WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-performance field effect

  1. High performance low voltage organic field effect transistors on plastic substrate for amplifier circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houin, G.J.R.; Duez, F.; Garcia, L.; Cantatore, E.; Torricelli, F.; Hirsch, L.; Belot, D.; Pellet, C.; Abbas, M.

    2016-01-01

    The high performance air stable organic semiconductor small molecule dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) was chosen as active layer for field effect transistors built to realize flexible amplifier circuits. Initial device on rigid Si/SiO2 substrate showed appreciable performance

  2. High performance printed oxide field-effect transistors processed using photonic curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Cadilha Marques, Gabriel; Gebauer, Julia Susanne; Dehm, Simone; Bruns, Michael; Winterer, Markus; Baradaran Tahoori, Mehdi; Aghassi-Hagmann, Jasmin; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2018-06-01

    Oxide semiconductors are highly promising candidates for the most awaited, next-generation electronics, namely, printed electronics. As a fabrication route for the solution-processed/printed oxide semiconductors, photonic curing is becoming increasingly popular, as compared to the conventional thermal curing method; the former offers numerous advantages over the latter, such as low process temperatures and short exposure time and thereby, high throughput compatibility. Here, using dissimilar photonic curing concepts (UV–visible light and UV-laser), we demonstrate facile fabrication of high performance In2O3 field-effect transistors (FETs). Beside the processing related issues (temperature, time etc.), the other known limitation of oxide electronics is the lack of high performance p-type semiconductors, which can be bypassed using unipolar logics from high mobility n-type semiconductors alone. Interestingly, here we have found that our chosen distinct photonic curing methods can offer a large variation in threshold voltage, when they are fabricated from the same precursor ink. Consequently, both depletion and enhancement-mode devices have been achieved which can be used as the pull-up and pull-down transistors in unipolar inverters. The present device fabrication recipe demonstrates fast processing of low operation voltage, high performance FETs with large threshold voltage tunability.

  3. Development of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Liu, Chuan; Khim, Dongyoon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-10-28

    Organic electronics is regarded as an important branch of future microelectronics especially suited for large-area, flexible, transparent, and green devices, with their low cost being a key benefit. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the primary building blocks of numerous expected applications, have been intensively studied, and considerable progress has recently been made. However, there are still a number of challenges to the realization of high-performance OFETs and integrated circuits (ICs) using printing technologies. Therefore, in this perspective article, we investigate the main issues concerning developing high-performance printed OFETs and ICs and seek strategies for further improvement. Unlike many other studies in the literature that deal with organic semiconductors (OSCs), printing technology, and device physics, our study commences with a detailed examination of OFET performance parameters (e.g., carrier mobility, threshold voltage, and contact resistance) by which the related challenges and potential solutions to performance development are inspected. While keeping this complete understanding of device performance in mind, we check the printed OFETs' components one by one and explore the possibility of performance improvement regarding device physics, material engineering, processing procedure, and printing technology. Finally, we analyze the performance of various organic ICs and discuss ways to optimize OFET characteristics and thus develop high-performance printed ICs for broad practical applications.

  4. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu; Tham, Douglas; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R.

    2011-01-01

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu

    2011-06-24

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Vinyl Flanked Difluorobenzothiadiazole-Dithiophene Conjugated Polymer for High Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xianfeng; Sun, Wandong; Chen, Yanlin; Tan, Luxi; Cai, Zheng-Xu; Liu, Zitong; Wang, Lin; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Dong, Lichun

    2018-02-21

    Fluorine containing conjugated polymers have been widely applied in high performance organic solar cells, but their use in field-effect transistors is still quite limited. In this work, a conjugated polymer PTFBTV based on difluorobenzothiadiazole (DFBT) and dithiophene was synthesized, utilizing multiple vinylene as linkers. The polymer exhibits a relatively high hole mobility up to 2.0 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) compared with the reported DFBT-oligothiophene based polymers, yet its structural complexity is much simpler. The polymer thin film exhibits a typical 'face on' molecular orientation. A single crystal of its monomer revealed a non-covalent intramolecular contact between fluorine and the neighbouring proton, which strengthens the backbone co-planarity. Meanwhile an intermolecular F...F contact was also observed, which might cause rather scattered lamellar crystallinity for PTFBTV in the solid state.

  7. Improving the Stability of High-Performance Multilayer MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Baek, Jongyeol; Kim, Seung Min; Hong, Seongin; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Sunkook; Park, Jozeph

    2017-12-13

    In this study, we propose a method for improving the stability of multilayer MoS 2 field-effect transistors (FETs) by O 2 plasma treatment and Al 2 O 3 passivation while sustaining the high performance of bulk MoS 2 FET. The MoS 2 FETs were exposed to O 2 plasma for 30 s before Al 2 O 3 encapsulation to achieve a relatively small hysteresis and high electrical performance. A MoO x layer formed during the plasma treatment was found between MoS 2 and the top passivation layer. The MoO x interlayer prevents the generation of excess electron carriers in the channel, owing to Al 2 O 3 passivation, thereby minimizing the shift in the threshold voltage (V th ) and increase of the off-current leakage. However, prolonged exposure of the MoS 2 surface to O 2 plasma (90 and 120 s) was found to introduce excess oxygen into the MoO x interlayer, leading to more pronounced hysteresis and a high off-current. The stable MoS 2 FETs were also subjected to gate-bias stress tests under different conditions. The MoS 2 transistors exhibited negligible decline in performance under positive bias stress, positive bias illumination stress, and negative bias stress, but large negative shifts in V th were observed under negative bias illumination stress, which is attributed to the presence of sulfur vacancies. This simple approach can be applied to other transition metal dichalcogenide materials to understand their FET properties and reliability, and the resulting high-performance hysteresis-free MoS 2 transistors are expected to open up new opportunities for the development of sophisticated electronic applications.

  8. Charge injection engineering of ambipolar field-effect transistors for high-performance organic complementary circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Caironi, Mario; Kim, Dong-Yu; You, In-Kyu; Quinn, Jordan R; Facchetti, Antonio; Noh, Yong-Young

    2011-08-01

    Ambipolar π-conjugated polymers may provide inexpensive large-area manufacturing of complementary integrated circuits (CICs) without requiring micro-patterning of the individual p- and n-channel semiconductors. However, current-generation ambipolar semiconductor-based CICs suffer from higher static power consumption, low operation frequencies, and degraded noise margins compared to complementary logics based on unipolar p- and n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we demonstrate a simple methodology to control charge injection and transport in ambipolar OFETs via engineering of the electrical contacts. Solution-processed caesium (Cs) salts, as electron-injection and hole-blocking layers at the interface between semiconductors and charge injection electrodes, significantly decrease the gold (Au) work function (∼4.1 eV) compared to that of a pristine Au electrode (∼4.7 eV). By controlling the electrode surface chemistry, excellent p-channel (hole mobility ∼0.1-0.6 cm(2)/(Vs)) and n-channel (electron mobility ∼0.1-0.3 cm(2)/(Vs)) OFET characteristics with the same semiconductor are demonstrated. Most importantly, in these OFETs the counterpart charge carrier currents are highly suppressed for depletion mode operation (I(off) 0.1-0.2 mA). Thus, high-performance, truly complementary inverters (high gain >50 and high noise margin >75% of ideal value) and ring oscillators (oscillation frequency ∼12 kHz) based on a solution-processed ambipolar polymer are demonstrated.

  9. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adzhri, R., E-mail: adzhri@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Md Arshad, M.K., E-mail: mohd.khairuddin@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Microelectronic Engineering (SoME), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Gopinath, Subash C.B., E-mail: subash@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Bioprocess Engineering (SBE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ruslinda, A.R., E-mail: ruslinda@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Fathil, M.F.M., E-mail: faris.fathil@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Ayub, R.M., E-mail: ramzan@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Nor, M. Nuzaihan Mohd, E-mail: m.nuzaihan@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Voon, C.H., E-mail: chvoon@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-04-21

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications. - Highlights: • Performance of FET-based biosensors for the detection of biomolecules is presented. • Silicon nanowire, polyaniline and graphene are the highlighted nanoscaled materials as sensing transducers. • The importance of surface material interaction with the surrounding environment is discussed. • Different device structure architectures for ease in fabrication and high sensitivity of sensing are presented.

  10. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzhri, R.; Md Arshad, M.K.; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Ruslinda, A.R.; Fathil, M.F.M.; Ayub, R.M.; Nor, M. Nuzaihan Mohd; Voon, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications. - Highlights: • Performance of FET-based biosensors for the detection of biomolecules is presented. • Silicon nanowire, polyaniline and graphene are the highlighted nanoscaled materials as sensing transducers. • The importance of surface material interaction with the surrounding environment is discussed. • Different device structure architectures for ease in fabrication and high sensitivity of sensing are presented.

  11. High-performance solution-processed polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, RCG; Tanase, C; Blom, PWM; Gelinck, GH; Marsman, AW; Touwslager, FJ; Setayesh, S; De Leeuw, DM; Naber, Ronald C.G.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Marsman, Albert W.; Touwslager, Fred J.

    We demonstrate a rewritable, non-volatile memory device with flexible plastic active layers deposited from solution. The memory device is a ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) made with a ferroelectric fluoropolymer and a bisalkoxy-substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) semiconductor

  12. The Influence of Morphology on High-Performance Polymer Field-Effect Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsao, Hoi Nok; Cho, Don; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2009-01-01

    The influence of molecular packing on the performance of polymer organic field-effect transistors is illustrated in this work. Both close -stacking distance and long-range order are important for achieving high mobilities. By aligning the polymers from solution, long-range order is induced...

  13. High Performance Polymer Field-Effect Transistors Based on Thermally Crosslinked Poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chun-Xia; Yang Xiao-Yan; Zhao Kai; Wu Xiao-Ming; Yang Li-Ying; Cheng Xiao-Man; Yin Shou-Gen; Wei Jun

    2011-01-01

    The performance of polymer field-effect transistors is improved by thermal crosslinking ofpoly(3-hexylthiophene), using ditert butyl peroxide as the crosslinker. The device performance depends on the crosslinker concentration significantly. We obtain an optimal on/off ratio of 10 5 and the saturate field-effect mobility of 0.34cm 2 V −1 s −1 , by using a suitable ratios of ditert butyl peroxide, 0.5 wt% ofpoly(3-hexylthiophene). The microstructure images show that the crosslinked poly(3-hexylthiophene) active layers simultaneously possess appropriate crystallinity and smooth morphology. Moreover, crosslinking of poly(3-hexylthiophene) prevents the transistors from large threshold voltage shifts under ambient bias-stressing, showing an advantage in encouraging device environmental and operating stability. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@pku.edu.cn; Si, Jia; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao, E-mail: lmpeng@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-08-11

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2 V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits.

  15. Non-Planar Nanotube and Wavy Architecture Based Ultra-High Performance Field Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2016-11-01

    This dissertation presents a unique concept for a device architecture named the nanotube (NT) architecture, which is capable of higher drive current compared to the Gate-All-Around Nanowire architecture when applied to heterostructure Tunnel Field Effect Transistors. Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, heterostructure NT TFET leverages physically larger tunneling area thus achieving higher driver current (ION) and saving real estates by eliminating arraying requirement. We discuss the physics of p-type (Silicon/Indium Arsenide) and n-type (Silicon/Germanium hetero-structure) based TFETs. Numerical TCAD simulations have shown that NT TFETs have 5x and 1.6 x higher normalized ION when compared to GAA NW TFET for p and n-type TFETs, respectively. This is due to the availability of larger tunneling junction cross sectional area, and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination, while achieving sub 60 mV/dec performance for more than 5 orders of magnitude of drain current, thus enabling scaling down of Vdd to 0.5 V. This dissertation also introduces a novel thin-film-transistors architecture that is named the Wavy Channel (WC) architecture, which allows for extending device width by integrating vertical fin-like substrate corrugations giving rise to up to 50% larger device width, without occupying extra chip area. The novel architecture shows 2x higher output drive current per unit chip area when compared to conventional planar architecture. The current increase is attributed to both the extra device width and 50% enhancement in field effect mobility due to electrostatic gating effects. Digital circuits are fabricated to demonstrate the potential of integrating WC TFT based circuits. WC inverters have shown 2× the peak-to-peak output voltage for the same input, and ~2× the operation frequency of the planar inverters for the same peak-to-peak output voltage. WC NAND circuits have shown 2× higher peak-to-peak output voltage, and 3× lower high-to-low propagation

  16. Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes as a high performance active element in field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2016-01-01

    The Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes (Au-CNTs), diameter ranged from 40 to 250 nm, were prepared and discussed their chemical and electrical properties. The shape and crystallinity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) phase depended main2ly on the diameter of CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T). Highly crystalline, straight CNTs were observed when the r_A_u_-_C_N_T exceeded 80 nm, and less crystalline noodle-shaped CNTs were observed when the r_A_u_-_C_N_T was smaller than 80 nm. The crystallinity of the CNT phase was confirmed by analyzing the G and D bands in their Raman spectra and the electrical conductivities of the Au-CNTs. The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline carbon phase of Au-CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T = 250 nm) was ∼10"4 S/cm. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) based on the Au-CNTs, which were assembled on a SiO_2/Si wafer using the dielectrophoresis technique, showed that the Au-CNTs would be a good functional electronic material for future electronic and sensing applications. The transconductance and hole mobility of the FETs, which were assembled with the highly crystalline Au-CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T = 250 nm), reached to 3.6 × 10"−"4 A/V and 3.1 × 10"4 cm"2/V s, respectively. These values are in the middle of those of reported for single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, we could not find any field effect in a CNTFET, which assembled without Au nanoparticles, through the same process. - Highlights: • The shape and crystallinity of the CNTs depended mainly on the diameter of CNTs. • The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline Au-CNTs was ∼10"4 S/cm. • The Au-CNT FET shows typical p-channel gate effect with the on/off ratio of ∼10"4. • The Au-CNT FET shows very high transconductance (g_m) and carrier mobility (μ_h).

  17. Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes as a high performance active element in field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don, E-mail: donkim@pknu.ac.kr

    2016-08-15

    The Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes (Au-CNTs), diameter ranged from 40 to 250 nm, were prepared and discussed their chemical and electrical properties. The shape and crystallinity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) phase depended main2ly on the diameter of CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT}). Highly crystalline, straight CNTs were observed when the r{sub Au-CNT} exceeded 80 nm, and less crystalline noodle-shaped CNTs were observed when the r{sub Au-CNT} was smaller than 80 nm. The crystallinity of the CNT phase was confirmed by analyzing the G and D bands in their Raman spectra and the electrical conductivities of the Au-CNTs. The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline carbon phase of Au-CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT} = 250 nm) was ∼10{sup 4} S/cm. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) based on the Au-CNTs, which were assembled on a SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer using the dielectrophoresis technique, showed that the Au-CNTs would be a good functional electronic material for future electronic and sensing applications. The transconductance and hole mobility of the FETs, which were assembled with the highly crystalline Au-CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT} = 250 nm), reached to 3.6 × 10{sup −4} A/V and 3.1 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. These values are in the middle of those of reported for single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, we could not find any field effect in a CNTFET, which assembled without Au nanoparticles, through the same process. - Highlights: • The shape and crystallinity of the CNTs depended mainly on the diameter of CNTs. • The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline Au-CNTs was ∼10{sup 4} S/cm. • The Au-CNT FET shows typical p-channel gate effect with the on/off ratio of ∼10{sup 4}. • The Au-CNT FET shows very high transconductance (g{sub m}) and carrier mobility (μ{sub h}).

  18. Printing Semiconductor-Insulator Polymer Bilayers for High-Performance Coplanar Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Laju; Hu, Mengxing; Lu, Wanlong; Wang, Ziyu; Lu, Guanghao

    2018-01-01

    Source-semiconductor-drain coplanar transistors with an organic semiconductor layer located within the same plane of source/drain electrodes are attractive for next-generation electronics, because they could be used to reduce material consumption, minimize parasitic leakage current, avoid cross-talk among different devices, and simplify the fabrication process of circuits. Here, a one-step, drop-casting-like printing method to realize a coplanar transistor using a model semiconductor/insulator [poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/polystyrene (PS)] blend is developed. By manipulating the solution dewetting dynamics on the metal electrode and SiO 2 dielectric, the solution within the channel region is selectively confined, and thus make the top surface of source/drain electrodes completely free of polymers. Subsequently, during solvent evaporation, vertical phase separation between P3HT and PS leads to a semiconductor-insulator bilayer structure, contributing to an improved transistor performance. Moreover, this coplanar transistor with semiconductor-insulator bilayer structure is an ideal system for injecting charges into the insulator via gate-stress, and the thus-formed PS electret layer acts as a "nonuniform floating gate" to tune the threshold voltage and effective mobility of the transistors. Effective field-effect mobility higher than 1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 with an on/off ratio > 10 7 is realized, and the performances are comparable to those of commercial amorphous silicon transistors. This coplanar transistor simplifies the fabrication process of corresponding circuits. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High performance tunnel field-effect transistor by gate and source engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ru; Huang, Qianqian; Chen, Shaowen; Wu, Chunlei; Wang, Jiaxin; An, Xia; Wang, Yangyuan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most promising candidates for future nanoelectronic devices, tunnel field-effect transistors (TFET) can overcome the subthreshold slope (SS) limitation of MOSFET, whereas high ON-current, low OFF-current and steep switching can hardly be obtained at the same time for experimental TFETs. In this paper, we developed a new nanodevice technology based on TFET concepts. By designing the gate configuration and introducing the optimized Schottky junction, a multi-finger-gate TFET with a dopant-segregated Schottky source (mFSB-TFET) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A steeper SS can be achieved in the fabricated mFSB-TFET on the bulk Si substrate benefiting from the coupled quantum band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism, as well as a high I ON /I OFF ratio (∼10 7 ) at V DS  = 0.2 V without an area penalty. By compatible SOI CMOS technology, the fabricated Si mFSB-TFET device was further optimized with a high I ON /I OFF ratio of ∼10 8 and a steeper SS of over 5.5 decades of current. A minimum SS of below 60 mV dec −1 was experimentally obtained, indicating its dominant quantum BTBT mechanism for switching. (paper)

  20. High performance tunnel field-effect transistor by gate and source engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru; Huang, Qianqian; Chen, Shaowen; Wu, Chunlei; Wang, Jiaxin; An, Xia; Wang, Yangyuan

    2014-12-19

    As one of the most promising candidates for future nanoelectronic devices, tunnel field-effect transistors (TFET) can overcome the subthreshold slope (SS) limitation of MOSFET, whereas high ON-current, low OFF-current and steep switching can hardly be obtained at the same time for experimental TFETs. In this paper, we developed a new nanodevice technology based on TFET concepts. By designing the gate configuration and introducing the optimized Schottky junction, a multi-finger-gate TFET with a dopant-segregated Schottky source (mFSB-TFET) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A steeper SS can be achieved in the fabricated mFSB-TFET on the bulk Si substrate benefiting from the coupled quantum band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism, as well as a high I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio (∼ 10(7)) at V(DS) = 0.2 V without an area penalty. By compatible SOI CMOS technology, the fabricated Si mFSB-TFET device was further optimized with a high ION/IOFF ratio of ∼ 10(8) and a steeper SS of over 5.5 decades of current. A minimum SS of below 60 mV dec(-1) was experimentally obtained, indicating its dominant quantum BTBT mechanism for switching.

  1. High performance dendrimer functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistor biosensor for protein detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sharma, Vikash; Puri, Nitin K.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Kotnala, Ravinder K.

    2016-12-01

    We report a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistor (FET) functionalized with Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with 128 carboxyl groups as anchors for site specific biomolecular immobilization of protein antibody for C-reactive protein (CRP) detection. The FET device was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and current-gate voltage (I-Vg) characteristic studies. A concentration-dependent decrease in the source-drain current was observed in the regime of clinical significance, with a detection limit of ˜85 pM and a high sensitivity of 20% change in current (ΔI/I) per decade CRP concentration, showing SWNT being locally gated by the binding of CRP to antibody (anti-CRP) on the FET device. The low value of the dissociation constant (Kd = 0.31 ± 0.13 μg ml-1) indicated a high affinity of the device towards CRP analyte arising due to high anti-CRP loading with a better probe orientation on the 3-dimensional PAMAM structure.

  2. Polymer-Sorted Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Networks for High-Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Efficient selection of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from as-grown nanotube samples is crucial for their application as printable and flexible semiconductors in field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, we use atactic poly(9-dodecyl-9-methyl-fluorene) (a-PF-1-12), a polyfluorene derivative with asymmetric side-chains, for the selective dispersion of semiconducting SWNTs with large diameters (>1 nm) from plasma torch-grown SWNTs. Lowering the molecular weight of the dispersing polymer leads to a significant improvement of selectivity. Combining dense semiconducting SWNT networks deposited from an enriched SWNT dispersion with a polymer/metal-oxide hybrid dielectric enables transistors with balanced ambipolar, contact resistance-corrected mobilities of up to 50 cm2·V–1·s–1, low ohmic contact resistance, steep subthreshold swings (0.12–0.14 V/dec) and high on/off ratios (106) even for short channel lengths (<10 μm). These FETs operate at low voltages (<3 V) and show almost no current hysteresis. The resulting ambipolar complementary-like inverters exhibit gains up to 61. PMID:25493421

  3. High performance Si nanowire field-effect-transistors based on a CMOS inverter with tunable threshold voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Whang, Dongmok; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-05-21

    We successfully fabricated nanowire-based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (NWCMOS) inverter devices by utilizing n- and p-type Si nanowire field-effect-transistors (NWFETs) via a low-temperature fabrication processing technique. We demonstrate that NWCMOS inverter devices can be operated at less than 1 V, a significantly lower voltage than that of typical thin-film based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverter devices. This low-voltage operation was accomplished by controlling the threshold voltage of the n-type Si NWFETs through effective management of the nanowire (NW) doping concentration, while realizing high voltage gain (>10) and ultra-low static power dissipation (≤3 pW) for high-performance digital inverter devices. This result offers a viable means of fabricating high-performance, low-operation voltage, and high-density digital logic circuits using a low-temperature fabrication processing technique suitable for next-generation flexible electronics.

  4. A high-performance complementary inverter based on transition metal dichalcogenide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ah-Jin; Park, Kee Chan; Kwon, Jang-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    For several years, graphene has been the focus of much attention due to its peculiar characteristics, and it is now considered to be a representative 2-dimensional (2D) material. Even though many research groups have studied on the graphene, its intrinsic nature of a zero band-gap, limits its use in practical applications, particularly in logic circuits. Recently, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which are another type of 2D material, have drawn attention due to the advantage of having a sizable band-gap and a high mobility. Here, we report on the design of a complementary inverter, one of the most basic logic elements, which is based on a MoS2 n-type transistor and a WSe2 p-type transistor. The advantages provided by the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) configuration and the high-performance TMD channels allow us to fabricate a TMD complementary inverter that has a high-gain of 13.7. This work demonstrates the operation of the MoS2 n-FET and WSe2 p-FET on the same substrate, and the electrical performance of the CMOS inverter, which is based on a different driving current, is also measured.

  5. High performance unipolar inverters by utilizing organic field-effect transistors with ultraviolet/ozone treated polystyrene dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Yu, Xinge; Fan, Huidong; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    High performance unipolar inverters based on a significant variation of threshold voltage (V th ) of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), which was realized by introducing UV/ozone (UVO) treatment to polystyrene (PS) dielectric, were fabricated. A controllable V th shift of more than 10 V was obtained in the OFETs by adjusting the UVO treating time, and the unipolar inverters exhibited inverting voltage near 1/2 driving voltage and a noise margin of more than 70% of ideal value. From the analysis of scanning electron microscopy, atom force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the dramatic controllable V th of OFETs, which played a key role in high performance unipolar inverters, was attributed to the newly generated oxygen functional groups in the PS dielectric induced by UVO treatment.

  6. Design strategy for air-stable organic semiconductors applicable to high-performance field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo Takimiya et al

    2007-01-01

    Electronic structure of air-stable, high-performance organic field-effect transistor (OFET) material, 2,7-dipheneyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT), was discussed based on the molecular orbital calculations. It was suggested that the stability is originated from relatively low-lying HOMO level, despite the fact that the molecule contains highly π-extended aromatic core ([1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, BTBT) with four fused aromatic rings like naphthacene. This is rationaliz...

  7. High-performance PbS quantum dot vertical field-effect phototransistor using graphene as a transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yongli; Zhang, Yating; Cao, Xiaolong; Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Haiting; Cao, Mingxuan; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-12-01

    Solution processed photoactive PbS quantum dots (QDs) were used as channel in high-performance near-infrared vertical field-effect phototransistor (VFEpT) where monolayer graphene embedded as transparent electrode. In this vertical architecture, the PbS QD channel was sandwiched and naturally protected between the drain and source electrodes, which made the device ultrashort channel length (110 nm) simply the thickness of the channel layer. The VFEpT exhibited ambipolar operation with high mobilities of μe = 3.5 cm2/V s in n-channel operation and μh = 3.3 cm2/V s in p-channel operation at low operation voltages. By using the photoactive PbS QDs as channel material, the VFEpT exhibited good photoresponse properties with a responsivity of 4.2 × 102 A/W, an external quantum efficiency of 6.4 × 104% and a photodetectivity of 2.1 × 109 Jones at the light irradiance of 36 mW/cm2. Additionally, the VFEpT showed excellent on/off switching with good stability and reproducibility and fast response speed with a short rise time of 12 ms in n-channel operation and 10.6 ms in p-channel operation. These high mobilities, good photoresponse properties and simplistic fabrication of our VFEpTs provided a facile route to the high-performance inorganic photodetectors.

  8. Doping Polymer Semiconductors by Organic Salts: Toward High-Performance Solution-Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Rengert, Zachary D; McDowell, Caitlin; Ford, Michael J; Wang, Ming; Karki, Akchheta; Lill, Alexander T; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2018-04-24

    Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated with the addition of an organic salt, trityl tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate (TrTPFB), into thin films of donor-acceptor copolymer semiconductors. The performance of OFETs is significantly enhanced after the organic salt is incorporated. TrTPFB is confirmed to p-dope the organic semiconductors used in this study, and the doping efficiency as well as doping physics was investigated. In addition, systematic electrical and structural characterizations reveal how the doping enhances the performance of OFETs. Furthermore, it is shown that this organic salt doping method is feasible for both p- and n-doping by using different organic salts and, thus, can be utilized to achieve high-performance OFETs and organic complementary circuits.

  9. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe; Sarmiento, Adel; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Dalcin, L.; Collier, N.; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  10. Cyclopentadithiophene-Benzothiadiazole Donor-Acceptor Polymers as Prototypical Semiconductors for High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; An, Cunbin; Pisula, Wojciech; Müllen, Klaus

    2018-05-15

    Donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers are of great interest as organic semiconductors, because they offer a rational tailoring of the electronic properties by modification of the donor and acceptor units. Nowadays, D-A polymers exhibit field-effect mobilities on the order of 10 -2 -10 0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , while several examples showed a mobility over 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The development of cyclopentadithiophene-benzothiadiazole (CDT-BTZ) copolymers one decade ago represents an important step toward high-performance organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors. The significant rise in field-effect mobility of CDT-BTZ in comparison to the existing D-A polymers at that time opened the door to a new research field with a large number of novel D-A systems. From this point, the device performance of CDT-BTZ was gradually improved by a systematic optimization of the synthesis and polymer structure as well as by an efficient solution processing into long-range ordered thin films. The key aspect was a comprehensive understanding of the relation between polymer structure and solid-state organization. Due to their fundamental role for the field of D-A polymers in general, this Account will for the first time explicitly focus on prototypical CDT-BTZ polymers, while other reviews provide an excellent general overview on D-A polymers. The first part of this Account discusses strategies for improving the charge carrier transport, focusing on chemical aspects. Improved synthesis as an essential stage toward high purity, and high molecular weight is a prerequisite for molecular order. The modification of substituents is a further crucial feature to tune the CDT-BTZ packing and self-assembly. Linear alkyl side chains facilitate intermolecular π-stacking interactions, while branched ones increase solubility and alter the polymer packing. Additional control over the supramolecular organization of CDT-BTZ polymers is introduced by alkenyl substituents via their cis

  11. Design strategy for air-stable organic semiconductors applicable to high-performance field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Takimiya et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic structure of air-stable, high-performance organic field-effect transistor (OFET material, 2,7-dipheneyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT, was discussed based on the molecular orbital calculations. It was suggested that the stability is originated from relatively low-lying HOMO level, despite the fact that the molecule contains highly π-extended aromatic core ([1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, BTBT with four fused aromatic rings like naphthacene. This is rationalized by the consideration that the BTBT core is not isoelectronic with naphthacene but with chrysene, a cata-condensed phene with four benzene rings. It is well known that the acene-type compound is unstable among its structural isomers with the same number of benzene rings. Therefore, polycyclic aromatic compounds possessing the phene-substructure will be good candidates for stable organic semiconductors. Considering synthetic easiness, we suggest that the BTBT-substructure is the molecular structure of choice for developing air-stable organic semiconductors.

  12. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-04-27

    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  13. High Performance Ambipolar Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Copolymer Field-Effect Transistors with Balanced Hole and Electron Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhuoying; Lee, Mi Jung; Ashraf, Raja Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Ambipolar OFETs with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities both exceeding 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 are achieved based on a single-solution-processed conjugated polymer, DPPT-TT, upon careful optimization of the device architecture, charge injection, and polymer processing. Such high-performance...

  14. High Performance Clocks and Gravity Field Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J.; Dirkx, D.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Lion, G.; Panet, I.; Petit, G.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Time measured by an ideal clock crucially depends on the gravitational potential and velocity of the clock according to general relativity. Technological advances in manufacturing high-precision atomic clocks have rapidly improved their accuracy and stability over the last decade that approached the level of 10^{-18}. This notable achievement along with the direct sensitivity of clocks to the strength of the gravitational field make them practically important for various geodetic applications that are addressed in the present paper. Based on a fully relativistic description of the background gravitational physics, we discuss the impact of those highly-precise clocks on the realization of reference frames and time scales used in geodesy. We discuss the current definitions of basic geodetic concepts and come to the conclusion that the advances in clocks and other metrological technologies will soon require the re-definition of time scales or, at least, clarification to ensure their continuity and consistent use in practice. The relative frequency shift between two clocks is directly related to the difference in the values of the gravity potential at the points of clock's localization. According to general relativity the relative accuracy of clocks in 10^{-18} is equivalent to measuring the gravitational red shift effect between two clocks with the height difference amounting to 1 cm. This makes the clocks an indispensable tool in high-precision geodesy in addition to laser ranging and space geodetic techniques. We show how clock measurements can provide geopotential numbers for the realization of gravity-field-related height systems and can resolve discrepancies in classically-determined height systems as well as between national height systems. Another application of clocks is the direct use of observed potential differences for the improved recovery of regional gravity field solutions. Finally, clock measurements for space-borne gravimetry are analyzed along with

  15. Solution-Processed Donor-Acceptor Polymer Nanowire Network Semiconductors For High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanlian; Deng, Ping; Li, Jun; Lin, Ming; Zhu, Furong; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Ong, Beng S.

    2016-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) represent a low-cost transistor technology for creating next-generation large-area, flexible and ultra-low-cost electronics. Conjugated electron donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers have surfaced as ideal channel semiconductor candidates for OFETs. However, high-molecular weight (MW) D-A polymer semiconductors, which offer high field-effect mobility, generally suffer from processing complications due to limited solubility. Conversely, the readily soluble, low-MW D-A polymers give low mobility. We report herein a facile solution process which transformed a lower-MW, low-mobility diketopyrrolopyrrole-dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (I) into a high crystalline order and high-mobility semiconductor for OFETs applications. The process involved solution fabrication of a channel semiconductor film from a lower-MW (I) and polystyrene blends. With the help of cooperative shifting motion of polystyrene chain segments, (I) readily self-assembled and crystallized out in the polystyrene matrix as an interpenetrating, nanowire semiconductor network, providing significantly enhanced mobility (over 8 cm2V−1s−1), on/off ratio (107), and other desirable field-effect properties that meet impactful OFET application requirements. PMID:27091315

  16. High performance top-gated ferroelectric field effect transistors based on two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongzheng; Wang, Xudong; Zhu, Yuankun; Liao, Lei; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Jianlu; Hu, Weida

    2017-01-01

    High quality ultrathin two-dimensional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheets (NSs) are synthesized, and the ZnO NS ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) are demonstrated based on the P(VDF-TrFE) polymer film used as the top gate insulating layer. The ZnO NSs exhibit a maximum field effect mobility of 588.9 cm2/Vs and a large transconductance of 2.5 μS due to their high crystalline quality and ultrathin two-dimensional structure. The polarization property of the P(VDF-TrFE) film is studied, and a remnant polarization of >100 μC/cm2 is achieved with a P(VDF-TrFE) thickness of 300 nm. Because of the ultrahigh remnant polarization field generated in the P(VDF-TrFE) film, the FeFETs show a large memory window of 16.9 V and a high source-drain on/off current ratio of more than 107 at zero gate voltage and a source-drain bias of 0.1 V. Furthermore, a retention time of >3000 s of the polarization state is obtained, inspiring a promising candidate for applications in data storage with non-volatile features.

  17. High-performance ambipolar self-assembled Au/Ag nanowire based vertical quantum dot field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-10-07

    Most lateral PbSe quantum dot field effect transistors (QD FETs) show a low on current/off current (I on/I off) ratio in charge transport measurements. A new strategy to provide generally better performance is to design PbSe QD FETs with vertical architecture, in which the structure parameters can be tuned flexibly. Here, we fabricated a novel room-temperature operated vertical quantum dot field effect transistor with a channel of 580 nm, where self-assembled Au/Ag nanowires served as source transparent electrodes and PbSe quantum dots as active channels. Through investigating the electrical characterization, the ambipolar device exhibited excellent characteristics with a high I on/I off current ratio of about 1 × 10(5) and a low sub-threshold slope (0.26 V/decade) in the p-type regime. The all-solution processing vertical architecture provides a convenient way for low cost, large-area integration of the device.

  18. High-performance semiconductors based on oligocarbazole–thiophene derivatives for solution-fabricated organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gung-Pei; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang, E-mail: khhsieh@ntu.edu.tw

    2013-01-01

    A series of oligocarbazole–thiophenes based on a constant conjugate backbone (carbazole–bithiophene–carbazole) with various n-alkyl chain lengths was prepared for application to organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). The lengths of the n-alkyl substitutions attached on 9-position of carbazole moieties were methyl (CCzT2), hexyl (C6CzT2), dodecyl (C12CzT2), and octadecyl (C18CzT2), called CxCzT2. Variations of n-alkyl chain lengths are proposed to figure out the optimization of OFET performance via solution fabrication of the active layer. Before fabricating OFET devices, the thermal, optical, and electrochemical properties of CxCzT2 were fully characterized with thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry to realize the relationships of the structure to the properties. After fabricating CxCzT2 on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates via solution casting, the thin film morphologies were also studied with polarizing optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction to investigate the structural relationship to OFET performance. A higher hole mobility was observed with C12CzT2 (3.6 × 10{sup −2} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) due to its liquid crystal properties, and the hole mobility could be further improved to 1.2 × 10{sup −1} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} by the introduction of a phenyl-self-assembled monolayer on the Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates. The excellent OFET performances of C12CzT2 by solution–fabrication could be considered as a promising candidate for high-end OFET application. - Highlights: ► These oligomeric semiconductors were synthesized rapidly. ► The thermal, optical, and electrochemical properties were fully investigated. ► The liquid crystal properties can be obtained via alkyl chain length adjustment. ► These oligomeric semiconductors can be solution-fabricated. ► One of these oligomeric semiconductors yields high field-effect hole

  19. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2011-10-12

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Smith, Casey; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. High-Performance Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory Based on Organic Semiconductor Heterostructures of Pentacene/P13/Pentacene as Both Charge Transport and Trapping Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Yi, Mingdong; Wang, Laiyuan; Wu, Dequn; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Nonvolatile organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory devices based on pentacene/ N , N '-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (P13)/pentacene trilayer organic heterostructures have been proposed. The discontinuous n-type P13 embedded in p-type pentacene layers can not only provide electrons in the semiconductor layer that facilitates electron trapping process; it also works as charge trapping sites, which is attributed to the quantum well-like pentacene/P13/pentacene organic heterostructures. The synergistic effects of charge trapping in the discontinuous P13 and the charge-trapping property of the poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) layer remarkably improve the memory performance. In addition, the trilayer organic heterostructures have also been successfully applied to multilevel and flexible nonvolatile memory devices. The results provide a novel design strategy to achieve high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices and allow potential applications for different combinations of various organic semiconductor materials in OFET memory.

  2. The importance of the radial electric field (Er) on interpretation of motional Stark effect measurements of the q profile in DIII-D high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H.; Greenfield, C.M.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.

    1997-06-01

    The development of enhanced confinement regimes such as negative central magnetic shear (NCS) and VH-mode illustrates the importance of the q profile and ExB velocity shear in improving stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas. Recently, it was realized that the large values of radial electric field observed in these high performance plasmas, up to 200 kV/m in DIII-D, have an effect on the interpretation of motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements of the q profile. It has also been shown that, with additional MSE measurements, one can extract a direct measurement of E r in addition to the usual poloidal field measurement. During a recent vent on DIII-D, 19 additional MSE channels with new viewing angles were added (for a total of 35 channels) in order to descriminate between the neutral beam v b x B electric field and the plasma E r field. In this paper, the system upgrade will be described and initial measurements demonstrating simultaneous measurement of the q and E r profiles will be presented

  3. Harvesting Triplet Excitons with Exciplex Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters toward High Performance Heterostructured Organic Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Hu, Yongsheng; Liu, Zheqin; Lv, Ying; Guo, Xiaoyang; Liu, Xingyuan

    2017-01-25

    The utilization of triplet excitons plays a key role in obtaining high emission efficiency for organic electroluminescent devices. However, to date, only phosphorescent materials have been implemented to harvest the triplet excitons in the organic light-emitting field effect transistors (OLEFETs). In this work, we report the first incorporation of exciplex thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters in heterostructured OLEFETs to harvest the triplet excitons. By developing a new kind of exciplex TADF emitter constituted by m-MTDATA (4,4',4″-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenylamino)triphenylamine) as the donor and OXD-7 (1,3-bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazo-5-yl]benzene) as the acceptor, an exciton utilization efficiency of 74.3% for the devices was achieved. It is found that the injection barrier between hole transport layer and emission layer as well as the ratio between donor and acceptor would influence the external quantum efficiency (EQE) significantly. Devices with a maximum EQE of 3.76% which is far exceeding the reported results for devices with conventional fluorescent emitters were successfully demonstrated. Moreover, the EQE at high brightness even outperformed the result for organic light-emitting diode based on the same emitter. Our results demonstrate that the exciplex TADF emitters can be promising candidates to develop OLEFETs with high performance.

  4. A predictive analytic model for high-performance tunneling field-effect transistors approaching non-equilibrium Green's function simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Ramon B.; Appenzeller, Joerg; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A new compact modeling approach is presented which describes the full current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of high-performance (aggressively scaled-down) tunneling field-effect-transistors (TFETs) based on homojunction direct-bandgap semiconductors. The model is based on an analytic description of two key features, which capture the main physical phenomena related to TFETs: (1) the potential profile from source to channel and (2) the elliptic curvature of the complex bands in the bandgap region. It is proposed to use 1D Poisson's equations in the source and the channel to describe the potential profile in homojunction TFETs. This allows to quantify the impact of source/drain doping on device performance, an aspect usually ignored in TFET modeling but highly relevant in ultra-scaled devices. The compact model is validated by comparison with state-of-the-art quantum transport simulations using a 3D full band atomistic approach based on non-equilibrium Green's functions. It is shown that the model reproduces with good accuracy the data obtained from the simulations in all regions of operation: the on/off states and the n/p branches of conduction. This approach allows calculation of energy-dependent band-to-band tunneling currents in TFETs, a feature that allows gaining deep insights into the underlying device physics. The simplicity and accuracy of the approach provide a powerful tool to explore in a quantitatively manner how a wide variety of parameters (material-, size-, and/or geometry-dependent) impact the TFET performance under any bias conditions. The proposed model presents thus a practical complement to computationally expensive simulations such as the 3D NEGF approach

  5. 3D NANOTUBE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS FOR HYBRID HIGH-PERFORMANCE AND LOW-POWER OPERATION WITH HIGH CHIP-AREA EFFICIENCY

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-03-01

    scaling on silicon, the amount of current generated per device has to be increased while keeping short channel effects and off-state leakage at bay. The objective of this doctoral thesis is the investigation of an innovative vertical silicon based architecture called the silicon nanotube field effect transistor (Si NTFET). This topology incorporates a dual inner/outer core/shell gate stack strategy to control the volume inversion properties in a hollow silicon 1D quasi-nanotube under a tight electrostatic configuration. Together with vertically aligned source and drain, the Si NTFET is capable of very high on-state performance (drive current) in an area-efficient configuration as opposed to arrays of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining leakage characteristics similar to a single nanowire. Such a device architecture offsets the need of device arraying that is needed with fin and nanowire architectures. Extensive simulations are used to validate the potential benefits of Si NTFETs over GAA NWFETs on a variety of platforms such as conventional MOSFETs, tunnel FETs, junction-less FETs. This thesis demonstrates a novel CMOS compatible process flow to fabricate vertical nanotube transistors that offer a variety of advantages such as lithography-independent gate length definition, integration of epitaxially grown silicon nanotubes with spacer based gate dielectrics and abrupt in-situ doped source/drain junctions. Experimental measurement data will showcase the various materials and processing challenges in fabricating these devices. Finally, an extension of this work to topologically transformed wavy channel FinFETs is also demonstrated keeping in line with the theme of area efficient high-performance electronics.

  6. High performance ultrasonic field simulation on complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouh, H.; Rougeron, G.; Chatillon, S.; Iehl, J. C.; Farrugia, J. P.; Ostromoukhov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic field simulation is a key ingredient for the design of new testing methods as well as a crucial step for NDT inspection simulation. As presented in a previous paper [1], CEA-LIST has worked on the acceleration of these simulations focusing on simple geometries (planar interfaces, isotropic materials). In this context, significant accelerations were achieved on multicore processors and GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), bringing the execution time of realistic computations in the 0.1 s range. In this paper, we present recent works that aim at similar performances on a wider range of configurations. We adapted the physical model used by the CIVA platform to design and implement a new algorithm providing a fast ultrasonic field simulation that yields nearly interactive results for complex cases. The improvements over the CIVA pencil-tracing method include adaptive strategies for pencil subdivisions to achieve a good refinement of the sensor geometry while keeping a reasonable number of ray-tracing operations. Also, interpolation of the times of flight was used to avoid time consuming computations in the impulse response reconstruction stage. To achieve the best performance, our algorithm runs on multi-core superscalar CPUs and uses high performance specialized libraries such as Intel Embree for ray-tracing, Intel MKL for signal processing and Intel TBB for parallelization. We validated the simulation results by comparing them to the ones produced by CIVA on identical test configurations including mono-element and multiple-element transducers, homogeneous, meshed 3D CAD specimens, isotropic and anisotropic materials and wave paths that can involve several interactions with interfaces. We show performance results on complete simulations that achieve computation times in the 1s range.

  7. Chalcogenophene comonomer comparison in small band gap diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers for high-performing field-effect transistors and organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ashraf, Raja Shahid

    2015-01-28

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymers with different chalcogenophene comonomers (thiophene, selenophene, and tellurophene) for use in field-effect transistors and organic photovoltaic devices are reported. The effect of the heteroatom substitution on the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties and charge carrier mobilities of these polymers is discussed. The results indicate that by increasing the size of the chalcogen atom (S < Se < Te), polymer band gaps are narrowed mainly due to LUMO energy level stabilization. In addition, the larger heteroatomic size also increases intermolecular heteroatom-heteroatom interactions facilitating the formation of polymer aggregates leading to enhanced field-effect mobilities of 1.6 cm2/(V s). Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the chalcogenophene polymer series blended with fullerene derivatives show good photovoltaic properties, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 7.1-8.8%. A high photoresponse in the near-infrared (NIR) region with excellent photocurrents above 20 mA cm-2 was achieved for all polymers, making these highly efficient low band gap polymers promising candidates for use in tandem solar cells. (Graph Presented).

  8. Highly soluble [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) derivatives for high-performance, solution-processed organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Hideaki; Izawa, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Eigo; Takimiya, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Yui, Tatsuto

    2007-12-26

    2,7-Dialkyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes were tested as solution-processible molecular semiconductors. Thin films of the organic semiconductors deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates by spin coating have well-ordered structures as confirmed by XRD analysis. Evaluations of the devices under ambient conditions showed typical p-channel FET responses with the field-effect mobility higher than 1.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 and Ion/Ioff of approximately 10(7).

  9. High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO2 gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.; Häusermann, R.; Chiba, D.; Shimamura, K.; Ono, T.; Batlogg, B.

    2014-01-01

    We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO 2 gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm 2 /V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO 2 layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor

  10. Thermal Gradient During Vacuum-Deposition Dramatically Enhances Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors: Toward High-Performance N-Type Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hyun; Han, Singu; Jeong, Heejeong; Jang, Hayeong; Baek, Seolhee; Hu, Junbeom; Lee, Myungkyun; Choi, Byungwoo; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2017-03-22

    A thermal gradient distribution was applied to a substrate during the growth of a vacuum-deposited n-type organic semiconductor (OSC) film prepared from N,N'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-1,7-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboxyimide) (PDI-CN2), and the electrical performances of the films deployed in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were characterized. The temperature gradient at the surface was controlled by tilting the substrate, which varied the temperature one-dimensionally between the heated bottom substrate and the cooled upper substrate. The vacuum-deposited OSC molecules diffused and rearranged on the surface according to the substrate temperature gradient, producing directional crystalline and grain structures in the PDI-CN2 film. The morphological and crystalline structures of the PDI-CN2 thin films grown under a vertical temperature gradient were dramatically enhanced, comparing with the structures obtained from either uniformly heated films or films prepared under a horizontally applied temperature gradient. The field effect mobilities of the PDI-CN2-FETs prepared using the vertically applied temperature gradient were as high as 0.59 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , more than a factor of 2 higher than the mobility of 0.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 submitted to conventional thermal annealing and the mobility of 0.29 cm 2 V -1 s -1 from the horizontally applied temperature gradient.

  11. High-Performance Field Emission from a Carbonized Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Hak Jun; Yoo, Jae Man; Kim, Taewoo; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2017-12-20

    To broaden the range of application of electron beams, low-power field emitters are needed that are miniature and light. Here, we introduce carbonized cork as a material for field emitters. The light natural cork becomes a graphitic honeycomb upon carbonization, with the honeycomb cell walls 100-200 nm thick and the aspect ratio larger than 100, providing an ideal structure for the field electron emission. Compared to nanocarbon field emitters, the cork emitter produces a high current density and long-term stability with a low turn-on field. The nature of the cork material makes it quite simple to fabricate the emitter. Furthermore, any desired shape of the emitter tailored for the final application can easily be prepared for point, line, or planar emission.

  12. Wide-field high-performance geosynchronous imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, H. John; Jenstrom, Del; Wilson, Mark; Hinkal, Sanford; Kirchman, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Program and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are sponsoring the Advanced Geosynchronous Studies (AGS) to develop technologies and system concepts for Earth observation from geosynchronous orbit. This series of studies is intended to benefit both MTPE science and the NOAA GOES Program. Within the AGS program, advanced imager trade studies have investigated two candidate concepts for near-term advanced geosynchronous imagers. One concept uses a scan mirror to direct the line of sight from a 3-axis stabilized platform. Another eliminates the need for a scan mirror by using an agile spacecraft bus to scan the entire instrument. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the optical design trades and system issues encountered in evaluating the two scanning approaches. The imager design started with a look at first principles: what is the most efficient way to image the Earth in those numerous spectral bands of interest to MTPE scientists and NOAA weather forecasters. Optical design trades included rotating filter wheels and dispersive grating instruments. The design converged on a bandpass filter instrument using four focal planes to cover the spectral range 0.45 to 13.0 micrometers. The first imager design uses a small agile spacecraft supporting an afocal optical telescope. Dichroic beamsplitters feed refractive objectives to four focal planes. The detectors are a series of long linear and rectangular arrays which are scanned in a raster fashion over the 17 degree Earth image. The use of the spacecraft attitude control system to raster the imager field-of-view (FOV) back and forth over the Earth eliminates the need for a scan mirror. However, the price paid is significant energy and time required to reverse the spacecraft slew motions at the end of each scan line. Hence, it is desired to minimize the number of scan lines needed to cover the full Earth disk. This desire, coupled with the ground

  13. Development of high-performance ER gel produced by electric-field assisted molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinuma, Y; Aoyama, T; Anzai, H

    2009-01-01

    Electro-rheological gel (ERG) is a novel functional elastomer whose surface frictional and adhesive property varies according to the intensity of applied electric field. This peculiar phenomenon is named as Electro-adhesive effect. A generated shear stress of ERG under applied electric field is approximately 30∼40 times higher than that of ERF because of high adhesive strength. However, the performances of ERG vary widely due to its surface condition, especially density and distribution of ER particles at the surface. In order to stabilize and improve the performance of ERG, the electric- filed assisted molding process is proposed as the producing method of ERG. In this study, first, the principle of electro-adhesive effect is theoretically investigated. Second, a high-performance ERG produced by the proposed process, in which ER particles are aligned densely at the surface, is developed and its performance is evaluated experimentally. As the experimental result, the high-performance ERG shows twice higher shear stress than the conventional ERG.

  14. Development of high-performance ER gel produced by electric-field assisted molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakinuma, Y; Aoyama, T [Department of System Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kouhoku-ku Yokohama (Japan); Anzai, H [Fujikura kasei Co., Ltd. 2-6-15 Shibakouen, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: kakinuma@sd.keio.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    Electro-rheological gel (ERG) is a novel functional elastomer whose surface frictional and adhesive property varies according to the intensity of applied electric field. This peculiar phenomenon is named as Electro-adhesive effect. A generated shear stress of ERG under applied electric field is approximately 30{approx}40 times higher than that of ERF because of high adhesive strength. However, the performances of ERG vary widely due to its surface condition, especially density and distribution of ER particles at the surface. In order to stabilize and improve the performance of ERG, the electric- filed assisted molding process is proposed as the producing method of ERG. In this study, first, the principle of electro-adhesive effect is theoretically investigated. Second, a high-performance ERG produced by the proposed process, in which ER particles are aligned densely at the surface, is developed and its performance is evaluated experimentally. As the experimental result, the high-performance ERG shows twice higher shear stress than the conventional ERG.

  15. Electric Field Guided Assembly of One-Dimensional Nanostructures for High Performance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Kam Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Various nanowire or nanotube-based devices have been demonstrated to fulfill the anticipated future demands on sensors. To fabricate such devices, electric field-based methods have demonstrated a great potential to integrate one-dimensional nanostructures into various forms. This review paper discusses theoretical and experimental aspects of the working principles, the assembled structures, and the unique functions associated with electric field-based assembly. The challenges and opportunities of the assembly methods are addressed in conjunction with future directions toward high performance sensors.

  16. High performance field emission of silicon carbide nanowires and their applications in flexible field emission displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunkang; Chen, Jing; Di, Yunsong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a facile method to fabricate the flexible field emission devices (FEDs) based on SiC nanostructure emitters by a thermal evaporation method has been demonstrated. The composition characteristics of SiC nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), while the morphology was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that the SiC nanowires grew along the [111] direction with the diameter of ˜110 nm and length of˜30 μm. The flexible FEDs have been fabricated by transferring and screen-printing the SiC nanowires onto the flexible substrates exhibited excellent field emission properties, such as the low turn-on field (˜0.95 V/μm) and threshold field (˜3.26 V/μm), and the high field enhancement factor (β=4670). It is worth noting the current density degradation can be controlled lower than 2% per hour during the stability tests. In addition, the flexible FEDs based on SiC nanowire emitters exhibit uniform bright emission modes under bending test conditions. As a result, this strategy is very useful for its potential application in the commercial flexible FEDs.

  17. High performance field emission of silicon carbide nanowires and their applications in flexible field emission displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkang Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a facile method to fabricate the flexible field emission devices (FEDs based on SiC nanostructure emitters by a thermal evaporation method has been demonstrated. The composition characteristics of SiC nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, while the morphology was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The results showed that the SiC nanowires grew along the [111] direction with the diameter of ∼110 nm and length of∼30 μm. The flexible FEDs have been fabricated by transferring and screen-printing the SiC nanowires onto the flexible substrates exhibited excellent field emission properties, such as the low turn-on field (∼0.95 V/μm and threshold field (∼3.26 V/μm, and the high field enhancement factor (β=4670. It is worth noting the current density degradation can be controlled lower than 2% per hour during the stability tests. In addition, the flexible FEDs based on SiC nanowire emitters exhibit uniform bright emission modes under bending test conditions. As a result, this strategy is very useful for its potential application in the commercial flexible FEDs.

  18. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from 0.56+/- 0.05 mm (mean  ±  SD) to 0.05+/- 0.05 mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm.

  19. Spectrum-effect relationships between high performance liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    promoting effect on contractility of intestinal smooth was carried out to ... addition, the equation of spectrum-effect relationships {Y = 3.818 - 1.126X1 + ..... Peng W, Liu YJ, Wu N, Sun T, He XY, Gao YX, Wu CJ. ... Zheng QF, Zhao YL, Wang JB, Liu TT, Zhang B, Gong ... Zhao HY, Han X. Research thoughts and application.

  20. Information Fields Navigation with Piece-Wise Polynomial Approximation for High-Performance OFDM in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are dramatically being arranged in mission-critical applications,it changes into necessary that we consider application requirements in Internet of Things. We try to use WSNs to assist information query and navigation within a practical parking spaces environment. Integrated with high-performance OFDM by piece-wise polynomial approximation, we present a new method that is based on a diffusion equation and a position equation to accomplish the navigation process conveniently and efficiently. From the point of view of theoretical analysis, our jobs hold the lower constraint condition and several inappropriate navigation can be amended. Information diffusion and potential field are introduced to reach the goal of accurate navigation and gradient descent method is applied in the algorithm. Formula derivations and simulations manifest that the method facilitates the solution of typical sensor network configuration information navigation. Concurrently, we also treat channel estimation and ICI mitigation for very high mobility OFDM systems, and the communication is between a BS and mobile target at a terrible scenario. The scheme proposed here combines the piece-wise polynomial expansion to approximate timevariations of multipath channels. Two near symbols are applied to estimate the first-and second-order parameters. So as to improve the estimation accuracy and mitigate the ICI caused by pilot-aided estimation, the multipath channel parameters were reestimated in timedomain employing the decided OFDM symbol. Simulation results show that this method would improve system performance in a complex environment.

  1. Spatial Processing of Urban Acoustic Wave Fields from High-Performance Computations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketcham, Stephen A; Wilson, D. K; Cudney, Harley H; Parker, Michael W

    2007-01-01

    .... The objective of this work is to develop spatial processing techniques for acoustic wave propagation data from three-dimensional high-performance computations to quantify scattering due to urban...

  2. Effect of magnetic water on strength and workability of high performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Mazloom

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concrete is one of the most important and widely used human product. Improving concrete characteristics have always been one of the fundamental subjects for engineers. Improve the physical properties of water, as one of the main elements of concrete, is one way to improve the characteristics of the concrete. When water passes through the magnetic field, its physical quality has changed, it is called Magnetic water. This study examines the effect of the use of magnetized water (MW with a solenoid current-carrying, on the compressive strength and workability of high performance concrete. The variables of this study were the intensity of magnetic field, the silica fume replacement level and water to cement ratio in different mixes. The results show that using MW increases the workability of concrete about 36% in average.MW in combination with superplasticizer is more effective than MW on workability and compressive strength of concrete. MW had more positive effects on the samples without silica fume. Increasing the intensity of magnetic field improved the workability, 28 and 90 days compressive strength concrete.

  3. Use of high performance computing to examine the effectiveness of aquifer remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.F.B.; Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Fogwell, T.W.; Loosmore, G.A.

    1994-06-01

    Large-scale simulation of fluid flow and chemical migration is being used to study the effectiveness of pump-and-treat restoration of a contaminated, saturated aquifer. A three-element approach focusing on geostatistical representations of heterogeneous aquifers, high-performance computing strategies for simulating flow, migration, and reaction processes in large three-dimensional systems, and highly-resolved simulations of flow and chemical migration in porous formations will be discussed. Results from a preliminary application of this approach to examine pumping behavior at a real, heterogeneous field site will be presented. Future activities will emphasize parallel computations in larger, dynamic, and nonlinear (two-phase) flow problems as well as improved interpretive methods for defining detailed material property distributions

  4. Lessons Learned from Field Evaluation of Six High-Performance Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Deru, M.; Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Pless, S.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D. B.

    2004-07-01

    The energy performance of six high-performance buildings around the United States was monitored in detail. The six buildings include the Visitor Center at Zion National Park; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Thermal Test Facility; the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's Merrill Center; The BigHorn Home Improvement Center; the Cambria DEP Office Building; and the Oberlin College Lewis Center. This paper discusses the design energy targets and actual performance.

  5. Local Electric Field Facilitates High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youwen; Zhou, Tengfei; Zheng, Yang; He, Zhihai; Xiao, Chong; Pang, Wei Kong; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Pan, Bicai; Guo, Zaiping; Xie, Yi

    2017-08-22

    By scrutinizing the energy storage process in Li-ion batteries, tuning Li-ion migration behavior by atomic level tailoring will unlock great potential for pursuing higher electrochemical performance. Vacancy, which can effectively modulate the electrical ordering on the nanoscale, even in tiny concentrations, will provide tempting opportunities for manipulating Li-ion migratory behavior. Herein, taking CuGeO 3 as a model, oxygen vacancies obtained by reducing the thickness dimension down to the atomic scale are introduced in this work. As the Li-ion storage progresses, the imbalanced charge distribution emerging around the oxygen vacancies could induce a local built-in electric field, which will accelerate the ions' migration rate by Coulomb forces and thus have benefits for high-rate performance. Furthermore, the thus-obtained CuGeO 3 ultrathin nanosheets (CGOUNs)/graphene van der Waals heterojunctions are used as anodes in Li-ion batteries, which deliver a reversible specific capacity of 1295 mAh g -1 at 100 mA g -1 , with improved rate capability and cycling performance compared to their bulk counterpart. Our findings build a clear connection between the atomic/defect/electronic structure and intrinsic properties for designing high-efficiency electrode materials.

  6. High-Performance Work Systems and School Effectiveness: The Case of Malaysian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufkhani, Parisa; Nourani, Mohammad; Bin Boerhannoeddin, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of high-performance work systems on the outcomes of organizational effectiveness with the mediating roles of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In light of the importance of human resource activities in achieving organizational effectiveness, we argue that higher employees' decision-making capabilities…

  7. High-performance magnetic field sensor based on superconducting quantum interference filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, P.; Oppenländer, J.; Häussler, Ch.; Tomes, J.; Friesch, A.; Träuble, T.; Schopohl, N.

    2004-08-01

    We have developed an absolute magnetic field sensor using a superconducting quantum interference filter (SQIF) made of high-Tc grain-boundary Josephson junctions. The device shows the typical magnetic-field-dependent voltage response V(B ), which is a sharp deltalike dip in the vicinity of zero-magnetic field. When the SQIF is cooled with magnetic shield, and then the shield is removed, the presence of the ambient magnetic field induces a shift of the dip position from B0≈0 to a value B ≈B1, which is about the average value of the Earth's magnetic field, at our latitude. When the SQIF is cooled in the ambient field without shielding, the dip is first found at B ≈B1, and the further shielding of the SQIF results in a shift of the dip towards B0≈0. The low hysteresis observed in the sequence of experiments (less than 5% of B1) makes SQIFs suitable for high precision measurements of the absolute magnetic field. The experimental results are discussed in view of potential applications of high-Tc SQIFs in magnetometry.

  8. Chemically doped three-dimensional porous graphene monoliths for high-performance flexible field emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Sooyeon; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Han, Joong Tark; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Geon-Woong; Jeong, Hee Jin

    2015-03-12

    Despite the recent progress in the fabrication of field emitters based on graphene nanosheets, their morphological and electrical properties, which affect their degree of field enhancement as well as the electron tunnelling barrier height, should be controlled to allow for better field-emission properties. Here we report a method that allows the synthesis of graphene-based emitters with a high field-enhancement factor and a low work function. The method involves forming monolithic three-dimensional (3D) graphene structures by freeze-drying of a highly concentrated graphene paste and subsequent work-function engineering by chemical doping. Graphene structures with vertically aligned edges were successfully fabricated by the freeze-drying process. Furthermore, their number density could be controlled by varying the composition of the graphene paste. Al- and Au-doped 3D graphene emitters were fabricated by introducing the corresponding dopant solutions into the graphene sheets. The resulting field-emission characteristics of the resulting emitters are discussed. The synthesized 3D graphene emitters were highly flexible, maintaining their field-emission properties even when bent at large angles. This is attributed to the high crystallinity and emitter density and good chemical stability of the 3D graphene emitters, as well as to the strong interactions between the 3D graphene emitters and the substrate.

  9. High-performance field emission device utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-based pillar architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Kedawat, Garima; Gangwar, Amit Kumar; Nagpal, Kanika; Kashyap, Pradeep Kumar; Srivastava, Shubhda; Singh, Satbir; Kumar, Pawan; Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Seo, Deok Min; Tripathi, Prashant; More, Mahendra A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Late, Dattatray J.

    2018-01-01

    The vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based pillar architectures were created on laminated silicon oxide/silicon (SiO2/Si) wafer substrate at 775 °C by using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition under low pressure process condition. The lamination was carried out by aluminum (Al, 10.0 nm thickness) as a barrier layer and iron (Fe, 1.5 nm thickness) as a catalyst precursor layer sequentially on a silicon wafer substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that synthesized CNTs are vertically aligned and uniformly distributed with a high density. The CNTs have approximately 2-30 walls with an inner diameter of 3-8 nm. Raman spectrum analysis shows G-band at 1580 cm-1 and D-band at 1340 cm-1. The G-band is higher than D-band, which indicates that CNTs are highly graphitized. The field emission analysis of the CNTs revealed high field emission current density (4mA/cm2 at 1.2V/μm), low turn-on field (0.6 V/μm) and field enhancement factor (6917) with better stability and longer lifetime. Emitter morphology resulting in improved promising field emission performances, which is a crucial factor for the fabrication of pillared shaped vertical aligned CNTs bundles as practical electron sources.

  10. High-performance field emission device utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-based pillar architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs-based pillar architectures were created on laminated silicon oxide/silicon (SiO2/Si wafer substrate at 775 °C by using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition under low pressure process condition. The lamination was carried out by aluminum (Al, 10.0 nm thickness as a barrier layer and iron (Fe, 1.5 nm thickness as a catalyst precursor layer sequentially on a silicon wafer substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that synthesized CNTs are vertically aligned and uniformly distributed with a high density. The CNTs have approximately 2–30 walls with an inner diameter of 3–8 nm. Raman spectrum analysis shows G-band at 1580 cm−1 and D-band at 1340 cm−1. The G-band is higher than D-band, which indicates that CNTs are highly graphitized. The field emission analysis of the CNTs revealed high field emission current density (4mA/cm2 at 1.2V/μm, low turn-on field (0.6 V/μm and field enhancement factor (6917 with better stability and longer lifetime. Emitter morphology resulting in improved promising field emission performances, which is a crucial factor for the fabrication of pillared shaped vertical aligned CNTs bundles as practical electron sources.

  11. Imaging of microwave-induced acoustic fields in LiNbO{sub 3} by high-performance Brillouin microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Krueger, J K [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Univ. des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Elmazria, O [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Bouvot, L [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Mainka, J [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sanctuary, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Campus Luxembourg-Limpertsberg, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Rouxel, D [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Alnot, P [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France)

    2005-06-21

    High performance Brillouin microscopy (BM) has been used to characterize the spatial distribution of piezoelectrically induced acoustic fields excited at microwave frequencies in a LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. It is demonstrated that under suitable conditions BM is able to detect microwave-induced bulk as well as surface acoustic waves. Brillouin spectroscopy is able to probe sound wave intensities of induced phonons, which are as small as those of thermal phonons.

  12. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Gibson, Mark A.; East, Daniel; Simon, George P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  13. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gibson, Mark A. [Process Science and Engineering, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia); East, Daniel; Simon, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2011-11-07

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  14. PetIGA-MF: a multi-field high-performance toolbox for structure-preserving B-splines spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2016-10-01

    We describe a high-performance solution framework for isogeometric discrete differential forms based on B-splines: PetIGA-MF. Built on top of PetIGA, an open-source library we have built and developed over the last decade, PetIGA-MF is a general multi-field discretization tool. To test the capabilities of our implementation, we solve different viscous flow problems such as Darcy, Stokes, Brinkman, and Navier-Stokes equations. Several convergence benchmarks based on manufactured solutions are presented assuring optimal convergence rates of the approximations, showing the accuracy and robustness of our solver.

  15. Application of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priha, Outi; Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

    2013-09-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 10(1) to 6 × 10(5) dsrB gene copies ml(-1). DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples.

  16. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  17. Effects of fixture rotation on coating uniformity for high-performance optical filter fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Binyamin; George, Jason; Singhal, Riju

    2018-04-01

    Coating uniformity is critical in fabricating high-performance optical filters by various vacuum deposition methods. Simple and planetary rotation systems with shadow masks are used to achieve the required uniformity [J. B. Oliver and D. Talbot, Appl. Optics 45, 13, 3097 (2006); O. Lyngnes, K. Kraus, A. Ode and T. Erguder, in `Method for Designing Coating Thickness Uniformity Shadow Masks for Deposition Systems with a Planetary Fixture', 2014 Technical Conference Proceedings, Optical Coatings, August 13, 2014, DOI: 10.14332/svc14.proc.1817.]. In this work, we discuss the effect of rotation pattern and speed on thickness uniformity in an ion beam sputter deposition system. Numerical modeling is used to determine statistical distribution of random thickness errors in coating layers. The relationship between thickness tolerance and production yield are simulated theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Production yields for different optical filters produced in an ion beam deposition system with planetary rotation are presented. Single-wavelength and broadband optical monitoring systems were used for endpoint monitoring during filter deposition. Limitations of thickness tolerances that can be achieved in systems with planetary rotation are shown. Paths for improving production yield in an ion beam deposition system are described.

  18. Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-Effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costeux, Stephane [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Bunker, Shanon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The objective of this project was to explore and potentially develop high performing insulation with increased R/inch and low impact on climate change that would help design highly insulating building envelope systems with more durable performance and lower overall system cost than envelopes with equivalent performance made with materials available today. The proposed technical approach relied on insulation foams with nanoscale pores (about 100 nm in size) in which heat transfer will be decreased. Through the development of new foaming methods, of new polymer formulations and new analytical techniques, and by advancing the understanding of how cells nucleate, expand and stabilize at the nanoscale, Dow successfully invented and developed methods to produce foams with 100 nm cells and 80% porosity by batch foaming at the laboratory scale. Measurements of the gas conductivity on small nanofoam specimen confirmed quantitatively the benefit of nanoscale cells (Knudsen effect) to increase insulation value, which was the key technical hypotheses of the program. In order to bring this technology closer to a viable semi-continuous/continuous process, the project team modified an existing continuous extrusion foaming process as well as designed and built a custom system to produce 6" x 6" foam panels. Dow demonstrated for the first time that nanofoams can be produced in a both processes. However, due to technical delays, foam characteristics achieved so far fall short of the 100 nm target set for optimal insulation foams. In parallel with the technology development, effort was directed to the determination of most promising applications for nanocellular insulation foam. Voice of Customer (VOC) exercise confirmed that demand for high-R value product will rise due to building code increased requirements in the near future, but that acceptance for novel products by building industry may be slow. Partnerships with green builders, initial launches in smaller markets (e.g. EIFS

  19. Morphology Effect of Vertical Graphene on the High Performance of Supercapacitor Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zou, Qionghui; Hsu, Hua Shao; Raina, Supil; Xu, Yuxi; Kang, Joyce B; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Kang, Weng P

    2016-03-23

    Graphene and its composites are widely investigated as supercapacitor electrodes due to their large specific surface area. However, the severe aggregation and disordered alignment of graphene sheets hamper the maximum utilization of its surface area. Here we report an optimized structure for supercapacitor electrode, i.e., the vertical graphene sheets, which have a vertical structure and open architecture for ion transport pathway. The effect of morphology and orientation of vertical graphene on the performance of supercapacitor is examined using a combination of model calculation and experimental study. Both results consistently demonstrate that the vertical graphene electrode has a much superior performance than that of lateral graphene electrode. Typically, the areal capacitances of a vertical graphene electrode reach 8.4 mF/cm(2) at scan rate of 100 mV/s; this is about 38% higher than that of a lateral graphene electrode and about 6 times higher than that of graphite paper. To further improve its performance, a MnO2 nanoflake layer is coated on the surface of graphene to provide a high pseudocapacitive contribution to the overall areal capacitance which increases to 500 mF/cm(2) at scan rate of 5 mV/s. The reasons for these significant improvements are studied in detail and are attributed to the fast ion diffusion and enhanced charge storage capacity. The microscopic manipulation of graphene electrode configuration could greatly improve its specific capacitance, and furthermore, boost the energy density of supercapacitor. Our results demonstrate that the vertical graphene electrode is more efficient and practical for the high performance energy storage device with high power and energy densities.

  20. Hydric and poro-mechanical behaviour of high performance Andra concrete: effect of microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on water retention at high relative humidity (RH) (92-100%) and desiccation shrinkage under moderate temperature (60-80 C) for two high performance concretes CEMI and CEMV (from Andra), in relation with their microstructure.To investigate the origins of the variations in water saturation degree Sw at high RH, both concretes are dried at RH=92, 98 and 100%, from the fully saturated state. For both concretes, sampling affects significantly Sw. For CEMI at 100%RH, sample size also affects Sw, due to surface drying (desorption); at 92 and 98%RH, CEMI is no longer sensitive to surface drying effects; it is sensitive to experimental conditions (RH, T). CEMV is affected by sample size whatever the RH, but not by experimental conditions.From 60 C drying temperature, the relationship between shrinkage and relative mass loss presents four distinct phases. CEMI concrete is dried at 65 C until phase 3 or 4, and then submitted to a coupled poro-mechanical and gas permeability test. For the same sample tested in phase 3 and then 4, a difference in solid skeleton incompressibility modulus Ks is measured, which is significantly lower than the differences in Ks due to sampling.With the Scanning Electron Microscope, the solid phases and morphology of both concretes are quantified. CEM I and CEM V comprise identical phases, even portlandite, yet CEM V concrete has some specific phases, owing to the addition of slag and fly ash. The C-S-H in CEM V have a lower C/S ratio than in CEM I. The (C/S) ratio remains similar when comparing between three different batches. Besides, millimetric pores vary significantly, owing to differences in manufacturing. (author)

  1. High performance human resource management in Ireland and the Netherlands : adoption and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horgan, Justine

    2003-01-01

    Does high performance human resource management deliver superior organisational performance and if so, how would this come about? Do these practices make a difference to employee work performance and cooperation? Could all companies, regardless of their context, benefit from these HR practices and

  2. Effects of Confinement on Microstructure and Charge Transport in High Performance Semicrystalline Polymer Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Himmelberger, Scott; Dacuñ a, Javier; Rivnay, Jonathan; Jimison, Leslie H.; McCarthy-Ward, Thomas; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Toney, Michael F.; Salleo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The film thickness of one of the most crystalline and highest performing polymer semiconductors, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b] thiophene) (PBTTT), is varied in order to determine the effects of interfaces and confinement on the microstructure and performance in organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Crystalline texture and overall film crystallinity are found to depend strongly on film thickness and thermal processing. The angular distribution of crystallites narrows upon both a decrease in film thickness and thermal annealing. These changes in the film microstructure are paired with thin-film transistor characterization and shown to be directly correlated with variations in charge carrier mobility. Charge transport is shown to be governed by film crystallinity in films below 20 nm and by crystalline orientation for thicker films. An optimal thickness is found for PBTTT at which the mobility is maximized in unannealed films and where mobility reaches a plateau at its highest value for annealed films. The effects of confinement on the morphology and charge transport properties of poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl) thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) are studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction and field-effect transistor measurements. Polymer crystallinity is found to limit charge transport in the thinnest films while crystalline texture and intergrain connectivity modulate carrier mobility in thicker films. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effects of Confinement on Microstructure and Charge Transport in High Performance Semicrystalline Polymer Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Himmelberger, Scott

    2012-11-23

    The film thickness of one of the most crystalline and highest performing polymer semiconductors, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b] thiophene) (PBTTT), is varied in order to determine the effects of interfaces and confinement on the microstructure and performance in organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Crystalline texture and overall film crystallinity are found to depend strongly on film thickness and thermal processing. The angular distribution of crystallites narrows upon both a decrease in film thickness and thermal annealing. These changes in the film microstructure are paired with thin-film transistor characterization and shown to be directly correlated with variations in charge carrier mobility. Charge transport is shown to be governed by film crystallinity in films below 20 nm and by crystalline orientation for thicker films. An optimal thickness is found for PBTTT at which the mobility is maximized in unannealed films and where mobility reaches a plateau at its highest value for annealed films. The effects of confinement on the morphology and charge transport properties of poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl) thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) are studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction and field-effect transistor measurements. Polymer crystallinity is found to limit charge transport in the thinnest films while crystalline texture and intergrain connectivity modulate carrier mobility in thicker films. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. PetIGA-MF: a multi-field high-performance toolbox for structure-preserving B-splines spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel; Cô rtes, A.M.A.; Garcia, D.A.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Collier, N.; Calo, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a high-performance solution framework for isogeometric discrete differential forms based on B-splines: PetIGA-MF. Built on top of PetIGA, an open-source library we have built and developed over the last decade, PetIGA-MF is a general

  5. Organic Diode Rectifiers Based on a High-Performance Conjugated Polymer for a Near-Field Energy-Harvesting Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stuart G; Agostinelli, Tiziano; Markham, Steve; Whiteman, Robert; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Organic diodes manufactured on a plastic substrate capable of rectifying a high-frequency radio-frequency identification signal (13.56 MHz), with sufficient power to operate an interactive smart tag, are reported. A high-performance conjugated semiconductor (an indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole copolymer) is combined with a carefully optimized architecture to satisfy the electrical requirements for an organic-semiconductor-based logic chip. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A new approach to cost effective projects: High performance project teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, N.C.

    1994-01-01

    In low oil price environment in which environmental conditions are more challenging, reservoir characteristics less favourable and political risk increasing, successful projects are required in such cases. The present paper deals with the visionary process of establishing high performance project teams. According to the author, such project teams embody dynamic recognition of holism. Holism is achieved as an output from the process of establishing the drivers and enablers for success on a project. They are given birth during the unfolding of the operators development plans and contracting strategy. The paper discusses the main drivers of project teams comprising purpose and performance goals, selection, common approach, commitment and accountability, and financial alignment

  7. A new approach to cost effective projects: High performance project teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, N.C. [Brown and Root Energy Services (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In low oil price environment in which environmental conditions are more challenging, reservoir characteristics less favourable and political risk increasing, successful projects are required in such cases. The present paper deals with the visionary process of establishing high performance project teams. According to the author, such project teams embody dynamic recognition of holism. Holism is achieved as an output from the process of establishing the drivers and enablers for success on a project. They are given birth during the unfolding of the operators development plans and contracting strategy. The paper discusses the main drivers of project teams comprising purpose and performance goals, selection, common approach, commitment and accountability, and financial alignment

  8. Effect of rice husk ash and fly ash on the compressive strength of high performance concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lam, Tang; Bulgakov, Boris; Aleksandrova, Olga; Larsen, Oksana; Anh, Pham Ngoc

    2018-03-01

    The usage of industrial and agricultural wastes for building materials production plays an important role to improve the environment and economy by preserving nature materials and land resources, reducing land, water and air pollution as well as organizing and storing waste costs. This study mainly focuses on mathematical modeling dependence of the compressive strength of high performance concrete (HPC) at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days on the amount of rice husk ash (RHA) and fly ash (FA), which are added to the concrete mixtures by using the Central composite rotatable design. The result of this study provides the second-order regression equation of objective function, the images of the surface expression and the corresponding contours of the objective function of the regression equation, as the optimal points of HPC compressive strength. These objective functions, which are the compressive strength values of HPC at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days, depend on two input variables as: x1 (amount of RHA) and x2 (amount of FA). The Maple 13 program, solving the second-order regression equation, determines the optimum composition of the concrete mixture for obtaining high performance concrete and calculates the maximum value of the HPC compressive strength at the ages of 28 days. The results containMaxR28HPC = 76.716 MPa when RHA = 0.1251 and FA = 0.3119 by mass of Portland cement.

  9. High-Performance Oligomeric Catholytes for Effective Macromolecular Separation in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Koen H; Robinson, Sophia G; Braten, Miles N; Sevov, Christo S; Helms, Brett A; Sigman, Matthew S; Minteer, Shelley D; Sanford, Melanie S

    2018-02-28

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NRFBs) represent an attractive technology for energy storage from intermittent renewable sources. In these batteries, electrical energy is stored in and extracted from electrolyte solutions of redox-active molecules (termed catholytes and anolytes) that are passed through an electrochemical flow cell. To avoid battery self-discharge, the anolyte and catholyte solutions must be separated by a membrane in the flow cell. This membrane prevents crossover of the redox active molecules, while simultaneously allowing facile transport of charge-balancing ions. A key unmet challenge for the field is the design of redox-active molecule/membrane pairs that enable effective electrolyte separation while maintaining optimal battery properties. Herein, we demonstrate the development of oligomeric catholytes based on tris(dialkylamino)cyclopropenium (CP) salts that are specifically tailored for pairing with size-exclusion membranes composed of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs). Systematic studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of oligomer size/structure on properties that are crucial for flow battery performance, including cycling stability, charge capacity, solubility, electron transfer kinetics, and crossover rates. These studies have led to the identification of a CP-derived tetramer in which these properties are all comparable, or significantly improved, relative to the monomeric counterpart. Finally, a proof-of-concept flow battery is demonstrated by pairing this tetrameric catholyte with a PIM membrane. After 6 days of cycling, no crossover is detected, demonstrating the promise of this approach. These studies provide a template for the future design of other redox-active oligomers for this application.

  10. The effect of nanosilica addition on flowability, strength and transport properties of ultra high performance concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari, Ehsan; Costa, Hugo; Júlio, Eduardo; Portugal, António; Durães, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The experimental study herein presented was conducted aiming to evaluate the influence of nanosilica (nS) addition on properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Thermo gravimetric analysis results indicated that nS consumes much more Ca(OH) 2 as compared to silica fume, specifically at the early ages. Mercury intrusion porosimetry measurements proved that the addition of nS particles leads to reduction of capillary pores. Scanning electron microscope observation revealed that the inclusion of nS can also efficiently improve the interfacial transition zone between the aggregates and the binding paste. The addition of nS also resulted in an enhancement in compressive strength as well as in transport properties of UHPC. The optimum amount of cement replacement by nS in cement paste to achieve the best performance was 3 wt.%. However, the improper dispersion of nS was found as a deterrent factor to introduce higher percentage of nS into the cement paste. - Highlights: • We studied the influence of nanosilica addition on the properties of UHPC. • The addition of nS into cement paste can increase the amount of hydration products. • The water demand in the mixtures increased depending on the percentage of replacement. • Compressive strength of UHPC mixtures increased with the increase of nS content. • The addition of nS particles leads to a reduction of capillary pores

  11. Using a High-Performance Planning Model to Increase Levels of Functional Effectiveness Within Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peggi

    2016-01-01

    Nursing professional practice models continue to shape how we practice nursing by putting families and members at the heart of everything we do. Faced with enormous challenges around healthcare reform, models create frameworks for practice by unifying, uniting, and guiding our nurses. The Kaiser Permanente Practice model was developed to ensure consistency for nursing practice across the continuum. Four key pillars support this practice model and the work of nursing: quality and safety, leadership, professional development, and research/evidence-based practice. These four pillars form the foundation that makes transformational practice possible and aligns nursing with Kaiser Permanente's mission. The purpose of this article is to discuss the pillar of professional development and the components of the Nursing Professional Development: Scope and Standards of Practice model (American Nurses Association & National Nursing Staff Development Organization, 2010) and place them in a five-level development framework. This process allowed us to identify the current organizational level of practice, prioritize each nursing professional development component, and design an operational strategy to move nursing professional development toward a level of high performance. This process is suggested for nursing professional development specialists.

  12. Site-specific nucleation and controlled growth of a vertical tellurium nanowire array for high performance field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, Muhammad; Zhan Xueying; Mirza, Misbah; Wang Zhenxing; Sun Lianfeng; He Jun; Niu Mutong; Zhang Jinping; Zhao Qing

    2013-01-01

    We report the controlled growth of highly ordered and well aligned one-dimensional tellurium nanostructure arrays via a one-step catalyst-free physical vapor deposition method. The density, size and fine structures of tellurium nanowires are systematically studied and optimized. Field emission measurement was performed to display notable dependence on nanostructure morphologies. The ordered nanowire array based field emitter has a turn-on field as low as 3.27 V μm −1 and a higher field enhancement factor of 3270. Our finding offers the possibility of controlling the growth of tellurium nanowire arrays and opens up new means for their potential applications in electronic devices and displays. (paper)

  13. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  14. Effect of Using Metakaolin on Chloride Ion Penetration in High Performance Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mohammed Shihab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to reduce the penetrability of high performance steel fiber reinforced concrete to chloride ions originating from external sources, by using High Reactivity Metakaolin (HRM as a highly active pozzolanic material, in order to prolong the time to initiation of the steel fibers corrosion and to minimize concrete damage that may occur due to the exposure to chloride ion penetration. According to pozzolanic activity index (P.A.I., 8% content of HRM was used as a partial replacement by weight of cement with 2% steel fibers by volume of concrete. During the exposure period of 300 days in 4.5% of NaCl solution, the total and free chloride contents (Cltotal, Clfree with the chloride profiles at the ages of 28 and 300 days were investigated. Also the rapid chloride penetrability test (RCPT, compressive and flexural strengths tests were conducted at the ages of 28, 90, 180 and 300 days. Results showed that the incorporation of 8% HRM caused a reduction in the (Clfree/Cltota ratio, the chloride penetration depth and the electrical conductivity with percentages of 21%, 40% and 43% respectively after 300 days exposure to chloride solution in comparing with the mix of 0% HRM. Results also indicated that the losses in compressive and flexural strengths after exposure of 300 days to chloride solution for the mix incorporating 8% HRM were by 5% and 5.8% respectively while they reached 9.5% and 11% respectively for the mix without HRM in relation to the correspondent test specimens cured in tap water.

  15. A high performance cost-effective digital complex correlator for an X-band polarimetry survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergano, Miguel; Rocha, Armando; Cupido, Luís; Barbosa, Domingos; Villela, Thyrso; Boas, José Vilas; Rocha, Graça; Smoot, George F

    2016-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the Milky Way radio emission is important to characterize galactic foregrounds masking extragalactic and cosmological signals. The update of the global sky models describing radio emissions over a very large spectral band requires high sensitivity experiments capable of observing large sky areas with long integration times. Here, we present the design of a new 10 GHz (X-band) polarimeter digital back-end to map the polarization components of the galactic synchrotron radiation field of the Northern Hemisphere sky. The design follows the digital processing trends in radio astronomy and implements a large bandwidth (1 GHz) digital complex cross-correlator to extract the Stokes parameters of the incoming synchrotron radiation field. The hardware constraints cover the implemented VLSI hardware description language code and the preliminary results. The implementation is based on the simultaneous digitized acquisition of the Cartesian components of the two linear receiver polarization channels. The design strategy involves a double data rate acquisition of the ADC interleaved parallel bus, and field programmable gate array device programming at the register transfer mode. The digital core of the back-end is capable of processing 32 Gbps and is built around an Altera field programmable gate array clocked at 250 MHz, 1 GSps analog to digital converters and a clock generator. The control of the field programmable gate array internal signal delays and a convenient use of its phase locked loops provide the timing requirements to achieve the target bandwidths and sensitivity. This solution is convenient for radio astronomy experiments requiring large bandwidth, high functionality, high volume availability and low cost. Of particular interest, this correlator was developed for the Galactic Emission Mapping project and is suitable for large sky area polarization continuum surveys. The solutions may also be adapted to be used at signal processing

  16. Charge versus Energy Transfer Effects in High-Performance Perylene Diimide Photovoltaic Blend Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranbir; Shivanna, Ravichandran; Iosifidis, Agathaggelos; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Floudas, George; Narayan, K S; Keivanidis, Panagiotis E

    2015-11-11

    Perylene diimide (PDI)-based organic photovoltaic devices can potentially deliver high power conversion efficiency values provided the photon energy absorbed is utilized efficiently in charge transfer (CT) reactions instead of being consumed in nonradiative energy transfer (ET) steps. Hitherto, it remains unclear whether ET or CT primarily drives the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the PDI excimer state in PDI-based blend films. Here, we affirm the key role of the thermally assisted PDI excimer diffusion and subsequent CT reaction in the process of PDI excimer PL deactivation. For our study we perform PL quenching experiments in the model PDI-based composite made of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-6-diyl] (PBDTTT-CT) polymeric donor mixed with the N,N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) acceptor. Despite the strong spectral overlap between the PDI excimer PL emission and UV-vis absorption of PBDTTT-CT, two main observations indicate that no significant ET component operates in the overall PL quenching: the PL intensity of the PDI excimer (i) increases with decreasing temperature and (ii) remains unaffected even in the presence of 10 wt % content of the PBDTTT-CT quencher. Temperature-dependent wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments further indicate that nonradiative resonance ET is highly improbable due to the large size of PDI domains. The dominance of the CT over the ET process is verified by the high performance of devices with an optimum composition of 30:70 PBDTTT-CT:PDI. By adding 0.4 vol % of 1,8-diiodooctane we verify the plasticization of the polymer side chains that balances the charge transport properties of the PBDTTT-CT:PDI composite and results in additional improvement in the device efficiency. The temperature-dependent spectral width of the PDI excimer PL band suggests the presence of energetic disorder in the

  17. Effective time management for high performance in an organization Case: Lasaco Assurance PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Adeojo, Adeyinka

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to determine the effect of time management on high organizational performance using LASACO ASSURANCE Plc. as a case company. In this thesis, the employees working with the company were sent questionnaires. Their responses were critically analyzed and thus related to the theories. A quantitative approach was used as the methodology. According to the theory, time management is a method for managers to increase work performance effectiveness. Time man...

  18. The influence of the scale effect and high temperatures on the strength and strains of high performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsun Vladimyr Ivanovych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most effective way to reduce the structure mass, labor input and expenses for its construction is to use modern high-performance concrete of the classes С50/60… С90/105, which possess high physical and mathematic characteristics. One of the constraints for their implementation in mass construction in Ukraine is that in design standards there are no experimental data on the physical and mathematic properties of concrete of the classes more than С50/60. Also there are no exact statements on calculating reinforced concrete structures made of high-performance concretes.The authors present the results of experimental research of the scale effect and short-term and long-term heating up to +200 ° C influence on temperature and shrinkage strain, on strength and strain characteristics under compression and tensioning of high-strength modified concrete of class C70/85. The application of high performance concretes is challenging in the process of constructing buildings aimed at operating in high technological temperatures: smoke pipes, coolers, basins, nuclear power plants' protective shells, etc. Reducing cross-sections can lead to reducing temperature drops and thermal stresses in the structures.

  19. Large, Linear, and Tunable Positive Magnetoresistance of Mechanically Stable Graphene Foam-Toward High-Performance Magnetic Field Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Wan, Caihua; Shehzad, Khurram; Navale, Sachin T; Anwar, Tauseef; Mane, Rajaram S; Piao, Hong-Guang; Ali, Abid; Stadler, Florian J

    2017-01-18

    Here, we present the first observation of magneto-transport properties of graphene foam (GF) composed of a few layers in a wide temperature range of 2-300 K. Large room-temperature linear positive magnetoresistance (PMR ≈ 171% at B ≈ 9 T) has been detected. The largest PMR (∼213%) has been achieved at 2 K under a magnetic field of 9 T, which can be tuned by the addition of poly(methyl methacrylate) to the porous structure of the foam. This remarkable magnetoresistance may be the result of quadratic magnetoresistance. The excellent magneto-transport properties of GF open a way toward three-dimensional graphene-based magnetoelectronic devices.

  20. The Effect of Instructional Quality on Low- and High-Performing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipek, Deborah; Chiatovich, Tara

    2017-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of the quality of reading and math instruction and classroom climate on the academic skills and engagement of 314 children in 245 classrooms at the end of third grade. All of the children in the study were from families with low incomes. On a classroom observation measure developed for the study, regression analyses…

  1. A Cocatalytic Effect between Meldrum's Acid and Benzoxazine Compounds in Preparation of High Performance Thermosetting Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Lin, Liang-Kai; Chiang, Shu-Jen; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a cocatalytic effect between Meldrum's acid (MA) and benzoxazine (Bz) compounds has been explored to build up a self-promoting curing system. Consequently, the MA/Bz reactive blend exhibits a relatively low reaction temperature compared to the required temperatures for the cross-linking reactions of the pure MA and Bz components. This feature is attractive for energy-saving processing issues. Moreover, the thermosetting resins based on the MA/Bz reactive blends have been prepared. The MA component can generate additional free volume in the resulting resins, so as to trap air in the resin matrix and consequently to bring low dielectric constants to the resins. The MA-containing agent is an effective modifier for benzoxazine resins to reduce their dielectric constants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The effect of curing conditions on the durability of high performance concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.

    2017-10-01

    This study researches compressive strength and durability of the high strength self-compacting concrete (SCC) impacted at early stage by the curing conditions. The mixture compositions of metakaolin containing waste and cenospheres as partial cement replacement (15 wt%) were compared to reference SCC with 100% cement. The specimens prepared in advance were demoulded 24h after casting of the SCC and the specific curing conditions were applied for up to 28 days: standard water curing at 20°C (i); indoor curing at 20°C, RH 60% (ii) and low temperature air curing (2°C) at RH 60% (iii). Results indicate that at early stage (14 days) indoor curing conditions increase compressive strength of the SCC whilst no strength loss has been detected even at a low temperature curing. The further strength gain has been substantially reduced for samples cured indoor and at a low temperature with significant variation observed for long term compressive strength (180 days). The metakaolin containing waste has proved to be an effective partial cement replacement and it has improved strength gain even at a low temperature curing. Meanwhile cenospheres have reduced the SCC strength and with no positive effect on strength observed within the standard term. Freeze-thaw durability and resistance to the chloride penetration have been improved for the SCC cured at low temperature. The SCC with metakaolin containing waste has proved to be the most durable thus demonstrating importance of effective micro filler use.

  3. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  4. Space radiation effects in high performance fiber optic data links for satellite data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.W.; Dale, C.J.; LaBel, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Fiber optic based technologies are relatively new to satellite applications, and are receiving considerable attention for planned applications in NASA, DOD, and commercial space sectors. The authors review various activities in recent years aimed at understanding and mitigating radiation related risk in deploying fiber based data handling systems on orbit. Before concluding that there are no critical barriers to designing survivable and reliable systems, the authors analyze several possible types of radiation effects. Particular attention is given to the subject of particle-induced bit errors in InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes, including a discussion of error mitigation and upset rate prediction methods

  5. Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro

    2010-09-15

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

  6. Effects of nano-silica on mechanical performance and microstructure of ultra-high performance concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, T. M., E-mail: thiagomendes@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental; Repette, W.L., E-mail: wellington.repette@gmail.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Reis, P.J., E-mail: pjlondrina@yahoo.com.br [Univeridade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada

    2017-07-15

    The use of nanoparticles in ultra-high strength concretes can result in a positive effect on mechanical performance of these cementitious materials. This study evaluated mixtures containing 10 and 20 wt% of silica fume, for which the optimum nano-silica content was determined, i.e. the quantity of nano-silica that resulted on the higher gain of strength. The physical characterization of raw materials was done in terms of particle size distribution, density and specific surface area. Chemical and mineralogical compositions of materials were obtained through fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. The mechanical performance was evaluated by compressive strength, flexural strength and dynamic elastic modulus measurements. The microstructural analysis of mixtures containing nano-silica was performed by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Obtained results indicate an optimum content of nano-silica of 0.62 wt%, considering compressive and flexural strengths. This performance improvement was directly related to two important microstructural aspects: the packing effect and pozzolanic reaction of nano-silica. (author)

  7. Effects of nano-silica on mechanical performance and microstructure of ultra-high performance concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, T. M.; Repette, W.L.; Reis, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in ultra-high strength concretes can result in a positive effect on mechanical performance of these cementitious materials. This study evaluated mixtures containing 10 and 20 wt% of silica fume, for which the optimum nano-silica content was determined, i.e. the quantity of nano-silica that resulted on the higher gain of strength. The physical characterization of raw materials was done in terms of particle size distribution, density and specific surface area. Chemical and mineralogical compositions of materials were obtained through fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. The mechanical performance was evaluated by compressive strength, flexural strength and dynamic elastic modulus measurements. The microstructural analysis of mixtures containing nano-silica was performed by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Obtained results indicate an optimum content of nano-silica of 0.62 wt%, considering compressive and flexural strengths. This performance improvement was directly related to two important microstructural aspects: the packing effect and pozzolanic reaction of nano-silica. (author)

  8. Effects of Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers’ Interlayers on High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianji Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different interlayers were introduced in lithium–sulfur batteries to improve the cycling stability with sulfur loading as high as 80% of total mass of cathode. Melamine was recommended as a nitrogen-rich (N-rich amine component to synthesize a modified polyacrylic acid (MPAA. The electrospun MPAA was carbonized into N-rich carbon nanofibers, which were used as cathode interlayers, while carbon nanofibers from PAA without melamine was used as an anode interlayer. At the rate of 0.1 C, the initial discharge capacity with two interlayers was 983 mAh g−1, and faded down to 651 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles with the coulombic efficiency of 95.4%. At the rate of 1 C, the discharge capacity was kept to 380 mAh g−1 after 600 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8%. It apparently demonstrated that the cathode interlayer is extremely effective at shutting down the migration of polysulfide ions. The anode interlayer induced the lithium ions to form uniform lithium metal deposits confined on the fiber surface and in the bulk to strengthen the cycling stability of the lithium metal anode.

  9. Effect of processing conditions on the interfacial zone of high performances thermoplastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeau, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    This study concerns the microstructural and mechanical characterization performances thermoplastic unidirectional composites. Two semi-crystalline composites, APC2 (Peek/Carbon) and AC 40.60 (Pps/carbon) and one amorphous composite FC.PEI (PEI/Carbon) have been studied. Different processing conditions for the APC2 and AC 40.60 specimens have been employed. Amorphous matrix composites (fast cooling rates), crystalline matrix composites (slow cooling rates) and the effects of heat treatments on the matrix (lengthy hold time at the melting point followed by slow cooling) have been studied. Static test (3 points bending tests, transverse tensile tests - ±45 deg., tensile tests) allowed the different interfacial qualities to be revealed. If the fiber/matrix adhesion is excellent for APC2, it is poor for the FCPEI and AC 40.60 composites. The dynamic tests conducted on the torsion pendulum (forced oscillations; low frequencies) have shown for APC2 the existence of trans-crystallinity (mono-dimensional growth, perpendicular to the fiber surface) in the vicinity of the fiber. It has been shown that the fraction of trans-crystallinity is most important for treated specimens. In this study, an approach of the modelization of the viscoelastic behaviour of composites materials has been proposed. (author) [fr

  10. The effect of assisted jumping on vertical jump height in high-performance volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Dingley, Andrew A; Janssen, Ina; Spratford, Wayne; Chapman, Dale W; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    Assisted jumping may be useful in training higher concentric movement speed in jumping, thereby potentially increasing the jumping abilities of athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of assisted jump training on counter-movement vertical jump (CMVJ) and spike jump (SPJ) ability in a group of elite male volleyball players. Seven junior national team volleyball players (18.0±1.0 yrs, 200.4±6.7 cm, and 84.0±7.2 kg) participated in this within-subjects cross-over counter-balanced training study. Assisted training involved 3 sessions per week of CMVJ training with 10 kg of assistance, applied through use of a bungee system, whilst normal jump training involved equated volume of unassisted counter-movement vertical jumps. Training periods were 5 weeks duration, with a 3-week wash-out separating them. Prior to and at the conclusion of each training period jump testing for CMVJ and SPJ height was conducted. Assisted jump training resulted in gains of 2.7±0.7 cm (pSports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect-directed analysis via hyphenated high-performance thin-layer chromatography for bioanalytical profiling of sunflower leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Yüce, Imanuel; Darcsi, András; Béni, Szabolcs; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2018-01-19

    High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with effect-directed analysis was used for non-targeted screening of sunflower leaf extract for components exhibiting antioxidant, antibacterial and/or cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory effects. The active compounds were characterized by HPTLC-electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and HPTLC-Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)-MS/MS. The latter ambient ionization technique (less soft than ESI) resulted in oxidation and fragmentation products and characteristic fragment ions. NMR spectroscopy after targeted isolation via preparative normal phase flash chromatography and semi-preparative reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography supported the identification of two diterpenes to be (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid and 15-α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. Both compounds found to be multi-potent as they inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and showed antibacterial effects against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria. Kaurenoic acid was also active against the Gram-negative pepper pathogenic Xanthomonas euvesicatoria bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Geometrical Model of Solar Radiation Pressure Based on High-Performing Galileo Clocks - First Geometrical Mapping of the Yarkowsky effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, Drazen; Rothacher, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs; Steigenberger, Peter; Ziebart, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Solar radiation pressure is the main source of errors in the precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites. All deficiencies in the modeling of Solar radiation pressure map into estimated terrestrial reference frame parameters as well as into derived gravity field coefficients and altimetry results when LEO orbits are determined using GPS. Here we introduce a new approach to geometrically map radial orbit perturbations of GNSS satellites using highly-performing clocks on board the first Galileo satellites. Only a linear model (time bias and time drift) needs to be removed from the estimated clock parameters and the remaining clock residuals map all radial orbit perturbations along the orbit. With the independent SLR measurements, we show that a Galileo clock is stable enough to map radial orbit perturbations continuously along the orbit with a negative sign in comparison to SLR residuals. Agreement between the SLR residuals and the clock residuals is at the 1 cm RMS for an orbit arc of 24 h. Looking at the clock parameters determined along one orbit revolution over a period of one year, we show that the so-called SLR bias in Galileo and GPS orbits can be explained by the translation of the determined orbit in the orbital plane towards the Sun. This orbit translation is due to thermal re-radiation and not accounting for the Sun elevation in the parameterization of the estimated Solar radiation pressure parameters. SLR ranging to GNSS satellites takes place typically at night, e.g. between 6 pm and 6 am local time when the Sun is in opposition to the satellite. Therefore, SLR observes only one part of the GNSS orbit with a negative radial orbit error that is mapped as an artificial bias in SLR observables. The Galileo clocks clearly show orbit translation for all Sun elevations: the radial orbit error is positive when the Sun is in conjuction (orbit noon) and negative when the Sun is in opposition (orbit midnight). The magnitude of this artificial negative SLR bias

  13. The effect of high performance work systems utilization on firm performance: does human resource attribution of employees matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibiru Ayalew Melesse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research suggests that high performance work systems (HPWSs that enhance employees’ competencies, and motivate them, leads to competitive advantage. HPWPs are radically not ‘new practices’; they have been around for many years and have already been adopted by various organizations. However, the link between HPWS adoption & firm performance is yet blurred. The aim of this paper was to examine the moderating role of employees’ HR attributions on the relationship between adoption of HPWSs and firm performance. The current paper argues that human resource (HR attribution of employees moderates the relationship between HPWS and firm performance such that the effective adoption of high performance work systems in an organization partly depends on the type of employees’ attributions (commitment versus control of HR practices in the company. More specifically, it is proposed that adoption of HPWS can be more effective in organizations where employees’ attributions of HR practices is commitment focus than in firms where employees’ attributions of HR practice is control focus. The study contributes to understanding the ‘black box’ of HRM-performance link. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Improved Functional Properties and Efficiencies of Nitinol Wires Under High-Performance Shape Memory Effect (HP-SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, R.; Saghafi, F.; Biffi, C. A.; Vedani, M.; Tuissi, A.

    2017-10-01

    Martensitic Ti-rich NiTi intermetallics are broadly used in various cyclic applications as actuators, which exploit the shape memory effect (SME). Recently, a new approach for exploiting austenitic Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys as actuators was proposed and named high-performance shape memory effect (HP-SME). HP-SME is based on thermal recovery of de-twinned martensite produced by mechanical loading of the parent phase. The aim of the manuscript consists in evaluating and comparing the fatigue and actuation properties of austenitic HP-SME wires and conventional martensitic SME wires. The effect of the thermomechanical cycling on the actuation response and the changes in the electrical resistivity of both shape memory materials were studied by performing the actuation tests at different stages of the fatigue life. Finally, the changes in the transition temperatures before and after cycling were also investigated by differential calorimetric tests.

  15. Investigating the effectiveness of many-core network processors for high performance cyber protection systems. Part I, FY2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Naegle, John Hunt; Wright, Brian J.; Benner, Robert E., Jr.; Shelburg, Jeffrey Scott; Pearson, David Benjamin; Johnson, Joshua Alan; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Zage, David John; Patel, Jay S.

    2011-09-01

    This report documents our first year efforts to address the use of many-core processors for high performance cyber protection. As the demands grow for higher bandwidth (beyond 1 Gbits/sec) on network connections, the need to provide faster and more efficient solution to cyber security grows. Fortunately, in recent years, the development of many-core network processors have seen increased interest. Prior working experiences with many-core processors have led us to investigate its effectiveness for cyber protection tools, with particular emphasis on high performance firewalls. Although advanced algorithms for smarter cyber protection of high-speed network traffic are being developed, these advanced analysis techniques require significantly more computational capabilities than static techniques. Moreover, many locations where cyber protections are deployed have limited power, space and cooling resources. This makes the use of traditionally large computing systems impractical for the front-end systems that process large network streams; hence, the drive for this study which could potentially yield a highly reconfigurable and rapidly scalable solution.

  16. Mechanical Characterization of High-Performance Steel-Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites with Self-Healing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Kang, Seok Hee; Ahn, Tae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The crack self-healing behavior of high-performance steel-fiber reinforced cement composites (HPSFRCs) was investigated. High-strength deformed steel fibers were employed in a high strength mortar with very fine silica sand to decreasing the crack width by generating higher interfacial bond strength. The width of micro-cracks, strongly affected by the type of fiber and sand, clearly produced the effects on the self-healing behavior. The use of fine silica sand in HPSFRCs with high strength deformed steel fibers successfully led to rapid healing owing to very fine cracks with width less than 20 μm. The use of very fine silica sand instead of normal sand produced 17%–19% higher tensile strength and 51%–58% smaller width of micro-cracks. PMID:28788471

  17. Effect of Chopped Basalt Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehmina Ayub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the high performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC containing up to 3% volume fraction of chopped Basalt fibers. Three types of the concrete were prepared, out of which, the first type was prepared by utilizing 100% cement content. The other two types of the concrete were prepared by replacing 10% cement content with silica fume and the locally produced metakaolin. Using each concrete type, four mixes were prepared in which Basalt fibers were added in the range of 0–3%; that is, total twelve mixes of the HPFRC concrete were prepared. From each of the twelve concrete mixes, total twelve specimens were cast to determine the mechanical properties of the HPFRC including compressive strength (cube and cylinder, splitting tensile strength, and the flexural strength. In this way, a total of 108 specimens were cast and tested in this study. Test results showed that the addition of the Basalt fibers significantly increased the tensile splitting strength and the flexural strength of the HPFRC, while there was slight improvement in the compressive strength with the addition of Basalt fibers. The microstructure of HPFRC was examined to determine the interfacial transition zone (ITZ between the aggregates and the paste by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, which showed the improvement of the ITZ due to the addition of the Basalt fibers.

  18. Evaluation of treatment effects for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells using equivalent circuit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Masaki; Mori, Tatsuo

    2006-01-01

    Equivalent circuit analysis using a one-diode model was carried out as a simpler, more convenient method to evaluate the electric mechanism and to employ effective treatment of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). Cells treated using acetic acid or 4,t-butylpyridine were measured under irradiation (0.1 W/m 2 , AM 1.5) to obtain current-voltage (I-V) curves. Cell performance and equivalent circuit parameters were calculated from the I-V curves. Evaluation based on residual factors was useful for better fitting of the equivalent circuit to the I-V curve. The diode factor value was often over two for high-performance DSCs. Acetic acid treatment was effective to increase the short-circuit current by decreasing the series resistance of cells. In contrast, 4,t-butylpyridine was effective to increase open-circuit voltage by increasing the cell shunt resistance. Previous explanations considered that acetic acid worked to decrease the internal resistance of the TiO 2 layer and butylpyridine worked to lower the back-electron-transfer from the TiO 2 to the electrolyte

  19. Effects of vacuum thermal cycling on mechanical and physical properties of high performance carbon/bismaleimide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qi; Chen Ping; Gao Yu; Mu Jujie; Chen Yongwu; Lu Chun; Liu Dong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The level of cross-links was improved to a certain extent. → The thermal stability was firstly improved and then decreased. → The transverse and longitudinal CTE were both determined by the degree of interfacial debonding. → The mass loss ratio increases firstly and then reaches a plateau value. → The surface morphology was altered and the surface roughness increased firstly and then decreased. → The transverse tensile strength was reduced. → The flexural strength increased firstly and then decreased to a plateau value. → The ILSS increased firstly and then decreased to a plateau value. - Abstract: The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of vacuum thermal cycling on mechanical and physical properties of high performance carbon/bismaleimide (BMI) composites used in aerospace. The changes in dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The changes in linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) were measured in directions perpendicular and parallel to the fiber direction, respectively. The outgassing behavior of the composites were examined. The evolution of surface morphology and surface roughness were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Changes in mechanical properties including transverse tensile strength, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were measured. The results indicated that the vacuum thermal cycling could improve the crosslinking degree and the thermal stability of resin matrix to a certain extent, and induce matrix outgassing and thermal stress, thereby leading to the mass loss and the interfacial debonding of the composite. The degradation in transverse tensile strength was caused by joint effects of the matrix outgassing and the interfacial debonding, while the changes in flexural strength and ILSS were affected by a competing effect between the crosslinking degree

  20. Non-Planar Nanotube and Wavy Architecture Based Ultra-High Performance Field Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation also introduces a novel thin-film-transistors architecture that is named the Wavy Channel (WC) architecture, which allows for extending device width by integrating vertical fin-like substrate corrugations giving

  1. Structure-based capacitance modeling and power loss analysis for the latest high-performance slant field-plate trench MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenya; Sudo, Masaki; Omura, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    Field-plate trench MOSFETs (FP-MOSFETs), with the features of ultralow on-resistance and very low gate–drain charge, are currently the mainstream of high-performance applications and their advancement is continuing as low-voltage silicon power devices. However, owing to their structure, their output capacitance (C oss), which leads to main power loss, remains to be a problem, especially in megahertz switching. In this study, we propose a structure-based capacitance model of FP-MOSFETs for calculating power loss easily under various conditions. Appropriate equations were modeled for C oss curves as three divided components. Output charge (Q oss) and stored energy (E oss) that were calculated using the model corresponded well to technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, and we validated the accuracy of the model quantitatively. In the power loss analysis of FP-MOSFETs, turn-off loss was sufficiently suppressed, however, mainly Q oss loss increased depending on switching frequency. This analysis reveals that Q oss may become a significant issue in next-generation high-efficiency FP-MOSFETs.

  2. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiuddin, Md; Raman, Sudharshan N; Zain, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd

    2015-12-10

    The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete.

  3. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Safiuddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete.

  4. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiuddin, Md.; Raman, Sudharshan N.; Zain, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete. PMID:28793732

  5. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  6. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  7. High Performance Macromolecular Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forest, M

    2002-01-01

    .... In essence, most commercial high-performance polymers are processed through fiber spinning, following Nature and spider silk, which is still pound-for-pound the toughest liquid crystalline polymer...

  8. Mesoporous Zn2SnO4 as effective electron transport materials for high-performance perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sha; Wu, Jihuai; He, Xin; Tu, Yongguang; Wang, Shibo; Huang, Miaoliang; Lan, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Large grain and mesoporous Zn 2 SnO 4 are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. •Perovskite device with Zn 2 SnO 4 electron transport layer get efficiency of 17.21%. •While the device with TiO 2 electron transport layer obtain an efficiency of 14.83%. •Superior photovoltaic performance stems from the intrinsic characteristics of Zn 2 SnO 4 . -- Abstract: Electron transport layer with higher carrier mobility and suitable band gap structure plays a significant role in determining the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we report a synthesis of high crystalline zinc stannate (Zn 2 SnO 4 ) by a facile hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized Zn 2 SnO 4 possesses particle size of 20 nm, large surface area, mesoporous hierarchical structure, and can be used as a promising electron-transport materials to replace the conventional mesoporous TiO 2 material. A perovskite solar cell with structure of FTO/blocking layer/Zn 2 SnO 4 /CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 /Spiro-OMeOTAD/Au is fabricated, and the preparation condition is optimized. The champion device based on Zn 2 SnO 4 electron transport material achieves a power conversion efficiency of 17.21%, while the device based on TiO 2 electron transport material gets an efficiency of 14.83% under the same experimental conditions. The results render Zn 2 SnO 4 an effective candidate as electron transport material for high performance perovskite solar cells and other devices.

  9. Effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Kalkreuter, T.; Palma, G.; Speh, M.

    1992-05-01

    Effective field theories encode the predictions of a quantum field theory at low energy. The effective theory has a fairly low utraviolet cutoff. As a result, loop corrections are small, at least if the effective action contains a term which is quadratic in the fields, and physical predictions can be read straight from the effective Lagrangean. Methods will be discussed how to compute an effective low energy action from a given fundamental action, either analytically or numerically, or by a combination of both methods. Basically, the idea is to integrate out the high frequency components of fields. This requires the choice of a 'blockspin', i.e. the specification af a low frequency field as a function of the fundamental fields. These blockspins will be fields of the effective field theory. The blockspin need not be a field of the same type as one of the fundamental fields, and it may be composite. Special features of blockspin in nonabelian gauge theories will be discussed in some detail. In analytical work and in multigrid updating schemes one needs interpolation kernels A from coarse to fine grid in addition to the averaging kernels C which determines the blockspin. A neural net strategy for finding optimal kernels is presented. Numerical methods are applicable to obtain actions of effective theories on lattices of finite volume. The special case of a 'lattice' with a single site (the constraint effective potential) is of particular interest. In a higgs model, the effective action reduces in this case to the free energy, considered as a function of a gauge covariant magnetization. Its shape determines the phase structure of the theory. Its loop expansion with and without gauge fields can be used to determine finite size corrections to numerical data. (orig.)

  10. High performance sapphire windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  11. Effective quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The most appropriate description of particle interactions in the language of quantum field theory depends on the energy at which the interactions are studied; the description is in terms of an ''effective field theory'' that contains explicit reference only to those particles that are actually important at the energy being studied. The various themes of the article are: local quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics, new physics, dimensional parameters and renormalizability, socio-dynamics of particle theory, spontaneously broken gauge theories, scale dependence, grand unified and effective field theories. 2 figs

  12. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Evaluation and analysis on items applied for in high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Obo anken hyoka bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes comprehensive evaluation and analysis mainly on the 51 items adopted in the high-performance industrial furnace introduction field tests. The development of a high-performance industrial furnace has completed the fundamental development research in fiscal 1998, and the possibility was verified on energy saving of more than 30% and reduction of NOx emission by 50% over that by conventional furnaces. Upon this fundamental achievement, the field test project has started as the comprehensive approach to developing the practically usable technologies for three years from fiscal 1998 until fiscal 2000, which is being promoted as a joint research project. According to the survey on the actual state in fiscal 1998, a little less than 20,000 industrial furnaces having combustion capacity of more than 500,000 Kcal/hr (excepting boilers) are being used. If these furnaces are converted into the high-performance industrial furnace, energy conservation of 210,000 x 10{sup 6} Mcal (converted to crude oil of 22.7 x 10{sup 6} kl/year) can be achieved from the maximum annual energy consumption of 700,000 x 10{sup 6} Mcal (converted to crude oil of 75.7 x 10{sup 6} kl/year). This conservation amount corresponds to about 12% of the final energy consumption in the whole Japanese industrial departments in fiscal 1996. It is expected that the performance of the full-size high-performance industrial furnace will be verified, and this technology will be promoted for wide proliferation. (NEDO)

  13. The high performance HMI handbook a comprehensive guide to designing, implementing and maintaining effective HMIs for industrial plant operations

    CERN Document Server

    Hollifield, Bill; Nimmo, Ian; Habibi, Eddie

    2008-01-01

    The High Performance HMI Handbook is the first and only comprehensive book containing the best-practice principles for assessing, designing, and implementing proper process control Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs). Poorly designed and poorly performing Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) are rampant throughout the process industries. They can degrade safety, production, quality, and profitability. Time after time, they are cited as contributing factors to major industrial accidents. The book contains experience and intellectual property that has never before been released, It is jointly authored by 2 companies, PAS and User Centered Design Services (UCDS), who have decades of experience in process control, HMI design, and human factors. The book reveals many poor yet common HMI practices, provides the justification for change, and shows in great detail the best way to design and implement a truly High Performance HMI. It contains over 90 color illustrations, plus many relevant real world examples, anecdotes, and ...

  14. High performance conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.

    2000-01-01

    Inexpensive but high performance systems have emerged progressively for basic and applied measurements in physical and analytical chemistry on one hand, and for on-line monitoring and leak detection in plants and facilities on the other. Salient features of the developments will be presented with specific examples

  15. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  16. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...... concretes, workability, ductility, and confinement problems....

  17. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  18. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  19. High Performance Work System and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Multinational Companies in Vietnam: the Mediation Effect of Career Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Thi Huong Vu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between high performance work system (HPWS and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB in multinational corporations (MNCs in Vietnam, a fast-developing country with highly economic growth in Asia, was investigated. Besides, the underlying mechanism of this relationship was also explored. From the social exchange approach, an underlying mediated mechanism of career success in the relationship between HPWS and OCB was hypothesized. Data collected from individual employees working in multinational companies in Vietnam was used to test the hypotheses. The research findings supported the partial mediating role of career success in the positive relationship between HPWS and OCB. In addition, research implications as well as suggestions for future research were also presented.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Dalam studi ini, hubungan antara high performance work system (HPWS dan organizational citizenship behavior (OCB di multinational corporations (MNC di Vietnam, negara cepat berkembang dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang sangat tinggi di Asia, ditelliti. Selain itu, mekanisme yang mendasari hubungan ini juga dieksplorasi. Dari pendekatan pertukaran sosial, mekanisme mediasi yang dimediasi dari kesuksesan karir dalam hubungan antara HPWS dan OCB dihipotesiskan. Data yang dikumpulkan dari masing-masing karyawan yang bekerja di perusahaan multinasional di Vietnam digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis. Temuan penelitian mendukung peran mediasi parsial dari kesuksesan karir dalam hubungan positif antara HPWS dan OCB. Selain itu, implikasi penelitian serta saran untuk penelitian masa depan juga disajikan.

  20. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  1. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  2. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, M. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low

  3. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  4. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  5. [Simultaneous determination of five effective components in Sijunzi bolus using high performance liquid chromatography-evaporation light scattering detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunying; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2010-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of lobetyolin, pachymic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenoide III and atractylenolide I in Sijunzi bolus. The separation was performed on an HIQ SIL C18 V column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 0.5% acetic acid-methanol as the mobile phase of gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was performed with an evaporation light scattering detector (ELSD) and the sample volume was 10 microL. The temperature of drift tube and heating grade of nebulizer was respectively set at 55 degrees C and 60% at 0.2 MPa of pressure. Nitrogen gas was used as carrier gas. Under the optimized conditions, there were good linear relationships between the logarithm values of mass concentration and the peak areas of lobetyolin, pachymic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenoide III and atractylenolide I in the ranges of 0.076 - 1.21, 0.048 -0.76, 0.153 - 2.45, 0.045 - 0.72 and 0.098 - 1.56 g/L, respectively. The recoveries of the five components were between 97.13% and 100.25%, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 1.23% and 2.44%. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for the quality control of Sijunzi bolus.

  6. High-performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled to high-field NMR and mass spectrometry for structure elucidation of constituents of Hypericum perforatum L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S. H.; Jensen, A. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1999-01-01

    The on-line separation and structure elucidation of naphthodianthrones, flavonoids, and other constituents of an extract from Hypericum perforatum L, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line with ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry...... (MS) is described. A conventional reversed-phase HPLC system using ammonium acetate as the buffer substance in the eluent tvas used, and proton NMR spectra were obtained on a 500 MHz NMR instrument. The MS and MS/MS analyses were performed using negative electrospray ionization, In the present study...

  7. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake.

  8. Effective quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Certain dimensional parameters play a crucial role in the understanding of weak and strong interactions based on SU(2) x U(1) and SU(3) symmetry group theories and of grand unified theories (GUT's) based on SU(5). These parameters are the confinement scale of quantum chromodynamics and the breaking scales of SU(2) x U(1) and SU(5). The concepts of effective quantum field theories and renormalisability are discussed with reference to the economics and ethics of research. (U.K.)

  9. High-performance alternating current field-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescent devices employing a down-conversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yingdong; Chen, Yonghua; Smith, Gregory M. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States); Sun, Hengda; Yang, Dezhi [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Nie, Wanyi; Li, Yuan; Huang, Wenxiao [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States); Ma, Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Carroll, David L., E-mail: carroldl@wfu.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a high-performance alternating current (AC) filed-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescence (WFIPEL) device was fabricated by combining a fluorophor Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO)-based blue device with a yellow down-conversion layer (YAG:Ce). A maximum luminance of this down-conversion FIPEL device achieves 3230 cd m{sup −2}, which is 1.41 times higher than the device without the down-conversion layer. A maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the down-conversion WFIPEL device reach 19.7 cd A{sup −1} at 3050 cd m{sup −2} and 5.37 lm W{sup −1} at 2310 cd m{sup −2} respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the power efficiency is one of the highest reports for the WFIPEL up to now. Moreover, Commison Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.28, 0.30) is obtained by adjusting the thickness of the down-conversion layer to 30 μm and it is kept stable over the entire AC-driven voltage range. We believe that this AC-driven, down-conversion, WFIPEL device may offer an easy way towards future flat and flexible lighting sources. - Highlights: • A high-performance AC filed-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescence (WFIPEL) device was fabricated. • A maximum luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency achieves 3230 cd m{sup −2}, 19.7 cd A{sup −1}, and 5.37 lm W{sup −1}, respectively. • The power efficiency is one of the highest reports for the WFIPEL up to now. • The EL spectrum kept very stable over the entire AC-driven voltage range.

  10. Assessing the Effect of High Performance Inulin Supplementation via KLF5 mRNA Expression in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trail

    OpenAIRE

    Abed Ghavami; Neda Roshanravan; Shahriar Alipour; Meisam Barati; Behzad Mansoori; Faezeh Ghalichi; Elyas Nattagh- Eshtivan; Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The worldwide prevalence of metabolic disorders such as diabetes is increasing rapidly. Currently, the complications of diabetes are the major health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high performance (HP) inulin supplementation on glucose homeostasis via KLF5 mRNA expression in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In the present clinical trial conducted for a duration of 6 weeks, 46 volunteers diabetic patients referring to diabetes clinic in Tabriz, I...

  11. High-performance computing using FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Benkrid, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This book is concerned with the emerging field of High Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC), which aims to harness the high performance and relative low power of reconfigurable hardware–in the form Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)–in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. It presents the latest developments in this field from applications, architecture, and tools and methodologies points of view. We hope that this work will form a reference for existing researchers in the field, and entice new researchers and developers to join the HPRC community.  The book includes:  Thirteen application chapters which present the most important application areas tackled by high performance reconfigurable computers, namely: financial computing, bioinformatics and computational biology, data search and processing, stencil computation e.g. computational fluid dynamics and seismic modeling, cryptanalysis, astronomical N-body simulation, and circuit simulation.     Seven architecture chapters which...

  12. Holographic effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università di Padova,and INFN - Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  13. Higgs Effective Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this meeting is to present new theoretical advancements related to effective field theories, evaluate the impact of initial results from the LHC Run2, and discuss proposals for data interpretation/presentation during Run2. A crucial role of the meeting is to bring together theorists from different backgrounds and with different viewpoints and to extend bridges towards the experimental community. To this end, we would like to achieve a good balance between senior and junior speakers, enhancing the visibility of younger scientists while keeping some overview talks.

  14. Bioinspired effective prevention of restacking in multilayered graphene films: towards the next generation of high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Junwu; Qiu, Ling; Li, Dan [Department of Materials Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-07-05

    A simple, bioinspired approach to effectively prevent the restacking of chemically converted graphene sheets in multilayered films is presented. The method enables the creation of a new generation of supercapacitors that combine high energy density, high power density, and high operation rates. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Sn buffered by shape memory effect of NiTi alloys as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Renzong; Zhu Min; Wang Hui; Liu Jiangwen; Liuzhang Ouyang; Zou Jin

    2012-01-01

    By applying the shape memory effect of the NiTi alloys to buffer the Sn anodes, we demonstrate a simple approach to overcome a long-standing challenge of Sn anode in the applications of Li-ion batteries – the capacity decay. By supporting the Sn anodes with NiTi shape memory alloys, the large volume change of Sn anodes due to lithiation and delithiation can be effectively accommodated, based on the stress-induced martensitic transformation and superelastic recovery of the NiTi matrix respectively, which leads to a decrease in the internal stress and closing of cracks in Sn anodes. Accordingly, stable cycleability (630 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.7C) and excellent high-rate capabilities (478 mA h g −1 at 6.7C) were attained with the NiTi/Sn/NiTi film electrode. These shape memory alloys can also combine with other high-capacity metallic anodes, such as Si, Sb, Al, and improve their cycle performance.

  16. Effects of solvent on the morphology of nanostructured Co3O4 and its application for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wanlu; Gao, Zan; Ma, Jing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Liu, Lianhe

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-structured cobalt oxides (Co 3 O 4 ) with various morphologies (sheet-like, herbs-like and net-like) synthesized on the surfaces of nickel foam via a facile solvothermal method. • Ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (GR) were used to investigate the effects of solvent on the size and morphology of nanocrystals in detail. • The open structure improves the contact between the electrode and the electrolyte. • Results showed that net-like Co 3 O 4 have good electrochemical property. - Abstract: Nano-structured cobalt oxides (Co 3 O 4 ) with various morphologies (sheet-like, herbs-like and net-like) have been in situ synthesized on the surface of nickel foam via a facile solvothermal method. Ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (GR) were used to investigate the effects of solvent on the size and morphology of nanocrystals in detail. The possible formation mechanisms have been proposed that the dielectric constants and viscosity of solvents is speculated to be the main factor to determine the morphology of Co 3 O 4 crystal. Applied for supercapacitor, the fabricated Co 3 O 4 electrodes show the desired properties of macroporosity, allowing facile electrolyte flow and fast electrochemical reaction kinetics. Results show that the nanonet-like Co 3 O 4 electrode synthesized in glycerol solvothermal condition has the highest capacitance (1063 F/g at a discharge current density of 10 mA/cm 2 ), and good rate capability, excellent electrochemical stability (90.8% retention after 1000 cycles). The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the open and ultrathin nanostructure of net-like Co 3 O 4 electrode, which facilitates the electron transport. The findings in this work demonstrate the importance of solvents used for solvothermal reaction, and are meaningful in understanding the self-assembly process of various Co 3 O 4 nanostructures

  17. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Reference book for standard heat calculations in high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Hyojun netsu keisanshiki kijunsho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to verify in a short time the heat recovery capability being the evaluation parameter for the technologies to develop the high-performance industrial furnace, a standard calculation book will be prepared, which standardizes the data collection methods and heat calculation methods, and is used as the standard data sheets and bases. Evaluations and analyses will be given on business types, furnace constructions, thermal technologies, and functions in the research items adopted in the field test project. The results will be used to recognize the business entities engaged in the project in the next fiscal year, furnace types and sizes, establish the industrial furnace subjected to researches in the next fiscal year, and proliferate and expand the related business entities. Standard data sheets will be prepared on seven kinds of furnaces, heating furnaces (continuous and batch types), ladles, heat treatment furnaces (continuous and batch types), gas treatment furnaces, and melting furnaces. The standard data sheets will cover the following items: evaluation parameters (energy saving rate, thermal efficiency, and waste heat recovery rate), calculating conditions to be the base for the evaluation parameters, a heat production book to be the base for calculating the heat unit requirement, and a standard calculation book to be the base for the heat production table. The standard data sheets (including the standard calculation book) and floppy disks are submitted. (NEDO)

  18. High-performance lithium-rich layered oxide materials: Effects of chelating agents on microstructure and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lingjun; Xu, Ming; Chen, Zhaoyong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhu, Huali; Wu, Chun; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms and effects of three typical chelating agents, namely glucose, citric acid and sucrose on the sol-gel synthesis process, electrochemical degradation and structural evolution of 0.5Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.5LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 (LLMO) materials are systematically compared for the first time. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicate that the sample synthesized from sucrose owns well structure, homogenous distribution, low Ni 3+ concentration and good surface structural stability during cycling, respectively. Electrochemical tests further prove that the LLMO material obtained from sucrose maintains 258.4 mAh g −1 with 94.8% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. The superior electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the exceptional complexing mechanism of sucrose, compared to those of the glucose and citric acid. Namely, one mole sucrose can be hydrolyzed into two different monosaccharides and further chelates three M (Li, Ni, Co and Mn) ions to form a more uniform ion-chelated matrix during sol-gel process. This discovery is an important step towards understanding the selection criterion of chelating agents for sol-gel method, that chelating agent with excellent complexing capability is beneficial to the distribution, structural stability and electrochemical properties of advanced lithium-rich layered materials

  19. Design and optimization of high-performance slot-microring Si-photodetector based on internal photoemission effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifar, Mitra; Ahmadi, Vahid; Ebnali-Heidari, Majid

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and optimization of a microring resonator enhanced-internal photoemission effect-photodetectors (MRRE-IPE-PDs) suitable for optical communication. Two PD configurations are considered: the first consists of an MRR that is partially surrounded by a nanolayer of silicide with a single Schottky barrier on p-Si MRR; and the second consists of a silicide film buried in the width midpoints of a Si-based MRR where photoemission occurs over the two Schottky barriers. Several silicides are considered for the stripe (PtSi, Pd2Si, TaSi2 and CoSi2). The important features of the device, such as quantum efficiency (QE), responsivity, CW sensitivity and dark current are discussed and the trade-off between 3 dB bandwidth and QE are analyzed for nanoscaled absorption layer. In this regard, some design curves are presented for the optimized MRRE-IPE-PDs. Additionally, this paper reveals substantial improvement via comparisons with QE and responsivity measurements reported in the literature. Bandwidth-efficiency product of 61-71 GHz, responsivities of 0.8-0.9 and QE of 64-71% and the minimum receiver sensitivity of -65 to -66 dBm are also predicted for single and double Schottky barriers, respectively.

  20. The CBS-The Most Cost Effective and High Performance Carbon Beam Source Dedicated for a New Generation Cancer Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, Masayuki; Leivichev, E B; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Podgorny, Fedor; Rastigeev, Sergey; Reva, Vladimir B; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Vostrikov, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    A Carbon ion beam is a superior tool to x-rays or a proton beam in both physical and biological doses in treating a cancer. A Carbon beam has an advantage in treating radiation resistant and deep-seated tumors. Its radiological effect is of a mitotic independent nature. These features improve hypofractionation, typically reducing the number of irradiations per patient from 35 to a few. It has been shown that a superior QOL(Quality Of Life) therapy is possible by a carbon beam.The only drawback is its high cost. Nevertheless, tens of Prefectures and organizations are eagerly considering the possibility of having a carbon ion therapy facility in Japan. Germany, Austria, Italy, China, Taiwan and Korea also desire to have one.A carbon beam accelerator of moderate cost is about 100 Million USD. With the "CBS" design philosophy, which will be described in this paper, the cost could be factor of 2 or 3 less, while improving its performance more than standard designs. Novel extraction techniques, a new approach to a ...

  1. David Adler Lectureship Award in the Field of Materials Physics: Racetrack Memory - a high-performance, storage class memory using magnetic domain-walls manipulated by current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    Racetrack Memory is a novel high-performance, non-volatile storage-class memory in which magnetic domains are used to store information in a ``magnetic racetrack'' [1]. The magnetic racetrack promises a solid state memory with storage capacities and cost rivaling that of magnetic disk drives but with much improved performance and reliability: a ``hard disk on a chip''. The magnetic racetrack is comprised of a magnetic nanowire in which a series of magnetic domain walls are shifted to and fro along the wire using nanosecond-long pulses of spin polarized current [2]. We have demonstrated the underlying physics that makes Racetrack Memory possible [3,4] and all the basic functions - creation, and manipulation of a train of domain walls and their detection. The physics underlying the current induced dynamics of domain walls will also be discussed. In particular, we show that the domain walls respond as if they have mass, leading to significant inertial driven motion of the domain walls over long times after the current pulses are switched off [3]. We also demonstrate that in perpendicularly magnetized nanowires there are two independent current driving mechanisms: one derived from bulk spin-dependent scattering that drives the domain walls in the direction of electron flow, and a second interfacial mechanism that can drive the domain walls either along or against the electron flow, depending on subtle changes in the nanowire structure. Finally, we demonstrate thermally induced spin currents are large enough that they can be used to manipulate domain walls. [4pt] [1] S.S.P. Parkin, US Patent 6,834,005 (2004); S.S.P. Parkin et al., Science 320, 190 (2008); S.S.P. Parkin, Scientific American (June 2009). [0pt] [2] M. Hayashi, L. Thomas, R. Moriya, C. Rettner and S.S.P. Parkin, Science 320, 209 (2008). [0pt] [3] L. Thomas, R. Moriya, C. Rettner and S.S.P. Parkin, Science 330, 1810 (2010). [0pt] [4] X. Jiang et al. Nat. Comm. 1:25 (2010) and Nano Lett. 11, 96 (2011).

  2. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Heather M.; Manuzatto, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  3. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  4. Applications of the Integrated High-Performance CMOS Image Sensor to Range Finders — from Optical Triangulation to the Automotive Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe-Air Jiang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available With their significant features, the applications of complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor (CMOS image sensors covers a very extensive range, from industrialautomation to traffic applications such as aiming systems, blind guidance, active/passiverange finders, etc. In this paper CMOS image sensor-based active and passive rangefinders are presented. The measurement scheme of the proposed active/passive rangefinders is based on a simple triangulation method. The designed range finders chieflyconsist of a CMOS image sensor and some light sources such as lasers or LEDs. Theimplementation cost of our range finders is quite low. Image processing software to adjustthe exposure time (ET of the CMOS image sensor to enhance the performance oftriangulation-based range finders was also developed. An extensive series of experimentswere conducted to evaluate the performance of the designed range finders. From theexperimental results, the distance measurement resolutions achieved by the active rangefinder and the passive range finder can be better than 0.6% and 0.25% within themeasurement ranges of 1 to 8 m and 5 to 45 m, respectively. Feasibility tests onapplications of the developed CMOS image sensor-based range finders to the automotivefield were also conducted. The experimental results demonstrated that our range finders arewell-suited for distance measurements in this field.

  5. Opto-mechanical design of a buckling cavity in a novel high-performance outside-plant robust field installable single-mode fibre connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebraert, Evert; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks provide an ideal means to reach the goal the European Union has set to provide 50 % of the households with a broadband connection faster than 100 Mb/s. Deployment of FTTH networks, which is still costly today, could be significantly boosted by novel ferrule-less connectors which don't require highly skilled personnel and allow installation in the field. We propose a ferrule-less connector in which two single-mode fibres (SMFs) are aligned and maintain physical contact by ensuring that at least one fibre is in a buckled state. To this end, we design a cavity in which a fibre can buckle in a controlled way. Using finite element analysis simulations to investigate the shape of the formed buckle for various buckling cavity lengths, we show that it can be accurately approximated by a cosine function. In addition, the optical performance of a buckled SMF is investigated by bending loss calculations and simulations. We show a good agreement between the analytical and the simulated bending loss results for a G.652 fibre at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Buckling cavity lengths smaller than 20 mm should be avoided to keep the optical bending loss due to buckling below 0.1 dB. In this case the cavity height should at least be 2 mm to avoid mechanical confinement of the fibre.

  6. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, Krishna [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: saraswat@stanford.edu; Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Krishnamohan, Tejas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kim, Donghyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nayfeh, Ammar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pethe, Abhijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO {sub x}N {sub y} ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin ({approx}2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices.

  7. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, Krishna; Chui, Chi On; Krishnamohan, Tejas; Kim, Donghyun; Nayfeh, Ammar; Pethe, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO x N y ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin (∼2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices

  8. An exploratory study of the effects of spatial working-memory load on prefrontal activation in low- and high-performing elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; van Beek, Arenda H E A; Reijs, Babette L R; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kessels, Roy P C

    2014-01-01

    Older adults show more bilateral prefrontal activation during cognitive performance than younger adults, who typically show unilateral activation. This over-recruitment has been interpreted as compensation for declining structure and function of the brain. Here we examined how the relationship between behavioral performance and prefrontal activation is modulated by different levels of working-memory load. Eighteen healthy older adults (70.8 ± 5.0 years; MMSE 29.3 ± 0.9) performed a spatial working-memory task (n-back). Oxygenated ([O2Hb]) and deoxygenated ([HHb]) hemoglobin concentration changes were registered by two functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) channels located over the left and right prefrontal cortex. Increased working-memory load resulted in worse performance compared to the control condition. [O2Hb] increased with rising working-memory load in both fNIRS channels. Based on the performance in the high working-memory load condition, the group was divided into low and high performers. A significant interaction effect of performance level and hemisphere on [O2Hb] increase was found, indicating that high performers were better able to keep the right prefrontal cortex engaged under high cognitive demand. Furthermore, in the low performers group, individuals with a larger decline in task performance from the control to the high working-memory load condition had a larger bilateral increase of [O2Hb]. The high performers did not show a correlation between performance decline and working-memory load related prefrontal activation changes. Thus, additional bilateral prefrontal activation in low performers did not necessarily result in better cognitive performance. Our study showed that bilateral prefrontal activation may not always be successfully compensatory. Individual behavioral performance should be taken into account to be able to distinguish successful and unsuccessful compensation or declined neural efficiency.

  9. Determination of quantitative retention-activity relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and biological effectiveness fingerprints of Salvia miltiorrhiza constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haoshi; Huang, Hongzhang; Zheng, Aini; Yu, Nuojun; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography (MELC). The quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRARs) of the constituents were established to model their pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and chromatographic retention data, and generate their biological effectiveness fingerprints. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established to determine the abundance of the extracted danshen constituents, such as sodium danshensu, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic aldehyde, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA. And another HPLC protocol was established to determine the abundance of those constituents in rat plasma samples. An experimental model was built in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and calculated the corresponding PK parameterst with 3P97 software package. Thirty-five model drugs were selected to test the PK parameter prediction capacities of the various MELC systems and to optimize the chromatographic protocols. QRARs and generated PK fingerprints were established. The test included water/oil-soluble danshen constituents and the prediction capacity of the regression model was validated. The results showed that the model had good predictability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of the Biological Effects of Bioceramic (a Material of Emitting High Performance Far-Infrared Ray) Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting-Kai

    2015-06-30

    Bioceramic is a material that emits high performance far-infrared ray, and possess physical, chemical and biological characteristics on irradiation of water, particularly to in reducing the size of water clusters, weakening of the hydrogen bonds of water molecules and other effects on physical and chemical properties of water. In this review paper, we summarized the in vivo and in vitro biological effects of Biocermaic, and included previous published data on nitric oxide, calmodulin induction on cells, effects of bioceramic on intracellular heat shock protein and intracellular nitric oxide contents of melanoma cells, antioxidant effects of Bioceramic on cells and plants under H₂O₂-mediated oxidative stress, effects on anti-oxidative stress of myoblast cells and on preventing fatigue of amphibian skeletal muscle during exercise, anti-inflammatory and pain relief mechanism, effects on the chondrosarcoma cell line with prostaglandin E2 production, effects on the rabbit with inflammatory arthritis by injection of lipopolysaccharides under monitoring by positron emission tomography scan, effects on psychological stress-conditioned elevated heart rate, blood pressure and oxidative stress-suppressed cardiac contractility, and protective effects of non-ionized radiation against oxidative stress on human breast epithelial cell. We anticipate that the present work will benefit medical applications.

  12. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  13. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  14. High performance nano-composite technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D.; Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J.; Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M.; Chea, Y. B.; Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-06-01

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  15. A High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal - The Effects of Composition, Structure and Environment on Corrosion Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.; Haslam, J.; Day, D.; Lian, T.; Saw, C.; Hailey, P.; Choi, J.S.; Rebak, R.; Yang, N.; Bayles, R.; Aprigliano, L.; Payer, J.; Perepezko, J.; Hildal, K.; Lavernia, E.; Ajdelsztajn, L.; Branagan, D.; Beardsley, B.

    2007-01-01

    The passive film stability of several Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found to be comparable to that of high-performance Ni-based alloys, and superior to that of stainless steels, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provide corrosion resistance; boron (B) enables glass formation; and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal also makes it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications, as discussed in companion publications. Corrosion data for SAM2X5 (Fe 49.7 Cr 17.7 Mn 1.9 Mo 7.4 W 1.6 B 15.2 C 3.8 Si 2.4 ) is discussed here. (authors)

  16. Matrix effect in analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoralov A.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For modern food safety control are using techniques that allow to determinate a large number of components. So for determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables commonly used methods of gas and liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass-spectrometric detection. This system allows to carry out quantitative determination several hundreds of pesticides and their identification by the characteristic fragments of the mass spectrum. The main problem when using mass spectrometric detection is a matrix effect, which is caused by the influence of matrix components extracted with pesticides from the sample. In this work, attempts have been made to reduce the influence of the matrix in the analysis of pesticide residues by high performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC / TOFMS.

  17. High-performance ceramics. Fabrication, structure, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzow, G.; Tobolski, J.; Telle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' pursued the objective to understand the chaining of cause and effect in the development of high-performance ceramics. This chain of problems begins with the chemical reactions for the production of powders, comprises the characterization, processing, shaping and compacting of powders, structural optimization, heat treatment, production and finishing, and leads to issues of materials testing and of a design appropriate to the material. The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' has resulted in contributions to the understanding of fundamental interrelationships in terms of materials science, which are summarized in the present volume - broken down into eight special aspects. (orig./RHM)

  18. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-01

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg-1), a high power density (27.5 kW kg-1) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and

  19. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Liming Dai

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their high energy density and power density, supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for advanced technologies. Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. This article summarizes the recent progresses on the development of high-performance supercapacitors bas...

  20. High performance computing on vector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roller, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects, nuclear magnetic resonance identification, and high-performance liquid chromatography isolation of the total flavonoids from Artemisia frigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of Artemisia frigida Willd. are used to treat joint swelling, renal heat, abnormal menstruation, and sore carbuncle. The anti-inflammatory effects of A. frigida have been well-known in folk medicine, suggesting that components extracted from A. frigida could potentially treat inflammatory disease. With the aim of discovering bioactive compounds, in this study, we extracted total flavonoids from the aerial parts of A. frigida and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects against inflammation induced by carrageenan and egg albumin in rats. At the doses studied, total flavonoids (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg and some isolated compounds (30 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. According to the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the total flavonoids from A. frigida, there are five major compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F1, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F2, 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-6,4′-dimethoxyflavone (F3, 5,3′-dihydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (F4, and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (F5, which may explain the anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Cocktail effect of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} semiconductors for a high performance dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Sung Kyu [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Seak, E-mail: youngslee@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    The bi-semiconductors of TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used as a photoelectrode material in a high performance dye-sensitized solar cell due to cocktail effects from the two conduction bands. The size of the semiconductors was reduced by using a paint shaker to enlarge the contact area of the semiconductor with the dye or electrolyte. The fill factor and the efficiency of the prepared dye-sensitized solar cell were improved by over 16% and 300%, respectively; these parameters were measured from a current-voltage curve that was based on the effects of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} co-semiconductor and the size reduction. A mechanism is suggested wherein the conduction band of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} works to prohibit the trapping effects of electrons in the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. This result is attributed to the prevention of electron recombination between electrons in the TiO{sub 2} conduction band with dye or electrolytes. The mechanism is suggested based on impedance results, which indicate improved electron transport at the interface of the TiO{sub 2}/dye/electrolyte.

  3. RavenDB high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  4. Algerian mint species:high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stvigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints,Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation.Methods:The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform:acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method.Results:Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively). The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox®equivalents) as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.Conclusions:Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  5. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmi Fatiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata, Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method. Results: Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1 000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox® equivalents as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  6. High performance parallel I/O

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Gain Critical Insight into the Parallel I/O EcosystemParallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing (HPC), especially in storing and processing very large datasets to facilitate scientific discovery. Revealing the state of the art in this field, High Performance Parallel I/O draws on insights from leading practitioners, researchers, software architects, developers, and scientists who shed light on the parallel I/O ecosystem.The first part of the book explains how large-scale HPC facilities scope, configure, and operate systems, with an emphasis on choices of I/O har

  7. Development of high performance cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The developments of superior next-generation light water reactor are requested on the basis of general view points, such as improvement of safety, economics, reduction of radiation waste and effective utilization of plutonium, until 2030 year in which conventional reactor plants should be renovate. Improvements of stainless steel cladding for conventional high burn-up reactor to more than 100 GWd/t, developments of manufacturing technology for reduced moderation-light water reactor (RMWR) of breeding ratio beyond 1.0 and researches of water-materials interaction on super critical pressure-water cooled reactor are carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Stable austenite stainless steel has been selected for fuel element cladding of advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). The austenite stain less has the superiority for anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. A hard spectrum of neutron energy up above 0.1 MeV takes place in core of the reduced moderation-light water reactor, as liquid metal-fast breeding reactor (LMFBR). High performance cladding for the RMWR fuel elements is required to get anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength also. Slow strain rate test (SSRT) of SUS 304 and SUS 316 are carried out for studying stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Irradiation tests in LMFBR are intended to obtain irradiation data for damaged quantity of the cladding materials. (M. Suetake)

  8. School-wide implementation of the elements of effective classroom instruction: Lessons from a high-performing, high-poverty urban school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Hilarie

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive

  9. The Cost-Effectiveness of Investments to Meet the Guiding Principles for High-Performance Sustainable Buildings on the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Judd, Kathleen S.

    2014-08-29

    As part its campus sustainability efforts, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has invested in eight new and existing buildings to ensure they meet the U.S. Department of Energy’s requirements for high performance sustainable buildings (HPSB) at DOE sites. These investments are expected to benefit PNNL by reducing the total life-cycle cost of facilities, improving energy efficiency and water conservation, and making buildings safer and healthier for the occupants. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of the implementing measures that meet the criteria for HPSBs in 3 different types of buildings on the PNNL campus: offices, scientific laboratories, and data centers. In each of the three case studies examined the investments made to achieve HPSB status demonstrated a high return on the HPSB investments that have taken place in these varied environments. Simple paybacks for total investments in the three case study buildings ranged from just 2 to 5 years; savings-to-investment ratios all exceeded the desirable threshold of 1; and the net present values associated with these investments were all positive.

  10. CO2 Plasma-Treated TiO2 Film as an Effective Electron Transport Layer for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Jia; Niu, Jinzhi; Liu, Yucheng; Ren, Xiaodong; Feng, Jiangshan; Liu, Zhike; Sun, Jie; Wang, Dapeng; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-10-04

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received great attention because of their excellent photovoltaic properties especially for the comparable efficiency to silicon solar cells. The electron transport layer (ETL) is regarded as a crucial medium in transporting electrons and blocking holes for PSCs. In this study, CO 2 plasma generated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was introduced to modify the TiO 2 ETL. The results indicated that the CO 2 plasma-treated compact TiO 2 layer exhibited better surface hydrophilicity, higher conductivity, and lower bulk defect state density in comparison with the pristine TiO 2 film. The quality of the stoichiometric TiO 2 structure was improved, and the concentration of oxygen-deficiency-induced defect sites was reduced significantly after CO 2 plasma treatment for 90 s. The PSCs with the TiO 2 film treated by CO 2 plasma for 90 s exhibited simultaneously improved short-circuit current (J SC ) and fill factor. As a result, the PSC-based TiO 2 ETL with CO 2 plasma treatment affords a power conversion efficiency of 15.39%, outperforming that based on pristine TiO 2 (13.54%). These results indicate that the plasma treatment by the PECVD method is an effective approach to modify the ETL for high-performance planar PSCs.

  11. Assessing the Effect of High Performance Inulin Supplementation via KLF5 mRNA Expression in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Abed; Roshanravan, Neda; Alipour, Shahriar; Barati, Meisam; Mansoori, Behzad; Ghalichi, Faezeh; Nattagh-Eshtivan, Elyas; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: The worldwide prevalence of metabolic disorders such as diabetes is increasing rapidly. Currently, the complications of diabetes are the major health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high performance (HP) inulin supplementation on glucose homeostasis via KLF5 mRNA expression in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In the present clinical trial conducted for a duration of 6 weeks, 46 volunteers diabetic patients referring to diabetes clinic in Tabriz, Iran, were randomly assigned into intervention (n= 23, consuming 10 gr/d HP inulin) and control groups (n= 23, consuming 10 gr/ d starch). We assessed glycemic and anthropometric indices, blood lipids and plasmatic level of miR-375 as well as KLF5 mRNA expression before and after the intervention. Results: Findings indicated that inulin supplementation significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in comparison to the placebo group (Pinulin supplementation resulted in significant decrease in KLF5 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (Fold change: 0.61± 0.11; P-value= 0.001) and significant increase in plasmatic level of miR-375 (Fold change: 3.75± 0.70; P-value=0.004). Conclusion: Considering the improvements of FPG level in diabetic patients, it seems that HP inulin supplementation may be beneficial in controlling diabetes via the expression of some genes. However, further studies are needed to achieve concise conclusions.

  12. Effect-directed fingerprints of 77 botanical extracts via a generic high-performance thin-layer chromatography method combined with assays and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, S; Hüsken, L; Fornasari, R; Scainelli, I; Morlock, G E

    2017-12-22

    Quantitative effect-directed profiles of 77 industrially and freshly extracted botanicals like herbs, spices, vegetables and fruits, widely used as food ingredients, dietary supplements or traditional medicine, gave relevant information on their quality. It allows the assessment of food, dietary supplements and phytomedicines with regard to potential health-promoting activities. In contrary to sum parameter assays and targeted analysis, chromatography combined with effect-directed analysis allows fast assignment of single active compounds and evaluation of their contribution to the overall activity, originating from a food or botanical sample. High-performance thin-layer chromatography was hyphenated with UV/Vis/FLD detection and effect-directed analysis, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, Gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri, Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase assays. Bioactive compounds of interest were eluted using an elution head-based interface and further characterized by electrospray ionization (high-resolution) mass spectrometry. This highly streamlined workflow resulted in a hyphenated HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-EDA-ESI + /ESI - -(HR)MS method. The excellent quantification power of the method was shown on three compounds. For rosmarinic acid, contents ranged from 4.5mg/g (rooibos) to 32.6mg/g (rosemary), for kaempferol-3-glucoside from 0.6mg/g (caraway) to 4.4mg/g (wine leaves), and for quercetin-3-glucoside from 1.1mg/g (hawthorn leaves) to 17.7mg/g (thyme). Three mean repeatabilities (%RSD) over 18 quantifications for the three compounds were ≤2.2% and the mean intermediate precision over three different days (%RSD, n=3) was 5.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz; Lussem, Bjorn; Liu, Shiyi

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer

  14. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  15. Magnetic field effects in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex R.

    2016-06-01

    Many animals can sense the geomagnetic field, which appears to aid in behaviours such as migration. The influence of man-made magnetic fields on biology, however, is potentially more sinister, with adverse health effects being claimed from exposure to fields from mobile phones or high voltage power lines. Do these phenomena have a common, biophysical origin, and is it even plausible that such weak fields can profoundly impact noisy biological systems? Radical pair intermediates are widespread in protein reaction mechanisms, and the radical pair mechanism has risen to prominence as perhaps the most plausible means by which even very weak fields might impact biology. In this New Views article, I will discuss the literature over the past 40 years that has investigated the topic of magnetic field effects in proteins. The lack of reproducible results has cast a shadow over the area. However, magnetic field and spin effects have proven to be useful mechanistic tools for radical mechanism in biology. Moreover, if a magnetic effect on a radical pair mechanism in a protein were to influence a biological system, the conditions necessary for it to do so appear increasing unlikely to have come about by chance.

  16. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  17. Effects of High Performance Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Status and Lipid Profile in Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Dehghan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, as a noncommunicable disease, is the main public health challenge in the 21st century. The prevalence of di¬abetes mellitus adjusted for the world population in Iran was 8% until the year 2010. Lipid levels are considered as important parameters to be eva¬luated, as high serum lipid levels are often reported as a complication in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is claimed that functional foods may im¬prove complications of diabetes mellitus, so this study was designed to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin on glycemic status and lipid profile of women with type 2 diabetes.Methods: The study was a randomized controlled clinical trial. Forty-nine type 2 diabetic females (fiber intake <30g/d, 25

  18. The hierarchical cobalt oxide-porous carbons composites and their high performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries enhanced by the excellent synergistic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Huanlei; Chen, Shougang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The CoO/PBCs composites with unique hierarchical architecture by utilizing porous biocarbons derived from kapok fibers (KFs) have been successfully synthesized. • The unique structure is aggregated by CoO rods anchored on the surface or inside the porous carbons. • The CoO/PBCs composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performances. - Abstract: The designed metal oxide-carbon composites are always considered as a potential candidate for high-performance electrode materials. In this work, we fabricated the CoO rods-porous carbon composites with a unique hierarchical architecture by utilizing porous biocarbons derived from kapok fibers (KFs). As the composites of CoO nanocrystals with the mean size of 10 nm and graphene-like carbon sheets, the CoO rods are homogeneously anchored on or inside the porous carbons, thus achieving a 3D hierarchical porous structure. When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the as-obtained composites exhibit the high lithium storage of 1057 mAh g"−"1. More importantly, the CoO rods/porous biocarbons composites display a superior long-term stable reversible capacity of about 550 mAh g"−"1 at the high current density of 5 A g"−"1 after 600 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance of the obtained composites has been attributed to the synergistic effect between CoO nanoparticles and porous biocarbons, which makes the composites favorable for fast electronic and ionic transfer, and superior stable structure. Therefore, we believe that the designed preparation of metal oxide architectures in low-cost and renewable porous biocarbons will be a valuable direction for exploring advanced electrode materials.

  19. Determination of trace amounts of rare-earth elements in highly pure neodymium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira, W. R.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; da Silva Queiroz, C. A.; Rodrigues, C.; Tomiyoshi, I. A.; Abrão, A.

    2003-02-01

    Recently rare-earth elements (REE) have received much attention in fields of geochemistry and industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of them are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of REE. HR ICP-MS was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC in highly pure materials. The separation of REE with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system using a concentration gradient methods. The detection limits with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system were about 0.5-10 pg mL-1. The percentage recovery ranged from 90% to 100% for different REE. The %RSD of the methods varying between 2.5% and 4.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two highly pure neodymium oxides samples (IPEN and Johnson Matthey Company) were performed. In short, the IPEN's materials which are highly pure (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences.

  20. Determination of trace amounts of rare-earth elements in highly pure neodymium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira, W.R.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Rodrigues, C.; Tomiyoshi, I.A.; Abrao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recently rare-earth elements (REE) have received much attention in fields of geochemistry and industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of them are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of REE. HR ICP-MS was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC in highly pure materials. The separation of REE with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system using a concentration gradient methods. The detection limits with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system were about 0.5-10 pg mL -1 . The percentage recovery ranged from 90% to 100% for different REE. The %RSD of the methods varying between 2.5% and 4.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two highly pure neodymium oxides samples (IPEN and Johnson Matthey Company) were performed. In short, the IPEN's materials which are highly pure (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences

  1. Analysis of Caffeic Acid Extraction From Ocimum gratissimum Linn. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and its Effects on a Cervical Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Chiuan Ye

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: This paper shows that high performance liquid chromatography is a suitable analytical method for determining caffeic acid levels in O. gratissimum, Ju ZenTa, and several vegetable oils. Caffeic acid can suppress the proliferation of HeLa cells.

  2. Tuning crystal field symmetry of hexagonal NaY0.92Yb0.05Er0.03F4 by Ti4+ codoping for high-performance upconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Han; Huang, Qingming; Ma, En; Zhang, Xinqi; Yu, Jianchang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Upconversion emission of Er 3+ was obviously enhanced by Ti 4+ codoped in NaYF 4 . • The upconversion luminescence lifetime was also obviously prolonged. • Na + could be induced to occupy Y 3+ sites if Ti 4+ was codoped with appropriate concentration. • The crystal field asymmetry was enhanced for better upconversion performance. • Crystal growth was prevented and small-sized NaYF 4 were obtained. - Abstract: 378 nm, 408 nm and 521 nm upconversion emissions of Er 3+ ions were obviously enhanced by Ti 4+ codoped with Yb 3+ /Er 3+ in hexagonal NaYF 4 , and the corresponding upconversion luminescence lifetimes were also prolonged, especially for 378 nm and 408 nm emissions. X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relationships of the structure and properties. From these characterizations we made a novel discovery that Na + could be induced to occupy Y 3+ sites for establishing valence balance of the system if Ti 4+ ions were codoped with appropriate concentration. As a result the crystal field asymmetry of NaY 0.92 Yb 0.05 Er 0.03 F 4 was enhanced and then its upconversion properties were improved because the hypersensitive electron transition of Yb 3+ /Er 3+ ions was promoted greatly. At the same time, the crystal sizes of the codoped NaYF 4 became smaller because the crystal growth was prevented by more negative charges gathering at the crystal surface. This study provides an exploration of the relationship among impurity doping, structural changes and upconversion performance, which may be useful for design and synthesis of high-performance upconversion codoping materials

  3. Quantum effects in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to quantum effects for photons in spatially inhomogeneous fields. Since the purely analytical solution of the corresponding equations is an unsolved problem even today, a main aspect of this work is to use the worldline formalism for scalar QED to develop numerical algorithms for correlation functions beyond perturbative constructions. In a first step we take a look at the 2-Point photon correlation function, in order to understand effects like vacuum polarization or quantum reflection. For a benchmark test of the numerical algorithm we reproduce analytical results in a constant magnetic background. For inhomogeneous fields we calculate for the first time local refractive indices of the quantum vacuum. In this way we find a new de-focusing effect of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Furthermore the numerical algorithm confirms analytical results for quantum reflection obtained within the local field approximation. In a second step we take a look at higher N-Point functions, with the help of our numerical algorithm. An interesting effect at the level of the 3-Point function is photon splitting. First investigations show that the Adler theorem remains also approximately valid for inhomogeneous fields.

  4. High performance in software development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Haapio, Petri; Liukkonen, Juha-Matti

    2015-01-01

    What are the ingredients of high-performing software? Software development, especially for large high-performance systems, is one the most complex tasks mankind has ever tried. Technological change leads to huge opportunities but challenges our old ways of working. Processing large data sets, possibly in real time or with other tight computational constraints, requires an efficient solution architecture. Efficiency requirements span from the distributed storage and large-scale organization of computation and data onto the lowest level of processor and data bus behavior. Integrating performance behavior over these levels is especially important when the computation is resource-bounded, as it is in numerics: physical simulation, machine learning, estimation of statistical models, etc. For example, memory locality and utilization of vector processing are essential for harnessing the computing power of modern processor architectures due to the deep memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers. As a r...

  5. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  6. Neo4j high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional or enthusiast who has a basic understanding of graphs or has basic knowledge of Neo4j operations, this is the book for you. Although it is targeted at an advanced user base, this book can be used by beginners as it touches upon the basics. So, if you are passionate about taming complex data with the help of graphs and building high performance applications, you will be able to get valuable insights from this book.

  7. Validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... specific and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ZER in micro-volumes ... tional medicine as a cure for swelling, sores, loss of appetite and ... Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand .... The effect of ... be suitable for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies. The.

  8. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  9. Tunneling field effect transistor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.

  10. Graphene field-effect devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtermeyer, T. J.; Lemme, M. C.; Bolten, J.; Baus, M.; Ramsteiner, M.; Kurz, H.

    2007-09-01

    In this article, graphene is investigated with respect to its electronic properties when introduced into field effect devices (FED). With the exception of manual graphene deposition, conventional top-down CMOS-compatible processes are applied. Few and monolayer graphene sheets are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrical properties of monolayer graphene sandwiched between two silicon dioxide films are studied. Carrier mobilities in graphene pseudo-MOS structures are compared to those obtained from double-gated Graphene-FEDs and silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs).

  11. Governance among Malaysian high performing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Marsidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Well performed companies have always been linked with effective governance which is generally reflected through effective board of directors. However many issues concerning the attributes for effective board of directors remained unresolved. Nowadays diversity has been perceived as able to influence the corporate performance due to the likelihood of meeting variety of needs and demands from diverse customers and clients. The study therefore aims to provide a fundamental understanding on governance among high performing companies in Malaysia.

  12. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.

    1993-01-01

    In this generally intelligible article, the author describes at first the physical fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their basic biological significance and effects for animals and human beings before dealing with the discussion regarding limiting values and dangers. The article treats possible connections with leukaemia as well as ith melatonine production more detailed. (vhe) [de

  13. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  14. Report on survey for high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. Verification work on achievements of industrial furnace development in 1999 by using theoretical method; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro kaihatsu seika no rironteki shuho ni yoru kakusho gyomu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project has been executed from fiscal 1998 through fiscal 2000. Fiscal 1999 has performed measurements, evaluations, analyses, and follow-ups on representative demonstration furnaces, subsequently from fiscal 1998. At the same time, theoretical discussions were given to understand the details of the achievements. The measurements and investigations on the representative demonstration furnaces verified remarkable enhancement in the waste heat recovery rate, and noticeable reduction in the fuel unit requirement. In order to understand in-furnace phenomena and heat conduction mechanisms, simulations were made on combustion gas flows, combustion reactions, and heat conduction by using three-dimensional and non-steady state continuous analyses. The method used is an effective method to elucidate the in-furnace gas temperature distribution in terms of space and time, and evaluate the heat conducting performance quantitatively. The result obtained in the current fiscal year on the overall heat absorption rate was found to be about the same value as for conventional furnaces. The temperature efficiency calculation value for the heat recovering device was 90 to 95%, which is much higher than that for the conventional furnaces of 30 to 60%. The calculation value for the fuel unit requirement was also reduced by 20 to 30% from that of the conventional furnaces. The simulation result is effective in understanding the heat conduction performance enhancing mechanism, having been supplemented by the measurements. (NEDO)

  15. From the TRIP effect and Quenching and Partitioning steels concepts to the development of new high-performance, lean powder metallurgy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralba, José M.; Navarro, Alfonso; Campos, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    A new method of developing lean powder metallurgy steel is proposed. The microstructure of the steel is tailored by combining two different prealloyed steel grades. These materials open a new niche in steel grades for high-performance applications by using a low-cost method of production. Moreover, an alternative route to developing microstructures suitable for manufacturing TRIP and/or Q and P steels is proposed avoiding some of the complex steps that must otherwise be taken to obtain the proper starting microstructure

  16. From the TRIP effect and Quenching and Partitioning steels concepts to the development of new high-performance, lean powder metallurgy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, José M., E-mail: josemanuel.torralba@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 - Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universidad Carlos III Av. Universidad, 30, Leganés (Spain); Navarro, Alfonso; Campos, Mónica [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universidad Carlos III Av. Universidad, 30, Leganés (Spain)

    2013-06-20

    A new method of developing lean powder metallurgy steel is proposed. The microstructure of the steel is tailored by combining two different prealloyed steel grades. These materials open a new niche in steel grades for high-performance applications by using a low-cost method of production. Moreover, an alternative route to developing microstructures suitable for manufacturing TRIP and/or Q and P steels is proposed avoiding some of the complex steps that must otherwise be taken to obtain the proper starting microstructure.

  17. Tuning crystal field symmetry of hexagonal NaY{sub 0.92}Yb{sub 0.05}Er{sub 0.03}F{sub 4} by Ti{sup 4+} codoping for high-performance upconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Han, E-mail: fjfzyh@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Huang, Qingming [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Ma, En [Fujian Institue of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Xinqi [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Yu, Jianchang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Upconversion emission of Er{sup 3+} was obviously enhanced by Ti{sup 4+} codoped in NaYF{sub 4}. • The upconversion luminescence lifetime was also obviously prolonged. • Na{sup +} could be induced to occupy Y{sup 3+} sites if Ti{sup 4+} was codoped with appropriate concentration. • The crystal field asymmetry was enhanced for better upconversion performance. • Crystal growth was prevented and small-sized NaYF{sub 4} were obtained. - Abstract: 378 nm, 408 nm and 521 nm upconversion emissions of Er{sup 3+} ions were obviously enhanced by Ti{sup 4+} codoped with Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} in hexagonal NaYF{sub 4}, and the corresponding upconversion luminescence lifetimes were also prolonged, especially for 378 nm and 408 nm emissions. X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relationships of the structure and properties. From these characterizations we made a novel discovery that Na{sup +} could be induced to occupy Y{sup 3+} sites for establishing valence balance of the system if Ti{sup 4+} ions were codoped with appropriate concentration. As a result the crystal field asymmetry of NaY{sub 0.92}Yb{sub 0.05}Er{sub 0.03}F{sub 4} was enhanced and then its upconversion properties were improved because the hypersensitive electron transition of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} ions was promoted greatly. At the same time, the crystal sizes of the codoped NaYF{sub 4} became smaller because the crystal growth was prevented by more negative charges gathering at the crystal surface. This study provides an exploration of the relationship among impurity doping, structural changes and upconversion performance, which may be useful for design and synthesis of high-performance upconversion codoping materials.

  18. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility

  19. Effective potentials for twisted fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banach, R.

    1981-01-01

    Minus the density of the effective action, evaluated at the lowest eigenfunction of the (space-time) derivative part of the second (functional) derivative of the classical action, is proposed as a generalised definition of the effective potential, applicable to twisted as well as untwisted sectors of a field theory. The proposal is corroborated by several specific calculations in the twisted sector, namely phi 4 theory (real and complex) and wrong-sign-Gordon theory, in an Einstein cylinder, where the exact integrability of the static solutions confirms the effective potential predictions. Both models exhibit a phase transition, which the effective potential locates, and the one-loop quantum shift in the critical radius is computed for the real phi 4 model, being a universal result. Topological mass generation at the classical level is pointed out, and the exactness of the classical effective potential approximation for complex phi 4 is discussed. (author)

  20. A high performance, cost-effective, open-source microscope for scanning two-photon microscopy that is modular and readily adaptable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Rosenegger

    Full Text Available Two-photon laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized the ability to delineate cellular and physiological function in acutely isolated tissue and in vivo. However, there exist barriers for many laboratories to acquire two-photon microscopes. Additionally, if owned, typical systems are difficult to modify to rapidly evolving methodologies. A potential solution to these problems is to enable scientists to build their own high-performance and adaptable system by overcoming a resource insufficiency. Here we present a detailed hardware resource and protocol for building an upright, highly modular and adaptable two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope that can be used for in vitro or in vivo applications. The microscope is comprised of high-end componentry on a skeleton of off-the-shelf compatible opto-mechanical parts. The dedicated design enabled imaging depths close to 1 mm into mouse brain tissue and a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeded all commercial two-photon systems tested. In addition to a detailed parts list, instructions for assembly, testing and troubleshooting, our plan includes complete three dimensional computer models that greatly reduce the knowledge base required for the non-expert user. This open-source resource lowers barriers in order to equip more laboratories with high-performance two-photon imaging and to help progress our understanding of the cellular and physiological function of living systems.

  1. A High Performance, Cost-Effective, Open-Source Microscope for Scanning Two-Photon Microscopy that Is Modular and Readily Adaptable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenegger, David G.; Tran, Cam Ha T.; LeDue, Jeffery; Zhou, Ning; Gordon, Grant R.

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized the ability to delineate cellular and physiological function in acutely isolated tissue and in vivo. However, there exist barriers for many laboratories to acquire two-photon microscopes. Additionally, if owned, typical systems are difficult to modify to rapidly evolving methodologies. A potential solution to these problems is to enable scientists to build their own high-performance and adaptable system by overcoming a resource insufficiency. Here we present a detailed hardware resource and protocol for building an upright, highly modular and adaptable two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope that can be used for in vitro or in vivo applications. The microscope is comprised of high-end componentry on a skeleton of off-the-shelf compatible opto-mechanical parts. The dedicated design enabled imaging depths close to 1 mm into mouse brain tissue and a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeded all commercial two-photon systems tested. In addition to a detailed parts list, instructions for assembly, testing and troubleshooting, our plan includes complete three dimensional computer models that greatly reduce the knowledge base required for the non-expert user. This open-source resource lowers barriers in order to equip more laboratories with high-performance two-photon imaging and to help progress our understanding of the cellular and physiological function of living systems. PMID:25333934

  2. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  3. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  4. Report on survey for high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. Activities to promote proliferation of the introduction to subject project related business entities; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Taisho jigyosha eno fukyu sokushin katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the survey on high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. The development of a high-performance industrial furnace having been performed by NEDO since fiscal 1993 has completed the fundamental development research in fiscal 1998, and the planned achievements were verified (large energy saving, reduction of NOx emission, and down-sizing). Upon the result, the introduction field test project has started in fiscal 1998 for three years until fiscal 2000. The number of research items adopted in fiscal 1998 was 58, and those in fiscal 1999 was 51, which are progressing smoothly at the present. Reduction in CO2 emission of 50,000 tons was demonstrated as the achievement in fiscal 1998, and NOx emission realized the regulation value or lower in cities wherein each operator is executing the project. Several cases of down-sizing were also reported. In the proliferation promoting project in fiscal 1998, activities were made mainly to the subject project related business entities in relation with the development achievements and general technologies for the high-performance furnace. In fiscal 1999, communication transmission was continued by using information tools on introduction of the achievements and technologies. Attempts will be made on promoting the proliferation of the field test project in the future through a number of technology lecture meetings performed by specialists. (NEDO)

  5. The effective crystal field potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mulak, J

    2000-01-01

    As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...

  6. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, C.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic (em) fields on biological systems were first observed and exploited well over a century ago. Concern over the possible health hazards of human exposure to such fields developed much later. It is now well known that excessive exposure to em fields may have in undesirable biological consequences. Standards were introduced to determine what constitute an excessive exposure and how to avoid it. Current concern over the issue of hazards stems mainly from recent epidemiological studies of exposed populations and also from the results of laboratory experiments in which whole animals are exposed in vivo or tissue and cell cultures exposed in vitro to low levels of irradiation. The underlying fear is the possibility of a causal relationship between chronic exposure to low field levels and some forms of cancer. So far the evidence does not add up to a firm statement on the matter. At present it is not known how and at what level, if at all, can these exposure be harmful to human health. This state of affair does not provide a basis for incorporating the outcome of such research in exposure standards. This paper will give a brief overview of the research in this field and how it is evaluated for the purpose of producing scientifically based standards. The emphasis will be on the physical, biophysical and biological mechanisms implicated in the interaction between em fields and biological systems. Understanding such mechanisms leads not only to a more accurate evaluation of their health implications but also to their optimal utilization, under controlled conditions, in biomedical applications. (author)

  7. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  8. Casimir effect for interacting fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses some recent work on the Casimir effect: that is the problem of renormalizing Tsub(μγ) on locally-flat space-times. That is on space-times which, while topologically non-trivial are locally Minkowskian - with vanishing local curvature. The author has developed a systematic method for calculating this Casimir effect for interacting fields to arbitrary order in perturbation theory - and for arbitrary components of Tsub(μγ) which he describes in general and then illustrates it by describing first order perturbation theory calculations for a lambdaphi 4 theory for the two models: the cylinder space-time and the parallel plates. (Auth.)

  9. Planning for high performance project teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.; Keeney, J.; Westney, R.

    1997-01-01

    Both industry-wide research and corporate benchmarking studies confirm the significant savings in cost and time that result from early planning of a project. Amoco's Team Planning Workshop combines long-term strategic project planning and short-term tactical planning with team building to provide the basis for high performing project teams, better project planning, and effective implementation of the Amoco Common Process for managing projects

  10. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  11. EDITORIAL: High performance under pressure High performance under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-11-01

    The accumulation of charge in certain materials in response to an applied mechanical stress was first discovered in 1880 by Pierre Curie and his brother Paul-Jacques. The effect, piezoelectricity, forms the basis of today's microphones, quartz watches, and electronic components and constitutes an awesome scientific legacy. Research continues to develop further applications in a range of fields including imaging [1, 2], sensing [3] and, as reported in this issue of Nanotechnology, energy harvesting [4]. Piezoelectricity in biological tissue was first reported in 1941 [5]. More recently Majid Minary-Jolandan and Min-Feng Yu at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the USA have studied the piezoelectric properties of collagen I [1]. Their observations support the nanoscale origin of piezoelectricity in bone and tendons and also imply the potential importance of the shear load transfer mechanism in mechanoelectric transduction in bone. Shear load transfer has been the principle basis of the nanoscale mechanics model of collagen. The piezoelectric effect in quartz causes a shift in the resonant frequency in response to a force gradient. This has been exploited for sensing forces in scanning probe microscopes that do not need optical readout. Recently researchers in Spain explored the dynamics of a double-pronged quartz tuning fork [2]. They observed thermal noise spectra in agreement with a coupled-oscillators model, providing important insights into the system's behaviour. Nano-electromechanical systems are increasingly exploiting piezoresistivity for motion detection. Observations of the change in a material's resistance in response to the applied stress pre-date the discovery of piezoelectric effect and were first reported in 1856 by Lord Kelvin. Researchers at Caltech recently demonstrated that a bridge configuration of piezoresistive nanowires can be used to detect in-plane CMOS-based and fully compatible with future very-large scale integration of

  12. High performance fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koon, Yang Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    {omicron} Development of High Plasticity and Annular Pellet - Development of strong candidates of ultra high burn-up fuel pellets for a PCI remedy - Development of fabrication technology of annular fuel pellet {omicron} Development of High Performance Cladding Materials - Irradiation test of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor and the evaluation of the in-pile performance - Development of the final candidates for the next generation cladding materials. - Development of the manufacturing technology for the dual-cooled fuel cladding tubes. {omicron} Irradiated Fuel Performance Evaluation Technology Development - Development of performance analysis code system for the dual-cooled fuel - Development of fuel performance-proving technology {omicron} Feasibility Studies on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel Core - Analysis on the property of a reactor core with dual-cooled fuel - Feasibility evaluation on the dual-cooled fuel core {omicron} Development of Design Technology for Dual-Cooled Fuel Structure - Definition of technical issues and invention of concept for dual-cooled fuel structure - Basic design and development of main structure components for dual- cooled fuel - Basic design of a dual-cooled fuel rod.

  13. Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavor, M.I.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns are investigated, based on the fringing-field integral method. Transfer matrices at the effective boundaries of the acceleration column are obtained, as well as the general transfer matrix of the region separating two homogeneous electrostatic fields with different field strengths. The accuracy of the fringing-field integral method is investigated

  14. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project on field tests on the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces. Analysis/evaluation of the collected data; 2000 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Shushu data kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving the target of reduction in CO2 regarded as substance causing global warming which was agreed at COP3, the study has been made since FY 1993 on 'the development of high performance industrial furnaces (regenerative combustion furnace using heat storage type burner for realization of high temperature air combustion).' By applying the good results obtained, a field test project for introduction of high performance industrial furnace has been implemented for three years (FY 1998 - FY 2000) to confirm the actual performance, reliability, etc. Collection/arrangement were made mainly of the data obtained in this field test project for the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces in each fiscal year (1998, 1999 and 2000), and verification/evaluation and arrangement were made. In this R and D, energy conservation was achieved at a rate of more than 30% of the target. Also about NOx, the result was obtained that the NOx by energy saving can be reduced 50% in almost all kinds of furnace if adding the reduction amount in emission amount and the reduction amount by high temperature air combustion. About the quality, the good result was obtained. Downsizing was conducted in approximately 10 examples. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project on field tests on the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces. Analysis/evaluation of the collected data; 2000 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Shushu data kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving the target of reduction in CO2 regarded as substance causing global warming which was agreed at COP3, the study has been made since FY 1993 on 'the development of high performance industrial furnaces (regenerative combustion furnace using heat storage type burner for realization of high temperature air combustion).' By applying the good results obtained, a field test project for introduction of high performance industrial furnace has been implemented for three years (FY 1998 - FY 2000) to confirm the actual performance, reliability, etc. Collection/arrangement were made mainly of the data obtained in this field test project for the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces in each fiscal year (1998, 1999 and 2000), and verification/evaluation and arrangement were made. In this R and D, energy conservation was achieved at a rate of more than 30% of the target. Also about NOx, the result was obtained that the NOx by energy saving can be reduced 50% in almost all kinds of furnace if adding the reduction amount in emission amount and the reduction amount by high temperature air combustion. About the quality, the good result was obtained. Downsizing was conducted in approximately 10 examples. (NEDO)

  16. Ambipolar phosphorene field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Demarteau, Marcel; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-11-25

    In this article, we demonstrate enhanced electron and hole transport in few-layer phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) using titanium as the source/drain contact electrode and 20 nm SiO2 as the back gate dielectric. The field effect mobility values were extracted to be ∼38 cm(2)/Vs for electrons and ∼172 cm(2)/Vs for the holes. On the basis of our experimental data, we also comprehensively discuss how the contact resistances arising due to the Schottky barriers at the source and the drain end effect the different regime of the device characteristics and ultimately limit the ON state performance. We also propose and implement a novel technique for extracting the transport gap as well as the Schottky barrier height at the metal-phosphorene contact interface from the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the phosphorene FETs. This robust technique is applicable to any ultrathin body semiconductor which demonstrates symmetric ambipolar conduction. Finally, we demonstrate a high gain, high noise margin, chemical doping free, and fully complementary logic inverter based on ambipolar phosphorene FETs.

  17. Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettsome, Annette K.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface

  18. High performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the first ever CMOS compatible soft etch back based high performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs. The move from planar to non-planar FinFETs has enabled continued scaling down to the 14 nm technology node. This has been possible due to the reduction in off-state leakage and reduced short channel effects on account of the superior electrostatic charge control of multiple gates. At the same time, flexible electronics is an exciting expansion opportunity for next generation electronics. However, a fully integrated low-cost system will need to maintain ultra-large-scale-integration density, high performance and reliability - same as today\\'s traditional electronics. Up until recently, this field has been mainly dominated by very weak performance organic electronics enabled by low temperature processes, conducive to low melting point plastics. Now however, we show the world\\'s highest performing flexible version of 3D FinFET CMOS using a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible fabrication technique for high performance ultra-mobile consumer applications with stylish design. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall.ex Nees (Acanthaceae) or Kalmegh is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many Ayurvedic formulations. Diterpenoid compounds andrographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A. paniculata. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was compared with the solid-liquid extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction with methanol, water and methanol-water as solvents. Also a rapid and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the three biologically active compounds, AP, neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata. Under the best SFE conditions tested for diterpenoids, which involved extraction at 60°C and 100 bar, the extractive efficiencies were 132 and 22 µg/g for AP and neoandrographolide, respectively. The modifier percentage significantly affected the extraction efficiency. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Electromagnetic field effects in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: measurements of conductivity; enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Hayes...()^1 showed a strong correlation of peak electrical conductivity with carbon content of the detonation products. Ershov.......^2 linked detailed electrical conductivity measurements with reaction kinetics and this work was extended to enhance detonation performance electrically;...^3 for this, electrical power densities of the order of 100 TW/m^2 of explosive surface normal to the detonation front were required. However, small electrical powers are required to affect the initiation and growth of reaction.......^4,5 A continuation of this work will be reported. LA-UR 09-00873 .^1 B. Hayes, Procs. of 4th Symposium (International) on Detonation (1965), p. 595. ^2 A. Ershov, P. Zubkov, and L. Luk'yanchikov, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 10, 776-782 (1974). ^3 M. Cowperthwaite, Procs. 9th Detonation Symposium (1989), p. 388-395. ^4 M. A. Cook and T. Z. Gwyther, ``Influence of Electric Fields on Shock to Detonation Transition,'' (1965). ^5 D. Salisbury, R. Winter, and L. Biddle, Procs. of the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (2005) p. 1010-1013.

  1. FY 1998 Report on field test project study for introduction of high-performance industrial furnaces. Detailed measurement study of FY 1998 joint research demonstration data; Koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo. 1998 nendo kyodo kenkyu jissho data no shosaina sokutei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1998 results of measurement and study for introduction of the high-performance industrial furnaces. The NEDO's works for development of the high-performance industrial furnaces have been almost completed. The field tests are conducted to verify leveling and increasing temperature in the high-performance industrial furnaces. The data are collected in the existing and modified furnaces at the standard treating rate for each of the selected furnaces. The measured items are heat patterns of the works, temperature distributions within the furnace, heat balances in the combustion furnace, waste heat at the regenerative heat recovery unit, and exhaust gas components. The investigated items are names, materials, shapes, weights and quantities of the works; charging/discharging temperature; heating time; temperature in each furnace; consumption, types and heating values of the fuels used; air/fuel ratios; presence or absence of recuperator and its conditions when adopted; air temperature upstream and downstream of the heat accumulator, and exhaust gas temperature and components; temperature of the heat accumulator's external walls; cooling water rates, and inlet/outlet temperature, surface temperature of the furnaces' external walls; and furnace dimensions and structures. The measurements are done by thermocouples for various types of temperature, and O{sub 2}, CO2, CO, NOx meters and other analyzers for the components. The data are collected on a continuous basis. (NEDO)

  2. Renormalons in effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, M.; Manohar, A.V.; Savage, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the high-order behavior of perturbative matching conditions in effective field theories. These series are typically badly divergent, and are not Borel summable due to infrared and ultraviolet renormalons which introduce ambiguities in defining the sum of the series. We argue that, when treated consistently, there is no physical significance to these ambiguities. Although nonperturbative matrix elements and matching conditions are in general ambiguous, the ambiguity in any physical observable is always higher order in 1/M than the theory has been defined. We discuss the implications for the recently noticed infrared renormalon in the pole mass of a heavy quark. We show that a ratio of form factors in exclusive Λ b decays (which is related to the pole mass) is free from renormalon ambiguities regardless of the mass used as the expansion parameter of heavy quark effective theory. The renormalon ambiguities also cancel in inclusive heavy hadron decays. Finally, we demonstrate the cancellation of renormalons in a four-Fermi effective theory obtained by integrating out a heavy colored scalar

  3. High performance light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squarer, D.; Schulenberg, T.; Struwe, D.; Oka, Y.; Bittermann, D.; Aksan, N.; Maraczy, C.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Souyri, A.; Dumaz, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) project is to assess the merit and economic feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at thermodynamically supercritical regime. An efficiency of approximately 44% is expected. To accomplish this objective, a highly qualified team of European research institutes and industrial partners together with the University of Tokyo is assessing the major issues pertaining to a new reactor concept, under the co-sponsorship of the European Commission. The assessment has emphasized the recent advancement achieved in this area by Japan. Additionally, it accounts for advanced European reactor design requirements, recent improvements, practical design aspects, availability of plant components and the availability of high temperature materials. The final objective of this project is to reach a conclusion on the potential of the HPLWR to help sustain the nuclear option, by supplying competitively priced electricity, as well as to continue the nuclear competence in LWR technology. The following is a brief summary of the main project achievements:-A state-of-the-art review of supercritical water-cooled reactors has been performed for the HPLWR project.-Extensive studies have been performed in the last 10 years by the University of Tokyo. Therefore, a 'reference design', developed by the University of Tokyo, was selected in order to assess the available technological tools (i.e. computer codes, analyses, advanced materials, water chemistry, etc.). Design data and results of the analysis were supplied by the University of Tokyo. A benchmark problem, based on the 'reference design' was defined for neutronics calculations and several partners of the HPLWR project carried out independent analyses. The results of these analyses, which in addition help to 'calibrate' the codes, have guided the assessment of the core and the design of an improved HPLWR fuel assembly. Preliminary selection was made for the HPLWR scale

  4. Ion implantation in compound semiconductors for high-performance electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced electronic devices based on compound semiconductors often make use of selective area ion implantation doping or isolation. The implantation processing becomes more complex as the device dimensions are reduced and more complex material systems are employed. The authors review several applications of ion implantation to high performance junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) that are based on compound semiconductors, including: GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaP, and AlGaSb

  5. High-performance computing in seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The scientific, technical, and economic importance of the issues discussed here presents a clear agenda for future research in computational seismology. In this way these problems will drive advances in high-performance computing in the field of seismology. There is a broad community that will benefit from this work, including the petroleum industry, research geophysicists, engineers concerned with seismic hazard mitigation, and governments charged with enforcing a comprehensive test ban treaty. These advances may also lead to new applications for seismological research. The recent application of high-resolution seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface for the environmental remediation industry is an example of this activity. This report makes the following recommendations: (1) focused efforts to develop validated documented software for seismological computations should be supported, with special emphasis on scalable algorithms for parallel processors; (2) the education of seismologists in high-performance computing technologies and methodologies should be improved; (3) collaborations between seismologists and computational scientists and engineers should be increased; (4) the infrastructure for archiving, disseminating, and processing large volumes of seismological data should be improved.

  6. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lapierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices.

  7. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed. (topical review)

  8. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed.

  9. Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffers, James

    2013-01-01

    Authors Jim Jeffers and James Reinders spent two years helping educate customers about the prototype and pre-production hardware before Intel introduced the first Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. They have distilled their own experiences coupled with insights from many expert customers, Intel Field Engineers, Application Engineers and Technical Consulting Engineers, to create this authoritative first book on the essentials of programming for this new architecture and these new products. This book is useful even before you ever touch a system with an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. To ensure that your applications run at maximum efficiency, the authors emphasize key techniques for programming any modern parallel computing system whether based on Intel Xeon processors, Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors, or other high performance microprocessors. Applying these techniques will generally increase your program performance on any system, and better prepare you for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors and the Intel MIC architecture. It off...

  10. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  11. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '15 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2015. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  12. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '17 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael; HLRS 2017

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2017. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance.The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  13. High-Performance Phylogeny Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffani L. Williams

    2004-11-10

    Under the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Computational Biology, I have been afforded the opportunity to study phylogenetics--one of the most important and exciting disciplines in computational biology. A phylogeny depicts an evolutionary relationship among a set of organisms (or taxa). Typically, a phylogeny is represented by a binary tree, where modern organisms are placed at the leaves and ancestral organisms occupy internal nodes, with the edges of the tree denoting evolutionary relationships. The task of phylogenetics is to infer this tree from observations upon present-day organisms. Reconstructing phylogenies is a major component of modern research programs in many areas of biology and medicine, but it is enormously expensive. The most commonly used techniques attempt to solve NP-hard problems such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, typically by bounded searches through an exponentially-sized tree-space. For example, there are over 13 billion possible trees for 13 organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics that quickly analyze large amounts of data accurately will revolutionize the biological field. This final report highlights my activities in phylogenetics during the two-year postdoctoral period at the University of New Mexico under Prof. Bernard Moret. Specifically, this report reports my scientific, community and professional activities as an Alfred P. Sloan Postdoctoral Fellow in Computational Biology.

  14. Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troger, C.

    2001-06-01

    Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coefficients is introduced and the parameters are calculated via perturbation theory. The method described in this work has been implemented in a software tool that performs a self-consistent solution of Schroedinger- and Poisson-equation for a one-dimensional cut through a MOS structure or heterostructure. The calculation of the carrier densities is performed assuming Fermi-Dirac statistics. In the case of a MOS structure a metal or a polysilicon gate is considered and an arbitrary gate bulk voltage can be applied. This allows investigating quantum mechanical effects in capacity calculations, to compare the simulated data with measured CV curves and to evaluate the results obtained with a quantum mechanical correction for the classical electron density. The behavior of the defined subband parameters is compared to the value of the mass and the non-parabolicity coefficient from the model due to Kane. Finally the presented characterization of the subbands is applied

  15. Toward High-Performance Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward E., III

    2002-01-01

    Reviews management changes that companies have made over time in adopting or adapting four approaches to organizational performance: employee involvement, total quality management, re-engineering, and knowledge management. Considers future possibilities and defines a new view of what constitutes effective organizational design in management.…

  16. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  17. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz

    2017-06-29

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer; source (or drain) contact stacks disposed on portions of the first i-layer; a second i-layer of organic semiconductor material disposed on the first i-layer surrounding the source (or drain) contact stacks; an n-doped organic semiconductor layer disposed on the second i-layer; and a drain (or source) contact layer disposed on the n-doped organic semiconductor layer. The source (or drain) contact stacks can include a p-doped injection layer, a source (or drain) contact layer, and a contact insulating layer. In another example, a method includes disposing a first i-layer over a gate insulating layer; forming source or drain contact stacks; and disposing a second i-layer, an n-doped organic semiconductor layer, and a drain or source contact.

  18. Development of new high-performance stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo

    2002-01-01

    This paper focused on high-performance stainless steels and their development status. Effect of nitrogen addition on super-stainless steel was discussed. Research activities at Yonsei University, on austenitic and martensitic high-performance stainless, steels, and the next-generation duplex stainless steels were introduced

  19. Learning Apache Solr high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on, real-world examples. Each topic is explained and demonstrated in a specific and user-friendly flow, from search optimization using Solr to Deployment of Zookeeper applications. This book is ideal for Apache Solr developers and want to learn different techniques to optimize Solr performance with utmost efficiency, along with effectively troubleshooting the problems that usually occur while trying to boost performance. Familiarity with search servers and database querying is expected.

  20. High-performance composite chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-07-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process. In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications.

  1. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  2. Field-effect transistor memories based on ferroelectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Wang, Haiyang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaomeng; Guo, Yu; Sun, Huabin; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Field-effect transistors based on ferroelectrics have attracted intensive interests, because of their non-volatile data retention, rewritability, and non-destructive read-out. In particular, polymeric materials that possess ferroelectric properties are promising for the fabrications of memory devices with high performance, low cost, and large-area manufacturing, by virtue of their good solubility, low-temperature processability, and good chemical stability. In this review, we discuss the material characteristics of ferroelectric polymers, providing an update on the current development of ferroelectric field-effect transistors (Fe-FETs) in non-volatile memory applications. Program supported partially by the NSFC (Nos. 61574074, 61774080), NSFJS (No. BK20170075), and the Open Partnership Joint Projects of NSFC-JSPS Bilateral Joint Research Projects (No. 61511140098).

  3. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  4. Issues of effective field theories with resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gegelia, J.; Japaridze, G.

    2014-01-01

    We address some issues of renormalization and symmetries of effective field theories with unstable particles - resonances. We also calculate anomalous contributions in the divergence of the singlet axial current in an effective field theory of massive SU(N) Yang-Mills fields interacting with fermions and discuss their possible relevance to the strong CP problem. (author)

  5. A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.

  6. The High Performance Shape Memory Effect (HP-SME in Ni Rich NiTi Wires: In Situ X-Ray Diffraction on Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coduri Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for using Shape Memory Alloys (SMA was recently proposed and named highperformance shape memory effect (HP-SME. The HP-SME exploits the thermal cycling of stress-induced martensite for producing extremely high mechanical work with a very stable functional fatigue behaviour in Ni rich NiTi alloy. The latter was found to differ significantly from the functional fatigue behaviour observed for conventional SMA. This study was undertaken in order to elucidate the microstructural modifications at the basis of this particular feature. To this purpose, the functional fatigue was coupled to in situ Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Diffraction, by recording patterns on wires thermally cycled by Joule effect under a constant applied stress (800 MPa. The accurate analysis the line profile XRD data suggests the accumulation of defects upon functional cycling, while the fibre texture was not observed to change. The functional fatigue exhibits a very similar behaviour as the line broadening of XRD peaks, thus suggesting the accumulation of dislocations as the origin of the mechanism of the permanent deformation.

  7. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings.

  8. High Performance and Cost-Effective Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Fe-N-C Methanol-Tolerant Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, David; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Gordon, Jonathan; Atanassov, Plamen; Aricò, Antonino S; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2016-08-09

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) offer great advantages for the supply of power with high efficiency and large energy density. The search for a cost-effective, active, stable and methanol-tolerant catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still a great challenge. In this work, platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) catalysts based on Fe-N-C are investigated in acidic medium. Post-treatment of the catalyst improves the ORR activity compared with previously published PGM-free formulations and shows an excellent tolerance to the presence of methanol. The feasibility for application in DMFC under a wide range of operating conditions is demonstrated, with a maximum power density of approximately 50 mW cm(-2) and a negligible methanol crossover effect on the performance. A review of the most recent PGM-free cathode formulations for DMFC indicates that this formulation leads to the highest performance at a low membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) cost. Moreover, a 100 h durability test in DMFC shows suitable applicability, with a similar performance-time behavior compared to common MEAs based on Pt cathodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. High-performance supercapacitors of carboxylate-modified hollow carbon nanospheres coated on flexible carbon fibre paper: Effects of oxygen-containing group contents, electrolytes and operating temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phattharasupakun, Nutthaphon; Wutthiprom, Juthaporn; Suktha, Phansiri; Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Chanlek, Narong; Shepherd, Celine; Hadzifejzovic, Emina; Moloney, Mark G.; Foord, John S.; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2017-01-01

    Although functionalized carbon-based materials have been widely used as the supercapacitor electrodes, the optimum contents of the functional groups, the charge storage mechanisms, and the effects of electrolytes and operating temperature have not yet been clearly investigated. In this work, carboxylate-modified hollow carbon nanospheres (c-HCN) with different functional group contents synthesized by an oxidation process of carbon nanospheres with nitric acid were coated on flexible carbon fibre paper and used as the supercapacitor electrodes. An as-fabricated supercapacitor of the c-HCN with a finely tuned 6.2 atomic % of oxygen of the oxygen-containing groups in an ionic liquid electrolyte exhibits a specific capacitance of 390 F g"−"1, a specific energy of 115 Wh kg"−"1, and a maximum specific power of 13548 W kg"−"1 at 70 °C. The charge storage mechanism investigated is based on the chemical adsorption of the ionic liquid electrolyte on the c-HCN electrode. This process is highly reversible leading to high capacity retention. The supercapacitor in this work may be practically used in many high energy and power applications.

  10. Synergistic Effect between Ultra-Small Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide sheets for the Application in High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghuan; Wang, Rutao; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-06-08

    Nanoscale electrode materials including metal oxide nanoparticles and two-dimensional graphene have been employed for designing supercapacitors. However, inevitable agglomeration of nanoparticles and layers stacking of graphene largely hamper their practical applications. Here we demonstrate an efficient co-ordination and synergistic effect between ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for synthesizing ideal electrode materials. On one hand, to make the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles work at full capacity as an ideal pseudocapacitive material, RGO sheets are employed as an suitable substrate to anchor these nanoparticles against agglomeration. As a consequence, an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1717 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) is achieved. On the other hand, to further facilitate ion transfer within RGO sheets as an ideal electrical double layer capacitor material, the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles are introduced among RGO sheets as the recyclable sacrificial spacer to prevent the stacking. The resulting RGO sheets exhibit superior rate capability with a high capacitance of 182 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1). On this basis, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled using the two materials, delivering a superior energy density of 75 Wh kg(-1) and an ultrahigh power density of 40 000 W kg(-1).

  11. Effects of sample injection amount and time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection dynamic range on metabolome analysis by high-performance chemical isotope labeling LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Li, Liang

    2015-04-06

    The effect of sample injection amount on metabolome analysis in a chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform was investigated. The performance of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers with and without a high-dynamic-range (HD) detection system was compared in the analysis of (12)C2/(13)C2-dansyl labeled human urine samples. An average of 1635 ± 21 (n = 3) peak pairs or putative metabolites was detected using the HD-TOF-MS, compared to 1429 ± 37 peak pairs from a conventional or non-HD TOF-MS. In both instruments, signal saturation was observed. However, in the HD-TOF-MS, signal saturation was mainly caused by the ionization process, while in the non-HD TOF-MS, it was caused by the detection process. To extend the MS detection range in the non-HD TOF-MS, an automated switching from using (12)C to (13)C-natural abundance peaks for peak ratio calculation when the (12)C peaks are saturated has been implemented in IsoMS, a software tool for processing CIL LC-MS data. This work illustrates that injecting an optimal sample amount is important to maximize the metabolome coverage while avoiding the sample carryover problem often associated with over-injection. A TOF mass spectrometer with an enhanced detection dynamic range can also significantly increase the number of peak pairs detected. In chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS, relative metabolite quantification is done by measuring the peak ratio of a (13)C2-/(12)C2-labeled peak pair for a given metabolite present in two comparative samples. The dynamic range of peak ratio measurement does not need to be very large, as only subtle changes of metabolite concentrations are encountered in most metabolomic studies where relative metabolome quantification of different groups of samples is performed. However, the absolute concentrations of different metabolites can be very different, requiring a technique to provide a wide detection dynamic range to allow the detection of as

  12. Progress in a novel architecture for high performance processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Liu, Meng; Liu, Zijun; Du, Xueliang; Xie, Shaolin; Ma, Hong; Ding, Guangxin; Ren, Weili; Zhou, Fabiao; Sun, Wenqin; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Donglin

    2018-04-01

    The high performance processing (HPP) is an innovative architecture which targets on high performance computing with excellent power efficiency and computing performance. It is suitable for data intensive applications like supercomputing, machine learning and wireless communication. An example chip with four application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) cores which is the first generation of HPP cores has been taped out successfully under Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 40 nm low power process. The innovative architecture shows great energy efficiency over the traditional central processing unit (CPU) and general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU). Compared with MaPU, HPP has made great improvement in architecture. The chip with 32 HPP cores is being developed under TSMC 16 nm field effect transistor (FFC) technology process and is planed to use commercially. The peak performance of this chip can reach 4.3 teraFLOPS (TFLOPS) and its power efficiency is up to 89.5 gigaFLOPS per watt (GFLOPS/W).

  13. High-performance noncontact thermal diode via asymmetric nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiadong; Liu, Xianglei; He, Huan; Wu, Weitao; Liu, Baoan

    2018-05-01

    Electric diodes, though laying the foundation of modern electronics and information processing industries, suffer from ineffectiveness and even failure at high temperatures. Thermal diodes are promising alternatives to relieve above limitations, but usually possess low rectification ratios, and how to obtain a high-performance thermal rectification effect is still an open question. This paper proposes an efficient contactless thermal diode based on the near-field thermal radiation of asymmetric doped silicon nanostructures. The rectification ratio computed via exact scattering theories is demonstrated to be as high as 10 at a nanoscale gap distance and period, outperforming the counterpart flat-plate diode by more than one order of magnitude. This extraordinary performance mainly lies in the higher forward and lower reverse radiative heat flux within the low frequency band compared with the counterpart flat-plate diode, which is caused by a lower loss and smaller cut-off wavevector of nanostructures for the forward and reversed scheme, respectively. This work opens new routes to realize high performance thermal diodes, and may have wide applications in efficient thermal computing, thermal information processing, and thermal management.

  14. High performance parallel computers for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.; Biel, J.; Cook, A.; Deppe, J.; Edel, M.; Fischler, M.; Gaines, I.; Hance, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program (ACP) has been developing cost effective, yet practical, parallel computers for high energy physics since 1984. The ACP's latest developments are proceeding in two directions. A Second Generation ACP Multiprocessor System for experiments will include $3500 RISC processors each with performance over 15 VAX MIPS. To support such high performance, the new system allows parallel I/O, parallel interprocess communication, and parallel host processes. The ACP Multi-Array Processor, has been developed for theoretical physics. Each $4000 node is a FORTRAN or C programmable pipelined 20 Mflops (peak), 10 MByte single board computer. These are plugged into a 16 port crossbar switch crate which handles both inter and intra crate communication. The crates are connected in a hypercube. Site oriented applications like lattice gauge theory are supported by system software called CANOPY, which makes the hardware virtually transparent to users. A 256 node, 5 GFlop, system is under construction

  15. High Performance with Prescriptive Optimization and Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo

    parallelization and automatic vectorization is attractive as it transparently optimizes programs. The thesis contributes an improved dependence analysis for explicitly parallel programs. These improvements lead to more loops being vectorized, on average we achieve a speedup of 1.46 over the existing dependence...... analysis and vectorizer in GCC. Automatic optimizations often fail for theoretical and practical reasons. When they fail we argue that a hybrid approach can be effective. Using compiler feedback, we propose to use the programmer’s intuition and insight to achieve high performance. Compiler feedback...... enlightens the programmer why a given optimization was not applied, and suggest how to change the source code to make it more amenable to optimizations. We show how this can yield significant speedups and achieve 2.4 faster execution on a real industrial use case. To aid in parallel debugging we propose...

  16. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  17. Effective theories of single field inflation when heavy fields matter

    CERN Document Server

    Achucarro, Ana; Hardeman, Sjoerd; Palma, Gonzalo A; Patil, Subodh P

    2012-01-01

    We compute the low energy effective field theory (EFT) expansion for single-field inflationary models that descend from a parent theory containing multiple other scalar fields. By assuming that all other degrees of freedom in the parent theory are sufficiently massive relative to the inflaton, it is possible to derive an EFT valid to arbitrary order in perturbations, provided certain generalized adiabaticity conditions are respected. These conditions permit a consistent low energy EFT description even when the inflaton deviates off its adiabatic minimum along its slowly rolling trajectory. By generalizing the formalism that identifies the adiabatic mode with the Goldstone boson of this spontaneously broken time translational symmetry prior to the integration of the heavy fields, we show that this invariance of the parent theory dictates the entire non-perturbative structure of the descendent EFT. The couplings of this theory can be written entirely in terms of the reduced speed of sound of adiabatic perturbat...

  18. Static Aeroelastic Effects on High Performance Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    davis la rffrence 9. L’avion est instrurnent6, en plus des capteurs classiques des param~tres de n~ca- nique du vol. de plusleurs centaines de jauges de...crites §2.3.5, et lensemble dv l’analyse, pernet- tent le calcul des r~ponues des jauges en fonction dv X soit ar ( X) , lv procesnus de d~rivation...travissonique. Rema rque La smine technique d’identification par rtponne dv jauges s’applique (plus simple- ment) sur len essais en soufflerie, pour la

  19. Genetic effects of nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Henry

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased use of electricity and wireless communication devices, there is a concern on whether exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz fields and radiofrequency radiation) can lead to harmful health effects, particularly, genetic effects and cancer development. This presentation will review recent research on genetic effects of power line frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Even though the mechanism of interaction is still unknown, there is increasing evidence that these electromagnetic fields at low intensities can cause genetic damage in cells. There is also evidence suggesting that the effects are caused by oxidative stress. (author)

  20. Effect of grain boundary on the field-effect mobility of microrod single crystal organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kang, Jingu; Cho, Sangho; Yoo, Byungwook; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2014-11-01

    High-performance microrod single crystal organic transistors based on a p-type 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) semiconductor are fabricated and the effects of grain boundaries on the carrier transport have been investigated. The spin-coating of C8-BTBT and subsequent solvent vapor annealing process enabled the formation of organic single crystals with high aspect ratio in the range of 10 - 20. It was found that the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on these single crystals yield a field-effect mobility and an on/off current ratio of 8.04 cm2/Vs and > 10(5), respectively. However, single crystal OFETs with a kink, in which two single crystals are fused together, exhibited a noticeable drop of field-effect mobility, and we claim that this phenomenon results from the carrier scattering at the grain boundary.

  1. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  2. Towards accurate simulation of fringe field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, M.; Erdelyi, B.; Makino, K.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study various fringe field effects. Previously, we showed the large impact that fringe fields can have on certain lattice scenarios of the proposed Neutrino Factory. Besides the linear design of the lattice, the effects depend strongly on the details of the field fall off. Various scenarios are compared. Furthermore, in the absence of detailed information, we study the effects for the LHC, a case where the fringe fields are known, and try to draw some conclusions for Neutrino Factory lattices

  3. Effective Field Theory on Manifolds with Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin I.

    In the monograph Renormalization and Effective Field Theory, Costello made two major advances in rigorous quantum field theory. Firstly, he gave an inductive position space renormalization procedure for constructing an effective field theory that is based on heat kernel regularization of the propagator. Secondly, he gave a rigorous formulation of quantum gauge theory within effective field theory that makes use of the BV formalism. In this work, we extend Costello's renormalization procedure to a class of manifolds with boundary and make preliminary steps towards extending his formulation of gauge theory to manifolds with boundary. In addition, we reorganize the presentation of the preexisting material, filling in details and strengthening the results.

  4. An introduction to effective field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, John F.

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures I describe the main ideas of effective field theory. These are first illustrated using QED and the linear sigma model as examples. Calculational techniques using both Feynman diagrams and dispersion relations are introduced. Within QCD, chiral perturbation theory is a complete effective field theory, and I give a guide to some calculations in the literature which illustrates key ideas. (author)

  5. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... radiofrequency emitting sources are radars, mobile phones and their base stations, ... and industrial applications, could have effect on living organisms. ...... Hazards of Electromagnetic Pollution (Msc Thesis). Department of ...

  6. Flexible and low-voltage integrated circuits constructed from high-performance nanocrystal transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David K; Lai, Yuming; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are emerging as a new class of solution-processable materials for low-cost, flexible, thin-film electronics. Although these colloidal inks have been shown to form single, thin-film field-effect transistors with impressive characteristics, the use of multiple high-performance nanocrystal field-effect transistors in large-area integrated circuits has not been shown. This is needed to understand and demonstrate the applicability of these discrete nanocrystal field-effect transistors for advanced electronic technologies. Here we report solution-deposited nanocrystal integrated circuits, showing nanocrystal integrated circuit inverters, amplifiers and ring oscillators, constructed from high-performance, low-voltage, low-hysteresis CdSe nanocrystal field-effect transistors with electron mobilities of up to 22 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), current modulation >10(6) and subthreshold swing of 0.28 V dec(-1). We fabricated the nanocrystal field-effect transistors and nanocrystal integrated circuits from colloidal inks on flexible plastic substrates and scaled the devices to operate at low voltages. We demonstrate that colloidal nanocrystal field-effect transistors can be used as building blocks to construct complex integrated circuits, promising a viable material for low-cost, flexible, large-area electronics.

  7. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  8. An internal magnetic field strategy to reuse pulverized active materials for high performance: a magnetic three-dimensional ordered macroporous TiO2/CoPt/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiping; Hong, Liang; Li, Jiquan; Hou, Guangya; Cao, Huazhen; Wu, Liankui; Zheng, Guoqu; Wu, Qingliu

    2017-05-09

    A ferromagnetic three-dimensional ordered macroporous TiO 2 /CoPt/α-Fe 2 O 3 (3DOMTCF) nanocomposite was synthesized via a sol-gel approach templated by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres. After magnetization, it exhibited an extremely high reversible capacity and a long cycle life, which were ascribed to the internal magnetic field for reusing pulverized active materials and its unique structure.

  9. Optimizing High Performance Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A Yonathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s objectives are to learn the effect of glass powder, silica fume, Polycarboxylate Ether, and gravel to optimizing composition of each factor in making High Performance SCC. Taguchi method is proposed in this paper as best solution to minimize specimen variable which is more than 80 variations. Taguchi data analysis method is applied to provide composition, optimizing, and the effect of contributing materials for nine variable of specimens. Concrete’s workability was analyzed using Slump flow test, V-funnel test, and L-box test. Compressive and porosity test were performed for the hardened state. With a dimension of 100×200 mm the cylindrical specimens were cast for compressive test with the age of 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Porosity test was conducted at 28 days. It is revealed that silica fume contributes greatly to slump flow and porosity. Coarse aggregate shows the greatest contributing factor to L-box and compressive test. However, all factors show unclear result to V-funnel test.

  10. Durability of high performance concrete in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad Hussain Memon; Salihuddin Radin Sumadi; Rabitah Handan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the effects of blended cements on the durability of high performance concrete (HPC) in seawater. In this research the effect of seawater was investigated. The specimens were initially subjected to water curing for seven days inside the laboratory at room temperature, followed by seawater curing exposed to tidal zone until testing. In this study three levels of cement replacement (0%, 30% and 70%) were used. The combined use of chemical and mineral admixtures has resulted in a new generation of concrete called HPC. The HPC has been identified as one of the most important advanced materials necessary in the effort to build a nation's infrastructure. HPC opens new opportunities in the utilization of the industrial by-products (mineral admixtures) in the construction industry. As a matter of fact permeability is considered as one of the fundamental properties governing the durability of concrete in the marine environment. Results of this investigation indicated that the oxygen permeability values for the blended cement concretes at the age of one year are reduced by a factor of about 2 as compared to OPC control mix concrete. Therefore both blended cement concretes are expected to withstand in the seawater exposed to tidal zone without serious deterioration. (Author)

  11. Field emission current from a junction field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monshipouri, Mahta; Abdi, Yaser

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of a titanium dioxide/carbon nanotube (TiO 2 /CNT)-based transistor is reported. The transistor can be considered as a combination of a field emission transistor and a junction field-effect transistor. Using direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique, CNTs were grown on a p-typed (100)-oriented silicon substrate. The CNTs were then covered by TiO 2 nanoparticles 2–5 nm in size, using an atmospheric pressure CVD technique. In this device, TiO 2 /CNT junction is responsible for controlling the emission current. High on/off-current ratio and proper gate control are the most important advantages of device. A model based on Fowler–Nordheim equation is utilized for calculation of the emission current and the results are compared with experimental data. The effect of TiO 2 /CNT hetero-structure is also investigated, and well modeled

  12. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-27

    Warning stimuli, as well as learning material, i.e. the numbers to recall, were presented binaurally via earphones at an intensity of 65dB sound...ensued in a remarkable increase in the yield of ES-derived spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. Figure 3 Effect of MF on...move the mucus along a surface layer of saline. This is very likely that the cilia, beating with the frequency about few tenth of Hertz, generate some

  13. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    ) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade .... applications. These are important requirements if the reagent is to be applicable to on-line pre or post column derivatisation in a possible automation of the analytical.

  14. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  15. Strategies and Experiences Using High Performance Fortran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shires, Dale

    2001-01-01

    .... High performance Fortran (HPF) is a relative new addition to the Fortran dialect It is an attempt to provide an efficient high-level Fortran parallel programming language for the latest generation of been debatable...

  16. Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngo, David

    2003-01-01

    The Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems (EHPSCS) program is a cooperative agreement between Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company and DARPA that ran for three years, from Apr 1995 - Apr 1998...

  17. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid ..... nimesulide, phenylephrine. Hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form. Acta Pol.

  18. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  19. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  20. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '02 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, Willi

    2003-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in modeling and simulation on supercomputers. Leading German research groups present their results achieved on high-end systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2002. Reports cover all fields of supercomputing simulation ranging from computational fluid dynamics to computer science. Special emphasis is given to industrially relevant applications. Moreover, by presenting results for both vector sytems and micro-processor based systems the book allows to compare performance levels and usability of a variety of supercomputer architectures. It therefore becomes an indispensable guidebook to assess the impact of the Japanese Earth Simulator project on supercomputing in the years to come.

  1. High performance computing in Windows Azure cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Ambruš, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    High performance, security, availability, scalability, flexibility and lower costs of maintenance have essentially contributed to the growing popularity of cloud computing in all spheres of life, especially in business. In fact cloud computing offers even more than this. With usage of virtual computing clusters a runtime environment for high performance computing can be efficiently implemented also in a cloud. There are many advantages but also some disadvantages of cloud computing, some ...

  2. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schardt, J.F. [GE Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  3. HPTA: High-Performance Text Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Vandierendonck, Hans; Murphy, Karen; Arif, Mahwish; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main targets of data analytics is unstructured data, which primarily involves textual data. High-performance processing of textual data is non-trivial. We present the HPTA library for high-performance text analytics. The library helps programmers to map textual data to a dense numeric representation, which can be handled more efficiently. HPTA encapsulates three performance optimizations: (i) efficient memory management for textual data, (ii) parallel computation on associative dat...

  4. High-performance computing — an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksteiner, Peter

    1996-08-01

    An overview of high-performance computing (HPC) is given. Different types of computer architectures used in HPC are discussed: vector supercomputers, high-performance RISC processors, various parallel computers like symmetric multiprocessors, workstation clusters, massively parallel processors. Software tools and programming techniques used in HPC are reviewed: vectorizing compilers, optimization and vector tuning, optimization for RISC processors; parallel programming techniques like shared-memory parallelism, message passing and data parallelism; and numerical libraries.

  5. New high performance nanoadditives for photocatalytic concrete: synthesis and study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALIKMAN Vyacheslav Ruvimovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies open up broad prospects for the creation of nanocatalysts, which are being more and more used in solving many problems associated with the protection of environment. Their behavior is directly related to the unique physical and chemical properties that are provided by quantum size effects, as well as the large specific surface area. It is known that the presence of photo catalysts in the construction segment of nanomaterials is becoming more prominent. One of the most significant achievements of the last years are photo catalytic active cement composites, including cements and concretes produced with the use of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide TiO₂ sensibilized through a nanotechnology . Currently they are widely used in practice to produce selfcleaning structures and to make clean an air of megacities. Further research in the field of development of new high-performance photo catalysts based on TiO₂ nanoparticles seems to be very relevant, because such R&D could significantly improve the technical characteristics of photo catalytic cements and concrete. In this paper an improved method to produce photo catalysts has been proposed. New synthesized products are based on TiO₂ nanoparticles applied on different inert carriers, including nanosilica. It was showed that these products can be used as a high performance photo catalyst in cement and cement-gypsum composites suitable for the onversion processes of nitric oxide and volatile organic substances, and air purification. It was determined that performance of the cementitious composites containing synthesized samples is 1,5…3,0 times higher than that for the commercial sample of the nanotitanium dioxide. The use of mechanical mixture of nanotitanium dioxide and inert supports is less effective and subjected to the «dilution law», in general.

  6. Effect of magnetic field on food freezing

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 圭治; 奥村, 太一; 荒賀, 浩一; 小堀, 康功

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] This paper presents an experimental investigation on effects of magnetic field on food freezing process. Although purpose of food freezing is to suppress the deterioration of food, freezing breaks food tissue down, and some nutrient and delicious element flow out after thawing. Recently, a few of refrigeration equipments with electric and magnetic fields have attracted attention from food production companies and mass media. Water and tuna were freezed in magnetic field (100kH, 1.3...

  7. Boundary effects on quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hoon

    1991-01-01

    Quantum field theory in the S 1 *R 3 space-time is simply described by the imaginary time formalism. We generalize Schwinger-DeWitt proper-time technique which is very useful in zero temperature field theories to this case. As an example we calculate the one-loop effective potential of the finite temperature scala field theory by this technique.(Author)

  8. Effective field theory for NN interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Khuong; Vo Hanh Phuc

    2003-01-01

    The effective field theory of NN interactions is formulated and the power counting appropriate to this case is reviewed. It is more subtle than in most effective field theories since in the limit that the S-wave NN scattering lengths go to infinity. It is governed by nontrivial fixed point. The leading two body terms in the effective field theory for nucleon self interactions are scale invariant and invariant under Wigner SU(4) spin-isospin symmetry in this limit. Higher body terms with no derivatives (i.e. three and four body terms) are automatically invariant under Wigner symmetry. (author)

  9. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  10. High performance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Nikolin

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In testing the pre-sale procedure the marketing of drugs and their control in the last ten years, high performance liquid chromatographyreplaced numerous spectroscopic methods and gas chromatography in the quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the first period of HPLC application it was thought that it would become a complementary method of gas chromatography, however, today it has nearly completely replaced gas chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis. The application of the liquid mobile phase with the possibility of transformation of mobilized polarity during chromatography and all other modifications of mobile phase depending upon the characteristics of substance which are being tested, is a great advantage in the process of separation in comparison to other methods. The greater choice of stationary phase is the next factor which enables realization of good separation. The separation line is connected to specific and sensitive detector systems, spectrafluorimeter, diode detector, electrochemical detector as other hyphernated systems HPLC-MS and HPLC-NMR, are the basic elements on which is based such wide and effective application of the HPLC method. The purpose high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC analysis of any drugs is to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the progress of the therapy of a disease.1 Measuring presented on the Fig. 1. is chromatogram obtained for the plasma of depressed patients 12 h before oral administration of dexamethasone. It may also be used to further our understanding of the normal and disease process in the human body trough biomedical and therapeutically research during investigation before of the drugs registration. The analyses of drugs and metabolites in biological fluids, particularly plasma, serum or urine is one of the most demanding but one of the most common uses of high performance of liquid chromatography. Blood, plasma or

  11. Effects of Different Levels of Echinostoma caproni Miracidial Dose on Glucose and Maltose Composition of Biomphalaria glabrata Snails as Determined by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolcie DeGrandchamp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 5, 25, and 40 Echinostoma caproni miracidia on the sugar content of young adult and mature adult Biomphalaria glabrata were studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometry. Analysis was done on the snail’s digestive gland gonad complex (DGG at two and four weeks postmiracidial exposure. The sugars were extracted from the DGG using 70% ethanol and analyzed on silica gel HPTLC plates with a preadsorbent zone using 1-butanol-glacial acetic acid-diethyl ether-deionized water (27:18:5:3 mobile phase. The separated bands were then detected using alpha-naphthol-sulfuric reagent and quantified by densitometry at 515 nm. Significant differences were found in the maltose content between two and four weeks post exposure for both age groups. Additionally, significantly lower maltose and glucose levels were observed in the high exposure groups of both ages.

  12. Electric field confinement effect on charge transport in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I.I.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Broer, D.J.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Bässler, H.

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that the charge-carrier mobility in organic semiconductors is only weakly dependent on the electric field at low fields, the experimental mobility in organic field-effect transistors using silylethynyl-substituted pentacene is found to be surprisingly field dependent at low

  13. QCD Effective Field Theories for Heavy Quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Nora

    2006-01-01

    QCD nonrelativistic effective field theories (NREFT) are the modern and most suitable frame to describe heavy quarkonium properties. Here I summarize few relevant concepts and some of the interesting physical applications (spectrum, decays, production) of NREFT

  14. High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites 6 HPFRCC 6

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans; Naaman, A

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) represent a class of cement composites whose stress-strain response in tension undergoes strain hardening behaviour accompanied by multiple cracking, leading to a high strain prior to failure. The primary objective of this International Workshop was to provide a compendium of up-to-date information on the most recent developments and research advances in the field of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. Approximately 65 contributions from leading world experts are assembled in these proceedings and provide an authoritative perspective on the subject. Special topics include fresh and hardening state properties; self-compacting mixtures; mechanical behavior under compressive, tensile, and shear loading; structural applications; impact, earthquake and fire resistance; durability issues; ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete; and textile reinforced concrete. Target readers: graduate students, researchers, fiber producers, desi...

  15. Effective field theory approach to nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviankou, P.; Gruemmer, F.; Epelbaum, E.; Krewald, S.; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2006-01-01

    Effective field theory provides a systematic approach to hardon physics and few-nucleon systems. It allows one to determine the effective two-, three-, and more-nucleon interactions which are consistent with each other. We present a project to derive bulk properties of nuclei from the effective nucleonic interactions

  16. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2013-03-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), one of the key EES systems, have attracted increasing attention in the recent years since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review article describes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for EC technology, with a particular focus on hybrid nanostructured materials that combine carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive metal oxides or conducting polymers for achieving high-performance ECs. This review starts with an overview of EES technologies and the comparison between various EES systems, followed by a brief description of energy storage mechanisms for different types of EC materials. This review emphasizes the exciting development of both hybrid nanomaterials and novel support structures for effective electrochemical utilization and high mass loading of active electrode materials, both of which have brought the energy density of ECs closer to that of batteries while still maintaining their characteristic high power density. Last, future research directions and the remaining challenges toward the rational design and synthesis of hybrid nanostructured electrode materials for next-generation ECs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Polarization effects in molecular mechanical force fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, Piotr [Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92120 (United States); Dupradeau, Francois-Yves [UMR CNRS 6219-Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 1 rue des Louvels, F-80037 Amiens (France); Duan, Yong [Genome Center and Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wang Junmei, E-mail: pcieplak@burnham.or [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Boulevard, ND9.136, Dallas, TX 75390-9050 (United States)

    2009-08-19

    The focus here is on incorporating electronic polarization into classical molecular mechanical force fields used for macromolecular simulations. First, we briefly examine currently used molecular mechanical force fields and the current status of intermolecular forces as viewed by quantum mechanical approaches. Next, we demonstrate how some components of quantum mechanical energy are effectively incorporated into classical molecular mechanical force fields. Finally, we assess the modeling methods of one such energy component-polarization energy-and present an overview of polarizable force fields and their current applications. Incorporating polarization effects into current force fields paves the way to developing potentially more accurate, though more complex, parameterizations that can be used for more realistic molecular simulations. (topical review)

  18. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  19. Graphene Field Effect Transistor for Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary J. (Inventor); Chen, Zhihong (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a graphene field effect transistor-based radiation sensor for use in a variety of radiation detection applications, including manned spaceflight missions. The sensing mechanism of the radiation sensor is based on the high sensitivity of graphene in the local change of electric field that can result from the interaction of ionizing radiation with a gated undoped silicon absorber serving as the supporting substrate in the graphene field effect transistor. The radiation sensor has low power and high sensitivity, a flexible structure, and a wide temperature range, and can be used in a variety of applications, particularly in space missions for human exploration.

  20. High performance bio-integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  1. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  2. Field emission current from a junction field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monshipouri, Mahta; Abdi, Yaser, E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Fabrication of a titanium dioxide/carbon nanotube (TiO{sub 2}/CNT)-based transistor is reported. The transistor can be considered as a combination of a field emission transistor and a junction field-effect transistor. Using direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique, CNTs were grown on a p-typed (100)-oriented silicon substrate. The CNTs were then covered by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles 2–5 nm in size, using an atmospheric pressure CVD technique. In this device, TiO{sub 2}/CNT junction is responsible for controlling the emission current. High on/off-current ratio and proper gate control are the most important advantages of device. A model based on Fowler–Nordheim equation is utilized for calculation of the emission current and the results are compared with experimental data. The effect of TiO{sub 2}/CNT hetero-structure is also investigated, and well modeled.

  3. Amorphous Zinc Oxide Integrated Wavy Channel Thin Film Transistor Based High Performance Digital Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2015-12-04

    High performance thin film transistor (TFT) can be a great driving force for display, sensor/actuator, integrated electronics, and distributed computation for Internet of Everything applications. While semiconducting oxides like zinc oxide (ZnO) present promising opportunity in that regard, still wide area of improvement exists to increase the performance further. Here, we show a wavy channel (WC) architecture for ZnO integrated TFT which increases transistor width without chip area penalty, enabling high performance in material agnostic way. We further demonstrate digital logic NAND circuit using the WC architecture and compare it to the conventional planar architecture. The WC architecture circuits have shown 2× higher peak-to-peak output voltage for the same input voltage. They also have 3× lower high-to-low propagation delay times, respectively, when compared to the planar architecture. The performance enhancement is attributed to both extra device width and enhanced field effect mobility due to higher gate field electrostatics control.

  4. Thermal interface pastes nanostructured for high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuangang

    Thermal interface materials in the form of pastes are needed to improve thermal contacts, such as that between a microprocessor and a heat sink of a computer. High-performance and low-cost thermal pastes have been developed in this dissertation by using polyol esters as the vehicle and various nanoscale solid components. The proportion of a solid component needs to be optimized, as an excessive amount degrades the performance, due to the increase in the bond line thickness. The optimum solid volume fraction tends to be lower when the mating surfaces are smoother, and higher when the thermal conductivity is higher. Both a low bond line thickness and a high thermal conductivity help the performance. When the surfaces are smooth, a low bond line thickness can be even more important than a high thermal conductivity, as shown by the outstanding performance of the nanoclay paste of low thermal conductivity in the smooth case (0.009 mum), with the bond line thickness less than 1 mum, as enabled by low storage modulus G', low loss modulus G" and high tan delta. However, for rough surfaces, the thermal conductivity is important. The rheology affects the bond line thickness, but it does not correlate well with the performance. This study found that the structure of carbon black is an important parameter that governs the effectiveness of a carbon black for use in a thermal paste. By using a carbon black with a lower structure (i.e., a lower DBP value), a thermal paste that is more effective than the previously reported carbon black paste was obtained. Graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) was found to be comparable in effectiveness to carbon black (CB) pastes for rough surfaces, but it is less effective for smooth surfaces. At the same filler volume fraction, GNP gives higher thermal conductivity than carbon black paste. At the same pressure, GNP gives higher bond line thickness than CB (Tokai or Cabot). The effectiveness of GNP is limited, due to the high bond line thickness. A

  5. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  6. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-01-01

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  7. Magnetic field effects on electrochemical metal depositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bund, Adriana Ispas and Gerd Mutschke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent experimental and numerical results from the authors' labs on the effects of moderate magnetic (B fields in electrochemical reactions. The probably best understood effect of B fields during electrochemical reactions is the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD effect. In the majority of cases it manifests itself in increased mass transport rates which are a direct consequence of Lorentz forces in the bulk of the electrolyte. This enhanced mass transport can directly affect the electrocrystallization. The partial currents for the nucleation of nickel in magnetic fields were determined using an in situ micro-gravimetric technique and are discussed on the basis of the nucleation model of Heerman and Tarallo. Another focus of the paper is the numerical simulation of MHD effects on electrochemical metal depositions. A careful analysis of the governing equations shows that many MHD problems must be treated in a 3D geometry. In most cases there is a complex interplay of natural and magnetically driven convection.

  8. Effective lagrangian from bosonic string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Naohito

    1987-01-01

    We investigate the low-energy effective action from the string field theoretical view point. The low-energy effective lagrangian for the massless mode of bosonic string is determined to the order of α'. We find a term which can not be determined from the S-matrix approach. (author)

  9. 3D NANOTUBE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS FOR HYBRID HIGH-PERFORMANCE AND LOW-POWER OPERATION WITH HIGH CHIP-AREA EFFICIENCY

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-01-01

    -introduction of metal/high-K gate stacks with strain engineering in the 45 nm technology node, which enabled further scaling on silicon to smaller nodes by alleviating the problem of gate leakage and improving the channel mobility. The second innovation was the use

  10. Tuning crystal polymorphs of a Π-extended tetrathiafulvalene-based cruciform molecule towards high-performance organic field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Linlin; Dong, Huanli; Li, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for organic semiconductors to crystallize in two or more polymorphs, leading to various molecular packings and different charge transport properties. Therefore, it is a crucial issue of tuning molecular crystal polymorphs (i.e., adjusting the same molecule with different......)-based cruciform molecule, named as IF-TTF. The charge carrier mobility of the α-phase IF-TTF crystals was more than one order of magnitude higher than that of β-phase crystals, suggesting the importance of reasonably tuning molecular packing in solid state for the improvement of charge transport in organic...... semiconductors...

  11. Effective field equations for expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss functional methods which allow calculation of expectation values, rather than the usual in-out amplitudes, from a path integral. The technique, based on Schwinger's idea of summing over paths which go from the past to the future and then back to the past, provides effective field equations satisfied by the expectation value of the field. These equations are shown to be real and causal for a general theory up to two-loop order, and unitarity is checked to this order. These methods are applied to a simple quantum-mechanical example to illustrate the differences between the new formalism and the standard theory. When applied to the gravitational field, the new effective field equations should be useful for studies of quantum cosmology

  12. The effect of subject measurement error on joint kinematics in the conventional gait model: Insights from the open-source pyCGM tool using high performance computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mathew; Dixon, Philippe C

    2018-01-01

    The conventional gait model (CGM) is a widely used biomechanical model which has been validated over many years. The CGM relies on retro-reflective markers placed along anatomical landmarks, a static calibration pose, and subject measurements as inputs for joint angle calculations. While past literature has shown the possible errors caused by improper marker placement, studies on the effects of inaccurate subject measurements are lacking. Moreover, as many laboratories rely on the commercial version of the CGM, released as the Plug-in Gait (Vicon Motion Systems Ltd, Oxford, UK), integrating improvements into the CGM code is not easily accomplished. This paper introduces a Python implementation for the CGM, referred to as pyCGM, which is an open-source, easily modifiable, cross platform, and high performance computational implementation. The aims of pyCGM are to (1) reproduce joint kinematic outputs from the Vicon CGM and (2) be implemented in a parallel approach to allow integration on a high performance computer. The aims of this paper are to (1) demonstrate that pyCGM can systematically and efficiently examine the effect of subject measurements on joint angles and (2) be updated to include new calculation methods suggested in the literature. The results show that the calculated joint angles from pyCGM agree with Vicon CGM outputs, with a maximum lower body joint angle difference of less than 10-5 degrees. Through the hierarchical system, the ankle joint is the most vulnerable to subject measurement error. Leg length has the greatest effect on all joints as a percentage of measurement error. When compared to the errors previously found through inter-laboratory measurements, the impact of subject measurements is minimal, and researchers should rather focus on marker placement. Finally, we showed that code modifications can be performed to include improved hip, knee, and ankle joint centre estimations suggested in the existing literature. The pyCGM code is provided

  13. Team Development for High Performance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines a team development approach to management that creates shared commitments to performance improvement by focusing the attention of managers on individual workers and their task accomplishments. It uses the "high-performance equation" to help managers confront shared beliefs and concerns about performance and develop realistic…

  14. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of cefadroxil monohydrate in human plasma. Methods: Schimadzu HPLC with LC solution software was used with Waters Spherisorb, C18 (5 μm, 150mm × 4.5mm) column. The mobile phase ...

  15. An Introduction to High Performance Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Merlin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF is an informal standard for extensions to Fortran 90 to assist its implementation on parallel architectures, particularly for data-parallel computation. Among other things, it includes directives for specifying data distribution across multiple memories, and concurrent execution features. This article provides a tutorial introduction to the main features of HPF.

  16. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  17. Debugging a high performance computing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  18. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  19. Teacher Accountability at High Performing Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Moises G.

    2016-01-01

    This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…

  20. Technology Leadership in Malaysia's High Performance School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti

    2017-01-01

    Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…

  1. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  2. Towards high performance in industrial refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  3. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid ... response, tailing factor and resolution of six replicate injections was < 3 %. ... Cefadroxil monohydrate, Human plasma, Pharmacokinetics Bioequivalence ... Drug-free plasma was obtained from the local .... Influence of probenicid on the renal.

  4. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  5. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  6. Comparing Dutch and British high performing managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, A.A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Selvarajah, C.; Meyer, D.

    2016-01-01

    National cultures have a strong influence on the performance of organizations and should be taken into account when studying the traits of high performing managers. At the same time, many studies that focus upon the attributes of successful managers show that there are attributes that are similar

  7. High performance structural ceramics for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Faker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A family of Saint-Gobain structural ceramic materials and products produced by its High performance Refractory Division is described. Over the last fifty years or so, Saint-Gobain has been a leader in developing non oxide ceramic based novel materials, processes and products for application in Nuclear, Chemical, Automotive, Defense and Mining industries

  8. A new high performance current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lijun; Lu Songlin; Li Deming

    2003-01-01

    A DC-100 kHz current transducer is developed using a new technique on zero-flux detecting principle. It was shown that the new current transducer is of high performance, its magnetic core need not be selected very stringently, and it is easy to manufacture

  9. Direct Effect of Dielectric Surface Energy on Carrier Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shujun; Tang, Qingxin; Tian, Hongkun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Tong, Yanhong; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R; Liu, Yichun

    2018-05-09

    The understanding of the characteristics of gate dielectric that leads to optimized carrier transport remains controversial, and the conventional studies applied organic semiconductor thin films, which introduces the effect of dielectric on the growth of the deposited semiconductor thin films and hence only can explore the indirect effects. Here, we introduce pregrown organic single crystals to eliminate the indirect effect (semiconductor growth) in the conventional studies and to undertake an investigation of the direct effect of dielectric on carrier transport. It is shown that the matching of the polar and dispersive components of surface energy between semiconductor and dielectric is favorable for higher mobility. This new empirical finding may show the direct relationship between dielectric and carrier transport for the optimized mobility of organic field-effect transistors and hence show a promising potential for the development of next-generation high-performance organic electronic devices.

  10. Simultaneous determination of the content of isoquinoline alkaloids in Dicranostigma leptopodum (Maxim) Fedde and the effective fractionation of the alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yali; Li, Min; Liu, Jianjun; Yan, Qian; Zhong, Mei; Liu, Junxi; Di, Duolong; Liu, Jinxia

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight isoquinoline alkaloids in methanol extracts of Dicranostigma leptopodum (Maxim) Fedde and the effective fractionation of the alkaloids of D. leptopodum by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The chromatographic conditions were optimized on a SinoChrom ODS-BP column to obtain a good separation of the four types of alkaloid analytes, including two aporphines (isocorydine, corydine), two protopines (protopine and allocryptopine), a morphine (sinoacutine), and three quaternary protoberberine alkaloids (berberrubine, 5-hydroxycoptisine, and berberine). The separation of these alkaloids was significantly affected by the composition of the mobile phase, and particularly by its pH value. Acetonitrile (A) and 0.2% phosphoric acid solution adjusted to pH 6.32 with triethylamine (B) were selected as the mobile phase with a gradient elution. With this method, a new quaternary protoberberine alkaloid was isolated and the two structural isomers (isocorydine and corydine) were baseline separated. The appropriate harvest period for D. leptopodum was also recommended based on our analysis. The method for the effective fraction of the alkaloids of D. leptopodum was optimized under this method with regard to the varying significant pharmacological activities of the alkaloids. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. JT-60U high performance regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, S.

    1999-01-01

    High performance regimes of JT-60U plasmas are presented with an emphasis upon the results from the use of a semi-closed pumped divertor with W-shaped geometry. Plasma performance in transient and quasi steady states has been significantly improved in reversed shear and high- βp regimes. The reversed shear regime elevated an equivalent Q DT eq transiently up to 1.25 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)=8.6x10 20 m-3·s·keV) in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime. Long sustainment of enhanced confinement with internal transport barriers (ITBs) with a fully non-inductive current drive in a reversed shear discharge was successfully demonstrated with LH wave injection. Performance sustainment has been extended in the high- bp regime with a high triangularity achieving a long sustainment of plasma conditions equivalent to Q DT eq ∼0.16 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)∼1.4x10 20 m -3 ·s·keV) for ∼4.5 s with a large non-inductive current drive fraction of 60-70% of the plasma current. Thermal and particle transport analyses show significant reduction of thermal and particle diffusivities around ITB resulting in a strong Er shear in the ITB region. The W-shaped divertor is effective for He ash exhaust demonstrating steady exhaust capability of τ He */τ E ∼3-10 in support of ITER. Suppression of neutral back flow and chemical sputtering effect have been observed while MARFE onset density is rather decreased. Negative-ion based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) experiments have created a clear H-mode transition. Enhanced ionization cross- section due to multi-step ionization processes was confirmed as theoretically predicted. A current density profile driven by N-NBI is measured in a good agreement with theoretical prediction. N-NBI induced TAE modes characterized as persistent and bursting oscillations have been observed from a low hot beta of h >∼0.1-0.2% without a significant loss of fast ions. (author)

  12. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  13. On the field determination of effective porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javandel, I.

    1989-03-01

    Effective porosity of geologic materials is a very important parameter for estimating groundwater travel time and modeling contaminant transport in hydrologic systems. Determination of a representative effective porosity for nonideal systems is a problem still challenging hydrogeologists. In this paper, some of the conventional field geophysical and hydrological methods for estimating effective porosity of geologic materials are reviewed. The limitations and uncertainties associated with each method are discussed. 30 refs., 8 figs

  14. Effective field theory for triaxially deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.B. [Technische Universitaet Muechen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Kaiser, N. [Technische Universitaet Muechen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics and JARA-HPC, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Meng, J. [Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Stellenbosch, Department of Physics, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    Effective field theory is generalized to investigate the rotational motion of triaxially deformed even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian for the triaxial rotor is obtained up to next-to-leading order within the effective field theory formalism. Its applicability is examined by comparing with a five-dimensional rotor-vibrator Hamiltonian for the description of the energy spectra of the ground state and γ band in Ru isotopes. It is found that by taking into account the next-to-leading order corrections, the ground state band in the whole spin region and the γ band in the low spin region are well described. The deviations for high-spin states in the γ bands point towards the importance of including vibrational degrees of freedom in the effective field theory formulation. (orig.)

  15. Effective field theory and the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc; Jaczko, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the connections between the quark model (QM) and the description of hadrons in the low-momentum limit of heavy-baryon effective field theory in QCD. By using a three-flavor-index representation for the effective baryon fields, we show that the 'nonrelativistic' constituent QM for baryon masses and moments is completely equivalent through O(m s ) to a parametrization of the relativistic field theory in a general spin-flavor basis. The flavor and spin variables can be identified with those of effective valence quarks. Conversely, the spin-flavor description clarifies the structure and dynamical interpretation of the chiral expansion in effective field theory, and provides a direct connection between the field theory and the semirelativistic models for hadrons used in successful dynamical calculations. This allows dynamical information to be incorporated directly into the chiral expansion. We find, for example, that the striking success of the additive QM for baryon magnetic moments is a consequence of the relative smallness of the non-additive spin-dependent corrections

  16. Playing with QCD I: effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, Eduardo S.

    2009-01-01

    The building blocks of hadrons are quarks and gluons, although color is confined into singlet states. QCD is believed to be the fundamental theory of strong interactions. Its asymptotically free nature puts the vacuum out of reach for perturbation theory. The Lagrangian of QCD and the Feynman rules associated were built by using the Gauge Principle, starting from the quark matter fields and obtaining gluons as connections. A simpler, and sometimes necessary or complementary, approach is provided by effective field theories or effective models, especially when one has to deal with the nonperturbative sector of the theory. (author)

  17. Effective extraction and simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes from tomato sauce and chili-containing foods using magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Wang, Man-Man; Hao, Yu-Lan; Shi, Xin-Ran; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    A simple, effective, and robust magnetic solid-phase extraction method was developed using magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles as the adsorbent for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (I, II, III, and IV) in foodstuffs. The magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The extraction parameters including extraction time, elution solution, and elution time and volume were investigated in detail. Such magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles based magnetic solid-phase extraction in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and variable wavelength detection gave the detection limits of 3-6 μg/kg for Sudan I-IV in chili sauce, tomato sauce, chili powder, and chili flake samples. The recoveries were 79.6-108% at three spiked levels with the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.6 and 4.5-9.6%, respectively. The feasibility was further performed by a comparison with commercial alumina-N. This method is suitable for the routine analysis of Sudan dyes due to its sensitivity, simplicity, and low cost. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effect of realgar on extracellular amino acid neurotransmitters in hippocampal CA1 region determined by online microdialysis–dansyl chloride derivatization–high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Taoguang; Zhang, Yinghua; Li, Weikai; Yang, Huilei; Jiang, Hong; Sun, Guifan

    2014-09-01

    An online microdialysis (MD)–dansyl chloride (Dns) derivatization–high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection (FD) system was developed for simultaneous determination of eight extracellular amino acid neurotransmitters in hippocampus. The MD probe was implanted in hippocampal CA1 region. Dialysate and Dns were online mixed and derivatized. The derivatives were separated on an ODS column and detected by FD. The developed online system showed good linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. This online MD-HPLC system was applied to monitor amino acid neurotransmitters levels in rats exposed to realgar (0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 g/kg body weight). The result shows that glutamate concentrations were significantly increased (p<0.05) in hippocampal CA1 region of rats exposed to three doses of realgar. A decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid concentrations was found in rats exposed to medium and high doses of realgar (p<0.05). Elevation of excitotoxic index (EI) values in hippocampal CA1 region of realgar-exposed rats was observed (p<0.05). Positive correlation was found between EI values and arsenic contents in hippocampus of realgar-exposed rats, which indicates that the change in extracellular EI values is associated with arsenic accumulation in hippocampus. The developed online MD–Dns derivatization–HPLC–FD system provides a new experimental method for studying the effect of toxic Chinese medicines on amino acid neurotransmitters.

  19. Evaluation of high-performance computing software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, S.; Dongarra, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rowan, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The absence of unbiased and up to date comparative evaluations of high-performance computing software complicates a user`s search for the appropriate software package. The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is attacking this problem using an approach that includes independent evaluations of software, incorporation of author and user feedback into the evaluations, and Web access to the evaluations. We are applying this approach to the Parallel Tools Library (PTLIB), a new software repository for parallel systems software and tools, and HPC-Netlib, a high performance branch of the Netlib mathematical software repository. Updating the evaluations with feed-back and making it available via the Web helps ensure accuracy and timeliness, and using independent reviewers produces unbiased comparative evaluations difficult to find elsewhere.

  20. Architecting Web Sites for High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Iyengar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Web site applications are some of the most challenging high-performance applications currently being developed and deployed. The challenges emerge from the specific combination of high variability in workload characteristics and of high performance demands regarding the service level, scalability, availability, and costs. In recent years, a large body of research has addressed the Web site application domain, and a host of innovative software and hardware solutions have been proposed and deployed. This paper is an overview of recent solutions concerning the architectures and the software infrastructures used in building Web site applications. The presentation emphasizes three of the main functions in a complex Web site: the processing of client requests, the control of service levels, and the interaction with remote network caches.

  1. High performance cloud auditing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Baek-Young; Song, Sejun

    2014-01-01

    This book mainly focuses on cloud security and high performance computing for cloud auditing. The book discusses emerging challenges and techniques developed for high performance semantic cloud auditing, and presents the state of the art in cloud auditing, computing and security techniques with focus on technical aspects and feasibility of auditing issues in federated cloud computing environments.   In summer 2011, the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) CyberBAT Cloud Security and Auditing Team initiated the exploration of the cloud security challenges and future cloud auditing research directions that are covered in this book. This work was supported by the United States government funds from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the AFOSR Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Visiting Faculty Research Program (VFRP), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). All chapters were partially suppor...

  2. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allured, Bradley [UNIV NEVADA, RENO; Carpenter, Michael A [CAMBRIDGE UNIV. UK

    2009-09-21

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  3. Designing a High Performance Parallel Personal Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Kapanova, K. G.; Sellier, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, many scientific and engineering areas require high performance computing to perform computationally intensive experiments. For example, many advances in transport phenomena, thermodynamics, material properties, computational chemistry and physics are possible only because of the availability of such large scale computing infrastructures. Yet many challenges are still open. The cost of energy consumption, cooling, competition for resources have been some of the reasons why the scientifi...

  4. AHPCRC - Army High Performance Computing Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    computing. Of particular interest is the ability of a distrib- uted jamming network (DJN) to jam signals in all or part of a sensor or communications net...and reasoning, assistive technologies. FRIEDRICH (FRITZ) PRINZ Finmeccanica Professor of Engineering, Robert Bosch Chair, Department of Engineering...High Performance Computing Research Center www.ahpcrc.org BARBARA BRYAN AHPCRC Research and Outreach Manager, HPTi (650) 604-3732 bbryan@hpti.com Ms

  5. DURIP: High Performance Computing in Biomathematics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Mathematics and Statistics (AMS) at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) to conduct research and research-related education in areas of...Computing in Biomathematics Applications Report Title The goal of this award was to enhance the capabilities of the Department of Applied Mathematics and...DURIP: High Performance Computing in Biomathematics Applications The goal of this award was to enhance the capabilities of the Department of Applied

  6. High Performance Computing Operations Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupps, Kimberly C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-19

    The High Performance Computing Operations Review (HPCOR) meeting—requested by the ASC and ASCR program headquarters at DOE—was held November 5 and 6, 2013, at the Marriott Hotel in San Francisco, CA. The purpose of the review was to discuss the processes and practices for HPC integration and its related software and facilities. Experiences and lessons learned from the most recent systems deployed were covered in order to benefit the deployment of new systems.

  7. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  8. Effective field theory for magnetic compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Schweizer, Julian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-10

    Magnetic flux plays an important role in compactifications of field and string theories in two ways, it generates a multiplicity of chiral fermion zero modes and it can break supersymmetry. We derive the complete four-dimensional effective action for N=1 supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in six dimensions compactified on a torus with flux. The effective action contains the tower of charged states and it accounts for the mass spectrum of bosonic and fermionic fields as well as their level-dependent interactions. This allows us to compute quantum corrections to the mass and couplings of Wilson lines. We find that the one-loop corrections vanish, contrary to the case without flux. This can be traced back to the spontaneous breaking of symmetries of the six-dimensional theory by the background gauge field, with the Wilson lines as Goldstone bosons.

  9. Gravitational effects in field gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Vlasov, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities to describe various gravitation effects of field gravitation theory (FGT) are considered. Past-Newtonian approximation of the FGT has been constructed and on the basis of this approximation it has been shown that the field theory allows one to describe the whole set of experimental facts. The comparison of post-Newtonian parameters in FGT with those in the Einstein's theory makes it clear that these two; theories are undistinguishable from the viewpoint of any experiments, realized with post-Newtonian accuracy. Gravitational field of an island type source with spherically symmetrical distribution of matter and unstationary homogeneous model of Universe, which allows to describe the effect of cosmological red shift, are considered

  10. On the derivation of effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzunov, Dimo I.

    2004-12-01

    A general self-consistency approach allows a thorough treatment of the corrections to the standard mean-field approximation (MFA). The natural extension of standard MFA with the help of cumulant expansion leads to a new point of view on the effective field theories. The proposed approach can be used for a systematic treatment of fluctuation effects of various length scales and, perhaps, for the development of a new coarse graining procedure. We outline and justify our method by some preliminary calculations. Concrete results are given for the critical temperature and the Landau parameters of the φ 4 -theory - the field counterpart of the Ising model. An important unresolved problem of the modern theory of phase transitions - the problem for the calculation of the true critical temperature, is considered within the framework of the present approach. A comprehensive description of the ground state properties of many-body systems is also demonstrated. (author)

  11. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH OF STABILIZED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELEA. I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the omnipresence of the electromagnetic field are certain and recognized. Assessing as accurately as possible these effects, which characterize random phenomena require the use of statistical-probabilistic calculation. This paper aims at assessing the probability of exceeding the admissible values of the characteristic sizes of the electromagnetic field - magnetic induction and electric field strength. The first part justifies the need for concern and specifies how to approach it. The mathematical model of approach and treatment is presented in the second part of the paper and the results obtained with reference to 14 power stations are synthesized in the third part. In the last part, are formulated the conclusions of the evaluations.

  12. Short-channel field-effect transistors with 9-atom and 13-atom wide graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Juan Pablo; Fairbrother, Andrew; Borin Barin, Gabriela; Shi, Wu; Lee, Kyunghoon; Wu, Shuang; Yong Choi, Byung; Braganza, Rohit; Lear, Jordan; Kau, Nicholas; Choi, Wonwoo; Chen, Chen; Pedramrazi, Zahra; Dumslaff, Tim; Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fischer, Felix; Zettl, Alex; Ruffieux, Pascal; Yablonovitch, Eli; Crommie, Michael; Fasel, Roman; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2017-09-21

    Bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons and graphene nanoribbon heterostructures have promising electronic properties for high-performance field-effect transistors and ultra-low power devices such as tunneling field-effect transistors. However, the short length and wide band gap of these graphene nanoribbons have prevented the fabrication of devices with the desired performance and switching behavior. Here, by fabricating short channel (L ch  ~ 20 nm) devices with a thin, high-κ gate dielectric and a 9-atom wide (0.95 nm) armchair graphene nanoribbon as the channel material, we demonstrate field-effect transistors with high on-current (I on  > 1 μA at V d  = -1 V) and high I on /I off  ~ 10 5 at room temperature. We find that the performance of these devices is limited by tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contacts and we observe an increase in the transparency of the barrier by increasing the gate field near the contacts. Our results thus demonstrate successful fabrication of high-performance short-channel field-effect transistors with bottom-up synthesized armchair graphene nanoribbons.Graphene nanoribbons show promise for high-performance field-effect transistors, however they often suffer from short lengths and wide band gaps. Here, the authors use a bottom-up synthesis approach to fabricate 9- and 13-atom wide ribbons, enabling short-channel transistors with 10 5 on-off current ratio.

  13. Sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new simple, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of proguanil (PG) and its metabolites, cycloguanil (CG) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide (4-CPB) in urine and plasma is described. The extraction procedure is a simple three-step process ...

  14. High-Performance Management Practices and Employee Outcomes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristini, Annalisa; Eriksson, Tor; Pozzoli, Dario

    High-performance work practices are frequently considered to have positive effects on corporate performance, but what do they do for employees? After showing that organizational innovation is indeed positively associated with firm performance, we investigate whether high-involvement work practices...

  15. Resolution of RNA using high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mclaughlin, L.W.; Bischoff, Rainer

    1987-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic techniques can be very effective for the resolution and isolation of nucleic acids. The characteristic ionic (phosphodiesters) and hydrophobic (nucleobases) properties of RNAs can be exploited for their separation. In this respect anion-exchange and

  16. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  17. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  18. High performance magnet power supply optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    The power supply system for the joint LBL--SLAC proposed accelerator PEP provides the opportunity to take a fresh look at the current techniques employed for controlling large amounts of dc power and the possibility of using a new one. A basic requirement of +- 100 ppM regulation is placed on the guide field of the bending magnets and quadrupoles placed around the 2200 meter circumference of the accelerator. The optimization questions to be answered by this paper are threefold: Can a firing circuit be designed to reduce the combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage unbalance to less than 100 ppM in the magnet field. Given the ambiguity of the previous statement, is the addition of a transistor bank to a nominal SCR controlled system the way to go or should one opt for an SCR chopper system running at 1 KHz where multiple supplies are fed from one large dc bus and the cost--performance evaluation of the three possible systems

  19. On some nonlinear effects in ultrasonic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjotta

    2000-03-01

    Nonlinear effects associated with intense sound fields in fluids are considered theoretically. Special attention is directed to the study of higher effects that cannot be described within the standard propagation models of nonlinear acoustics (the KZK and Burgers equations). The analysis is based on the fundamental equations of motion for a thermoviscous fluid, for which thermal equations of state exist. Model equations are derived and used to analyze nonlinear sources for generation of flow and heat, and other changes in the ambient state of the fluid. Fluctuations in the coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity caused by the sound field, are accounted for. Also considered are nonlinear effects induced in the fluid by flexural vibrations. The intensity and absorption of finite amplitude sound waves are calculated, and related to the sources for generation of higher order effects.

  20. Ferromagnetic hysteresis and the effective field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Jiles-Atherton model of the behavior of ferromagnetic materials determines the irreversible magnetization from the effective field by using a differential equation. This paper presents an exact, analytical solution to the equation, one displaying hysteresis. The inclusion of magnetomechanical

  1. Novel nano materials for high performance logic and memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    After decades of relentless progress, the silicon CMOS industry is approaching a stall in device performance for both logic and memory devices due to fundamental scaling limitations. In order to reinforce the accelerating pace, novel materials with unique properties are being proposed on an urgent basis. This list includes one dimensional nanotubes, quasi one dimensional nanowires, two dimensional atomistically thin layered materials like graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and the more recently the rich family of transition metal di-chalcogenides comprising of MoS2, WSe2, WS2 and many more for logic applications and organic and inorganic ferroelectrics, phase change materials and magnetic materials for memory applications. Only time will tell who will win, but exploring these novel materials allow us to revisit the fundamentals and strengthen our understanding which will ultimately be beneficial for high performance device design. While there has been growing interest in two-dimensional (2D) crystals other than graphene, evaluating their potential usefulness for electronic applications is still in its infancies due to the lack of a complete picture of their performance potential. The fact that the 2-D layered semiconducting di-chalcogenides need to be connected to the "outside" world in order to capitalize on their ultimate potential immediately emphasizes the importance of a thorough understanding of the contacts. This thesis demonstrate that through a proper understanding and design of source/drain contacts and the right choice of number of MoS2 layers the excellent intrinsic properties of this 2D material can be harvested. A comprehensive experimental study on the dependence of carrier mobility on the layer thickness of back gated multilayer MoS 2 field effect transistors is also provided. A resistor network model that comprises of Thomas-Fermi charge screening and interlayer coupling is used to explain the non-monotonic trend in the extracted field effect

  2. ALPs effective field theory and collider signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brivio, I.; Gavela, M. B.; Merlo, L.

    2017-01-01

    We study the leading effective interactions between the Standard Model fields and a generic singlet CP-odd (pseudo-) Goldstone boson. Two possible frameworks for electroweak symmetry breaking are considered: linear and non-linear. For the latter case, the basis of leading effective operators is d...... final states are most promising signals expected in both frameworks. In addition, non-standard Higgs decays and mono-Higgs signatures are especially prominent and expected to be dominant in non-linear realisations....

  3. Nuclear forces and high-performance computing: The perfect match

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, T; Walker-Loud, A

    2009-01-01

    High-performance computing is now enabling the calculation of certain hadronic interaction parameters directly from Quantum Chromodynamics, the quantum field theory that governs the behavior of quarks and gluons and is ultimately responsible for the nuclear strong force. In this paper we briefly describe the state of the field and show how other aspects of hadronic interactions will be ascertained in the near future. We give estimates of computational requirements needed to obtain these goals, and outline a procedure for incorporating these results into the broader nuclear physics community.

  4. Toroidal field ripple effects in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tsang, K.T.; Callen, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    In an experimental power reactor, the ripple produced by the finite number of toroidal field coils destroys the ideal axisymmetry of the configuration and is responsible for additional particle trapping, loss regions and plasma transport. The effects of toroidal field ripple on the plasma transport coefficient, the loss of alpha particles and energetic injection ions, and the relaxation of toroidal flows are investigated in a new and systematic way. The relevant results are applied to the ORNL-EPR reference design; the maximum ripple there of about 2.2 percent at the outer edge of the plasma column is found to be tolerable from plasma physics considerations

  5. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for high performance as well as low standby power devices has been the main reason for the aggressive scaling of conventional CMOS transistors. Current devices are at the 32nm technology node. However, due to physical limitations as well as increase in short-channel effects, leakage, power dissipation, this scaling trend cannot continue and will eventually hit a barrier. In order to overcome this, alternate device topologies have to be considered altogether. Extensive research on ultra thin body double gate FETs and gate all around nanowire FETs has shown a lot of promise. Under strong inversion, these devices have demonstrated increased performance over their bulk counterparts. This is mainly attributed to full carrier inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors) which also like the above, relies on complete inversion of carriers in the body/bulk. Using dual gates; an outer and an inner gate, full-volume inversion is possible with benefits such as enhanced drive currents, high Ion/Ioff ratios and reduced short channel effects.

  6. Band mixing effects in mean field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1989-01-01

    The 1/N expansion method, which is an angular momentum projected mean field theory, is used to investigate the nature of electromagnetic transitions in the interacting boson model (IBM). Conversely, comparison with the exact IBM results sheds light on the range of validity of the mean field theory. It is shown that the projected mean field results for the E2 transitions among the ground, β and γ bands are incomplete for the spin dependent terms and it is essential to include band mixing effect for a correct (Mikhailov) analysis of E2 data. The algebraic expressions derived are general and will be useful in the analysis of experimental data in terms of both the sd and sdg boson models. 17 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Field Effect Microparticle Generation for Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Brend Ray-Sea; Fu, Shin-Huei

    2017-01-01

    The diameter and sphericity of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules, determined by the size and the shape of calcium alginate microspheres, affect their in vivo durability and biocompatibility and the results of transplantation. The commonly used air-jet spray method generates microspheres with a wider variation in diameter, larger sphere morphology, and evenly distributed encapsulated cells. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we designed a field effect microparticle generator to create a stable electric field to prepare microparticles with a smaller diameter and more uniform morphology. Using this electric field microparticle generator the encapsulated cells will be located at the periphery of the microspheres, and thus the supply of oxygen and nutrients for the encapsulated cells will be improved compared with the centrally located encapsulated cells in the air-jet spray method.

  8. RISC Processors and High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial will discuss the top five RISC microprocessors and the parallel systems in which they are used. It will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere. The effective performance of these processors will be compared by citing standard benchmarks in the context of real applications. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmarks, both absolute performance and performance per dollar, will be listed. The next generation of the NPB will be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of future directions in the field. Technology Transfer Considerations: All of these computer systems are commercially available internationally. Information about these processors is available in the public domain, mostly from the vendors themselves. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks and their results have been previously approved numerous times for public release, beginning back in 1991.

  9. Toward a theory of high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Julia

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to be a high-performance company? The process of measuring relative performance across industries and eras, declaring top performers, and finding the common drivers of their success is such a difficult one that it might seem a fool's errand to attempt. In fact, no one did for the first thousand or so years of business history. The question didn't even occur to many scholars until Tom Peters and Bob Waterman released In Search of Excellence in 1982. Twenty-three years later, we've witnessed several more attempts--and, just maybe, we're getting closer to answers. In this reported piece, HBR senior editor Julia Kirby explores why it's so difficult to study high performance and how various research efforts--including those from John Kotter and Jim Heskett; Jim Collins and Jerry Porras; Bill Joyce, Nitin Nohria, and Bruce Roberson; and several others outlined in a summary chart-have attacked the problem. The challenge starts with deciding which companies to study closely. Are the stars the ones with the highest market caps, the ones with the greatest sales growth, or simply the ones that remain standing at the end of the game? (And when's the end of the game?) Each major study differs in how it defines success, which companies it therefore declares to be worthy of emulation, and the patterns of activity and attitude it finds in common among them. Yet, Kirby concludes, as each study's method incrementally solves problems others have faced, we are progressing toward a consensus theory of high performance.

  10. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This final report (M5NU-12-NY-AU # 0202-0410) summarizes the results of the project titled “Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms,” funded in FY12 by the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Project # 12-3809) being led by Alfred University in collaboration with Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The overall focus of the project is to advance fundamental understanding of crystalline ceramic waste forms and to demonstrate their viability as alternative waste forms to borosilicate glasses. We processed single- and multiphase hollandite waste forms based on simulated waste streams compositions provided by SRNL based on the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) aqueous separation process developed in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D). For multiphase simulated waste forms, oxide and carbonate precursors were mixed together via ball milling with deionized water using zirconia media in a polyethylene jar for 2 h. The slurry was dried overnight and then separated from the media. The blended powders were then subjected to melting or spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Microstructural evolution and phase assemblages of these samples were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion analysis of x-rays (EDAX), wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), selective area x-ray diffraction (SAXD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These results showed that the processing methods have significant effect on the microstructure and thus the performance of these waste forms. The Ce substitution into zirconolite and pyrochlore materials was investigated using a combination of experimental (in situ XRD and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES)) and modeling techniques to study these single phases independently. In zirconolite materials, a transition from the 2M to the 4M polymorph was observed with increasing Ce content. The resulting

  11. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  12. Playa: High-Performance Programmable Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Howle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Playa, a high-level user interface layer for composing algorithms for complex multiphysics problems out of objects from other Trilinos packages. Among other features, Playa provides very high-performance overloaded operators implemented through an expression template mechanism. In this paper, we give an overview of the central Playa objects from a user's perspective, show application to a sequence of increasingly complex solver algorithms, provide timing results for Playa's overloaded operators and other functions, and briefly survey some of the implementation issues involved.

  13. An integrated high performance fastbus slave interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1992-01-01

    A high performance Fastbus slave interface ASIC is presented. The Fastbus slave integrated circuit (FASIC) is a programmable device, enabling its direct use in many different applications. The FASIC acts as an interface between Fastbus and a 'standard' processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a microprocessor. A set of address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/s to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO buffer in the FASIC. (orig.)

  14. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  15. Drift-kinetic Alfven modes in high performance tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaun, A.; Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of fast-particle driven Alfven eigenmodes is modeled in high performance tokamaks, successively with a conventional shear, an optimized shear and a tight aspect ratio plasma. A large bulk pressure yields global kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are stabilized by mode conversion in the presence of a divertor. This suggests how conventional reactor scenarii could withstand significant pressure gradients from the fusion products. A large safety factor in the core q 0 >2.5 in deeply shear reversed configurations and a relatively large bulk ion Larmor radius in a low magnetic field can trigger global drift-kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are unstable in high performance JET, NSTX and ITER plasmas. (author)

  16. Designing high-Performance layered thermoelectric materials through orbital engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Lirong; Madsen, Georg K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric technology, which possesses potential application in recycling industrial waste heat as energy, calls for novel high-performance materials. The systematic exploration of novel thermoelectric materials with excellent electronic transport properties is severely hindered by limited...... insight into the underlying bonding orbitals of atomic structures. Here we propose a simple yet successful strategy to discover and design high-performance layered thermoelectric materials through minimizing the crystal field splitting energy of orbitals to realize high orbital degeneracy. The approach...... naturally leads to design maps for optimizing the thermoelectric power factor through forming solid solutions and biaxial strain. Using this approach, we predict a series of potential thermoelectric candidates from layered CaAl2Si2-type Zintl compounds. Several of them contain nontoxic, low-cost and earth...

  17. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '14

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and   engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.  

  18. Field theory approach to quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A.; Chaichian, M.

    1990-07-01

    The Fradkin's formulation of statistical field theory is applied to the Coulomb interacting electron gas in a magnetic field. The electrons are confined to a plane in normal 3D-space and also interact with the physical 3D-electromagnetic field. The magnetic translation group (MTG) Ward identities are derived. Using them it is shown that the exact electron propagator is diagonalized in the basis of the wave functions of the free electron in a magnetic field whenever the MTG is unbroken. The general tensor structure of the polarization operator is obtained and used to show that the Chern-Simons action always describes the Hall effect properties of the system. A general proof of the Streda formula for the Hall conductivity is presented. It follows that the coefficient of the Chern-Simons terms in the long-wavelength approximation is exactly given by this relation. Such a formula, expressing the Hall conductivity as a simple derivative, in combination with diagonal form of the full propagator allows to obtain a simple expressions for the filling factor and the Hall conductivity. Indeed, these results, after assuming that the chemical potential lies in a gap of the density of states, lead to the conclusion that the Hall conductivity is given without corrections by σ xy = νe 2 /h where ν is the filling factor. In addition it follows that the filling factor is independent of the magnetic field if the chemical potential remains in the gap. (author). 21 ref, 1 fig

  19. Magnetic field effects in hybrid perovskite devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, D.; Sheng, C.-X.; Zhai, Y. X.; Mielczarek, K.; Zakhidov, A.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic field effects have been a successful tool for studying carrier dynamics in organic semiconductors as the weak spin-orbit coupling in these materials gives rise to long spin relaxation times. As the spin-orbit coupling is strong in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are promising materials for photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, magnetic field effects are expected to be negligible in these optoelectronic devices. We measured significant magneto-photocurrent, magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence responses in hybrid perovskite devices and thin films, where the amplitude and shape are correlated to each other through the electron-hole lifetime, which depends on the perovskite film morphology. We attribute these responses to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs with different g-factors--the Δg model. We validate this model by measuring large Δg (~ 0.65) using field-induced circularly polarized photoluminescence, and electron-hole pair lifetime using picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  20. Thermal and Hygric Expansion of High Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    J. Toman; R. Černý

    2001-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion coefficient of two types of high performance concrete was measured in the temperature range from 20 °C to 1000 °C, and the linear hygric expansion coefficient was determined in the moisture range from dry material to saturation water content. Comparative methods were applied for measurements of both coefficients. The experimental results show that both the effect of temperature on the values of linear thermal expansion coefficients and the effect of moisture on th...

  1. Nanowire field effect transistors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2014-01-01

    “Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.

  2. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  3. Advanced high performance solid wall blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Nishio, S.; Raffray, R.; Sagara, A.

    2002-01-01

    First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  4. Development of high performance cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.

    2010-04-01

    The irradiation test for HANA claddings conducted and a series of evaluation for next-HANA claddings as well as their in-pile and out-of pile performances tests were also carried out at Halden research reactor. The 6th irradiation test have been completed successfully in Halden research reactor. As a result, HANA claddings showed high performance, such as corrosion resistance increased by 40% compared to Zircaloy-4. The high performance of HANA claddings in Halden test has enabled lead test rod program as the first step of the commercialization of HANA claddings. DB has been established for thermal and LOCA-related properties. It was confirmed from the thermal shock test that the integrity of HANA claddings was maintained in more expanded region than the criteria regulated by NRC. The manufacturing process of strips was established in order to apply HANA alloys, which were originally developed for the claddings, to the spacer grids. 250 kinds of model alloys for the next-generation claddings were designed and manufactured over 4 times and used to select the preliminary candidate alloys for the next-generation claddings. The selected candidate alloys showed 50% better corrosion resistance and 20% improved high temperature oxidation resistance compared to the foreign advanced claddings. We established the manufacturing condition controlling the performance of the dual-cooled claddings by changing the reduction rate in the cold working steps

  5. Integrated plasma control for high performance tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Deranian, R.D.; Ferron, J.R.; Johnson, R.D.; LaHaye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sustaining high performance in a tokamak requires controlling many equilibrium shape and profile characteristics simultaneously with high accuracy and reliability, while suppressing a variety of MHD instabilities. Integrated plasma control, the process of designing high-performance tokamak controllers based on validated system response models and confirming their performance in detailed simulations, provides a systematic method for achieving and ensuring good control performance. For present-day devices, this approach can greatly reduce the need for machine time traditionally dedicated to control optimization, and can allow determination of high-reliability controllers prior to ever producing the target equilibrium experimentally. A full set of tools needed for this approach has recently been completed and applied to present-day devices including DIII-D, NSTX and MAST. This approach has proven essential in the design of several next-generation devices including KSTAR, EAST, JT-60SC, and ITER. We describe the method, results of design and simulation tool development, and recent research producing novel approaches to equilibrium and MHD control in DIII-D. (author)

  6. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  7. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  8. High-performance vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Hans; Günther, Alrun A; Leo, Karl; Lüssem, Björn

    2013-11-11

    Vertical organic thin-film transistors (VOTFTs) are promising devices to overcome the transconductance and cut-off frequency restrictions of horizontal organic thin-film transistors. The basic physical mechanisms of VOTFT operation, however, are not well understood and VOTFTs often require complex patterning techniques using self-assembly processes which impedes a future large-area production. In this contribution, high-performance vertical organic transistors comprising pentacene for p-type operation and C60 for n-type operation are presented. The static current-voltage behavior as well as the fundamental scaling laws of such transistors are studied, disclosing a remarkable transistor operation with a behavior limited by injection of charge carriers. The transistors are manufactured by photolithography, in contrast to other VOTFT concepts using self-assembled source electrodes. Fluorinated photoresist and solvent compounds allow for photolithographical patterning directly and strongly onto the organic materials, simplifying the fabrication protocol and making VOTFTs a prospective candidate for future high-performance applications of organic transistors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.

  10. High performance separation of lanthanides and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, N.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    The major advantage of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is its ability to provide rapid and high performance separations. It is evident from Van Deemter curve for particle size versus resolution that packing materials with particle sizes less than 2 μm provide better resolution for high speed separations and resolving complex mixtures compared to 5 μm based supports. In the recent past, chromatographic support material using monolith has been studied extensively at our laboratory. Monolith column consists of single piece of porous, rigid material containing mesopores and micropores, which provide fast analyte mass transfer. Monolith support provides significantly higher separation efficiency than particle-packed columns. A clear advantage of monolith is that it could be operated at higher flow rates but with lower back pressure. Higher operating flow rate results in higher column permeability, which drastically reduces analysis time and provides high separation efficiency. The above developed fast separation methods were applied to assay the lanthanides and actinides from the dissolver solutions of nuclear reactor fuels

  11. Building Trust in High-Performing Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Soudunsaari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of growth is more about good, trustworthy contacts than capital. Trust is a driving force for business creation, and to create a global business you need to build a team that is capable of meeting the challenge. Trust is a key factor in team building and a needed enabler for cooperation. In general, trust building is a slow process, but it can be accelerated with open interaction and good communication skills. The fast-growing and ever-changing nature of global business sets demands for cooperation and team building, especially for startup companies. Trust building needs personal knowledge and regular face-to-face interaction, but it also requires empathy, respect, and genuine listening. Trust increases communication, and rich and open communication is essential for the building of high-performing teams. Other building materials are a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, willingness for cooperation, and supporting and encouraging leadership. This study focuses on trust in high-performing teams. It asks whether it is possible to manage trust and which tools and operation models should be used to speed up the building of trust. In this article, preliminary results from the authors’ research are presented to highlight the importance of sharing critical information and having a high level of communication through constant interaction.

  12. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on th...

  13. Effective-field theories for heavy quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Nora; Pineda, Antonio; Soto, Joan; Vairo, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent theoretical developments in heavy-quarkonium physics from the point of view of effective-field theories of QCD. We discuss nonrelativistic QCD and concentrate on potential nonrelativistic QCD. The main goal will be to derive Schroedinger equations based on QCD that govern heavy-quarkonium physics in the weak- and strong-coupling regimes. Finally, the review discusses a selected set of applications, which include spectroscopy, inclusive decays, and electromagnetic threshold production

  14. Ultrashort Channel Length Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jinshui; Zhang, Suoming; Cai, Le; Scherr, Martin; Wang, Chuan

    2015-09-22

    This paper reports high-performance top-gated black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors with channel lengths down to 20 nm fabricated using a facile angle evaporation process. By controlling the evaporation angle, the channel length of the transistors can be reproducibly controlled to be anywhere between 20 and 70 nm. The as-fabricated 20 nm top-gated BP transistors exhibit respectable on-state current (174 μA/μm) and transconductance (70 μS/μm) at a VDS of 0.1 V. Due to the use of two-dimensional BP as the channel material, the transistors exhibit relatively small short channel effects, preserving a decent on-off current ratio of 10(2) even at an extremely small channel length of 20 nm. Additionally, unlike the unencapsulated BP devices, which are known to be chemically unstable in ambient conditions, the top-gated BP transistors passivated by the Al2O3 gate dielectric layer remain stable without noticeable degradation in device performance after being stored in ambient conditions for more than 1 week. This work demonstrates the great promise of atomically thin BP for applications in ultimately scaled transistors.

  15. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF THE NONIONIC DETERGENTS C-10E(5) AND C-12E(5) PRESENT IN ELUENTS FOR ION-EXCHANGE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY OF INTEGRAL MEMBRANE-PROTEINS OF SENDAI VIRUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELLINGWESTER, S; FEIJLBRIEF, M; KOEDIJK, DGAM; BRAAKSMA, MA; DOUMA, BRK; WELLING, GW

    1993-01-01

    Non-ionic detergents (0.03-0.5%) are used as additives to the eluents when integral membrane proteins are subjected to ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPIEC). It is not known whether this concentration should bear some relation to the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of a

  16. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '16 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2016. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  17. Are Nanotube Architectures More Advantageous Than Nanowire Architectures For Field Effect Transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-06-27

    Decade long research in 1D nanowire field effect transistors (FET) shows although it has ultra-low off-state leakage current and a single device uses a very small area, its drive current generation per device is extremely low. Thus it requires arrays of nanowires to be integrated together to achieve appreciable amount of current necessary for high performance computation causing an area penalty and compromised functionality. Here we show that a FET with a nanotube architecture and core-shell gate stacks is capable of achieving the desirable leakage characteristics of the nanowire FET while generating a much larger drive current with area efficiency. The core-shell gate stacks of silicon nanotube FETs tighten the electrostatic control and enable volume inversion mode operation leading to improved short channel behavior and enhanced performance. Our comparative study is based on semi-classical transport models with quantum confinement effects which offers new opportunity for future generation high performance computation.

  18. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.

    2013-01-01

    on top of a support membrane. Control membranes, either without aquaporins or with the inactive AqpZ R189A mutant aquaporin served as controls. The separation performance of the membranes was evaluated by cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO) tests. In RO the ABM achieved a water......Aquaporins are water channel proteins with high water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...... permeability of ~ 4 L/(m2 h bar) with a NaCl rejection > 97% at an applied hydraulic pressure of 5 bar. The water permeability was ~40% higher compared to a commercial brackish water RO membrane (BW30) and an order of magnitude higher compared to a seawater RO membrane (SW30HR). In FO, the ABMs had > 90...

  19. High Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the technology required to produce OLED lighting panels with high energy efficiency and excellent light quality. OLED panels developed in this program produce high quality warm white light with CRI greater than 85 and efficacy up to 80 lumens per watt (LPW). An OLED luminaire employing 24 of the high performance panels produces practical levels of illumination for general lighting, with a flux of over 2200 lumens at 60 LPW. This is a significant advance in the state of the art for OLED solid-state lighting (SSL), which is expected to be a complementary light source to the more advanced LED SSL technology that is rapidly replacing all other traditional forms of lighting.

  20. How to create high-performing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    This article is intended to discuss inspirational aspects on how to lead a high-performance team. Cogent topics discussed include how to hire staff through methods of "topgrading" with reference to Geoff Smart and "getting the right people on the bus" referencing Jim Collins' work. In addition, once the staff is hired, this article covers how to separate the "eagles from the ducks" and how to inspire one's staff by creating the right culture with suggestions for further reading by Don Miguel Ruiz (The four agreements) and John Maxwell (21 Irrefutable laws of leadership). In addition, Simon Sinek's concept of "Start with Why" is elaborated to help a leader know what the core element should be with any superior culture. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. Development of high-performance blended cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zichao

    2000-10-01

    This thesis presents the development of high-performance blended cements from industrial by-products. To overcome the low-early strength of blended cements, several chemicals were studied as the activators for cement hydration. Sodium sulfate was discovered as the best activator. The blending proportions were optimized by Taguchi experimental design. The optimized blended cements containing up to 80% fly ash performed better than Type I cement in strength development and durability. Maintaining a constant cement content, concrete produced from the optimized blended cements had equal or higher strength and higher durability than that produced from Type I cement alone. The key for the activation mechanism was the reaction between added SO4 2- and Ca2+ dissolved from cement hydration products.

  2. Fringing field effects in negative capacitance field-effect transistors with a ferroelectric gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Junichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Ikegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyuki; Migita, Shinji; Asai, Hidehiro; Toriumi, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We study the effects of fringing electric fields on the behavior of negative-capacitance (NC) field-effect transistors (FETs) with a silicon-on-insulator body and a gate stack consisting of an oxide film, an internal metal film, a ferroelectric film, and a gate electrode using our own device simulator that can properly handle the complicated relationship between the polarization and the electric field in ferroelectric materials. The behaviors of such NC FETs and the corresponding metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FETs are simulated and compared with each other to evaluate the effects of the NC of the ferroelectric film. Then, the fringing field effects are evaluated by comparing the NC effects in NC FETs with and without gate spacers. The fringing field between the gate stack, especially the internal metal film, and the source/drain region induces more charges at the interface of the film with the ferroelectric film. Accordingly, the function of the NC to modulate the gate voltage and the resulting function to improve the subthreshold swing are enhanced. We also investigate the relationships of these fringing field effects to the drain voltage and four design parameters of NC FETs, i.e., gate length, gate spacer permittivity, internal metal film thickness, and oxide film thickness.

  3. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, John; Brun, René; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro; Carminati, Federico

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on the development of a highperformance prototype for particle transport. Achieving a good concurrency level on the emerging parallel architectures without a complete redesign of the framework can only be done by parallelizing at event level, or with a much larger effort at track level. Apart the shareable data structures, this typically implies a multiplication factor in terms of memory consumption compared to the single threaded version, together with sub-optimal handling of event processing tails. Besides this, the low level instruction pipelining of modern processors cannot be used efficiently to speedup the program. We have implemented a framework that allows scheduling vectors of particles to an arbitrary number of computing resources in a fine grain parallel approach. The talk will review the current optimisation activities within the SFT group with a particular emphasis on the development perspectives towards a simulation framework able to profit

  4. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  5. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  6. Design of JMTR high-performance fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Fumio; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Komori, Yoshihiro; Tsuchihashi, Keiichiro; Kaminaga, Fumito

    1999-01-01

    For test and research reactors, the core conversion to low-enriched uranium fuel is required from the viewpoint of non-proliferation of nuclear weapon material. Improvements of core performance are also required in order to respond to recent advanced utilization needs. In order to meet both requirements, a high-performance fuel element of high uranium density with Cd wires as burnable absorbers was adopted for JMTR core conversion to low-enriched uranium fuel. From the result of examination of an adaptability of a few group constants generated by a conventional transport-theory calculation with an isotropic scattering approximation to a few group diffusion-theory core calculation for design of the JMTR high-performance fuel element, it was clear that the depletion of Cd wires was not able to be predicted accurately using group constants generated by the conventional method. Therefore, a new generation method of a few group constants in consideration of an incident neutron spectrum at Cd wire was developed. As the result, the most suitable high-performance fuel element for JMTR was designed successfully, and that allowed extension of operation duration without refueling to almost twice as long and offer of irradiation field with constant neutron flux. (author)

  7. High-Performance Java Codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Christopher; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The computational science community is reluctant to write large-scale computationally -intensive applications in Java due to concerns over Java's poor performance, despite the claimed software engineering advantages of its object-oriented features. Naive Java implementations of numerical algorithms can perform poorly compared to corresponding Fortran or C implementations. To achieve high performance, Java applications must be designed with good performance as a primary goal. This paper presents the object-oriented design and implementation of two real-world applications from the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): a finite-volume fluid flow solver (LAURA, from NASA Langley Research Center), and an unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm (2D_TAG, from NASA Ames Research Center). This work builds on our previous experience with the design of high-performance numerical libraries in Java. We examine the performance of the applications using the currently available Java infrastructure and show that the Java version of the flow solver LAURA performs almost within a factor of 2 of the original procedural version. Our Java version of the mesh adaptation algorithm 2D_TAG performs within a factor of 1.5 of its original procedural version on certain platforms. Our results demonstrate that object-oriented software design principles are not necessarily inimical to high performance.

  8. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, Alea [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of high performance wall systems. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, cost information, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into the 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project utilized information collected in the California project.

  9. The Supersymmetric Effective Field Theory of Inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delacrétaz, Luca V.; Gorbenko, Victor [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    We construct the Supersymmetric Effective Field Theory of Inflation, that is the most general theory of inflationary fluctuations when time-translations and supersymmetry are spontaneously broken. The non-linear realization of these invariances allows us to define a complete SUGRA multiplet containing the graviton, the gravitino, the Goldstone of time translations and the Goldstino, with no auxiliary fields. Going to a unitary gauge where only the graviton and the gravitino are present, we write the most general Lagrangian built out of the fluctuations of these fields, invariant under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms, but softly-breaking time diffeomorphisms and gauged SUSY. With a suitable Stückelberg transformation, we introduce the Goldstone boson of time translation and the Goldstino of SUSY. No additional dynamical light field is needed. In the high energy limit, larger than the inflationary Hubble scale for the Goldstino, these fields decouple from the graviton and the gravitino, greatly simplifying the analysis in this regime. We study the phenomenology of this Lagrangian. The Goldstino can have a non-relativistic dispersion relation. Gravitino and Goldstino affect the primordial curvature perturbations at loop level. The UV modes running in the loops generate three-point functions which are degenerate with the ones coming from operators already present in the absence of supersymmetry. Their size is potentially as large as corresponding to f{sub NL}{sup equil.,orthog.}∼1 or, for particular operators, even ≫1. The non-degenerate contribution from modes of order H is estimated to be very small.

  10. Effective field theories for correlated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, J.P.

    1999-10-01

    In this thesis, techniques of functional integration are applied to the construction of effective field theories for models of strongly correlated electrons. This is accomplished by means of the Hubbard-Stratonovic transformation which maps a system of interacting fermions onto one of free fermions interacting, not with each other, but with bosonic fields representing the collective modes of the system. Different choices of transformation are investigated throughout the thesis. It is shown that there exists a new group of discrete symmetries and transformations of the Hubbard model. Using this new group, the problem of choosing a Hubbard-Stratonovic decomposition of the Hubbard interaction term is solved. In the context of the exotic doped barium bismuthates, an extended Hubbard model with on-site attraction and nearest neighbour repulsion is studied. Mean field and renormalisation group analyses show a 'pseudospin-flop' from charge density wave to superconductivity as a function of filling. The nearest neighbour attractive Hubbard model on a quasi-2D lattice is studied as a simple phenomenological model for the high-T c cuprates. Mean field theory shows a transition from pure d-wave to pure s-wave superconductivity, via a mixed symmetry s + id state. Using Gaussian fluctuations, the BCS-Bose crossover is examined and suggestions are made about the origin of the angle dependence of the pseudogap. The continuum delta-shell potential model is introduced for anisotropic superconductors. Its mean field phases are studied and found to have some unusual properties. The BCS-Bose crossover is examined and the results are compared with those of the lattice model. Quasi-2D (highly anisotropic 3D) systems are considered. The critical properties of a Bose gas are investigated as the degree of anisotropy is varied. A new 2D Bose condensate state is found. A renormalisation group analysis is used to investigate the crossover from 2D to 3D. (author)

  11. Field-effect P-N junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, William; Zettl, Alexander

    2015-05-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to field-effect p-n junctions. In one aspect, a device includes an ohmic contact, a semiconductor layer disposed on the ohmic contact, at least one rectifying contact disposed on the semiconductor layer, a gate including a layer disposed on the at least one rectifying contact and the semiconductor layer and a gate contact disposed on the layer. A lateral width of the rectifying contact is less than a semiconductor depletion width of the semiconductor layer. The gate contact is electrically connected to the ohmic contact to create a self-gating feedback loop that is configured to maintain a gate electric field of the gate.

  12. Effects of hemoglobin variants HbJ Bangkok, HbE, HbG Taipei, and HbH on analysis of glycated hemoglobin via ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Ming; Wen, Dong-Mei; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Suo, Ming-Huan; Chen, Ya-Qiong

    2018-01-01

    To explore the effects of HbJ Bangkok, HbE, HbG Taipei, and α-thalassemia HbH on the results of HbA1c assessment using ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC). We enrolled five patients in which the results of the IE-HPLC HbA1c assay were inconsistent with the average levels of FBG. We performed hemoglobin capillary (Hb) electrophoresis using whole-blood samples. We also sequenced the genes encoding Hb using dideoxy-mediated chain termination and analyzed HbA1c using borate affinity HPLC (BA-HPLC) and turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (TINIA). Two patients had the HbJ Bangkok variant. Hb genotypes of these patients were β 41-42 /β J Bangkok and β N /β J Bangkok , and the content of HbJ Bangkok was 93.9% and 52.4%, respectively. The remaining three patients had the following: HbE (β N /β E Hb genotype, 23.6% HbE content), HbG Taipei (β N /β G Taipei Hb genotype, 39.4% HbG Taipei content), and α-thalassemia HbH (6.1% HbH content, 2.8% Hb Bart's content). In the patients with β-thalassemia and HbJ Bangkok variants, the presence of the variants interfered with the results of HbA1c analyses using IE-HPLC and TINIA; in the remaining four patients, there was interference with the results of HbA1c IE-HPLC but not with the TINIA assay. There was no interference with BA-HPLC HbA1c results. HbJ Bangkok, HbE, HbG Taipei Hb, and α-thalassemia HbH disease cause varying degrees of interference with the analysis of HbA1c using IE-HPLC. In these patients, we suggest using methods free from such interference for the analysis of HbA1c and other indicators to monitor blood glucose levels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S.

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ˜50 s-SWCNTs μm-1. At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 107 and 46 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm-1 and the on/off ratio is 4 × 105. These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices.

  14. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ∼50 s-SWCNTs μm −1 . At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 10 7 and 46 cm 2  V −1  s −1 , respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm −1 and the on/off ratio is 4 × 10 5 . These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices

  15. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S., E-mail: msarnold@wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ∼50 s-SWCNTs μm{sup −1}. At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 10{sup 7} and 46 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm{sup −1} and the on/off ratio is 4 × 10{sup 5}. These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices.

  16. Effective field theory analysis of Higgs naturalness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Shalom, Shaouly [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel); Soni, Amarjit [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wudka, Jose [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Assuming the presence of physics beyond the Standard Model ( SM) with a characteristic scale M ~ O (10) TeV, we investigate the naturalness of the Higgs sector at scales below M using an effective field theory (EFT) approach. We obtain the leading 1 -loop EFT contributions to the Higgs mass with a Wilsonian-like hard cutoff, and determine t he constraints on the corresponding operator coefficients for these effects to alleviate the little hierarchy problem up to the scale of the effective action Λ < M , a condition we denote by “EFT-naturalness”. We also determine the types of physics that can lead to EFT-naturalness and show that these types of new physics are best probed in vector-boson and multiple-Higgs production. The current experimental constraints on these coefficients are also discussed.

  17. Effective Field Theory with Two Higgs Doublets

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the effective field theory framework describing new physics effects to the case where the underlying low-energy theory is a Two-Higgs-Doublet model. We derive a complete set of independent operators up to dimension six assuming a $Z_2$-invariant CP-conserving Higgs potential. The effects on Higgs and gauge boson masses, mixing angles in the Higgs sector as well as couplings to fermions and gauge bosons are computed. At variance with the case of a single Higgs doublet, we find that pair production of SM-like Higgses, arising through dimension-six operators, is not fixed by fermion-fermion-Higgs couplings and can therefore be sizable.

  18. Effective masses and the nuclear mean field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaux, C.; Sartor, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effective mass characterizes the energy dependence of the empirical average nuclear potential. This energy dependence has two different sources, namely the nonlocality in space of the microscopic mean field on the one hand, and its true energy dependence on the other hand. Correspondingly it is convenient to divide the effective mass into two components, the k-mass and the ω-mass. The latter is responsible for the existence of a peak in the energy dependence of the effective mass. This peak is located near the Fermi energy in nuclear matter and in nuclei, as well as in the electron gas, the hard sphere Fermi gas and liquid helium 3. A related phenomenon is the existence of a low energy anomaly in the energy dependence of the optical model potential between two heavy ions. (orig.)

  19. RNA Detection Based on Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications due to its unique properties. In this paper, the monolayer graphene was grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Using the graphene as the electric channel, we have fabricated a graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET biosensor that can be used for label-free detection of RNA. Compared with conventional method, the G-FET RNA biosensor can be run in low cost, be time-saving, and be miniaturized for RNA measurement. The sensors show high performance and achieve the RNA detection sensitivity as low as 0.1 fM, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the previously reports. Moreover, the G-FET biosensor can readily distinguish target RNA from noncomplementary RNA, showing high selectivity for RNA detection. The developed G-FET RNA biosensor with high sensitivity, fast analysis speed, and simple operation may provide a new feasible direction for RNA research and biosensing.

  20. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-04-05

    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device architecture is capable of high performance operation compared to conventional FinFETs with comparatively higher area efficiency and lower chip latency as well as lower power consumption.

  1. Low-Cost, High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterman, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular PPU for Hall thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper supplies, and an interface module. This high-performance PPU offers resonant circuit topologies, magnetics design, modularity, and a stable and sustained operation during severe Hall effect thruster current oscillations. Laboratory testing has demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96 percent, which is considerably higher than current state of the art.

  2. Improving UV Resistance of High Performance Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Ahmed

    High performance fibers are characterized by their superior properties compared to the traditional textile fibers. High strength fibers have high modules, high strength to weight ratio, high chemical resistance, and usually high temperature resistance. It is used in application where superior properties are needed such as bulletproof vests, ropes and cables, cut resistant products, load tendons for giant scientific balloons, fishing rods, tennis racket strings, parachute cords, adhesives and sealants, protective apparel and tire cords. Unfortunately, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes serious degradation to the most of high performance fibers. UV lights, either natural or artificial, cause organic compounds to decompose and degrade, because the energy of the photons of UV light is high enough to break chemical bonds causing chain scission. This work is aiming at achieving maximum protection of high performance fibers using sheathing approaches. The sheaths proposed are of lightweight to maintain the advantage of the high performance fiber that is the high strength to weight ratio. This study involves developing three different types of sheathing. The product of interest that need be protected from UV is braid from PBO. First approach is extruding a sheath from Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) loaded with different rutile TiO2 % nanoparticles around the braid from the PBO. The results of this approach showed that LDPE sheath loaded with 10% TiO2 by weight achieved the highest protection compare to 0% and 5% TiO2. The protection here is judged by strength loss of PBO. This trend noticed in different weathering environments, where the sheathed samples were exposed to UV-VIS radiations in different weatheromter equipments as well as exposure to high altitude environment using NASA BRDL balloon. The second approach is focusing in developing a protective porous membrane from polyurethane loaded with rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. Membrane from polyurethane loaded with 4

  3. Integrated approach for stress analysis of high performance diesel engine cylinder head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainov, N. D.; Myagkov, L. L.; Malastowski, N. S.; Blinov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Growing thermal and mechanical loads due to development of engines with high level of a mean effective pressure determine requirements to cylinder head durability. In this paper, computational schemes for thermal and mechanical stress analysis of a high performance diesel engine cylinder head were described. The most important aspects in this approach are the account of temperature fields of conjugated details (valves and saddles), heat transfer modeling in a cooling jacket of a cylinder head and topology optimization of the detail force scheme. Simulation results are shown and analyzed.

  4. Higgs effective field theories. Systematics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Claudius G.

    2016-07-28

    Researchers of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced on July 4th, 2012, the observation of a new particle. The properties of the particle agree, within the relatively large experimental uncertainties, with the properties of the long-sought Higgs boson. Particle physicists around the globe are now wondering, ''Is it the Standard Model Higgs that we observe; or is it another particle with similar properties?'' We employ effective field theories (EFTs) for a general, model-independent description of the particle. We use a few, minimal assumptions - Standard Model (SM) particle content and a separation of scales to the new physics - which are supported by current experimental results. By construction, effective field theories describe a physical system only at a certain energy scale, in our case at the electroweak-scale v. Effects of new physics from a higher energy-scale, Λ, are described by modified interactions of the light particles. In this thesis, ''Higgs Effective Field Theories - Systematics and Applications'', we discuss effective field theories for the Higgs particle, which is not necessarily the Higgs of the Standard Model. In particular, we focus on a systematic and consistent expansion of the EFT. The systematics depends on the dynamics of the new physics. We distinguish two different consistent expansions. EFTs that describe decoupling new-physics effects and EFTs that describe non-decoupling new-physics effects. We briefly discuss the first case, the SM-EFT. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the non-decoupling EFTs. We argue that the loop expansion is the consistent expansion in the second case. We introduce the concept of chiral dimensions, equivalent to the loop expansion. Using the chiral dimensions, we expand the electroweak chiral Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order, O(f{sup 2}/Λ{sup 2})=O(1/16π{sup 2}). Further, we discuss how different

  5. Dual field effects in electrolyte-gated spinel ferrite: electrostatic carrier doping and redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Takashi; Fujiwara, Kohei; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-07-24

    Controlling the electronic properties of functional oxide materials via external electric fields has attracted increasing attention as a key technology for next-generation electronics. For transition-metal oxides with metallic carrier densities, the electric-field effect with ionic liquid electrolytes has been widely used because of the enormous carrier doping capabilities. The gate-induced redox reactions revealed by recent investigations have, however, highlighted the complex nature of the electric-field effect. Here, we use the gate-induced conductance modulation of spinel ZnxFe₃₋xO₄ to demonstrate the dual contributions of volatile and non-volatile field effects arising from electronic carrier doping and redox reactions. These two contributions are found to change in opposite senses depending on the Zn content x; virtual electronic and chemical field effects are observed at appropriate Zn compositions. The tuning of field-effect characteristics via composition engineering should be extremely useful for fabricating high-performance oxide field-effect devices.

  6. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamilton, Allister B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  7. The Effective Field Theory of nonsingular cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yong [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Wan, Youping [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy,University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Li, Hai-Guang [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, Taotao [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University,Wuhan 430079 (China); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Central China Normal University,Wuhan 430079 (China); Piao, Yun-Song [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-01-20

    In this paper, we explore the nonsingular cosmology within the framework of the Effective Field Theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations. Due to the recently proved no-go theorem, any nonsingular cosmological models based on the cubic Galileon suffer from pathologies. We show how the EFT could help us clarify the origin of the no-go theorem, and offer us solutions to break the no-go. Particularly, we point out that the gradient instability can be removed by using some spatial derivative operators in EFT. Based on the EFT description, we obtain a realistic healthy nonsingular cosmological model, and show the perturbation spectrum can be consistent with the observations.

  8. The Effective Field Theory of nonsingular cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yong; Wan, Youping; Li, Hai-Guang; Qiu, Taotao; Piao, Yun-Song

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the nonsingular cosmology within the framework of the Effective Field Theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations. Due to the recently proved no-go theorem, any nonsingular cosmological models based on the cubic Galileon suffer from pathologies. We show how the EFT could help us clarify the origin of the no-go theorem, and offer us solutions to break the no-go. Particularly, we point out that the gradient instability can be removed by using some spatial derivative operators in EFT. Based on the EFT description, we obtain a realistic healthy nonsingular cosmological model, and show the perturbation spectrum can be consistent with the observations.

  9. Global effects in quaternionic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumby, S.P.; Joshi, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    A local quaternionic gauge structure is introduced onto space-time. It is a theory of vector bosons and dimensionless scalar fields, which recalls semi-classical treatments of gravity. After transforming to the 'i' gauge, it was found that the quaternionic symmetry takes the form of an exotic SU (2) gauge theory in the standard complex framework, with global phenomena appearing in the form of cosmic strings. Coupling this quaternionic sector to the Standard Model sector has only been achieved at the level of an effective theory, which is constrained by the quaternionic origin of the bosons to be of a nonrenormalisable form. 14 refs.,

  10. Oxidation and crystal field effects in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); van der Laan, G. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom); Sokaras, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Weng, T. -C. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Yu, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bagus, P. S. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Tyliszczak, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-07-06

    An extensive investigation of oxidation in uranium has been pursued. This includes the utilization of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard x-ray absorption near-edge structure, resonant (hard) x-ray emission spectroscopy, cluster calculations, and a branching ratio analysis founded on atomic theory. The samples utilized were uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium trioxide (UO3), and uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). As a result, a discussion of the role of non-spherical perturbations, i.e., crystal or ligand field effects, will be presented.

  11. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  12. NCI's Transdisciplinary High Performance Scientific Data Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben; Antony, Joseph; Bastrakova, Irina; Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Druken, Kelsey; Evans, Bradley; Fraser, Ryan; Ip, Alex; Kemp, Carina; King, Edward; Minchin, Stuart; Larraondo, Pablo; Pugh, Tim; Richards, Clare; Santana, Fabiana; Smillie, Jon; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) manages Earth Systems data collections sourced from several domains and organisations onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node to further Australia's national priority research and innovation agenda. The NCI HPD Node has rapidly established its value, currently managing over 10 PBytes of datasets from collections that span a wide range of disciplines including climate, weather, environment, geoscience, geophysics, water resources and social sciences. Importantly, in order to facilitate broad user uptake, maximise reuse and enable transdisciplinary access through software and standardised interfaces, the datasets, associated information systems and processes have been incorporated into the design and operation of a unified platform that NCI has called, the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). The key goal of the NERDIP is to regularise data access so that it is easily discoverable, interoperable for different domains and enabled for high performance methods. It adopts and implements international standards and data conventions, and promotes scientific integrity within a high performance computing and data analysis environment. NCI has established a rich and flexible computing environment to access to this data, through the NCI supercomputer; a private cloud that supports both domain focused virtual laboratories and in-common interactive analysis interfaces; as well as remotely through scalable data services. Data collections of this importance must be managed with careful consideration of both their current use and the needs of the end-communities, as well as its future potential use, such as transitioning to more advanced software and improved methods. It is therefore critical that the data platform is both well-managed and trusted for stable production use (including transparency and reproducibility), agile enough to incorporate new technological advances and

  13. The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algattawi, A.; Elshyrih, H.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies investigated that weak electromagnetic fields remove calcium ions bound to the membranes of living cells, making them more likely to tear,. There is an enzyme that destroys DNA this enzyme leaking through the membranes of lysosomes explains the fragmentation of DNA. This case was seen in cells exposed to mobile phone signals. When this occurs in the germ line it reduces fertility and predicts genetic damage in future generations. Although leakage of calcium ions into the cytosol (the main part of the cell) accelerates the growth, but it also promotes the growth of tumors. Leakage of calcium ions into neurons (brain cells) makes nerve impulses accounting for pain and other neurological symptoms in electro sensitive. It also reduces the signal to noise ratio of the brain making it less likely to respond. This may be partially responsible for the increased accident rate of drivers using mobile phones. More details for the molecular mechanisms to explain characteristics of electromagnetic exposure are needed, e.g. I) why weak fields are more effective than strong ones, II) why some frequencies such as 16 Hz are especially potent and III) why pulsed fields do more damage

  14. An integrated high performance Fastbus slave interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1993-01-01

    A high performance CMOS Fastbus slave interface ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) supporting all addressing and data transfer modes defined in the IEEE 960 - 1986 standard is presented. The FAstbus Slave Integrated Circuit (FASIC) is an interface between the asynchronous Fastbus and a clock synchronous processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a 32 bit microprocessor. The FASIC is a programmable device enabling its direct use in many different applications. A set of programmable address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/sec to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO in the FASIC to buffer data between the two buses during block transfers. Message passing from Fastbus to a microprocessor on the slave module is supported. A compact (70 mm x 170 mm) Fastbus slave piggy back sub-card interface including level conversion between ECL and TTL signal levels has been implemented using surface mount components and the 208 pin FASIC chip

  15. A high performance architecture for accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.; Hunt, S.M; Lue, H.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1991-01-01

    The demands placed on the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) control system due to large distances, high bandwidth and fast response time required for operation will require a fresh approach to the data communications architecture of the accelerator. The prototype design effort aims at providing deterministic communication across the accelerator complex with a response time of < 100 ms and total bandwidth of 2 Gbits/sec. It will offer a consistent interface for a large number of equipment types, from vacuum pumps to beam position monitors, providing appropriate communications performance for each equipment type. It will consist of highly parallel links to all equipment: those with computing resources, non-intelligent direct control interfaces, and data concentrators. This system will give each piece of equipment a dedicated link of fixed bandwidth to the control system. Application programs will have access to all accelerator devices which will be memory mapped into a global virtual addressing scheme. Links to devices in the same geographical area will be multiplexed using commercial Time Division Multiplexing equipment. Low-level access will use reflective memory techniques, eliminating processing overhead and complexity of traditional data communication protocols. The use of commercial standards and equipment will enable a high performance system to be built at low cost

  16. A high performance architecture for accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.; Hunt, S.M.; Lue, H.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1991-03-01

    The demands placed on the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) control system due to large distances, high bandwidth and fast response time required for operation will require a fresh approach to the data communications architecture of the accelerator. The prototype design effort aims at providing deterministic communication across the accelerator complex with a response time of <100 ms and total bandwidth of 2 Gbits/sec. It will offer a consistent interface for a large number of equipment types, from vacuum pumps to beam position monitors, providing appropriate communications performance for each equipment type. It will consist of highly parallel links to all equipments: those with computing resources, non-intelligent direct control interfaces, and data concentrators. This system will give each piece of equipment a dedicated link of fixed bandwidth to the control system. Application programs will have access to all accelerator devices which will be memory mapped into a global virtual addressing scheme. Links to devices in the same geographical area will be multiplexed using commercial Time Division Multiplexing equipment. Low-level access will use reflective memory techniques, eliminating processing overhead and complexity of traditional data communication protocols. The use of commercial standards and equipment will enable a high performance system to be built at low cost. 1 fig

  17. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  18. Initial rheological description of high performance concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lorenzetti de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is defined as a composite material and, in rheological terms, it can be understood as a concentrated suspension of solid particles (aggregates in a viscous liquid (cement paste. On a macroscopic scale, concrete flows as a liquid. It is known that the rheological behavior of the concrete is close to that of a Bingham fluid and two rheological parameters regarding its description are needed: yield stress and plastic viscosity. The aim of this paper is to present the initial rheological description of high performance concretes using the modified slump test. According to the results, an increase of yield stress was observed over time, while a slight variation in plastic viscosity was noticed. The incorporation of silica fume showed changes in the rheological properties of fresh concrete. The behavior of these materials also varied with the mixing procedure employed in their production. The addition of superplasticizer meant that there was a large reduction in the mixture's yield stress, while plastic viscosity remained practically constant.

  19. High performance computing in linear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in both theory and applications of all important areas of control. The theory is rich and very sophisticated. Some beautiful applications of control theory are presently being made in aerospace, biomedical engineering, industrial engineering, robotics, economics, power systems, etc. Unfortunately, the same assessment of progress does not hold in general for computations in control theory. Control Theory is lagging behind other areas of science and engineering in this respect. Nowadays there is a revolution going on in the world of high performance scientific computing. Many powerful computers with vector and parallel processing have been built and have been available in recent years. These supercomputers offer very high speed in computations. Highly efficient software, based on powerful algorithms, has been developed to use on these advanced computers, and has also contributed to increased performance. While workers in many areas of science and engineering have taken great advantage of these hardware and software developments, control scientists and engineers, unfortunately, have not been able to take much advantage of these developments

  20. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  1. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  3. Nucleon Polarisabilities and Effective Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshammer, Harald W.

    2017-09-01

    Low-energy Compton scattering probes the nucleon's two-photon response to electric and magnetic fields at fixed photon frequency and multipolarity. It tests the symmetries and strengths of the interactions between constituents, and with photons. For convenience, this energy-dependent information is often compressed into the two scalar dipole polarisabilities αE 1 and βM 1 at zero photon energy. These are fundamental quantities, and important for the proton charge radius puzzle and the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Combined with emerging lattice QCD computations, they provide stringent tests for our understanding of hadron structure. Extractions of the proton and neutron polarisabilities from all published elastic data below 300 MeV in Chiral Effective Field Theory with explicit Δ (1232) are now available. This talk emphasises χEFT as natural bridge between lattice QCD and ongoing or approved efforts at HI γS, MAMI and MAX-lab. Chiral lattice extrapolations from mπ > 200 MeV to the physical point compare well to lattice computations. Combining χEFT with high-intensity experiments with polarised targets and polarised beams will extract not only scalar polarisabilities, but in particular the four so-far poorly explored spin-polarisabilities. These parametrise the stiffness of the spin in external electro-magnetic fields (nucleonic bi-refringence/Faraday effect). New chiral predictions for proton, deuteron and 3He observables show intriguing sensitivities on spin and neutron polarisabilities. Data consistency and a model-independent quantification of residual theory uncertainties by Bayesian analysis are also discussed. Proton-neutron differences explore the interplay between chiral symmetry breaking and short-distance Physics. Finally, I address their impact on the neutron-proton mass difference, big-bang nucleosynthesis, and their relevance for anthropic arguments. Supported in part by DOE DE-SC0015393 and George Washington University.

  4. ALPs effective field theory and collider signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brivio, I. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gavela, M.B.; Merlo, L.; Rey, R. del [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Mimasu, K. [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Universite Catholique de Louvain, Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); No, J.M. [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Sanz, V. [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    We study the leading effective interactions between the Standard Model fields and a generic singlet CP-odd (pseudo-) Goldstone boson. Two possible frameworks for electroweak symmetry breaking are considered: linear and non-linear. For the latter case, the basis of leading effective operators is determined and compared with that for the linear expansion. Associated phenomenological signals at colliders are explored for both scenarios, deriving new bounds and analyzing future prospects, including LHC and High Luminosity LHC sensitivities. Mono-Z, mono-W, W-photon plus missing energy and on-shell top final states are most promising signals expected in both frameworks. In addition, non-standard Higgs decays and mono-Higgs signatures are especially prominent and expected to be dominant in non-linear realisations. (orig.)

  5. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  6. Deformable Organic Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeongjun; Oh, Jin Young; Kim, Taeho Roy; Gu, Xiaodan; Kim, Yeongin; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Wu, Hung-Chin; Pfattner, Raphael; To, John W F; Katsumata, Toru; Son, Donghee; Kang, Jiheong; Matthews, James R; Niu, Weijun; He, Mingqian; Sinclair, Robert; Cui, Yi; Tok, Jeffery B-H; Lee, Tae-Woo; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-02-01

    Deformable electronic devices that are impervious to mechanical influence when mounted on surfaces of dynamically changing soft matters have great potential for next-generation implantable bioelectronic devices. Here, deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of single organic nanowires (NWs) as the semiconductor are presented. The NWs are composed of fused thiophene diketopyrrolopyrrole based polymer semiconductor and high-molecular-weight polyethylene oxide as both the molecular binder and deformability enhancer. The obtained transistors show high field-effect mobility >8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 with poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) polymer dielectric and can easily be deformed by applied strains (both 100% tensile and compressive strains). The electrical reliability and mechanical durability of the NWs can be significantly enhanced by forming serpentine-like structures of the NWs. Remarkably, the fully deformable NW FETs withstand 3D volume changes (>1700% and reverting back to original state) of a rubber balloon with constant current output, on the surface of which it is attached. The deformable transistors can robustly operate without noticeable degradation on a mechanically dynamic soft matter surface, e.g., a pulsating balloon (pulse rate: 40 min -1 (0.67 Hz) and 40% volume expansion) that mimics a beating heart, which underscores its potential for future biomedical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Micromachined high-performance RF passives in CMOS substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinxin; Ni, Zao; Gu, Lei; Wu, Zhengzheng; Yang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This review systematically addresses the micromachining technologies used for the fabrication of high-performance radio-frequency (RF) passives that can be integrated into low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-grade (i.e. low-resistivity) silicon wafers. With the development of various kinds of post-CMOS-compatible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes, 3D structural inductors/transformers, variable capacitors, tunable resonators and band-pass/low-pass filters can be compatibly integrated into active integrated circuits to form monolithic RF system-on-chips. By using MEMS processes, including substrate modifying/suspending and LIGA-like metal electroplating, both the highly lossy substrate effect and the resistive loss can be largely eliminated and depressed, thereby meeting the high-performance requirements of telecommunication applications. (topical review)

  8. Hydrazine Determination in Sludge Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Elias; G. A. Park

    2006-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed to detect and quantify hydrazine in a variety of environmental matrices. The method was developed primarily for sludge samples, but it is also applicable to soil and water samples. The hydrazine in the matrices was derivatized to their hydrazones with benzaldehyde. The derivatized hydrazones were separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a reversed-phase C-18 column in an isocratic mode with methanol-water (95:5, v/v), and detected with UV detection at 313 nm. The detection limit (25 ml) for the new analytical method is 0.0067 mg ml-1of hydrazine. Hydrazine showed low recovery in soil samples because components in soil oxidized hydrazine. Sludge samples that contained relatively high soil content also showed lower recovery. The technique is relatively simple and cost-effective, and is applicable for hydrazine analysis in different environmental matrices.

  9. Spectrally high performing quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Fatima

    Quantum cascade (QC) lasers are versatile semiconductor light sources that can be engineered to emit light of almost any wavelength in the mid- to far-infrared (IR) and terahertz region from 3 to 300 mum [1-5]. Furthermore QC laser technology in the mid-IR range has great potential for applications in environmental, medical and industrial trace gas sensing [6-10] since several chemical vapors have strong rovibrational frequencies in this range and are uniquely identifiable by their absorption spectra through optical probing of absorption and transmission. Therefore, having a wide range of mid-IR wavelengths in a single QC laser source would greatly increase the specificity of QC laser-based spectroscopic systems, and also make them more compact and field deployable. This thesis presents work on several different approaches to multi-wavelength QC laser sources that take advantage of band-structure engineering and the uni-polar nature of QC lasers. Also, since for chemical sensing, lasers with narrow linewidth are needed, work is presented on a single mode distributed feedback (DFB) QC laser. First, a compact four-wavelength QC laser source, which is based on a 2-by-2 module design, with two waveguides having QC laser stacks for two different emission wavelengths each, one with 7.0 mum/11.2 mum, and the other with 8.7 mum/12.0 mum is presented. This is the first design of a four-wavelength QC laser source with widely different emission wavelengths that uses minimal optics and electronics. Second, since there are still several unknown factors that affect QC laser performance, results on a first ever study conducted to determine the effects of waveguide side-wall roughness on QC laser performance using the two-wavelength waveguides is presented. The results are consistent with Rayleigh scattering effects in the waveguides, with roughness effecting shorter wavelengths more than longer wavelengths. Third, a versatile time-multiplexed multi-wavelength QC laser system that

  10. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  11. Can We Build a Truly High Performance Computer Which is Flexible and Transparent?

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2013-09-10

    State-of-the art computers need high performance transistors, which consume ultra-low power resulting in longer battery lifetime. Billions of transistors are integrated neatly using matured silicon fabrication process to maintain the performance per cost advantage. In that context, low-cost mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100) based high performance transistors are considered as the heart of today\\'s computers. One limitation is silicon\\'s rigidity and brittleness. Here we show a generic batch process to convert high performance silicon electronics into flexible and semi-transparent one while retaining its performance, process compatibility, integration density and cost. We demonstrate high-k/metal gate stack based p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors on 4 inch silicon fabric released from bulk silicon (100) wafers with sub-threshold swing of 80 mV dec(-1) and on/off ratio of near 10(4) within 10% device uniformity with a minimum bending radius of 5 mm and an average transmittance of similar to 7% in the visible spectrum.

  12. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The design uses the flexibility of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the powerful Associative Memory Chip (ASIC) to achieve real-time performance. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain.

  13. Ultra high performance concrete dematerialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world and its use is expected to grow. It is well recognized that the production of portland cement results in the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas (GHG). The main challenge facing the industry is to produce concrete in an environmentally sustainable manner. Reclaimed industrial by-proudcts such as fly ash, silica fume and slag can reduce the amount of portland cement needed to make concrete, thereby reducing the amount of GHGs released to the atmosphere. The use of these supplementary cementing materials (SCM) can also enhance the long-term strength and durability of concrete. The intention of the EcoSmart{sup TM} Concrete Project is to develop sustainable concrete through innovation in supply, design and construction. In particular, the project focuses on finding a way to minimize the GHG signature of concrete by maximizing the replacement of portland cement in the concrete mix with SCM while improving the cost, performance and constructability. This paper describes the use of Ductal{sup R} Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) for ramps in a condominium. It examined the relationship between the selection of UHPC and the overall environmental performance, cost, constructability maintenance and operational efficiency as it relates to the EcoSmart Program. The advantages and challenges of using UHPC were outlined. In addition to its very high strength, UHPC has been shown to have very good potential for GHG emission reduction due to the reduced material requirements, reduced transport costs and increased SCM content. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. High-performance laboratories and cleanrooms; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Mills, Evan; Xu, Tengfang

    2002-01-01

    The California Energy Commission sponsored this roadmap to guide energy efficiency research and deployment for high performance cleanrooms and laboratories. Industries and institutions utilizing these building types (termed high-tech buildings) have played an important part in the vitality of the California economy. This roadmap's key objective to present a multi-year agenda to prioritize and coordinate research efforts. It also addresses delivery mechanisms to get the research products into the market. Because of the importance to the California economy, it is appropriate and important for California to take the lead in assessing the energy efficiency research needs, opportunities, and priorities for this market. In addition to the importance to California's economy, energy demand for this market segment is large and growing (estimated at 9400 GWH for 1996, Mills et al. 1996). With their 24hr. continuous operation, high tech facilities are a major contributor to the peak electrical demand. Laboratories and cleanrooms constitute the high tech building market, and although each building type has its unique features, they are similar in that they are extremely energy intensive, involve special environmental considerations, have very high ventilation requirements, and are subject to regulations-primarily safety driven-that tend to have adverse energy implications. High-tech buildings have largely been overlooked in past energy efficiency research. Many industries and institutions utilize laboratories and cleanrooms. As illustrated, there are many industries operating cleanrooms in California. These include semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor suppliers, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, disk drive manufacturing, flat panel displays, automotive, aerospace, food, hospitals, medical devices, universities, and federal research facilities

  15. Magnetic Field Effects on Plasma Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, F.; Shebalin, J.; Girimaji, S.; Staack, D.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we will discuss our numerical studies of plasma jets and loops, of basic interest for plasma propulsion and plasma astrophysics. Space plasma propulsion systems require strong guiding magnetic fields known as magnetic nozzles to control plasma flow and produce thrust. Propulsion methods currently being developed that require magnetic nozzles include the VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) [1] and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Magnetic nozzles are functionally similar to de Laval nozzles, but are inherently more complex due to electromagnetic field interactions. The two crucial physical phenomenon are thrust production and plasma detachment. Thrust production encompasses the energy conversion within the nozzle and momentum transfer to a spacecraft. Plasma detachment through magnetic reconnection addresses the problem of the fluid separating efficiently from the magnetic field lines to produce maximum thrust. Plasma jets similar to those of VASIMR will be studied with particular interest in dual jet configurations, which begin as a plasma loops between two nozzles. This research strives to fulfill a need for computational study of these systems and should culminate with a greater understanding of the crucial physics of magnetic nozzles with dual jet plasma thrusters, as well as astrophysics problems such as magnetic reconnection and dynamics of coronal loops.[2] To study this problem a novel, hybrid kinetic theory and single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver known as the Magneto-Gas Kinetic Method is used.[3] The solver is comprised of a "hydrodynamic" portion based on the Gas Kinetic Method and a "magnetic" portion that accounts for the electromagnetic behaviour of the fluid through source terms based on the resistive MHD equations. This method is being further developed to include additional physics such as the Hall effect. Here, we will discuss the current level of code development, as well as numerical simulation results

  16. Internal electric fields due to piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations in CdZnO/MgZnO quantum well with various applied electric field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, H.C.; Lee, S.J.; Kang, T.W.; Park, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization can be reduced effectively using the applied electric field in the CdZnO/ZnMgO quantum well (QW) structure with high Cd composition. That is, optical properties as a function of internal and external fields in the CdZnO/ZnMgO QW with various applied electric field result in the increased optical gain due to the fact that the QW potential profile is flattened as a result of the compensation of the internal field by the reverse field as confirmed. These results demonstrate that a high-performance optical device operation can be realized in CdZnO/MgZnO QW structures by reducing the droop phenomenon.

  17. Internal electric fields due to piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations in CdZnO/MgZnO quantum well with various applied electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H.C. [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.J., E-mail: leesj@dongguk.edu [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, T.W. [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyeongbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization can be reduced effectively using the applied electric field in the CdZnO/ZnMgO quantum well (QW) structure with high Cd composition. That is, optical properties as a function of internal and external fields in the CdZnO/ZnMgO QW with various applied electric field result in the increased optical gain due to the fact that the QW potential profile is flattened as a result of the compensation of the internal field by the reverse field as confirmed. These results demonstrate that a high-performance optical device operation can be realized in CdZnO/MgZnO QW structures by reducing the droop phenomenon.

  18. Effective field theory of cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The effective field theory of cosmological perturbations stems from considering a cosmological background solution as a state displaying spontaneous breaking of time translations and (adiabatic) perturbations as the related Nambu–Goldstone modes. With this insight, one can systematically develop a theory for the cosmological perturbations during inflation and, with minor modifications, also describe in full generality the gravitational interactions of dark energy, which are relevant for late-time cosmology. The formalism displays a unique set of Lagrangian operators containing an increasing number of cosmological perturbations and derivatives. We give an introductory description of the unitary gauge formalism for theories with broken gauge symmetry—that allows us to write down the most general Lagrangian—and of the Stückelberg ‘trick’—that allows to recover gauge invariance and to make the scalar field explicit. We show how to apply this formalism to gravity and cosmology and we reproduce the detailed analysis of the action in the ADM variables. We also review some basic applications to inflation and dark energy. (paper)

  19. Effective field theory of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-11-01

    The effective field theory of cosmological perturbations stems from considering a cosmological background solution as a state displaying spontaneous breaking of time translations and (adiabatic) perturbations as the related Nambu-Goldstone modes. With this insight, one can systematically develop a theory for the cosmological perturbations during inflation and, with minor modifications, also describe in full generality the gravitational interactions of dark energy, which are relevant for late-time cosmology. The formalism displays a unique set of Lagrangian operators containing an increasing number of cosmological perturbations and derivatives. We give an introductory description of the unitary gauge formalism for theories with broken gauge symmetry—that allows us to write down the most general Lagrangian—and of the Stückelberg ‘trick’—that allows to recover gauge invariance and to make the scalar field explicit. We show how to apply this formalism to gravity and cosmology and we reproduce the detailed analysis of the action in the ADM variables. We also review some basic applications to inflation and dark energy.

  20. Micro-patterned ZnO semiconductors for high performance thin film transistors via chemical imprinting with a PDMS stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kieun; Kim, Kyongjun; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2013-04-07

    Chemical imprinting was conducted on ZnO semiconductor films via a chemical reaction at the contact regions between a micro-patterned PDMS stamp and ZnO films. In addition, we applied the chemical imprinting on Li doped ZnO thin films for high performance TFTs fabrication. The representative micro-patterned Li doped ZnO TFTs showed a field effect mobility of 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after sintering at 300 °C.

  1. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  2. Thermal and Hygric Expansion of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear thermal expansion coefficient of two types of high performance concrete was measured in the temperature range from 20 °C to 1000 °C, and the linear hygric expansion coefficient was determined in the moisture range from dry material to saturation water content. Comparative methods were applied for measurements of both coefficients. The experimental results show that both the effect of temperature on the values of linear thermal expansion coefficients and the effect of moisture on the values of linear hygric expansion coefficients are very significant and cannot be neglected in practical applications.

  3. Effective field theory for cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    Effective Field Theory (EFT) provides a powerful framework that exploits a separation of scales in physical systems to perform systematically improvable, model-independent calculations. Particularly interesting are few-body systems with short-range interactions and large two-body scattering length. Such systems display remarkable universal features. In systems with more than two particles, a three-body force with limit cycle behavior is required for consistent renormalization already at leading order. We will review this EFT and some of its applications in the physics of cold atoms. Recent extensions of this approach to the four-body system and N-boson droplets in two spatial dimensions will also be discussed

  4. Nuclear parity violation in effective field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shilin; Maekawa, C.M.; Holstein, B.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.; Kolck, U. van

    2005-01-01

    We reformulate the analysis of nuclear parity violation (PV) within the framework of effective field theory (EFT). To O(Q), the PV nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction depends on five a priori unknown constants that parameterize the leading-order, short-range four-nucleon operators. When pions are included as explicit degrees of freedom, the potential contains additional medium- and long-range components parameterized by PV πNN coupling. We derive the form of the corresponding one- and two-pion-exchange potentials. We apply these considerations to a set of existing and prospective PV few-body measurements that may be used to determine the five independent low-energy constants relevant to the pionless EFT and the additional constants associated with dynamical pions. We also discuss the relationship between the conventional meson-exchange framework and the EFT formulation, and argue that the latter provides a more general and systematic basis for analyzing nuclear PV

  5. The need for high performance breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, R.D.; Chermanne, J.

    1977-01-01

    It can be easily demonstrated, on the basis of realistic estimates of continued high oil costs, that an increasing portion of the growth in energy demand must be supplied by nuclear power and that this one might account for 20% of all the energy production by the end of the century. Such assumptions lead very quickly to the conclusion that the discovery, extraction and processing of the uranium will not be able to follow the demand; the bottleneck will essentially be related to the rate at which the ore can be discovered and extracted, and not to the existing quantities nor their grade. Figures as high as 150.000 T/annum and more would be quickly reached, and it is necessary to wonder already now if enough capital can be attracted to meet these requirements. There is only one solution to this problem: improve the conversion ratio of the nuclear system and quickly reach the breeding; this would lead to the reduction of the natural uranium consumption by a factor of about 50. However, this condition is not sufficient; the commercial breeder must have a breeding gain as high as possible because the Pu out-of-pile time and the Pu losses in the cycle could lead to an unacceptable doubling time for the system, if the breeding gain is too low. That is the reason why it is vital to develop high performance breeder reactors. The present paper indicates how the Gas-cooled Breeder Reactor [GBR] can meet the problems mentioned above, on the basis of recent and realistic studies. It briefly describes the present status of GBR development, from the predecessors in the gas cooled reactor line, particularly the AGR. It shows how the GBR fuel takes mostly profit from the LMFBR fuel irradiation experience. It compares the GBR performance on a consistent basis with that of the LMFBR. The GBR capital and fuel cycle costs are compared with those of thermal and fast reactors respectively. The conclusion is, based on a cost-benefit study, that the GBR must be quickly developed in order

  6. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  7. High Performance Lead--free Piezoelectric Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shashaank

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials find applications in number of devices requiring inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy.  These devices include different types of sensors, actuators and energy harvesting devices. A number of lead-based perovskite compositions (PZT, PMN-PT, PZN-PT etc.) have dominated the field in last few decades owing to their giant piezoresponse and convenient application relevant tunability. With increasing environmental concerns, in the last one decade, focus has be...

  8. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubliner, Michael [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Howard, Luke [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Hales, David [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Kunkle, Rick [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Gordon, Andy [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Spencer, Melinda [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program

    2016-02-18

    The Woods is a Habitat for Humanity (HFH) community of ENERGY STAR Homes Northwest (ESHNW)-certified homes located in the marine climate of Tacoma/Pierce County, Washington. This research report builds on an earlier preliminary draft 2014 BA report, and includes significant billing analysis and cost effectiveness research from a collaborative, ongoing Ductless Heat Pump (DHP)research effort for Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH. Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH.

  9. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Progress Towards Net-Zero and Net-Positive-Energy Commercial Buildings and Urban Districts Through Intelligent Building Envelope Strategies Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring onsite solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building

  10. Highly dispersed Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/polypyrrole nanocomposites for cost-effective, high-performance defluoridation using a magnetically controllable microdevice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Shi, Guoying; Mu, Qinghui; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly dispersed CZFO/PPy nanocomposites are synthesized in microfluidic reactor. ► The as-synthesized nanocomposites behave as a high performance adsorbent. ► The magnetic microdevice has advantages over traditional methods for defluoridation. - Abstract: Highly dispersed Co 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 /polypyrrole (CZFO/PPy) nanocomposites with enhanced electromagnetic properties and large surface area were rapidly and controllably prepared using microfluidic reactors. A novel magnetically controllable microdevice using the new adsorbent in a highly dispersed form was assembled and used for fluoride adsorption. Compared with traditional adsorption methods, the device displayed high adsorption efficiency and capacity. The adsorbents were regenerated with no significant loss in defluoridation ability, which indicates that the device is a realistic and highly efficient alternative way of removing fluoride pollution at low cost.

  11. Miniaturized high performance sensors for space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Operating under ever more constrained budgets, NASA has turned to a new paradigm for instrumentation and mission development in which smaller, faster, better, cheaper is of primary consideration for future space plasma investigations. The author presents several examples showing the influence of this new paradigm on sensor development and discuss certain implications for the scientific return from resource constrained sensors. The author also discusses one way to improve space plasma sensor performance which is to search out new technologies, measurement techniques and instrument analogs from related fields including among others, laboratory plasma physics

  12. High Performance Expectations: Concept and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2017-01-01

    literature research, HPE is defined as the degree to which leaders succeed in expressing ambitious expectations to their employees’ achievement of given performance criteria, and it is analyzed how leadership behavior affects employee-perceived HPE. This study applies a large-scale leadership field...... experiment with 3,730 employees nested in 471 organizations and finds that transformational leadership training as well as transactional and combined training of the leaders significantly increased employees’ HPE relative to a control group. Furthermore, transformational leadership and the use of pecuniary...... rewards seem to be important mechanisms. This implies that public leaders can actually affect HPE through their leadership and thus potentially organizational performance as well....

  13. ON current enhancement of nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kohei; Hashimoto, Shuichiro; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Asada, Shuhei; Xu, Taiyu; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Watanabe, Takanobu

    2016-04-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors (NW-SBTFETs) are promising structures for high performance devices. In this study, we fabricated NW-SBTFETs to investigate the effect of nanowire structure on the device characteristics. The NW-SBTFETs were operated with a backgate bias, and the experimental results demonstrate that the ON current density is enhanced by narrowing the width of the nanowire. We confirmed using the Fowler-Nordheim plot that the drain current in the ON state mainly comprises the quantum tunneling component through the Schottky barrier. Comparison with a technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation revealed that the enhancement is attributed to the electric field concentration at the corners of cross-section of the NW. The study findings suggest an effective approach to securing the ON current by Schottky barrier width modulation.

  14. Effective field theory description of halo nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.

  15. Effective field theory approaches for tensor potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Maximilian

    2016-11-14

    Effective field theories are a widely used tool to study physical systems at low energies. We apply them to systematically analyze two and three particles interacting via tensor potentials. Two examples are addressed: pion interactions for anti D{sup 0}D{sup *0} scattering to dynamically generate the X(3872) and dipole interactions for two and three bosons at low energies. For the former, the one-pion exchange and for the latter, the long-range dipole force induce a tensor-like structure of the potential. We apply perturbative as well as non-perturbative methods to determine low-energy observables. The X(3872) is of major interest in modern high-energy physics. Its exotic characteristics require approaches outside the range of the quark model for baryons and mesons. Effective field theories represent such methods and provide access to its peculiar nature. We interpret the X(3872) as a hadronic molecule consisting of neutral D and D{sup *} mesons. It is possible to apply an effective field theory with perturbative pions. Within this framework, we address chiral as well as finite volume extrapolations for low-energy observables, such as the binding energy and the scattering length. We show that the two-point correlation function for the D{sup *0} meson has to be resummed to cure infrared divergences. Moreover, next-to-leading order coupling constants, which were introduced by power counting arguments, appear to be essential to renormalize the scattering amplitude. The binding energy as well as the scattering length display a moderate dependence on the light quark masses. The X(3872) is most likely deeper bound for large light quark masses. In a finite volume on the other hand, the binding energy significantly increases. The dependence on the light quark masses and the volume size can be simultaneously obtained. For bosonic dipoles we apply a non-perturbative, numerical approach. We solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the two-dipole system and the Faddeev

  16. Crystalline Organic Pigment-Based Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichang; Deng, Ruonan; Wang, Jing; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Kewei; Taubert, Clinton J; Cheng, Stephen Z D; Zhu, Yu

    2017-07-05

    Three conjugated pigment molecules with fused hydrogen bonds, 3,7-diphenylpyrrolo[2,3-f]indole-2,6(1H,5H)-dione (BDP), (E)-6,6'-dibromo-[3,3'-biindolinylidene]-2,2'-dione (IIDG), and 3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo-[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (TDPP), were studied in this work. The insoluble pigment molecules were functionalized with tert-butoxylcarbonyl (t-Boc) groups to form soluble pigment precursors (BDP-Boc, IIDG-Boc, and TDPP-Boc) with latent hydrogen bonding. The single crystals of soluble pigment precursors were obtained. Upon simple thermal annealing, the t-Boc groups were removed and the soluble pigment precursor molecules with latent hydrogen bonding were converted into the original pigment molecules with fused hydrogen bonding. Structural analysis indicated that the highly crystalline soluble precursors were directly converted into highly crystalline insoluble pigments, which are usually only achievable by gas-phase routes like physical vapor transport. The distinct crystal structure after the thermal annealing treatment suggests that fused hydrogen bonding is pivotal for the rearrangement of molecules to form a new crystal in solid state, which leads to over 2 orders of magnitude enhancement in charge mobility in organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. This work demonstrated that crystalline OFET devices with insoluble pigment molecules can be fabricated by their soluble precursors. The results indicated that a variety of commercially available conjugated pigments could be potential active materials for high-performance OFETs.

  17. Development of Nano technology in High Performance Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nima Farzadnia; Abang Abdullah Abang Ali; Ramazan Demirboga; Demirboga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material all around the world which has been undergoing many changes aligned with technological advancement. The most recent available type of concrete is high performance concrete which is produced by employing different admixtures both chemical and mineral to enhance mechanical properties and durability. Recently, technology has made it easy for scientist to study nano sized admixtures and their effect on microstructure of concrete. This paper reviews nano particles in cement composites and how they can improve different properties of concrete. (author)

  18. Wafer-Scale Gigahertz Graphene Field Effect Transistors on SiC Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘洪亮; 金智; 麻芃; 郭建楠; 刘新宇; 叶甜春; 李佳; 敦少博; 冯志红

    2011-01-01

    Wafer-scale graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated using benzocyclobutene and atomic layer deposition Al2O3 as the top-gate dielectric.The epitaxial-graphene layer is formed by graphitization of a 2-inch-diameter Si-face semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrate.The graphene on the silicon carbide substrate is heavily n-doped and current saturation is not found.For the intrinsic characteristic of this particular channel material,the devices cannot be switched off.The cut-off frequencies of these graphene field-effect transistors,which have a gate length of l μm,are larger than 800 MHz.The largest one can reach 1.24 GHz.There are greater than 95% active devices that can be successfully applied.We thus succeed in fabricating wafer-scale gigahertz graphene field-effect transistors,which paves the way for high-performance graphene devices and circuits.%Wafer-scale graphene Beld-effect transistors are fabricated using benzocyclobutene and atomic layer deposition AI2O3 as the top-gate dielectric. The epitaxial-graphene layer is formed by graphitization of a 2-inch-diameter Si-face semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrate. The graphene on the silicon carbide substrate is heavily n-doped and current saturation is not found. For the intrinsic characteristic of this particular channel material, the devices cannot be switched off. The cut-off frequencies of these graphene field-effect transistors, which have a gate length of l μm, are larger than 800MHz. The largest one can reach 1.24 GHz. There are greater than 95% active devices that can be successfully applied. We thus succeed in fabricating wafer-scale gigahertz graphene Geld-effect transistors, which paves the way for high-performance graphene devices and circuits.

  19. High performance Si immersion gratings patterned with electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Brooks, Cynthia B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Muller, Richard E.

    2014-07-01

    Infrared spectrographs employing silicon immersion gratings can be significantly more compact than spectro- graphs using front-surface gratings. The Si gratings can also offer continuous wavelength coverage at high spectral resolution. The grooves in Si gratings are made with semiconductor lithography techniques, to date almost entirely using contact mask photolithography. Planned near-infrared astronomical spectrographs require either finer groove pitches or higher positional accuracy than standard UV contact mask photolithography can reach. A collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin Silicon Diffractive Optics Group and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Microdevices Laboratory has experimented with direct writing silicon immersion grating grooves with electron beam lithography. The patterning process involves depositing positive e-beam resist on 1 to 30 mm thick, 100 mm diameter monolithic crystalline silicon substrates. We then use the facility JEOL 9300FS e-beam writer at JPL to produce the linear pattern that defines the gratings. There are three key challenges to produce high-performance e-beam written silicon immersion gratings. (1) E- beam field and subfield stitching boundaries cause periodic cross-hatch structures along the grating grooves. The structures manifest themselves as spectral and spatial dimension ghosts in the diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) of the diffraction grating. In this paper, we show that the effects of e-beam field boundaries must be mitigated. We have significantly reduced ghost power with only minor increases in write time by using four or more field sizes of less than 500 μm. (2) The finite e-beam stage drift and run-out error cause large-scale structure in the wavefront error. We deal with this problem by applying a mark detection loop to check for and correct out minuscule stage drifts. We measure the level and direction of stage drift and show that mark detection reduces peak-to-valley wavefront error

  20. Compression Behavior of High Performance Polymeric Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding has proven to be effective in improving the compressive strength of rigid-rod polymeric fibers without resulting in a decrease in tensile strength while covalent crosslinking results in brittle fibers...