice flour. As(III) and As(V) eluted at the same retention time and completely separated from organoarsenic species by an isocratic elution program on a reversed phase column. Therefore, neither ambiguous oxidation of arsenite to arsenate nor the integration of two peaks were necessary to determine directly the target analyte inorganic arsenic. Rapid injection allowed measuring 3 replicates within 6min and this combined with a quantitative extraction of all arsenic species from rice flour by a 15min HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 extraction makes this the fastest laboratory based method for inorganic arsenic in rice flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative determination of regorafenib and its two major metabolites in human plasma with high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazuma; Miura, Masatomo; Shibata, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    A simple, highly sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of regorafenib, N-oxidemetabolite (M-2) and the desmethyl N-oxide metabolite (M-5) in human plasma. Regorafenib, M-2, M-5 and the internal standard sorafenib were separated using a mobile phase of 0.5% KH2 PO4 (pH 3.5)-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v), on a Capcell PAK MG II column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and measurement at UV 260 nm. The lower limits of quantification for regorafenib, M-2 and M-5 were 10 ng/mL for each analyte. A procedure using solid-phase extraction required only a small amount of plasma (100 μL) for one analysis while providing high extraction recovery (>81% for all compounds) and good selectivity. Coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-day assays were HPLC assay is suitable for clinical pharmacokinetic studies of regorafenib. The present HPLC method is currently in use for our observational studies of patients under treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A Wide Linearity Range Method for the Determination of Lenalidomide in Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglieri-López, Beatriz; Pérez-Pitarch, Alejandro; Martinez-Gómez, Maria Amparo; Porta-Oltra, Begoña; Climente-Martí, Mónica; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde

    2016-12-01

    A wide linearity range analytical method for the determination of lenalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma for pharmacokinetic studies is required. Plasma samples were ultrasonicated for protein precipitation. A solid-phase extraction was performed. The eluted samples were evaporated to dryness under vacuum, and the solid obtained was diluted and injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Separation of lenalidomide was performed on an Xterra RP C18 (250 mm length × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer/acetonitrile (85:15, v/v, pH 3.2) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL · min -1 The samples were monitored at a wavelength of 311 nm. A linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (r = 0.997, n = 9) was found between the peak area and lenalidomide concentrations in the range of 100 to 950 ng · mL -1 The limits of detection and quantitation were 28 and 100 ng · mL -1 , respectively. The intra- and interassay precisions were satisfactory, and the accuracy of the method was proved. In conclusion, the proposed method is suitable for the accurate quantification of lenalidomide in human plasma with a wide linear range, from 100 to 950 ng · mL -1 This is a valuable method for pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide in human subjects. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Determination of rifampicin in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection after automatized solid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, B; Fernandez, C; Zahr, N; Sauvageon-Martre, H; Maslanka, P; Faure, P; Mourah, S; Goldwirt, L

    2016-12-01

    A precise and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification method of rifampicin in human plasma was developed and validated using ultraviolet detection after an automatized solid-phase extraction. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, extraction recovery, linearity, intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy, lower limit of quantification and stability. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Chromolith RP 8 column using a mixture of 0.05 m acetate buffer pH 5.7-acetonitrile (35:65, v/v) as mobile phase. The compounds were detected at a wavelength of 335 nm with a lower limit of quantification of 0.05 mg/L in human plasma. Retention times for rifampicin and 6,7-dimethyl-2,3-di(2-pyridyl) quinoxaline used as internal standard were respectively 3.77 and 4.81 min. This robust and exact method was successfully applied in routine for therapeutic drug monitoring in patients treated with rifampicin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Method for the quantification of vanadyl porphyrins in fractions of crude oils by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Flow Injection-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandekoken, Flávia G.; Duyck, Christiane B.; Fonseca, Teresa C. O.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2016-05-01

    High performance liquid chromatography hyphenated by flow injection to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-FI-ICP-MS) was used to investigate V linked to porphyrins present in fractions of crude oil. First, the crude oil sample was submitted to fractionation by preparative liquid chromatography with UV detection, at the porphyrin Soret band wavelength (400 nm). The obtained porphyrin fractions were then separated in a 250 mm single column, in the HPLC, and eluted with different mobile phases (methanol or methanol:toluene (80:20; v:v)). The quantification of V-porphyrins in the fractions eluted from HPLC was carried out by online measuring the 51V isotope in the ICP-MS, against vanadyl octaethylporphine standard solutions (VO-OEP), prepared in the same solvent as the mobile phase, and injected post-column directly into the plasma. A 20 μg L- 1 Ge in methanol was used as internal standard for minimizing non-spectral interference, such as short-term variations due to injection. The mathematical treatment of the signal based on Fast Fourier Transform smoothing algorithm was employed to improve the precision. The concentrations of V as V-porphyrins were between 2.7 and 11 mg kg- 1 in the fractions, which were close to the total concentration of V in the porphyrin fractions of the studied crude oil.

  10. Fast Determination of Toxic Arsenic Species in Food Samples Using Narrow-bore High-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Amanda; Marcinkowska, Monika; Ardini, Francisco; Grotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the speciation analysis of arsenic in food using narrow-bore high-performance liquid-chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) has been developed. Fast separation of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid was carried out in 7 min using an anion-exchange narrow-bore Nucleosil 100 SB column and 12 mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of pH 5.2 as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). A PFA-ST micronebulizer jointed to a cyclonic spray chamber was used for HPLC-ICP-MS coupling. Compared with standard-bore HPLC-ICP-MS, the new method has provided higher sensitivity, reduced mobile-phase consumption, a lower matrix plasma load and a shorter analysis time. The achieved instrumental limits of detection were in the 0.3 - 0.4 ng As mL(-1) range, and the precision was better than 3%. The arsenic compounds were efficiently (>80%) extracted from various food samples using a 1:5 methanol/water solution, with additional ultrasonic treatment for rice products. The applicability of this method was demonstrated by the analysis of several samples, such as seafood (fish, mussels, shrimps, edible algae) and rice-based products (Jasmine and Arborio rice, spaghetti, flour, crackers), including three certified reference materials.

  11. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Two Recently FDA Approved TKIs in Human Plasma Using Diode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have narrow therapeutic window and large interpatient variability compared to intrapatient variability. In order to support its therapeutic drug monitoring, two fast and accurate methods were developed for the determination of recently FDA approved anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors, afatinib and ibrutinib, in human plasma using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to PDA detection. Diclofenac sodium was used as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 analytical column using a mobile phase combining ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile at a constant flow rate of 0.4 mL/min using gradient elution mode. A µSPE (solid phase extraction procedure, using Oasis MCX µElution plates, was processed and it gave satisfying and reproducible results in terms of extraction yields. Additionally, the methods were successfully validated using the accuracy profiles approach (β = 95% and acceptance limits = ±15% over the ranges 5–250 ng/mL for afatinib and from 5 to 400 ng/mL for ibrutinib in human plasma.

  12. Determination of atenolol in human plasma using ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted in situ solvent formation microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Mohsen; Farahani, Hadi; Papan, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-06-01

    An efficient analytical method called ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted in situ solvent formation microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of atenolol in human plasma. A hydrophobic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was formed by the addition of a hydrophilic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) to a sample solution containing an ion-pairing agent during microextraction. The analyte was extracted into the ionic liquid phase while the microextraction solvent was dispersed throughout the sample by utilizing ultrasound. The sample was then centrifuged, and the extracting phase retracted into the microsyringe and injected to liquid chromatography. After optimization, the calibration curve showed linearity in the range of 2-750 ng/mL with the regression coefficient corresponding to 0.998. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and quantification (S/N = 10) were 0.5 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. A reasonable relative recovery range of 90-96.7% and satisfactory intra-assay (4.8-5.1%, n = 6) and interassay (5.0-5.6%, n = 9) precision along with a substantial sample clean-up demonstrated good performance of the procedure. It was applied for the determination of atenolol in human plasma after oral administration and some pharmacokinetic data were obtained. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Determination of torasemide in human plasma and its bioequivalence study by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and selective method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS to determine the concentration of torasemide in human plasma samples was developed and validated. Tolbutamide was chosen as the internal standard (IS. The chromatography was performed on a Gl Sciences Inertsil ODS-3 column (100 mm×2.1 mm i.d., 5.0 µm within 5 min, using methanol with 10 mM ammonium formate (60:40, v/v as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The targeted compound was detected in negative ionization at m/z 347.00 for torasemide and 269.00 for IS. The linearity range of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 1–2500 ng/mL (r=0.9984 for torasemide in human plasma. The accuracy of this measurement was between 94.05% and 103.86%. The extracted recovery efficiency was from 84.20% to 86.47% at three concentration levels. This method was also successfully applied in pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence studies in Chinese volunteers.

  14. A simple and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine plasma biotin in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ando, Itiro; Oguma, Shiro; Sato, Emiko; Imai, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Masako

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and selective method for determination of plasma biotin was developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After single-step protein precipitation with methanol, biotin and stable isotope-labeled biotin as an internal standard (IS) were chromatographed on a pentafluorophenyl stationary-phase column (2.1 × 100 mm, 2.7 μm) under isocratic conditions using 10 mm ammonium formate-acetonitrile (93:7, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The total chromatographic runtime was 5 min for each injection. Detection was performed in a positive electrospray ionization mode by monitoring selected ion transitions at m/z 245.1/227.0 and 249.1/231.0 for biotin and the IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05-2 ng/mL using 300 μL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day precisions were all biotin concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Simultaneous extraction and quantification of lamotrigine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin in human plasma and urine samples using solidified floating organic drop microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Abbasi, Bijan

    2015-07-01

    A novel and simple method based on solidified floating organic drop microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and phenytoin in human plasma and urine samples. Factors affecting microextraction efficiency such as the type and volume of the extraction solvent, sample pH, extraction time, stirring rate, extraction temperature, ionic strength, and sample volume were optimized. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. extraction solvent, 1-undecanol (40 μL); sample pH, 8.0; temperature, 25°C; stirring rate, 500 rpm; sample volume, 7 mL; potassium chloride concentration, 5% and extraction time, 50 min), the limits of detection for phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and phenytoin were 1.0, 0.1, and 0.3 μg/L, respectively. Also, the calibration curves for phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and phenytoin were linear in the concentration range of 2.0-300.0, 0.3-200.0, and 1.0-200.0 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations for six replicate extractions and determinations of phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and phenytoin at 50 μg/L level were less than 4.6%. The method was successfully applied to determine phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and phenytoin in plasma and urine samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-12-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of chromium species are highly dependable on the form or species, therefore determination of total chromium is insufficient for a complete toxicological evaluation and risk assessment. An analytical method for determination of soluble and insoluble Cr (III) and Cr (VI) compounds in welding fume at workplace air has been developed. The total chromium (Cr) was determined by using quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC(®)). Soluble trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A high-speed, reversed-phase CR C8 column (PerkinElmer, Inc., Shelton, CT, USA) was used for the speciation of soluble Cr (III) and soluble Cr (VI). The separation was accomplished by interaction of the chromium species with the different components of the mobile phase. Cr (III) formed a complex with EDTA, i.e. retained on the column, while Cr (VI) existed in the solutions as dichromate. Alkaline extraction (2% KOH and 3% Na2CO3) and anion exchange column (PRP-X100, PEEK, Hamilton) were used for the separation of the total Cr (VI). The results of the determination of Cr (VI) were confirmed by the analysis of the certified reference material BCR CRM 545 (Cr (VI) in welding dust). The results obtained for the certified material (40.2±0.6 g kg(-1)) and the values recorded in the examined samples (40.7±0.6 g kg(-1)) were highly consistent. This analytical method was applied for the determination of chromium in the samples in the workplace air collected onto glass (Whatman, Ø 37 mm) and membrane filters (Sartorius, 0.8 μm, Ø 37 mm). High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a remarkably powerful and versatile technique for determination of chromium species in welding fume at workplace air. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by

  17. Superparamagnetic graphene oxide-based dispersive-solid phase extraction for preconcentration and determination of tamsulosin hydrochloride in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Yaser; Ghorbani-Bidkorbeh, Fatemeh; Shekarchi, Maryam

    2017-05-26

    In the present study, superparamagnetic graphene oxide-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a modified impregnation method (MGO mi ) and their application as a sorbent in the magnetic-dispersive solid phase extraction (M-dSPE) mode to the preconcentration and determination of tamsulosin hydrochloride (TMS) in human plasma was investigated by coupling with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the prepared nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Some factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including the pH value, amount of sorbent, extraction time, elution solvent and its volume, and desorption time were studied and optimized. Magnetic nanocomposites plasma extraction of TMS following HPLC analyses showed a linear calibration curve in the range of 0.5-50.0ngmL -1 with an acceptable correlation coefficient (R 2 =0.9988). The method was sensitive, with a low limit of detection (0.17ngmL -1 ) and quantification (0.48ngmL -1 ). Inter- and intra-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (n=3) and the preconcentration factor, were found to be 5.6-7.2%, 2.9-4.2% and 10, respectively. Good recoveries (98.1-101.4%) with low relative standard deviations (4.2-5.0%) indicated that the matrices under consideration do not significantly affect the extraction process. Due to its high precision and accuracy, the developed method may be a HPLC-UV alternative with M-dSPE for bioequivalence analysis of TMS in human plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination and pharmacokinetic properties of arsenic speciation in Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Luo, Jiaoyang; Zhou, Wenju; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2016-10-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography with a Hamilton PRP-X100 ion-exchange column (250 × 4.1 mm id, 10 μm) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed to generate a full concentration-time profile of arsenic speciation after oral administration. The results exhibited good linearity and revealed that, in the pills, the average arsenic concentration was 10105.4 ± 380.7 mg/kg, and in the water extraction solution, the inorganic As(III) and As(V) concentrations were 220.1 ± 12.6 and 45.5 ± 2.3 mg/kg, respectively. No trace of monomethyl arsenic acid was detected in any of the plasma samples. We then successfully applied the established methodology to examine the pharmacokinetics of arsenic speciation. The resulting data revealed that, after oral administration in rats, the plasma concentration of each arsenic species reached C max shortly after initial dosing, and that the distribution and elimination of As(V) was faster than that of As(III) and dimethyl arsenic acid. Additionally, the t 1/2 values of As(V), As(III), and dimethyl arsenic acid were 3.4 ± 1.6, 14.3 ± 4.0, and 19.9 ± 1.6 h, respectively. This study provides references for the determination of arsenic speciation in mineral-containing medicines and could serve as a useful tool in measuring the true toxicity in traditional medicines that contain them. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. New high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of diclofenac and meloxicam in oral formulation of liposomes and human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, A.; Ahmad, M.; Usman, M.; Zubair, M.M.; Shoiab, H.M.; Khan, S.A.; Qureshi, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    A new, easy and consistent reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of diclofenac potassium (DP) and meloxicam (MLX) in liposome, marketed brands and human plasma. Microextraction method based on liquid-liquid extraction principal was used to extract drug from plasma matrix. The optimized mobile phase was used in the molar ratio of 20:20:60 (v/v/v) mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and 20 x 10/sup -3/ M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.7), pumped at an optimized flow rate of 1.0 mL.min/sup -1/. The linearity was performed in the concentration range of 15 ng.mL/sup -1/ to 10 mu g.mL/sup -1/ with gamma/sup 2/ of 0.9989 +- 0.13 and 0.9979 +- 0.11 (n = 6) for DP and MLX, respectively. The assay was repeatable at concentration levels of 10 ng.mL/sup -1/, 1 mu g.mL/sup -1/ and 10 mu g.mL/sup -1/ with coefficient of variation of 0.168 - 0.603% for 10 ng.mL-1 (DP), 15 ng.mL/sup -/1 (MLX) and 1 mu g.mL/sup -1/ and 10 mu g.mL/sup -1/ for DP and MLX. The LOD values were 3 and 5 ng.mL/sup -1/, while values of LOQ were 10 and 15 ng.mL/sup =11, for DP and MLX. The present method is applicable in routine quality control operations, advanced drug delivery formulations (Liposomes) and in human Plasma samples for pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence studies. (author)

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography with time-programmed fluorescence detection for the quantification of Levofloxacin in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in adults with tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toi, Pham; Pouplin, Thomas; Tho, Nguyen Duc Khanh; Phuong, Pham Nguyen; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Thuong Thuong, Nguyen Thuy; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Hien, Tran Tinh; Thwaites, Guy E

    2017-09-01

    An accurate and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography with time-programmed fluorescence detection was developed and validated to measure levofloxacin in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). After solid phase extraction process using Evolute ® ABN 96 fixed well plate; levofloxacin and internal standard-enoxacin were separated using a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer 10mM with 0.025% triethylamine pH 3.0 - acetonitrile (88:12, v/v) on a Purosphere RP-8e column (5μm, 125×4.0mm) at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min at 35°C. The excitation/emission wavelengths were set to 269/400nm and 294/500nm, for enoxacin and levofloxacin, respectively. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.02 to 20.0μg/mL with a limit of detection of 0.01μg/mL. The relative standard deviation of intra-assay and inter-assay precision for levofloxacin at four quality controls concentrations (0.02, 0.06, 3.0 and 15.0μg/mL) were less than 7% and the accuracies ranged from 96.75% to 101.9% in plasma, and from 93.00% to 98.67% in CSF. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify levofloxacin in a considerable quantity of plasma (826) and CSF (477) samples collected from 232 tuberculous meningitis patients, and the preliminary intensive pharmacokinetics analysis from 14 tuberculous meningitis patients in Vietnam is described in this paper. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry vs. commercial immunoassay for determination of vancomycin plasma concentration in children. Possible implications for everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Sebastiano; Castagnola, Elio; Gennai, Iulian; Barbagallo, Laura; Loy, Anna; Tripodi, Gino; Cangemi, Giuliana

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is necessary for effective and safetherapy. The aim of the this paper was to develop a specific and robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for vancomycin quantification starting from low plasma volumes to be applied for the routine TDM in children. Samples from children receiving intravenous vancomycin were analysed using a TSQ Quantum Access MAX Triple Quadrupole system coupled with an Accela 1250 UHPLC system after a rapid protein precipitation. Gradient separation chromatography was carried out using a Hypersil GOLD aQ C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, particle size 1.9 μm). Method performance was validated following international guidelines. UHPLC-MS/MS allowed a rapid and specific quantification of vancomycin over the range 0.1-128 μg/mL from 50 μL of plasma with high reproducibility and accuracy in the absence of matrix effect. The comparison with the commercial immunoassay performed on 138 samples demonstrated the presence of a proportional bias. The concentrations of vancomycin measured with immunoassay were found to be 4.5% (95% CI: 1.3-7.7) higher than those determined with UHPLC-MS/MS. Importantly, a clinical discordance was found in about 10% of samples analysed. This new UHPLC-MS/MS method is accurate and specific for the measurement of vancomycin starting from small (50 μL) plasma volumes. The use of UHPLC-MS/MS is recommended to prevent a misclassification of therapeutic or toxic vancomycin levels in paediatrics.

  2. Determination of plasma concentrations of levofloxacin by high performance liquid chromatography for use at a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis hospital in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebers, Andrew; Stroup, Suzanne; Mpagama, Stellah; Kisonga, Riziki; Lekule, Isaack; Liu, Jie; Heysell, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring may improve multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment outcomes. Levofloxacin demonstrates significant individual pharmacokinetic variability. Thus, we sought to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection for levofloxacin in patients on MDR-TB treatment. The HPLC-UV method is based on a solid phase extraction (SPE) and a direct injection into the HPLC system. The limit of quantification was 0.25 μg/mL, and the assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.25-15 μg/mL (y = 0.5668x-0.0603, R2 = 0.9992) for the determination of levofloxacin in plasma. The HPLC-UV methodology achieved excellent accuracy and reproducibility along a clinically meaningful range. The intra-assay RSD% of low, medium, and high quality control samples (QC) were 1.93, 2.44, and 1.90, respectively, while the inter-assay RSD% were 3.74, 5.65, and 3.30, respectively. The mean recovery was 96.84%. This method was then utilized to measure levofloxacin concentrations from patients' plasma samples from a retrospective cohort of consecutive enrolled subjects treated for MDR-TB at the national TB hospital in Tanzania during 5/3/2013-8/31/2015. Plasma was collected at 2 hours after levofloxacin administration, the time of estimated peak concentration (eCmax) treatment. Forty-one MDR-TB patients had plasma available and 39 had traceable programmatic outcomes. Only 13 (32%) patients had any plasma concentration that reached the lower range of the expected literature derived Cmax with the median eCmax being 5.86 (3.33-9.08 μg/ml). Using Classification and Regression Tree analysis, an eCmax ≥7.55 μg/mL was identified as the threshold which best predicted cure. Analyzing this CART derived threshold on treatment outcome, the time to sputum culture conversion was 38.3 ± 22.7 days vs. 47.8 ± 26.5 days (p = 0.27) and a greater proportion were cured, in 10 out of 15 (66.7%) vs. 6 out of 18 (33.3%) (p

  3. Homodyne reflectometer for NBI interlock on Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kawahata, Kazuo; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Ejiri, Akira

    2001-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) under low density causes serious damage on vacuum vessel wall. It is necessary to stop NBI when electron density becomes lower than 1x10 19 m -3 . This needs reliable density monitor for NBI interlock. A three-channel homodyne reflectometer was installed on Large Helical Device (LHD) and was used for NBI interlock. 28.5, 34.9 and 40.2 GHz Gunn oscillators were used with O mode injection. Their O mode cut off density correspond to 1x10 19 , 1.5x10 19 and 2x10 19 m -3 respectively. The simple homodyne detection is presently used. When the density reaches to the cutoff density, the reflected signals are detected. The reflected signal consists of DC signal due to local and reflected power, and AC signal due to position of cut off layer and density fluctuation. Since the change of DC signal at lower and higher than cut off density was very small, root mean square (RMS) value of AC signal were used for interlock signal. This interlock system is successfully working from the beginning of the NBI experiments campaign on LHD. (author)

  4. Instrumentation for NBI SST-1 cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Karishma; Patel, Paresh; Jana, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) System is one of the heating systems for Steady state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1). It is capable of generating a neutral hydrogen beam of power 0.5 MW at 30 kV. NBI system consists of following sub-systems: Ion source, Neutralizer, Deflection Magnet and Magnet Liner (ML), Ion Dump (ID), V-Target (VT), Pre Duct Scraper (PDS), Beam Transmission Duct (BTD) and Shine Through (ST). For better heat removal management purpose all the above sub-systems shall be equipped with Heat Transfer Elements (THE). During beam operation these sub-systems gets heated due to the received heat load which requires to be removed by efficient supplying water. The cooling water system along with the other systems (External Vacuum System, Gas Feed System, Cryogenics System, etc.) will be controlled by NBI Programmable Logic Control (PLC). In this paper instrumentation and its related design for cooling water system is discussed. The work involves flow control valves, transmitters (pressure, temperature and water flow), pH and conductivity meter signals and its interface with the NBI PLC. All the analog input, analog output, digital input and digital output signals from the cooling water system will be isolated and then fed to the NBI PLC. Graphical Users Interface (GUI) needed in the Wonderware SCADA for the cooling water system shall also be discussed. (author)

  5. Cannabinoids assessment in plasma and urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after molecularly imprinted polymer microsolid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Juan; Salgueiro-Fernández, Rocío; Cabarcos, Pamela; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) selective for cannabinoids [Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC-COOH), and 11-hydroxy-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC-OH)] has been synthesized, fully characterized, and applied to the assessment of plasma and urine analysis of marijuana abuse by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Δ9-THC-COOH was used as a template molecule, whereas ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was used as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene (DVB) as a cross-linker, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. The prepared MIP was found to be highly selective for cannabinoids typically found in blood and urine, and also for cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). MIP beads (50 mg) were loaded inside a cone-shaped device made of a polypropylene (PP) membrane for microsolid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) in batch mode. Optimum retention of analytes (0.1 to 1.0 mL of plasma/urine) was achieved by fixing plasma/urine pH at 6.5 and assisting the procedure by mechanical shaking (150 rpm, 40 °C, 12 min). Optimum elution conditions implied 2 mL of a 90:10 methanol/acetic acid and ultrasound extraction (35 kHz, 325 W) for 6 min. Good precision was assessed by intra-day and inter-day assays. In addition, the method was found to be accurate after intra-day and inter-day analytical recovery assays and after analyzing control serum and urine control samples. The limits of quantification were in the range of 0.36-0.49 ng L -1 (plasma analysis) and 0.47-0.57 ng L -1 (urine analysis). These values are low enough for confirmative conclusions regarding marijuana abuse through blood and urine analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of GHB, GHB-glucuronide in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of narcoleptic patients under sodium oxybate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Roberta; Pichini, Simona; Pedersen, Daniel S; Pacifici, Roberta; Moresco, Monica; Pizza, Fabio; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Sodium oxybate (Xyrem ® ), the sodium salt of γ- hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is a first-line treatment of the symptoms induced by type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) and it is highly effective in improving sleep architecture, decreasing excessive daytime sleepiness and the frequency of cataplexy attacks. Using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) validated method, GHB was determined together with its glucuronide (GHB-gluc), in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of NT1 patients under sodium oxybate treatment. To characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics of GHB, three subjects with NT1 were administered at time 0 and 4h with 1.25, 1.5 and 3.55g Xyrem ® , respectively and had their blood samples collected at 7 time points throughout an 8-h session. CSF specimens, collected for orexin A measurement from the same three subjects 6h after their second administration, were also tested. The results obtained suggested that GHB plasma values increased disproportionally with the rising doses, (C max0-4 : 12.53, 32.95 and 69.62μg/mL; C max4-8 : 44.93, 75.03 and 111.93μg/mL for total Xyrem ® dose of 2.5, 3 and 7g respectively) indicating non-linear dose-response. GHB-Gluc was present only in traces in all plasma samples from treated patients, not changing with increasing Xyrem ® doses. GHB values of 5.62, 6.10 and 17.74μg/mL for 2, 3 and 7g Xyrem ® were found in CSF with a significant difference from control values. GHB-Gluc was found in negligible concentrations with no differences to those of control individuals. In conclusion this simple and fast UHPLC-MS/MS method proved useful for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of GHB in narcoleptic patients treated with sodium oxybate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous quantitation of hydrazine and acetylhydrazine in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization with p-tolualdehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lu; Gao, Dan; Li, Shangfu; Wang, Yanwei; Liu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuyang

    2017-09-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of hydrazine and acetylhydrazine in human plasma based on the strategy of p-tolualdehyde derivatization. The derivatization reactions were easily realized by ultrasonic manipulation for 40min. Good separation of the derivatization products was achieved using a C 18 column by gradient elution. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) monitored for the two hydrazine derivatives were m/z 237.1≫>119.9 and m/z 176.9≫>117.8, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for hydrazine were 0.002 and 0.005ngmL -1 separately. And they were 0.03 and 0.05ngmL -1 for acetylhydrazine, respectively. The linear range was 0.005-50ngmL -1 for hydrazine and 0.05-500ngmL -1 for acetylhydrazine with R 2 greater than 0.999. The recovery range was determined to be 95.38-108.12% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 1.24-14.89%. The method was successfully applied to detect 30 clinical plasma samples of pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated with isoniazid. The concentrations were from 0.04-1.99ngmL -1 for hydrazine and 0.06-142.43ngmL -1 for acetylhydrazine. The results indicated that our developed method had the potential for the detection of hydrazine toxicology in complex biological samples. Furthermore, the method has an important significance to clinical treatment with drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Quantification of piperazine phosphate in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry employing precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Wu, Lili; Chen, Yun

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a novel method that combines dansyl chloride (DNS-CL) derivatization with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) for the sensitive and selective determination of piperazine phosphate in human plasma. After addition of ondansetron hydrochloride as internal standard (IS), piperazine phosphate was derivatized and then extracted with ethyl acetate. After being evaporated and reconstituted, the sample was analyzed using LC-ESI/MS/MS. Separation was achieved using an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C(18) (150 mm x 2.1 mm I.D., 3.5 microm) column and isocratic elution with 10 mM ammonium acetate solution (pH 3.0)-methanol (50: 50, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operating in positive ion and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with the precursor to product ion transitions m/z 320-->171 for DNS-CL-piperazine phosphate and m/z 294-->170 for the IS. The method was fully validated for its selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. The coefficient (r) of piperazine phosphate with a linear range of 0.1-15 microg mL(-1) was 0.9974-0.9995. The limit of detection and lower limit of quantification in human plasma were 0.01 and 0.1 microg mL(-1), respectively. The validated LC-ESI/MS/MS method has been successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of piperazine phosphate trochiscus in Chinese healthy male volunteers. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of rivaroxaban in patient's plasma samples by anti-Xa chromogenic test associated to High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derogis, Priscilla Bento Matos; Sanches, Livia Rentas; de Aranda, Valdir Fernandes; Colombini, Marjorie Paris; Mangueira, Cristóvão Luis Pitangueira; Katz, Marcelo; Faulhaber, Adriana Caschera Leme; Mendes, Claudio Ernesto Albers; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo Dos Santos; França, Carolina Nunes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos

    2017-01-01

    Rivaroxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, therapeutically indicated in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases. As other new oral anticoagulants, routine monitoring of rivaroxaban is not necessary, but important in some clinical circumstances. In our study a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was validated to measure rivaroxaban plasmatic concentration. Our method used a simple sample preparation, protein precipitation, and a fast chromatographic run. It was developed a precise and accurate method, with a linear range from 2 to 500 ng/mL, and a lower limit of quantification of 4 pg on column. The new method was compared to a reference method (anti-factor Xa activity) and both presented a good correlation (r = 0.98, p plasma samples for rivaroxaban measurement by HPLC-MS/MS without interferences. The chromogenic and HPLC-MS/MS methods were highly correlated and should be used as clinical tools for drug monitoring. The method was applied successfully in a group of 49 real-life patients, which allowed an accurate determination of rivaroxaban in peak and trough levels.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of 7 arsenic species in chicken muscle and chicken liver with high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Hu, Qiaoru; Guo, Wei; Liu, Yumin; Song, Xiaohua; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2011-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 7 arsenic species was developed with high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The sample was extracted with artificial gastric juice. The HPLC separation was performed on an anion analytical column utilizing a gradient elution program of ammonium carbonate and water as the mobile phase. Identification and quantification were achieved by ICP-MS. Good linearities of 7 arsenic species were observed in the range from 1 microg/kg to 50 microg/kg with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The average recoveries of 7 arsenic species spiked at the three levels of 1, 2 and 10 microg/kg ranged from 84.3% to 106.6% with the relative standard deviations of 1.4%-4.2%. The quantification limits of 7 arsenic species were 1 microg/kg. The method was proved to be good reproducibility, high sensitivity and simple preprocessing. This method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of 7 arsenic species in chicken muscle and chicken liver.

  11. Speciation of mercury in water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Xiaoyu; Han Yi; Liu Xinli [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Duan Taicheng, E-mail: tcduan@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130022 (China); Chen Hangting, E-mail: htchen@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation of mercury in water samples was described. Firstly methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}) and mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) were complexed with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, and then the complexes were extracted into carbon tetrachloride by using DLLME. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors of 138 and 350 for MeHg{sup +} and Hg{sup 2+} were obtained from only 5.00 mL sample solution. The detection limits of the analytes (as Hg) were 0.0076 ng mL{sup -1} for MeHg{sup +} and 0.0014 ng mL{sup -1} for Hg{sup 2+}, respectively. The relative standard deviations for ten replicate measurements of 0.5 ng mL{sup -1} MeHg{sup +} and Hg{sup 2+} were 6.9% and 4.4%, respectively. Standard reference material of seawater (GBW(E)080042) was analyzed to verify the accuracy of the method and the results were in good agreement with the certified values. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the speciation of mercury in three environmental water samples.

  12. Speciation Analysis of Trace Mercury in Sea Cucumber Species of Apostichopus japonicus Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Conjunction With Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Luo, Jiaoyang; Ding, Tong; Gu, Shanyong; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2018-03-25

    In this paper, a simple and cost-effective method using high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for analysis speciation of trace mercury in sea cucumber species of Apostichopus japonicus. The effective separation of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, and ethylmercury was achieved within 10 min using Agilent ZORBAX SB-C 18 analytical and guard columns with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 8% methanol and 92% H 2 O containing 0.12% L-cysteine (m/v) and 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate. Mercury species were extracted from A. japonicus samples using a solution containing 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine, and hydrochloric acid and sonicating for 0.5 h. The limits of detection of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, and ethylmercury were 0.12, 0.08, and 0.20 μg/L, and the minimum detectable concentrations (measured at 0.500 g sample volume in 10.00 mL) were 2.4, 1.6, and 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Analysis of a scallop certified reference material (GBW 10024) revealed accordance between the experimental and certified values. This study provides a reference for the evaluation of mercury speciation in sea cucumber and other seafood.

  13. Determination of Tributyltin in Seafood Based on Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fe3O4 was adopted as a carrier for surface molecular imprinting with two-stage polymerization. First, the functional monomer (methacrylic acid, MAA was modified on the surface of Fe3O4, which was then polymerized with the template molecule (tributyltin, TBT, cross linking agent (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, EGDMA, and porogen (acetonitrile, hereby successfully preparing Fe3O4@MIPs prone to specifically identify TBT. The physical properties of Fe3O4@MIPs were then characterized, and adsorption and selection capacities were also assessed. Compared with conventional imprinting polymers, this magnetic molecular imprinting polymer (MIP displayed significantly increased and more specific adsorption. Meanwhile, its pretreatment was simpler and faster due to magnetic separation characteristics. Using magnetic MIPs as adsorbents for enrichment and separation, detection limit, recovery rate, and linear range were 1.0 ng g−1, 79.74–95.72%, and 5 ng g−1~1000 ng g−1, respectively, for a number of seafood samples. High-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS was used to analyze Tegillarca granosa, mussels, large yellow croaker, and other specimens, with recovery rates of 79.74–95.72% and RSD of 1.3%–4.7%. Overall, this method has a shorter total analysis time, lower detection limit, and wider linear range and can be more effectively applied to determine MAA in seawater and seafood.

  14. Simultaneous determination of plasma creatinine, uric acid, kynurenine and tryptophan by high-performance liquid chromatography: method validation and in application to the assessment of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxing

    2015-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of a set of reliable markers of renal function, including creatinine, uric acid, kynurenine and tryptophan in plasma. Separation was achieved by an Agilent HC-C18 (2) analytical column. Gradient elution and programmed wavelength detection allowed the method to be used to analyze these compounds by just one injection. The total run time was 25 min with all peaks of interest being eluted within 13 min. Good linear responses were found with correlation coefficient >0.999 for all analytes within the concentration range of the relevant levels. The recovery was: creatinine, 101 ± 1%; uric acid, 94.9 ± 3.7%; kynurenine, 100 ± 2%; and tryptophan, 92.6 ± 2.9%. Coefficients of variation within-run and between-run of all analytes were ≤2.4%. The limit of detection of the method was: creatinine, 0.1 µmol/L; uric acid, 0.05 µmol/L; kynurenine, 0.02 µmol/L; and tryptophan, 1 µmol/L. The developed method could be employed as a useful tool for the detection of chronic kidney disease, even at an early stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of gambogenic acid in dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin Pei; Wang, Dian Lei; Yang, Li Li; Wang, Chen Yin; Wang, Shan Shan

    2014-12-01

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of gambogenic acid in dog plasma. Gambogic acid was used as an internal standard (IS). After a simple liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate, the analyte and internal standard were separated on an Acquity BEH C18 (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm; Waters ) column at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-methanol (10:90, v/v) as mobile phase. Electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring mode with the transitions m/z 631.3 → 507.3 and m/z 629.1 → 573.2 was used to quantify gambogenic acid and the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 5-1000 ng/mL, with a coefficient of determination (r) of 0.999 and good calculated accuracy and precision. The low limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL. The intra-and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviations) were dogs at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Elemental speciation via high-performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic detection: application of a direct injection nebulizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFreniere, K.E; Fassel, V.A.; Eckels, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) interfaced to a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) detection for simultaneous multielement speciation. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained with the DIN interface in the HPLC mode were found to be comparable to those obtained by continuous-flow sample introduction into the ICP, or inferior by up to only a factor of 4. In addition, the DIN allowed for the direct injection into the ICP of a variety of common HPLC solvents (up to 100% methanol, acetonitrile, methyl isobutyl ketone, pyridine, and water). The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES system was compared to other HPLC-atomic spectroscopic detection techniques and was found to offer substantial improvement over the alternative on-line, detection methods in terms of LODs. Representative applications of the HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES system to the elemental speciation of coal process streams, shale oil, solvent refined coal, and crude oil are presented

  17. Simultaneous determination of vinclozolin and detection of its degradation products in mouse plasma, serum and urine, and from rabbit bile, by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjeyan, Mugunthu R; Erhardt, Paul W; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2006-05-19

    A specific high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for simultaneous detection of vinclozolin and its degradation products (M1, M2, and M3). The method has been validated according to ICH guidelines and can be extended to quantitation of vinclozolin. A base-line separation of vinclozolin and its degradation products was found with symmetrical peak shapes on an XTerra MS C18 column using 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate at pH 9.2 and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The retention times of vinclozolin, M1, M2, and M3 were 12.8, 8.1, 11.6, and 11.1 min, respectively. A linear calibration curve was obtained across a range from 5 to 200 microM for vinclozolin. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (%RSD) were vinclozolin from bio-fluids including mouse plasma, serum and urine, and rabbit bile, were obtained in a single step with a single solvent.

  18. Method development for speciation analysis of nanoparticle and ionic forms of gold in biological samples by high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malejko, Julita; Świerżewska, Natalia; Bajguz, Andrzej; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata

    2018-04-01

    A new method based on coupling high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) has been developed for the speciation analysis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and dissolved gold species (Au(III)) in biological samples. The column type, the composition and the flow rate of the mobile phase were carefully investigated in order to optimize the separation conditions. The usefulness of two polymeric reversed phase columns (PLRP-S with 100 nm and 400 nm pore size) to separate gold species were investigated for the first time. Under the optimal conditions (PLRP-S400 column, 10 mmol L-1 SDS and 5% methanol as the mobile phase, 0.5 mL min-1 flow rate), detection limits of 2.2 ng L-1 for Au(III), 2.8 ng L-1 for 10 nm AuNPs and 3.7 ng L-1 for 40 nm AuNPs were achieved. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference material RM 8011 (NIST) of gold nanoparticles of nominal diameter of 10 nm. The HPLC-ICP MS method has been successfully applied to the detection and size characterization of gold species in lysates of green algae Acutodesmus obliquus, typical representative of phytoplankton flora, incubated with 10 nm AuNPs or Au(III).

  19. Arsenic Species in Edible Seaweeds Using In Vitro Biomimetic Digestion Determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite [As (III], arsenate [As (V], methylarsonate (MMA, and dimethylarsinate (DMA in five edible seaweeds (the brown algae Laminaria japonica, red algae Porphyra yezoensis, brown algae Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, and green algae Enteromorpha prolifera were analyzed using in vitro digestion method determined by high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that DMA was found in the water extracts of all samples; As (III were detected in L. japonica and U. pinnatifida and about 23.0 and 0.15 mg/kg of As (V were found in H. fusiformis and E. prolifera respectively. However, after the gastrointestinal digestion, As (V was not detected in any of the five seaweeds. About 0.19 and 1.47 mg/kg of As (III was detected in the gastric extracts of L. japonica and H. fusiformis, respectively, and about 0.31 and 0.10 mg/kg of As (III were extracted from the intestinal extracts of Porphyra yezoensis and U. pinnatifida, respectively. The present results successfully reveal the differences of As species and levels in the water and biomimetic extracts of five edible seaweeds. The risk assessment of the inorganic arsenic in the five edible seaweeds based on present data showed almost no hazards to human health.

  20. Speciation of mercury in water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiaoyu; Han Yi; Liu Xinli; Duan Taicheng; Chen Hangting

    2011-01-01

    The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation of mercury in water samples was described. Firstly methylmercury (MeHg + ) and mercury (Hg 2+ ) were complexed with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, and then the complexes were extracted into carbon tetrachloride by using DLLME. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors of 138 and 350 for MeHg + and Hg 2+ were obtained from only 5.00 mL sample solution. The detection limits of the analytes (as Hg) were 0.0076 ng mL -1 for MeHg + and 0.0014 ng mL -1 for Hg 2+ , respectively. The relative standard deviations for ten replicate measurements of 0.5 ng mL -1 MeHg + and Hg 2+ were 6.9% and 4.4%, respectively. Standard reference material of seawater (GBW(E)080042) was analyzed to verify the accuracy of the method and the results were in good agreement with the certified values. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the speciation of mercury in three environmental water samples.

  1. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography: Mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in biological matrices requires sensitive and specific methods which allow determination of therapeutic concentration in μg/mL range. Analytical methods for determination of their concentrations in body fluids described in literature include high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV detector (HPLC-UV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS method which could be used for the spectral identification and quantification of the low concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma. Method. A sensitive and specific UPLC/MS method for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid determination was developed in this study. The samples were taken from the adult healthy volunteers receiving per os one tablet of amoxicillin (875 mg in combination with clavulanic acid (125 mg. Results. Plasma samples were pretreated by direct deproteinization with perchloric acid. Quantification limit of 0.01 μg/ml for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was achieved. The method was reproducible day by day (RSD < 7 %. Analytical recoveries for amoxicillin ranged from 98.82% to 100.9% (for concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 μg/mL, and recoveries for clavulanic acid were 99,89% to 100.1% (for concentrations of 1, 2 and 5 μg/mL. This assay was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers after a single-oral administration of amoxicillin/ clavulanic combination. The determined plasma concentrations of both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were in the range of the expected values upon the literature data for HPLC-UV and LC-MS methods. Conclusion. The described method provided a few advantages comparing with LC/MS-MS method. The method is faster using running time of 5 minute, has lower limit of quantification (LOQ and it

  2. Chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in rabbit plasma, urine, and vitreous humor using an acetylated beta-cyclodextrin column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, L; Wong, S H; Skrinska, V A

    2000-10-01

    Fluoxetine (Prozac) is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for the treatment of major depression. Both fluoxetine (F) and its demethylated metabolite, norfluoxetine (NF), are racemic. S-Fluoxetine (SF) and S-norfluoxetine (SNF) are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than R-fluoxetine (RF) and R-norfluoxetine (RNF). Quantitation of individual enantiomers may provide a greater understanding of pharmacokinetic properties. The objective of this study was to perform a limited chiral selectivity study using rabbit plasma, urine, and vitreous humor analyzed by a solid-phase extraction protocol and a newly developed chiral analysis with an acetylated beta-cyclodextrin (CD) column. Liquid chromatographic parameters for CD were as follows: a mobile phase composition of methanol/0.3% triethylamine buffer, pH 5.6, (30:70), a flow rate of 1 mL/min, detection at 214 nm, and a temperature of 40 degrees C. Elution order was SNF, SF, RNF, and RF with capacity factors of 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively. The corresponding resolution factors were as follows: R1,2 = 0.8, R2,3 = 1.2, and R3,4 = 0.9. The conditions for solid-phase extraction were optimized for Varian Bond Elut Certify columns. Following sample application, the column was rinsed with water, acetic acid, and then with methanol. Drug enantiomers were eluted with methylene chloride, isopropanol, and ammonium hydroxide (78:20:2). After extract evaporation, the extract residue was reconstituted for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. To investigate chiral pharmacology, a biodistribution study was performed by administering 2 mg/kg of F to five rabbits. Blood, urine, and vitreous specimens were collected. Plasma samples collected 45 min postinjection showed nearly equal concentrations of RF and SE After 24 h, the only metabolite detected in plasma was RNF. Drugs were not detectable in vitreous humor. Urine concentrations of SNF, SF, RNF, and RF were 51, 76, 34, and 8 microg/L, respectively

  3. Development and validation of a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography assay for rogletimide and rogletimide-N-oxide isomers in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, M C; Oster, W; Milano, G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a stereo-specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for rogletimide (Rog) and rogletimide-N-oxide (Nox) isomers in plasma. The assay was performed with a chiral cellulose-[4-methylbenzoate]ester column (Chiracel OJ). Optimal separation was achieved isocratically with a mobile phase consisting of n-hexane/anhydrous ethanol (65/35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min, with the column being thermostated at +35 degrees C (UV detection at 257 nm). Under these conditions, retention times were approximately 17, 28, 31 and 76 min for R-Rog, S-Rog, R-Nox and S-Nox, respectively. S-aminoglutethimide (S-Ag) served as the internal standard (retention time 70 min). An extraction procedure from plasma samples was developed on Bond Elut RP8 500-mg cartridges; conditioning was performed with 5 ml methanol and 5 ml water, after which 1 ml plasma that had previously been spiked with 5 microM S-Ag was applied. Washing was done with 6 ml water and elution, with 4 ml methanol. After evaporation to dryness, residues were dissolved in 400 microliters anhydrous ethanol and 12-48 microliters was injected onto the HPLC system. Blank plasma from healthy donors showed the random presence of a small interference eluting at the retention time of R-Rog, precluding the accurate quantification of R-Rog concentrations below 2.5 microM. Reproducibility assays demonstrated the need to use an internal standard. Taking into account the internal standard, at 2.5 microM the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 10.5% and 21.0% for R-Rog 5.5% and 8.7% for S-Rog, 7.6% and 20.8% for R-Nox and 11.7% and 6.4% for S-Nox, respectively. The detection limit was 2.5 microM for R-Rog, 0.5 microM for S-Rog, 0.25 microM for R-Nox and 0.5 microM for S-Nox. Linearity was satisfactory at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 10 microM for R-Rog, from 0.5 to 10 microM for S-Rog, from 0.25 to 2.5 microM for R-Nox and from 0.50 to 2

  4. Rapid determination of retinoic acid and its main isomers in plasma by second-order high-performance liquid chromatography data modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglia, Carla M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the development of a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to second-order data modeling with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) for quantification of retinoic acid and its main isomers in plasma in only 5.5 min. The compounds retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and 9,13-di-cis-retinoic acid were partially separated by use of a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (3.0 mm × 30 mm, 2.7 μm particle size) column. Overlapping not only among the target analytes but also with the plasma interferents was resolved by exploiting the second-order advantage of the multi-way calibration. A validation study led to the following results: trueness with recoveries of 98.5-105.9 % for RA, 95.7-110.1 % for 13-cis-RA, 97.1-110.8 % for 9-cis-RA, and 99.5-110.9 % for 9,13-di-cis-RA; repeatability with RSD of 3.5-3.1 % for RA, 3.5-1.5 % for 13-cis-RA, 4.6-2.7 % for 9-cis-RA, and 5.2-2.7 % for 9,13-di-cis-RA (low and high levels); and intermediate precision (inter-day precision) with RSD of 3.8-3.0 % for RA, 2.9-2.4 % for 13-cis-RA, 3.6-3.2 % for 9,13-di-cis-RA, and 3.2-2.9 % for 9-cis-RA (low and high levels). In addition, a robustness study revealed the method was suitable for monitoring patients with dermatological diseases treated with pharmaceutical products containing RA and 13-cis-RA.

  5. Impacts of the Shine Through neutrals on the Vacuum Vessel of TJ-II during NBI; Impactos de los Neutros de Shine Through en la Camara de Vacio del TJ-II durante NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1995-07-01

    A numerical analysis of the impact patterns on the Vacuum Vessel produced by Shine Through neutrals during the tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II Helical Axis Stellarator has been done. The results show two main concentrations. The first one the circular part of the Hard Core, near the zone of closest approach of the beam. The second one, the most important, around the beam exit, on the border between the plate of the HC cover and the sector wall. As expected, the Shine Through loads decrease strongly with plasma density, predominating at low density at NBI start, decreasing quickly when density increases and increasing slightly with the beam energy. No overlapping with lost fast ions impacts is observed, that, in addition, show an opposite behaviour with density. (Author) 3 refs.

  6. Speciation of Selenium in Selenium-Enriched Sunflower Oil by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Electrospray-Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierla, Katarzyna; Flis-Borsuk, Anna; Suchocki, Piotr; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-06-22

    The reaction of sunflower oil with selenite produces a complex mixture of selenitriglycerides with antioxidant and anticancer properties. To obtain insight into the identity and characteristics of the species formed, an analytical approach based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with (78)Se-specific selenium detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-resolution (100 000), high mass accuracy (HPLC-ICP MS for the separation of a complex mixture of selenospecies and a mathematical correction of the background signal was developed. The identical chromatographic conditions served for the sample introduction into electrospray MS. Two types of samples were analyzed: sunflower oil dissolved in isopropanol and methanol extract of the oil containing 65% selenium. HPLC-ICP MS showed 14 peaks, 11 of which could also be detected in the methanol extract. Isotopic patterns corresponding to molecules with one or two selenium atoms could be attributed by Orbitrap MS at the retention times corresponding to the HPLC-ICP MS peak apexes. Structural data for these species were acquired by MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation of protonated or sodiated ions using high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD). A total of 11 selenium-containing triglycerol derivatives resulting from the oxidation of one or two double bonds of linoleic acid and analogous derivatives of glycerol-mixed linoleate(s)/oleinate(s) have been identified for the first time. The presence of these species was confirmed by the targeted analysis in the total oil isopropanol solution. Their identification corroborated the predicted elution order in reversed-phase chromatography: LLL (glycerol trilinoleate), LLO (glycerol dilinoleate-oleinate), LOO (glycerol linoleate-dioleinate), OOO (glycerol trioleinate), of which the extrapolation allowed for the prediction of the identity [glycerol dioleinate-stearate (OOS) and glycerol oleinate-distearate (OSS)] of the

  7. Determination of tetrabromobisphenol-A/S and their main derivatives in water samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Liu, Aifeng; Zhang, Qinghua; Shi, Jianbo; He, Bin; Yun, Zhaojun; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-05-12

    As the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) as well as its alternative Tetrabromobisphenol-S (TBBPS) and their derivatives have raised wide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and hence the sensitive detection of those BFRs was urgently needed. Herein, a novel analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of TBBPA/S and their derivatives, including TBBPA-bis(2-hydroxyethyl ether) (TBBPA-BHEE), TBBPA-bis(allylether) (TBBPA-BAE), TBBPA-bis(glycidyl ether) (TBBPA-BGE), TBBPA-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) (TBBPA-BDBPE) and TBBPS-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) (TBBPS-BDBPE) in water samples. After optimization, the TBBPA/S and their derivatives, especially the TBBPA-BAE and TBBPA-BDBPE were simultaneously and sensitively quantified by determination of bromine (m/z=79) by using the ICP-MS. The instrument limits of detection (LODs) for the TBBPA, TBBPA-BHEE, TBBPA-BGE, TBBPA-BAE, TBBPA-BDBPE, TBBPS and TBBPS-BDBPE were determined to be 0.12, 0.14, 0.19, 0.14, 0.12, 0.17 and 0.13μgL -1 , respectively, which was close to or much better than the reported methods. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) of peak area and retention time were better than 2.2% and 0.2% for intra-day analysis, indicating good repeatability and high precision. The proposed method had been successfully applied for the analysis of TBBPA/S and their derivatives in water samples with satisfactory recoveries (67.7%-113%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenic species determination in human scalp hair by pressurized hot water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morado Piñeiro, Andrés; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2013-02-15

    Analytical methods for the determination of total arsenic and arsenic species (mainly As(III) and As(V)) in human scalp hair have been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS have been used for total arsenic and arsenic species determination, respectively. The proposed methods include a "green", fast, high efficient and automated species leaching procedure by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). The operating parameters for PHWE including modifier concentration, extraction temperature, static time, extraction steps, pressure, mean particle size, diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio and flush volume were studied using design of experiments (Plackett-Burman design PBD). Optimum condition implies a modifier concentration (acetic acid) of 150 mM and powdered hair samples fully mixed with diatomaceous earth (DE) as a dispersing agent at a DE mass/sample mass ratio of 5. The extraction has been carried out at 100°C and at an extraction pressure of 1500 psi for 5 min in four extraction step. Under optimised conditions, limits of quantification of 7.0, 6.3 and 50.3 ng g(-1) for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively were achieved. Repeatability of the overall procedure (4.4, 7.2 and 2.1% for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively) was achieved. The analysis of GBW-07601 (human hair) certified reference material was used for validation. The optimised method has been finally applied to several human scalp hair samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A plasma metabonomic analysis on potential biomarker in pyrexia induced by three methods using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Li, Songhe; Tian, Xiumin; Li, Zhaoqin; Cui, Yue; Han, Fei; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2017-09-15

    Pyrexia usually is a systemic pathological process that can lead to metabolic disorders. Metabonomics as a powerful tool not only can reveal the pathological mechanisms, but also can give insight into the progression of pyrexia from another angle. Thus, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FT-ICR-MS) metabonomic approach was employed for the first time to investigate the plasma biochemical characteristics of pyrexia induced by three methods and to reveal subtle metabolic changes under the condition of pyrexia so as to explore its mechanism. The acquired metabolic data of the models were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for allowing the clear separation of the pyrexia rats from the control rats. Variable importance for project values (VIP) and Student's t-test were used to screen the significant metabolic changes caused by pyrexia. Fifty-two endogenous metabolites were identified and putatively identified as potential biomarkers primarily associated with phospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation metabolism, fatty acid amides metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and related to bile acid biosynthesis and glycerolipid catabolism. LysoPC (14:0), LysoPC (18:3), LysoPC (20:4), LysoPC (16:0), phytosphingosine, Cer (d18:0/12:0), N-[(4E,8E)-1,3-dihydroxyoctadeca-4,8-dien-2-yl]hexadecanamide, oleamide, fatty acid amide C22:1, tryptophan, acetylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine and stearoylcarnitine were considered as common potential biomarkers of pyrexia rats induced by three methods: Our results revealed that the UHPLC-FT-ICR-MS-based metabolomic method is helpful for finding new potential metabolic markers for pyrexia detection and offers a good perspective in pyrexia research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-loss interference filter arrays made by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) for high-performance multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broßmann, Jan; Best, Thorsten; Bauer, Thomas; Jakobs, Stefan; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Optical remote sensing of the earth from air and space typically utilizes several channels in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Thin-film optical interference filters, mostly of narrow bandpass type, are applied to select these channels. The filters are arranged in filter wheels, arrays of discrete stripe filters mounted in frames, or patterned arrays on a monolithic substrate. Such multi-channel filter assemblies can be mounted close to the detector, which allows a compact and lightweight camera design. Recent progress in image resolution and sensor sensitivity requires improvements of the optical filter performance. Higher demands placed on blocking in the UV and NIR and in between the spectral channels, in-band transmission and filter edge steepness as well as scattering lead to more complex filter coatings with thicknesses in the range of 10 - 25μm. Technological limits of the conventionally used ion-assisted evaporation process (IAD) can be overcome only by more precise and higher-energetic coating technologies like plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) in combination with optical broadband monitoring. Optics Balzers has developed a photolithographic patterning process for coating thicknesses up to 15μm that is fully compatible with the advanced PARMS coating technology. This provides the possibility of depositing multiple complex high-performance filters on a monolithic substrate. We present an overview of the performance of recently developed filters with improved spectral performance designed for both monolithic filter-arrays and stripe filters mounted in frames. The pros and cons as well as the resulting limits of the filter designs for both configurations are discussed.

  11. Simultaneous quantification of flavonoids in blood plasma by a high-performance liquid chromatography method after oral administration of Blumea balsamifera leaf extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Ismail, Zhari; Mohamed, Nornisah; Karupiah, Sundram

    2013-03-01

    The leaves of Blumea balsamifera are used as a folk medicine in kidney stone diseases in South-East Asia. Phytochemical investigation revealed leaves contained a number of flavonoids. In view of these, the present work was aimed to quantify and preliminary pharmacokinetic investigation of five flavonoids viz. dihydroquercetin-7,4¢-dimethyl ether (I), dihydroquercetin-4¢-methyl ether (II), 5,7,3¢,5¢-tetrahydroxyflavanone (III), blumeatin (IV) and quercetin (V) in rat plasma following oral administration (0.5g/Kg) of B. balsamifera leaf extract in rats. Quantification was achieved by using a validated, reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The mean recoveries of I, II, III, IV and V were 90.6, 93.4, 93.5, 91.2 and 90.3% respectively. The limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL for I and IV, 10 ng/mL for II and III and 100 ng/mL for V respectively. The within day and day-to-day precision for all the compounds were HPLC method herein was applied for pharmacokinetic studies and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were: t1/2 (hr) 5.8, 4.3, 2.9, 5.7 and 7.3, Cmax (ng/mL) 594.9, 1542.9 1659.9, 208.9 and 3040.4; Tmax (hr) 4.7, 1.0, 1.0, 3.5 and 2.3; AUC0-oo (ng hr/mL) 5040, 5893, 9260, 1064 and 27233 for I, II, III, IV and V respectively. The developed method was suitable for pharmacokinetic studies and this preliminary study also revealed significant absorption after oral dosing in rats.

  12. High-confinement NBI discharges in the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroth, U.; Baldzuhn, J.; Geiger, J.; Geist, T.; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Hirsch, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Kick, M.; Koponen, J.P.; Kuehner, G.; Penningsfeld, F.-P.; Wagner, F.

    1998-01-01

    In W7-AS, the longest energy confinement times were achieved in neutral beam injection heated (NBI-heated) discharges under low wall-recycling conditions. Low recycling is needed to control the density at line-averaged values of n-bar e approx. 10 20 m -3 . Under these conditions, confinement was improved by a factor of two above the common scaling estimate. The reduction of radial transport is concentrated into a layer at about two-thirds of the plasma radius. In this region steep pressure gradients and a strong gradient in the radial electric field develop. Specific for the discharges is the slow transition to improved confinement, lasting up to three energy confinement times. Since the measured electric field is consistent with the neoclassical ambipolar field, this high-confinement mode could be an example where sheared plasma flow as created by the neoclassical radial electric field leads to a suppression of anomalous transport. (author)

  13. High-confinement NBI discharges in the W7-AS stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U; Baldzuhn, J; Geiger, J; Geist, T; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H -J; Hirsch, M; Jaenicke, R; Kick, M; Koponen, J P; Kuehner, G; Penningsfeld, F -P; Wagner, F [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    In W7-AS, the longest energy confinement times were achieved in neutral beam injection heated (NBI-heated) discharges under low wall-recycling conditions. Low recycling is needed to control the density at line-averaged values of n-bar{sub e} approx. 10{sup 20}m{sup -3}. Under these conditions, confinement was improved by a factor of two above the common scaling estimate. The reduction of radial transport is concentrated into a layer at about two-thirds of the plasma radius. In this region steep pressure gradients and a strong gradient in the radial electric field develop. Specific for the discharges is the slow transition to improved confinement, lasting up to three energy confinement times. Since the measured electric field is consistent with the neoclassical ambipolar field, this high-confinement mode could be an example where sheared plasma flow as created by the neoclassical radial electric field leads to a suppression of anomalous transport. (author)

  14. Impacts of lost fast ions on the TJ-II Vacuum Vessel during NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-01-01

    The possible deposition patterns, on the Vacuum Vessel, of lost fast ions during the balanced tangential NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator are analysed theoretically, establishing the relation between those impact points, the plasma exit and birth positions and the magnetic configuration characteristics. It is shown that direct losses are the most important, mainly those produced by the beam injected with the same direction that the magnetic field, increasing with beam energy and plasma density but with impacts remaining fixed on well defined zones, a periodically distributed along the Hard Core cover plates, producing high loads at high densities. The remaining losses, except for the shine through ones that predominate at low density, are periodically distributed, with smooth maxima and produce very low loads. No overlapping between the different kind of losses or beams is observed. (Author) 6 refs

  15. Impacts of the CX neutrals on the Vacuum Vessel of TJ-II during NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-09-01

    A numerical analysis of the impact patterns on the Vacuum Vessel produced by CX neutrals during the tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II Helical Axis Stellerator has been done. The results show periodical distribution with smooth maxima and mild loads, concentrated prefentlyon the HC plates. A certain preference of these neutral to emerge downwards from the plasma appears, as consequence of a similar trend for the trapped particles. The differences between the impacts produced by the beam paralel to the magnetic field and the opposite one are small, once more as a consequence of the loss of memory of trapped particles to initial direction. The dependence of loads with plasma density and beam energy follows the trend of CX losses, decreasing strongly with increasing density and decreasing, more smoothly, with energy

  16. Impacts of the CX neutrals on the Vacuum Vessel of TJ-II during NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the impact patterns on the Vacuum Vessel produced by CX neutrals during the tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II Helical Axis Stellarator has been done. The results show periodical distributions with smooth maxima and mild loads, concentrated preferential on the HC plates. A certain preference of these neutral to emerge down wards from the plasma appears, as a consequence of a similar trend for the trapped particles. The differences between the impacts produced by the beam parallel to the magnetic field and the opposite one are small, once more as a consequence of the loss of memory of trapped particles to initial direction. The dependence of loads with plasma density and beam energy follows the trend of CX losses, decreasing strongly with increasing density and decreasing, more smoothly, with energy. (Author) 3 refs

  17. Impacts of lost fast ions on the TJ-II Vacuum vessel during NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-09-01

    The possible deposition patterns, on the Vacuum Vessel, of lost fast ions during the balanced tangential NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator are analysed theoretically, establishing the relation between those impact points, the plasma exit and birth positions and positions and the magnetic configuration characteristics. It is shown that direct losses are the most important, mainly those produced by the beam injected with the same direction that the magnetic field, increasing with beam energy and plasma density but with impacts remaining fixed on well defined zones, a periodically distributed along the Hard Core cover plates, producing high loads at high densities. The remaining losses, except for the shine through ones that predominate at low density, are periodically distributed, with smooth maxima and produce very low loads. No overlapping between the different kind of losses or beams is observed

  18. Measurement of isotopic composition of lanthanides in reprocessing process solutions by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Masanori; Jitsukata, Shu; Kuno, Takehiko; Yamada, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of fission products in process solutions and wastes in a reprocessing plant are valuable to proceed safety study of the solutions and research/development concerning treatment/disposal of the wastes. The amount of neodymium-148 is a reliable indication to evaluate irradiation history. The isotopic compositions of samarium and gadolinium in high radioactive wastes are referred to as essential data to evaluate environmental impact in geological repositories. However, pretreatment of analysis must be done with complicated chemical separation such as solvent extraction and ion exchange. The actual measurement data of isotopic compositions of lanthanides comparable to the one of actinides in spent fuel reprocessing process has not been obtained enough. Rapid and high sensitive analytical technique based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed for the measurement of isotopic compositions of lanthanides in spent fuel reprocessing solutions. HPLC/ICP-MS measurement system was customized for a glove-box to be applied to the radioactive solutions. The cation exchange chromatographic columns (Shim-pack IC-C1) and injection valve (20μL) were located inside of the glove-box except the chromatographic pump. The elements of lanthanide group were separated by a gradient program of HPLC with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid. Isotopic compositions of lanthanides in eluate was sequentially analyzed by a quadruple ICP-MS. Optimization of parameter of HPLC and ICP-MS measurement system was examined with standard solutions containing 14 lanthanide elements. The elements of lanthanides were separated by HPLC and detected by ICP-MS within 25 minutes. The detection limits of Nd-146, Sm-147 and Gd-157 were 0.37 μg L -1 , 0.69 μg L -1 and 0.47 μg L -1 , respectively. The analytical precision of the above three isotopes was better than 10% for standard solutions of 100 μg L -1 with

  19. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the measurement of pyridoxal-5-phosphate and 4-pyridoxic acid in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, Rona; Kozik, Karolina; Milanowski, Maciej; Hernes, Sigrunn; Slettan, Audun; Haugen, Margaretha; Ye, Shu; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, M Azam

    2014-06-10

    Low concentration of plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and inflammation. Most methods for the measurement of plasma PLP require large specimen volume and involve the use of toxic reagents. We have developed a HPLC method for the measurement of PLP and 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) in plasma, which requires small specimen volume. The samples are prepared without adding any toxic reagents. Furthermore, we have examined whether intake of vitamin B6 affects the concentration of plasma PLP and 4-PA. The coefficient of variation of the method was 6% and the recovery of the added vitamin in plasma was about 100%. The concentrations of plasma PLP and 4-PA in 168 healthy subjects were 40.6 (8.4-165.0) nmol/L, median and (range) and 17.5 (3.7-114.79) nmol/L, median and (range) respectively. In the multiple regression analyses, the concentration of plasma PLP was associated with the concentration of plasma 4-PA (pplasma 4-PA was associated with plasma PLP (pplasma PLP and 4-PA. Our findings demonstrate that plasma 4-PA, BMI and sex are the major determinants of plasma PLP in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of Timing Synchronization Software on EAST-NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuanzhe; Hu Chundong; Sheng Peng; Zhang Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    To ensure the uniqueness and recognition of data and make it easy to analyze and process the data of all subsystems of the neutral beam injector (NBI), it is required that all subsystems have a unified system time. In this paper, the timing synchronization software is presented which is related to many kinds of technologies, such as shared memory, multithreading, TCP protocol and so on. Shared memory helps the server save the information of clients and system time, multithreading can deal with different clients with different threads, the server works under Linux operating system, the client works under Linux operating system and Windows operating system. With the help of this design, synchronization of all subsystems can be achieved in less than one second, and this accuracy is enough for the NBI system and the reliability of data is thus ensured. (fusion engineering)

  1. Determination of 20 trace elements and arsenic species for a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine Niuhuang Jiedu tablets by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengfei; Liang, Xiaoli; Xia, Lufeng; Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong; Kuang, Yongmei; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJDT) is a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine. A direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 trace elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, As, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, Se, Co, Mo, Cd, Hg) in NHJDT, as well as in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid was established. Meanwhile, a high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the determination of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and for the identification of arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in these extracts. Both methods were fully validated in the respect of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. The reliability of the ICP-MS method was further evaluated using a certified standard reference material prepared from dried tomato leaves (NIST, SRM 1572a). The analysis showed that some manufacturers formulated lower amount of realgar than required in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) in their preparations. In addition, almost same extraction profiles for total As and inorganic As were found in water and in gastrointestinal fluids, while higher extraction rates for other 19 elements were observed in gastrointestinal fluids. Our findings show that the toxicities of Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb in NHJDP are low, while the real As toxicity in NHJDT should be deeply investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. NBI Calculations for the TJ-II Experimental Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.

    2005-01-01

    The density and electron temperature radial profiles, corresponding to the experimental TJ-II campaigns 2003-2004, with NBI, have been fitted to simple functionals in order to allow a fast approximative evaluation for any given density and injected power... The fits have been calculated, separately, for the four possibilities: ECRH and NBI Phases as well as On and Off Axis ECRH injection. The average difference between the experimental profiles for the individual discharges and the fit predictions are around 8% for the density and 10% for the temperature. The behaviour of the predicted profiles with average line density and injected power has been analysed. The central electron temperature decreases monotonically with increasing density and the ECRH phase On Axis central value is clearly higher than the Off axis one. The radial density profiles narrow with increasing density and the NBI On axis case is clearly wider than de Off one. The electron temperature profile widens slightly with increasing density and the width of the On Axix case is lesser than for the Off case in all phases. There exist Fortran subroutines, available at the three CIEMAT computers, allowing the fast approximative evaluation of all these profiles. (Author) 8 refs

  3. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  4. Physical performance analysis and progress of the development of the negative ion RF source for the ITER NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Berger, M.; Christ-Koch, S.; Falter, H.; Froeschle, M.; Gutser, R.; Heinemann, B.; Martens, C.; McNeely, P.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Staebler, A.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2009-01-01

    For heating and current drive the neutral beam injection (NBI) system for ITER requires a 1 MeV deuterium beam for up to 1 h pulse length. In order to inject the required 17 MW the large area source (1.9 m x 0.9 m) has to deliver 40 A of negative ion current at the specified source pressure of 0.3 Pa. In 2007, the IPP RF driven negative hydrogen ion source was chosen by the ITER board as the new reference source for the ITER NBI system due to, in principle, its maintenance free operation and the progress in the RF source development. The performance analysis of the IPP RF sources is strongly supported by an extensive diagnostic program and modelling of the source and beam extraction. The control of the plasma chemistry and the processes in the plasma region near the extraction system are the most critical topics for source optimization both for long pulse operation as well as for the source homogeneity. The long pulse stability has been demonstrated at the test facility MANITU which is now operating routinely at stable pulses of up to 10 min with parameters near the ITER requirements. A quite uniform plasma illumination of a large area source (0.8 m x 0.8 m) has been demonstrated at the ion source test facility RADI. The new test facility ELISE presently planned at IPP is being designed for long pulse plasma operation and short pulse, but large-scale extraction from a half-size ITER source which is an important intermediate step towards ITER NBI.

  5. Determination of the lactone and lactone plus carboxylate forms of 9-aminocamptothecin in human plasma by sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Loos (Walter); A. Sparreboom (Alex); J. Verweij (Jaap); K. Nooter (Kees); G. Stoter (Gerrit); J.H.M. Schellens (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic fluorescence methods, with simple sample handling at the site of the patient, are described for the determination of the lactone and lactone plus carboxylate forms of g-aminocamptothecin (9AC). For 9AC lactone, the

  6. Design of a negative-ion based NBI system for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Araki, M.; Inoue, T.; Kunieda, S.; Matsuoka, M.; Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Oohara, H.; Watanabe, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a negative-ion based NBI system which is planned as a key device on the JT-60U in the experiments of current drive and plasma core heating with high density plasmas. The NBI system will inject neutral beams of 500keV, 10MW for 10sec from a beamline with two ion sources. The neutral beam will be injected tangentially in the codirection. Each ion source is a modified volume production-type negative-ion source with cesium vapor. The acceleration current is 22A with deuterium beam, and the current density is 13mA/cm 2 . An operational pressure in the negative-ion generator is less than 0.5 Pa. A three-stage electro static acceleration system is adopted as the accelerator. The beamline length between the ion source and the injection port is 24m. The beamline consists of an ion source tank, neutralizer cells of 10m in length, an ion dump tank and a drift duct. The ion source tank contains large cryopumps to maintain the exit of the ion source sufficiently low. The ion dump tank contains ion deflecting coils, ion dumps for positive and negative ions, a calorimeter, cryopumps and beam scrapers. Residual ions are deflected by the combined magnetic fields produced by the deflecting coils and the stray field form the tokamak. The two sources are connected to an acceleration power supply of 500kV/64A/10sec, while the negative-ion generator power, the extraction voltage, and electron-suppression voltage are fed individually

  7. Sawtooth stability in neutral beam heated plasmas in TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, I.T.; Pinches, S. D.; Koslowski, H. R.; Liang, Y.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; De Bock, M.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental sawtooth behaviour in neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas in TEXTOR is described. It is found that the sawtooth period is minimized with a low NBI power oriented in the same direction as the plasma current. As the beam power is increased in the opposite direction to the

  8. Vitamin D analysis in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with C30 reversed phase column and UV detection - easy and acetonitrile-free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Two physiologically important forms of vitamin D exist: vitamin D2 and vitamin D3, which by liver based hydroxylase enzymes are converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. These hydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D are measured in plasma to assess the vtamin D status...... detection at 265nm for quantifying vitamin D2, vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The method proved versatile with respect to plasma lipid content, sample amount, and plasma concentration of the vitamin D metabolites as it was tested using plasma from six different species: cattle...... material® 972 “Vitamin D in human serum” from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (Gaithersburg, USA) the results for 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations were within the boundaries provided by NIST, reflected by Z-scores between 0.1 and 0.9....

  9. Plasma heating and fuelling in the Globus-M spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.K.; Barsukov, A.G.; Belyakov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the last two years of plasma investigations at Globus-M are presented. Described are improvements helping to achieve high performance OH plasmas, which are used as the target for auxiliary heating and fuelling experiments. Increased energy content, high beta poloidal and good confinement are reported. Experiments on NBI plasma heating with a wide range of plasma parameters were performed. Some results are presented and analyzed. Experiments on RF plasma heating in the frequency range of fundamental ion cyclotron harmonics are described. In some experiments which were performed for the first time in spherical tokamaks, promising results were achieved. Noticeable ion heating was recorded at low launched power and a high concentration of hydrogen minority in deuterium plasmas. Simulations of RF wave absorption are briefly discussed. Described also are modification of the plasma gun and test-stand experiments. Fuelling experiments performed at Globus-M are discussed. (author)

  10. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  11. High Performance Macromolecular Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forest, M

    2002-01-01

    .... In essence, most commercial high-performance polymers are processed through fiber spinning, following Nature and spider silk, which is still pound-for-pound the toughest liquid crystalline polymer...

  12. Determination of vitamin B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in plasma: development and evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Marianne R; Bor, Mustafa Vakur; Heinsvig, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    buffer containing 1 g/L sodium bisulfite. The performance of the assay was evaluated by analyzing six plasma samples with interrelated concentration and two control samples (unspiked and vitamer spiked) over a 3-months period. The HPLC method was able to identify PLP, 4-PA, PM, PL, PN, and PMP from all...... other compounds in plasma in an analytical run of 46 min. The imprecisions and mean values (presented in parenthesis in nmol/L) were (unspiked and spiked sample) 9-8% (41-65) for PLP, 12-7% (18-40) for 4-PA, 67-28% (4-19) for PL, 15% (21) for PN, 10% (27) for PM, and 27% (17) for PMP. All three B6...... will be suitable for routine quantitation of PLP and 4-PA in human plasma. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Jun-1...

  13. Determination of levodopa in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS: application to a bioequivalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana F. Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, accurate and simple method using HPLC-MS/MS was developed and validated for levodopa quantitation in human plasma. Analysis was achieved on a pursuit® C18 analytical column (5 µm; 150 x 4.6 mm i.d. using a mobile phase (methanol and water , 90:10, v/v containing formic acid 0.5% v/v, after extracting the samples using a simple protein plasma precipitation with perchloric acid. The developed method was validated in accordance with ANVISA guidelines and was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in 60 healthy volunteers demonstrating the feasibility and reliability of the proposed method.

  14. Arsenic speciation in seafood samples with emphasis on minor constituents. An investigation by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pritzl, G.; Hansen, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Extracts of 11 samples of shrimp, crab, fish, fish liver, shellfish and lobster digestive gland (hepatopancreas), including five certified reference materials, were investigated for their contents of arsenic compounds (arsenic speciation). The cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography...... (as arsenic atom) relative to the total arsenic extracted from the samples were: arsenobetaine 19-98%, arsenocholine and trimethylarsine oxide 0-0.6% and the trimethylarsonium ion 0-2.2%. Additionally, an unknown arsenic species (U1) was present at 3.1-18% in the shellfish and in the lobster digestive...

  15. Speciation of four selenium compounds using high performance liquid chromatography with on-line detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method for the speciation of selenomethionine, selenocystine, selenite and selenate by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with atomic spectrometric detection is presented. An organic polymeric strong anion exchange column was used as the stationary phase in combination...... spectrometry (ICP-MS). The signal-to-noise ratio of the FAAS detector was optimized using a hydrogen-argon entrained-air flame and a slotted-tube atom trap (STAT) in the flame. The limit of detection (3 sigma) achieved by the HPLC-FAAS system was 1 mg L-1 of selenium (100 mu L injections) for each of the four...

  16. Fabrication of high-performance InGaZnOx thin film transistors based on control of oxidation using a low-temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Endo, Masashi; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2018-04-01

    This work demonstrated the low-temperature control of the oxidation of Amorphous InGaZnOx (a-IGZO) films using inductively coupled plasma as a means of precisely tuning the properties of thin film transistors (TFTs) and as an alternative to post-deposition annealing at high temperatures. The effects of the plasma treatment of the as-deposited a-IGZO films were investigated by assessing the electrical properties of TFTs incorporating these films. A TFT fabricated using an a-IGZO film exposed to an Ar-H2-O2 plasma at substrate temperatures as low as 300 °C exhibited the best performance, with a field effect mobility as high as 42.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, a subthreshold gate voltage swing of 1.2 V decade-1, and a threshold voltage of 2.8 V. The improved transfer characteristics of TFTs fabricated with a-IGZO thin films treated using an Ar-H2-O2 plasma are attributed to the termination of oxygen vacancies around Ga and Zn atoms by OH radicals in the gas phase.

  17. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of nicardipine in pure, pharmaceutical preparations and plasma and its application to pharmacokinetics in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikha M. Al-Ghannam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and reproducible reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the determination of nicardipine hydrochloride (NC in pure, pharmaceutical preparations, human plasma and the study of the pharmacokinetics of the drug in human body. Nicardipine in plasma were extracted with hexane-butanol (12:1,v/v after addition of borate buffer (0.5 M, pH=9.0, and then measured by HPLC-UV using a Waters Symmetry C18 column as stationary phase and methanol– triethylamine buffer (0.01M pH 4 with acetic acid (70:30 as mobile phase. Nicardipine was quantified by ultraviolet absorbance at 353 nm. The method proved to be linear in the pure drug in the ranges of 15-200 ng/mL (r=0.9989 and 5-40 ?g/mL (r=0.9995, and for the pharmaceutical preparations and plasma for drug concentrations in the range of 5-40 ?g/mL (r =0.9992 and 25-150 ng/mL (r=0.9991, respectively. The lower limit of detection and the lower quantitation limit of NC in plasma were 11.74 and 35.57 ng/mL, respectively. The method is sensitive and reliable for harmacokineticstudies of nicardipine in humans after the oral administration of immediate-release capsules to healthy subjects.

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of nicardipine in pure, pharmaceutical preparations and plasma and its application to pharmacokinetics in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikha Mohammed Al-Ghannam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and reproducible reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the determination of nicardipine hydrochloride (NC in pure, pharmaceutical preparations, human plasma and the study of the pharmacokinetics of the drug in human body. Nicardipine in plasma were extracted with hexane-butanol (12:1,v/v after addition of borate buffer (0.5 M, pH=9.0, and then measured by HPLC-UV using a Waters Symmetry C18 column as stationary phase and methanol– triethylamine buffer (0.01M pH 4 with acetic acid (70:30 as mobile phase. Nicardipine was quantified by ultraviolet absorbance at 353 nm. The method proved to be linear in the pure drug in the ranges of 15-200 ng/mL (r=0.9989 and 5-40 µg/mL (r=0.9995, and for the pharmaceutical preparations and plasma for drug concentrations in the range of 5-40 µg/mL (r =0.9992 and 25-150 ng/mL (r=0.9991, respectively. The lower limit of detection and the lower quantitation limit of NC in plasma were 11.74 and 35.57 ng/mL, respectively. The method is sensitive and reliable for pharmacokinetic studies of nicardipine in humans after the oral administration of immediate-release capsules to healthy subjects.

  19. Simultaneous determination of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in plasma and urine with dual-column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Stroomer, A. E.; Peters, G. J.; van Gennip, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    F-beta-Alanine and beta-alanine were detected in plasma and urine samples with fluorescence detection of orthophthaldialdehyde derivatives of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine after separation with dual-column reversed-phase HPLC. The detection limits of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in the HPLC

  20. Experiments and simulations for the dynamics of cesium in negative hydrogen ion sources for ITER N-NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutser, Raphael

    2010-07-21

    The injection of fast neutral particles (NBI) into a fusion plasma is an important method for plasma heating and current drive. A source for negative deuterium ions delivering an 1 MeV beam that is accelerated to a specific energy and neutralized by a gas target is required for the ITER-NBI. Cesium seeding is required to extract high negative ion current densities from these sources. The optimization of the cesium homogeneity and control are major objectives to achieve the source requirements imposed by ITER. Within the scope of this thesis, the Monte Carlo based numerical transport simulation CsFlow3D was developed, which is the first computer model that is capable of simulating the flux and the accumulation of cesium on the surfaces of negative-ion sources. Basic studies that support the code development were performed at a dedicated experiment at the University of Augsburg. Input parameters of the ad- and desorption of cesium at ion source relevant conditions were taken from systematic measurements with a quartz micro balance, while the injection rate of the cesium oven at the ion source was determined by surface ionization detection. This experimental setup was used for further investigations of the work function of cesium-coated samples during plasma exposure. (orig.)

  1. Experiments and simulations for the dynamics of cesium in negative hydrogen ion sources for ITER N-NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutser, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    The injection of fast neutral particles (NBI) into a fusion plasma is an important method for plasma heating and current drive. A source for negative deuterium ions delivering an 1 MeV beam that is accelerated to a specific energy and neutralized by a gas target is required for the ITER-NBI. Cesium seeding is required to extract high negative ion current densities from these sources. The optimization of the cesium homogeneity and control are major objectives to achieve the source requirements imposed by ITER. Within the scope of this thesis, the Monte Carlo based numerical transport simulation CsFlow3D was developed, which is the first computer model that is capable of simulating the flux and the accumulation of cesium on the surfaces of negative-ion sources. Basic studies that support the code development were performed at a dedicated experiment at the University of Augsburg. Input parameters of the ad- and desorption of cesium at ion source relevant conditions were taken from systematic measurements with a quartz micro balance, while the injection rate of the cesium oven at the ion source was determined by surface ionization detection. This experimental setup was used for further investigations of the work function of cesium-coated samples during plasma exposure. (orig.)

  2. Ultrasound assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography designated for bioavailability studies of felodipine combinations in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sameh; Atia, Noha N; Bakr Ali, Marwa Fathy

    2017-03-01

    Felodipine (FLD), a calcium channel antagonist, is commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypertension either with Metoprolol (MET) or Ramipril (RAM) in two different drug combinations. FLD has high plasma protein binding ability affecting its extraction recoveries from plasma samples. Hence, a specific ultrasound assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) method coupled with HPLC using photodiode array detector was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of FLD, MET and RAM in rat plasma after oral administration of these combinations. The factors affecting UA-DLLME were carefully optimized. In this study, UA-DLLME method could provide simple and efficient plasma extraction procedures with superior recovery results. Under optimum condition, all target drugs were separated within 13min. The validation procedures was carried out in agreement with US-FDA guidelines and shown to be suitable for anticipated purposes. Linear calibration ranges were obtained in the range 0.05-2.0μgmL -1 for FLD and MET and 0.1-2.0μgmL -1 for RAM with detection limits of 0.013-0.031μgmL -1 for all the studied drug combinations. The%RSD for inter-day and intra-day precisions was in range of 0.63-3.85% and the accuracy results were in the range of 92.13-100.5%. The validated UA-DLLME-HPLC method was successfully applied for the bioavailability studies of FLD, MET and RAM. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated for all the investigated drugs in rats after single-dose administrations of two different drug combinations. Although FLD was bioequivalent in the two formulations, a small increase in plasma levels of MET and RAM was found in the presence of FLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of raltegravir, dolutegravir and elvitegravir concentrations in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Ohuchi, Mayu; Yamane, Naoe; Aikawa, Hiroaki; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi; Hamada, Akinobu

    2018-02-01

    A simple sample treatment procedure and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method were developed for the simultaneous quantification of the concentrations of human immunodeficiency virus-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitors - raltegravir, dolutegravir and elvitegravir - in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Plasma and CSF samples (20 μL each) were deproteinized with acetonitrile. Raltegravir-d 3 was used as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an XBridge C 18 column (50 × 2.1 mm i.d., particle size 3.5 μm) using acetonitrile-water (7:3, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The run time was 5 min. Calibration curves for all three drugs were linear in the range 5-1500 ng/mL for plasma and 1-200 ng/mL for CSF. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of all three drugs in plasma were coefficient of variation (CV) <12.9% and 100.0 ± 12.2%, respectively, while those in CSF were CV <12.3% and 100.0 ± 7.9%, respectively. Successful validation under the same LC-MS/MS conditions for both plasma and CSF indicates this analytical method is useful for monitoring the levels of these integrase strand transfer inhibitors in the management of treatment of HIV-1 carriers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Comparison of the quantification of acetaminophen in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel R; Hoffman, Keith L; Schniedewind, Björn; Clavijo, Claudia; Galinkin, Jeffrey L; Christians, Uwe

    2013-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for the management of pain in children. Quantification of acetaminophen in pre-term and term neonates and small children requires the availability of highly sensitive assays in small volume blood samples. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of acetaminophen in human plasma, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and dried blood spots (DBS). Reconstitution in water (DBS only) and addition of a protein precipitation solution containing the deuterated internal standard were the only manual steps. Extracted samples were analyzed on a Kinetex 2.6 μm PFP column using an acetonitrile/formic acid gradient. The analytes were detected in the positive multiple reaction mode. Alternatively, DBS were automatically processed using direct desorption in a sample card and preparation (SCAP) robotic autosampler in combination with online extraction. The range of reliable response in plasma and CSF was 3.05-20,000 ng/ml (r(2)>0.99) and 27.4-20,000 ng/ml (r(2)>0.99) for DBS (manual extraction and automated direct desorption). Inter-day accuracy was always within 85-115% and inter-day precision for plasma, CSF and manually extracted DBS were less than 15%. Deming regression analysis comparing 167 matching pairs of plasma and DBS samples showed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. Bland Altman analysis indicated a 26.6% positive bias in DBS, most likely reflecting the blood: plasma distribution ratio of acetaminophen. DBS are a valid matrix for acetaminophen pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Specific high-performance liquid chromatographic assay with ultraviolet detection for the determination of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-sarcosinamide-1-nitrosourea in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supko, J G; Phillips, L R; Malspeis, L

    1996-03-03

    A facile, sensitive and highly specific HPLC method for assaying 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-sarcosinamide-1-nitrosourea (SarCNU) in plasma has been developed. The drug was efficiently isolated from plasma by extraction with tert.-butyl methyl ether. A structurally related compound with similar physicochemical properties served as the internal standard (I.S.). Following evaporation of the organic solvent, the extract was reconstituted with 0.05 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and loaded onto a 4 micron Nova-Pak C18 column (15 cm x 3.9 mm), which was preceded by a 7 micron Brownlee RP-18 precolumn (1.5 cm x 3.2 mm). Chromatography was performed at ambient temperature using a mobile phase of methanol-0.1 M ammonium formate buffer, pH 3.7 (25:75, v/v). UV absorbance of the effluent was monitored at 240 nm. A flow-rate of 1.0 ml/ min was used for analyzing mouse and dog plasma extracts. Under these conditions, the drug eluted at 4.0 min and was followed by the I.S. at 6.1 min. An automatic switching valve was employed to allow the precolumn to be flushed 1.5 min into the run, without interrupting the flow of the mobile phase to the analytical column, thereby preventing the apparent build-up of extractable, strongly retained, UV-absorbing components present in mouse and dog plasma. Operating in this manner, more than 100 samples could be analyzed during a day using a refrigerated autosampler for overnight injection. The method was readily adapted to the determination of SarCNU in human plasma by simply decreasing the eluent flow-rate to 0.6 ml/min, whereby SarCNU and the I.S. eluted at approximately 5.8 and 9.1 min, respectively. Furthermore, the switching valve was not necessary for the analysis of human plasma samples. With a 50-microliter sample volume, the lowest concentration of SarCNU included in the plasma standard curves, 0.10 micrograms/ml, was quantified with a 7.8% R.S.D. (n = 27) over a 2 month period. Plasma standards, with concentrations of 0.26 to 5

  6. Simulation study of energetic ion distribution during combined NBI and ICRF heating in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Kasilov, V.

    2006-01-01

    In the LHD, significant performances of ICRF heating (fundamental, minority heating regime) have been demonstrated and up to 500keV of energetic tail ions have been observed by fast neutral particle analysis (NPA). These measured results indicate a good property of energetic ion confinement in helical systems. From the 9th campaign of LHD experiment (FY2005) a new perpendicular NBI heating system (P<3MW) has been installed and an effective heating of perpendicularly injected beam ions by the higher harmonics ICRF heating is expected. ICRF heating generates highly energetic tail ions, which drift around the torus for a long time (typically on a collisional time scale). Thus, the behavior of these energetic ions is strongly affected by the characteristics of the drift motions, which depend on the magnetic field configuration. In particular, in a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configuration, complicated drift motions of trapped particles would play an important role in the confinement of the energetic ions and the ICRF heating process. Therefore a global simulation of ICRF heating is necessary for the accurate modeling of the plasma heating process in a 3D magnetic configuration. In this paper we study the energetic ion distribution during combined NBI and 2nd harmonics ICRF heating in LHD using two global simulation codes: a full wave field solver TASK/WK and a drift kinetic equation solver GNET. GNET solves a linearized drift kinetic equation for energetic ions including complicated behavior of trapped particles in 5-D phase space. TASK/WM solves Maxwell's equation for RF wave electric field with complex frequency as a boundary value problem in the 3D magnetic configuration. (author)

  7. A validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of glibenclamide in human plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niopas, Ioannis; Daftsios, Athanasios C

    2002-05-15

    Glibenclamide is a potent second generation oral sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent widely used for the treatment of type II diabetes melitus. A rapid, sensitive, precise, accurate and specific HPLC assay for the determination of glibenclamide in human plasma was developed and validated. After addition of flufenamic acid as internal standard, the analytes were isolated from human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction. The method was linear in the 10-400 ng/ml concentration range (r > 0.999). Recovery for glibenclamide was greater than 91.5% and for internal standard was 93.5%. Within-day and between-day precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%), ranged from 1.4 to 5.9% and 5.8 to 6.6%, respectively. Assay accuracy was better than 93.4%. The assay was used to estimate the pharmacokinetics of glibenclamide after oral administration of a 5 mg tablet of glibenclamide to 18 healthy volunteers.

  8. Clinical experiences of NBI laryngoscope in diagnosis of laryngeal lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xinmeng; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Xue; Jin, Chunshun; Sun, Changling; Liu, Xueshibojie; Cheng, Jinzhang; Zhang, Dejun

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopy is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers derived from the larynx. However, a laryngoscope with conventional white light (CWL) has technical limitations in detecting small or superficial lesions on the mucosa. Narrow band imaging especially combined with magnifying endoscopy (ME) is useful for the detection of superficial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) within the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and oral cavity. A total of 3675 patients who have come to the outpatient clinic and complained of inspiratory stridor, dyspnea, phonation problems or foreign body sensation, were enrolled in this study. We describe the glottic conditions of the patients. All 3675 patients underwent laryngoscopy equipped with conventional white light (CWL) and NBI system. 1149 patients received a biopsy process. And 1153 lesions were classified into different groups according to their histopathological results. Among all the 1149 patients, 346 patients (312 males, 34 females; mean age 62.2±10.5 years) were suspected of having a total of 347 precancerous or cancerous (T1 or T2 without lymphnode involvement) lesions of the larynx under the CWL. Thus, we expected to attain a complete vision of what laryngeal lesions look like under the NBI view of a laryngoscope. The aim was to develop a complete description list of each laryngeal conditions (e.g. polyps, papilloma, leukoplakia, etc.), which can serve as a criteria for further laryngoscopic examinations and diagnosis. PMID:25419362

  9. Determination of isoorientin levels in rat plasma after oral administration of Vaccinum bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Choon-Gon; Maeng, Han-Joo

    2018-01-15

    A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of plasma isoorientin levels in rats. After simple protein precipitation using methanol, chromatographic analysis was performed using a Synergi 4μ polar-RP 80A column (150 × 2.0 mm, 4μm) under isocratic conditions and a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. In positive electrospray ionization mode, the protonated precursor and product ion transitions of isoorientin (m/z 449.0 → 299.1) and of puerarin (the internal standard; m/z 417.1 → 297.1) were acquired by multiple reaction monitoring. Calibration curves obtained for plasma showed good linearity over the concentration range 1-1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions were within 8.8% relative standard deviation. Accuracies ranged from 92.1 and 109.7%. The isoorientin stability in rat plasma under typical handling/storage conditions also found to be acceptable. The developed method was applied successfully to a pharmacokinetic study of isoorientin orally administered as the methanol extract of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. or administered as pure isoorientin. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Proceedings of the third meeting for A3 foresight program workshop on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqun; Morita, Shigeru; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2013-12-01

    To enhance close collaborations among scientists in three Asian countries (China, Japan and Korea), A3 foresight program on Plasma Physics was newly started from August 2012 under the auspice of JSPS (Japan), NRF (Korea) and NSFC (China). The main purpose of this project is to solve several key physics issues through joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to carry out multi-faceted and complementary physics researches. To summarize the progress and achievement in the first academic year under this A3 foresight program, this workshop was hosted by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and held in Beijing during 19-24 May, 2013. Collaborated research and communication with other A3 programs and bilateral programs, as well as participation of young scientists were encouraged in this workshop. The topics include steady state sustainment of magnetic configurations, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles. This issue is the collection of 40 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 40 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Proceeding of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqun; Morita, Shigeru; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2015-12-01

    To enhance close collaborations among scientists in three Asian countries (China, Japan and Korea), A3 foresight program on Plasma Physics was launched from August 2012 under the auspice of JSPS (Japan), NRF (Korea) and NSFC (China). The main purpose of this project is to solve several key physics issues through joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to carry out multi-faceted and complementary physics researches. To summarize the progress and achievement in the second academic year under this A3 foresight program, the 6th workshop hosted by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences was held in Nanning during 6-9 January, 2015. The research collaboration carried out by young scientists was also encouraged with participation of graduated students. The three topics of steady state sustainment of magnetic configurations, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles are mainly discussed in addition to relevant studies in small devices. This issue is the collection of 41 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 39 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Method optimization and quality assurance in speciation analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Achievement of optimum selectivity, sensitivity and robustness in speciation analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection requires that each instrumental component is selected and optimized with a view to the ideal....... The optimized anion and cation exchange HPLC-ICP-MS systems were used for arsenic speciation in contaminated ground water and in an in-house shrimp reference sample. For the purpose of verification, HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization was additionally used for arsenic...... a mass balance of the analytes in each fraction of the extraction procedure, by recovery of spikes and by employing and comparing independent techniques. The urgent need for reference materials certified for elemental species is stressed....

  13. Simultaneous determination of chloroquine and its three metabolites in human plasma, whole blood and urine by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, P; de Reynies, A; Baud, F J; Benatar, M F; Pays, M

    1992-02-14

    A method was developed for the separation and measurement of chloroquine and three metabolites (desethylchloroquine, bisdesethylchloroquine and 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline) in biological samples by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The method uses 2,3-diaminoaphthalene as an internal standard and provides a limit of detection between 1 and 2 ng/ml for chloroquine and its metabolites. The assay was linear in the range 12.5-250 ng/ml and the analytical recovery and reproducibility were sufficient. The assay was applied to the analysis of biological samples from a patient undergoing chloroquine chemoprophylaxis and a patient who had ingested chloroquine in a suicide attempt.

  14. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid ... response, tailing factor and resolution of six replicate injections was < 3 %. ... Cefadroxil monohydrate, Human plasma, Pharmacokinetics Bioequivalence ... Drug-free plasma was obtained from the local .... Influence of probenicid on the renal.

  15. High performance conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.

    2000-01-01

    Inexpensive but high performance systems have emerged progressively for basic and applied measurements in physical and analytical chemistry on one hand, and for on-line monitoring and leak detection in plants and facilities on the other. Salient features of the developments will be presented with specific examples

  16. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  17. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...... concretes, workability, ductility, and confinement problems....

  18. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  19. Determination of methylglyoxal in human blood plasma using fluorescence high performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Yuki; Tanaka, Ryo; Koike, Shin; Horiuchi, Yasue; Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound that promotes the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins to yield irreversible advanced glycated end products, leading to the cross-linking or degradation of proteins. The physiological relevance of MG currently remains unclear because its metabolic behavior has not yet been elucidated in detail. Although several labeling methods that require a HPLC system have been developed and used to measure MG, a standard method to analyze the content of MG in biological samples has not been established. We herein present a practical method based on HPLC with fluorescence detection to measure low MG levels. MG concentrations were also measured in human blood plasma using the present method in order to demonstrate its utility. A calibration curve was produced using freshly purified MG at concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 1.0μM. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard diviations of the method were 2.55% and 4.03%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 60fmol and 200fmol, respectively for MG with a 10-μl injection volume of the derivatized sample solution. When the optimized method was applied to human plasma, the resulting concentrations of MG in the plasma of healthy subjects (n=23) ranged between 0.024 and 0.258μM (mean±SD=0.098±0.066). Thus, the method developed herein is simple, sensitive, and easy to operate for the measurement of MG in biological samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ion-pair vortex assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with back extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-UV for the determination of metformin in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshishani, Anas; Makahleh, Ahmad; Yap, Hui Fang; Gubartallah, Elbaleeq Adam; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-12-01

    A new sample preparation method, ion-pair vortex assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME-BE), for the determination of a highly polar anti-diabetic drug (metformin) in plasma sample was developed. The VALLME-BE was performed by diluting the plasma in borate buffer and extracted to 150µL 1-octanol containing 0.2M di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as intermediate phase. The drug was next back-extracted into 20µL of 0.075M HCl solution. The effects of pH, ion-pair concentration, type of organic solvent, volume of extraction phases, ionic strength, vortexing and centrifugation times on the extraction efficiency were investigated. The optimum conditions were at pH 9.3, 60s vortexing and 2min centrifugation. The microextract, contained metformin and buformin (internal standard), was directly injected into a HPLC unit using C1 column (250mm×4.6mm×10µm) and detected at 235nm. The method was validated and calibration curve was linear with r 2 >0.99 over the range of 20-2000µgL -1 . The limits of detection and quantitation were 1.4 and 4.1µgL -1 , respectively. The accuracy was within 94.8-108% of the nominal concentration. The relative standard deviation for inter- and intra-day precision was less than 10.8%. The method was conveniently applied for the determination of metformin in plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of sorafenib plasma concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: is it useful the application in clinical practice? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucile, Carmen; Marenco, Simona; Bazzica, Marco; Zuccoli, Maria Laura; Lantieri, Francesca; Robbiano, Luigi; Marini, Valeria; Di Gion, Paola; Pieri, Giulia; Stura, Paola; Martelli, Antonietta; Savarino, Vincenzo; Mattioli, Francesca; Picciotto, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics and dose-finding studies on sorafenib were conducted on heterogeneous groups of patients with solid tumors. Portal hypertension, gut motility impairment and altered bile enterohepatic circulation may explain different sorafenib toxicological profile in cirrhotic patients. This study evaluated sorafenib plasma concentration in a homogeneous group of cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography in 12 consecutive patients. Data have been evaluated by the generalized estimating equations method (p value statistical level was set at α = 0.05). (1) There were not significant differences between sorafenib concentrations in patients who tolerate the full dose versus patients with reduced dose due to toxicity; (2) the average sorafenib concentrations measured 3 h after the morning dosing were lower than those measured 12 h after the evening dosing (p = 0.005); (3) sorafenib concentrations decrease overtime (p < 10(-4)); (4) it has been found an association between the development of severe adverse reactions and sorafenib concentrations (p < 10(-5)). The relationship between dose and concentration of sorafenib in HCC patients is poor and not clinically predictable, confirming the variability both in the maximum tolerated dose and in plasma concentrations. Several factors may influence the pharmacokinetics in patients with liver disease. This may explain the inter-patient variability of concentrations and the lack of differences in concentration at different dosages. It could be interesting to extend the series of HCC patients to enhance information on the kinetics of the drug; furthermore, to establish a threshold of plasma sorafenib concentrations to predict severe adverse reactions would be clinically useful.

  2. Liquid-liquid extraction of strongly protein bound BMS-299897 from human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y J; Pursley, Janice; Arnold, Mark

    2007-04-11

    BMS-299897 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor that is being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods have been developed and validated for the quantitation of BMS-299897 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both methods utilized (13)C6-BMS-299897, the stable label isotope analog, as the internal standard. For the human plasma extraction method, two incubation steps were required after the addition of 5 mM ammonium acetate and the internal standard in acetonitrile to release the analyte bound to proteins prior to LLE with toluene. For the human CSF extraction method, after the addition of 0.5 N HCl and the internal standard, CSF samples were extracted with toluene and no incubation was required. The organic layers obtained from both extraction methods were removed and evaporated to dryness. The residues were reconstituted and injected into the LC/MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a MetaChem C18 Hypersil BDS column (2.0 mm x 50 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase contained 10 mM ammonium acetate pH 5 and acetonitrile. Detection was by negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The standard curves ranged from 1 to 1000 ng/ml for human plasma and 0.25-100 ng/ml for human CSF. Both standard curves were fitted to a 1/x weighted quadratic regression model. For both methods, the intra-assay precision was within 8.2% CV, the inter-assay precision was within 5.4% CV, and assay accuracy was within +/-7.4% of the nominal values. The validation and sample analysis results demonstrated that both methods had acceptable precision and accuracy across the calibration ranges.

  3. Estimation of boswellic acids from market formulations of Boswellia serrata extract and 11-keto beta-boswellic acid in human plasma by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N; Patel, Dharmesh A; Parmar, Vijay K; Shah, Bharat K; Vaishnavi, Vikas M

    2007-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the quantitative estimation of boswellic acids in formulation containing Boswellia serrata extract (BSE) and 11-keto beta-boswellic acid in human plasma. Simple extraction method was used for isolation of boswellic acid from formulation sample and acidified plasma sample. The isolated samples were chromatographed on silica gel 60F(254)-TLC plates, developed using ternary-solvent system (hexane-chloroform-methanol, 5:5:0.5, v/v) and scanned at 260 nm. The linearity range for 11-KBA spiked in 1 ml of plasma was 29.15-145.75 ng with average recovery of 91.66%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for 11-KBA in human plasma were found to be 8.75 ng/ml and 29.15 ng/ml. The developed method was successfully applied for the assay of market formulations containing BSE and to determine plasma level of 11-keto beta-boswellic acid in a clinical pilot study.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of proguanil and its metabolites in human plasma and urine by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and its preliminary application in relation to genetically determined S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, M; Setiabudy, R; Chiba, K; Ishizaki, T

    1996-02-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method was developed for the measurement of proguanil (PG) and its major metabolites, cycloguanil (CG) and 4-chlorophenyl-biguanide (CPB), in human plasma and urine. The assay allowed the simultaneous determination of all analytes in 1 ml of plasma or 0.1 ml of urine. The detection limits of PG, CG, and CPB, defined as the signal-to-noise ratio of 3, were 1 and 5 ng/ml for plasma and urine samples, respectively. Recoveries of the analytes and the internal standard (pyrimethamine) were > 62% from plasma and > 77% from urine. Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation for all analytes in plasma and urine were CG and CPB, which ranged from 10% to 15% at one or two concentrations among 4-5 concentrations studied. The clinical applicability of the method was assessed by the preliminary pharmacokinetic study of PG, CG, and CPB in six healthy volunteers with the individually known phenotypes (extensive and poor metabolizers) of S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, suggesting that individuals with a poor metabolizer phenotype of S-mephenytoin have a much lower capacity to bioactivate PG to CG compared with the extensive metabolizers.

  5. Method development for the determination of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in human plasma without derivatization by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Kakehi, Masaaki; Satomi, Yoshinori; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Jinno, Fumihiro

    2015-10-01

    We developed a highly sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface to determine 24S-hydroxycholesterol, a major metabolite of cholesterol formed by cytochrome P450 family 46A1, in human plasma without any derivatization step. Phosphate buffered saline including 1% Tween 80 was used as the surrogate matrix for preparation of calibration curves and quality control samples. The saponification process to convert esterified 24S-hydroxycholesterol to free sterols was optimized, followed by liquid-liquid extraction using hexane. Chromatographic separation of 24S-hydroxycholesterol from other isobaric endogenous oxysterols was successfully achieved with gradient mobile phase comprised of 0.1% propionic acid and acetonitrile using L-column2 ODS (2 μm, 2.1 mm id × 150 mm). This assay was capable of determining 24S-hydroxycholesterol in human plasma (200 μL) ranging from 1 to 100 ng/mL with acceptable intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The potential risk of in vitro formation of 24S-hydroxycholesterol by oxidation from endogenous cholesterol in human plasma was found to be negligible. The stability of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in relevant solvents and human plasma was confirmed. This method was successfully applied to quantify the plasma concentrations of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in male and female volunteers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. PEEK tube-based online solid-phase microextraction-high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of yohimbine in rat plasma and its application in pharmacokinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaowei; Shang, Bing; Wang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Qinhua

    2017-04-01

    Yohimbine is a novel compound for the treatment of erectile dysfunction derived from natural products, and pharmacokinetic study is important for its further development as a new medicine. In this work, we developed a novel PEEK tube-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-HPLC method for analysis of yohimbine in plasma and further for pharmacokinetic study. Poly (AA-EGDMA) was synthesized inside a PEEK tube as the sorbent for microextraction of yohimbine, and parameters that could influence extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. Under optimum conditions, the PEEK tube-based SPME method exhibits excellent enrichment efficiency towards yohimbine. By using berberine as internal standard, an online SPME-HPLC method was developed for analysis of yohimbine in human plasma sample. The method has wide linear range (2-1000 ng/mL) with an R 2 of 0.9962; the limit of detection was determined and was as low as 0.1 ng/mL using UV detection. Finally, a pharmacokinetic study of yohimbine was carried out by the online SPME-HPLC method and the results have been compared with those of reported methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of certain salicylates and their major metabolites in plasma following topical administration of a liniment to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, D; Climax, J; Lambe, R; Darragh, A

    1985-08-09

    The liniment used is a topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory preparation containing two active constituents, 3-phenylpropylsalicylate and ethyl-5-methoxysalicylate, in solution in isobutyl decanoate. It is known that 3-phenylpropylsalicylate is metabolised to salicylic acid and salicyluric acid and ethyl-5-methoxysalicylate is metabolised to 5-methoxysalicylic acid and gentisic acid. In the present study the separation of the salicylates and their metabolites was carried out on a Waters mu Bondapak C18 column using two different mobile phases, methanol-water (80:20) for the parent drugs and methanol-5% aqueous acetic acid (27:73) for their metabolites. The salicylates and their metabolites were detected by absorption at 310 nm. The limits of detection for parent drugs and metabolites were respectively 0.2 and 0.1 microgram/ml in plasma, using a 1-ml plasma sample and a 20-microliter injection from a reconstituted volume of 250 microliter. Mean percentage coefficients of variation for intra-assay and inter-assay precision were between 3.3 +/- 1.9% to 9.1 +/- 3.7% and 6.8 +/- 2.2% to 15.7 +/- 10.1%, respectively. Linearity, as measured by the correlation coefficient of intra-assay linear regression curves, was better than 0.998 in all cases.

  8. Simple O2 Plasma-Processed V2O5 as an Anode Buffer Layer for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Xichang; Zhu, Qianqian; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    A simple O2 plasma processing method for preparation of a vanadium oxide (V2O5) anode buffer layer on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass for polymer solar cells (PSCs) is reported. The V2O5 layer with high transmittance and good electrical and interfacial properties was prepared by spin coating...... the illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm2). Compared to that of the control device with PBDTTT-C:PC71BM as the active layer and PEDOT:PSS (PCE of 6.52%) and thermally annealed V2O5 (PCE of 6.27%) as the anode buffer layer, the PCE was improved by 15.6 and 20.2%, respectively, after the introduction of a V2O5 (O2...... plasma) anode buffer layer. The improved PCE is ascribed to the greatly improved fill factor and enhanced short-circuit current density of the devices, which benefited from the change in the work function of V2O5, a surface with many dangling bonds for better interfacial contact, and the excellent charge...

  9. Determination of asperosaponin VI in dog plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pilot pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Shailendra; Zhu, He; Ding, Li; Du, Xiao Lang; Qi, Xie Min; Yang, Xiao Lin; Yang, Zhong Lin

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of asperosaponin VI in beagle dog plasma using glycyrrhizic acid as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were simply pretreated with methanol for deproteinization. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hedera ODS-2 column using mobile phase of methanol-10 mm ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.05% acetic acid (71:29, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.38 mL/min. Asperosaponin VI and the IS were eluted at 2.8 and 1.9 min, respectively, ionized in negative ion mode, and then detected by multiple reaction monitoring. The detection used the transitions of the deprotonated molecules at m/z 927.5 → 603.4 for asperosaponin VI and m/z 821.4 → 645.4 for glycyrrhizic acid (IS). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.15-700 ng/mL and was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A and its active major metabolite, macrolactin A in dog plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung; Shin, Beomsoo; Kwon, Kwang-il; Bang, Joon Seok; Kang, Wonku

    2014-10-01

    We developed a method for the simultaneous quantification of 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A and its active metabolite, macrolactin A, in dog plasma. After protein precipitation with acetonitrile including flufenamic acid as an internal standard, 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A, macrolactin A, and flufenamic acid were chromatographed on a reverse-phase C18 analytical column. The mobile phase, consisting of 20 mM acetate buffer and acetonitrile, was eluted using a gradient program at 1 mL/min, and the UV absorbance was measured at 230 nm. The retention times of 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A, flufenamic acid, and macrolactin A were 3.4, 4.8, and 6.9 min, respectively. The coefficient of variation in the assay precision for both substances was less than 6%, and the accuracy ranged from 96 to 105%. This method was used to measure the concentrations of 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A and macrolactin A in dog plasma following an intravenous administration of a single dose (25 mg/kg) of 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A salt. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Determination of rivaroxaban in patient’s plasma samples by anti-Xa chromogenic test associated to High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derogis, Priscilla Bento Matos; Sanches, Livia Rentas; de Aranda, Valdir Fernandes; Colombini, Marjorie Paris; Mangueira, Cristóvão Luis Pitangueira; Katz, Marcelo; Faulhaber, Adriana Caschera Leme; Mendes, Claudio Ernesto Albers; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos; França, Carolina Nunes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos

    2017-01-01

    Rivaroxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, therapeutically indicated in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases. As other new oral anticoagulants, routine monitoring of rivaroxaban is not necessary, but important in some clinical circumstances. In our study a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was validated to measure rivaroxaban plasmatic concentration. Our method used a simple sample preparation, protein precipitation, and a fast chromatographic run. It was developed a precise and accurate method, with a linear range from 2 to 500 ng/mL, and a lower limit of quantification of 4 pg on column. The new method was compared to a reference method (anti-factor Xa activity) and both presented a good correlation (r = 0.98, p highly correlated and should be used as clinical tools for drug monitoring. The method was applied successfully in a group of 49 real-life patients, which allowed an accurate determination of rivaroxaban in peak and trough levels. PMID:28170419

  12. Simultaneous estimation of lisofylline and pentoxifylline in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector and its application to pharmacokinetics in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiya, Kishan S; Sharma, Saurabh; Kothari, Ishit; Chitkara, Deepak; Mittal, Anupama

    2017-09-01

    Lisofylline (LSF) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent with proven activity in serious infections associated with cancer chemotherapy, hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, autoimmune disorders including type-1 diabetes (T1DM) and islet rejection after islet transplantation. It is also an active metabolite of another anti-inflammatory agent, Pentoxifylline (PTX). LSF bears immense therapeutic potential in multiple pharmacological activities and hence appropriate and accurate quantification of LSF is very important. Although a number of analytical methods for quantification of LSF and PTX have been reported for pharmacokinetics and metabolic studies, each of these have certain limitations in terms of large sample volume required, complex extraction procedure and/or use of highly sophisticated instruments like LC-MS/MS. The aim of current study is to develop a simple reversed-phase HPLC method in rat plasma for simultaneous determination of LSF and PTX with the major objective of ensuring minimum sample volume, ease of extraction, economy of analysis, selectivity and avoiding use of instruments like LC-MS/MS to ensure a widespread application of the method. A simple liquid-liquid extraction method using methylene chloride as extracting solvent was used for extracting LSF and PTX from rat plasma (200μL). Samples were then evaporated, reconstituted with mobile phase and injected into HPLC coupled with photo-diode detector (PDA). LSF, PTX and 3-isobutyl 1-methyl xanthine (IBMX, internal standard) were separated on Inertsil® ODS (C18) column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phase consisting of A-methanol B-water (50:50v/v) run in isocratic mode at flow rate of 1mL/min for 15min and detection at 273nm. The method showed linearity in the concentration range of 50-5000ng/mL with LOD of 10ng/mL and LLOQ of 50ng/mL for both LSF and PTX. Weighted linear regression analysis was also performed on the calibration data. The mean absolute recoveries were found to be 80

  13. High-performance Ag0.8Pb18+xSbTe20 thermoelectric bulk materials fabricated by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Heng; Li Jingfeng; Nan Cewen; Zhou Min; Liu Weishu; Zhang Boping; Kita, Takuji

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline Ag n Pb m SbTe m+2n thermoelectric materials, whose compositions can be described as Ag 0.8 Pb 18+x SbTe 20 were prepared using a combined process of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Electric properties of the sintered samples with different Pb contents were measured from room temperature to 700 K. The maximum power factor of 1.766 mW/mK 2 was obtained at 673 K for the Ag 0.8 Pb 22 SbTe 20 sample, which corresponds to a high dimensionless figure of merit, ZT=1.37. This best composition is different from that reported before

  14. Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography quantification method of levo-tetrahydropalmatine and its metabolites in plasma and brain tissues: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Inas A; Huang, Peng; Liu, Jing; Lee, David Y; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Hassan, Hazem E

    2017-04-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs of the Corydalis and Stephania genera. It has been used in China for more than 40 years mainly as an analgesic with sedative/hypnotic effects. Despite its extensive use, its metabolism has not been quantitatively studied, nor there a sensitive reliable bioanalytical method for its quantification simultaneously with its metabolites. As such, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive and selective HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of l-THP and its desmethyl metabolites l-corydalmine (l-CD) and l-corypalmine (l-CP) in rat plasma and brain tissues. Rat plasma and brain samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Symmetry® C 18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm) at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-methanol-10 mm ammonium phosphate (pH 3) (10:30:60, v/v) and was used at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The column eluent was monitored at excitation and emission wavelengths of 230 and 315 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1-10,000 ng/mL. The intra- and interday reproducibility studies demonstrated accuracy and precision within the acceptance criteria of bioanalytical guidelines. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to analyze samples from a pharmacokinetic study of l-THP in rats. Taken together, the developed method can be applied for bioanalysis of l-THP and its metabolites in rodents and potentially can be transferred for bioanalysis of human samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight analysis for the identification and the determination of resveratrol and its metabolites in mouse plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menet, M.C.; Cottart, C.H.; Taghi, M.; Nivet-Antoine, V.; Dargère, D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Simultaneous identification and determination of new resveratrol metabolites in mice by UHPLC-Q-TOF in full scan mode. Highlights: ► Fast method to quantify resveratrol and its main metabolites in the mouse plasma. ► Isotope-labeled standards to build a linear calibration curve. ► Linear calibration curve on a wide range of concentrations. ► Simultaneous identification and quantification of metabolites by using full scan mode. ► Detection of uncommon metabolites not yet described in mice. - Abstract: Resveratrol is a polyphenol that has numerous interesting biological properties, but, per os, it is quickly metabolized. Some of its metabolites are more concentrated than resveratrol, may have greater biological activities, and may act as a kind of store for resveratrol. Thus, to understand the biological impact of resveratrol on a physiological system, it is crucial to simultaneously analyze resveratrol and its metabolites in plasma. This study presents an analytical method based on UHPLC-Q-TOF mass spectrometry for the quantification of resveratrol and of its most common hydrophilic metabolites. The use of 13 C- and D-labeled standards specific to each molecule led to a linear calibration curve on a larger concentration range than described previously. The use of high resolution mass spectrometry in the full scan mode enabled simultaneous identification and quantification of some hydrophilic metabolites not previously described in mice. In addition, UHPLC separation, allowing run times lower than 10 min, can be used in studies that requiring analysis of many samples.

  16. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight analysis for the identification and the determination of resveratrol and its metabolites in mouse plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menet, M.C., E-mail: marie-claude.menet@parisdescartes.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4463, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); Cottart, C.H. [APHP, Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Charles Foix, Service de Biochimie, 7 avenue de la Republique, Ivry sur Seine 94205 (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4466, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); Taghi, M. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4463, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); Nivet-Antoine, V. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4466, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); APHP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de Biochimie, 20 rue Leblanc, Paris 75015 (France); Dargere, D. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4463, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); and others

    2013-01-25

    Graphical abstract: Simultaneous identification and determination of new resveratrol metabolites in mice by UHPLC-Q-TOF in full scan mode. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast method to quantify resveratrol and its main metabolites in the mouse plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope-labeled standards to build a linear calibration curve. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear calibration curve on a wide range of concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous identification and quantification of metabolites by using full scan mode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of uncommon metabolites not yet described in mice. - Abstract: Resveratrol is a polyphenol that has numerous interesting biological properties, but, per os, it is quickly metabolized. Some of its metabolites are more concentrated than resveratrol, may have greater biological activities, and may act as a kind of store for resveratrol. Thus, to understand the biological impact of resveratrol on a physiological system, it is crucial to simultaneously analyze resveratrol and its metabolites in plasma. This study presents an analytical method based on UHPLC-Q-TOF mass spectrometry for the quantification of resveratrol and of its most common hydrophilic metabolites. The use of {sup 13}C- and D-labeled standards specific to each molecule led to a linear calibration curve on a larger concentration range than described previously. The use of high resolution mass spectrometry in the full scan mode enabled simultaneous identification and quantification of some hydrophilic metabolites not previously described in mice. In addition, UHPLC separation, allowing run times lower than 10 min, can be used in studies that requiring analysis of many samples.

  17. Identification and quantification of glucosamine in rabbit cartilage and correlation with plasma levels by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorini, Elisabetta; Vecchiotti, Stefania; Colliva, Carolina; Persiani, Stefano; Rotini, Roberto; Roatti, Giulia; Zaccarelli, Lorenzo; Rovati, Lucio Claudio; Roda, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → Optimization of an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for glucosamine in rabbit cartilage. → Application of the method to an in-vivo study. → Glucosamine presence in cartilage in physiological condition. → Significant increase of cartilage glucosamine concentration after dosing. → Good correlation between cartilage glucosamine levels and plasma concentrations. - Abstract: A new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the determination of glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose) in rabbit cartilage was developed and optimized. Glucosamine was extracted from cartilage by cryogenic grinding followed by protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. The HPLC separation was achieved with a polymer-based amino column using a mobile phase composed of 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 7.5)-acetonitrile (20:80%, v/v) at 0.3 mL min -1 flow rate. D-[1- 13 C]Glucosamine was used as internal standard. Selective detection was performed by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray source, operating in positive ionization mode and in multiple reaction monitoring acquisition (m/z 180 → 72 and 181 → 73 for glucosamine and internal standard, respectively). Limit of quantification was 0.045 ng injected, corresponding to 0.25 μg g -1 in cartilage. Linearity was obtained up to 20 μg g -1 (R 2 > 0.991). Precision values (%R.S.D.) were -1 (n = 6). Glucosamine was present in cartilage in physiological condition before the treatment. After dosing, mean concentration of cartilage glucosamine significantly increased from 461 to 1040 ng g -1 . Cartilage glucosamine levels resulted to be well correlated with plasma concentrations, which therefore are useful to predict the target cartilage concentration and its pharmacological activity.

  18. Speciation of the bio-available iodine and bromine forms in edible seaweed by high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bioavailable iodine and bromine speciation in edible seaweed were developed. ► In vitro dialyzability was used to assess the bioavailable fractions. ► AEC hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used. ► Iodide, MIT, DIT, bromide and bromate were found in dialyzates from edible seaweed. ► Positive correlation between bioavailability and protein contents was found. - Abstract: A bioavailability study based on an in vitro dialyzability approach has been applied to assess the bio-available fractions of iodine and bromine species from edible seaweed. Iodide, iodate, 3-iodo-tyrosine (MIT), 3,5-diiodo-tyrosine (DIT), bromide and bromate were separated by anion exchange chromatography under a gradient elution mode (175 mM ammonium nitrate plus 15% (v/v) methanol, pH 3.8, as a mobile phase, and flow rates within the 0.5–1.5 mL min −1 range). Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used as a selective detector for iodine ( 127 I) and bromine ( 79 Br). Low dialyzability ratios (within the 2.0–18% range) were found for iodine species; whereas, moderate dialyzability percentages (from 9.0 to 40%) were obtained for bromine species. Iodide and bromide were the major species found in the dialyzates from seaweed, although MIT and bromate were also found in the dialyzates from most of the seaweed samples analysed. However, DIT was only found in dialyzates from Wakame, Kombu, and NIES 09 (Sargasso) certified reference material; whereas, iodate was not found in any dialyzate. Iodine dialyzability was found to be dependent on the protein content (negative correlation), and on the carbohydrate and dietary fibre levels (positive correlation). However, bromine dialyzability was only dependent on the protein amount in seaweed (negative correlation).

  19. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  20. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  1. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  2. Quantification of nimesulide in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV): application to pharmacokinetic studies in 28 healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Do-Wan; Yang, Seok-Chul; Kang, Ju-Seop

    2012-05-01

    Nimesulide is a selective COX-2 inhibitor that is as effective as the classical non-acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the relief of various pain and inflammatory conditions, but is better tolerated with lower incidences of adverse effects than other drugs. After oral dose of 100 mg nimesulide to western subjects, a mean maximal concentration (C(max)) of 2.86 ∼ 6.5 µg/mL was reached at 1.22 ∼ 2.75 h and mean t(1/2β) of 1.8 ∼ 4.74 h. This study developed a robust method for quantification of nimesulide for the pharmacokinetics and suitability of its dosage in Korea and compared its suitability with other racial populations. Nimesulide and internal standard were extracted from acidified samples with methyl tert-butyl ether and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The 28 healthy volunteers took 2 tablets of 100 mg nimesulide and blood concentrations were analyzed during the 24 h post dose. Several pharmacokinetic parameters were represented: AUC(0-infinity) = 113.0 mg-h/mL, C(max) = 12.06 mg/mL, time for maximal concentrations (T(max)) = 3.19 h and t(1/2β) = 4.51 h. These were different from those of western populations as follows: AUC was 14.5% and C(max) was 28% that of of Korean subjects and T(max) and t(1/2β) were also different. The validated HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic studies of nimesulide in Korean subjects. Because the pharmacokinetics of nimesulide were different from western populations, its dosage regimen needs to be adjusted for Koreans. © The Author [2012]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma Heating and Current Drive by Neutral Beam and Alpha Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Okumura, Y [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of plasma heating is to raise the plasma temperature enough to produce a deuterium and tritium reaction (D + T {yields} {sup 4}He + n). The required plasma temperature T is in the range of 10-30 keV. Since the high temperature plasma is confined by a strong magnetic field, injection of energetic ions from outside to heat the plasma is difficult due to the Lorenz force. The most efficient way to heat the plasma by energetic particles is to inject high energy 'neutrals' which get ionized in the plasma. Neutral beam injection (NBI) with a beam energy much above the average kinetic energy of the plasma electrons or ions is used (beam energy typically {approx}40 keV - 1 MeV). This heating scheme is similar to warming up cold water by pouring in hot water. There are two types of neutral beam, called P-NBI and N-NBI (P- and N- means 'positive' and 'negative', respectively). P-NBI uses the acceleration of positively charged ions and their neutralization, while N-NBI uses the acceleration of negative ions (electrons attached to neutral atoms) and their neutralization. Details are given in NBI technology Section. The first demonstration of plasma heating by P-NBI was made in ORMAK and ATC in 1974, while that by N-NBI was made in JT-60U for the first time in 1996. ITER has also adopted the N-NBI system as the heating and current drive system with a beam energy of 1 MeV. Figure A typical bird's eye view of a tokamak with N-NBI and N-NBI (JT-60U) is shown. (author)

  4. Unbiased Scanning Method and Data Banking Approach Using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative Comparison of Metabolite Exposure in Plasma across Species Analyzed at Different Dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongying; Deng, Shibing; Obach, R Scott

    2015-12-01

    An unbiased scanning methodology using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to bank data and plasma samples for comparing the data generated at different dates. This method was applied to bank the data generated earlier in animal samples and then to compare the exposure to metabolites in animal versus human for safety assessment. With neither authentic standards nor prior knowledge of the identities and structures of metabolites, full scans for precursor ions and all ion fragments (AIF) were employed with a generic gradient LC method to analyze plasma samples at positive and negative polarity, respectively. In a total of 22 tested drugs and metabolites, 21 analytes were detected using this unbiased scanning method except that naproxen was not detected due to low sensitivity at negative polarity and interference at positive polarity; and 4'- or 5-hydroxy diclofenac was not separated by a generic UPLC method. Statistical analysis of the peak area ratios of the analytes versus the internal standard in five repetitive analyses over approximately 1 year demonstrated that the analysis variation was significantly different from sample instability. The confidence limits for comparing the exposure using peak area ratio of metabolites in animal plasma versus human plasma measured over approximately 1 year apart were comparable to the analysis undertaken side by side on the same days. These statistical analysis results showed it was feasible to compare data generated at different dates with neither authentic standards nor prior knowledge of the analytes.

  5. Development of a confirmatory method for detecting recombinant bovine somatotropin in plasma by immunomagnetic precipitation followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christelle; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Suárez-Pantaleón, Célia; Brasseur, Amaury; Delahaut, Philippe; Gillard, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST), a synthetic growth hormone, is used to stimulate growth and enhance milk production in dairy cows. Both its use and the sale of dairy products from treated animals are prohibited in the European Union, as well as in Australia, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand, but authorised in several countries (e.g. Brazil, USA). Screening methods involve detecting anti-rbST antibodies (biomarkers) in treated cows. Confirmatory methods are required to prove rbST abuse. The major challenges in determining rbST are its potentially low levels, its high similarity to native bST, and matrix interferences. To overcome these obstacles, we have developed a method involving immunomagnetic precipitation followed by UHPLC-MS/MS for rbST detection. Briefly, protein G magnetic beads pre-coated with an in-house produced monoclonal antibody were added to plasma. Incubation at room temperature allowed rbST present in the sample to bind to the magnetic beads. After that, magnetic beads were isolated by centrifugation and thoroughly washed (PBS, PBS + 0.2% Tween 20). Finally, rbST was released by alkalinisation and the samples were trypsin digested prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis in the MRM mode. Validation was done in accordance with European Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Matrix-matched calibration with internal standards was used. The decision limit (CCα) reached with this approach was 0.11 µg l -1 .

  6. Simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection: application to a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ziyan; Zou, Qiaogen; Tian, Jixin; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Zunjian

    2011-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma has been developed and validated. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3 μm) using formic acid:10 mM ammonium acetate:methanol (0.2:62:38, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min and analyzed by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/mL) ranges: codeine 0.08-16; ephedrine 0.8-160; guaiphenesin 80-16,000; chlorpheniramine 0.2-40. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. It is the first time that the validated HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional (3D) plasma micro-nanotextured slides for high performance biomolecule microarrays: Comparison with epoxy-silane coated glass slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsougeni, Katerina; Ellinas, Kosmas; Koukouvinos, George; Petrou, Panagiota S; Tserepi, Angeliki; Kakabakos, Sotirios E; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2018-05-01

    Glass slides coated with a poly(methyl methacrylate) layer and plasma micro-nanotextured to acquire 3D topography (referred as 3D micro-nanotextured slides) were evaluated as substrates for biomolecule microarrays. Their performance is compared with that of epoxy-coated glass slides. We found that the proposed three-dimensional (3D) slides offered significant improvements in terms of spot intensity, homogeneity, and reproducibility. In particular, they provided higher spot intensity, by a factor of at least 1.5, and significantly improved spot homogeneity when compared to the epoxy-silane coated ones (intra-spot and between spot coefficients of variation ranging between 5 and 15% for the 3D micro-nanotextured slides and between 25 and 85% for the epoxy-silane coated ones). The latter was to a great extent the result of a strong "coffee-ring" effect observed for the spots created on the epoxy-coated slides; a phenomenon that was severely reduced in the 3D micro-nanotextured slides. The 3D micro-nanotextured slides offered in addition higher signal to noise ratio values over a wide range of protein probe concentrations and shelf-life over one year without requirement for specific storage conditions. Finally, the protocols employed for protein probe immobilization were extremely simple. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonin, A.; Esch, H. P. L. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A. [CEA-Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); LPSC, Grenoble-Alpes University, F-38026 Grenoble France (France)

    2015-04-08

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D{sup −} beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R and D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  9. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, A.; Esch, H. P. L. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.

    2015-01-01

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D − beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R and D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin after oral administration of Angelica dahurica extracts in mongrel dog plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Chen, Yi; Lin, Mei; Wen, Jun; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian

    2007-05-09

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin after oral administration of Angelica dahurica extracts in mongrel dog plasma. The coumarin components and the internal standard isopsoralen were extracted from plasma samples with the mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether and n-hexane (4:1, v/v). Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column (200 mm x 4.6mm, 5 microm) with the mobile phase acetonitrile-methanol-water-acetic acid (20:15:65:2, v/v/v/v) at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Only the peak of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin could be detected in dog plasma after oral administration of ethanol extracts of A. dahurica mainly containing xanthotoxol, osthenol, imperatorin, oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin. The calibration curves of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin were linear over a range of 22.08-8830.00 and 6.08-2430.00 ng/ml in dog plasma, respectively. The quantification limit of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin in dog plasma was 22.08 and 6.08 ng/ml, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 7.6% and 8.5% and the accuracy was from 91.9% to 106.1%. The lowest absolute recoveries of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin were 85.7% and 87.0%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin in dog plasma after oral administration of ethanol extracts from A. dahurica.

  11. Impacts of lost fast ions on the TJ-II Vacuum Vessel during NBI; Impactos de los iones rapidos en la Camara de Vacio del TJ-II durante NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J

    1995-07-01

    The possible deposition patterns, on the Vacuum Vessel, of lost fast ions during the balanced tangential NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator are analysed theoretically, establishing the relation between those impact points, the plasma exit and birth positions and the magnetic configuration characteristics. It is shown that direct losses are the most important, mainly those produced by the beam injected with the same direction that the magnetic field, increasing with beam energy and plasma density but with impacts remaining fixed on well defined zones, a periodically distributed along the Hard Core cover plates, producing high loads at high densities. The remaining losses, except for the shine through ones that predominate at low density, are periodically distributed, with smooth maxima and produce very low loads. No overlapping between the different kind of losses or beams is observed. (Author) 6 refs.

  12. Development of anion-exchange/reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods for the speciation of bio-available iodine and bromine from edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2012-05-04

    Anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry has been novelly applied to assess inorganic (iodide and iodate) and organic (3-iodotyrosine - MIT, and 3,5-diiodotyrosine - DIT) iodine species in a single chromatographic run. The optimized operating conditions (Dionex IonPac AS7, gradient elution with 175 mM ammonium nitrate plus 15% (v/v) methanol, pH 3.8, as a mobile phase and flow rates within the 0.5-1.5 mL min(-1) range) have also been used to perform inorganic bromine speciation analysis (bromide and bromate). The developed method has been applied for determining the bio-available contents of iodine and bromine species in dialyzates from edible seaweed. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8, gradient elution with 0.2% (m/m) acetic acid, and 0.2% (m/m) acetic acid in methanol, as mobile phases, and a constant flow rate of 0.75 mL min(-1)) also hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of organic iodine species (MIT and DIT) in the dialyzates. The verification of the presence of iodinated amino acids (MIT and DIT) in the extracts was also performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap). The developed methods have provided good repeatability (RSD values lower than 10% for both anion exchange and reverse phase separations) and analytical recoveries within the 90-105% range for all cases. The in vitro bio-availability method consisted of a simulated gastric and an intestinal digestion/dialysis (10 kDa molecular weight cut-off - MWCO) two-stage procedure. Iodide and MIT were the main bio-available species quantified, whereas bromide was the major bromine species found in the extracts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  14. Development of the computer system for the JT-60 negative-ion based NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mikito; Oohara, Hiroshi; Honda, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Aoyagi, Tetsuo.

    1997-03-01

    The negative-ion based NBI system (N-NBI) for JT-60 is the first NBI system using a negative-ion source in the world. The N-NBI is designed do deliver a neutral beam injection power of 10 MW at 500 keV. The computer for the N-NBI system is composed of UNIX workstations and VMEbus systems, and has the functions of ion source operation and data acquisition and processing. Since a real-time operating system compatible with the UNIX is adopted for the VMEbus systems, the software development environment both for the workstation and the VMEbus system is unified with the UNIX. The software has been developed with a priority to the software required for the verification tests which are performed in accordance with the progress of the N-NBI construction. The first beam injection with the N-NBI has been conducted in March using the newly developed software, and the deuterium neutral beam injection of 350 keV, 2.5 MW has achieved as of the end of October 1996. (author)

  15. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  16. Transition phenomena and thermal transport properties in LHD plasmas with an electron internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.; Inagaki, S.; Tamura, N.; Tokuzawa, T.; Morisaki, T.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Ida, K.; Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Muto, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Notake, T.; Ohkubo, K.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Watari, T.; Komori, A.

    2005-01-01

    Two types of improved core confinement were observed during centrally focused electron cyclotron heating (ECH) into plasmas sustained by counter (CNTR) and Co neutral beam injections (NBI) in the Large Helical Device. The CNTR NBI plasma displayed transition phenomena to the high-electron-temperature state and had a clear electron internal transport barrier, while the Co NBI plasma did not show a clear transition or an ECH power threshold but showed broad high temperature profiles with moderate temperature gradient. This indicated that the Co NBI plasma with additional ECH also had an improved core confinement. The electron heat transport characteristics of these plasmas were directly investigated using heat pulse propagation excited by modulated ECH. These effects appear to be related to the m/n = 2/1 rational surface or the island induced by NBI beam-driven current

  17. Simultaneous determination of atorvastatin and valsartan in human plasma by solid-based disperser liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Khorram, Parisa; Pazhohan, Azar

    2016-04-01

    A simple, sensitive, and efficient method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of valsartan and atorvastatin in human plasma by combination of solid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. In the proposed method, 1,2-dibromoethane (extraction solvent) is added on a sugar cube (as a solid disperser) and it is introduced into plasma sample containing the analytes. After manual shaking and centrifugation, the resultant sedimented phase is subjected to back extraction into a small volume of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution using air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction. Then the cloudy solution is centrifuged and the obtained aqueous phase is transferred into a microtube and analyzed by the separation system. Under the optimal conditions, extraction recoveries are obtained in the range of 81-90%. Calibration curves plotted in drug-free plasma sample are linear in the ranges of 5-5000μgL(-1) for valsartan and 10-5000μgL(-1) for atorvastatin with the coefficients of determination higher than 0.997. Limits of detection and quantification of the studied analytes in plasma sample are 0.30-2.6 and 1.0-8.2μgL(-1), respectively. Intra-day (n=6) and inter-days (n=4) precisions of the method are satisfactory with relative standard deviations less than 7.4% (at three levels of 10, 500, and 2000μgL(-1), each analyte). These data suggest that the method can be successfully applied to determine trace amounts of valsartan and atorvastatin in human plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On the electron extraction in a large RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source for the ITER NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, P; Wünderlich, D; Fantz, U

    2014-01-01

    The test facility ELISE, equipped with a large RF-driven ion source (1 × 0.9 m 2 ) of half the size of the ion source for the ITER neutral beam injection (NBI) system, has been constructed over the last three years at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, and is now operational. The first measurements of the dependence of the co-extracted electron currents on various operational parameters have been performed. ELISE has the unique feature that the electron currents can be measured individually on both extraction grid segments, leading to vertical spatial resolution. Although performed in volume operation, where the negative hydrogen ions are created in the plasma volume solely, the results are very encouraging for operation with caesium, this being necessary in order to achieve the relevant negative ion currents for the ITER NBI injectors. The amount of co-extracted electrons could be suppressed sufficiently with moderate magnetic filter fields and by plasma grid bias. Furthermore, the electron extraction is more or less decoupled from the main plasma, as the observed vertical asymmetry of electron extraction is not correlated at all with the plasma asymmetry, which is anyway rather small. Both effects are superior to the experience from the small IPP prototype source; the reason for these encouraging results is most probably the larger size of the source as well as the new geometry of the source having unbiased areas in its centre. The reasons, however, for the observed asymmetry of the extracted electron currents and their dependencies on various operational parameters are not well understood. (paper)

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Bergapten, Imperatorin, Notopterol, and Isoimperatorin in Rat Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic and Excretion Study after Oral Administration of Notopterygium incisum Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Teye Azietaku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific, sensitive, and reliable high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD was first optimized and then used in the simultaneous quantification of bergapten, imperatorin, notopterol, and isoimperatorin in rat plasma using osthole as the internal standard. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was employed in treating the rat plasma samples obtained. Separation was carried out with a Hedera™ ODS column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm by gradient elution at a temperature of 40°C. Excitation and emission of the fluorescence detector were set to 300 and 490 nm, respectively. The lower limits of quantification for bergapten, imperatorin, notopterol, and isoimperatorin in rat plasma were 4, 40, 4, and 2 ng mL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision and accuracy for the four coumarins were within acceptable criteria. The recovery of the method was satisfactory with a range of 80.3–114%. The validated method was successfully used for the simultaneous determination of the four coumarins in Notopterygium incisum extracts and also for the pharmacokinetic and excretion study of bergapten, imperatorin, notopterol, and isoimperatorin in rats.

  20. Effect of nebulizer/spray chamber interfaces on simultaneous, axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the direct determination of As and Se species separated by ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettar, Raquel T.; Smichowski, Patricia; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farias, Silvia; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    Different nebulizer/expansion chamber combinations were evaluated to assess their performance for sample introduction in the direct coupling with an axial view inductively coupled plasma multielement spectrometer for on-line determination of As and Se species previously separated by ion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography. The column effluents were injected into the plasma without prior derivatization. The instrument operation software was adapted for data acquisition and processing to allow multi-wavelength recording of the transient chromatographic peaks. After optimization of the chromatographic operating conditions, separation of mixtures of inorganic As and Se species, and of inorganic and two organic As species (monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids), was achieved with excellent resolution. Species discrimination from mixtures of As and Se oxyanions was further improved by the simultaneous element detection at specific analytical wavelengths. Three nebulizers and three spray chambers, employed in seven combinations, were tested as interfaces. Concentric nebulizers associated to a glass cyclonic chamber appear most suitable regarding sensitivity and signal to noise ratio. Measured element detection limits (3 σ) were around 10 ng ml -1 for all the species considered, making the method a viable alternative to similar procedures that employ volatile hydride generation previous to sample injection into the plasma. Analytical recoveries both for inorganic and organic species ranged between 92 and 107%. The method was demonstrated to be apt for the analysis of surface waters potentially subjected to natural contamination with arsenic

  1. High performance sapphire windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of preactivated ifosfamide derivatives and of 4-hydroxyifosfamide by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in mouse plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroussent, Alain; Skarbek, Charles; Maury, Adeline; Chapuis, Hubert; Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Le Dret, Ludivine; Durand, Sylvère; Couvreur, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier; Paci, Angelo

    2015-06-15

    The antitumor drug, ifosfamide (IFO), requires activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) to form the active metabolite, 4-hydroxyisfosfamide (4-OHIFO), leading to toxic by-products at high dose. In order to overcome these drawbacks, preactivated ifosfamide derivatives (RXIFO) were designed to release 4-OHIFO without CYP involvement. A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 4-OHIFO, IFO and four derivatives RXIFO in mouse plasma using multiple reaction monitoring. Because of its instability in plasma, 4-OHIFO was immediately converted to the semi-carbazone derivative, 4-OHIFO-SCZ. For the six analytes, the calibration curves were linear from 20 to 5000ng/mL in 50μL plasma and the lower limit of quantitation was determined at 20ng/mL with accuracies within ±10% of nominal and precisions less than 12%. Their recoveries ranged from 62 to 96% by using liquid-liquid extraction. With an improved assay sensitivity compared to analogues, the derivative 4-OHIFO-SCZ was stable in plasma at 4°C for 24h and at -20°C for three months. For all compounds, the assay was validated with accuracies within ±13% and precisions less than 15%. This method was applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of 4-OHIFO from IFO and three derivatives RXIFO in mice. This active metabolite was produced by some of the novel conjugates with good pharmacokinetic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the total drug-related chlorine and bromine contents in human blood plasma using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klencsár, Balázs; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Flórez, María R; Balcaen, Lieve; Cuyckens, Filip; Lynen, Frederic; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-05-30

    A fast, accurate and precise method for the separation and determination of the total contents of drug-related Cl and Br in human blood plasma, based on high performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS/MS), has been developed. The novel approach was proved to be a suitable alternative to the presently used standard methodology (i.e. based on a radiolabelled version of the drug molecule and radiodetection), while eliminating the disadvantages of the latter. Interference-free determination of (35)Cl has been accomplished via ICP-MS/MS using H2 as reaction gas and monitoring the (35)ClH2(+) reaction product at mass-to-charge ratio of 37. Br could be measured "on mass" at a mass-to-charge of 79. HPLC was relied on for the separation of the drug-related entities from the substantial amount of inorganic Cl. The method developed was found to be sufficiently precise (repeatability 0.990) from the limit of quantification (0.05 and 0.01 mg/L for Cl and Br in blood plasma, respectively) to at least 5 and 1mg/L for Cl and Br, respectively. Quantification via either external or internal standard calibration provides reliable results for both elements. As a proof-of-concept, human blood plasma samples from a clinical study involving a newly developed Cl- and Br-containing active pharmaceutical ingredient were analysed and the total drug exposure was successfully described. Cross-validation was achieved by comparing the results obtained on Cl- and on Br-basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array detection method for simultaneous monitoring of three inflammatory bowel disease treatment drugs in whole blood, plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G; Tinari, Nicola; Grossi, Laurino; Innosa, Denise; Macerola, Daniela; Tartaglia, Angela; Di Donato, Valentina; D'Ovidio, Cristian; Locatelli, Marcello

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (FPSE-HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of three drug residues (ciprofloxacin, sulfasalazine, and cortisone) in human whole blood, plasma, and urine samples, generally administered in human patients to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The drugs of interest were well resolved using a Luna C 18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm particle size) in gradient elution mode within 20 min. The analytical method was optimized and validated in the range 0.05-10 μg/mL for whole blood, 0.25-10 μg/mL for human plasma, and 0.10-10 μg/mL for human urine. Blank human whole blood, plasma, and urine were used as the sample matrix for the method development and validation; while methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate was used as the internal standard (IS). Weighted-matrix matched standard calibration curves showed a good linearity up to a concentration of 10 μg/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy values (precision and trueness) were found in the range from -10.9% to 12.3%, and the performances of the validated FPSE-HPLC-PDA were further tested on real IBD patient samples. This is the first FPSE procedure applied simultaneously to whole blood, plasma, and urine samples for the determination of residual IBD drugs, which possess a wide range of polarity (logP values ranging from 2.30 for Ciprofloxacin, to 1.66 for Cortisone, and 2.92 for Sulfasalazine). The new approach exhibits high potential for immediate adoptation as a rapid, robust and green analytical tool for future clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Doping control analysis of 46 polar drugs in horse plasma and urine using a 'dilute-and-shoot' ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wai Him; Choi, Timmy L S; Kwok, Karen Y; Chan, George H M; Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2016-06-17

    The high sensitivity of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) allows the identification of many prohibited substances without pre-concentration, leading to the development of simple and fast 'dilute-and-shoot' methods for doping control for human and equine sports. While the detection of polar drugs in plasma and urine is difficult using liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction as these substances are poorly extracted, the 'dilute-and-shoot' approach is plausible. This paper describes a 'dilute-and-shoot' UHPLC-HRMS screening method to detect 46 polar drugs in equine urine and plasma, including some angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, sympathomimetics, anti-epileptics, hemostatics, the new doping agent 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), as well as two threshold substances, namely dimethyl sulfoxide and theobromine. For plasma, the sample (200μL) was protein precipitated using trichloroacetic acid, and the resulting supernatant was diluted using Buffer A with an overall dilution factor of 3. For urine, the sample (20μL) was simply diluted 50-fold with Buffer A. The diluted plasma or urine sample was then analysed using a UHPLC-HRMS system in full-scan ESI mode. The assay was validated for qualitative identification purpose. This straightforward and reliable approach carried out in combination with other screening procedures has increased the efficiency of doping control analysis in the laboratory. Moreover, since the UHPLC-HRMS data were acquired in full-scan mode, the method could theoretically accommodate an unlimited number of existing and new doping agents, and would allow a retrospectively search for drugs that have not been targeted at the time of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of NVP-BEZ235, a dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor, in human and mouse plasma and in mouse tissue homogenates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; de Gooijer, Mark C; Beijnen, Jos H; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2012-07-15

    NVP-BEZ235 is a novel dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR and currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials for advanced solid tumors. We developed a sensitive and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay with fluorometric detection for quantification of NVP-BEZ235 in biological matrices. Liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether was used for sample pre-treatment, yielding a recovery of >84%. Chromatographic separation of NVP-BEZ235 and the internal standard (IS) NVP-BBD130 was achieved on a GraceSmart C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase which consisted of acetonitrile, methanol, and milliQ water adjusted with acetic acid to pH 3.7 (20:36:44, v/v/v). Fluorescence detection using excitation and emission wavelengths of 270 and 425 nm, respectively, provided a selectivity and sensitivity allowing quantification down to 1 ng/ml in human plasma and linear calibration curves within a range of 1-1000 ng/ml. The assay was validated for human plasma, mouse plasma and a range of tissues. The accuracy, within-day and between-day precision for all matrices, was within the generally accepted 15% range. NVP-BEZ235 was stable for 72 h in pretreated samples in reconstitution mixture (acetonitrile-water (30:70, v/v)), but unstable in mouse tissue homogenates upon repeated freeze-thaw cycles or long term storage (≥24 h) at room temperature. A pilot pharmacokinetic study in mice demonstrated the applicability of this method for pharmacokinetic purposes. Overall, this assay is suitable for the pharmacokinetic studies of NVP-BEZ235 in mice and in human plasma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of active and passive magnetic field reduction systems (MFRS) of the ITER NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Lucca, F.; Roccella, R.; Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G.; Portone, A.; Tanga, A.; Formisano, A.; Martone, R.

    2007-01-01

    In ITER two heating (HNBI) and one diagnostic neutral beam injectors (DNBI) are foreseen. Inside these components there are very stringent limits on the magnetic field (the flux density must be below some G along the ion path and below 20 G in the neutralizing regions). To achieve these performances in an environment with high stray field due to the plasma and the poloidal field coils (PFC), both passive and active shielding systems have been foreseen. The present design of the magnetic field reduction systems (MFRS) is made of seven active coils and of a box surrounding the NBI region, consisting of ferromagnetic plates. The electromagnetic analyses of the effectiveness of these shields have been performed by a 3D FEM model using ANSYS code for the HNBI. The ANSYS models of the ferromagnetic box and of the active coils are fully parametric, thus any size change of the ferromagnetic box and coils (linear dimension or thickness) preserving the overall box shape could be easily reproduced by simply changing some parameter in the model

  8. Analysis of active and passive magnetic field reduction systems (MFRS) of the ITER NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccella, M. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S., Piazza Prinetti 26/B, Merate (Lecco) (Italy)], E-mail: roccella@ltcalcoli.it; Lucca, F.; Roccella, R. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S., Piazza Prinetti 26/B, Merate (Lecco) (Italy); Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G. [Associazione EURATOM sulla Fusione - ENEA Frascati (Italy); Portone, A.; Tanga, A. [ITER EFDA (Italy); Formisano, A.; Martone, R. [CREATE Napoli (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    In ITER two heating (HNBI) and one diagnostic neutral beam injectors (DNBI) are foreseen. Inside these components there are very stringent limits on the magnetic field (the flux density must be below some G along the ion path and below 20 G in the neutralizing regions). To achieve these performances in an environment with high stray field due to the plasma and the poloidal field coils (PFC), both passive and active shielding systems have been foreseen. The present design of the magnetic field reduction systems (MFRS) is made of seven active coils and of a box surrounding the NBI region, consisting of ferromagnetic plates. The electromagnetic analyses of the effectiveness of these shields have been performed by a 3D FEM model using ANSYS code for the HNBI. The ANSYS models of the ferromagnetic box and of the active coils are fully parametric, thus any size change of the ferromagnetic box and coils (linear dimension or thickness) preserving the overall box shape could be easily reproduced by simply changing some parameter in the model.

  9. NBI Calculations for the TJ-II Experimental discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.

    2004-01-01

    Calculations for NBI losses, absorption and power deposition radial profiles, corresponding to the experimental TJ-II campaigns 2003-2004, have been fitted to simple functionals in order to allow a fast approximative evaluation for any given density. The average difference between the calculations for the individual discharges using the experimental density and temperature radial profiles and the fit predictions are between 10 and 15% and the behaviour with density is the expected one: nonotonic decrease of shine through losses and increase of absorption with incipient saturation for high densities. The fast ion birth radial profile narrows initially at low densities but later starts to widen, although, for the average line density range analysed (0.51 a 4.1x10''13 cm''-3), never are wide enough to induce an increase of direct orbit losses neither to produce hollow radial profiles. The power absorption radial profile widens nonotonically. There exist Fortran subroutines, available at the three CIEMAT computers, allowing the fast approximative evaluation of all these values. (Author) 8 refs

  10. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of cefadroxil monohydrate in human plasma. Methods: Schimadzu HPLC with LC solution software was used with Waters Spherisorb, C18 (5 μm, 150mm × 4.5mm) column. The mobile phase ...

  11. Comparison of pharmacokinetic behavior of two iridoid glycosides in rat plasma after oral administration of crude Cornus officinals and its jiuzhipin by high performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry combined with multiple reactions monitoring mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaocheng; Cao, Gang; Jiang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the pharmacokinetic profiles of two iridoid glycosides named morroniside and loganin in rat plasma after oral administration of crude and processed Cornus officinals. Materials and Methods: A rapid, selective and specific high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reactions monitoring mode was developed to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of morroniside and loganin in rat plasma after oral administration of crude C. officinals and its jiuzhipin. Results: The morroniside and loganin in crude and processed C. officinals could be simultaneously determined within 7.4 min. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration ranges of 45.45-4800 ng/mL for all the analytes. The intra-and inter-day precisions relative standard deviation was lesser than 2.84% and 4.12%, respectively. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic parameters of two iridoid glucosides were also compared systematically between crude and processed C. officinals. This paper provides the theoretical proofs for further explaining the processing mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicines. PMID:24914290

  12. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode array detection for the quantitation of carotenoids, retinyl esters, α-tocopherol and phylloquinone in chylomicron-rich fractions of human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Riedl, Ken M; Carle, Reinhold; Schwartz, Steven J

    2013-06-30

    Bioavailability of essential lipophilic micronutrients and carotenoids is of utmost interest for human health, as the consumption of these compounds may help alleviate major nutritional deficiencies, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. High-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) were compared for the quantitative analysis of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, and several retinyl esters from chylomicron-containing triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions of human plasma obtained from two clinical trials. After selecting an efficient extraction method for the analytes, both the HPLC/PDA and the HPLC/MS/MS methods were developed and several parameters validated using an HP 1200 series HPLC system interfaced with a HP 1200 series diode-array detector (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and a QTRAP 5500 (AB Sciex, Foster City, CA, USA) via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) probe operated in positive ion mode. For lycopene, α- and β-carotene, HPLC/MS/MS was up to 37 times more sensitive than HPLC-PDA. PDA detection was shown to be up to 8 times more sensitive for lutein. MS/MS signals were enhanced by matrix components for lutein and β-cryptoxanthin, as determined by referencing to the matrix-independent PDA signal. In contrast, matrix suppression was observed for retinyl palmitate, α-carotene, and β-carotene. Both detectors showed similar suitability for α-tocopherol, lycopene and retinyl palmitate (representing ~73% of total retinyl esters). MS/MS exclusively allowed the quantitation of minor retinyl esters, phylloquinone, and (Z)-lycopene isomers. HPLC/MS/MS was more sensitive than HPLC-PDA for six of the eight analytes and represents a powerful tool for the analysis of chylomicron samples and potentially other biological samples of limited sample size. When internal

  13. Online restricted-access material combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of vanillin and its vanillic acid metabolite in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Zhang, Zhi-Qing; Yang, Xiu-Ling; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Qi, Jin-Long

    2016-09-01

    An automated online solid-phase extraction with restricted-access material combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of vanillin and its vanillic acid metabolite in human plasma. After protein precipitation by methanol, which contained the internal standards, the supernatant of plasma samples was injected to the system, the endogenous large molecules were flushed out, and target analytes were trapped and enriched on the adsorbent, resulting in a minimization of sample complexity and ion suppression effects. Calibration curves were linear over the concentrations of 5-1000 ng/mL for vanillin and 10-5000 ng/mL for vanillic acid with a coefficient of determination >0.999 for the determined compounds. The lower limits of quantification of vanillin and vanillic acid were 5.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-run precisions expressed as the relative standard deviation were 2.6-8.6 and 3.2-10.2%, respectively, and the accuracies expressed as the relative error were in the range of -6.1 to 7.3%. Extraction recoveries of analytes were between 89.5 and 97.4%. There was no notable matrix effect for any analyte concentration. The developed method was proved to be sensitive, repeatable, and accurate for the quantification of vanillin and its vanillic acid metabolite in human plasma. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen and five acetaminophen metabolites in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: Method validation and application to a neonatal pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah F; King, Amber D; van den Anker, John N; Wilkins, Diana G

    2015-12-15

    Drug metabolism plays a key role in acetaminophen (paracetamol)-induced hepatotoxicity, and quantification of acetaminophen metabolites provides critical information about factors influencing susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in clinical and experimental settings. The aims of this study were to develop, validate, and apply high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) methods for simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen, acetaminophen-glucuronide, acetaminophen-sulfate, acetaminophen-glutathione, acetaminophen-cysteine, and acetaminophen-N-acetylcysteine in small volumes of human plasma and urine. In the reported procedures, acetaminophen-d4 and acetaminophen-d3-sulfate were utilized as internal standards (IS). Analytes and IS were recovered from human plasma (10μL) by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Human urine (10μL) was prepared by fortification with IS followed only by sample dilution. Calibration concentration ranges were tailored to literature values for each analyte in each biological matrix. Prepared samples from plasma and urine were analyzed under the same HPLC-ESI-MS/MS conditions, and chromatographic separation was achieved through use of an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with a 20-min run time per injected sample. The analytes could be accurately and precisely quantified over 2.0-3.5 orders of magnitude. Across both matrices, mean intra- and inter-assay accuracies ranged from 85% to 112%, and intra- and inter-assay imprecision did not exceed 15%. Validation experiments included tests for specificity, recovery and ionization efficiency, inter-individual variability in matrix effects, stock solution stability, and sample stability under a variety of storage and handling conditions (room temperature, freezer, freeze-thaw, and post-preparative). The utility and suitability of the reported procedures were illustrated by analysis of pharmacokinetic samples

  15. Validation of an assay for quantification of free normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection: Comparison of peak-area vs. peak-height measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieć, Dawid; Kunicki, Paweł K

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of plasma concentrations of free normetanephrine (NMN), metanephrine (MN) and methoxytyramine (MTY) constitute the most diagnostically accurate screening test for pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The aim of this article is to present the results from a validation of an analytical method utilizing high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection (HPLC-CD) for quantifying plasma free NMN, MN and MTY. Additionally, peak integration by height and area and the use of one calibration curve for all batches or individual calibration curve for each batch of samples was explored as to determine the optimal approach with regard to accuracy and precision. The method was validated using charcoal stripped plasma spiked with solutions of NMN, MN, MTY and internal standard (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamine) with the exception of selectivity which was evaluated by analysis of real plasma samples. Calibration curve performance, accuracy, precision and recovery were determined following both peak-area and peak-height measurements and the obtained results were compared. The most accurate and precise method of calibration was evaluated by analyzing quality control samples at three concentration levels in 30 analytical runs. The detector response was linear over the entire tested concentration range from 10 to 2000pg/mL with R(2)≥0.9988. The LLOQ was 10pg/mL for each analyte of interest. To improve accuracy for measurements at low concentrations, a weighted (1/amount) linear regression model was employed, which resulted in inaccuracies of -2.48 to 9.78% and 0.22 to 7.81% following peak-area and peak-height integration, respectively. The imprecisions ranged from 1.07 to 15.45% and from 0.70 to 11.65% for peak-area and peak-height measurements, respectively. The optimal approach to calibration was the one utilizing an individual calibration curve for each batch of samples and peak-height measurements. It was characterized by inaccuracies ranging from -3

  16. Effect of magnetic configuration on frequency of NBI-driven Alfvén modes in TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Ochando, M.; Ascasibar, E.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.; Eliseev, L. G.; Hidalgo, C.; Krupnik, L. I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Liniers, M.; Lysenko, S. E.; de Pablos, J. L.; Perfilov, S. V.; Sharapov, S. E.; Spong, D. A.; Jimenez, J. A.; Ufimtsev, M. V.; Breizman, B. N.; HIBP Group; the TJ-II Team

    2014-12-01

    Excitation of modes in the Alfvénic frequency range, 30 kHz values, 1.51advantage of the unique TJ-II capabilities, a dynamic magnetic configuration experiment with \\unicode{7548} (ρ , t) variation during discharges has shown strong effects on the mode frequency via both vacuum \\unicode{7548} changes and induced net plasma current. A drastic frequency increase from ˜50 to ˜250 kHz was observed for some modes when plasma current as low as ±2 kA was induced by small (10%) changes in the vertical field. A comprehensive set of diagnostics including a heavy ion beam probe, magnetic probes and a multi-chord bolometer made it possible to identify the spatial spread of the modes and deduce the internal amplitudes of their plasma density and magnetic field perturbations. A simple analytical model for fAE, based on the local Alfvén eigenmode (AE) dispersion relation, was proposed to characterize the observation. It was shown that all the observations, including vacuum iota and plasma current variations, may be fitted by the model, so the linear mode frequency dependence on \\unicode{7548} (plasma current) and one over square root density dependence present the major features of the NBI-induced AEs in TJ-II, and provide the framework for further experiment-to-theory comparison.

  17. Heat transfer enhancement of NBI vacuum pump cryopanels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa Guaman, Santiago; Hanke, Stefan; Day, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cryopanel is optimized minimizing its maximal temperature rise and heat capacity. ► Copper coating on the cryopanels is necessary to reach a high thermal efficiency. ► The copper coating is achieved using an electroplating technique. ► A thermal shield for the cryopump 4 K manifold would reduce heat leaks down to 10%. ► The manufacturability and operation of the thermal shield is discussed. -- Abstract: Huge cryogenic pumps are installed inside neutral beam injectors in order to manage the typically very large gas flows. This paper deals with the aspect of passive cooling in NBI cryopump design development and discusses design considerations in two example areas. One is the design of cryopanels consisting of a pipe, centrally supplied with cryogenic helium, and a welded fin, passively cooled, to provide the necessary pumping surface below a given maximum temperature. The results of several parametric simulations in ANSYS are presented using different copper thicknesses and cryopanel geometries to discuss the thermal capability (heat transfer characteristics and heat capacities) of a number of design variants. The optimum design solution is based on copper-coated fins, using an electroplating technique, and thereby improving the heat transfer of the cryopanels while attaining an overall reduction in weight. The other area is the sound design of the manifold shielding system with a weld contact between copper and stainless steel. Weld samples were manufactured and investigated to raise awareness of the demands and risks during manufacturing and to demonstrate that readily applicable weld procedures exist

  18. Power supply for plasma generator of HL-1M neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Detai; Qian Jiamei; Lei Guangjiu; Shun Mengda; Jiang Shaofeng; Wang Enyao; Lu Xuejun; Yang Tiehai; Wang Xuehua; Zhao Zhimin; Hao Ming; Huang Jianrong; Yu Yanqiu; Cheng Baoqiang; Wu Zhige; Sheng Ning; Hu Qingtao

    1999-01-01

    The diagram of the HL-1M Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) and the power supply (PS) system is shown. The NBI consists of ion source, beam line and power supply system etc. The ion source includes plasma generator and three-electrode extraction system. The power supply for plasma generator consists of a filament PS, an arc PS and gas valve PS. Testing has shown that the PS for plasma generator of the HL-1M NBI has excellent stability and obtain good plasma heating effect

  19. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction based on amino-functionalized Fe3O4 adsorbent for recovery of clomipramine from human plasma and its determination by high performance liquid chromatography: Optimization by experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Fatemeh; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Aghaie, Ali B G

    2017-09-15

    The applicability of Amino-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs) as an effective adsorbent was developed for the extraction and determination of clomipramine (CLP) in plasma sample by ultrasound-assisted dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction (UADM-SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. Fabrication of the Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 -NH 2 magnetic nanoparticles confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of different extraction parameters (i.e. pH of the sample solution, the amount of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), sample volume, temperature and sonication time) on the extraction recovery of CLP were investigated by response surface methodology through central composite design (CCD). The optimum condition is obtained when the affecting parameters are set to: pH of the sample solution=9, the amount of MNPs=37mg, sample volume=23mL, 25°C temperature and sonication time=1min. Under the optimum condition, extraction recovery was 90.6% with relative standard deviation of 3.5%, and enrichment factor of 117. The linear range for determination of CLP was 0.017-0.70mgL -1 with a determination coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.999. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.0167mgL -1 , respectively. The established UADM-SPE-HPLC-UV method was rapid, simple and efficient for determination of CLP in human plasma samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R₁, ginsenoside Rg₁, ginsenoside Re and 20(S) protopanaxatriol in beagle dog plasma by ultra high performance liquid mass spectrometry after oral administration of a Panax notoginseng saponin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huichao; Liu, Huimin; Bai, Jie; Lu, Yang; Du, Shouying

    2015-01-01

    20(S) protopanaxatriol is the main metabolite of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re in Panax notoginseng and has significant activities. A ultra high performance liquid mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R₁ (R1), ginsenoside Rg₁ (Rg₁), ginsenoside Re (Re) and 20(S) protopanaxatriol (PPT) in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of a Panax notoginseng saponin preparation. After the addition of the internal standard (digoxin), plasma samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with acetone and methanol and separated on a 100 × 2.1 mm ACQUITY 1.7 μm C₁₈ column (Waters, USA), with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase, within a runtime of 7.0 min. The analytes were detected without interference in Selected Reaction Monitoring mode with a change in the electrospray ionization from positive to negative. The detection limits were 0.01 to 0.04 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the four ingredients were linear over four orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9957. The intra-day and inter-day precision values (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) were within 10.25% and 13.51%, respectively, and the accuracy (relative error, RE, %) was less than 7.81%. The validated method was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of four saponins in beagle dogs after oral administration of a Panax Notoginseng Saponins preparation. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS 3.20. The Tmax and Cmax values indicate a dose-dose relationship between the saponins (R1, Rg1, and Re) and their sapogenin (PPT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation between dried blood spot thin layer chromatography and plasma high performance liquid chromatography of leucine/isoleucine levels among Filipino patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) seen at the Institute of Human Genetics, National Institutes of Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Chiong, Mary Anne D.; Rana, Michelle D.; Rama, Kahlil Izza D.; David-Padilla, Carmencita; Cavan, Barbra Charina; Cordero, Cynthia P.

    2008-01-01

    Management of patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) includes a low protein diet, supplemented with special formulas and constant monitoring of branched chain amino acids (BCAA). The gold standard for monitoring BCAA is plasma amino acid analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In a developing country like the Philippines, however, the cost of this test is prohibitive to the majority of the patients. In our center, dried blood spot leucine/isoleucine (leu/ile) levels analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is often used to diagnose and monitor these patients. This study was done to determine the correlation of leu/ile levels using the two methods (TLC and HPLC). A total of 46 MSUD patients were referred to the Biochemical Genetics Laboratory of the Institute of Human Genetics (IHG) from July 2001 to January 2004. Thirty five samples were obtained from 18 of these patients (some patients were seen at IHG more than once), and paired determinations of plasma amino acid using TLC and HPLC were made. The remaining samples were either hemolyzed or were not analyzed. The correlation coefficient [rho denoted as ρ] was estimated at a 95% confidence level using the Fisher's Z transformation. Of the 18 patients, 12 were males. The youngest was 1 day old and the oldest was 5 years old. The majority had the classical type of MSUD and dietary protein was restricted to between 0.6 gram/kg/day to 1 gram/kg/day of natural protein. Using the first pairs of observation for these 18 patients, the correlation coefficient was 0.76 (95% C1:0.462 to 0.907). This suggest a strong correlation between the two methods. It is recommended that further studies be done to determine the potential of the dried blood spot leu/ile level by TLC as an alternative method that can be used in the diagnosis and monitoring of MSUD patients especially in a developing country. (Author)

  2. Determination of trace amounts of rare-earth elements in highly pure neodymium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira, W. R.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; da Silva Queiroz, C. A.; Rodrigues, C.; Tomiyoshi, I. A.; Abrão, A.

    2003-02-01

    Recently rare-earth elements (REE) have received much attention in fields of geochemistry and industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of them are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of REE. HR ICP-MS was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC in highly pure materials. The separation of REE with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system using a concentration gradient methods. The detection limits with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system were about 0.5-10 pg mL-1. The percentage recovery ranged from 90% to 100% for different REE. The %RSD of the methods varying between 2.5% and 4.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two highly pure neodymium oxides samples (IPEN and Johnson Matthey Company) were performed. In short, the IPEN's materials which are highly pure (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences.

  3. Determination of trace amounts of rare-earth elements in highly pure neodymium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira, W.R.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Rodrigues, C.; Tomiyoshi, I.A.; Abrao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recently rare-earth elements (REE) have received much attention in fields of geochemistry and industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of them are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of REE. HR ICP-MS was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC in highly pure materials. The separation of REE with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system using a concentration gradient methods. The detection limits with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system were about 0.5-10 pg mL -1 . The percentage recovery ranged from 90% to 100% for different REE. The %RSD of the methods varying between 2.5% and 4.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two highly pure neodymium oxides samples (IPEN and Johnson Matthey Company) were performed. In short, the IPEN's materials which are highly pure (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences

  4. A fabric phase sorptive extraction-High performance liquid chromatography-Photo diode array detection method for the determination of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues in human plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Kabir, Abuzar; Innosa, Denise; Lopatriello, Teresa; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (FPSE-HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues that include ketoconazole, terconazole, voriconazole, bifonazole, clotrimazole, tioconazole, econazole, butoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and itraconazole in human plasma and urine samples. The selected azole antimicrobial drugs were well resolved by using a Luna C 18 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm particle size) in gradient elution mode within 36min. The analytical method was calibrated and validated in the range from 0.1 to 8μg/mL for all the drug compounds. Blank human plasma and urine were used as the sample matrix for the analysis; while benzyl-4-hydroxybenzoate was used as the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification of the FPSE-HPLC-PDA method was found as 0.1μg/mL and the weighted-matrix matched standard calibration curves of the drugs showed a good linearity upto a concentration of 8μg/mL. The parallelism tests were also performed to evaluate whether overrange sample can be analyzed after dilution, without compromising the analytical performances of the validated method. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were found ≤13.1% and ≤13.9%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day trueness (bias%) values were found in the range from -12.1% to 10.5%. The performances of the validated FPSE-HPLC-PDA were further tested on real samples collected from healthy volunteers after a single dose administration of itraconazole and miconazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first FPSE extraction procedure applied on plasma and urine samples for the simultaneous determination of twelve azole drugs possessing a wide range of logK ow values (extending from 0.4 for fluconazole to 6.70 of butoconazole) and could be adopted as a rapid and robust green analytical tool for clinical and

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Purpurin, Munjistin and Mollugin in Rat Plasma by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study after Oral Administration of Rubia cordifolia L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A specific, simple, sensitive Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of purpurin, munjistin, and mollugin in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried out using a C18 column (ACQUITY UPLC® HSS T3, 1.8 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm with gradient elution. The compounds were detected on a 6430 triple-quadrupole tandem MS with an electrospray ionization (ESI interface using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM in positive ionization mode. The samples were prepared by a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE method with ethyl acetate after being spiked with an internal standard (bifendate. The current UHPLC-MS/MS assay was validated for its linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability in different conditions. The method was linear for all analytes over the investigated range with all determined correlation coefficients exceeding 0.9900. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were in the range of 4.21% to 14.84%, and the relative errors of accuracies were in the range of −14.05% to 14.75%. The mean recoveries and matrix effects of purpurin, munjistin, and mollugin were higher than 78.87% and 92.56%, repectively. After oral administration of 0.82 g/kg of Rubia cordifolia extract, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax were 70.10 ± 11.78 ng/mL for purpurin, 26.09 ± 6.6 ng/mL for munjistin, and 52.10 ± 6.71 ng/mL for mollugin. The time for maximal concentration (Tmax was 1.61 ± 0.24 h for purpurin, 2.58 ± 0.19 h for munjistin, and 1.99 ± 0.21 h for mollugin. The established method was further applied to a pharmacokinetic study of purpurin, munjistin, and mollugin in rat plasma. It was concluded from the pharmacokinetic parameters that the three analytes showed a process of slow absorption and metabolism after oral administration of R. cordifolia extract to

  6. Determination of blood concentrations of main active compounds in Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction and their total plasma protein binding rates based on hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaomiao; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Runqin; Peng, Xiaoli; Bai, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Oil-in-salt hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for determination of the blood concentrations of the main active compounds, hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin, after oral administration of Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction (ZCCQD) and their total plasma protein binding rates. In the procedure, a hollow fiber segment was immersed in organic solvent to fill the solvent in the fiber lumen and wall pore, and then the fiber was immersed into sodium chloride solution to cover a thin salt membrane on the fiber wall pore filling organic solvent. Various factors affecting the procedure, such as extraction solvent, sample phase pH, stirring rate, extraction time, NaCl concentration and fiber immersion time in the NaCl solution, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearities (r 2 ≥0.9905), low limits of detection (0.7-2.5ng/mL) or quantitation (1.2-12ng/mL), satisfactory precision (2.6%-12.8%) and accuracy (81.0%-114.2%) of this method, were observed. The results showed that, after oral administration of a 25g/kg dose, (1) the blood concentrations (at 0.5h) of hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin were 0.45, 0.40, 0.48, 0.74, 0.11 and 1.11μg/mL, respectively; (2) the total plasma protein binding rates of the six active compounds were 42.0% (hesperidin), 71.8% (honokiol), 64.6% (shikonin), 77.7% (magnolol), 75.3% (emodin) and 75.7% (β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin), respectively. The proposed procedure coupled with HPLC shows obvious advantages, such as low solvent consumption, simple operation, high sensitivity and strong purifying and can be used for the determination of both the blood concentrations and total plasma protein binding rates of active compounds in traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Firas; Weinstein, Michael P

    2016-12-01

    The use of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) has attracted increasing attention in the context of protection against coastal flooding. This review is focused on NBI approaches to improve coastal resilience in the face of extreme storm events, including hurricanes. We not only consider the role of NBI as a measure to protect people and property but also in the context of other ecological goods and services provided by tidal wetlands including production of fish and shellfish. Although the results of many studies suggest that populated areas protected by coastal marshes were less likely to experience damage when exposed to the full force of storm surge, it was absolutely critical to place the role of coastal wetlands into perspective by noting that while tidal marshes can reduce wave energy from low-to-moderate-energy storms, their capacity to substantially reduce storm surge remains poorly quantified. Moreover, although tidal marshes can reduce storm surge from fast moving storms, very large expanses of habitat are needed to be most effective, and for most urban settings, there is insufficient space to rely on nature-based risk reduction strategies alone. The success of a given NBI method is also context dependent on local conditions, with potentially confounding influences from substrate characteristics, topography, near shore bathymetry, distance from the shore and other physical factors and human drivers such as development patterns. Furthermore, it is important to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of newly developed NBI projects through rigorous evaluations and characterize the local specificities of the particular built and natural environments surrounding these coastal areas. In order for the relevant science to better inform policy, and assist in land-use challenges, scientists must clearly state the likelihood of success in a particular circumstance and set of conditions. We conclude that "caution is advised" before selecting a particular NBI

  8. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  9. Investigation of Public Charging Infrastructure : Case study Gränby sportfält

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Emma; Hedström, Andreas; Lindgren, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The municipal company Sportfastigheter AB is currently renovating and developing Gränby sportfält, a sports field in Uppsala. Adjacent to the sports field, a parking lot for 700 vehicles is located, where Sportfastigheter AB is preparing to install charging points for electric vehicles (EVs) at some of the places. This bachelor thesis aims to investigate how a public charging solution should be modeled, with the parking lot at Gränby sportfält as a case study. The investigation involves estim...

  10. Ion cyclotron heating of JET D-D and D-T optimised shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, G.; Baranov, Y.; Bartlett, D.

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses the unique roles played by Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) in the preparation, formation and sustainment of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in high fusion performance JET optimised shear experiments using the Mk. H poloidal divertor. Together with Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD), low power ICRH is applied during the early ramp-up phase of the plasma current, 'freezing in' a hollow or flat current density profile with q(0)>1. In combination with up to ∼ 20 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), the ICRH power is stepped up to ∼ 6 MW during the main low confinement (L-mode) heating phase. An ITB forms promptly after the power step, revealed by a region of reduced central energy transport and peaked profiles, with the ion thermal diffusivity falling to values close to the standard neo-classical level near the centre of both D-D and D-T plasmas. At the critical time of ITB formation, the plasma contains an energetic ICRF hydrogen minority ion population, contributing ∼ 50% to the total plasma pressure and heating mainly electrons. As both the NBI population and the thermal ion pressure develop, a substantial part of the ICRF power is damped resonantly on core ions (ω = 2 ω cD = 3 ω cT ) contributing to the ion heating. In NBI step-down experiments, high performance has been sustained by maintaining central ICRH heating; analysis shows the efficiency of central ICRH ion heating to be comparable with that of NBI. The highest D-D fusion neutron rates (R NT = 5.6 x 10 16 s -1 ) yet achieved in JET plasmas have been produced by combining a low magnetic shear core with a high confinement (H-mode) edge. In D-T, a fusion triple product n i T i τ E = (1.2 ± 0.2) x 10 21 m -3 keVs was achieved with 7.2 MW of fusion power obtained in the L-mode and up to 8.2 MW of fusion power in the H-mode phase. (author)

  11. NBI Calculations for the TJ-II Experimental Discharges; Ajustes de los Perfiles Radiales de Densidad y Temperatura para las Descargas con NBI del TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.

    2005-07-01

    The density and electron temperature radial profiles, corresponding to the experimental TJ-II campaigns 2003-2004, with NBI, have been fitted to simple functionals in order to allow a fast approximative evaluation for any given density and injected power... The fits have been calculated, separately, for the four possibilities: ECRH and NBI Phases as well as On and Off Axis ECRH injection. The average difference between the experimental profiles for the individual discharges and the fit predictions are around 8% for the density and 10% for the temperature. The behaviour of the predicted profiles with average line density and injected power has been analysed. The central electron temperature decreases monotonically with increasing density and the ECRH phase On Axis central value is clearly higher than the Off axis one. The radial density profiles narrow with increasing density and the NBI On axis case is clearly wider than de Off one. The electron temperature profile widens slightly with increasing density and the width of the On Axix case is lesser than for the Off case in all phases. There exist Fortran subroutines, available at the three CIEMAT computers, allowing the fast approximative evaluation of all these profiles. (Author) 8 refs.

  12. Determination of trace elements in high pure rare earth oxide by double focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira Filho, Walter dos Reis

    2000-01-01

    Rare earth oxides are used in several technological fields whose applications can be observed in several areas of modern technology, among which are included: lasers, semiconductors semi, high purity materials and metallic alloys. The field of applications of the rare earth elements is quite wide. Several important industrial applications are ceramics, catalysts and metallurgical as well as research areas and high technology sectors. Such applications have been presenting an accentuated growth in the last years. Chemical characterization of rare earth oxides of high purity has been constituting one of the major challenges of analytical chemistry. Several analytical techniques were used for chemical characterization of high purity rare earth the oxides. Even so, those techniques present limitations when one needs to characterize materials of a high level of purity, as in the case of rare earth oxides. Some of those limitations are associated, for example, to spectral interference. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful analytical tool for quantitative analysis of metal impurities in high purity materials. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has an unit of production and purification of rare earth oxides, with above 99,9% level of purity. In this work, the rare earth impurities were characterized in samples (La 2 O 3 ; CeO 2 ; Pr 6 O 11 ; Nd 2 O 3 ; Sm 2 O 3 ; Gd 2 O 3 ; Y 2 O 3 ) produced at the IPEN and certified standard materials produced by Johnson Matthey Chemical (JMC). The technique of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used in the separation of the impurities. Quantification of metallic impurities was carried out as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP MS). In this work it is presented a new analytical methodology in the chemical characterization of metallic impurities in rare earth oxides of high purity (> 99,9%) with and without separation of the matrix. Analyses of standard

  13. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N., E-mail: bnwan@ipp.ac.cn; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-12-10

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  14. Multilaboratory Validation of First Action Method 2016.04 for Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubachka, Kevin; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Conklin, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Before being designated AOAC First Action Official MethodSM 2016.04, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's method, EAM 4.10 High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice, underwent both a single-laboratory validation and a multilaboratory validation (MLV) study. Three federal and five state regulatory laboratories participated in the MLV study, which is the primary focus of this manuscript. The method was validated for inorganic arsenic (iAs) measured as the sum of the two iAs species arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) by analyses of 13 juice samples, including three apple juice, three apple juice concentrate, four grape juice, and three pear juice samples. In addition, two water Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed. The method LODs and LOQs obtained among the eight laboratories were approximately 0.3 and 2 ng/g, respectively, for each of the analytes and were adequate for the intended purpose of the method. Each laboratory analyzed method blanks, fortified method blanks, reference materials, triplicate portions of each juice sample, and duplicate fortified juice samples (one for each matrix type) at three fortification levels. In general, repeatability and reproducibility of the method was ≤15% RSD for each species present at a concentration >LOQ. The average recovery of fortified analytes for all laboratories ranged from 98 to 104% iAs, DMA, and MMA for all four juice sample matrixes. The average iAs results for SRMs 1640a and 1643e agreed within the range of 96-98% of certified values for total arsenic.

  15. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  16. Speciation of Bio-Available Iodine in Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Hyphenated with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Using an In Vitro Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Han Sol; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-06-01

    Abalone is one of the most valuable marine products found in East Asia because it is rich in nutritious substances including iodine. In this study, the in vitro dialyzability approach was used to assess the bio-available iodine species in abalone. Iodide, iodate, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine (MIT), and 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine (DIT) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). To assure the consistency, reliability, and accuracy of the data, the method was validated. Comparison of the total iodine in abalone muscle and viscera indicated that abalone muscle showed greater digestion/absorption efficiency than abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 68.13 ± 2.59% and 47.88 ± 5.76% and absorption efficiency: 59.78 ± 2.93% and 35.12 ± 1.43% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). However, evaluation of the sum of the analyzed iodine species targeted in this study by HPLC-ICP-MS indicated that abalone muscle showed lower digestion efficiency and similar absorption efficiency compared to that of abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 35.52 ± 5.41% and 28.84 ± 1.83%; absorption efficiency: 23.56 ± 4.38% and 27.56 ± 1.51% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). The main forms of iodine detected in abalone muscle were iodide and MIT, whereas iodide was the major form in abalone viscera. The bio-available iodine in abalone was quantified via an in vitro method employing HPLC-ICP-MS. The results of this study indicated that abalone is feasible as a new iodine source and may prospectively find application in iodine-fortified foods. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of three flavonoids and three anthraquinones in normal and gastrointestinal motility disorders rat plasma after the oral administration of Wei-Chang-Shu tablet using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Zhao, Weiwei; Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Xiangming; Yu, Chen; Liu, Mengan

    2017-11-01

    A simple, fast and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetic study of three flavonoids (liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin and formononetin) and three anthraquinones (emodin, rhein and aloe-emodin), which are the bioactive ingredients of Wei-Chang-Shu tablet found in rat plasma. After extraction by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C 18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min by gradient elution using 0.1% aqueous acetic acid and acetonitrile. The detection was performed using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in the negative ionization and selected reaction monitoring mode. Method validation was performed in terms of specificity, carryover, linearity (r > 0.99), intra-/inter-day precision (1.0-10.1%), accuracy (relative error, <7.6%), stability (0.6-13.2%), extract recovery (74.9-91.9%) and matrix effect (89.1-109%). The lower limits of quantification of the six analytes varied from 0.92 to 10.4 ng/mL. The validated method was successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of Wei-Chang-Shu tablet in normal rats and in rats with gastrointestinal motility disorders. The results indicated that there were obvious differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior between normal and model rats. This study will be helpful in the clinical application of Wei-Chang-Shu tablet. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. RavenDB high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  19. Advanced high performance solid wall blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Nishio, S.; Raffray, R.; Sagara, A.

    2002-01-01

    First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  20. Determination of methylmercury and estimation of total mercury in seafood using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hight, Susan C. [Elemental Research Branch, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835 (United States)]. E-mail: susan.hight@fda.gov; Cheng, John [Elemental Research Branch, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835 (United States)]. E-mail: john.cheng@fda.gov

    2006-05-17

    A method was developed for determination of methylmercury and estimation of total mercury in seafood. Mercury (Hg) compounds were extracted from 0.5 g edible seafood or 0.2 g lyophilized reference material by adding 50 ml aqueous 1% w/v L-cysteine.HCl.H{sub 2}O and heating 120 min at 60 deg. C in glass vials. Hg compounds in 50 {mu}l of filtered extract were separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 column and aqueous 0.1% w/v L-cysteine.HCl.H{sub 2}O + 0.1% w/v L-cysteine mobile phase at room temperature and were detected by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry at mass-to-charge ratio 202. Total Hg was calculated as the mathematical sum of methyl and inorganic Hg determined in extracts. For seafoods containing 0.055-2.78 mg kg{sup -1} methylmercury and 0.014-0.137 mg kg{sup -1} inorganic Hg, precision of analyses was {<=}5% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for methylmercury and {<=}9% R.S.D. for inorganic Hg. Recovery of added analyte was 94% for methylmercury and 98% for inorganic Hg. Methyl and total Hg results for reference materials agreed with certified values. Limits of quantitation were 0.007 mg kg{sup -1} methylmercury and 0.005 mg kg{sup -1} inorganic Hg in edible seafood and 0.017 mg kg{sup -1} methylmercury and 0.012 mg kg{sup -1} inorganic Hg in lyophilized reference materials. Evaluation of analyte stability demonstrated that L-cysteine both stabilized and de-alkylated methylmercury, depending on holding time and cysteine concentration. Polypropylene adversely affected methylmercury stability. Total Hg results determined by this method were equivalent to results determined independently by cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry. Methylmercury was the predominant form of Hg in finfish. Ratios of methylmercury/total Hg determined by this method were 93-98% for finfish and 38-48% for mollusks.

  1. Alpha-particle simulation using NBI beam and ICRF wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1984-07-01

    A new idea to produce the distribution function similar to that of alpha-particles in an ignited plasma has been proposed. This concept is attributed to the acceleration of the injected beam up to about 1 MeV/nucleon by the ICRF wave with cyclotron higher harmonics. This new method makes it possible to perform the simulation experiments for alpha-particles under the condition of moderate plasma parameters (e.g., Tsub(e) = 4 keV, nsub(e) = 3.5x10 19 m -3 and B sub(T) = 3 T). And it is found that 3ωsub(ci) ICRF wave is preferable compared with other cyclotron harmonics, from the viewpoints of the effective tail formation with smaller bulk ion heating and lower amplitude of the applied electric field. The formula for the maximum energy of the extended beam is also derived. (author)

  2. Langmuir probe studies on a RF ion source for NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, P.; Heineman, B.; Kraus, W.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Vollmer, O.

    2001-01-01

    IPP Garching has been developing a RF ion source for H - production. In order to improve the data quality a new scanning probe system with passive RF compensation has been installed on the Type VI ion source on the BATMAN test stand. Using this probe, measurements have been carried out to study changes to the plasma parameters (electron density, electron temperature, and plasma potential) due to variation in the source operating conditions. The data were collected at a source pressure of 0.5 Pa and with 60±5 kW applied RF power. Presented are some of the results of these measurements, focusing on the effect of: argon seeding, addition of Cs to the source, and the newly added Faraday screen. The electron density behaves in a fashion that agrees with the theory of ambipolar diffusion. Typically there is little change to the average electron energy observed regardless of which effect is considered. The plasma potential shows the most significant changes with external source conditions, both in value for all cases and shape when the Faraday screen was added

  3. Transition phenomena and thermal transport property in LHD plasmas with an electron internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.

    2005-01-01

    Two kinds of improved core confinement were observed during centrally focused Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) into plasmas sustained by Counter (CNTR) and Co Neutral Beam Injections (NBI) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). One shows transition phenomena to the high-electron-temperature state and has a clear electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) in CNTR NBI plasma. Another has no clear transition and no ECH power threshold, but shows a broad high temperature profiles with moderate temperature gradient, which indicates the improved core confinement with additional ECH in Co NBI plasma. The electron heat transport characteristics of these plasmas were directly investigated by using the heat pulse propagation excited by Modulated ECH (MECH). The difference of the features could be caused by the existence of the m/n=2/1 rational surface or island determined by the direction of NBI beam-driven current. (author)

  4. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  5. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  6. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  7. Shielding of the NBI boxes against W7-X magnetic stray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kick, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Kick@arcor.de; Sielanko, Juliusz [Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Pl. M. C. Sklodowskie 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Speth, Eckehart; Staebler, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), besides ECRH, is foreseen as one of the main heating devices at the W7-X stellarator currently under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany. In a final stage 20 MW of NBI heating power will be installed generated by two NBI boxes of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) type. Since magnetic fields generally affect the trajectories of charged particles, essentially all the NBI boxes - including ion sources, acceleration sections, neutralisers and deflection magnets - must be shielded against the stray fields of W7-X. In the magnetic stray fields of W7-X there exist significant radial and toroidal components whereas at tokamaks the vertical components are dominant. The power loads on the ion dump and the protecting structures of the deflecting magnets and the beam lines caused by residual beam ions, therefore, will be strongly different. Thus the shielding concept of AUG cannot simply be taken over, but must be carefully redesigned in order to remain below the critical power limits. New modelling calculations of the magnetic shielding, the ion trajectories and the resulting power loads have been carried out for the 'high iota' and 'low shear' experimental scenarios of W7-X. The fields taken for these calculations are modelled by averaging the calculated W7-X stray fields on the one hand, and by fields generated by two-hypothetical-planar coils perpendicular to the x-y plane, on the other hand. The shielding concept for W7-X mainly consist of iron plates in the outer side regions of the boxes and as little magnetic material as possible inside the boxes.

  8. High performance in software development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Haapio, Petri; Liukkonen, Juha-Matti

    2015-01-01

    What are the ingredients of high-performing software? Software development, especially for large high-performance systems, is one the most complex tasks mankind has ever tried. Technological change leads to huge opportunities but challenges our old ways of working. Processing large data sets, possibly in real time or with other tight computational constraints, requires an efficient solution architecture. Efficiency requirements span from the distributed storage and large-scale organization of computation and data onto the lowest level of processor and data bus behavior. Integrating performance behavior over these levels is especially important when the computation is resource-bounded, as it is in numerics: physical simulation, machine learning, estimation of statistical models, etc. For example, memory locality and utilization of vector processing are essential for harnessing the computing power of modern processor architectures due to the deep memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers. As a r...

  9. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  10. Neo4j high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional or enthusiast who has a basic understanding of graphs or has basic knowledge of Neo4j operations, this is the book for you. Although it is targeted at an advanced user base, this book can be used by beginners as it touches upon the basics. So, if you are passionate about taming complex data with the help of graphs and building high performance applications, you will be able to get valuable insights from this book.

  11. Design of a -1 MV dc UHV power supply for ITER NBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Takemoto, J.; Yamashita, Y.; Dairaku, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Tobari, H.; Umeda, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Inoue, T.

    2009-05-01

    Procurement of a dc -1 MV power supply system for the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) is shared by Japan and the EU. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA) for ITER contributes to the procurement of dc -1 MV ultra-high voltage (UHV) components such as a dc -1 MV generator, a transmission line and a -1 MV insulating transformer for the ITER NBI power supply. The inverter frequency of 150 Hz in the -1 MV power supply and major circuit parameters have been proposed and adopted in the ITER NBI. The dc UHV insulation has been carefully designed since dc long pulse insulation is quite different from conventional ac insulation or dc short pulse systems. A multi-layer insulation structure of the transformer for a long pulse up to 3600 s has been designed with electric field simulation. Based on the simulation the overall dimensions of the dc UHV components have been finalized. A surge energy suppression system is also essential to protect the accelerator from electric breakdowns. The JADA contributes to provide an effective surge suppression system composed of core snubbers and resistors. Input energy into the accelerator from the power supply can be reduced to about 20 J, which satisfies the design criteria of 50 J in total in the case of breakdown at -1 MV.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in serum and plasma using Isotope-Dilution 2-Dimension Ultra High Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, R.M.; Martens, F.; Kushnir, M.M.; Ackermans, M.T.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal and gonadal androgens, testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) play an important role in sexual development as well as in other processes. We developed a method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of serum and plasma testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA

  13. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  14. Report on three aliphatic dimethylarsinoyl compounds as common minor constituents in marine samples. An investigation using high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, K.

    2005-01-01

    for the structures of the three compounds. The concentrations of the three arsenicals were determined in 37 marine organisms comprising algae, crustaceans, bivalves, fish and mammals by HPLC/ICPMS. The three arsenicals DMAA, DMAE and DMAP, which occurred at mug kg(-1) concentrations, were detected in 25, 23 and 17......Three water-soluble aliphatic arsenicals, dimethylarsinoyl acetate (DMAA), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE), and dimethylarsinoyl propionate (DMAP), were identified in marine biological samples. Sample extracts in methanol/water (1 + 1) were analysed by cation-exchange high-performance liquid...

  15. Confinement properties of JET plasmas with different temperature and density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.L.; Balet, B.; Bhatnagar, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The confinement properties of plasmas with substantially different temperature and density profiles have been analysed. The effects of fast particles and energy pedestals on the overall confinement of plasma energy in limiter (L-mode) and X-point (L- and H-modes) discharges heated by NBI or ICRF or both are determined. The importance of the bootstrap current when such energy pedestals are formed is noted. Using sets of consistent experimental data, including ion temperature profile measurements, the local transport properties are compared in the L- and H-phases of a single null X-point medium density NBI heated discharge, the ''enhanced'' confinement phase of a limiter high density pellet-fuelled and ICRF heated discharge, the hot-ion phase of a double null X-point low density NBI heated discharge and the hot-ion and H-phases of a double null X-point low density high temperature NBI heated discharge. (author)

  16. Design of a new P-NBI control system for 100-s injection in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, F.; Shinozaki, S.; Honda, A.; Ooshima, K.; Numazawa, S.; Ikeda, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Modification of JT-60U to a superconducting device (so-called JT-60SA) has been planned to contribute to ITER and DEMO. The positive-ion-based NBI system (P-NBI) is required to inject 24 MW for 100 s with 12 units. The P-NBI control system is to be fully remodeled with PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), which is featured by high market availability, system extensibility, cost-effectiveness, and independent development in programming. One of the critical issues to apply the PLC to the P-NBI control system is to control quickly the high voltage power supplies within 200 μs. For this purpose, the fastest PLC dealing with 4 refresh words at the processing time of 200 μs is to be employed. The second issue is to construct a data acquisition system for such a large number of data channels (∼2300 digital and ∼1300 analog data channels). The use of PLC linked with PC-based data measurement devices via Ethernet allows processing the large number of channels. The third issue is to make the man-machine interface simple. The marketed software giving an easy product of graphic menus is available for PLC programming. From these results, it is expected that commercial PLC could be applied to the large-scale control system of the P-NBI system for 100 s operations

  17. Development of a RF source for ITER NBI: First results with D- operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speth, E.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Heinemann, B.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Fantz, U.; Kraus, W.; McNeely, P.; Riedl, R.; Tanga, A.; Wilhelm, R.

    2005-01-01

    As an alternative for ITER NBI a RF source is being developed at IPP, Garching. This paper reports the first results with deuterium extracted from a restricted extraction area and accelerated to about 22 KeV. A current density of 150 A/m 2 (calorimetric) of D - ions has been reached so far in a Cs-seeded discharge with an electron/ion ration of ≤1. The effect of the magnetic filter field on the yield and the electron suppression and possible limitations/improvements are discussed. The neutron production rate is about a factor 40 lower than expected from positive ions. Possible reasons for this are discussed

  18. Development of high performance cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The developments of superior next-generation light water reactor are requested on the basis of general view points, such as improvement of safety, economics, reduction of radiation waste and effective utilization of plutonium, until 2030 year in which conventional reactor plants should be renovate. Improvements of stainless steel cladding for conventional high burn-up reactor to more than 100 GWd/t, developments of manufacturing technology for reduced moderation-light water reactor (RMWR) of breeding ratio beyond 1.0 and researches of water-materials interaction on super critical pressure-water cooled reactor are carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Stable austenite stainless steel has been selected for fuel element cladding of advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). The austenite stain less has the superiority for anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. A hard spectrum of neutron energy up above 0.1 MeV takes place in core of the reduced moderation-light water reactor, as liquid metal-fast breeding reactor (LMFBR). High performance cladding for the RMWR fuel elements is required to get anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength also. Slow strain rate test (SSRT) of SUS 304 and SUS 316 are carried out for studying stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Irradiation tests in LMFBR are intended to obtain irradiation data for damaged quantity of the cladding materials. (M. Suetake)

  19. High performance fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koon, Yang Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    {omicron} Development of High Plasticity and Annular Pellet - Development of strong candidates of ultra high burn-up fuel pellets for a PCI remedy - Development of fabrication technology of annular fuel pellet {omicron} Development of High Performance Cladding Materials - Irradiation test of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor and the evaluation of the in-pile performance - Development of the final candidates for the next generation cladding materials. - Development of the manufacturing technology for the dual-cooled fuel cladding tubes. {omicron} Irradiated Fuel Performance Evaluation Technology Development - Development of performance analysis code system for the dual-cooled fuel - Development of fuel performance-proving technology {omicron} Feasibility Studies on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel Core - Analysis on the property of a reactor core with dual-cooled fuel - Feasibility evaluation on the dual-cooled fuel core {omicron} Development of Design Technology for Dual-Cooled Fuel Structure - Definition of technical issues and invention of concept for dual-cooled fuel structure - Basic design and development of main structure components for dual- cooled fuel - Basic design of a dual-cooled fuel rod.

  20. Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of oxcarbazepine and its main metabolites in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiskidis, Vasilios; Spanakis, Marios; Niopas, Ioannis; Kazis, Dimitrios; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Kanaze, Feras Imad; Divanoglou, Daniil

    2007-01-17

    An isocratic reversed-phase HPLC-UV procedure for the determination of oxcarbazepine and its main metabolites 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine and 10,11-dihydroxy-trans-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid has been developed and validated. After addition of bromazepam as internal standard, the analytes were isolated from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by liquid-liquid extraction. Separation was achieved on a X-TERRA C18 column using a mobile phase composed of 20 mM KH(2)PO(4), acetonitrile, and n-octylamine (76:24:0.05, v/v/v) at 40 degrees C and detected at 237 nm. The described assay was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and lower limit of quantification according to the FDA validation guidelines. Calibration curves were linear with a coefficient of variation (r) greater than 0.998. Accuracy ranged from 92.3% to 106.0% and precision was between 2.3% and 8.2%. The method has been applied to plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from patients treated with oxcarbazepine, both in monotherapy and adjunctive therapy.

  1. Sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new simple, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of proguanil (PG) and its metabolites, cycloguanil (CG) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide (4-CPB) in urine and plasma is described. The extraction procedure is a simple three-step process ...

  2. Stereoselective determination of unchanged and glucuroconjugated eliprodil, a new anti-ischaemic drug, in human plasma and urine by precolumn derivatization and column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, B; Ripamonti, M; Rouchouse, A; Ascalone, V

    1996-04-05

    An HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination in human plasma and urine of the enantiomers of eliprodil, (+/-)-alpha-(4-chlorophenyl)-4[(4-fluorophenyl) methyl]piperidine-1-ethanol hydrochloride, a new anti-ischaemic agent administered as a racemate. Both enantiomers are present in human plasma in unchanged and glucuroconjugated form, whereas only the glucuroconjugated form is excreted into urine; as a consequence, such metabolites in human plasma and urine should be submitted to enzymatic deconjugation with beta-glucuronidase (Escherichia coli) before being extracted. The general method involves a liquid-liquid extraction of eliprodil and internal standard from alkalinized plasma or urine with n-hexane, evaporation of the organic phase and derivatization with (S)-(+)-naphthylethyl isocyanate to give carbamate diastereoisomeric derivatives of (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-eliprodil and internal standard; after evaporation of the derivatizing mixture and dissolution of the residue in a small volume of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (60:40, v/v), an aliquot is injected into a column-switching HPLC system. The derivatized sample extract is purified on a precolumn filled with C8-bonded silica material, which is flushed with acetonitrile-water, then diastereoisomers of eliprodil and the internal standard are automatically transferred by the mobile phase to the analytical column. The analytical column is a C8 type, specially deactivated for basic compounds, the mobile phase is 0.025 M phosphate buffer (pH 2.6)-methanol-acetonitrile (42:2:56) at a flow-rate of 1.2 ml min-1 and fluorimetric detector operating at lambda ex = 275 nm and lambda em = 336 nm is used. The retention times, under these conditions, are about 16 and 17 min for (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-eliprodil diastereoisomers, respectively, and about 19 min for the first-eluted diastereoisomer of the internal standard. During the analysis time, the precolumn, reset in a different path from that of the

  3. Universal Linear Precoding for NBI-Proof Widely Linear Equalization in MC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Darsena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In multicarrier (MC systems, transmitter redundancy, which is introduced by means of finite-impulse response (FIR linear precoders, allows for perfect or zero-forcing (ZF equalization of FIR channels (in the absence of noise. Recently, it has been shown that the noncircular or improper nature of some symbol constellations offers an intrinsic source of redundancy, which can be exploited to design efficient FIR widely-linear (WL receiving structures for MC systems operating in the presence of narrowband interference (NBI. With regard to both cyclic-prefixed and zero-padded transmission techniques, it is shown in this paper that, with appropriately designed precoders, it is possible to synthesize in both cases WL-ZF universal equalizers, which guarantee perfect symbol recovery for any FIR channel. Furthermore, it is theoretically shown that the intrinsic redundancy of the improper symbol sequence also enables WL-ZF equalization, based on the minimum mean output-energy criterion, with improved NBI suppression capabilities. Finally, results of numerical simulations are presented, which assess the merits of the proposed precoding designs and validate the theoretical analysis carried out.

  4. Asymmetric Distributions of Energetic Circulating Ions and Sawtooth Control using ICCD and Unbalanced NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    There is little doubt that various auxiliary heating systems are successfully and routinely controlling sawteeth. There is however some room for improving our understanding of the mechanisms that influence these important changes to the discharges. A mechanism that appears to be common across ECCS, ICCD and unbalanced NBI discharges involves the effect of the q = 1 localised current drive perturbation on resistive diffusion during the sawtooth ramp. Nevertheless, it is important to look for explanations for sawtooth control which may exist in ion based auxiliary systems, but may differ or not exist in electron auxiliary means of sawtooth control. The reason for this is that monster sawteeth, initially lengthened by trapped energetic ions, have up to the present day only been controlled using ICCD, while in ITER the primary method for sawtooth control could be ECCD. A mechanism based on the finite orbit width of parallel asymmetric energetic circulating particles is only non-negligible for ion based auxiliary systems. The present contribution examines the relevance of the latter in sawtooth control experiments, such as those using ICCD and NBI at JET, by looking carefully at the role of circulating ions close to the trapped boundary. At such pitch angles the orbit width is largest, and the parallel asymmetry of the distribution function has the greatest influence. (Author)

  5. Progress of the ITER NBI acceleration grid power supply reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toigo, Vanni; Zanotto, Loris; Bigi, Marco; Decamps, Hans; Ferro, Alberto; Gaio, Elena; Gutiérrez, Daniel; Tsuchida, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper reports the progress in the reference design of the Acceleration Grid Power Supply (AGPS) of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) ► A critical revision of the main design choices is presented in light of the definition of some key interface parameters between the two AGPS subsystems. ► The verification of the fulfillment of the requirements in any operational conditions is reported and discussed. -- Abstract: This paper reports the progress in the reference design of the Acceleration Grid Power Supply (AGPS) of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI). The design of the AGPS is very challenging, as it shall be rated to provide about 55 MW at 1 MV dc in quasi steady-state conditions; moreover, the procurement of the system is shared between the European Domestic Agency (F4E) and the Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA), resulting in additional design complication due to the need of a common definition of the interface parameters. A critical revision of the main design choices is presented also in light of the definition of some key interface parameters between the two AGPS subsystems. Moreover, the verification of the fulfillment of the requirements in any operational conditions taking into account the tolerance of the different parameters is also reported and discussed

  6. Transient phenomena analysis of a DC-1 MV power supply for the ITER NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masanori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Takemoto, Jumpei; Inoue, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo

    2010-08-01

    A power supply for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) is a DC ultra-high voltage (UHV) power supply to accelerate negative ion beams of 40 A up to an energy of 1 MeV. Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the Japan Domestic Agency for ITER contributes procurement of dc -1 MV main components such as step-up -1 MV transformers rectifiers, a high voltage deck 2, a -1 MV insulating transformer, a transmission line, a surge reduction system and equipments for site test. Design of the surge suppression in the NBI power supply is one of the key issues to obtain the stable injector performance. This report describes the design study using EMTDC code on the surge suppression by optimizing the core snubber and additional elements in the -1 MV power supply. The results show that the input energy from the stray capacitance to the accelerator at the breakdown can be reduced to about 25 J that is smaller than design criteria for ITER. (author)

  7. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method coupled with protein precipitation for determination of granisetron in human plasma and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Ji; Hu, Pei; Wang, Hongyun

    2014-12-01

    A rapid, simple and validated method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of granisetron in human plasma. Plasma samples were pre-purified by protein precipitation procedure. The chromatographic separation was achieved with Synergi Polar-RP (75 × 2 mm, 4 µm) column using a mixture of 5 mm pH4.0 ammonium formate and methanol (300:316, v/v) under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode using positive electrospray ionization. The analysis time was about 2.5 min. The method was fully validated over the concentration range 0.1-10 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/mL. Inter- and intra-batch precision was granisetron in Chinese healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A simple assay for the simultaneous determination of human plasma albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide levels by high performance liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Cabaleiro-Ocampo, Teresa; Román-Martínez, Manuel; Ochoa-Mazarro, Dolores; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2013-11-15

    A simple, reproducible and fast (4 min chromatogram) method of liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was developed to determine simultaneously the plasma levels of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) for pharmacokinetic and clinical analysis. Each plasma sample was extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) using phenacetin as internal standard (IS). The extracted sample was eluted with a Zorbax XDB-CN column using an isocratic method. The mobile phase consisting of water with 1% acetic acid (40%, A) and MeOH (60%, B), was used at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. ABZ and ABZOX were detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 5-1000 ng/mL for ABZ and 10-1500 ng/mL (full validation) or 10-5000 ng/mL (partial validation) for ABZOX, with 5 and 10 ng/mL lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for ABZ and ABZOX, respectively. The tests of accuracy and precision, matrix effect, extraction recovery and stability of the samples for both ABZ and ABZOX did not deviate more than 20% for the LLOQ and no more than 15% for other quality controls (QCs), according to regulatory agencies. © 2013.

  9. Fundamental ion cyclotron resonance heating of JET deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A V; Amosov, V N; Kaschuck, Yu A; Van Eester, D; Lerche, E; Ongena, J; Bonheure, G; Biewer, T; Crombe, K; Ericsson, G; Giacomelli, L; Hellesen, C; Hjalmarsson, A; Esposito, B; Marocco, D; Jachmich, S; Kiptily, V; Leggate, H; Mailloux, J; Kallne, J

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency heating of majority ions is of prime importance for understanding the basic role of auxiliary heating in the activated D-T phase of ITER. Majority deuterium ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) experiments at the fundamental cyclotron frequency were performed in JET. In spite of the poor antenna coupling at 25 MHz, this heating scheme proved promising when adopted in combination with D neutral beam injection (NBI). The effect of fundamental ICRH of a D population was clearly demonstrated in these experiments: by adding ∼25% of heating power the fusion power was increased up to 30-50%, depending on the type of NBI adopted. At this power level, the ion and electron temperatures increased from T i ∼ 4.0 keV and T e ∼ 4.5 keV (NBI-only phase) to T i ∼ 5.5 keV and T e ∼ 5.2 keV (ICRH + NBI phase), respectively. The increase in the neutron yield was stronger when 80 keV rather than 130 keV deuterons were injected in the plasma. It is shown that the neutron rate, the diamagnetic energy and the electron as well as the ion temperature scale roughly linearly with the applied RF power. A synergistic effect of the combined use of ICRF and NBI heating was observed: (i) the number of neutron counts measured by the neutron camera during the combined ICRF + NBI phases of the discharges exceeded the sum of the individual counts of the NBI-only and ICRF-only phases; (ii) a substantial increase in the number of slowing-down beam ions was detected by the time of flight neutron spectrometer when ICRF power was switched on; (iii) a small D subpopulation with energies slightly above the NBI launch energy was detected by the neutral particle analyzer and γ-ray spectroscopy.

  10. Metabolic profiling of nuciferine in rat urine, plasma, bile and feces after oral administration using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Ming-Jiang; Chen, Xin-Ze; Ma, Hao-Ling; Ding, Li-Qin; Qiu, Feng; Pan, Qin; Zhang, De-Qin

    2017-06-05

    Nuciferine, a major alkaloid found in Nelumbinis Folium, exhibits a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as antiobesity, anti-diabetes and anti-inflammatory. However, many research regarding nuciferine focused on the extraction, isolation and biological activity, the metabolism is not comprehensively explained in vivo. Thence, the present of this paper is to establish a simple method for speculating metabolites of nuciferine. A total of 15 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified through ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS), including 7 new metabolites. Among them, we also discovered a previously unmentioned metabolically active site at the C 1 -OCH 3 position. These metabolites suggested that demethylation, oxidation, glucuronidation and sulfation were major metabolic pathways. This study provided significant experiment basis for its safety estimate and valuable information about the metabolism of nuciferine, which will be advantageous for new drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A new high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of paclitaxel and 6α-hydroxy-paclitaxel in human plasma: Development, validation and application in a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Posocco

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel belongs to the taxanes family and it is used, alone or in multidrug regimens, for the therapy of several solid tumours, such as breast-, lung-, head and neck-, and ovarian cancer. Standard dosing of chemotherapy does not take into account the many inter-patient differences that make drug exposure highly variable, thus leading to the insurgence of severe toxicity. This is particularly true for paclitaxel considering that a relationship between haematological toxicity and plasma exposure was found. Therefore, in order to treat patients with the correct dose of paclitaxel, improving the overall benefit-risk ratio, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring is necessary. In order to quantify paclitaxel and its main metabolite, 6α-hydroxy-paclitaxel, in patients' plasma, we developed a new, sensitive and specific HPLC-MS/MS method applicable to all paclitaxel dosages used in clinical routine. The developed method used a small volume of plasma sample and is based on quick protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved with a SunFire™ C18 column (3.5 μM, 92 Å, 2,1 x 150 mm; the mobile phases were 0.1% formic acid/bidistilled water and 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile. The electrospray ionization source worked in positive ion mode and the mass spectrometer operated in selected reaction monitoring mode. Our bioanalytical method was successfully validated according to the FDA-EMA guidelines on bioanalytical method validation. The calibration curves resulted linear (R2 ≥0.9948 over the concentration ranges (1-10000 ng/mL for paclitaxel and 1-1000 ng/mL for 6α-hydroxy-paclitaxel and were characterized by a good accuracy and precision. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were determined on three quality control concentrations for paclitaxel and 6α-hydroxy-paclitaxel and resulted respectively <9.9% and within 91.1-114.8%. In addition, to further verify the assay reproducibility, we tested this method by re

  12. Simultaneous analysis of D-alanine, D-aspartic acid, and D-serine using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to the rat plasma and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakawa, Sachise; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Yamada, Naoyuki; Mizukoshi, Toshimi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Mita, Masashi; Lindner, Wolfgang; Hamase, Kenji

    2015-11-10

    A highly sensitive and selective chiral LC-MS/MS method for D-alanine, D-aspartic acid and D-serine has been developed using the precolumn derivatization reagents, 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AccQ-Tag) or p-N,N,N-trimethylammonioanilyl N'-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate iodide (TAHS). The thus N-tagged enantiomers of the derivatized amino acids were nicely separated within 20min using the cinchona alkaloid-based zwittterionic ion-exchange type enantioselective column, Chiralpak ZWIX(+). The selected reaction monitoring was applied for detecting the target d-amino acids in biological matrices. By using the present chiral LC-MS/MS method, the three d-amino acids and their l-forms could be simultaneously determined in the range of 0.1-500nmol/mL. Finally, the technique was successfully applied to rat plasma and tissue samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High performance light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squarer, D.; Schulenberg, T.; Struwe, D.; Oka, Y.; Bittermann, D.; Aksan, N.; Maraczy, C.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Souyri, A.; Dumaz, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) project is to assess the merit and economic feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at thermodynamically supercritical regime. An efficiency of approximately 44% is expected. To accomplish this objective, a highly qualified team of European research institutes and industrial partners together with the University of Tokyo is assessing the major issues pertaining to a new reactor concept, under the co-sponsorship of the European Commission. The assessment has emphasized the recent advancement achieved in this area by Japan. Additionally, it accounts for advanced European reactor design requirements, recent improvements, practical design aspects, availability of plant components and the availability of high temperature materials. The final objective of this project is to reach a conclusion on the potential of the HPLWR to help sustain the nuclear option, by supplying competitively priced electricity, as well as to continue the nuclear competence in LWR technology. The following is a brief summary of the main project achievements:-A state-of-the-art review of supercritical water-cooled reactors has been performed for the HPLWR project.-Extensive studies have been performed in the last 10 years by the University of Tokyo. Therefore, a 'reference design', developed by the University of Tokyo, was selected in order to assess the available technological tools (i.e. computer codes, analyses, advanced materials, water chemistry, etc.). Design data and results of the analysis were supplied by the University of Tokyo. A benchmark problem, based on the 'reference design' was defined for neutronics calculations and several partners of the HPLWR project carried out independent analyses. The results of these analyses, which in addition help to 'calibrate' the codes, have guided the assessment of the core and the design of an improved HPLWR fuel assembly. Preliminary selection was made for the HPLWR scale

  14. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of lisinopril in human plasma by magnetic solid-phase extraction and pre-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

    2018-03-01

    A sensitive, reliable and simple HPLC method was developed for the determination of lisinopril in human plasma. The method consists of extraction and clean-up steps based on magnetic solid-phase extraction and pre-column derivatization with a fluorescent reagent. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol-sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.0; 0.005 m; 75:25, v/v). The flow rate was set at 0.7 mL/min. Fluorescence detection was performed at 470nm excitation and 530nm emission wavelengths. Total chromatography run time was 5 min. The average extraction recovery of lisinopril and fluvoxamine (internal standard) was ≥82.8%. The limits of detection and quantification were determined as 1 and 3 ng/mL respectively. The method exhibited a linear calibration line over the concentration range of 3-1000 ng/mL with coefficient of determination (r 2 ) of ≥0.98. The within-run and between-run precisions were satisfactory with values of CV of 1.8-12.8% (accuracy from 99.2 to 94.7%) and 2.4-13.7% (accuracy from 99.5 to 92.2%), respectively. These developments led to considerable improvement in method sensitivity and reliability. The method was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Therefore, it can be considered as a suitable method for determination of lisinopril in plasma samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of plasma rotation on sawtooth stabilization by beam ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Nave, M. F. F.; Budny, R.; Cheng, C. Z.; Fu, G. Y.; Hastie, J.; Manickam, J.; Park, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sawtooth period in JET ELM-free H-Mode plasmas is increasing with Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) power. For injected power PNBI 12MW no large sawtooth crash is observed during the ELM-free period. However, as the edge stability is improved and external kink modes and ELMs are delayed, a possible sawtooth crash at a high plasma beta becomes a concern. In JET DT experiments, delaying sawteeth was found to be crucial in the quest for high fusion power. Fast particles are known to provide stabilizing effect on sawteeth, however, sawtooth stabilization by NBI ions is not clearly understood, since NBI ions are usually not ''fast'' enough to stabilize the m/n = 1/1 internal kink mode which is believed to cause the crash. In order to understand the observed sawteeth stabilization in tokamak experiments with NBI heating, the internal kink m/n = 1/1 mode stability of JET plasmas was modeled using the NOVA-K code, which is also benchmarked with the nonperturbative version of NOVA and the M3D code. Comparison of m/n = 1/1 mode stabilization by NBI ions in JET and TFTR and application of the nonlinear stabilization criteria is given

  16. High performance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Nikolin

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In testing the pre-sale procedure the marketing of drugs and their control in the last ten years, high performance liquid chromatographyreplaced numerous spectroscopic methods and gas chromatography in the quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the first period of HPLC application it was thought that it would become a complementary method of gas chromatography, however, today it has nearly completely replaced gas chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis. The application of the liquid mobile phase with the possibility of transformation of mobilized polarity during chromatography and all other modifications of mobile phase depending upon the characteristics of substance which are being tested, is a great advantage in the process of separation in comparison to other methods. The greater choice of stationary phase is the next factor which enables realization of good separation. The separation line is connected to specific and sensitive detector systems, spectrafluorimeter, diode detector, electrochemical detector as other hyphernated systems HPLC-MS and HPLC-NMR, are the basic elements on which is based such wide and effective application of the HPLC method. The purpose high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC analysis of any drugs is to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the progress of the therapy of a disease.1 Measuring presented on the Fig. 1. is chromatogram obtained for the plasma of depressed patients 12 h before oral administration of dexamethasone. It may also be used to further our understanding of the normal and disease process in the human body trough biomedical and therapeutically research during investigation before of the drugs registration. The analyses of drugs and metabolites in biological fluids, particularly plasma, serum or urine is one of the most demanding but one of the most common uses of high performance of liquid chromatography. Blood, plasma or

  17. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of irinotecan and its main metabolites in human plasma and its application in a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marangon

    Full Text Available Irinotecan is currently used in several cancer regimens mainly in colorectal cancer (CRC. This drug has a narrow therapeutic range and treatment can lead to side effects, mainly neutropenia and diarrhea, frequently requiring discontinuing or lowering the drug dose. A wide inter-individual variability in irinotecan pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamics has been reported and associated to patients' genetic background. In particular, a polymorphism in the UGT1A1 gene (UGT1A1*28 has been linked to an impaired detoxification of SN-38 (irinotecan active metabolite to SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G leading to increased toxicities. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38G is recommended to personalize therapy. In order to quantify simultaneously irinotecan and its main metabolites in patients' plasma, we developed and validated a new, sensitive and specific HPLC-MS/MS method applicable to all irinotecan dosages used in clinic. This method required a small plasma volume, addition of camptothecin as internal standard and simple protein precipitation. Chromatographic separation was done on a Gemini C18 column (3 μM, 100 mm x 2.0 mm using 0.1% acetic acid/bidistilled water and 0.1% acetic acid/acetonitrile as mobile phases. The mass spectrometer worked with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring. The standard curves were linear (R2 ≥0.9962 over the concentration ranges (10-10000 ng/mL for irinotecan, 1-500 ng/mL for SN-38 and SN-38G and 1-5000 ng/mL for APC and had good back-calculated accuracy and precision. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, determined on three quality control levels for all the analytes, were always <12.3% and between 89.4% and 113.0%, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated this bioanalytical method by re-analysis of incurred samples as an additional measure of assay reproducibility. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in

  18. Validation and application of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous quantification of lopinavir and ritonavir in human plasma using semi-automated 96-well liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Perry G; Wei, Jack S; Kim, Grace; Chang, Min; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol

    2006-10-20

    Kaletra is an important antiretroviral drug, which has been developed by Abbott Laboratories. It is composed of lopinavir (low-pin-a-veer) and ritonavir (ri-toe-na-veer). Both have been proved to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors and have substantially reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infection. We have developed and validated an assay, using liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), for the routine quantification of lopinavir and ritonavir in human plasma, in which lopinavir and ritonavir can be simultaneously analyzed with high throughput. The sample preparation consisted of liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of hexane: ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), using 100 microL of plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Symmetry C(18) column (150 mm x 3.9 mm, particle size 5 microm) with reverse-phase isocratic using mobile phase of 70:30 (v/v) acetonitrile: 2 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution containing 0.01% formic acid (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. A Waters symmetry C(18) guard column (20 mm x 3.9 mm, particle size 5 microm) was connected prior to the analytical column, and a guard column back wash was performed to reduce the analytical column contamination using a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF), methanol and water (45:45:10, v/v/v). The analytical run was 4 min. The use of a 96-well plate autosampler allowed a batch size up to 73 study samples. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in a positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for drug quantification. The method was validated over the concentration ranges of 19-5,300 ng/mL for lopinavir and 11-3,100 ng/mL for ritonavir. A-86093 was used as an internal standard (I.S.). The relative standard deviation (RSD) were <6% for both lopinavir and ritonavir. Mean accuracies were between the designed limits (+/-15%). The robust and rapid LC

  19. Simulations of beam-fueled supershot-like plasmas near ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.V.; Grisham, L.; Jassby, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    In certain conditions, neutral beam injection (NBI) and low recycling result in supershot plasmas. These are characterized by peaked density profiles and high central ion temperatures. We discuss the potential advantages of NBI fueled supershot-like plasmas in tokamaks operating near ignition. The goal is to investigate the feasibility of these plasmas to aid in the design of future advanced tokamaks. NBI has been very successful in advancing tokamak plasmas close to ignition conditions. The primary benefits of NBI are heating and particle fueling, but the plasma currents generated by the beam ions are also of considerable interest. The optimal injection energy E inj for the beam ions depends on the desired role of the NBI. For central particle fueling, E inj should be low to maximize the particle current at fixed P B , but high enough to penetrate to the center. For heating and current drive, higher E inj is preferable for deepest penetration. With the standard positive ion beam technology, the neutralization efficiency becomes too low for useful power densities if E inj is significantly greater than about 120 keV. Negative ion beam sources would be useful for heating and current drive at very high E inj (500 keV or more), but the fueling rate of NBI is too low to be practical. It seems generally accepted that future tokamaks which operate closer to ignition will have to be fueled and heated by means other than NBI since it is argued that the beams with low E inj cannot penetrate deeply into the dense plasmas of interest. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  20. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  1. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of rhein in patients with traumatic brain injury after administration of rhubarb decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Luo, Jiekun; Tang, Tao; Xing, Zhihua; Xia, Zian; Peng, Weijun; Wang, Wenzhu; Lv, Huiying; Huang, Wei; Liang, Yizeng; Yi, Lunzhao; Lu, Hongmei; Huang, Xi

    2015-04-01

    Damage of blood-brain barrier is a common result of traumatic brain injury. This damage can open the blood-brain barrier and allow drug passage. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was established to determine the concentration of rhein in the biofluids (plasma and cerebrospinal fluid) of patients with a compromised blood-brain barrier following traumatic brain injury after rhubarb administration. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed. A triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization was used for rhein detection. The mass transition followed was m/z 283.06→239.0. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10-8000 ng/mL for the biofluids. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 10%. The relative standard deviation of recovery was less than 15% in biological matrices. The pharmacokinetic data showed that rhein was rapidly transported into biofluids, and exhibited a peak concentration 1 h after rhubarb administration. The elimination rate of rhein was slow. The AUCcerebrospinal fluid /AUCplasma (AUC is area under curve) of rhein was approximately 17%, indicating that portions of rhein could pass the impaired blood-brain barrier. The method was successfully applied to quantify rhein in the biofluids of all patients. The data presented can help to guide clinical applications of rhubarb for treating traumatic brain injury. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  3. High performance liquid chromatography determination of dexamethasone in plasma to evaluate its systemic absorption following intra-space pterygomandibular injection of twin-mix (mixture of 2 % lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4 mg dexamethasone): randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Darpan; Deshpande, Ashwini; Thomas, Shaji; Sharma, Yogesh; Khare, Piush; Sahu, Sanjeev Kumar; Dubey, Suyash; Pandey, Ankit; Sreekumar, K

    2016-09-01

    To determine systemic absorption of dexamethasone by detection of plasma concentration using high performance liquid chromatography following its administration along with local anesthetic agent as a mixture via pterygomandibular space. A prospective randomized double-blind clinical study was undertaken to analyze the plasma concentration of dexamethasone after intra-space pterygomandibular injection along with local anesthesia. The study was performed as per split mouth model where the mandibular quadrant allocation was done on a random basis considering each of the 30 patients is included in the two study interventions (SS and CS). For the study site (SS) procedures, dexamethasone was administered as a mixture (2 % lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4 mg dexamethasone) intra-space. In the control site (CS) procedures, a regular standard inferior alveolar nerve block was administered, and dexamethasone was given as intramuscular injection. The plasma dexamethasone determination was done in venous blood 30- and 60-min post injection using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The clinical parameters like pain; swelling; and mouth opening on the first, third, and seventh post-operative day were analyzed and compared. No significant difference was found in the clinical parameters assessed; comparative evaluation showed less swelling in the SS interventions. The plasma concentration of dexamethasone for the CS interventions was 226 ± 47 ng/ml at 30-min and 316 ± 81.6 ng/ml at 60-min post injection, and for SS, it was 221 ± 81.6 ng/ml at 30-min and 340 ± 105 ng/ml at 60-min post injection. On inter-site (CS and SS) comparison, no statistically significant difference was ascertained in dexamethasone plasma concentration at 30-min post injection (P = 0.77) and at 60-min post injection. (P = 0.32). Intra-space (pterygomandibular space) administration of dexamethasone can achieve statistically similar plasma concentration

  4. Modification to the accelerator of the NBI-1B ion source for improving the injection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. S.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Park, M.; Jung, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Wang, S. J.; Bae, Y. S.; Park, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Cho, W.; Choi, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing power loss of a neutral beam imposes modification of the accelerator of the ion source for further improvement of the beam optics. The beam optics can be improved by focusing beamlets. The injection efficiencies by the steering of ion beamlets are investigated numerically to find the optimum modification of the accelerator design of the NBI-1B ion source. The beam power loss was reduced by aperture displacement of three edge beamlets arrays considering power loadings on the beamline components. Successful testing and operation of the ion source at 60 keV/84% of injection efficiency led to the possibility of enhancing the system capability to a 2.4 MW power level at 100 keV/1.9 μP

  5. Behaviour of direct and delayed fast ion losses during NBI on TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers; M.

    1995-09-01

    The dependence with density and beam energy of the different kind of fast ion losses, direct and delayed, during tangential balanced NBI injection in TJ-II helical axis stellerator has been analysed. Direct losses increase with energy and a strong difference between the two injection directions appears, are produced by passing particles that loss confinement in a dew mu,sec and the influence of birth profiles produces an increase with density. Delayed losses are very well separated in time from direct ones, are produced by particles experimenting pitch angle scattering an,d, most o them, correspond to trapped particles. Are much less important than the direct ones (about 1/3), decrease slowly with energy and, with CX, increase with density (an effect of initial profile). The absorption is rather independent of energy with low values at low density in reason of high shine trough and CX losses, but reovers quickly with the density increase

  6. Behaviour of direct and delayed fast ion losses during NBI on TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1995-01-01

    The dependence with density and beam energy of the different kind of fast ion losses, direct and delayed, during tangential balanced NBI injection in TJ-II helical axis stellarator has been analysed. Direct losses increase with energy and a strong difference between the two injection directions appears, are produced by passing particles that loss confinement in a few μsec and the influence of birth profiles produces an increase with density. Delayed losses are very well separated in time from direct ones, are produced by particles experimenting pitch angle scattering and, most o them, correspond to trapped particles. Are much less important than the direct ones (about 1/3), decrease slowly with energy and, with C X, increase with density (an effect of initial profile). The absorption is rather independent of energy with low values at low density in reason of high shine through and C X losses, but recovers quickly with the density increase. (Author) 4 refs

  7. Rapid, high performance method for the determination of vitamin K(1), menaquinone-4 and vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide in human serum and plasma using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Cafolla, Arturo; Gasperi, Tecla; Bellante, Simona; Caretti, Fulvia; Curini, Roberta; Fernández, Virginia Pérez

    2014-04-18

    Unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K circulates in the human bloodstream at very low levels because of a low intake in the diet. Mammals have developed an efficient recycling system, known as vitamin K-epoxide cycle, which involve quinone, hydroquinone and epoxide forms of the vitamin. Phylloquinone (K(1)) is the main homologue, while menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is both a member of the vitamin K(2) family and metabolite of K(1) in extra-hepatic tissues. Notwithstanding the recent advances, many aspects of the complex vitamin K physiology still remain to be investigated. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more reliable analytical methods for determining the vitamin K and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Nevertheless, relatively low concentrations, unavailability of some authentic standards and occurrence of interfering lipids make this a challenging task. The method proposed in the present paper can directly and accurately estimate K(1), K(1) 2,3-epoxide (K(1)O), and MK-4 in human serum and plasma at concentrations in the ng/L-μg/L range, using labelled internal standards and a quadrupole linear ion trap instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. High sensitivity was achieved by removing signal "endogenous suppressors" and making the composition of the non-aqueous mobile phase suitable to support the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. An excellent selectivity resulted from the combination of some factors: the MRM acquisition, the adoption of an identification point system, an extraction optimized to remove most of the lipids and a tandem-C18 column-system necessary to separate isobaric interferences from analytes. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and its accuracy was assessed by analysing 9 samples from the Vitamin K External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS). Its feasibility in evaluating vitamin K status in human serum was

  8. Narrow-band imaging (NBI for improving the assessment of vocal fold leukoplakia and overcoming the umbrella effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klimza

    Full Text Available It is crucial to find a balance between functional and oncological outcome when choosing an adequate method for the management of vocal fold leukoplakia. Therefore, a detailed examination is a milestone in the decision-making process.To examine whether narrow-band imaging (NBI can be helpful in vocal fold assessment in the case of leukoplakia and how to overcome the "umbrella effect"- understood as the submucosal vascular pattern hidden under the plaque.Prospective cohort of 41 consecutive patients. Inclusion criteria: vocal fold leukoplakia, no previous procedures (surgery, radiotherapy, and preoperative endoscopy with an optical filter for NBI. Two groups: "suspicious" and "normal", according to the submucosal microvascular pattern of peripheral regions of the mucosa surrounding the plaque, were distinguished. Patients were qualified for a full-thickness or partial-thickness biopsy, respectively. Criteria defining suspected characters were well-demarcated brownish areas with scattered brown spots corresponding to type IV, Va, Vb, and Vc NI classifications.In 22/41 (53.7% patients with "suspected" microvascular pattern, full-thickness biopsy was performed. Moderate and severe dysplasia was revealed in 15 type IV and 7 type Va NI patients. In 19/41 (46.3% patients with proper NBI vessel pattern treated by partial-thickness biopsy, hyperkeratosis was diagnosed. There was a strong correlation between the NBI pattern and final histology: Chi2 (2 = 41.0 (p = 0.0000.The results demonstrate that NBI endoscopic assessment of the submucosal microvascular pattern of mucosa surrounding the plaque can be an effective method to categorise the risk in vocal fold leukoplakia prior to treatment.

  9. Drift-kinetic Alfven modes in high performance tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaun, A.; Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of fast-particle driven Alfven eigenmodes is modeled in high performance tokamaks, successively with a conventional shear, an optimized shear and a tight aspect ratio plasma. A large bulk pressure yields global kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are stabilized by mode conversion in the presence of a divertor. This suggests how conventional reactor scenarii could withstand significant pressure gradients from the fusion products. A large safety factor in the core q 0 >2.5 in deeply shear reversed configurations and a relatively large bulk ion Larmor radius in a low magnetic field can trigger global drift-kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are unstable in high performance JET, NSTX and ITER plasmas. (author)

  10. High Performance Object-Oriented Scientific Programming in Fortran 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Decyk, Viktor K.; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.

    1997-01-01

    We illustrate how Fortran 90 supports object-oriented concepts by example of plasma particle computations on the IBM SP. Our experience shows that Fortran 90 and object-oriented methodology give high performance while providing a bridge from Fortran 77 legacy codes to modern programming principles. All of our object-oriented Fortran 90 codes execute more quickly thatn the equeivalent C++ versions, yet the abstraction modelling capabilities used for scentific programming are comparably powereful.

  11. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  12. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  13. Plasma ARC Welding of High-Performance-Ship Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    welding (EBW) and laser beam welding (LBW). Figure 2 shows examples of PAW keyhole welds using a square butt joint with and without filler metal additions...produced by some manufacturers has reliability problems. f) Existing equipment for initiating and closing out the keyhole is not totally satisfactory and...system for establishing and closing out keyhole craters is necessary. Work is being done by several Investigators, but it is not known L whether any system

  14. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Development of protection system for power supply facilities in JT-60U P-NBI for long pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Katsumi; Okano, Fuminori; Honda, Atsushi; Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Usui, Katsutomi; Noto, Katsuya; Kawai, Mikito; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

    2007-06-01

    In the positive ion based NBI (P-NBI) system, we have developed a protection system to protect the power supply facilities from over load during long pulse operation. The protection system monitors the voltage (V) and current (I) in the power supply facilities, and calculates the parameters of V2t and I2t in real-time, where T is the pulse duration. It turns off the power supply facilities when V2t and I2t are beyond the critical values. After two development stages, we have completed the protection system using a package typed PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) which has a high expandability of multi-unit operation. Moreover, we have constructed a user-friendly system by using a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. (author)

  16. A high-performance digital control system for TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Dutch, M.J.; Milne, P.G.; Means, R.W.

    1997-10-01

    The TCV hybrid analogue-digital plasma control system has been superseded by a high performance Digital Plasma Control System, DPCS, made possible by recent advances in off the shelf technology. We discuss the basic requirements for such a control system and present the design and specifications which were laid down. The nominal and final performances are presented and the complete design is given in detail. The integration of the new system into the current operation of the TCV tokamak is described. The procurement of this system has required close collaboration between the end-users and two commercial suppliers with one of the latter taking full responsibility for the system integration. The impact of this approach on the design and commissioning costs for the TCV project is presented. New possibilities offered by this new system are discussed, including possible work relevant to ITER plasma control development. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs

  17. A high-performance digital control system for TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, J.B.; Dutch, M.J. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Milne, P.G. [Pentland System Ltd., Livingstone (United Kingdom); Means, R.W. [HNC Software Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The TCV hybrid analogue-digital plasma control system has been superseded by a high performance Digital Plasma Control System, DPCS, made possible by recent advances in off the shelf technology. We discuss the basic requirements for such a control system and present the design and specifications which were laid down. The nominal and final performances are presented and the complete design is given in detail. The integration of the new system into the current operation of the TCV tokamak is described. The procurement of this system has required close collaboration between the end-users and two commercial suppliers with one of the latter taking full responsibility for the system integration. The impact of this approach on the design and commissioning costs for the TCV project is presented. New possibilities offered by this new system are discussed, including possible work relevant to ITER plasma control development. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  18. Determination of pyrazinamide in human by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revankar S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC technique has been developed for the determination pyrazinamide (PZA in human plasma. Nicotinamide(NIA is used as internal standard(IS. Plasma is deproteinized with 0.7 M perchloric acid; clear supernatant is neutralized with 1M NaOH and injected onto HPLC. The separation of pyrazinamide and the internal standard is carried out on a Supelco LC-18 (DB column with a basic mobile phase. Pyrazinoic acid, the major metabolite, other anti-tuberculous drugs and endogenous components do not interfere with measurement of pyrazinamide. The limit of detection of pyrazinamide with this method is 0.2 mg/0.2 ml plasma (CV 8.2%.

  19. High-performance ceramics. Fabrication, structure, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzow, G.; Tobolski, J.; Telle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' pursued the objective to understand the chaining of cause and effect in the development of high-performance ceramics. This chain of problems begins with the chemical reactions for the production of powders, comprises the characterization, processing, shaping and compacting of powders, structural optimization, heat treatment, production and finishing, and leads to issues of materials testing and of a design appropriate to the material. The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' has resulted in contributions to the understanding of fundamental interrelationships in terms of materials science, which are summarized in the present volume - broken down into eight special aspects. (orig./RHM)

  20. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  1. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  2. Control of radial electric field in torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Idei, H.; Sanuki, H.

    1994-09-01

    The radial electric fields is controlled by changing the direction of neutral beam from co to counter to plasma current in tokamak, while it is controlled by the 2nd harmonic ECH and NBI and pellet injection in heliotron/torsatron. (author)

  3. Operational experience of SST1 NBI control system with prototype Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V B; Patel, P J; Singh, N P; Tripathi, V; Thakkar, D; Gupta, L N; Prahlad, V; Sharma, S K; Bandyopadyay, M; Chakraborty, A K; Baruah, U K; Mattoo, S K; Patel, G B; Onali, Raja

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents operational experience of integrated control of the arc-filament and High-voltage power supply of Steady State Tokamak (SST)-1 NBI system using Versa Module Europa (VME) system on prototype Ion source. The control algorithm is implemented on the VxWorks operating system using 'C' language. This paper also describes the operating sequence and controls on power supply system. Discharge and Filament power supplies are controlled in such a way so that necessary discharge current can be available in Ion Source. The discharge current is controlled by manipulating the filament current. Close loop control is implemented on each filament power supply with feedback from Discharge Current to control the overall discharge inside the ion source. Necessary actions for shut OFF and subsequent Turn ON are also taken during breakdowns between the Grids of the ion source. Total numbers of breakdowns are also monitored. Shot is terminated, if the breakdown count is higher than the set value. This control system can be programmed to restart High-voltage power supply within 5mS after breakdown occurs. This control system is capable to handle the all types of dynamics in the system. This paper also presents results of experiment.

  4. Increase of the positive ion source power in JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mikito; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1998-09-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating experiment in JT-60 started in 1986, and the rated injection power of 20MW at 75keV with hydrogen was achieved after several month operation. In 1991, the ion sources and power supply had been upgraded for a higher beam energy up to 120keV with deuterium, following which the ion source operation re-started aiming for an injection power of 40MW at 110keV. In the operation, the beam acceleration voltage was tried to increase by modifying the ion source structure against the break-down which occurred frequently in the ion source. The beam acceleration was, however, unstable in a beam energy range of more than 105keV because of voltage-holding deterioration in the accelerator. Therefore we changed the strategy to increase the injection power: i.e. we tried to increase the beam current with keeping the beam energy. The structure of the source has been modified to be operated in a high current regime. As a result, the deuterium neutral beam injection of 40MW at 91-96keV was achieved in July 1996. (author)

  5. Design issues of the High Voltage platform and feedthrough for the ITER NBI Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, M.; Palma, M. Dalla; Milani, F.

    2009-01-01

    In the ITER heating Neutral Beam Injector (NBI), a High Voltage air-insulated platform (named High Voltage Deck, HVD) will be installed to host the Ion Source and Extractor Power supply system and associated diagnostics referred to -1 MV DC potential. All power and control cables are routed from the HVD via a feedthrough (HV bushing) to the gas insulated transmission line which feeds the Injector. The paper focuses on insulation and mechanical issues for both HVD and HV bushing which are very special components, far from the present industrial standards as far as voltage (-1 MV DC) and dimensions are concerned. For this purpose, a preliminary design of the HVD has been carried out as concerns the mechanical structure and external shield. Then, the structure has been verified with a seismic analysis applying the seismic load excitation specified for the ITER construction site (Cadarache) and carrying out verifications according to relevant international standards. As regards the HV bushing design, proposals for the complex inner conductor structure and for interfaces to the HVD and transmission line are outlined; alternative installation layouts (aside or underneath the HVD) are compared from both mechanical and electrical points of view.

  6. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    ) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade .... applications. These are important requirements if the reagent is to be applicable to on-line pre or post column derivatisation in a possible automation of the analytical.

  7. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  8. Strategies and Experiences Using High Performance Fortran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shires, Dale

    2001-01-01

    .... High performance Fortran (HPF) is a relative new addition to the Fortran dialect It is an attempt to provide an efficient high-level Fortran parallel programming language for the latest generation of been debatable...

  9. High-performance computing using FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Benkrid, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This book is concerned with the emerging field of High Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC), which aims to harness the high performance and relative low power of reconfigurable hardware–in the form Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)–in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. It presents the latest developments in this field from applications, architecture, and tools and methodologies points of view. We hope that this work will form a reference for existing researchers in the field, and entice new researchers and developers to join the HPRC community.  The book includes:  Thirteen application chapters which present the most important application areas tackled by high performance reconfigurable computers, namely: financial computing, bioinformatics and computational biology, data search and processing, stencil computation e.g. computational fluid dynamics and seismic modeling, cryptanalysis, astronomical N-body simulation, and circuit simulation.     Seven architecture chapters which...

  10. Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngo, David

    2003-01-01

    The Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems (EHPSCS) program is a cooperative agreement between Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company and DARPA that ran for three years, from Apr 1995 - Apr 1998...

  11. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid ..... nimesulide, phenylephrine. Hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form. Acta Pol.

  12. High performance computing in Windows Azure cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Ambruš, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    High performance, security, availability, scalability, flexibility and lower costs of maintenance have essentially contributed to the growing popularity of cloud computing in all spheres of life, especially in business. In fact cloud computing offers even more than this. With usage of virtual computing clusters a runtime environment for high performance computing can be efficiently implemented also in a cloud. There are many advantages but also some disadvantages of cloud computing, some ...

  13. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Liming Dai

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their high energy density and power density, supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for advanced technologies. Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. This article summarizes the recent progresses on the development of high-performance supercapacitors bas...

  14. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schardt, J.F. [GE Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  15. HPTA: High-Performance Text Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Vandierendonck, Hans; Murphy, Karen; Arif, Mahwish; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main targets of data analytics is unstructured data, which primarily involves textual data. High-performance processing of textual data is non-trivial. We present the HPTA library for high-performance text analytics. The library helps programmers to map textual data to a dense numeric representation, which can be handled more efficiently. HPTA encapsulates three performance optimizations: (i) efficient memory management for textual data, (ii) parallel computation on associative dat...

  16. High-performance computing — an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksteiner, Peter

    1996-08-01

    An overview of high-performance computing (HPC) is given. Different types of computer architectures used in HPC are discussed: vector supercomputers, high-performance RISC processors, various parallel computers like symmetric multiprocessors, workstation clusters, massively parallel processors. Software tools and programming techniques used in HPC are reviewed: vectorizing compilers, optimization and vector tuning, optimization for RISC processors; parallel programming techniques like shared-memory parallelism, message passing and data parallelism; and numerical libraries.

  17. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This final report (M5NU-12-NY-AU # 0202-0410) summarizes the results of the project titled “Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms,” funded in FY12 by the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Project # 12-3809) being led by Alfred University in collaboration with Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The overall focus of the project is to advance fundamental understanding of crystalline ceramic waste forms and to demonstrate their viability as alternative waste forms to borosilicate glasses. We processed single- and multiphase hollandite waste forms based on simulated waste streams compositions provided by SRNL based on the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) aqueous separation process developed in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D). For multiphase simulated waste forms, oxide and carbonate precursors were mixed together via ball milling with deionized water using zirconia media in a polyethylene jar for 2 h. The slurry was dried overnight and then separated from the media. The blended powders were then subjected to melting or spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Microstructural evolution and phase assemblages of these samples were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion analysis of x-rays (EDAX), wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), selective area x-ray diffraction (SAXD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These results showed that the processing methods have significant effect on the microstructure and thus the performance of these waste forms. The Ce substitution into zirconolite and pyrochlore materials was investigated using a combination of experimental (in situ XRD and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES)) and modeling techniques to study these single phases independently. In zirconolite materials, a transition from the 2M to the 4M polymorph was observed with increasing Ce content. The resulting

  18. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudoran, Cristian D., E-mail: cristian.tudoran@itim-cj.ro; Dădârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, PO 5 Box 700, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  19. High performance bio-integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  20. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  1. High performance parallel I/O

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Gain Critical Insight into the Parallel I/O EcosystemParallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing (HPC), especially in storing and processing very large datasets to facilitate scientific discovery. Revealing the state of the art in this field, High Performance Parallel I/O draws on insights from leading practitioners, researchers, software architects, developers, and scientists who shed light on the parallel I/O ecosystem.The first part of the book explains how large-scale HPC facilities scope, configure, and operate systems, with an emphasis on choices of I/O har

  2. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly IBW-generated sheared flows

  3. Team Development for High Performance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines a team development approach to management that creates shared commitments to performance improvement by focusing the attention of managers on individual workers and their task accomplishments. It uses the "high-performance equation" to help managers confront shared beliefs and concerns about performance and develop realistic…

  4. An Introduction to High Performance Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Merlin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF is an informal standard for extensions to Fortran 90 to assist its implementation on parallel architectures, particularly for data-parallel computation. Among other things, it includes directives for specifying data distribution across multiple memories, and concurrent execution features. This article provides a tutorial introduction to the main features of HPF.

  5. High performance computing on vector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roller, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.

  6. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  7. Debugging a high performance computing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  8. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  9. Teacher Accountability at High Performing Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Moises G.

    2016-01-01

    This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…

  10. Technology Leadership in Malaysia's High Performance School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti

    2017-01-01

    Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…

  11. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  12. Towards high performance in industrial refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  13. Validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... specific and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ZER in micro-volumes ... tional medicine as a cure for swelling, sores, loss of appetite and ... Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand .... The effect of ... be suitable for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies. The.

  14. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  15. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  16. Comparing Dutch and British high performing managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, A.A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Selvarajah, C.; Meyer, D.

    2016-01-01

    National cultures have a strong influence on the performance of organizations and should be taken into account when studying the traits of high performing managers. At the same time, many studies that focus upon the attributes of successful managers show that there are attributes that are similar

  17. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  18. High performance structural ceramics for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Faker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A family of Saint-Gobain structural ceramic materials and products produced by its High performance Refractory Division is described. Over the last fifty years or so, Saint-Gobain has been a leader in developing non oxide ceramic based novel materials, processes and products for application in Nuclear, Chemical, Automotive, Defense and Mining industries

  19. A new high performance current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lijun; Lu Songlin; Li Deming

    2003-01-01

    A DC-100 kHz current transducer is developed using a new technique on zero-flux detecting principle. It was shown that the new current transducer is of high performance, its magnetic core need not be selected very stringently, and it is easy to manufacture

  20. ELMs IN DIII-D HIGH PERFORMANCE DISCHARGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TURNBULL, A.D; LAO, L.L; OSBORNE, T.H; SAUTER, O; STRAIT, E.J; TAYLOR, T.S; CHU, M.S; FERRON, J.R; GREENFIELD, C.M; LEONARD, A.W; MILLER, R.L; SNYDER, P.B; WILSON, H.R; ZOHM, H

    2003-01-01

    A new understanding of edge localized modes (ELMs) in tokamak discharges is emerging [P.B. Snyder, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 9, 2037 (2002)], in which the ELM is an essentially ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability and the ELM severity is determined by the radial width of the linearly unstable MHD kink modes. A detailed, comparative study of the penetration into the core of the respective linear instabilities in a standard DIII-D ELMing, high confinement mode (H-mode) discharge, with that for two relatively high performance discharges shows that these are also encompassed within the framework of the new model. These instabilities represent the key, limiting factor in extending the high performance of these discharges. In the standard ELMing H-mode, the MHD instabilities are highly localized in the outer few percent flux surfaces and the ELM is benign, causing only a small temporary drop in the energy confinement. In contrast, for both a very high confinement mode (VH-mode) and an H-mode with a broad internal transport barrier (ITB) extending over the entire core and coalesced with the edge transport barrier, the linearly unstable modes penetrate well into the mid radius and the corresponding consequences for global confinement are significantly more severe. The ELM accordingly results in an irreversible loss of the high performance

  1. Optimization and validation of high performance liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from jugular vein of the rabbits after drug administration and analysed by HPLC. ... Metoprolol quantification in plasma, urine and ... preparation of biological samples. .... centrifugation and stored at -70 oC in an ultra- .... The main problem.

  2. Estudo pré-analítico e de validação para determinação de malondialdeído em plasma humano por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, após derivatização com 2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina Preanalytical and validation studies for the determination of malondialdehyde in human plasma through high performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Venzon Antunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O malondialdeído (MDA é um importante biomarcador utilizado na avaliação do estresse oxidativo. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma metodologia para a quantificação plasmática de MDA, através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por arranjo de diodos (CLAE-DAD, após processo de derivatização com 2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina (DNPH, avaliando as principais variáveis pré-analíticas. A curva de calibração em plasma (0 a 40 µM apresentou elevada linearidade (r²=0,998. Os principais parâmetros de validação foram: recuperação absoluta: 78%; limite de detecção: 0,11 µM e limite de quantificação: 0,38 µM. Os valores de MDA determinados em indivíduos adultos saudáveis (n=38 foram 3,31 ± 0,38 µM (média ± DP. Estudos de estabilidade do padrão de MDA, reagente derivatizante e MDA plasmáticos, indicaram que a solução padrão pode ser armazenada a -20 e 4 ºC.Malondialdehyde (MDA is an important biomarker for the evaluation of oxidative stress status. The aim of this study was to develop a method for plasma MDA quantification by high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD, following derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH, evaluating the main preanalytical variables. The calibration curve in plasma (0 to 40 µM presented high linearity (r² = 0.998. Main validation parameters were: recovery: 78%; LOD: 0.11 µM and LOQ: 0.38 µM. The MDA values obtained in healthy volunteers (n=38 were 3.31 ± 0.38 µM (mean ± SD. Stability studies of MDA standard solution and derivatizing reagent and plasma MDA indicated that the standard solution can be stored at -20 and 4 ºC, remaining stable for at least 30 days.

  3. Sawtooth control in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, J P; Angioni, C; Budny, R V; Buttery, R J; Coda, S; Eriksson, L-G; Gimblett, C G; Goodman, T P; Hastie, R J; Henderson, M A; Koslowski, H R; Mantsinen, M J; Martynov, An; Mayoral, M-L; Mueck, A; Nave, M F F; Sauter, O; Westerhof, E

    2005-01-01

    Clear observations of early triggering of neo-classical tearing modes by sawteeth with long quiescent periods have motivated recent efforts to control, and in particular destabilize, sawteeth. One successful approach explored in TCV utilizes electron cyclotron heating in order to locally increase the current penetration time in the core. The latter is also achieved in various machines by depositing electron cyclotron current drive or ion cyclotron current drive close to the q = 1 rational surface. Crucially, localized current drive also succeeds in destabilizing sawteeth which are otherwise stabilized by a co-existing population of energetic trapped ions in the core. In addition, a recent reversed toroidal field campaign at JET demonstrates that counter-neutral beam injection (NBI) results in shorter sawtooth periods than in the Ohmic regime. The clear dependence of the sawtooth period on the NBI heating power and the direction of injection also manifests itself in terms of the toroidal plasma rotation, which consequently requires consideration in the theoretical interpretation of the experiments. Another feature of NBI, expected to be especially evident in the negative ion based neutral beam injection (NNBI) heating planned for ITER, is the parallel velocity asymmetry of the fast ion population. It is predicted that a finite orbit effect of asymmetrically distributed circulating ions could strongly modify sawtooth stability. Furthermore, NNBI driven current with non-monotonic profile could significantly slow down the evolution of the safety factor in the core, thereby delaying sawteeth

  4. Sawtooth control in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. P.; Angioni, C.; Budny, R. V.; Buttery, R. J.; Coda, S.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Gimblett, C. G.; Goodman, T. P.; Hastie, R. J.; Henderson, M. A.; Koslowski, H. R.; Mantsinen, M. J.; Martynov, An; Mayoral, M.-L.; Mück, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Sauter, O.; Westerhof, E.; Contributors, JET–EFDA

    2005-12-01

    Clear observations of early triggering of neo-classical tearing modes by sawteeth with long quiescent periods have motivated recent efforts to control, and in particular destabilize, sawteeth. One successful approach explored in TCV utilizes electron cyclotron heating in order to locally increase the current penetration time in the core. The latter is also achieved in various machines by depositing electron cyclotron current drive or ion cyclotron current drive close to the q = 1 rational surface. Crucially, localized current drive also succeeds in destabilizing sawteeth which are otherwise stabilized by a co-existing population of energetic trapped ions in the core. In addition, a recent reversed toroidal field campaign at JET demonstrates that counter-neutral beam injection (NBI) results in shorter sawtooth periods than in the Ohmic regime. The clear dependence of the sawtooth period on the NBI heating power and the direction of injection also manifests itself in terms of the toroidal plasma rotation, which consequently requires consideration in the theoretical interpretation of the experiments. Another feature of NBI, expected to be especially evident in the negative ion based neutral beam injection (NNBI) heating planned for ITER, is the parallel velocity asymmetry of the fast ion population. It is predicted that a finite orbit effect of asymmetrically distributed circulating ions could strongly modify sawtooth stability. Furthermore, NNBI driven current with non-monotonic profile could significantly slow down the evolution of the safety factor in the core, thereby delaying sawteeth.

  5. Evaluation of high-performance computing software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, S.; Dongarra, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rowan, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The absence of unbiased and up to date comparative evaluations of high-performance computing software complicates a user`s search for the appropriate software package. The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is attacking this problem using an approach that includes independent evaluations of software, incorporation of author and user feedback into the evaluations, and Web access to the evaluations. We are applying this approach to the Parallel Tools Library (PTLIB), a new software repository for parallel systems software and tools, and HPC-Netlib, a high performance branch of the Netlib mathematical software repository. Updating the evaluations with feed-back and making it available via the Web helps ensure accuracy and timeliness, and using independent reviewers produces unbiased comparative evaluations difficult to find elsewhere.

  6. Architecting Web Sites for High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Iyengar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Web site applications are some of the most challenging high-performance applications currently being developed and deployed. The challenges emerge from the specific combination of high variability in workload characteristics and of high performance demands regarding the service level, scalability, availability, and costs. In recent years, a large body of research has addressed the Web site application domain, and a host of innovative software and hardware solutions have been proposed and deployed. This paper is an overview of recent solutions concerning the architectures and the software infrastructures used in building Web site applications. The presentation emphasizes three of the main functions in a complex Web site: the processing of client requests, the control of service levels, and the interaction with remote network caches.

  7. High performance cloud auditing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Baek-Young; Song, Sejun

    2014-01-01

    This book mainly focuses on cloud security and high performance computing for cloud auditing. The book discusses emerging challenges and techniques developed for high performance semantic cloud auditing, and presents the state of the art in cloud auditing, computing and security techniques with focus on technical aspects and feasibility of auditing issues in federated cloud computing environments.   In summer 2011, the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) CyberBAT Cloud Security and Auditing Team initiated the exploration of the cloud security challenges and future cloud auditing research directions that are covered in this book. This work was supported by the United States government funds from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the AFOSR Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Visiting Faculty Research Program (VFRP), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). All chapters were partially suppor...

  8. Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettsome, Annette K.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface

  9. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe; Sarmiento, Adel; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Dalcin, L.; Collier, N.; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  10. Designing a High Performance Parallel Personal Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Kapanova, K. G.; Sellier, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, many scientific and engineering areas require high performance computing to perform computationally intensive experiments. For example, many advances in transport phenomena, thermodynamics, material properties, computational chemistry and physics are possible only because of the availability of such large scale computing infrastructures. Yet many challenges are still open. The cost of energy consumption, cooling, competition for resources have been some of the reasons why the scientifi...

  11. AHPCRC - Army High Performance Computing Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    computing. Of particular interest is the ability of a distrib- uted jamming network (DJN) to jam signals in all or part of a sensor or communications net...and reasoning, assistive technologies. FRIEDRICH (FRITZ) PRINZ Finmeccanica Professor of Engineering, Robert Bosch Chair, Department of Engineering...High Performance Computing Research Center www.ahpcrc.org BARBARA BRYAN AHPCRC Research and Outreach Manager, HPTi (650) 604-3732 bbryan@hpti.com Ms

  12. Governance among Malaysian high performing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Marsidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Well performed companies have always been linked with effective governance which is generally reflected through effective board of directors. However many issues concerning the attributes for effective board of directors remained unresolved. Nowadays diversity has been perceived as able to influence the corporate performance due to the likelihood of meeting variety of needs and demands from diverse customers and clients. The study therefore aims to provide a fundamental understanding on governance among high performing companies in Malaysia.

  13. DURIP: High Performance Computing in Biomathematics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Mathematics and Statistics (AMS) at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) to conduct research and research-related education in areas of...Computing in Biomathematics Applications Report Title The goal of this award was to enhance the capabilities of the Department of Applied Mathematics and...DURIP: High Performance Computing in Biomathematics Applications The goal of this award was to enhance the capabilities of the Department of Applied

  14. High Performance Computing Operations Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupps, Kimberly C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-19

    The High Performance Computing Operations Review (HPCOR) meeting—requested by the ASC and ASCR program headquarters at DOE—was held November 5 and 6, 2013, at the Marriott Hotel in San Francisco, CA. The purpose of the review was to discuss the processes and practices for HPC integration and its related software and facilities. Experiences and lessons learned from the most recent systems deployed were covered in order to benefit the deployment of new systems.

  15. Planning for high performance project teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.; Keeney, J.; Westney, R.

    1997-01-01

    Both industry-wide research and corporate benchmarking studies confirm the significant savings in cost and time that result from early planning of a project. Amoco's Team Planning Workshop combines long-term strategic project planning and short-term tactical planning with team building to provide the basis for high performing project teams, better project planning, and effective implementation of the Amoco Common Process for managing projects

  16. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  17. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  18. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  19. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  20. Prompt loss of beam ions in KSTAR plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For a toroidal plasma facility to realize fusion energy, researching the transport of fast ions is important not only due to its close relation to the heating and current drive efficiencies but also to determine the heat load on the plasma-facing components. We present a theoretical analysis and orbit simulation for the origin of lost fast-ions during neutral beam injection (NBI heating in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR device. We adopted a two-dimensional phase diagram of the toroidal momentum and magnetic moment and describe detectable momentums at the fast-ion loss detector (FILD position as a quadratic line. This simple method was used to model birth ions deposited by NBI and drawn as points in the momentum phase space. A Lorentz orbit code was used to calculate the fast-ion orbits and present the prompt loss characteristics of the KSTAR NBI. The scrape-off layer deposition of fast ions produces a significant prompt loss, and the model and experimental results closely agreed on the pitch-angle range of the NBI prompt loss. Our approach can provide wall load information from the fast ion loss.

  1. HIGH PERFORMANCE ADVANCED TOKAMAK REGIMES FOR NEXT-STEP EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENFIELD, C.M.; MURAKAMI, M.; FERRON, J.R.; WADE, M.R.; LUCE, T.C.; PETTY, C.C.; MENARD, J.E; PETRIE, T.W.; ALLEN, S.L.; BURRELL, K.H.; CASPER, T.A; DeBOO, J.C.; DOYLE, E.J.; GAROFALO, A.M; GORELOV, Y.A; GROEBNER, R.J.; HOBIRK, J.; HYATT, A.W; JAYAKUMAR, R.J; KESSEL, C.E; LA HAYE, R.J; JACKSON, G.L; LOHR, J.; MAKOWSKI, M.A.; PINSKER, R.I.; POLITZER, P.A.; PRATER, R.; STRAIT, E.J.; TAYLOR, T.S; WEST, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Advanced Tokamak (AT) research in DIII-D seeks to provide a scientific basis for steady-state high performance operation in future devices. These regimes require high toroidal beta to maximize fusion output and poloidal beta to maximize the self-driven bootstrap current. Achieving these conditions requires integrated, simultaneous control of the current and pressure profiles, and active magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability control. The building blocks for AT operation are in hand. Resistive wall mode stabilization via plasma rotation and active feedback with non-axisymmetric coils allows routine operation above the no-wall beta limit. Neoclassical tearing modes are stabilized by active feedback control of localized electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). Plasma shaping and profile control provide further improvements. Under these conditions, bootstrap supplies most of the current. Steady-state operation requires replacing the remaining Ohmic current, mostly located near the half-radius, with noninductive external sources. In DIII-D this current is provided by ECCD, and nearly stationary AT discharges have been sustained with little remaining Ohmic current. Fast wave current drive is being developed to control the central magnetic shear. Density control, with divertor cryopumps, of AT discharges with edge localized moding (ELMing) H-mode edges facilitates high current drive efficiency at reactor relevant collisionalities. A sophisticated plasma control system allows integrated control of these elements. Close coupling between modeling and experiment is key to understanding the separate elements, their complex nonlinear interactions, and their integration into self-consistent high performance scenarios. Progress on this development, and its implications for next-step devices, will be illustrated by results of recent experiment and simulation efforts

  2. Design study of a new P-NBI control system for 100-s injection in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Atsushi; Okano, Fuminori; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Ooshima, Katsumi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Numazawa, Susumu

    2007-03-01

    The modification of the JT-60U to a fully superconducting coil tokamak, JT-60SA (Super Advanced), has been programmed as the satellite devise for the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and as the national centralized tokamak. The present positive-ion-based NBI system (P-NBI), which has been operated for 20 years and will be the main heating system on JT-60SA, is required to manage the long pulse injection extended from 30 s to 100 s at the power of 24 MW with 12 units. To realize such a requirement, the original control system handling more than 4000 digital data is to be fully remodeled. Design study of the new control system has been conducted from viewpoint of market availability, system extensibility, cost-effectiveness and independent development in programming. It has been concluded that a distributed control system using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) could be applied to the large-scale control system for 100-s operations with satisfaction of the evaluation viewpoints. (author)

  3. Towards a realistic 3D simulation of the extraction region in ITER NBI relevant ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2015-03-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for ITER is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX code addresses the physics of formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions at caesiated sources as well as the amount of co-extracted electrons. In order to be closer to the experimental conditions the code has been improved. It includes now the bias potential applied to first grid (plasma grid) of the extraction system, and the presence of Cs+ ions in the plasma. The simulation results show that such aspects play an important role for the formation of an ion-ion plasma in the boundary region by reducing the depth of the negative potential well in vicinity to the plasma grid that limits the extraction of the NIs produced at the Cs covered plasma grid surface. The influence of the initial temperature of the surface produced NI and its emission rate on the NI density in the bulk plasma that in turn affects the beam formation region was analysed. The formation of the plasma meniscus, the boundary between the plasma and the beam, was investigated for the extraction potentials of 5 and 10 kV. At the smaller extraction potential the meniscus moves closer to the plasma grid but as in the case of 10 kV the deepest meniscus bend point is still outside of the aperture. Finally, a plasma containing the same amount of NI and electrons (nH- =ne =1017 m-3) , representing good source conditioning, was simulated. It is shown that at such conditions the extracted NI current can reach values of ˜32 mA cm-2 using ITER-relevant extraction potential of 10 kV and ˜19 mA cm-2 at 5 kV. These results are in good agreement with experimental measurements performed at the small scale ITER prototype source at the test facility BATMAN.

  4. Towards a realistic 3D simulation of the extraction region in ITER NBI relevant ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2015-01-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for ITER is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX code addresses the physics of formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions at caesiated sources as well as the amount of co-extracted electrons. In order to be closer to the experimental conditions the code has been improved. It includes now the bias potential applied to first grid (plasma grid) of the extraction system, and the presence of Cs + ions in the plasma. The simulation results show that such aspects play an important role for the formation of an ion–ion plasma in the boundary region by reducing the depth of the negative potential well in vicinity to the plasma grid that limits the extraction of the NIs produced at the Cs covered plasma grid surface. The influence of the initial temperature of the surface produced NI and its emission rate on the NI density in the bulk plasma that in turn affects the beam formation region was analysed. The formation of the plasma meniscus, the boundary between the plasma and the beam, was investigated for the extraction potentials of 5 and 10 kV. At the smaller extraction potential the meniscus moves closer to the plasma grid but as in the case of 10 kV the deepest meniscus bend point is still outside of the aperture. Finally, a plasma containing the same amount of NI and electrons (n H − =n e =10 17 m −3 ), representing good source conditioning, was simulated. It is shown that at such conditions the extracted NI current can reach values of ∼32 mA cm −2 using ITER-relevant extraction potential of 10 kV and ∼19 mA cm −2 at 5 kV. These results are in good agreement with experimental measurements performed at the small scale ITER prototype source at the test facility BATMAN. (paper)

  5. Toward a theory of high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Julia

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to be a high-performance company? The process of measuring relative performance across industries and eras, declaring top performers, and finding the common drivers of their success is such a difficult one that it might seem a fool's errand to attempt. In fact, no one did for the first thousand or so years of business history. The question didn't even occur to many scholars until Tom Peters and Bob Waterman released In Search of Excellence in 1982. Twenty-three years later, we've witnessed several more attempts--and, just maybe, we're getting closer to answers. In this reported piece, HBR senior editor Julia Kirby explores why it's so difficult to study high performance and how various research efforts--including those from John Kotter and Jim Heskett; Jim Collins and Jerry Porras; Bill Joyce, Nitin Nohria, and Bruce Roberson; and several others outlined in a summary chart-have attacked the problem. The challenge starts with deciding which companies to study closely. Are the stars the ones with the highest market caps, the ones with the greatest sales growth, or simply the ones that remain standing at the end of the game? (And when's the end of the game?) Each major study differs in how it defines success, which companies it therefore declares to be worthy of emulation, and the patterns of activity and attitude it finds in common among them. Yet, Kirby concludes, as each study's method incrementally solves problems others have faced, we are progressing toward a consensus theory of high performance.

  6. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  7. Playa: High-Performance Programmable Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Howle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Playa, a high-level user interface layer for composing algorithms for complex multiphysics problems out of objects from other Trilinos packages. Among other features, Playa provides very high-performance overloaded operators implemented through an expression template mechanism. In this paper, we give an overview of the central Playa objects from a user's perspective, show application to a sequence of increasingly complex solver algorithms, provide timing results for Playa's overloaded operators and other functions, and briefly survey some of the implementation issues involved.

  8. An integrated high performance fastbus slave interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1992-01-01

    A high performance Fastbus slave interface ASIC is presented. The Fastbus slave integrated circuit (FASIC) is a programmable device, enabling its direct use in many different applications. The FASIC acts as an interface between Fastbus and a 'standard' processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a microprocessor. A set of address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/s to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO buffer in the FASIC. (orig.)

  9. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  10. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the compound in rat plasma using: methanol-water (85:15, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min Hypersil ODS .... impact electron ionization (EI) source operating at 70 eV. ... The chromatographic system was composed of a.

  11. Electric field bifurcation and transition in the core plasma of CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Hamada, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.

    1997-01-01

    In the CHS heliotron/torsatron, dynamic phenomena associated with transitions in radial electric field were observed during combined ECH+NBI heated plasmas. The observations with high temporal resolution confirmed a nonlinear relation between radial electric field and radial current to cause these phenomena associated with electric field bifurcation. (author)

  12. On the challenge of plasma heating with the JET metallic wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayoral, M. L.; Bobkov, V.; Czarnecka, A.; Day, I.; Ekedahl, A.; Jacquet, P.; Goniche, M.; King, R.; Kirov, K.; Lerche, E.; J. Mailloux,; Van Eester, D.; Asunta, O.; Challis, C.; Ciric, D.; Coenen, J. W.; Colas, L.; Giroud, C.; Graham, M.; Jenkins, I.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, T.; King, D.; Kiptily, V.; Klepper, C. C.; Maggi, C.; Maggiora, R.; Marcotte, F.; Matthews, G.; Milanesio, D.; Monakhov, I.; Nightingale, M.; Neu, R.; Ongena, J.; T. Puetterich,; Riccardo, V.; Rimini, F.; Strachan, J.; Surrey, E.; Thompson, V.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    The major aspects linked to the use of the JET auxiliary heating systems: NBI, ICRF and LHCD, in the new JET ITER-like wall are presented. We show that although there were issues related to the operation of each system, efficient and safe plasma heating was obtained with room for higher power. For

  13. High-performance computing in seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The scientific, technical, and economic importance of the issues discussed here presents a clear agenda for future research in computational seismology. In this way these problems will drive advances in high-performance computing in the field of seismology. There is a broad community that will benefit from this work, including the petroleum industry, research geophysicists, engineers concerned with seismic hazard mitigation, and governments charged with enforcing a comprehensive test ban treaty. These advances may also lead to new applications for seismological research. The recent application of high-resolution seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface for the environmental remediation industry is an example of this activity. This report makes the following recommendations: (1) focused efforts to develop validated documented software for seismological computations should be supported, with special emphasis on scalable algorithms for parallel processors; (2) the education of seismologists in high-performance computing technologies and methodologies should be improved; (3) collaborations between seismologists and computational scientists and engineers should be increased; (4) the infrastructure for archiving, disseminating, and processing large volumes of seismological data should be improved.

  14. A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.

  15. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Heather M.; Manuzatto, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  16. Development of high performance cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.

    2010-04-01

    The irradiation test for HANA claddings conducted and a series of evaluation for next-HANA claddings as well as their in-pile and out-of pile performances tests were also carried out at Halden research reactor. The 6th irradiation test have been completed successfully in Halden research reactor. As a result, HANA claddings showed high performance, such as corrosion resistance increased by 40% compared to Zircaloy-4. The high performance of HANA claddings in Halden test has enabled lead test rod program as the first step of the commercialization of HANA claddings. DB has been established for thermal and LOCA-related properties. It was confirmed from the thermal shock test that the integrity of HANA claddings was maintained in more expanded region than the criteria regulated by NRC. The manufacturing process of strips was established in order to apply HANA alloys, which were originally developed for the claddings, to the spacer grids. 250 kinds of model alloys for the next-generation claddings were designed and manufactured over 4 times and used to select the preliminary candidate alloys for the next-generation claddings. The selected candidate alloys showed 50% better corrosion resistance and 20% improved high temperature oxidation resistance compared to the foreign advanced claddings. We established the manufacturing condition controlling the performance of the dual-cooled claddings by changing the reduction rate in the cold working steps

  17. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  18. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  19. High-performance vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Hans; Günther, Alrun A; Leo, Karl; Lüssem, Björn

    2013-11-11

    Vertical organic thin-film transistors (VOTFTs) are promising devices to overcome the transconductance and cut-off frequency restrictions of horizontal organic thin-film transistors. The basic physical mechanisms of VOTFT operation, however, are not well understood and VOTFTs often require complex patterning techniques using self-assembly processes which impedes a future large-area production. In this contribution, high-performance vertical organic transistors comprising pentacene for p-type operation and C60 for n-type operation are presented. The static current-voltage behavior as well as the fundamental scaling laws of such transistors are studied, disclosing a remarkable transistor operation with a behavior limited by injection of charge carriers. The transistors are manufactured by photolithography, in contrast to other VOTFT concepts using self-assembled source electrodes. Fluorinated photoresist and solvent compounds allow for photolithographical patterning directly and strongly onto the organic materials, simplifying the fabrication protocol and making VOTFTs a prospective candidate for future high-performance applications of organic transistors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.