WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-performance carbon nanotube

  1. Imaging Carbon Nanotubes in High Performance Polymer Composites via Magnetic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehei, Peter T.; Park, Cheol; Rouse, Jason H.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Application of carbon nanotubes as reinforcement in structural composites is dependent on the efficient dispersion of the nanotubes in a high performance polymer matrix. The characterization of such dispersion is limited by the lack of available tools to visualize the quality of the matrix/carbon nanotube interaction. The work reported herein demonstrates the use of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) as a promising technique for characterizing the dispersion of nanotubes in a high performance polymer matrix.

  2. High-performance carbon nanotube-reinforced bioplastic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramontja, J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The inherent properties of poly(lactide), a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, are concurrently improved by the incorporation of a small amount of surface functionalized carbon nanotubes. A new method has been used to functionalize the CNTs...

  3. Flexible Carbon Nanotube Films for High Performance Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Kanoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared with traditional conductive fillers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have unique advantages, i.e., excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Nanocomposites as piezoresistive films provide an interesting approach for the realization of large area strain sensors with high sensitivity and low manufacturing costs. A polymer-based nanocomposite with carbon nanomaterials as conductive filler can be deposited on a flexible substrate of choice and this leads to mechanically flexible layers. Such sensors allow the strain measurement for both integral measurement on a certain surface and local measurement at a certain position depending on the sensor geometry. Strain sensors based on carbon nanostructures can overcome several limitations of conventional strain sensors, e.g., sensitivity, adjustable measurement range and integral measurement on big surfaces. The novel technology allows realizing strain sensors which can be easily integrated even as buried layers in material systems. In this review paper, we discuss the dependence of strain sensitivity on different experimental parameters such as composition of the carbon nanomaterial/polymer layer, type of polymer, fabrication process and processing parameters. The insights about the relationship between film parameters and electromechanical properties can be used to improve the design and fabrication of CNT strain sensors.

  4. Toward high-performance digital logic technology with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulevski, George S; Franklin, Aaron D; Frank, David; Lobez, Jose M; Cao, Qing; Park, Hongsik; Afzali, Ali; Han, Shu-Jen; Hannon, James B; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-09-23

    The slow-down in traditional silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) scaling (Moore's law) has created an opportunity for a disruptive innovation to bring the semiconductor industry into a postsilicon era. Due to their ultrathin body and ballistic transport, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the intrinsic transport and scaling properties to usher in this new era. The remaining challenges are largely materials-related and include obtaining purity levels suitable for logic technology, placement of CNTs at very tight (∼5 nm) pitch to allow for density scaling and source/drain contact scaling. This review examines the potential performance advantages of a CNT-based computing technology, outlines the remaining challenges, and describes the recent progress on these fronts. Although overcoming these issues will be challenging and will require a large, sustained effort from both industry and academia, the recent progress in the field is a cause for optimism that these materials can have an impact on future technologies.

  5. High-performance radio frequency transistors based on diameter-separated semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yu; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu, E-mail: chongwuz@usc.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Seo, Jung-Woo T.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Gui, Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2016-06-06

    In this paper, we report the high-performance radio-frequency transistors based on the single-walled semiconducting carbon nanotubes with a refined average diameter of ∼1.6 nm. These diameter-separated carbon nanotube transistors show excellent transconductance of 55 μS/μm and desirable drain current saturation with an output resistance of ∼100 KΩ μm. An exceptional radio-frequency performance is also achieved with current gain and power gain cut-off frequencies of 23 GHz and 20 GHz (extrinsic) and 65 GHz and 35 GHz (intrinsic), respectively. These radio-frequency metrics are among the highest reported for the carbon nanotube thin-film transistors. This study provides demonstration of radio frequency transistors based on carbon nanotubes with tailored diameter distributions, which will guide the future application of carbon nanotubes in radio-frequency electronics.

  6. High performance carbon nanotube - polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S.; Bradford, Philip D.

    2015-10-01

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m-2 exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical

  7. High performance carbon nanotube--polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S; Bradford, Philip D

    2015-10-28

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m(-2) exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.

  8. Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Clay: Unique Nanostructured Filler for High-Performance Polymer Nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei-De; Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi

    2006-01-01

    High-performance composites are produced using nanostructured clay-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrids as a reinforcing filler. The intercalation of iron particles between the clay platelets serves as the catalyst for the growth of CNTs, while the platelets are exfoliated by the CNTs, forming the unique

  9. Arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes with full surface coverage for high-performance electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Han, Shu-jen; Tulevski, George S; Zhu, Yu; Lu, Darsen D; Haensch, Wilfried

    2013-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have exceptional electronic properties and have been proposed as a replacement for silicon in applications such as low-cost thin-film transistors and high-performance logic devices. However, practical devices will require dense, aligned arrays of electronically pure nanotubes to optimize performance, maximize device packing density and provide sufficient drive current (or power output) for each transistor. Here, we show that aligned arrays of semiconducting carbon nanotubes can be assembled using the Langmuir-Schaefer method. The arrays have a semiconducting nanotube purity of 99% and can fully cover a surface with a nanotube density of more than 500 tubes/µm. The nanotube pitch is self-limited by the diameter of the nanotube plus the van der Waals separation, and the intrinsic mobility of the nanotubes is preserved after array assembly. Transistors fabricated using this approach exhibit significant device performance characteristics with a drive current density of more than 120 µA µm(-1), transconductance greater than 40 µS µm(-1) and on/off ratios of ∼1 × 10(3).

  10. Carbon nanotube high-performance logic technology - challenges and current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    In the last four decades, we have witnessed a tremendous information technology revolution originated from the relentless scaling of Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices. CMOS scaling provides ever-improved transistor performance, density, power and cost, and will continue to bring new applications and functions to our daily life. However, the conventional homogeneous scaling of silicon devices has become very difficult, firstly due to the unsatisfactory electrostatic control from the gate dielectric. In addition, as we look forward to the technology nodes with sub-10 nm channel length, non-Si based channel materials will be required to provide continuous carrier velocity enhancement when the conventional strained-Si techniques run out of steam. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising to replace silicon as the channel material for high-performance electronics near the end of silicon scaling roadmap, with their superb electrical properties, intrinsic ultrathin body, and nearly transparent contact with certain metals. This talk discusses recent advances in modeling and experimental works that reveal the properties and potential of ultra-scaled nanotube transistors, separation and assembly techniques for forming nanotube arrays with high semiconducting nanotube purity and tight pitch separation, and engineering aspects of their implementation in integrated circuits and functional systems. A concluding discussion highlights most significant challenges from technology points of view, and provides perspectives on the future of carbon nanotube based nanoelectronics.

  11. Aligned carbon nanotube/zinc oxide nanowire hybrids as high performance electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed S.; Henley, Luke Alexander; Wasala, Milinda; Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Perea-Lopez, Nestor; Carozo, Victor; Lin, Zhong; Terrones, Mauricio; Mondal, Kanchan; Kordas, Krisztian; Talapatra, Saikat

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotube/metal oxide based hybrids are envisioned as high performance electrochemical energy storage electrodes since these systems can provide improved performances utilizing an electric double layer coupled with fast faradaic pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms. In this work, we show that high performance supercapacitor electrodes with a specific capacitance of ˜192 F/g along with a maximum energy density of ˜3.8 W h/kg and a power density of ˜ 28 kW/kg can be achieved by synthesizing zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) directly on top of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In comparison to pristine MWCNTs, these constitute a 12-fold of increase in specific capacitance as well as corresponding power and energy density values. These electrodes also possess high cycling stability and were able to retain ˜99% of their specific capacitance value over 2000 charging discharging cycles. These findings indicate potential use of a MWCNT/ZnO NW hybrid material for future electrochemical energy storage applications.

  12. Winding aligned carbon nanotube composite yarns into coaxial fiber full batteries with high performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Ye; Lin, Huijuan; Ren, Jing; Lu, Xin; Wang, Min; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-06-11

    Inspired by the fantastic and fast-growing wearable electronics such as Google Glass and Apple iWatch, matchable lightweight and weaveable energy storage systems are urgently demanded while remaining as a bottleneck in the whole technology. Fiber-shaped energy storage devices that can be woven into electronic textiles may represent a general and effective strategy to overcome the above difficulty. Here a coaxial fiber lithium-ion battery has been achieved by sequentially winding aligned carbon nanotube composite yarn cathode and anode onto a cotton fiber. Novel yarn structures are designed to enable a high performance with a linear energy density of 0.75 mWh cm(-1). A wearable energy storage textile is also produced with an areal energy density of 4.5 mWh cm(-2).

  13. Micropatterned single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes for use in high-performance transistors and inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woonggi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Dong Yun; Chang, Suk Tai; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-06-25

    We demonstrated the solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) source-drain electrodes patterned using a plasma-enhanced detachment patterning method for high-performance organic transistors and inverters. The high-resolution SWNT electrode patterning began with the formation of highly uniform SWNT thin films on a hydrophobic silanized substrate. The SWNT source-drain patterns were then formed by modulating the interfacial energies of the prepatterned elastomeric mold and the SWNT thin film using oxygen plasma. The SWNT films were subsequently selectively delaminated using a rubber mold. The patterned SWNTs could be used as the source-drain electrodes for both n-type PTCDI-C8 and p-type pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs). The n- and p-type devices exhibited good and exactly matched electrical performances, with a field-effect mobility of around 0.15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an ON/OFF current ratio exceeding 10(6). The single electrode material was used for both the n and p channels, permitting the successful fabrication of a high-performance complementary inverter by connecting a p-type pentacene FET to an n-type PTCDI-C8 FET. This patterning technique was simple, inexpensive, and easily scaled for the preparation of large-area electrode micropatterns for flexible microelectronic device fabrication.

  14. Modeling and Experiments with Carbon Nanotubes for Applications in High Performance Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    characterization. 5. Radiation-hard graphene electronics. 2.1 Part I: Carbon Nanotube Based Electronics Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC...band gap. Therefore, CNT (4,2) is a semiconductor . Some of the wave vectors of CNT (8,2) pass through K point in the 2D Brillouin zone of graphene ...ABSTRACT The report is divided into the following two parts: carbon nanotube (CNT) based electronics and graphene (G) based electronics. In Part I, CNT

  15. Polymer-Assisted Direct Deposition of Uniform Carbon Nanotube Bundle Networks for High Performance Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2009-06-23

    Flexible transparent electrodes are crucial for touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. While carbon nanotube network electrodes show promise, characteristically poor dispersion properties have limited their practicality. We report that addition of small amounts of conjugated polymer to nanotube dispersions enables straightforward fabrication of uniform network electrodes by spin-coating and simultaneous tuning of parameters such as bundle size and density. After treatment in thionyl chloride, electrodes have sheet resistances competitive with other reported carbon nanotube based transparent electrodes to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube-textile anode for high-performance microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Wells, George F; Kong, Desheng; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater.

  17. High-Performance Carbon Nanotube Complementary Electronics and Integrated Sensor Systems on Ultrathin Plastic Foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Xiang, Li; Yang, Yingjun; Xiao, Mengmeng; Han, Jie; Ding, Li; Zhang, Zhiyong; Hu, Youfan; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2018-02-01

    The longtime vacancy of high-performance complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology on plastics is a non-negligible obstacle to the applications of flexible electronics with advanced functions, such as continuous health monitoring with in situ signal processing and wireless communication capabilities, in which high speed, low power consumption, and complex functionality are desired for integrated circuits (ICs). Here, we report the implementation of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based high-performance CMOS technology and its application for signal processing in an integrated sensor system for human body monitoring on ultrathin plastic foil with a thickness of 2.5 μm. The performances of both the p- and n-type CNT field-effect transistors (FETs) are excellent and symmetric on plastic foil with a low operation voltage of 2 V: width-normalized transconductances (g m /W) as high as 4.69 μS/μm and 5.45 μS/μm, width-normalized on-state currents reaching 5.85 μA/μm and 6.05 μA/μm, and mobilities up to 80.26 cm 2 ·V -1 ·s -1 and 97.09 cm 2 ·V -1 ·s -1 , respectively, together with a current on/off ratio of approximately 10 5 . The devices were mechanically robust, withstanding a curvature radius down to 124 μm. Utilizing these transistors, various high-performance CMOS digital ICs with rail-to-rail output and a ring oscillator on plastics with an oscillation frequency of 5 MHz were demonstrated. Furthermore, an ultrathin skin-mounted humidity sensor system with in situ frequency modulation signal processing capability was realized to monitor human body sweating.

  18. Collapsed carbon nanotubes as building blocks for high-performance thermal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghalith, Jihong; Xu, Hao; Dumitricǎ, Traian

    2017-10-01

    The influence of collapsed shape on the thermal transport of carbon nanotubes is studied by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. Nanotubes of different lengths, diameters, chiralities, and degrees of twist are simulated in the regime in which the thermal transport extends from ballistic to diffusive. In contrast with graphene nanoribbons, which are known to exhibit substantial rough-edge and cross-plain phonon scatterings, the collapsed tubes preserve the quasiballistic phononic transport encountered in cylindrical nanotubes. Stacked-collapsed nanotube architectures, closely related with the strain-induced aligned tubes occurring in stretched nanotube sheets, are shown to inherit the ultrahigh thermal conductivities of individual tubes, and are therefore proposed to form highways for efficient heat transport in lightweight composite materials.

  19. High performance all-carbon composite transparent electrodes containing uniform carbon nanotube networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyung Duk; Kwak, Jinsung; Kim, Se-Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering & Low-Dimensional Carbon Materials Center, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan, 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol; Kim, Sung Youb [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan, 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seoktae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon-Yong, E-mail: sykwon@unist.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering & Low-Dimensional Carbon Materials Center, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan, 44919 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan, 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Indium tin oxide-free, flexible transparent electrodes (TEs) are crucial for the future commercialization of flexible and wearable electronics. While carbon-based TEs containing carbon nanotube (CNT) networks show promise, they usually exhibit poor dispersion properties, limiting their performance and practicality. In this study, we report a highly efficient and bending durable all-carbon composite TE (ac-TE) that employs uniform CNT networks on a monolayer graphene/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate via a simple air spray deposition method. The air-sprayed CNT/graphene assembly was free-standing on solution, making a polymer-free transfer of carbon composites to target substrates possible. The excellent performance of the ac-TEs was attributed to the uniformly networked CNTs on the polycrystalline graphene with a well-controlled density, effectively bridging the line defects and filling the tears/voids or folds necessarily existing in the as-processed graphene. The sheet resistance of the ac-TEs was increased only 6% from its original value at a bending radius of 2.7 mm, while that of the pristine graphene/PET assembly increased 237%. Mechanical bending of the ac-TEs worsened the electrical performance by only ∼1.7% after 2000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 2.5 mm. Degradation of the performance by the bending was the result of line defects formation in the graphene, demonstrating the potential of the uniform CNT networks to achieve more efficient and flexible carbon-based TEs. Furthermore, the chemically-doped ac-TEs showed commercially suitable electronic and optical properties with much enhanced thermal stability, closer to practical TEs in flexible devices. - Highlights: • Highly efficient and bending durable all-carbon composite transparent electrodes (TEs) are designed. • The performance was strongly dependent on morphology of CNT networks on graphene. • The mechanism relies on the defect reductions in graphene by uniform CNT coating

  20. Flexible Carbon Nanotube Modified Separator for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Shan; Tang, Zhen; Yang, Quanling; Hu, Guo-Hua; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2017-07-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have become promising candidates for electrical energy storage systems due to their high theoretical specific energy density, low cost and environmental friendliness. However, there are some technical obstacles of lithium-sulfur batteries to be addressed, such as the shuttle effect of polysulfides. Here, we introduced organically modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a coating layer for the separator to optimize structure and enhance the performance of the Li-S battery. The results showed that the cell with a CNTs-coated separator exhibited an excellent cycling performance. Compared to the blank separator, the initial discharge capacity and the capacity after 100 cycles for the CNTs-coated separator was increased by 115% and 161%, respectively. Besides, according to the rate capability test cycling from 0.1C to 2C, the battery with a CNTs-coated separator still released a capacity amounting to 90.2% of the initial capacity, when the current density returned back to 0.1C. It is believed that the organically modified CNTs coating effectively suppresses the shuttle effect during the cycling. The employment of a CNTs-coated separator provides a promising approach for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

  1. Carbon nanotubes-bridged molybdenum trioxide nanosheets as high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Hanlon, Damien; Dinh, Duc Anh; Boland, John B.; Esau Del Rio Castillo, Antonio; Di Giovanni, Carlo; Ansaldo, Alberto; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The search for novel nanomaterials driving the development of high-performance electrodes in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is at the cutting edge of research in the field of energy storage. Here, we report on the synthesis of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-bridged molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanosheets as anode material for LIBs. We exploit liquid phase exfoliation of layered MoO3 crystallites to produce multilayer MoO3 nanosheets dispersed in isopropanol, which are then mixed with solution processed SWNTs in the same solvent. The addition of SWNTs to the MoO3 nanosheets provides the conductive framework for electron transport, as well as a bridge structure, which buffers the volume expansion upon lithiation/de-lithiation. We demonstrate that the hybrid SWNT-bridged MoO3 structure is beneficial for both the mechanical stability and the electrochemical characteristics of the anodes leading to a specific capacity of 865 mAh g‑1 at 100 mA g‑1 after 100 cycles, with a columbic efficiency approaching 100% and a capacity fading of 0.02% per cycle. The low-cost, non-toxic, binder-free hybrid MoO3/SWNT here developed represents a step forward for the applicability of exfoliated MoO3 in LIB anodes, delivering high energy and power densities as well as long lifetime.

  2. High Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor of Random Network Carbon Nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Gao, Jia; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Gomulya, Widianta; Iezhokin, Igor; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Herrmann, Andreas; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2012-01-01

    Ambipolar field-effect transistors of random network carbon nanotubes are fabricated from an enriched dispersion utilizing a conjugated polymer as the selective purifying medium. The devices exhibit high mobility values for both holes and electrons (3 cm(2)/V.s) with a high on/off ratio (10(6)). The

  3. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  4. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  5. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time.

  6. High performance electronics based on aligned arrays of single walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, Coskun

    This dissertation describes a new approach for generating large area homogenous parallel array of single walled carbon nanotubes. The approach uses guided growth, by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), of SWNTs on single crystal quartz substrates. The anisotropic interaction associated with lattice structure of the quartz between SWNT and quartz surface guides SWNT during the deposition process. We have optimized CVD conditions that can produce arrays of individual single walled carbon nanotubes in horizontal configurations with perfect linear shapes, to within experimental uncertainties, and with levels of alignment >99.9%. We took the method one step further by printing these SWNT arrays on unusual substrate such as plastic. Using the developed printing technique, we can fabricate multilayer superstructures of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on a wide range of substrates. In order to understand charge transport through SWNT networks, we studied the scaling behaviours SWNT transistors by systematically varying degrees of alignment and coverage in transistors with a range of channel lengths and orientations perpendicular and parallel to the direction of alignment. We have modelled our experimental results using a first principles stick-percolation based transport model which provides a simple framework to interpret the sometimes counter-intuitive transport parameters measured in these devices. We have used dense, perfectly aligned arrays of long, perfectly linear SWNTs as an effective thin film semiconductor suitable for integration into transistors and other classes of electronic devices. These types of devices show excellent electric performance with mobilities and scaled transconductances approaching ˜2,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and ˜3,000 S m-1, respectively. MOS and CMOS logic gates and mechanically flexible transistors on plastic were also demonstrated. Finally we have studied the high frequency performance of transistors that use aligned SWNT arrays. For the

  7. Functional Carbon Nanotube/Mesoporous Carbon/MnO2 Hybrid Network for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Tao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A functional carbon nanotube/mesoporous carbon/MnO2 hybrid network has been developed successfully through a facile route. The resulting composites exhibited a high specific capacitance of 351 F/g at 1 A g−1, with intriguing charge/discharge rate performance and cycling stability due to a synergistic combination of large surface area and excellent electron-transport capabilities of MnO2 with the good conductivity of the carbon nanotube/mesoporous carbon networks. Such composite shows great potential to be used as electrodes for supercapacitors.

  8. Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes as a high performance active element in field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don, E-mail: donkim@pknu.ac.kr

    2016-08-15

    The Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes (Au-CNTs), diameter ranged from 40 to 250 nm, were prepared and discussed their chemical and electrical properties. The shape and crystallinity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) phase depended main2ly on the diameter of CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT}). Highly crystalline, straight CNTs were observed when the r{sub Au-CNT} exceeded 80 nm, and less crystalline noodle-shaped CNTs were observed when the r{sub Au-CNT} was smaller than 80 nm. The crystallinity of the CNT phase was confirmed by analyzing the G and D bands in their Raman spectra and the electrical conductivities of the Au-CNTs. The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline carbon phase of Au-CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT} = 250 nm) was ∼10{sup 4} S/cm. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) based on the Au-CNTs, which were assembled on a SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer using the dielectrophoresis technique, showed that the Au-CNTs would be a good functional electronic material for future electronic and sensing applications. The transconductance and hole mobility of the FETs, which were assembled with the highly crystalline Au-CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT} = 250 nm), reached to 3.6 × 10{sup −4} A/V and 3.1 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. These values are in the middle of those of reported for single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, we could not find any field effect in a CNTFET, which assembled without Au nanoparticles, through the same process. - Highlights: • The shape and crystallinity of the CNTs depended mainly on the diameter of CNTs. • The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline Au-CNTs was ∼10{sup 4} S/cm. • The Au-CNT FET shows typical p-channel gate effect with the on/off ratio of ∼10{sup 4}. • The Au-CNT FET shows very high transconductance (g{sub m}) and carrier mobility (μ{sub h}).

  9. Synergistic fusion of vertical graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Han; Yick, Samuel; Han, Zhao Jun; Fang, Jing Hua; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2014-08-01

    Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive electrode materials for supercapacitors. However, challenges such as the substrate-limited growth of CNTs, nanotube bundling in liquid electrolytes, under-utilized basal planes, and stacking of graphene sheets have so far impeded their widespread application. Here we present a hybrid structure formed by the direct growth of CNTs onto vertical graphene nanosheets (VGNS). VGNS are fabricated by a green plasma-assisted method to break down and reconstruct a natural precursor into an ordered graphitic structure. The synergistic combination of CNTs and VGNS overcomes the challenges intrinsic to both materials. The resulting VGNS/CNTs hybrids show a high specific capacitance with good cycling stability. The charge storage is based mainly on the non-Faradaic mechanism. In addition, a series of optimization experiments were conducted to reveal the critical factors that are required to achieve the demonstrated high supercapacitor performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inkjet printing of flexible high-performance carbon nanotube transparent conductive films by ``coffee ring effect''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Allon; Azoubel, Suzanna; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-09-01

    Transparent and flexible conductors are a major component in many modern optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens for smart phones, displays, and solar cells. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a good alternative to commonly used conductive materials, such as metal oxides (e.g. ITO) for flexible electronics. The production of transparent conductive patterns, and arrays composed of connected CNT ``coffee rings'' on a flexible substrate poly(ethylene terephthalate), has been reported. Direct patterning is achieved by inkjet printing of an aqueous dispersion of CNTs, which self-assemble at the rim of evaporating droplets. After post-printing treatment with hot nitric acid, the obtained TCFs are characterized by a sheet resistance of 156 Ω sq-1 and transparency of 81% (at 600 nm), which are the best reported values obtained by inkjet printing of conductive CNTs. This makes such films very promising as transparent conductors for various electronic devices, as demonstrated by using an electroluminescent device.

  11. Highly Conductive Aromatic Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Inkjet Printable High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K Ujjain

    Full Text Available We report the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT via the 1,3-dipolar [3+2] cycloaddition of aromatic azides, which resulted in a detangled CNT as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Carboxylic moieties (-COOH on aromatic azide result in highly stable aqueous dispersion (max. conc. ~ 10 mg/mL H2O, making the suitable for inkjet printing. Printed patterns on polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate exhibit low sheet resistivity ~65 Ω. cm, which is attributed to enhanced conductivity. Fabricated Supercapacitors (SC assembled using these printed substrates exhibit good electrochemical performance in organic as well as aqueous electrolytes. High energy and power density (57.8 Wh/kg and 0.85 kW/kg in 1M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed supercapacitor. Capacitive retention varies from ~85-94% with columbic efficiency ~95% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles in different electrolytes, demonstrating the excellent potential of the device for futuristic power applications.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes in TiO2 Nanofiber Photoelectrodes for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Macdonald, Thomas J; Shearer, Cameron J; Bat-Erdene, Munkhjargal; Wang, Yun; Biggs, Mark J; Parkin, Ivan P; Nann, Thomas; Shapter, Joseph G

    2017-04-01

    1D semiconducting oxides are unique structures that have been widely used for photovoltaic (PV) devices due to their capability to provide a direct pathway for charge transport. In addition, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have played multifunctional roles in a range of PV cells because of their fascinating properties. Herein, the influence of CNTs on the PV performance of 1D titanium dioxide nanofiber (TiO2 NF) photoelectrode perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is systematically explored. Among the different types of CNTs, single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) incorporated in the TiO2 NF photoelectrode PSCs show a significant enhancement (≈40%) in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) as compared to control cells. SWCNTs incorporated in TiO2 NFs provide a fast electron transfer within the photoelectrode, resulting in an increase in the short-circuit current (Jsc) value. On the basis of our theoretical calculations, the improved open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the cells can be attributed to a shift in energy level of the photoelectrodes after the introduction of SWCNTs. Furthermore, it is found that the incorporation of SWCNTs into TiO2 NFs reduces the hysteresis effect and improves the stability of the PSC devices. In this study, the best performing PSC device constructed with SWCNT structures achieves a PCE of 14.03%.

  13. High performance dendrimer functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistor biosensor for protein detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sharma, Vikash; Puri, Nitin K.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Kotnala, Ravinder K.

    2016-12-01

    We report a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistor (FET) functionalized with Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with 128 carboxyl groups as anchors for site specific biomolecular immobilization of protein antibody for C-reactive protein (CRP) detection. The FET device was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and current-gate voltage (I-Vg) characteristic studies. A concentration-dependent decrease in the source-drain current was observed in the regime of clinical significance, with a detection limit of ˜85 pM and a high sensitivity of 20% change in current (ΔI/I) per decade CRP concentration, showing SWNT being locally gated by the binding of CRP to antibody (anti-CRP) on the FET device. The low value of the dissociation constant (Kd = 0.31 ± 0.13 μg ml-1) indicated a high affinity of the device towards CRP analyte arising due to high anti-CRP loading with a better probe orientation on the 3-dimensional PAMAM structure.

  14. Synergistic Ultrathin Functional Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotube Interlayer for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Hyun; Seo, Jihoon; Choi, Junghyun; Shin, Donghyeok; Carter, Marcus; Jeon, Yeryung; Wang, Chengwei; Hu, Liangbing; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-08-10

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been intensively investigated as a next-generation rechargeable battery due to their high energy density of 2600 W·h kg(-1) and low cost. However, the systemic issues of Li-S batteries, such as the polysulfide shuttling effect and low Coulombic efficiency, hinder the practical use in commercial rechargeable batteries. The introduction of a conductive interlayer between the sulfur cathode and separator is a promising approach that has shown the dramatic improvements in Li-S batteries. The previous interlayer work mainly focused on the physical confinement of polysulfides within the cathode part, without considering the further entrapment of the dissolved polysulfides. Here, we designed an ultrathin poly(acrylic acid) coated single-walled carbon nanotube (PAA-SWNT) film as a synergic functional interlayer to address the issues mentioned above. The designed interlayer not only lowers the charge transfer resistance by the support of the upper current collector but also localizes the dissolved polysulfides within the cathode part by the aid of a physical blocking and chemical bonding. With the synergic combination of PAA and SWNT, the sulfur cathode with a PAA-SWNT interlayer maintained higher capacity retention over 200 cycles and achieved better rate retention than the sulfur cathode with a SWNT interlayer. The proposed approach of combining a functional polymer and conductive support material can provide an optimiztic strategy to overcome the fundamental challenges underlying in Li-S batteries.

  15. High-performance field emission of carbon nanotube paste emitters fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuning; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Lee, Sang Heon; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) paste emitters were fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler. The CNT paste emitters consist of CNTs as the emitting material, graphite nanopowder as the filler and a graphite rod as the cathode. Rather than metal or inorganic materials, graphite nanopowder was adapted as a filler material to make the CNT paste emitters. After fabricating the emitters, sandpaper treatment was applied to increase the density of emission sites. The CNT paste emitters showed a high field emission performance, for example a high emission current of 8.5 mA from a cylindrical emitter with a diameter of 0.7 mm (corresponding to a current density of 2.2 A cm-2) and an extremely stable emission current at 1 mA (260 mA cm-2 for 20 h). Interestingly, after a number of electrical arcing events, the emitters still showed a high emission current of 5-8 mA (higher than 1 A cm-2). In addition to the sound electrical and thermal properties of the graphite filler, effective mechanical adhesion of the CNTs onto the graphite cathode induced by the use of the graphite nanopowder filler contributed the excellent field emission properties of the CNT paste emitters.

  16. Designing hybrid gate dielectric for fully printing high-performance carbon nanotube thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Shilong; Yang, Dehua; Su, Wei; Wang, Yanchun; Zhou, Weiya; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2017-10-01

    The electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) strongly depend on the properties of the gate dielectric that is in direct contact with the semiconducting CNT channel materials. Here, we systematically investigated the dielectric effects on the electrical characteristics of fully printed semiconducting CNT-TFTs by introducing the organic dielectrics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) to modify SiO2 dielectric. The results showed that the organic-modified SiO2 dielectric formed a favorable interface for the efficient charge transport in s-SWCNT-TFTs. Compared to single-layer SiO2 dielectric, the use of organic-inorganic hybrid bilayer dielectrics dramatically improved the performances of SWCNT-TFTs such as mobility, threshold voltage, hysteresis and on/off ratio due to the suppress of charge scattering, gate leakage current and charge trapping. The transport mechanism is related that the dielectric with few charge trapping provided efficient percolation pathways for charge carriers, while reduced the charge scattering. High density of charge traps which could directly act as physical transport barriers and significantly restrict the charge carrier transport and, thus, result in decreased mobile carriers and low device performance. Moreover, the gate leakage phenomenon is caused by conduction through charge traps. So, as a component of TFTs, the gate dielectric is of crucial importance to the manufacture of high quality TFTs from the aspects of affecting the gate leakage current and device operation voltage, as well as the charge carrier transport. Interestingly, the OTS-modified SiO2 allows to directly print horizontally aligned CNT film, and the corresponding devices exhibited a higher mobility than that of the devices with the hybrid PMMA/SiO2 dielectric although the thickness of OTS layer is only ˜2.5 nm. Our present result may provide key guidance for the further development of printed

  17. Designing hybrid gate dielectric for fully printing high-performance carbon nanotube thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Shilong; Yang, Dehua; Su, Wei; Wang, Yanchun; Zhou, Weiya; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2017-10-27

    The electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) strongly depend on the properties of the gate dielectric that is in direct contact with the semiconducting CNT channel materials. Here, we systematically investigated the dielectric effects on the electrical characteristics of fully printed semiconducting CNT-TFTs by introducing the organic dielectrics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) to modify SiO2 dielectric. The results showed that the organic-modified SiO2 dielectric formed a favorable interface for the efficient charge transport in s-SWCNT-TFTs. Compared to single-layer SiO2 dielectric, the use of organic-inorganic hybrid bilayer dielectrics dramatically improved the performances of SWCNT-TFTs such as mobility, threshold voltage, hysteresis and on/off ratio due to the suppress of charge scattering, gate leakage current and charge trapping. The transport mechanism is related that the dielectric with few charge trapping provided efficient percolation pathways for charge carriers, while reduced the charge scattering. High density of charge traps which could directly act as physical transport barriers and significantly restrict the charge carrier transport and, thus, result in decreased mobile carriers and low device performance. Moreover, the gate leakage phenomenon is caused by conduction through charge traps. So, as a component of TFTs, the gate dielectric is of crucial importance to the manufacture of high quality TFTs from the aspects of affecting the gate leakage current and device operation voltage, as well as the charge carrier transport. Interestingly, the OTS-modified SiO2 allows to directly print horizontally aligned CNT film, and the corresponding devices exhibited a higher mobility than that of the devices with the hybrid PMMA/SiO2 dielectric although the thickness of OTS layer is only ∼2.5 nm. Our present result may provide key guidance for the further development of printed

  18. High-performance multi-functional reverse osmosis membranes obtained by carbon nanotube·polyamide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Shigeki; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Ortiz-Medina, Josue; Morelos-Gomez, Aaron; Takeuchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Takuya; Tanioka, Akihiko; Araki, Takumi; Tejima, Syogo; Noguchi, Toru; Terrones, Mauricio; Endo, Morinobu

    2015-01-01

    Clean water obtained by desalinating sea water or by purifying wastewater, constitutes a major technological objective in the so-called water century. In this work, a high-performance reverse osmosis (RO) composite thin membrane using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and aromatic polyamide (PA), was successfully prepared by interfacial polymerization. The effect of MWCNT on the chlorine resistance, antifouling and desalination performances of the nanocomposite membranes were studied. We found that a suitable amount of MWCNT in PA, 15.5 wt.%, not only improves the membrane performance in terms of flow and antifouling, but also inhibits the chlorine degradation on these membranes. Therefore, the present results clearly establish a solid foundation towards more efficient large-scale water desalination and other water treatment processes. PMID:26333385

  19. CoFe2O4/carbon nanotube aerogels as high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs require electrode material to have an ideal electrode construction which provides fast ion transport, short solid-state ion diffusion, large surface area, and high electric conductivity. Herein, highly porous three-dimensional (3D aerogels composed of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4, CFO nanoparticles (NPs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs are prepared using sustainable alginate as the precursor. The key feature of this work is that by using the characteristic egg-box structure of the alginate, metal cations such as Co2+ and Fe3+ can be easily chelated via an ion-exchange process, thus binary CFO are expected to be prepared. In the hybrid aerogels, CFO NPs interconnected by the CNTs are embedded in carbon aerogel matrix, forming the 3D network which can provide high surface area, buffer the volume expansion and offer efficient ion and electron transport pathways for achieving high performance LIBs. The as-prepared hybrid aerogels with the optimum CNT content (20 wt% delivers excellent electrochemical properties, i.e., reversible capacity of 1033 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and a high specific capacity of 874 mAh g−1 after 160 cycles at 1 A g−1. This work provides a facile and low cost route to fabricate high performance anodes for LIBs. Keywords: Alginate, Aerogels, Cobalt ferrite, Anode, Lithium-ion battery

  20. High-performance Supercapacitors Based on Electrochemical-induced Vertical-aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Polyaniline Nanocomposite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Tan, Pengfeng; Wang, Dongxing; Li, Zhe; Peng, Lu; Hu, Ying; Wang, Caifeng; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Su; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Supercapacitors, which store electrical energy through reversible ion on the surface of conductive electrodes have gained enormous attention for variously portable energy storage devices. Since the capacitive performance is mainly determined by the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes, the electrodes become more crucial to higher performance. However, due to the disordered microstructure and low electrochemical activity of electrode for ion tortuous migration and accumulation, the supercapacitors present relatively low capacitance and energy density. Here we report a high-performance supercapacitor based on polyaniline/vertical-aligned carbon nanotubes (PANI/VA-CNTs) nanocomposite electrodes where the vertical-aligned-structure is formed by the electrochemical-induction (0.75 V). The supercapacitor displays large specific capacitance of 403.3 F g-1, which is 6 times higher than disordered CNTs in HClO4 electrolyte. Additionally, the supercapacitor can also present high specific capacitance (314.6 F g-1), excellent cycling stability (90.2% retention after 3000 cycles at 4 A g-1) and high energy density (98.1 Wh kg-1) in EMIBF4 organic electrolyte. The key to high-performance lies in the vertical-aligned-structure providing direct path channel for ion faster diffusion and high electrochemical capacitance of polyaniline for ion more accommodation.

  1. High-performance Supercapacitors Based on Electrochemical-induced Vertical-aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Polyaniline Nanocomposite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Tan, Pengfeng; Wang, Dongxing; Li, Zhe; Peng, Lu; Hu, Ying; Wang, Caifeng; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Su; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Supercapacitors, which store electrical energy through reversible ion on the surface of conductive electrodes have gained enormous attention for variously portable energy storage devices. Since the capacitive performance is mainly determined by the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes, the electrodes become more crucial to higher performance. However, due to the disordered microstructure and low electrochemical activity of electrode for ion tortuous migration and accumulation, the supercapacitors present relatively low capacitance and energy density. Here we report a high-performance supercapacitor based on polyaniline/vertical-aligned carbon nanotubes (PANI/VA-CNTs) nanocomposite electrodes where the vertical-aligned-structure is formed by the electrochemical-induction (0.75 V). The supercapacitor displays large specific capacitance of 403.3 F g−1, which is 6 times higher than disordered CNTs in HClO4 electrolyte. Additionally, the supercapacitor can also present high specific capacitance (314.6 F g−1), excellent cycling stability (90.2% retention after 3000 cycles at 4 A g−1) and high energy density (98.1 Wh kg−1) in EMIBF4 organic electrolyte. The key to high-performance lies in the vertical-aligned-structure providing direct path channel for ion faster diffusion and high electrochemical capacitance of polyaniline for ion more accommodation. PMID:28272474

  2. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack–Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming [Collaborative; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong [Collaborative; Ma, Tianyuan [Materials; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang [Collaborative; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-05-04

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack–multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (~1700 mAh g–1 after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g–1 based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  3. High-Performance Complementary Transistors and Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits Based on Carbon Nanotube Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjun; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-04-25

    Solution-derived carbon nanotube (CNT) network films with high semiconducting purity are suitable materials for the wafer-scale fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs) and integrated circuits (ICs). However, it is challenging to realize high-performance complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FETs with high yield and stability on such CNT network films, and this difficulty hinders the development of CNT-film-based ICs. In this work, we developed a doping-free process for the fabrication of CMOS FETs based on solution-processed CNT network films, in which the polarity of the FETs was controlled using Sc or Pd as the source/drain contacts to selectively inject carriers into the channels. The fabricated top-gated CMOS FETs showed high symmetry between the characteristics of n- and p-type devices and exhibited high-performance uniformity and excellent scalability down to a gate length of 1 μm. Many common types of CMOS ICs, including typical logic gates, sequential circuits, and arithmetic units, were constructed based on CNT films, and the fabricated ICs exhibited rail-to-rail outputs because of the high noise margin of CMOS circuits. In particular, 4-bit full adders consisting of 132 CMOS FETs were realized with 100% yield, thereby demonstrating that this CMOS technology shows the potential to advance the development of medium-scale CNT-network-film-based ICs.

  4. Hybrid membrane using polyethersulfone-modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with silane agent to enhance high performance oxygen separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed matrix membrane comprising carbon nanotubes embedded in polymer matrix have become one of the emerging technologies. This study was investigated in order to study the effect of silane agent modification towards carbon nanotubes (CNT surface at different concentration on oxygen enrichment performances of asymmetric mixed matrix membrane. The modified carbon nanotubes were prepared by treating the carbon nanotubes with chemical modification using Dynasylan Ameo (DA silane agent to allow PES chains to be grafted on carbon nanotubes surface. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed shows the poor adhesion between polymer and unmodified CNT. The gas separation performance of the asymmetric flat sheet mixed matrix membranes with modified CNT were relatively higher compared to the unmodified CNT. Hence, coated hollow fiber mixed matrix membrane with chemical modification on CNT surface using (3-aminopropyl-triethoxy methyl silane agent can potentially enhance the gas separation performance of O2 and N2.

  5. Driving High-Performance n- and p-type Organic Transistors with Carbon Nanotube/Conjugated Polymer Composite Electrodes Patterned Directly from Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2010-07-12

    We report patterned deposition of carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer composites from solution with high nanotube densities and excellent feature resolution. Such composites are suited for use as electrodes in high-performance transistors of pentacene and C60, with bottom-contact mobilities of ?0.5 and ?1 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. This represents a clear step towards development of inexpensive, high-performance all-organic circuits. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube (PANI/SWCNT) composites for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2006-12-01

    PANI/SWCNT composites were prepared by electrochemical polymerisation of polyaniline onto SWCNTs and their capacitive performance was evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling in 1M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. The PANI/SWCNT composites single electrode showed much higher specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power than pure PANI and SWCNTs. The highest specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values of 485F/g, 228Wh/kg and 2250W/kg were observed for 73wt.% PANI deposited onto SWCNTs. PANI/SWCNT composites also showed long cyclic stability. Based upon the variations in the surface morphologies and specific capacitance of the composite, a mechanism is proposed to explain enhancement in the capacitive characteristics. The PANI/SWCNT composites have demonstrated the potential as excellent electrode materials for application in high performance supercapacitors. (author)

  7. High performance field emission and Nottingham effect observed from carbon nanotube yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Chul; Kang, Jun-Tae; Park, Sora; Go, Eunsol; Jeon, Hyojin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Park, Kyung-Ho; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Vertically aligned CNTs were synthesized on a four inch wafer, followed by the preparation of a CNT yarn. The yarn emitter was found to have an extremely high field enhancement factor, which was confirmed to have originated from multi-stage effect. In addition to superb field emission characteristics, the energy exchange during field emission, called Nottingham effect, was observed from the CNT yarn emitter. A CNT yarn was attached to the thermistor whose resistance depends on temperature. Then, the change of resistance was monitored during the field emission, which enabled us to calculate the energy exchange. It was found that the observed heating originated from both Nottingham and Joule heating. Nottingham heating was dominant at low current region while Joule heating became larger contribution at high current region. Very large Nottingham region of up to 33.35 mA was obtained, which is due presumably to the high performance field emission characteristics of a CNT yarn. This is believed to be an important observation for developing reliable field emission devices with suppressed Joule heating effect.

  8. Electrical and Self-Sensing Properties of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhwan You

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs. For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher steel fiber content, better fiber orientation, and higher amount of pore water led to higher electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. The effects of fiber orientation and drying condition on the electrical conductivity became minor as sufficiently high amount of steel fibers, 3% by volume, was added. Including only steel fibers did not impart UHPFRC with piezoresistive properties. Addition of CNTs substantially improved the electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. Under compression, UHPFRC with a CNT content of 0.3% or greater had a self-sensing ability that was activated by the formation of cracks, and better sensing capacity was achieved by including greater amount of CNTs. Furthermore, the pre-peak flexural behavior of UHPFRC was precisely simulated with a fractional change in resistivity when 0.3% CNTs were incorporated. The pre-cracking self-sensing capacity of UHPFRC with CNTs was more effective under tensile stress state than under compressive stress state.

  9. Controlled modification of carbon nanotubes and polyaniline on macroporous graphite felt for high-performance microbial fuel cell anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Fang; Du, Lin; Guo, Peng-Bo; Zhu, Bao; Luong, John H. T.

    2015-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) was electropolymerized on the surface of macroporous graphite felt (GF) followed by the electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The as-prepared macroporous material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle goniometry and electrochemical techniques. Upon the modification of PANI, a rough and nano-cilia containing film is coated on the surface of the graphite fibers, transforming the surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The subsequent modification by CNTs increases the effective surface area and electrical conductivity of the resulting material. The power output of a mediator-free dual-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) constructed from the GF anode and an exoelectrogen Shewanella putrefaciens increases drastically with the CNT modification. The CNT/PANI/GF MFC attains an output voltage of 342 mV across an external resistor of 1.96 kΩ constant load, and a maximum power density of 257 mW m-2, increased by 343% and 186%, compared to that of the pristine GF MFC and the PANI/GF MFC, respectively. More bacteria are attached on the CNT/PANI/GF anode than on the PANI/GF anode during the working of the MFC. This strategy provides an easy scale-up, simple and controllable method for the preparation of high-performance and low-cost MFC anodes.

  10. Transition metal doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhibar, Saptarshi; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Hatui, Goutam; Das, C.K., E-mail: chapal12@yahoo.co.in

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The CuCl{sub 2} doped copolymer (PANI and PPy)/MWCNTs nanocomposite was prepared. • The nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance of 383 F/g at a 0.5 A/g. • Nanocomposite exhibits better energy density as well as power density. • The nanocomposite also showed better electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The nanocomposite can be used as promising electrode materials for supercapacitor. - Abstract: In this present communication, copolymer of polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) that is poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [poly(An-co-Py)], copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [poly(An-co-Py) Cu], and CuCl{sub 2} doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) [poly(An-co-Py) Cu CNT] nanocomposite have been prepared by a simple and inexpensive in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as dopant and investigated as high performance supercapacitor electrode materials. The possible interaction between CuCl{sub 2} with copolymers and MWCNTs was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–visible spectroscopy analysis. The morphological characteristic of all the electrode materials were analyzed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study. The electrochemical characterizations of all the electrode materials were carried out by three electrode probe method where, standard calomel electrode and platinum were used as reference and counter electrodes, respectively. Among all the electrode materials, poly(An-co-Py) Cu CNT nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance value of 383 F/g at 0.5 A/g scan rate. The nanocomposite showed better electrical conductivity at room temperature and also attained nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. Based on the superior electrochemical as well as other properties the as prepared

  11. Inkjet Printed Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Ambipolar and Unipolar Transistors for High-Performance Complementary Logic Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucella, Sadir Gabriele; Salazar-Rios, Jorge Mario; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Fritsch, Martin; Scherf, Ullrich; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Caironi, Mario

    Inkjet printed single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) field-effect transistors with mobilities of 15 and 7 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) for holes and electrons, respectively, and high on-off ratio, are demonstrated. The high loading of the ink formulation and high electronic quality of the sorted SWCNT enable

  12. High-performance hydrogen production and oxidation electrodes with hydrogenase supported on metallic single-wall carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedružić, Draženka; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Tenent, Robert C; Rocha, John-David R; Vinzant, Todd B; Heben, Michael J; King, Paul W

    2011-03-30

    We studied the electrocatalytic activity of an [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaH2ase) immobilized on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks. SWNT networks were prepared on carbon cloth by ultrasonic spraying of suspensions with predetermined ratios of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. Current densities for both proton reduction and hydrogen oxidation electrocatalytic activities were at least 1 order of magnitude higher when hydrogenase was immobilized onto SWNT networks with high metallic tube (m-SWNT) content in comparison to hydrogenase supported on networks with low metallic tube content or when SWNTs were absent. We conclude that the increase in electrocatalytic activities in the presence of SWNTs was mainly due to the m-SWNT fraction and can be attributed to (i) substantial increases in the active electrode surface area, and (ii) improved electronic coupling between CaH2ase redox-active sites and the electrode surface.

  13. High performance carbon nanotube-Si core-shell wires with a rationally structured core for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Congxiang; Xiao, Qizhen; Wang, Xinghui; Tay, Beng Kang

    2013-02-21

    Core-shell Si nanowires are very promising anode materials. Here, we synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with relatively large diameters and large inter-wire spacing as core wires and demonstrate a CNT-Si core-shell wire composite as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode. Owing to the rationally engineered core structure, the composite shows good capacity retention and rate performance. The excellent performance is superior to most core-shell nanowires previously reported.

  14. Flexible graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid papers chemical-reduction-tailored by gallic acid for high-performance electrochemical capacitive energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Zhou, Chao; Hu, Nantao; Hu, Jing; Hong, Min; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yafei

    2018-03-01

    Mechanically robust graphene papers with both high gravimetric and volumetric capacitances are desired for high-performance energy storages. However, it's still a challenge to tailor the structure of graphene papers in order to meet this requirement. In this work, a kind of chemical-reduction-tailored mechanically-robust reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid paper has been reported for high-performance electrochemical capacitive energy storages. Gallic acid (GA), as an excellent reducing agent, was used to reduce graphene oxide. Through vacuum filtration of gallic acid reduced graphene oxide (GA-rGO) and carboxylic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) aqueous suspensions, mechanically robust GA-rGO/MWCNTs hybrid papers were obtained. The resultant hybrid papers showed high gravimetric capacitance of 337.6 F g-1 (0.5 A g-1) and volumetric capacitance of 151.2 F cm-3 (0.25 A cm-3). In addition, the assembled symmetric device based on the hybrid papers exhibited high gravimetric capacitance of 291.6 F g-1 (0.5 A g-1) and volumetric capacitance of 136.6 F cm-3 (0.25 A cm-3). Meanwhile, it exhibited excellent rate capability and cycling stability. Above all, this chemical reduction tailoring technique and the resultant high-performance GA-rGO/MWCNTs hybrid papers give an insight for designing high-performance electrodes and hold a great potential in the field of energy storages.

  15. High-performance thin-film-transistors based on semiconducting-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes processed by electrical-breakdown strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1" è" r" e Avenue, Val d’Or, Québec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Habib, M.A. [Computer Sciences and Engineering Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Abdul-Hafidh, E.H. [High Energy Physics Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Rosei, F. [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We selectively burn metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by electrical breakdown. • We successfully achieve a semiconducting enriched-SWCNT in TFT configuration. • High performance, like On/Off of 10{sup 5} and a subthreshold swing of 165 mV/decades were obtained. • After PMMA coating, the SWCNT–TFTs were found stables for more than 4 months. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, among remarkable variety of nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remain the most intriguing and uniquely well suited materials for applications in high-performance electronics. The most advanced technologies require the ability to form purely semiconducting SWCNTs. Here, we report on our strategy based on the well known progressive electrical breakdown process that offer this capability and serves as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous random networks, deposited on silicon substrates in a thin film transistor (TFT) configuration. We demonstrate the successful achievement of semiconducting enriched-SWCNT networks in TFT scheme that reach On/Off switching ratios of ∼100,000, on-conductance of 20 μS, and a subthreshold swing of less than 165 mV/decades. The obtained TFT devices were then protected with thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to keep the percolation level of the SWCNTs network spatially and temporally stable, while protecting it from atmosphere exchanges. TFT devices were found to be air-stable and maintained their excellent characteristics in ambient atmosphere for more than 4 months. This approach could work as a platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics.

  16. Chemically Functionalized, Well-Dispersed Carbon Nanotubes in Lithium-Doped Zinc Oxide for Low-Cost, High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Gi-Cheol; Chee, Sang-Soo; Jun, Ji-Hyun; Son, Myungwoo; Lee, Sun Sook; Choi, Youngmin; Jeong, Sunho; Ham, Moon-Ho

    2016-04-13

    Surface-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are introduced into lithium-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) as an alternative to the conventional incorporation of an expensive element, indium. The crucial role of surface functionalization of CNTs is clarified with the demonstration of indium-free ZnO-based TFTs with a field-effect mobility of 28.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off current ratio of 9 × 10(6) for low-cost, high-performance electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hydroxylated N-doped carbon nanotube-sulfur composites as cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-03-01

    Despite the higher energy density than the conventional Li-ion cells at a lower cost, commercialization of Lisbnd S batteries is hindered by the insulating nature of sulfur and the dissolution of intermediate polysulfides (Li2SX, 4 < X ≤ 8) into the electrolyte. We demonstrate here hydroxylated N-doped carbon nanotubes (H-NCNT) as sulfur containers in lithium-sulfur batteries to reduce polysulfide shuttling through an interaction between polysulfides and nitrogen and hydroxyl groups in the H-NCNT. This sulfur-carbon composite electrode with 2.2 mg cm-2 sulfur displays excellent performance with high rate capability (initial capacity of 1341 mAh g-1 at C/5 rate and 849 mAh g-1 at 5C rate), rate stability until 500 cycles (a decay of 0.06% per cycle). Furthermore, a stable reversible capacity of as high as ∼1081 mAh g-1 is realized with a higher sulfur loading of 5.1 mg cm-2.

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanotube-nickel nanocomposites using atomic layer deposition for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taejin; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Chang Wan; Kim, Hangil; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Eunkyoung; Park, Jusang; Kim, Hyungjun

    2015-01-15

    A useful strategy has been developed to fabricate carbon-nanotube-nickel (CNT-Ni) nanocomposites through atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ni and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of functionalized CNTs. Various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were used to characterize the morphology and the structure of as-prepared samples. It was confirmed that the products possess uniform Ni nanoparticles that are constructed by finely controlled deposition of Ni onto oxygen or bromine functionalized CNT surface. Electrochemical studies indicate that the CNT-Ni nanocomposites exhibit high electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation in alkaline solutions, which enables the products to be used in enzyme-free electrochemical sensors for glucose determination. It was demonstrated that the CNT-Ni nanocomposite-based glucose biosensor offers a variety of merits, such as a wide linear response window for glucose concentrations of 5 μM-2 mM, short response time (3 s), a low detection limit (2 μM), high sensitivity (1384.1 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)), and good selectivity and repeatability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon nanotube/metal-sulfide composite flexible electrodes for high-performance quantum dot-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralee Gopi, Chandu V. V.; Ravi, Seenu; Rao, S. Srinivasa; Eswar Reddy, Araveeti; Kim, Hee-Je

    2017-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and metal sulfides have attracted considerable attention owing to their outstanding properties and multiple application areas, such as electrochemical energy conversion and energy storage. Here we describes a cost-effective and facile solution approach to the preparation of metal sulfides (PbS, CuS, CoS, and NiS) grown directly on CNTs, such as CNT/PbS, CNT/CuS, CNT/CoS, and CNT/NiS flexible electrodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) and supercapacitors (SCs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the CNT network was covered with high-purity metal sulfide compounds. QDSSCs equipped with the CNT/NiS counter electrode (CE) showed an impressive energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.41% and remarkable stability. Interestingly, the assembled symmetric CNT/NiS-based polysulfide SC device exhibited a maximal energy density of 35.39 W h kg-1 and superior cycling durability with 98.39% retention after 1,000 cycles compared to the other CNT/metal-sulfides. The elevated performance of the composites was attributed mainly to the good conductivity, high surface area with mesoporous structures and stability of the CNTs and the high electrocatalytic activity of the metal sulfides. Overall, the designed composite CNT/metal-sulfide electrodes offer an important guideline for the development of next level energy conversion and energy storage devices.

  20. Sulfur Embedded in a Mesoporous Carbon Nanotube Network as a Binder-Free Electrode for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wang, Datao; Luo, Yufeng; Wang, Ke; Kong, Weibang; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Lina; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Zhang, Yihe; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-01-26

    Sulfur-porous carbon nanotube (S-PCNT) composites are proposed as cathode materials for advanced lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Abundant mesopores are introduced to superaligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) through controlled oxidation in air to obtain porous carbon nanotubes (PCNTs). Compared to original SACNTs, improved dispersive behavior, enhanced conductivity, and higher mechanical strength are demonstrated in PCNTs. Meanwhile, high flexibility and sufficient intertube interaction are preserved in PCNTs to support binder-free and flexible electrodes. Additionally, several attractive features, including high surface area and abundant adsorption points on tubes, are introduced, which allow high sulfur loading, provide dual protection to sulfur cathode materials, and consequently alleviate the capacity fade especially during slow charge/discharge processes. When used as cathodes for Li-S batteries, a high sulfur loading of 60 wt % is achieved, with excellent reversible capacities of 866 and 526 mAh g(-1) based on the weights of sulfur and electrode, respectively, after 100 cycles at a slow charge/discharge rate of 0.1C, revealing efficient suppression of polysulfide dissolution. Even with a high sulfur loading of 70 wt %, the S-PCNT composite maintains capacities of 760 and 528 mAh g(-1) based on the weights of sulfur and electrode, respectively, after 100 cycles at 0.1C, outperforming the current state-of-the-art sulfur cathodes. Improved high-rate capability is also delivered by the S-PCNT composites, revealing their potentials as high-performance carbon-sulfur composite cathodes for Li-S batteries.

  1. Sustainable design of high-performance microsized microbial fuel cell with carbon nanotube anode and air cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Justine E; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-08-27

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising alternative energy source that both generates electricity and cleans water. Fueled by liquid wastes such as wastewater or industrial wastes, the microbial fuel cell converts waste into energy. Microsized MFCs are essentially miniature energy harvesters that can be used to power on-chip electronics, lab-on-a-chip devices, and/or sensors. As MFCs are a relatively new technology, microsized MFCs are also an important rapid testing platform for the comparison and introduction of new conditions or materials into macroscale MFCs, especially nanoscale materials that have high potential for enhanced power production. Here we report a 75 μL microsized MFC on silicon using CMOS-compatible processes and employ a novel nanomaterial with exceptional electrochemical properties, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as the on-chip anode. We used this device to compare the usage of the more commonly used but highly expensive anode material gold, as well as a more inexpensive substitute, nickel. This is the first anode material study done using the most sustainably designed microsized MFC to date, which utilizes ambient oxygen as the electron acceptor with an air cathode instead of the chemical ferricyanide and without a membrane. Ferricyanide is unsustainable, as the chemical must be continuously refilled, while using oxygen, naturally found in air, makes the device mobile and is a key step in commercializing this for portable technology such as lab-on-a-chip for point-of-care diagnostics. At 880 mA/m(2) and 19 mW/m(2) the MWCNT anode outperformed the others in both current and power densities with between 6 and 20 times better performance. All devices were run for over 15 days, indicating a stable and high-endurance energy harvester already capable of producing enough power for ultra-low-power electronics and able to consistently power them over time.

  2. Sustainable design of high-performance microsized microbial fuel cell with carbon nanotube anode and air cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-08-27

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising alternative energy source that both generates electricity and cleans water. Fueled by liquid wastes such as wastewater or industrial wastes, the microbial fuel cell converts waste into energy. Microsized MFCs are essentially miniature energy harvesters that can be used to power on-chip electronics, lab-on-a-chip devices, and/or sensors. As MFCs are a relatively new technology, microsized MFCs are also an important rapid testing platform for the comparison and introduction of new conditions or materials into macroscale MFCs, especially nanoscale materials that have high potential for enhanced power production. Here we report a 75 μL microsized MFC on silicon using CMOS-compatible processes and employ a novel nanomaterial with exceptional electrochemical properties, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as the on-chip anode. We used this device to compare the usage of the more commonly used but highly expensive anode material gold, as well as a more inexpensive substitute, nickel. This is the first anode material study done using the most sustainably designed microsized MFC to date, which utilizes ambient oxygen as the electron acceptor with an air cathode instead of the chemical ferricyanide and without a membrane. Ferricyanide is unsustainable, as the chemical must be continuously refilled, while using oxygen, naturally found in air, makes the device mobile and is a key step in commercializing this for portable technology such as lab-on-a-chip for point-of-care diagnostics. At 880 mA/m2 and 19 mW/m2 the MWCNT anode outperformed the others in both current and power densities with between 6 and 20 times better performance. All devices were run for over 15 days, indicating a stable and high-endurance energy harvester already capable of producing enough power for ultra-low-power electronics and able to consistently power them over time. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Mesoporous Li4Ti5O12 nanoclusters anchored on super-aligned carbon nanotubes as high performance electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Kong, Weibang; Wu, Hengcai; Wu, Yang; Wang, Datao; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-01

    Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information

  4. Design, Manufacturing, and Characterization of High-Performance Lightweight Bipolar Plates Based on Carbon Nanotube-Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelet Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungsoo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a study on manufacturing and characterization of a platform material for high-performance lightweight bipolar plates for fuel cells based on nanocomposites consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs. The experiments were designed and performed in three steps. In the preexperimental stage, xGnP-epoxy composite samples were prepared at various xGnP weight percentages to determine the maximum processable nanofiller concentration. The main part of the experiment employed the statistics-based design of experiments (DOE methodology to identify improved processing conditions and CNT : xGnP ratio for minimized electrical resistivity. In the postexperimental stage, optimized combinations of material and processing parameters were investigated. With the aid of a reactive diluent, 20 wt.% was determined to the be maximum processable carbon nanomaterial content in the epoxy. The DOE analyses revealed that the CNT : xGnP ratio is the most dominant factor that governs the electrical properties, and its implications in relation to CNT-xGnP interactions and microstructure are elucidated. In addition, samples fabricated near the optimized condition revealed that there exists an optimal CNT : xGnP ratio at which the electrical performance can be maximized. The electrical and mechanical properties of optimal samples suggest that CNT-xGnP hybrid nanocomposites can serve as an alternative material platform for affordable, lightweight bipolar plates.

  5. Carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    SLOBODAN N. MARINKOVIC

    2008-01-01

    Nanotubes, the last in the focus of scientists in a series of “all carbon” materials discovered over the last several decades are the most interesting and have the greatest potential. This review aims at presenting in a concise manner the considerable amount of knowledge accumulated since the discovery of this amazing form of solid carbon, particularly during the last 15 years. The topics include methods of synthesis, mathematical description, characterization by Raman spectroscopy, most impo...

  6. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells with gel-coated binder-free carbon nanotube films as counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Xiaoguang; Cho, Swee Jen; Fan Benhu; Ouyang Jianyong, E-mail: mseoj@nus.edu.sg [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117574 (Singapore)

    2010-10-01

    High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with binder-free films of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), as the counter electrode are reported. The CNT films were fabricated by coating gels, which were prepared by dispersing CNTs in low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) through mechanical grinding and subsequent ultrasonication, on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass. PEG was removed from the CNT films through heating. These binder-free CNT films were rough and exhibited good adhesion to substrates. They were used as the counter electrode of DSCs. The DSCs with SWCNT or MWCNT counter electrodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency comparable with that with the conventional platinum (Pt) counter electrode, when the devices were tested immediately after device fabrication. The DSCs with an SWCNT counter electrode exhibited good stability in photovoltaic performance. The efficiency did not decrease after four weeks. On the other hand, DSCs with the MWCNT or Pt counter electrode exhibited a remarkable decrease in the photovoltaic efficiency after four weeks. The high photovoltaic performance of these DSCs is related to the excellent electrochemical catalysis of CNTs on the redox of the iodide/triiodide pair, as revealed by the cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance spectroscopy.

  7. High-performance mixed-matrix membranes with altered interfacial and surface chemistry through benign reinforcement of functionalized carbon nanotubes of different configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials potentially minimize the inherent trade-off between productivity and selectivity of membranebased ultrafiltration (UF process. A comparative study on the reinforcement effect of pristine carbon nanotubes (CNTs of three different configurations, viz. single-walled (SWNT, double-walled (DWNT and multi-walled (MWNT, and their carboxylated counterparts, onto a polysulfone (Psf host matrix of mixed-matrix UF membranes is illustrated herein. The varying structural features of carboxylated CNTs, probed by XPS analysis, underpin the enrichment of CNTs with oxygen rich functionalities following the trend of MWNT > DWNT > SWNT. The membranes with enhanced hydrophilicity and altered electrokinetics substantiate the efficacy of facilitated reinforcement of functionalized CNTs over the pristine ones. Variations in surface topography and mechanical feature of the membranes elucidate that carboxylation influences the interfacial chemistry by enhancing the dispersion stability of MWNTs more profoundly than its configurational counterparts like SWNTs and DWNTs, and concurrently alters its distribution within the membranous matrix. The enhanced ultrafiltration performances, as achieved by twofold enhancement in solvent fluxes without compromise in the solute rejection capabilities (~89–90% toward PEG, Mw: 35 kDa, confirm the potential of carboxylated CNTs in leading to development of high-performance mixed-matrix membranes.

  8. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  9. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Tao; Dai, Liming

    2013-01-01

    .... Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties...

  10. High-performance glucose biosensor based on chitosan-glucose oxidase immobilized polypyrrole/Nafion/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes bio-nanohybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu Kumar; Ahmad, Rafiq; Mousa, Hamouda M; Kim, In-Gi; Kim, Jeong In; Neupane, Madhav Prasad; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-11-15

    A highly electroactive bio-nanohybrid film of polypyrrole (PPy)-Nafion (Nf)-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNTs) nanocomposite was prepared on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by a facile one-step electrochemical polymerization technique followed by chitosan-glucose oxidase (CH-GOx) immobilization on its surface to achieve a high-performance glucose biosensor. The as-fabricated nanohybrid composite provides high surface area for GOx immobilization and thus enhances the enzyme-loading efficiency. The structural characterization revealed that the PPy-Nf-fMWCNTs nanocomposite films were uniformly formed on GCE and after GOx immobilization, the surface porosities of the film were decreased due to enzyme encapsulation inside the bio-nanohybrid composite materials. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated biosensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and amperometry measurements. The results indicated an excellent catalytic property of bio-nanohybrid film for glucose detection with improved sensitivity of 2860.3μAmM(-1)cm(-2), the linear range up to 4.7mM (R(2)=0.9992), and a low detection limit of 5μM under a signal/noise (S/N) ratio of 3. Furthermore, the resulting biosensor presented reliable selectivity, better long-term stability, good repeatability, reproducibility, and acceptable measurement of glucose concentration in real serum samples. Thus, this fabricated biosensor provides an efficient and highly sensitive platform for glucose sensing and can open up new avenues for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ preparation of Fe3O4 in a carbon hybrid of graphene nanoscrolls and carbon nanotubes as high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewen; Hassan Siddique, Ahmad; Huang, Heran; Fang, Qile; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Xufeng; Lu, Huanming; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-11-01

    A new conductive carbon hybrid combining both reduced graphene nanoscrolls and carbon nanotubes (rGNSs-CNTs) is prepared, and used to host Fe3O4 nanoparticles through an in situ synthesis method. As an anode material for LIBs, the obtained Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs shows good electrochemical performance. At a current density of 0.1 A g‑1, the anode material shows a high reversible capacity of 1232.9 mAh g‑1 after 100 cycles. Even at a current density of 1 A g‑1, it still achieves a high reversible capacity of 812.3 mAh g‑1 after 200 cycles. Comparing with bare Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/rGO composite anode materials without nanoscroll structure, Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs shows much better rate capability with a reversible capacity of 605.0 and 500.0 mAh g‑1 at 3 and 5 A g‑1, respectively. The excellent electrochemical performance of the Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs anode material can be ascribed to the hybrid structure of rGNSs-CNTs, and their strong interaction with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which on one hand provides more pathways for lithium ions and electrons, on the other hand effectively relieves the volume change of Fe3O4 during the charge–discharge process.

  12. Nickel oxide/carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposite as bifunctional anode catalyst for high-performance Shewanella-based dual-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mohsennia, Mohsen; Pazouki, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    A novel nickel oxide/carbon nanotube/polyaniline (NCP) nanocomposite has been prepared and used to modify the electrocatalytic properties of carbon cloth anode in fabricating dual-chamber MFC. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The carbon cloth coated with the NCP nanocomposite showed the enhanced electrochemical performance as compared to bare carbon cloth anode. The electrochemical properties of the fabricated MFC with the modified anode have been investigated by linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The maximum power density of the MFC using the novel NCP nanocomposite-carbon cloth anode increased by 61.88% compared to that of the bare carbon cloth anode. In comparison to the bare carbon cloth anode, the new composite anode showed 26.8% enhancement of current density output which it can be due to the enhancement of the charge transfer capability.

  13. High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

    2012-10-09

    The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

  14. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  15. High-performance printed carbon nanotube thin-film transistors array fabricated by a nonlithography technique using hafnium oxide passivation layer and mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2012-12-01

    The large-scale application of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) for printed electronics requires scalable, repeateable, as well as noncontaminating assembly techniques. Previously explored nanotube deposition methods include serial methods such as inkjet printing and parallel methods such as spin-coating with photolithography. The serial methods are usually slow, whereas the photolithography-related parallel methods result in contamination of the nanotubes. In this paper, we report a reliable clean parallel method for fabrication of arrays of carbon nanotube-based field effect transistors (CNTFETs) involving shadow mask patterning of a passivating layer of Hafnium oxide (HfO(2)) over the nanotube (CNT) active channel regions and plasma etching of the unprotected nanotubes. Pure (99%) semiconducting SWCNTs are first sprayed over the entire surface of a wafer substrate followed by a two-step shadow masking procedure to first deposit metal electrodes and then a HfO(2) isolation/passivation layer over the device channel region. The exposed SWCNT network outside the HfO(2) protected area is removed with oxygen plasma etching. The HfO(2) thus serves as both the device isolation mask during the plasma etching and as a protective passivating layer in subsequent use. The fabricated devices on SiO(2)/Si substrate exhibit good device performance metrics, with on/off ratio ranging from 1 × 10(1) to 3 × 10(5) and mobilities of 4 to 23 cm(2)/(V s). The HfO(2)/Si devices show excellent performance with on/off ratios of 1 × 10(2) to 2 × 10(4) and mobilities of 8 to 56 cm(2)/(V s). The optimum devices (on HfO(2)/Si) have an on/off ratio of 1 × 10(4) and mobility as high as 46 cm(2)/(V s). This HfO(2)-based patterning method enables large scale fabrication of CNTFETs with no resist residue or other contamination on the device channel. Further, shadow masking circumvents the need for expensive and area-limited lithography patterning process. The device

  16. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small

  17. 3D well-interconnected NiO–graphene–carbon nanotube nanohybrids as high-performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xia; You, Xiaolong; Zhang, Mengyuan; Walle, Maru Dessie [Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Wang, Juan [State Grid Information & Telecommunication Group Co., Ltd. (China); Li, Yajuan, E-mail: yajuanli@csu.edu.cn; Liu, You-Nian [Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-08-15

    3D carbon scaffold built from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene exhibits the synergistic effects in electronic conductivity and buffers the structural strain of materials. In this paper, NiO–graphene–carbon nanotubes (NiO–G–CNTs) nanohybrids were prepared via a facile hydrothermal–thermal decomposition process. The as-prepared ternary component nanohybrids exhibit high reversible specific capacity, improved cycling stability, and excellent rate capability, compared to those of NiO–graphene hybrids and pure NiO. The NiO–G–CNT electrode reveals a specific capacity of 858.1 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. At a higher current density of 1000 mA g{sup −1}, it still reveals a specific capacity of 676 mA h g{sup −1} after 40 cycles. This outstanding electrochemical performance is attributed to its special 3D network structures, where the NiO nanoparticles are well distributed on the surface of graphene sheets, with the CNTs interwoven between individual graphene sheets. This special structure effectively prevents the restacking of graphene sheets and affords an easy route for the transport of electrons and ions.Graphical abstract.

  18. Design hierarchical electrodes with highly conductive NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays grown on carbon fiber paper for high-performance pseudocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Yang, Shihe; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2014-02-12

    We report on the development of highly conductive NiCo2S4 single crystalline nanotube arrays grown on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP), which can serve not only as a good pseudocapacitive material but also as a three-dimensional (3D) conductive scaffold for loading additional electroactive materials. The resulting pseudocapacitive electrode is found to be superior to that based on the sibling NiCo2O4 nanorod arrays, which are currently used in supercapacitor research due to the much higher electrical conductivity of NiCo2S4. A series of electroactive metal oxide materials, including CoxNi1-x(OH)2, MnO2, and FeOOH, were deposited on the NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays by facile electrodeposition and their pseudocapacitive properties were explored. Remarkably, the as-formed CoxNi1-x(OH)2/NiCo2S4 nanotube array electrodes showed the highest discharge areal capacitance (2.86 F cm(-2) at 4 mA cm(-2)), good rate capability (still 2.41 F cm(-2) at 20 mA cm(-2)), and excellent cycling stability (∼ 4% loss after the repetitive 2000 cycles at a charge-discharge current density of 10 mA cm(-2)).

  19. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Haipeng Li; Zhengjun Liu; Shuang Yang; Yan Zhao; Yuting Feng; Zhumabay Bakenov; Chengwei Zhang; Fuxing Yin

    2017-01-01

    ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT) composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm) which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO...

  20. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sorbents for the extraction of mycotoxins in water samples and infant milk formula prior to high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; González-Sálamo, Javier; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and environmental friendly methodology has been developed for the analysis of a group of six mycotoxins with estrogenic activity produced by Fusarium species (i.e. zearalanone, zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol), using microdispersive SPE the symbol micro should de before dSPE with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sorbent. Separation, determination, and quantification were achieved by HPLC coupled to ion trap MS with an ESI interface. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of µ-dSPE such as pH of the sample, amount of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and type and volume of elution solvent, were studied and optimized. The methodology was validated for mineral, pond, and wastewater as well as for powdered infant milk using 17β-estradiol-2,4,16,16,17-d5 (17β-E2 -D5 ) as internal standard, obtaining recoveries ranging from 85 to 120% for the three types of water samples and from 77 to 115% for powdered infant milk. RSD values were lower than 10%. The LOQs achieved were in the range 0.05-2.90 μg/L for water samples and 2.02-31.9 μg/L for powdered infant milk samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. From Chlorella to Nestlike Framework Constructed with Doped Carbon Nanotubes: A Biomass-Derived, High-Performance, Bifunctional Oxygen Reduction/Evolution Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghua; Deng, Yijie; Yu, Jinnan; Zheng, Long; Du, Li; Song, Huiyu; Liao, Shijun

    2017-09-20

    The development of effective bifunctional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is significant for energy conversion systems, such as Li-air batteries, fuel cells, and water splitting technologies. Herein, a Chlorella-derived catalyst with a nestlike framework, composed of bamboolike nanotubes that encapsulate cobalt nanoparticles, has been prepared through a facile pyrolysis process. It achieves perfect bifunctional catalysis both in ORR and OER on a single catalyst. For our optimal catalyst Co/M-Chlorella-900, its ORR half-wave potential is positively shifted by 40 mV compared to that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst, and the overpotential at 10 mA cm -2 for the OER is 23 mV lower than that of a commercial IrO 2 /C catalyst in an alkaline medium. This superior bifunctional catalytic performance is benefited from the simultaneous increase of pyridinic N sites for ORR and graphitic N sites for OER. In addition, N-doped carbon-encapsulated Co nanoparticles improve both ORR and OER performance by forming new active centers. The unique nestlike carbon nanotube framework not only afforded highly dense ORR and OER active sites but also promoted the electron and mass transfer. Our catalyst also displays notable durability during the ORR and OER, making it promising for use in ORR/OER-related energy conversion systems.

  2. Vertically grown multiwalled carbon nanotube anode and nickel silicide integrated high performance microsized (1.25 μl) microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2012-02-08

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an environmentally friendly method for water purification and self-sustained electricity generation using microorganisms. Microsized MFCs can also be a useful power source for lab-on-a-chip and similar integrated devices. We fabricated a 1.25 μL microsized MFC containing an anode of vertically aligned, forest type multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a nickel silicide (NiSi) contact area that produced 197 mA/m 2 of current density and 392 mW/m 3 of power density. The MWCNTs increased the anode surface-to-volume ratio, which improved the ability of the microorganisms to couple and transfer electrons to the anode. The use of nickel silicide also helped to boost the output current by providing a low resistance contact area to more efficiently shuttle electrons from the anode out of the device. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Carbon nanotubes decorating methods

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz; Łukowiec, D.; D. Cichock; W. Wolany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The work is to present and characterise various methods of depositing carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles of precious metals, and also to present the results of own works concerning carbon nanotubes coated with platinum nanoparticles.Design/methodology/approach: Electron transmission and scanning microscopy has been used for imaging the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites obtained and the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes.Findings: The studie...

  4. In Situ Carbon-Doped Mo(Se0.85 S0.15 )2 Hierarchical Nanotubes as Stable Anodes for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng-Tian; Kang, Wenpei; Xu, Jun; Sun, Lian-Ling; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Li; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Denis Y W; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-11-11

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising energy storage devices, but suffer from poor cycling stability and low rate capability. In this work, carbon doped Mo(Se0.85 S0.15 )2 (i.e., Mo(Se0.85 S0.15 )2 :C) hierarchical nanotubes have been synthesized for the first time and serve as a robust and high-performance anode material. The hierarchical nanotubes with diameters of 300 nm and wall thicknesses of 50 nm consist of numerous 2D layered nanosheets, and can act as a robust host for sodiation/desodiation cycling. The Mo(Se0.85 S0.15 )2 :C hierarchical nanotubes deliver a discharge capacity of 360 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 2000 mA g(-1) and keep a 81.8% capacity retention compared to that at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) , showing superior rate capability. Comparing with the second cycle discharge capacities, the nanotube anode can maintain capacities of 102.2%, 101.9%, and 97.8% after 100 cycles at current densities of 200, 500, and 1000 mA g(-1) , respectively. This work demonstrates the best cycling performance and high-rate sodium storage capabilities of MoSe2 for SIBs to date. The hollow interior, hierarchical organization, layered structure, and carbon doping are beneficial for fast Na(+) -ion and electron kinetics and are responsible for the stable cycling performance and high rate capabilities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Preparation and property investigation of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/epoxy composite films as high-performance electric heating (resistive heating element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/epoxy composite films with a thickness of ~700 µm is prepared by a sequential process of premixing, post dispersing, film casting, and thermal curing. The effects of the physical shear dispersion on the properties of conductive polymer composites as the electric heating element are investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that highly efficient conductive networks form with shear dispersions of MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. The electrical resistivity decreases sharply from ~1015 Ω·cm for the neat epoxy resin to ~102 Ω·cm for the composite film with 2.0 wt% MWCNTs in accordance with the percolation behaviour, and a low percolation threshold of ~0.018 wt% is fitted. The electric heating behaviour of the composite film is observed at a low MWCNT content of 0.05 wt% due to the high electrical conductivity. For the composite film with 2.0 wt% MWCNTs, an equilibrium temperature of 115 °C is reached at an applied voltage of 40 V within 30 s. The excellent electric heating behaviour, including the rapid temperature response, electric heating efficiency, and operational stability, is primarily related to the conductive two-dimensional networks consisting of MWCNTs and the thermodynamically stable polymer matrix.

  6. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube/α-Ni(OH)2 composites for high performance electrochemical supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi'an; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Fengqiao; Yang, Zhi; Huang, Shaoming

    2013-12-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube/α-Ni(OH)2 (RGO/CNT/α-Ni(OH)2) composites are successfully synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal route. The structural characterization of the composites by EDX, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, Raman, FESEM and TEM indicate that α-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles with the size around 5 nm are randomly decorated onto three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure RGO/CNT. The electrochemical performances of the composites are evaluated by cyclic voltammogram, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Interestingly, it is found that the electrochemical capacitance of the composites depends on the amount of CNTs to a large extent and RGO/CNT/α-Ni(OH)2 composite (GC2Ni2) with optimized ratio exhibits the high specific capacitance of 1320 F g-1 at 6 A g-1. In addition, the cycling measurements show that GC2Ni2 maintains a specific capacitance of 1008 F g-1 at 15 A g-1 after 1000 cycles corresponding to a reduction of capacitance of about 7.8%. The enhancement in specific capacitance and cycling stability is believed to be due to the 3D RGO/CNT conductive network which promotes not only efficient charge transport and facilitates the electrolyte diffusion, but also prevents effectively the volume expansion/contraction and aggregation of electroactive materials during charge-discharge process.

  7. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO/NCNT composite, when evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling ability and rate capability compared with the ZnO/CNT counterpart. A relatively large reversible capacity of 1013 mAh·g−1 is manifested at the second cycle and a capacity of 664 mAh·g−1 is retained after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the ZnO/NCNT system displays a reversible capacity of 308 mAh·g−1 even at a high current density of 1600 mA·g−1. These electrochemical performance enhancements are ascribed to the reinforced accumulative effects of the well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles and doping nitrogen atoms, which can not only suppress the volumetric expansion of ZnO nanoparticles during the cycling performance but also provide a highly conductive NCNT network for ZnO anode.

  8. Three-Dimensional Graphene/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Anchored with SnO2 Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Fang, Fang; Yuan, Tao; Yang, Junhe; Chen, Liang; Yao, Chi; Zheng, Shiyou; Sun, Dalin

    2017-02-01

    A unique 3D graphene-single walled carbon nanotube (G-SWNT) aerogel anchored with SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2@G-SWCNT) is fabricated by the hydrothermal self-assembly process. The influences of mass ratio of SWCNT to graphene on structure and electrochemical properties of SnO2@G-SWCNT are investigated systematically. The SnO2@G-SWCNT composites show excellent electrochemical performance in Li-ion batteries; for instance, at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), a specific capacity of 758 mAh g(-1) was obtained for the SnO2@G-SWCNT with 50% SWCNT in G-SWCNT and the Coulombic efficiency is close to 100% after 200 cycles; even at current density of 1 A g(-1), it can still maintain a stable specific capacity of 537 mAh g(-1) after 300 cycles. It is believed that the 3D G-SWNT architecture provides a flexible conductive matrix for loading the SnO2, facilitating the electronic and ionic transportation and mitigating the volume variation of the SnO2 during lithiation/delithiation. This work also provides a facile and reasonable strategy to solve the pulverization and agglomeration problem of other transition metal oxides as electrode materials.

  9. BaFe12O19-chitosan Schiff-base Ag (I) complexes embedded in carbon nanotube networks for high-performance electromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Xie, Yu; Guan, Dongsheng; Hua, Helin; Zhong, Rong; Qin, Yuancheng; Fang, Jing; Liu, Huilong; Chen, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    The multiwalled carbon nanotubes/BaFe12O19-chitosan (MCNTs/BF-CS) Schiff base Ag (I) complex composites were synthesized successfully by a chemical bonding method. The morphology and structures of the composites were characterized with electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Their conductive properties were measured using a four-probe conductivity tester at room temperature, and their magnetic properties were tested by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that the BF-CS Schiff base Ag (I) complexes are embedded into MCNT networks. When the mass ratio of MCNTs and BF-CS Schiff base is 0.95:1, the conductivity, Ms (saturation magnetization), Mr (residual magnetization), and Hc (coercivity) of the BF-CS Schiff base composites reach 1.908 S cm−1, 28.20 emu g−1, 16.66 emu g−1 and 3604.79 Oe, respectively. Finally, a possible magnetic mechanism of the composites has also been proposed. PMID:26218269

  10. Carbon nanotubes cement composites

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Musso; Jean-Marc Tulliani; Giuseppe Ferro

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reviews the current state of the art of carbon nanotubes cement-based composites and the possible applications. The influence of carbon nanotubes additions onto cement paste mechanical and electrical properties are discussed in detail. Though promising, several challenges have still to be solved before the introduction of these new materials into the public sphere through civil infrastructures.

  11. Manganese dioxide decoration of macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers: From high-performance liquid-based to all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendashteh, Afshin; Senokos, Evgeny; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Vilatela, Juan J.; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors capable of providing high voltage, energy and power density but yet light, low volume occupying, flexible and mechanically robust are highly interesting and demanded for portable applications. Herein, freestanding flexible hybrid electrodes based on MnO2 nanoparticles grown on macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers (CNTf-MnO2) were fabricated, without the need of any metallic current collector. The CNTf, a support with excellent electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and appropriate pore structure, was homogeneously decorated with porous akhtenskite ɛ-MnO2 nanoparticles produced via electrodeposition in an optimized organic-aqueous mixture. Electrochemical properties of these decorated fibers were evaluated in different electrolytes including a neutral aqueous solution and a pure 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (PYR14TFSI). This comparison helps discriminate the various contributions to the total capacitance: (surface) Faradaic and non-Faradaic processes, improved wetting by aqueous electrolytes. Accordingly, symmetric supercapacitors with PYR14TFSI led to a high specific energy of 36 Wh· kgMnO2-1 (16 Wh·kg-1 including the weight of CNTf) and real specific power of 17 kW· kgMnO2-1 (7.5 kW kg-1) at 3.0 V with excellent cycling stability. Moreover, flexible all solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated using PYR14TFSI-based polymer electrolyte, exhibiting maximum energy density of 21 Wh·kg-1 and maximum power density of 8 kW kg-1 normalized by total active material.

  12. Purification of carbon nanotubes via selective heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A.; Wilson, William L.; Jin, Sung Hun; Dunham, Simon N.; Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad; Du, Frank; Huang, Yonggang; Song, Jizhou

    2017-11-21

    The present invention provides methods for purifying a layer of carbon nanotubes comprising providing a precursor layer of substantially aligned carbon nanotubes supported by a substrate, wherein the precursor layer comprises a mixture of first carbon nanotubes and second carbon nanotubes; selectively heating the first carbon nanotubes; and separating the first carbon nanotubes from the second carbon nanotubes, thereby generating a purified layer of carbon nanotubes. Devices benefiting from enhanced electrical properties enabled by the purified layer of carbon nanotubes are also described.

  13. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4} modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke, E-mail: zhouyk888@hotmail.com; Song, Yijie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4}/N-CNTs is synthesized by a freeze-drying method. • The N-CNTs conductive network enhances the electron transport within the LiFePO{sub 4} electrode. • The continuous pores accelerate the diffusion of lithium ions. • LiFePO{sub 4}/N-CNTs demonstrates an excellent electrochemical Li-insertion performance. - Abstract: The three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4} modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO{sub 4} to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Development of novel molecularly imprinted magnetic solid-phase extraction materials based on magnetic carbon nanotubes and their application for the determination of gatifloxacin in serum samples coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Deli; Dramou, Pierre; Xiong, Nanqian; He, Hua; Li, Hui; Yuan, Danhua; Dai, Hao

    2013-01-25

    A novel composite imprinted material, on the basis of magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs)-incorporated layer using gatifloxacin as a template, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, was successfully synthesized by a surface imprinting technique. Adsorption dynamics and a Scatchard adsorption model were employed to evaluate the adsorption process. The results showed that magnetic carbon nanotubes molecularly imprinted polymers (MCNTs@MIP) displayed a rapid dynamic adsorption and a high adsorption capacity of 192.7 μg/mg toward GTFX. Applied MCNTs@MIP as a sorbent, a magnetic solid phase extraction method coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (MSPE-HPLC) was developed for the determination of GTFX in serum samples. The recoveries from 79.1±4.8% to 85.3±4.2% were obtained. MCNTs@MIP can not only be collected and separated fast by external magnetic field but also have high surface-to-volume ratio, outstanding mechanical properties and specific recognition toward template molecule. In addition, the MCNTs@MIP could be regenerated, which could be used for five cycles with lost of less than 7.8% of its recovery on average. These analytical results of serum samples display that the proposed method based on MCNTs@MIP is applicable for fast and selective extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon nanotube macroelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialu

    In this dissertation, I discuss the application of carbon nanotubes in macroelectronis. Due to the extraordinary electrical properties such as high intrinsic carrier mobility and current-carrying capacity, single wall carbon nanotubes are very desirable for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications such as flat panel display, transparent electronics, as well as flexible and stretchable electronics. Compared with other popular channel material for TFTs, namely amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon and organic materials, nanotube thin-films have the advantages of low-temperature processing compatibility, transparency, and flexibility, as well as high device performance. In order to demonstrate scalable, practical carbon nanotube macroelectroncis, I have developed a platform to fabricate high-density, uniform separated nanotube based thin-film transistors. In addition, many other essential analysis as well as technology components, such as nanotube film density control, purity and diameter dependent semiconducting nanotube electrical performance study, air-stable n-type transistor fabrication, and CMOS integration platform have also been demonstrated. On the basis of the above achievement, I have further demonstrated various kinds of applications including AMOLED display electronics, PMOS and CMOS logic circuits, flexible and transparent electronics. The dissertation is structured as follows. First, chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes, which serves as the background knowledge for the following chapters. In chapter 2, I will present our approach of fabricating wafer-scale uniform semiconducting carbon nanotube thin-film transistors and demonstrate their application in display electronics and logic circuits. Following that, more detailed information about carbon nanotube thin-film transistor based active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is discussed in chapter 3. And in chapter 4, a technology to

  16. Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S.; Xue, Yong-Qinag; Anantram, M. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses coupling between carbon nanotubes (CNT), simple metals (FEG) and a graphene sheet. The graphene sheet did not couple well with FEG, but the combination of a graphene strip and CNT did couple well with most simple metals.

  17. Carbon nanotubes for supercapacitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Hui; Li, Jianyi; Feng, Yuanping

    2010-01-01

    .... The purpose is to give a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of carbon nanotubes-related supercapacitor materials and to find ways for the improvement in the performance of supercapacitor...

  18. Carbon nanotube biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May C

    2015-01-01

    .... In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics properties which make them one...

  19. Morphing Carbon Nanotube Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-20

    muscle inspired by spider dragline silk. Nat. Commun. 5, 3322 (2014). 13. Hart, A. J. & Slocum , A. H. Rapid Growth and Flow-Mediated Nucleation of...Phys. Lett. 87, 123110 (2005). 15. A. J. Hart, A. H. Slocum . Rapid growth and flow-mediated nucleation of millimeter-scale aligned carbon nanotube... Slocum , B. L. Wardle. High-yield growth and morphology control of aligned carbon nanotubes on ceramic fibers for multifunctional enhancement of

  20. Carbon Nanotubes in Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Malarkey, Erik B.; Parpura, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have electrical, mechanical and chemical properties that make them one of the most promising materials for applications in neuroscience. Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been increasingly used as scaffolds for neuronal growth and more recently for neural stem cell growth and differentiation. They are also used in interfaces with neurons, where they can detect neuronal electrical activity and also deliver electrical stimulation to these cells. The emerging ...

  1. Carbon nanotube solar cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klinger

    Full Text Available We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement.

  2. Determination of type A trichothecenes in coix seed by magnetic solid-phase extraction based on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maofeng; Si, Wenshuai; Wang, Weimin; Bai, Bing; Nie, Dongxia; Song, Weiguo; Zhao, Zhihui; Guo, Yirong; Han, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction (m-SPE) is a promising sample preparation approach due to its convenience, speed, and simplicity. For the first time, a rapid and reliable m-SPE approach using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs) as the adsorbent was proposed for purification of type A trichothecenes including T-2 toxins (T2), HT-2 toxins (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), and neosolaniol (NEO) in coix seed. The m-MWCNTs were synthesized by assembling the magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with MWCNTs by sonication through an aggregation wrap mechanism, and characterized by transmission electron microscope. Several key parameters affecting the performance of the procedure were extensively investigated including extraction solutions, desorption solvents, and m-MWCNT amounts. Under the optimal sample preparation conditions followed by analysis with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), high sensitivity (limit of quantification in the range of 0.3-1.5 μg kg(-1)), good linearity (R (2) > 0.99), satisfactory recovery (73.6-90.6 %), and acceptable precision (≤2.5 %) were obtained. The analytical performance of the developed method has also been successfully evaluated in real coix seed samples. Graphical Abstract Flow chart of determination of type A trichothecenes in coix seed by magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

  3. Carbon nanotube junctions and devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, H.W.Ch.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Postma presents transport experiments performed on individual single-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are molecules entirely made of carbon atoms. The electronic properties are determined by the exact symmetry of the nanotube lattice, resulting in either metallic or

  4. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun, E-mail: yjluo@bit.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials. - Graphical abstract: The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A facile spontaneous electrostatic assembly strategy without surfactant was adopted. • The fuels and oxidizers assembled into densely packed nanostructured composites. • The assembled nanostructured energetic materials have excellent performance. • This high performance energetic material can be scaled up for practical application. • This

  5. Carbon Nanotubes for Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    As an electrical energy storage device, supercapacitor finds attractive applications in consumer electronic products and alternative power source due to its higher energy density, fast discharge/charge time, low level of heating, safety, long-term operation stability, and no disposable parts. This work reviews the recent development of supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their composites. The purpose is to give a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of carbon nanotubes-related supercapacitor materials and to find ways for the improvement in the performance of supercapacitor. We first discussed the effects of physical and chemical properties of pure carbon nanotubes, including size, purity, defect, shape, functionalization, and annealing, on the supercapacitance. The composites, including CNTs/oxide and CNTs/polymer, were further discussed to enhance the supercapacitance and keep the stability of the supercapacitor by optimally engineering the composition, particle size, and coverage. PMID:20672061

  6. Carbon Nanotubes for Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As an electrical energy storage device, supercapacitor finds attractive applications in consumer electronic products and alternative power source due to its higher energy density, fast discharge/charge time, low level of heating, safety, long-term operation stability, and no disposable parts. This work reviews the recent development of supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs and their composites. The purpose is to give a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of carbon nanotubes-related supercapacitor materials and to find ways for the improvement in the performance of supercapacitor. We first discussed the effects of physical and chemical properties of pure carbon nanotubes, including size, purity, defect, shape, functionalization, and annealing, on the supercapacitance. The composites, including CNTs/oxide and CNTs/polymer, were further discussed to enhance the supercapacitance and keep the stability of the supercapacitor by optimally engineering the composition, particle size, and coverage.

  7. Carbon nanotubes for supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Li, Jianyi; Feng, Yuanping

    2010-01-05

    As an electrical energy storage device, supercapacitor finds attractive applications in consumer electronic products and alternative power source due to its higher energy density, fast discharge/charge time, low level of heating, safety, long-term operation stability, and no disposable parts. This work reviews the recent development of supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their composites. The purpose is to give a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of carbon nanotubes-related supercapacitor materials and to find ways for the improvement in the performance of supercapacitor. We first discussed the effects of physical and chemical properties of pure carbon nanotubes, including size, purity, defect, shape, functionalization, and annealing, on the supercapacitance. The composites, including CNTs/oxide and CNTs/polymer, were further discussed to enhance the supercapacitance and keep the stability of the supercapacitor by optimally engineering the composition, particle size, and coverage.

  8. [Determination of the migration of bisphenol diglycidyl ethers from food contact materials by high performance chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinhua; Ding, Li; Li, Zhonghai; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Libing

    2010-11-01

    A comprehensive analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for measuring 6 exogenous endocrine disruptors--bisphenol diglycidyl ethers, including bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol A glycidyl (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x H2O), bisphenol A glycidyl (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether ( BADGE x HCl), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x H2O x HCl), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and bisphenol F bis (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE x 2HCl). The samples were extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic wave assistant extraction. The extracts were cleaned up and concentrated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The target compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS under positive ion mode using a COSMOSIL C18 column as analytical column. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 1.0-100.0 microg/L for 6 target compounds. The correlation coefficients (r2) were higher than 0.999 1. Recoveries of 6 analytes at three spiked levels ranged from 78.6% to 89.9%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 microg/L. The method is sensitive and simple, and is suitable for the rapid determination of the migration of bisphenol diglycidyl ethers from food contact materials.

  9. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic constituents in honey from various floral sources using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as extraction sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Ahmed, Yacine Badjah Hadj; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Obbed, Munir Saeed; AL-Harbi, Nasser Mohamed; AL-Turki, Turki Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous separation, identification and determination of 22 phenolic constituents in honey from various floral sources from Yemen. Solid-phase extraction was used for extraction of the target phenolic constituents from honey samples, while multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as solid-phase adsorbent. The chromatographic separation of all phenolic constituents was performed on a BEH C18 column using a linear gradient elution with a binary mobile phase mixture of aqueous 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The quantitation was carried out in selected ion reaction monitoring acquisition mode. The total amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids and other phenols in each analyzed honey was found in the range of 338-3312, 122-5482 and 2.4-1342 μg/100 g of honey, respectively. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid was found to be the major phenolic acid. The main detected flavonoid was chrysin, while cinnamic acid was found to be the major other phenol compound. The regeneration of solid phase adsorbent to be reused and recovery results confirm that the proposed method could be potentially used for the routine analysis of phenolic constituents in honey extract. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Simultaneous determination of polar and apolar compounds in environmental samples by a polyaniline/hydroxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite-coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cong; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-05-15

    Developing novel coatings for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is essential for extending the application of SBSE. Herein, a polyaniline/hydroxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PANi/MWCNTs-OH) composite-coated stir bar was prepared via the adhesion technique for the simultaneous extraction of polar and apolar compounds, and a novel method of PANi/MWCNTs-OH-coated SBSE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was proposed. To test the extraction performance of PANi/MWCNTs-OH-coated stir bar, phenols, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and polychlorinated biphenyls were selected as representatives for polar, semi-polar and apolar compounds, respectively. High enrichment factors (EFs) ranged from 20.4 to 60.4-fold (theoretical EF, 100-fold) for target analytes were achieved, indicating that the proposed method is applicable in simultaneous analysis of the compounds with different polarities. The prepared PANi/MWCNTs-OH-coated stir bar has a good preparation reproducibility and can be reused for 20 times. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.09-0.81μg/L. To validate the applicability, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of eight target analytes in Yangtze River water after filtration and in the extract from sediment samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ;Green; carbon with hierarchical three dimensional porous structure derived from - Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and NiCo2O4-Ni(OH)2/Multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite as electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitra, K.; Narendra, Reddy; Venkatesh, Krishna; Nagaraju, N.; Kathyayini, Nagaraju

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report for the first time synthesis and electrochemical supercapacitance performance of 3-D hierarchical porous ;Green; carbon derived from Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and its activation using different amounts of KOH. Also, nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with various weight percentages of Ni and Co were prepared by hydrothermal method. Physico-chemical properties of ;Green; carbon and nanocomposites were analyzed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Brunner Emmett Teller surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Elemental Dispersive Spectrum, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman techniques. KOH activated carbon was found associated with combination of micropores & mesopores while the nanocomposite with mixture of spinel NiCo2O4 and Ni(OH)2. Porous carbon activated with 2:1::KOH:C (KC2) and the nanocomposite with 1:1 Ni & Co (NC1) exhibited excellent electrochemical performance in three electrode system. Further, fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (AS) device Ni-Co-MWCNT (NC1)//KC2 exhibited specific capacitance (Cs) of 177 F/g as determined by cyclic voltammetry at 10 mV/s and retained 90% even at 3000th cycle in life cycle test conducted at high current density of 50 A/g. In order to evaluate its practical performance, the AS device was charged to 1.8 V at 5 A/g and used successfully to power a calculator for more than 1 h.

  12. The Toxicology of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig; Duffin, Rodger; Bonner, James

    2012-06-01

    1. Carbon nanotube structure, synthesis and applications C. Singh and W. Song; 2. The aerodynamic behaviour and pulmonary deposition of carbon nanotubes A. Buckley, R. Smith and R Maynard; 3. Utilising the concept of the biologically effective dose to define the particle and fibre hazards of carbon nanotubes K. Donaldson, R. Duffin, F. Murphy and C. Poland; 4. CNT, biopersistence and the fibre paradigm D. Warheit and M. DeLorme; 5. Length-dependent retention of fibres in the pleural space C. Poland, F. Murphy and K. Donaldson; 6. Experimental carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes in the context of other fibres K. Unfried; 7. Fate and effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. Ryman-Rasmussen, M. Andersen and J. Bonner; 8. Responses to pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes V. Castranova and R. Mercer; 9. Genotoxicity of carbon nanotubes R. Schins, C. Albrecht, K. Gerloff and D. van Berlo; 10. Carbon nanotube-cellular interactions; macrophages, epithelial and mesothelial cells V. Stone, M. Boyles, A. Kermanizadeh, J. Varet and H. Johnston; 11. Systemic health effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. McDonald; 12. Dosimetry and metrology of carbon nanotubes L. Tran, L. MacCalman and R. Aitken; Index.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes for Supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jianyi; Pan Hui; Feng YuanPing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract As an electrical energy storage device, supercapacitor finds attractive applications in consumer electronic products and alternative power source due to its higher energy density, fast discharge/charge time, low level of heating, safety, long-term operation stability, and no disposable parts. This work reviews the recent development of supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their composites. The purpose is to give a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disad...

  14. 148. Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Hedmer, Maria; Kåredal, Monica; Gustavsson, Per; Rissler, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be seen as graphene sheets rolled to form cylinders. CNTs may be categorised as single- (SWCNT) or multi-walled (MWCNT). Due to the small size, the number of particles as well as the surface area per mass unit is extremely high. CNTs are highly diverse, differing with respect to e.g., diameter, length, chiral angles, chemical functionalisation, purity, stiffness and bulk density. Today, CNTs are utilised primarily for the reinforcement of composite polymers, but th...

  15. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  16. Toward High-Performance Hematite Nanotube Photoanodes: Charge-Transfer Engineering at Heterointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hong; Andoshe, Dinsefa M; Shim, Young-Seok; Moon, Cheon-Woo; Sohn, Woonbae; Choi, Seokhoon; Kim, Taemin Ludvic; Lee, Migyoung; Park, Hoonkee; Hong, Kootak; Kwon, Ki Chang; Suh, Jun Min; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Jong-Heun; Jang, Ho Won

    2016-09-14

    Vertically ordered hematite nanotubes are considered to be promising photoactive materials for high-performance water-splitting photoanodes. However, the synthesis of hematite nanotubes directly on conducting substrates such as fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass is difficult to be achieved because of the poor adhesion between hematite nanotubes and FTO/glass. Here, we report the synthesis of hematite nanotubes directly on FTO/glass substrate and high-performance photoelectrochemical properties of the nanotubes with NiFe cocatalysts. The hematite nanotubes are synthesized by a simple electrochemical anodization method. The adhesion of the hematite nanotubes to the FTO/glass substrate is drastically improved by dipping them in nonpolar cyclohexane prior to postannealing. Bare hematite nanotubes show a photocurrent density of 1.3 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V vs a reversible hydrogen electrode, while hematite nanotubes with electrodeposited NiFe cocatalysts exhibit 2.1 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V which is the highest photocurrent density reported for hematite nanotubes-based photoanodes for solar water splitting. Our work provides an efficient platform to obtain high-performance water-splitting photoanodes utilizing earth-abundant hematite and noble-metal-free cocatalysts.

  17. High performance hydrophobic solvent, carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulwala, Hunaid; Luebke, David

    2017-05-09

    Methods and compositions useful, for example, for physical solvent carbon capture. A method comprising: contacting at least one first composition comprising carbon dioxide with at least one second composition to at least partially dissolve the carbon dioxide of the first composition in the second composition, wherein the second composition comprises at least one siloxane compound which is covalently modified with at least one non-siloxane group comprising at least one heteroatom. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials and ethylene-glycol based materials have high carbon dioxide solubility but suffer from various problems. PDMS is hydrophobic but suffers from low selectivity. Ethylene-glycol based systems have good solubility and selectivity, but suffer from high affinity to water. Solvents were developed which keep the desired combinations of properties, and result in a simplified, overall process for carbon dioxide removal from a mixed gas stream.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes and Modern Nanoagriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2015-01-27

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have been prominent members of the nanomaterial family. Owing to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes have been proven to be a useful tool in the field of plant science. They were frequently perceived to bring about valuable biotechnological and agricultural applications that still remain beyond experimental realization. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the ability of carbon nanotubes to traverse different plant cell barriers. These studies, also, assessed the toxicity and environmental impacts of these nanomaterials. The knowledge provided by these studies is of practical and fundamental importance for diverse applications including intracellular labeling and imaging, genetic transformation, and for enhancing our knowledge of plant cell biology. Although different types of nanoparticles have been found to activate physiological processes in plants, carbon nanotubes received particular interest. Following addition to germination medium, carbon nanotubes enhanced root growth and elongation of some plants such as onion, cucumber and rye-grass. They, also, modulated the expression of some genes that are essential for cell division and plant development. In addition, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were evidenced to penetrate thick seed coats, stimulate germination, and to enhance growth of young tomato seedlings. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can penetrate deeply into the root system and further distribute into the leaves and the fruits. In recent studies, carbon nanotubes were reported to be chemically entrapped into the structure of plant tracheary elements. This should activate studies in the fields of plant defense and wood engineering. Although, all of these effects on plant physiology and plant developmental biology have not been fully understood, the valuable findings promises more research activity in the near future toward complete scientific understanding of

  19. Electron configuration of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, S.M.; Setrajcic, J.P. [Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia). Inst. of Physics; Vragovic, I.D. [Technical Faculty M. Pupin, Zrenjanin (Yugoslavia)

    2000-07-01

    In the paper the analysis of electron band structure of infinite carbon nanotubes was performed using Green's function method. The electron dispersion law was found in harmonic and nearest neighbor approximation. One can see that carbon nanotubes of infinite length can be divided into two classes: metallic and semiconducting. Additional spatial confinement of the system along the nanotube axes leads to the opening of the forbidden gap even in nanotubes that are metallic for infinite length. The value of the forbidden gap decreases by increasing the tube length. The dependence of the forbidden gap on the tube length is not monotonic; it has oscillatory character for short tubes. (orig.)

  20. Carbon Nanotubes for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2000-01-01

    The potential of nanotube technology for NASA missions is significant and is properly recognized by NASA management. Ames has done much pioneering research in the last five years on carbon nanotube growth, characterization, atomic force microscopy, sensor development and computational nanotechnology. NASA Johnson Space Center has focused on laser ablation production of nanotubes and composites development. These in-house efforts, along with strategic collaboration with academia and industry, are geared towards meeting the agency's mission requirements. This viewgraph presentation (including an explanation for each slide) outlines the research focus for Ames nanotechnology, including details on carbon nanotubes' properties, applications, and synthesis.

  1. Advanced carbon nanotubes functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaro, A.

    2017-10-01

    Similar to graphene, carbon nanotubes are materials made of pure carbon in its sp2 form. Their extended conjugated π-network provides them with remarkable quantum optoelectronic properties. Frustratingly, it also brings drawbacks. The π-π stacking interaction makes as-produced tubes bundle together, blurring all their quantum properties. Functionalization aims at modifying and protecting the tubes while hindering π-π stacking. Several functionalization strategies have been developed to circumvent this limitation in order for nanotubes applications to thrive. In this review, we summarize the different approaches established so far, emphasizing the balance between functionalization efficacy and the preservation of the tubes’ properties. Much attention will be given to a functionalization strategy overcoming the covalent-noncovalent dichotomy and to the implementation of two advanced functionalization schemes: (a) conjugation with molecular switches, to yield hybrid nanosystems with chemo-physical properties that can be tuned in a controlled and reversible way, and; (b) plasmonic nanosystems, whose ability to concentrate and enhance the electromagnetic fields can be taken advantage of to enhance the optical response of the tubes.

  2. Carbon nanotube biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites, or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we describe their structural and physical properties, functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers. PMID:26579509

  3. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  5. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  6. Carbon nanotubes: engineering biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Burgos, Juan C; Yu, Jiamei; Balbuena, Perla B

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinder-shaped allotropic forms of carbon, most widely produced under chemical vapor deposition. They possess astounding chemical, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Being among the most promising materials in nanotechnology, they are also likely to revolutionize medicine. Among other biomedical applications, after proper functionalization carbon nanotubes can be transformed into sophisticated biosensing and biocompatible drug-delivery systems, for specific targeting and elimination of tumor cells. This chapter provides an introduction to the chemical and electronic structure and properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, followed by a description of the main synthesis and post-synthesis methods. These sections allow the reader to become familiar with the specific characteristics of these materials and the manner in which these properties may be dependent on the specific synthesis and post-synthesis processes. The chapter ends with a review of the current biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes, highlighting successes and challenges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Single carbon nanotube photovoltaic device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkelid, K.M.; Zwiller, V.G.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present photocurrent measurements on a single suspended carbon nanotube p-n junction. The p-n junction was induced by electrostatic doping by local gates, and the E11 and E22 resonances in the nanotube could be probed using photocurrent spectroscopy. Current-voltage characteristics were

  8. Composite of Cu metal nanoparticles-multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide as a novel and high performance platform of the electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Hasan, E-mail: h.bagheri@bmsu.ac.ir [Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajian, Ali [Laboratory for Sensors, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges Köhler Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Rezaei, Mosayeb; Shirzadmehr, Ali [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • An electrochemical sensor based on Cu metal nanoparticles-multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode was developed. • Simultaneous electrochemical determination of nitrate and nitrite by fabricated sensor was performed. • Modification improved the sensitivity and detection limit of the method. • It is a useful method for determining of nitrate and nitrite in various real samples. - Abstract: In the present research, we aimed to fabricate a novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu metal nanoparticles on the multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Cu/MWCNT/RGO) for individual and simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate ions. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposite on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was characterized using various methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimal experimental conditions, the modified GCE showed excellent catalytic activity toward the electro-reduction of nitrite and nitrate ions (pH = 3.0) with a significant increase in cathodic peak currents in comparison with the unmodified GCE. By square wave voltammetry (SWV) the fabricated sensor demonstrated wide dynamic concentration ranges from 0.1 to 75 μM with detection limits (3S{sub b}/m) of 30 nM and 20 nM method for nitrite and nitrate ions, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions in the tap and mineral waters, sausages, salami, and cheese samples.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  10. Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the...

  11. Transparent, Conductive Carbon Nanotube Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuangchun Wu; Zhihong Chen; Xu Du; Jonathan M. Logan; Jennifer Sippel; Maria Nikolou; Katalin Kamaras; John R. Reynolds; David B. Tanner; Arthur F. Hebard; Andrew G. Rinzler

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple process for the fabrication of ultrathin, transparent, optically homogeneous, electrically conducting films of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes and the transfer of those films...

  12. Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsuk Mukhopadhyay; Kanik Ram; K.U. Bhasker Rao

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists world wide. The small dimensions,strength, and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review, the structural aspects, the advantages and disadvantages of different for their procedures synthesis, the qualitative and quantitative estimation of carbon nanotubes by different analytical techniques, the present status on their applications a...

  13. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Churchill, H O H; Herring, P K

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual......, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications....

  14. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  15. Carbon nanotube computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaker, Max M; Hills, Gage; Patil, Nishant; Wei, Hai; Chen, Hong-Yu; Wong, H-S Philip; Mitra, Subhasish

    2013-09-26

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy-delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. Owing to substantial fundamental imperfections inherent in CNTs, however, only very basic circuit blocks have been demonstrated. Here we show how these imperfections can be overcome, and demonstrate the first computer built entirely using CNT-based transistors. The CNT computer runs an operating system that is capable of multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we implement 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This experimental demonstration is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet realized. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next generation of highly energy-efficient electronic systems.

  16. Theoretical properties of carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Palser, A H

    2000-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are invariably terminated with hemi-fullerene caps. In order to investigate the effect of these caps on the electronic structure, a method is developed to enumerate every hemi-fullerene cap which is commensurate with a given nanotube body. This algorithm is then applied to nanotubes for which I + m <= 25. The results of this algorithm are then used to study the effects of caps with different symmetries on the electronic structure of metallic and semi-conducting nanotubes within the Hueckel model. It is found that caps can cause localised and resonance states, although the likelihood of localised states occurring in capped metallic nanotubes is shown to be small. In addition, caps induce a non-uniform charge distribution, in which negative charge tends to accumulate on pentagon vertices. The thesis ends by describing two new density matrix methods for performing linear-scaling electronic-structure calculations within the independent electron approximation. Example calculations demonstrate t...

  17. Composite of Cu metal nanoparticles-multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide as a novel and high performance platform of the electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Hasan; Hajian, Ali; Rezaei, Mosayeb; Shirzadmehr, Ali

    2017-02-15

    In the present research, we aimed to fabricate a novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu metal nanoparticles on the multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Cu/MWCNT/RGO) for individual and simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate ions. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposite on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was characterized using various methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimal experimental conditions, the modified GCE showed excellent catalytic activity toward the electro-reduction of nitrite and nitrate ions (pH=3.0) with a significant increase in cathodic peak currents in comparison with the unmodified GCE. By square wave voltammetry (SWV) the fabricated sensor demonstrated wide dynamic concentration ranges from 0.1 to 75μM with detection limits (3Sb/m) of 30nM and 20nM method for nitrite and nitrate ions, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions in the tap and mineral waters, sausages, salami, and cheese samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  19. Universally dispersible carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoteau, Alexandre; Soulié-Ziakovic, Corinne; Leibler, Ludwik

    2012-12-12

    We show that supramolecular chemistry provides a convenient tool to prepare carbone nanotubes (CNTs) that can be dispersed in solvents of any chemical nature, easily recovered and redispersed. Thymine-modified CNTs (CNT-Thy) can be dispersed in solution in the presence of diaminotriazine (DAT) end-functionalized polymers, through supramolecular Thy/DAT association. DAT-polymer chains are selected according to the solvent chemical nature: polystyrene (PS) for hydrophobic/low polarity solvents and a propylene oxide/ethylene oxide copolymer (predominantly propylene oxide based, PPO/PEO) for polar solvents or water. Long-term stable supramolecular CNT dispersions are reversibly aggregated by adding a few droplets of a selective dissociating agent of the Thy/DAT association (DMSO). CNT-Thy, simply recycled by centrifugation or filtration, can be redispersed in another solvent in presence of a suitable soluble DAT-polymer. Dispersion and aggregation can also be switched on and off by choosing a polymer for which a given solvent is close to Θ-conditions, e.g., PS in cyclohexane or PPO/PEO in water.

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  1. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  2. Hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage for high performance pseudo-capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of novel nanocomposites for pseudo-capacitors with high capacitance and energy density is the spotlight of current energy research. In the present work, hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage of graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been used as carbon support to nanostructured RuO2 and polyaniline for high energy supercapacitors. Maximum specific capacitances of 110, 235 and 440 F g−1 at the voltage sweep rate of 10 mV s−1 and maximum energy densities of 7, 12.5 and 20.5 Wh kg−1 were observed for carbon assemblage and its RuO2 and polyanilne decorated nanocomposites, respectively, with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte.

  3. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas [Denver, CO; Raffaelle, Ryne P [Honeoye Falls, NY; Landi, Brian J [Rochester, NY; Heben, Michael J [Denver, CO

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  4. Carbon nanotubes: synthesis, structure, functionalization, and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamolo, Valeria Anna; Vazquez, Ester; Prato, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have generated great expectations in the scientific arena, mainly due to their spectacular properties, which include a high aspect ratio, high strain resistance, and high strength, along with high conductivities. Nowadays, carbon nanotubes are produced by a variety of methods, each of them with advantages and disadvantages. Once produced, carbon nanotubes can be chemically modified, using a wide range of chemical reactions. Functionalization makes these long wires much easier to manipulate and dispersible in several solvents. In addition, the properties of carbon nanotubes can be combined with those of organic appendages. Finally, carbon nanotubes need to be carefully characterized, either as pristine or modified materials.

  5. Biomedical applications of carbon-nanotube composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Jay Russell; Jin, Chunming; Narayan, Roger J; Aggarwal, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    The unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes make them attractive for a variety of biomedical applications. Carbon nanotubes have been used to modify conventional biomedical materials to enhance mechanical properties, biocompatibility, or to impart other functionalities. New multifunctional composite materials using carbon nanotubes have been developed by combining them with inorganic, polymeric or biological materials. The biomedical applications for which novel carbon nanotube composites have been investigated include antimicrobial coatings, neural implants, tissue engineering scaffolds and electrochemical biosensors. In this paper, research on development and application of carbon nanotube composites for biomedical applications has been reviewed.

  6. Carbon nanotubes and methods of making carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-27

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods that can be used to produce carbon nanotubes (hereinafter CNT) having an inner diameter about 5-55 nm, methods of tuning the inner diameter of CNTs (e.g., by adjusting reaction pressure), CNTs having an inner diameter of greater than 20 nm or more, and the like.

  7. Modified carbon nanotubes and methods of forming carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Amy M.; Risser, Steven; Elhard, Joel D.; Moore, Bryon P.; Liu, Tao; Vijayendran, Bhima R.

    2016-06-14

    In this invention, processes which can be used to achieve stable doped carbon nanotubes are disclosed. Preferred CNT structures and morphologies for achieving maximum doping effects are also described. Dopant formulations and methods for achieving doping of a broad distribution of tube types are also described.

  8. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  9. Carbon nanotube reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction: a novel extraction technique for the measurement of caffeic acid in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Golsefidi, Mazyar Ahmadi; Saify, Ali; Tanha, Ali Akbar; Rezaeifar, Zohre; Alian-Nezhadi, Zahra

    2010-04-23

    A new design of hollow fiber solid-liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) was developed for the determination of caffeic acid in medicinal plants samples as Echinacea purpure. The membrane extraction with sorbent interface used in this research is a three-phase supported liquid membrane consisting of an aqueous (donor phase), organic solvent/nano sorbent (membrane) and aqueous (acceptor phase) system operated in direct immersion sampling mode. The multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersed in the organic solvent is held in the pores of a porous membrane supported by capillary forces and sonification. It is in contact with two aqueous phases: the donor phase, which is the aqueous sample, and the acceptor phase, usually an aqueous buffer. All microextraction experiments were supported using an Accurel Q3/2 polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (600 microm I.D., 200 microm wall thicknesses, and 0.2 microm pore size). The experimental setup is very simple and highly affordable. The hollow fiber is disposable, so single use of the fiber reduces the risk of cross-contamination and carry-over problems. The proposed method allows the very effective and enriched recuperation of an acidic analyte into one single extract. In order to obtain high enrichment and extraction efficiency of the analyte using this novel technique, the main parameters were optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity (0.0001-50 microg/L), repeatability, low limits of detection (0.00005 microg/L) and excellent enrichment (EF=2108). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fibre lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysheva Maria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs possess both remarkable optical properties and high potential for integration in various photonic devices. We overview, here, recent progress in CNT applications in fibre optics putting particular emphasis on fibre lasers. We discuss fabrication and characterisation of different CNTs, development of CNT-based saturable absorbers (CNT-SA, their integration and operation in fibre laser cavities putting emphasis on state-of-the-art fibre lasers, mode locked using CNT-SA. We discuss new design concepts of high-performance ultrafast operation fibre lasers covering ytterbium (Yb, bismuth (Bi, erbium (Er, thulium (Tm and holmium (Ho-doped fibre lasers.

  11. Modelling Heat Transfer of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Modelling heat transfer of carbon nanotubes is important for the thermal management of nanotube-based composites and nanoelectronic device. By using a finite element method for three-dimensional anisotropic heat transfer, we have simulated the heat conduction and temperature variations of a single nanotube, a nanotube array and a part of nanotube-based composite surface with heat generation. The thermal conductivity used is obtained from the upscaled value from the molecular simulations or ex...

  12. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This

  13. Engineering heterojunctions with carbon nanostructures: towards high-performance optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Judy Z.

    2015-08-01

    Low-dimensional carbon nanostructures such as nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have excellent electronic, optoelectronic and mechanical properties, which provide fresh opportunities for designs of optoelectronic devices of extraordinary performance in addition to the benefits of low cost, large abundance, and light weight. This work investigates photodetectors made with CNTs and graphene with a particular focus on carbon-based nanohybrids aiming at a nanoscale control of photon absorption, exciton dissociation and charge transfer. Through several examples including graphene/GaSe-nanosheets, graphene/aligned ZnO nanorods, SWCNT/P3HT, and SWCNT/biomolecule, we show an atomic-scale control on the interfacial heterojunctions is the key to high responsivity and fast photoresponse in these nanohybrids optoelectronic devices.

  14. Elastic properties of noncarbon nanotubes as compared to carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochaev, Aleksey

    2017-10-01

    A comparative study of stability, structural, and elastic properties of single-wall noncarbon nanotubes, including BN, AlN, GaN, AlP, GaP, and B nanotubes using ab initio simulation is presented. The proposed nanotubes can be found in nature, which is confirmed by calculation of their binding energy. The values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for (0,n ) and (n ,n ) proposed nanotubes with n =3 ⋯20 are obtained. The conception of two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus of planar and tubular materials was developed. The calculations show that stable forms of boron nitride nanotubes have the 2D Young's modulus almost similar to carbon nanotubes. At the same time, it is stated that boron nanotubes have a higher 2D Young's modulus than any other known carbon and noncarbon nanostructures.

  15. Bonding Unidirectional Carbon Nanotube with Carbon for High Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-24

    Stabilization and Pyrolysis Process The precursor films were first heat-treated in air to stabilize and oxidize the PAN matrix. A tension device was used to...SF298 Form Please attach your SF298 form. A blank SF298 can be found here. Please do not password protect or secure the PDF The maximum file size...for an SF298 is 50MB. AFD-070820-035 2 Zhu.pdf Upload the Report Document. File must be a PDF . Please do not password protect or secure the PDF . The

  16. Applications of carbon nanotubes in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, Erik B; Parpura, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials for the electronics, computer and aerospace industries. There are numerous properties of carbon nanotubes that make them attractive for applications in neurobiology: small size, flexibility, strength, inertness, electrical conductivity and ease of modification with biological compounds. Here, we discuss the current applications of carbon nanotubes in neuroscience. Carbon nanotubes and their derivatives can be used as substrates/scaffolds for neural cell growth. The chemical properties of carbon nanotubes can be systematically varied by attaching different functional groups; manipulation of the charge carried by functionalized carbon nanotubes can be used to control the outgrowth and branching pattern of neuronal processes. The ease with which carbon nanotubes can be patterned makes them attractive for studying the organization of neural networks and the electrical conductivity of nanotubes can provide a mechanism to monitor or stimulate neurons through the substrate itself. However, it is important to recognize that carbon nanotubes themselves can affect neuronal function, most likely by interaction with ion channels. The use of carbon nanotubes in neurobiology is a promising application that has the potential to develop new methods and techniques to advance the study of neuroscience.

  17. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  18. The formation mechanism of chiral carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Liren; Lu, Junzhe; Zhu, Hengjiang

    2018-02-01

    The nuclei and the formation mechanism of chiral carbon nanotubes, namely, single-, double-, and triple-walled carbon nanotubes are simulated by the first principle density functional theory. The formation mechanism from nuclei to corresponding infinitely long carbon nanotubes occurs spirally and via absorbing carbon atoms layer by layer. Carbon atoms at the open end are metastable state compared with ones in the tube wall or the closed end, which indicate the growth point of chiral carbon nanotubes is located at the open end. Growth of outer layer tubular clusters takes precedence over the inner layer in the process of forming multi-walled nuclear structures. Because of the ratio of carbon atoms at the open end to all carbon atoms decreases, the stability of the tubular clusters increases with their length. The infinitely long carbon nanotubes are obtained by executing periodic boundary conditions depend on corresponding nuclear structures.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    walled carbon nanotubes; transverse magnetic field; van der Waals force. 1. Introduction. Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (Iijima. 1991), extensive research related to the carbon nanotubes in the fields of chemistry, physics, ...

  20. Complementary high performance sensing of gases and liquids using silver nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isro, Suhandoko D.; Iskandar, Alexander A.; Tjia, May-On

    2017-11-01

    A study on refractive index sensing using a silver nanotube is carried out to investigate the relative advantages of sensing gaseous and liquid samples outside the tube (outer sensing) and inside the core (inner sensing). The geometrical and material parameters of the nanotube are varied to explore the favorable sensing performances covering the range of refractive indices between 1.1 and 1.5. It is shown that the performances at the three sensing points considered are consistently improved with decreased shell thickness and core radius in both sensing modes. While the performance is also monotonously and drastically enhanced with decreased counter permittivity in inner sensing, the similarly large variations in the outer sensing mode are less than strictly consistent. The study further shows that the most favorable FOM values are attained by both sensing modes with 2.5 nm Ag shell thickness and 27.5 nm core radius of the nanotube, whereas the most favorable counter permittivities are different for the two modes. Remarkably, the trend of increasing FOM for samples of lower refractive indices in outer sensing is entirely reversed in inner sensing with roughly the same level of performances. Thus, the core/shell structure of the silver nanotube offers the complementary high performance sensing of gases and liquids using the two sensing modes with appropriately chosen system parameters.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Thermoelectric Coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    fitting the sharp features with the Gauss bell curves as was suggested earlier in Ref. (Yang, Fedorov et al. 2012). Comparing the  eG V curves...Yang, Fedorov et al. 2012). Our experimental results suggest that the electric current along the nanotube induces an impressive change of local...fermions, Eur. Phys. J. B (2014) 87: 99 DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2014-40794-0. 2. Y. Yang, G. Fedorov , J. Zhang, A. Tselev, S. Shafraniuk and P. Barbara

  2. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  3. Emerging Carbon Nanotube Electronic Circuits, Modeling, and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Xu; Ashok Srivastava; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    2010-01-01

    Current transport and dynamic models of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are presented. A model of single-walled carbon nanotube as interconnect is also presented and extended in modeling of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. These models are applied in studying the performances of circuits such as the complementary carbon nanotube inverter pair and carbon nanotube as interconnect. Cadence/Spectre simulations show that carbon nanotube field-effect transistor circuits can operate a...

  4. Carbon Nanotubes: Molecular Electronic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1997-01-01

    The carbon Nanotube junctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for use as the building blocks in the formation of nanoscale molecular electronic networks. While the simple joint of two dissimilar tubes can be generated by the introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise perfect hexagonal graphene sheet, more complex joints require other mechanisms. In this work we explore structural characteristics of complex 3-point junctions of carbon nanotubes using a generalized tight-binding molecular-dynamics scheme. The study of pi-electron local densities of states (LDOS) of these junctions reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap.

  5. Carbon nanotubes as excitonic insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Daniele; Sorella, Sandro; Sangalli, Davide; Barborini, Matteo; Corni, Stefano; Molinari, Elisa; Rontani, Massimo

    2017-11-13

    Fifty years ago Walter Kohn speculated that a zero-gap semiconductor might be unstable against the spontaneous generation of excitons-electron-hole pairs bound together by Coulomb attraction. The reconstructed ground state would then open a gap breaking the symmetry of the underlying lattice, a genuine consequence of electronic correlations. Here we show that this excitonic insulator is realized in zero-gap carbon nanotubes by performing first-principles calculations through many-body perturbation theory as well as quantum Monte Carlo. The excitonic order modulates the charge between the two carbon sublattices opening an experimentally observable gap, which scales as the inverse of the tube radius and weakly depends on the axial magnetic field. Our findings call into question the Luttinger liquid paradigm for nanotubes and provide tests to experimentally discriminate between excitonic and Mott insulators.

  6. Synthesis, assembly, and applications of single-walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Koungmin

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, and their applications in both nano-electronics such as transistor and integrated circuits and macro-electronics in energy conversion devices as transparent conducting electrodes. Also, the high performance chemical sensor using metal oxide nanowire has been demonstrated. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction of carbon nanotube, followed by discussion of a new synthesis technique using nanosphere lithography to grow highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes atop quartz and sapphire substrates. This method offers great potential to produce carbon nanotube arrays with simultaneous control over the nanotube orientation, position, density, diameter and even chirality. Chapter 3 introduces the wafer-scale integration and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, including full-wafer scale synthesis and transfer of massively aligned carbon nanotube arrays, and nanotube device fabrication on 4 inch Si/SiO2 wafer to yield submicron channel transistors with high on-current density ˜ 20 muA/mum and good on/off ratio and CMOS integrated circuits. In addition, various chemical doping methods for n-type nanotube transistors are studied to fabricate CMOS integrated nanotube circuits such as inverter, NAND and NOR logic devices. Furthermore, defect-tolerant circuit design for NAND and NOR is proposed and demonstrated to guarantee the correct operation of logic circuit, regardless of the presence of mis-aligned or mis-positioned nanotubes. Carbon nanotube flexible electronics and smart textiles for ubiquitous computing and sensing are demonstrated in chapter 4. A facile transfer printing technique has been introduced to transfer massively aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from the original sapphire/quartz substrates to virtually any other substrates, including glass, silicon, polymer sheets, and even fabrics. The characterization of transferred nanotubes reveals that the transferred

  7. Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-26

    First, both sides of the membrane were sputter-coated with a thin layer of platinum. On one side, a thin film of CNT was next deposited by filtration...absorption spectra of thin films or solutions containing predominantly aggregated SWNTs are dominated by inhomogeneously broadened optical transitions...electrochemical actuation. This objective was attained by welding carbon nanotube structures with polymer derived ceramic (PDC), silicon carbonitride (SiCN

  8. Carbon nanotube and conducting polymer composites for supercapacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuang Peng Shengwen Zhang Daniel Jewell George Z. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Composites of carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers can be prepared via chemical synthesis, electrochemical deposition on preformed carbon nanotube electrodes, or by electrochemical co-deposition...

  9. Plasticity and Kinky Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Dzegilenko, Fedor

    2000-01-01

    Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have been the subject of intense research interest based on early predictions of their unique mechanical, electronic, and chemical properties. Materials with the predicted unique properties of carbon nanotubes are of great interest for use in future generations of aerospace vehicles. For their structural properties, carbon nanotubes could be used as reinforcing fibers in ultralight multifunctional composites. For their electronic properties, carbon nanotubes offer the potential of very high-speed, low-power computing elements, high-density data storage, and unique sensors. In a continuing effort to model and predict the properties of carbon nanotubes, Ames accomplished three significant results during FY99. First, accurate values of the nanomechanics and plasticity of carbon nanotubes based on quantum molecular dynamics simulations were computed. Second, the concept of mechanical deformation catalyzed-kinky-chemistry as a means to control local chemistry of nanotubes was discovered. Third, the ease of nano-indentation of silicon surfaces with carbon nanotubes was established. The elastic response and plastic failure mechanisms of single-wall nanotubes were investigated by means of quantum molecular dynamics simulations.

  10. Dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotube devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria

    The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane....... The electrical resistance of carbon nanotubes has been shown to be extremely sensitive to gas molecules. Dielectrophoresis is a method capable of quickly attracting nanotubes on microelectrodes by using an electric field, thus enabling nanotube integration in microsystems. Dielectrophoresis offers also...... the potential of distinguishing between nanotubes of different electrical properties, which is very important for the optimisation of the properties of the carbon nanotube sensors. Various cantilever and planar structures were designed, fabricated and tested both with multi-walled and single-walled carbon...

  11. Growing carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Yoshinori; Zhao, Xinluo; Sugai, Toshiki; Kumar, Mukul

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of ‘fullerenes’ added a new dimension to the knowledge of carbon science1; and the subsequent discovery of ‘carbon nanotubes’ (CNTs, the elongated fullerene) added a new dimension to the knowledge of technology2;. Today, ‘nanotechnology’ is a hot topic attracting scientists, industrialists, journalists, governments, and even the general public. Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on the nanometer scale and the ex...

  12. Determination of six parabens residues in fresh-cut vegetables using QuEChERS with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, an optimized QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to analyze residues of six parabens: methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl-, n-butyl-, and isobutyl-paraben in five fresh-cut vegetables (potato, broccoli, carrot, celery and cabbage) with high performance liquid chromatogr...

  13. Study of Carbon Nanotube-Substrate Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline S. Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental effects are very important in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This work reviews the importance of the substrate in single-wall carbon nanotube properties. Contact with a substrate can modify the nanotube properties, and such interactions have been broadly studied as either a negative aspect or a solution for developing carbon nanotube-based nanotechnologies. This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental studies where the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the substrate affects the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of the tubes.

  14. Edge effects in finite elongated carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Hod, Oded; Peralta, Juan E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of finite-size effects for the electronic structure of long zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes is studied. We analyze the electronic structure of capped (6,6), (8,0), and (9,0) single walled carbon nanotubes as a function of their length up to 60 nm, using a divide and conquer density functional theory approach. For the metallic nanotubes studied, most of the physical features appearing in the density of states of an infinite carbon nanotube are recovered at a length of 40 nm...

  15. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  17. Developing polymer composite materials: carbon nanotubes or graphene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuemei; Sun, Hao; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-10-04

    The formation of composite materials represents an efficient route to improve the performances of polymers and expand their application scopes. Due to the unique structure and remarkable mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and catalytic properties, carbon nanotube and graphene have been mostly studied as a second phase to produce high performance polymer composites. Although carbon nanotube and graphene share some advantages in both structure and property, they are also different in many aspects including synthesis of composite material, control in composite structure and interaction with polymer molecule. The resulting composite materials are distinguished in property to meet different applications. This review article mainly describes the preparation, structure, property and application of the two families of composite materials with an emphasis on the difference between them. Some general and effective strategies are summarized for the development of polymer composite materials based on carbon nanotube and graphene. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nanomechanics of Nonideal Single- and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling characteristics of nonideal single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes were studied in this work via molecular dynamics simulation method. An imperfectly straight nonideal single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT with a bent along the tube axis was used to form an array which is subjected to compression. The change in orientation of bends will result in a variation of nonbonded interactions in an SWCNT array system. We find that these variations in the nonbonded interactions strongly affect the buckling resistance of the SWCNT array. Similarly, a nonideal double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT is constructed by varying the interlayer distance by introducing a center offset on the inner core SWCNT. The inclusion of offset along the tube axis in such nonideal DWCNT can enhance or deteriorate the mechanical qualities of the DWCNT under compression. Our numerical studies on nonideal CNT systems suggest a possibility of designing high-performing CNTs for applications involving fiber reinforcements.

  19. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    CERN Document Server

    Karachevtsev, V A; Zarudnev, E S; Karachevtsev, M V; Leontiev, V S; Linnik, A S; Lytvyn, O S; Plokhotnichenko, A M; Stepanian, S G

    2012-01-01

    When elaborating the biosensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), it is necessary to solve such an important problem as the immobilization of a target biomolecule on the nanotube surface. In this work, the enzyme (glucose oxidase (GOX)) was immobilized on the surface of a nanotube network, which was created by the deposition of nanotubes from their solution in 1,2-dichlorobenzene by the spray method. 1-Pyrenebutanoic acid succinimide ester (PSE) was used to form the molecular interface, the bifunctional molecule of which provides the covalent binding with the enzyme shell, and its other part (pyrene) is adsorbed onto the nanotube surface. First, the usage of such a molecular interface leaves out the direct adsorption of the enzyme (in this case, its activity decreases) onto the nanotube surface, and, second, it ensures the enzyme localization near the nanotube. The comparison of the resonance Raman (RR) spectrum of pristine nanotubes with their spectrum in the PSE environment evidences the creat...

  20. Ophthalmologial Applications of Carbon Nanotube Nanotechology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, David; Girten, Beverly (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development of an implantable device consisting of an array of carbon nanotubes on a silicon chip for restoration of vision in patients with macular degeneration and other retinal disorders is presented. The use of carbon nanotube bucky paper for retinal cell transplantation is proposed. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  1. Carbon Nanotubes – Interactions with Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela-Silva, Fernando; Potes, José; Fonseca, Alexandra; Oliveira, Mónica; Kanagaraj, Subramani; Marques, António Torres

    2011-01-01

    his book chapter discusses the prospective biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes based materials, the impact of carbon nanotubes properties in the interaction with biological systems. Protein adsorption, impact on cell viability and cytokine production are explored. Potential respiratory and dermal toxicity are reviewed, as the difficulties on studying the biological response. In face of recent studies, special attention is drawn upon promising orthopaedic use.

  2. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available developed strategy offering promising results is to reinforce epoxy matrices with nano-sized organic and inorganic particles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibres (CNFs), nanoclays, metal oxide nanoparticles, etc. and make new materials...

  3. Fully printed flexible carbon nanotube photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suoming; Cai, Le; Wang, Tongyu; Miao, Jinshui; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Wang, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report fully printed flexible photodetectors based on single-wall carbon nanotubes and the study of their electrical characteristics under laser illumination. Due to the photothermal effect and the use of high purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes, the devices exhibit gate-voltage-dependent photoresponse with the positive photocurrent or semiconductor-like behavior (conductivity increases at elevated temperatures) under positive gate biases and the negative photocurrent or metal-like behavior (conductivity decreases at elevated temperatures) under negative gate biases. Mechanism for such photoresponse is attributed to the different temperature dependencies of carrier concentration and carrier mobility, which are two competing factors that ultimately determine the photothermal effect-based photoresponse. The photodetectors built on the polyimide substrate also exhibit superior mechanical compliance and stable photoresponse after thousands of bending cycles down to a curvature radius as small as 3 mm. Furthermore, due to the low thermal conductivity of the plastic substrate, the devices show up to 6.5 fold improvement in responsivity compared to the devices built on the silicon substrate. The results presented here provide a viable path to low cost and high performance flexible photodetectors fabricated entirely by the printing process.

  4. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms...... an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From...... the calculated energies we determine the elastic properties of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (Young modulus, curvature constant) and perform a comparison with available experimental measurements and earlier theoretical predictions....

  5. Fabrication of Microscale Carbon Nanotube Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengzhi Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have excellent mechanical, chemical, and electronic properties, but realizing these excellences in practical applications needs to assemble individual CNTs into larger-scale products. Recently, CNT fibers demonstrate the potential of retaining CNT's superior properties at macroscale level. High-performance CNT fibers have been widely obtained by several fabrication approaches. Here in this paper, we review several key spinning techniques including surfactant-based coagulation spinning, liquid-crystal-based solution spinning, spinning from vertical-aligned CNT arrays, and spinning from CNT aerogel. The method, principle, limitations, and recent progress of each technique have been addressed, and the fiber properties and their dependences on spinning parameters are also discussed.

  6. Investigation of growth dynamics of carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna V. Kharlamova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with defined properties is required for both fundamental investigations and practical applications. The revealing and thorough understanding of the growth mechanism of SWCNTs is the key to the synthesis of nanotubes with required properties. This paper reviews the current status of the research on the investigation of growth dynamics of carbon nanotubes. The review starts with the consideration of the peculiarities of the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes. The physical and chemical states of the catalyst during the nanotube growth are discussed. The chirality selective growth of nanotubes is described. The main part of the review is dedicated to the analysis and systematization of the reported results on the investigation of growth dynamics of nanotubes. The studies on the revealing of the dependence of the growth rate of nanotubes on the synthesis parameters are reviewed. The correlation between the lifetime of catalyst and growth rate of nanotubes is discussed. The reports on the calculation of the activation energy of the nanotube growth are summarized. Finally, the growth properties of inner tubes inside SWCNTs are considered.

  7. Investigation of growth dynamics of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with defined properties is required for both fundamental investigations and practical applications. The revealing and thorough understanding of the growth mechanism of SWCNTs is the key to the synthesis of nanotubes with required properties. This paper reviews the current status of the research on the investigation of growth dynamics of carbon nanotubes. The review starts with the consideration of the peculiarities of the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes. The physical and chemical states of the catalyst during the nanotube growth are discussed. The chirality selective growth of nanotubes is described. The main part of the review is dedicated to the analysis and systematization of the reported results on the investigation of growth dynamics of nanotubes. The studies on the revealing of the dependence of the growth rate of nanotubes on the synthesis parameters are reviewed. The correlation between the lifetime of catalyst and growth rate of nanotubes is discussed. The reports on the calculation of the activation energy of the nanotube growth are summarized. Finally, the growth properties of inner tubes inside SWCNTs are considered. PMID:28503394

  8. Cationic Carbon Nanotubes for Nucleic Acids Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Battigelli, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    2010/2011 Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a new form of carbon discovered in the ’50/’60, but described at the atomic level only in 1991 by Iijima. CNTs are constituted by one or more rolled up graphene sheets and they can be classified in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The peculiar properties of CNTs, characterized by their physical, chemical and mechanical properties, by their thermic conductivity and their large aspect ratio, rendered this...

  9. All-Carbon Electrode Consisting of Carbon Nanotubes on Graphite Foil for Flexible Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Hwang Ryu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the fabrication of an all-carbon electrode by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use in flexible electrochemical applications. The electrode is composed of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes that are grown directly on a flexible graphite foil. Being all-carbon, the simple fabrication process and the excellent electrochemical characteristics present an approach through which high-performance, highly-stable and cost-effective electrochemical applications can be achieved.

  10. Carbon nanotube woven textile photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Wang, Xuan; Mirri, Francesca; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Fujimura, Naoki; Suzuki, Daichi; Soundarapandian, Karuppasamy P.; Kawano, Yukio; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest in mobile and wearable technology demands the enhancement of functionality of clothing through incorporation of sophisticated architectures of multifunctional materials. Flexible electronic and photonic devices based on organic materials have made impressive progress over the past decade, but higher performance, simpler fabrication, and most importantly, compatibility with woven technology are desired. Here we report on the development of a weaved, substrateless, and polarization-sensitive photodetector based on doping-engineered fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes. This room-temperature-operating, self-powered detector responds to radiation in an ultrabroad spectral range, from the ultraviolet to the terahertz, through the photothermoelectric effect, with a low noise-equivalent power (a few nW/Hz 1 /2) throughout the range and with a Z T -factor value that is twice as large as that of previously reported carbon nanotube-based photothermoelectric photodetectors. Particularly, we fabricated a ˜1 -m-long device consisting of tens of p+-p- junctions and weaved it into a shirt. This device demonstrated a collective photoresponse of the series-connected junctions under global illumination. The performance of the device did not show any sign of deterioration through 200 bending tests with a bending radius smaller than 100 μ m as well as standard washing and ironing cycles. This unconventional photodetector will find applications in wearable technology that require detection of electromagnetic radiation.

  11. Bamboo-Like Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes with Co Nanoparticles Encapsulated at the Tips: Uniform and Large-Scale Synthesis and High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tai; Wang, Dingsheng; Zhang, Jiatao; Cao, Chuanbao; Li, Yadong

    2015-09-28

    In recent years, various non-precious metal electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been extensively investigated. The development of an efficient and simple method to synthesize non-precious metal catalysts with ORR activity superior to that of Pt is extremely significant for large-scale applications of fuel cells. Here, we develop a facile, low-cost, and large-scale synthesis method for uniform nitrogen-doped (N-doped) bamboo-like CNTs (NBCNT) with Co nanoparticles encapsulated at the tips by annealing a mixture of cobalt acetate and melamine. The uniform NBCNT shows better ORR catalytic activity and higher stability in alkaline solutions as compared with commercial Pt/C and comparable catalytic activity to Pt/C in acidic media. NBCNTs exhibit outstanding ORR catalytic activity due to high defect density, uniform bamboo-like structure, and the synergistic effect between the Co nanoparticles and protective graphitic layers. This facile method to synthesize catalysts, which is amenable to the large-scale commercialization of fuel cells, will open a new avenue for the development of low-cost and high-performance ORR catalysts to replace Pt-based catalysts for applications in energy conversion. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Separation of Metallic and Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambraparni, Madhava B; Wang, Shiren

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are currently the focus of intense interest due to their extraordinary properties. However, as-grown nanotubes exist as bundles of metallic and semiconducting. This hinders their widespread applications. Much progress has been made to overcome this limitation. Many separation methods have been investigated, including combination of physical, chemical, or biochemical methods. These methods have demonstrated their own advantages and limitations. This paper reviews recent patents progress made for the separation of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes.

  13. Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties...... of nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....

  14. Carbon nanotube-based synthetic gecko tapes

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Liehui; Sethi, Sunny; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a synthetic gecko tape by transferring micropatterned carbon nanotube arrays onto flexible polymer tape based on the hierarchical structure found on the foot of a gecko lizard. The gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micrometer-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscop...

  15. Carbon nanotubes: Sensor properties. A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zaporotskova, Irina V.; Natalia P. Boroznina; Parkhomenko, Yuri N.; Kozhitov, Lev V.

    2017-01-01

    Recent publications dealing with dealing with the fabrication of gas and electrochemical biosensors based on carbon nanotubes have been reviewed. Experimental and theoretical data on the working principles of nanotubes have been presented. The main regularities of the structure, energy parameters and sensor properties of modified semiconducting systems on the basis of cabon nanotubes have been studied by analyzing the mechanisms of nanotubule interaction with functional groups (including carb...

  16. Carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuhong

    The interface between carbon fibers (CFs) and the resin matrix in traditional high performance composites is characterized by a large discontinuity in mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties which can cause inefficient energy transfer. Due to the exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their growth at the surface of carbon fibers is a promising approach to controlling interfacial interactions and achieving the enhanced bulk properties. However, the reactive conditions used to grow carbon nanotubes also have the potential to introduce defects that can degrade the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber (CF) substrate. In this study, using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, high density multi-wall carbon nanotubes have been successfully synthesized directly on PAN-based CF surface without significantly compromising tensile properties. The influence of CVD growth conditions on the single CF tensile properties and carbon nanotube (CNT) morphology was investigated. The experimental results revealed that under high temperature growth conditions, the tensile strength of CF was greatly decreased at the beginning of CNT growth process with the largest decrease observed for sized CFs. However, the tensile strength of unsized CFs with CNT was approximately the same as the initial CF at lower growth temperature. The interfacial shear strength of CNT coated CF (CNT/CF) in epoxy was studied by means of the single-fiber fragmentation test. Results of the test indicate an improvement in interfacial shear strength with the addition of a CNT coating. This improvement can most likely be attributed to an increase in the interphase yield strength as well as an improvement in interfacial adhesion due to the presence of the nanotubes. CNT/CF also offers promise as stress and strain sensors in CF reinforced composite materials. This study investigates fundamental mechanical and electrical properties of CNT/CF using nanoindentation method by designed

  17. Enzymatic degradation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Allen, Brett L; Star, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Because of their unique properties, carbon nanotubes and, in particular, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been used for the development of advanced composite and catalyst materials. Despite their growing commercial applications and increased production, the potential environmental and toxicological impacts of MWNTs are not fully understood; however, many reports suggest that they may be toxic. Therefore, a need exists to develop protocols for effective and safe degradation of MWNTs. In this article, we investigated the effect of chemical functionalization of MWNTs on their enzymatic degradation with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). We investigated HRP/H(2)O(2) degradation of purified, oxidized, and nitrogen-doped MWNTs and proposed a layer-by-layer degradation mechanism of nanotubes facilitated by side wall defects. These results provide a better understanding of the interaction between HRP and carbon nanotubes and suggest an eco-friendly way of mitigating the environmental impact of nanotubes. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  19. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  20. High Performance Palladium Supported on Nanoporous Carbon under Anhydrous Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zehui; Ling, Ying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Xu, Guodong

    2016-11-01

    Due to the high cost of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), replacing platinum (Pt) with some inexpensive metal was carried out. Here, we deposited palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on nanoporous carbon (NC) after wrapping by poly[2,2‧-(2,6-pyridine)-5,5‧-bibenzimidazole] (PyPBI) doped with phosphoric acid (PA) and the Pd-NPs size was successfully controlled by varying the weight ratio between Pd precursor and carbon support doped with PA. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabricated from the optimized electrocatalyst with 0.05 mgPd cm-2 for both anode and cathode sides showed a power density of 76 mW cm-2 under 120 °C without any humidification, which was comparable to the commercial CB/Pt, 89 mW cm-2 with 0.45 mgPt cm-2 loaded in both anode and cathode. Meanwhile, the power density of hybrid MEA with 0.45 mgPt cm-2 in cathode and 0.05 mgPd cm-2 in anode reached 188 mW cm-2. The high performance of the Pt-free electrocatalyst was attributed to the porous structure enhancing the gas diffusion and the PyPBI-PA facilitating the proton conductivity in catalyst layer. Meanwhile, the durability of Pd electrocatalyst was enhanced by coating with acidic polymer. The newly fabricated Pt-free electrocatalyst is extremely promising for reducing the cost in the high-temperature PEFCs.

  1. Covalent enzyme immobilization onto carbon nanotubes using a membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Gales, Ovidiu; Nechifor, Gheorghe

    2011-05-01

    Composite porous polysulfone-carbon nanotubes membranes were prepared by dispersing carbon nanotubes into a polysulfone solution followed by the membrane formation by phase inversion-immersion precipitation technique. The carbon nanotubes with amino groups on surface were functionalized with different enzymes (carbonic anhydrase, invertase, diastase) using cyanuric chloride as linker between enzyme and carbon nanotube. The composite membrane was used as a membrane reactor for a better dispersion of carbon nanotubes and access to reaction centers. The membrane also facilitates the transport of enzymes to active carbon nanotubes centers for functionalization (amino groups). The functionalized carbon nanotubes are isolated by dissolving the membranes after the end of reaction. Carbon nanotubes with covalent immobilized enzymes are used for biosensors fabrications. The obtained membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and functionalized carbon nanotubes were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  2. Strongly correlated electron behavior in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone James

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional systems offer a fascinating platform for investigating and understanding the collective and many-body behavior of interacting electron systems. We report low-temperature transport experiments on carbon nanotubes, which are archetypal one-dimensional systems that have either semiconducting or metallic band structure depending on their radius and chirality. Semiconducting nanotubes at low densities exhibit Wigner crystal behavior, while nominally metallic nanotubes are observed to have an energy gap at half filling, consistent with theories of a Mott insulating state in nanotubes. Our results demonstrate nanotubes’ promise for studying a variety of tunable correlated electron phenomena in one dimension.

  3. Coulomb drag in multiwall armchair carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, A.M.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the transresistivity rho(21) between two concentric armchair nanotubes in a diffusive multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F). We approximate the tight-binding band structure by two crossing bands with a linear dispersion near the Fermi...... surface. The cylindrical geometry of the nanotubes and the different parities of the Bloch states are accounted for in the evaluation of the effective Coulomb interaction between charges in the concentric nanotubes. We find a broad peak in rho(21) as a function of temperature at roughly T similar to 0.4T...

  4. Channeling of protons through carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borka, D; Petrovic, S; Neskovic, N [Laboratory of Physics (010), Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P. O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mowbray, D J; Miskovic, Z L [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: dusborka@vin.bg.ac.yu

    2008-10-01

    We investigate how dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons influences both the angular and spatial distributions of protons channeled in a (11, 9) single-wall carbon nanotube placed in vacuum and in different dielectric media. Proton speeds between 3 and 10 a.u., corresponding to energies of 0.223 and 2.49 MeV, are chosen with the nanotube length varied between 0.1 and 1 {mu}m. In all performed calculations we describe the interaction between proton and carbon atoms on the nanotube wall using the Doyle-Turner potential. The image force on a proton is calculated using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the dynamic response of the nanotube valence electrons and the dielectric media surrounding the nanotube. The angular distributions of channeled protons are generated using a computer simulation method which solves the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane numerically. The best level of ordering and straightening of carbon nanotube arrays is often achieved when they are grown in a dielectric matrix. Consequently, we investigate here how the dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons in the presence of various surrounding dielectric media affects the angular distributions of protons channeled through (11, 9) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Our analysis shows that the inclusion of the image interaction, gives rise to a number of rainbow maxima in the corresponding angular and spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the presence of dielectric media surrounding the nanotube influences the positions and appearance of rainbows in the corresponding angular and spatial distributions. In addition, we analyze the possibility of production of nano-sized beams by carbon nanotubes.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Composites: Strongest Engineering Material Ever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Nikolaev, Pavel; Proft, William; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of the carbon nanotube project at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to fabricate structural materials with a much higher strength-to-weight ratio than any engineered material today, Single-wall nanotubes present extraordinary mechanical properties along with new challenges for materials processing. Our project includes nanotube production, characterization, purification, and incorporation into applications studies. Now is the time to move from studying individual nanotubes to applications work. Current research at JSC focuses on structural polymeric materials to attempt to lower the weight of spacecraft necessary for interplanetary missions. These nanoscale fibers present unique new challenges to composites engineers. Preliminary studies show good nanotube dispersion and wetting by the epoxy materials. Results of tensile strength tests will also be reported. Other applications of nanotubes are also of interest for energy storage, gas storage, nanoelectronics, field emission, and biomedical uses.

  6. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L.; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J. Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Ulmert, Hans David S.; Brea, Elliott J.; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Tape Vibrating Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibrating gyroscope includes a piezoelectric strip having length and width dimensions. The piezoelectric strip includes a piezoelectric material and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) substantially aligned and polled along the strip's length dimension. A spindle having an axis of rotation is coupled to the piezoelectric strip. The axis of rotation is parallel to the strip's width dimension. A first capacitance sensor is mechanically coupled to the spindle for rotation therewith. The first capacitance sensor is positioned at one of the strip's opposing ends and is spaced apart from one of the strip's opposing faces. A second capacitance sensor is mechanically coupled to the spindle for rotation therewith. The second capacitance sensor is positioned at another of the strip's opposing ends and is spaced apart from another of the strip's opposing faces. A voltage source applies an AC voltage to the piezoelectric strip.

  8. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  9. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.

  10. Photonics based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qingyuan; Gicquel-Guézo, Maud; Loualiche, Slimane; Pouliquen, Julie Le; Batte, Thomas; Folliot, Hervé; Dehaese, Olivier; Grillot, Frederic; Battie, Yann; Loiseau, Annick; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana

    2013-06-26

    Among direct-bandgap semiconducting nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit strong quasi-one-dimensional excitonic optical properties, which confer them a great potential for their integration in future photonics devices as an alternative solution to conventional inorganic semiconductors. In this paper, we will highlight SWCNT optical properties for passive as well as active applications in future optical networking. For passive applications, we directly compare the efficiency and power consumption of saturable absorbers (SAs) based on SWCNT with SA based on conventional multiple quantum wells. For active applications, exceptional photoluminescence properties of SWCNT, such as excellent light-emission stabilities with temperature and excitation power, hold these nanometer-scale materials as prime candidates for future active photonics devices with superior performances.

  11. Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, N. N.; Il’in, O. I.; Il’ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.

  12. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metal oxides, nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, and carbon fullerenes (buckyballs), among others. Early scientific studies have indicated ... to minimize worker exposure. This NIOSH CIB, (1) reviews the animal and other toxicological data relevant to ...

  13. Carbon nanotubes dispersed polymer nanocomposites: mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CNT composite showed that the rough ... data storage, sensors, and biomedical applications [9]. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and ... that undergoes big distortions without deteriorations [15,16]. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) consist of ...

  14. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-01-01

    .... Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature...

  15. A Thermal Model for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Mayberry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied Joule heating in carbon nanotube based very large scale integration (VLSI interconnects and incorporated Joule heating influenced scattering in our previously developed current transport model. The theoretical model explains breakdown in carbon nanotube resistance which limits the current density. We have also studied scattering parameters of carbon nanotube (CNT interconnects and compared with the earlier work. For 1 µm length single-wall carbon nanotube, 3 dB frequency in S12 parameter reduces to ~120 GHz from 1 THz considering Joule heating. It has been found that bias voltage has little effect on scattering parameters, while length has very strong effect on scattering parameters.

  16. Carbon nanotube polymer composition and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao [Oakland, CA; Johnson, Stephen [Richmond, CA; Kerr, John B [Oakland, CA; Minor, Andrew M [El Cerrito, CA; Mao, Samuel S [Castro Valley, CA

    2011-06-14

    A thin film device and compound having an anode, a cathode, and at least one light emitting layer between the anode and cathode, the at least one light emitting layer having at least one carbon nanotube and a conductive polymer.

  17. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  18. Self Assembled Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to develop single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) based ultracapacitors for energy storage devices (ESD) application, using...

  19. A single carbon fiber microelectrode with branching carbon nanotubes for bioelectrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyan; Lu, Xin; Tze, William T Y; Wang, Ping

    2010-06-15

    Carbon fiber electrodes are greatly promising for microelectronic applications including high performance biosensors, miniaturized transmitters, and energy storage and generation devices. For biosensor applications, one drawback of using carbon fiber microelectrodes, especially single fiber electrodes, is the weak electronic signals, a consequence of low surface area of fibers, which ultimately limit the sensitivity of the sensors. In this paper, we report a novel single fiber microelectrode with branched carbon nanotubes for enhanced sensing performance. The fiber microelectrode was prepared from carbonization of cellulose fibers. Upon introduction of carbon nanotubes, the carbon fibers exhibited a significant increase in the specific surface area from fiber electrode with such a hierarchical structure was examined for redox reactions of coenzyme NAD(H) which is useful to mediate the assays and transformations of a broad range of biochemicals. Experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes enhanced the redox reactions on surfaces of the electrode by reducing the oxidation potential of NAD(H) from 0.8 to 0.55 V. The single carbon fiber with branched nanotubes was also examined for the detection of glycerol, and the results showed linear responding signals in a concentration range of 40-250 microM. These results are comparable to the properties of fossil-based carbon materials, and thus our cellulose-based carbon electrodes provide a potentially sustainable alternative in bioelectrochemical applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Polypropylene Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP composites reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs were prepared by using twin screw extruder. The experimental results showed that with the increasing amount of MWNTs the elongation at break decreased whereas the tensile strength, bending strength, and impact strength increased. By using scanning electron microscope (SEM, we find that the hydroxyl-modified carbon nanotube has better dispersion performance in PP and better mechanical properties.

  1. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  2. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-12-13

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  3. Carbon nanotubes as near infrared laser susceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrami, Amir

    2011-01-01

    The coupling efficiency of carbon nanotubes with near infrared laser radiation at 940nm wavelength was investigated. Nanotubes treated with different post processing methods were irradiated at different laser power intensities as dry samples and suspensions in water or ethanol. The interaction with the laser beam was measured and quantified based on the temperature increase in the samples as well as the amount of energy transmitted through them. Parallel experiments using carbon black reveale...

  4. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  5. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for real-time charge readout and precise tuning of the tunnel barriers of the quantum dot. The second part of this thesis describes the realization of exceptionally clean Carbon Nanotube quantum dots....

  6. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-11-15

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  7. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  8. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  9. Filling of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece D. Gately

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The reliable production of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is a relatively new development, and due to their unique structure, there has been much interest in filling their hollow interiors. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common approaches for filling these carbon nanostructures. We highlight that filled carbon nanostructures are an emerging material for biomedical applications.

  10. Method for manufacturing high quality carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A non-catalytic process for the production of carbon nanotubes includes supplying an electric current to a carbon anode and a carbon cathode which have been securely positioned in the open atmosphere with a gap between them. The electric current creates an electric arc between the carbon anode and the carbon cathode, which causes carbon to be vaporized from the carbon anode and a carbonaceous residue to be deposited on the carbon cathode. Inert gas is pumped into the gap to flush out oxygen, thereby preventing interference with the vaporization of carbon from the anode and preventing oxidation of the carbonaceous residue being deposited on the cathode. The anode and cathode are cooled while electric current is being supplied thereto. When the supply of electric current is terminated, the carbonaceous residue is removed from the cathode and is purified to yield carbon nanotubes.

  11. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Insepov, Zeke [Darien, IL; Hassanein, Ahmed [Bolingbrook, IL

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  12. Quantum conductance of a helically coiled carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Lu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a π-orbital tight-binding model, we investigate the transport properties of a coiled carbon nanotube (also called carbon nanotube spring, which we construct by connecting carbon nanotubes periodically in three-dimensional (3D space. The conductance is quantized due to the translational symmetry in the coiled direction. However, the conductance behaviors differ greatly from those of pristine metallic carbon nanotubes but similar to those of carbon nanotube superlattices. We explain that conductance behaviors of the coiled carbon nanotube.

  13. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    The use of nanomaterials in separation science has increased rapidly in the last decade. The reason for this is to take advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a very high surface-to-volume ratio and favourable sorbent behaviour. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon......, microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis...

  14. Synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes from a lamellar type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    walled nanotubes. These nanotubes are applicable to store more hydrogen. Keywords. AlPO4-L; single wall carbon nanotubes. 1. Introduction. Carbon nanotubes (Iijima 1991) are nano-scale structures formed by self assembly. They possess excellent chemical and physical properties (Rodney and Donald 1995; Chen.

  15. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  16. Acrylonitrile, an advantageous precursor to synthesize nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Elguézabal, A.; Román-Aguirre, M.; De la Torre, L.; Zaragoza, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    The nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes present specific characteristics that offer better performance than pure carbon nanotubes for application like biomedicine, hydrogen adsorption and electrocataytic devices. This work present a simple method to obtain well-aligned nitrogen doped multi wall carbon nanotubes, which present open channels with diameter around 50 nm. These carbon nanotubes are obtained using acrylonitrile as carbon and nitrogen source, which offers some advantages on the use of other precursors like ammonia, pyridine, benzylamine, acetonitrile or melamine.

  17. Au-decorated sodium titanate nanotubes as high-performance selective photocatalysts for pollutant degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rouby, Waleed M. A.; Comesaña-Hermo, Miguel; Testa-Anta, Martín; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Salgueiriño, Verónica; Pérez-Lorenzo, Moisés; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.

    2017-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds originating from textile processing industries is nowadays a major environmental problem worldwide. In order to tackle this situation, several inorganic semiconductors have been tested as photocatalysts for the degradation of these harmful pollutants in the search of sustainable and cost-effective solutions. Nevertheless, these semiconductor materials often involve important limitations, such as poor efficiency and selectivity, which, in the end, substantially restrict their implementation at the industrial scale. As an alternative, we herein report the fabrication and application of Au-decorated titanate nanotubes (TNTs) as high-performance architectures for the selective degradation of organic contaminants. This synthetic strategy is intended to establish a synergetic integration of the physicochemical and photocatalytic features of these hybrid nanostructures, by combining the remarkable adsorption capabilities of TNTs with the enhanced light-harvesting efficiency provided by the incorporation of a noble metal component. The obtained results evidence the great potential that rationally designed plasmonic composites may have for the development of selective environmental remediation technologies and in particular on the current challenges faced by the wastewater treatment sector.

  18. Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube−Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing

    2011-01-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in amphibians: assessment of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and comparison with double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Florence; Landois, Perine; Puech, Pascal; Pinelli, Eric; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gauthier, Laury

    2010-08-01

    The potential impact of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was investigated under normalized laboratory conditions according to the International Standard micronucleus assay ISO 21427-1 for 12 days of half-static exposure to 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/l of MWNTs in water. Three different end points were carried out for 12 days of exposure: mortality, growth inhibition and micronuclei induction in erythrocytes of the circulating blood of larvae. Raman spectroscopy analysis was used to study the presence of carbon nanotubes in the biological samples. Considering the high diversity of carbon nanotubes according to their different characteristics, MWNTs were analyzed in Xenopus larvae, comparatively to double-walled carbon nanotubes used in a previous study in similar conditions. Growth inhibition in larvae exposed to 50 mg/l of MWNTs was evidenced; however, no genetoxicity (micronucleus assay) was noticed, at any concentration. Carbon nanotube localization in the larvae leads to different possible hypothesis of mechanisms explaining toxicity in Xenopus.

  20. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  1. Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Khare, Bishun

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method of low-temperature plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes provides for the simultaneous attachment of molecular groups of multiple (typically two or three) different species or different mixtures of species to carbon nanotubes at different locations within the same apparatus. This method is based on similar principles, and involves the use of mostly the same basic apparatus, as those of the methods described in "Low-Temperature Plasma Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes" (ARC-14661-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 45. The figure schematically depicts the basic apparatus used in the aforementioned method, with emphasis on features that distinguish the present alternative method from the other. In this method, one exploits the fact that the composition of the deposition plasma changes as the plasma flows from its source in the precursor chamber toward the nanotubes in the target chamber. As a result, carbon nanotubes mounted in the target chamber at different flow distances (d1, d2, d3 . . .) from the precursor chamber become functionalized with different species or different mixtures of species. In one series of experiments to demonstrate this method, N2 was used as the precursor gas. After the functionalization process, the carbon nanotubes from three different positions in the target chamber were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the molecular groups that had become attached. On carbon nanotubes from d1 = 1 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-N and C=N. On carbon nanotubes from d2 = 2.5 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-(NH)2 and/or C=NH2. (The H2 was believed to originate as residual hydrogen present in the nanotubes.) On carbon nanotubes from d3 = 7 cm no functionalization could be detected - perhaps, it was conjectured, because this distance is downstream of the plasma source, all of the free ions and free radicals of

  2. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  3. Co-TPP functionalized carbon nanotube composites for detection of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Electrical properties; nanostructure materials; porphyrin functionalized carbon nanotubes; sensor for chlorobenzene and nitrobenzene vapour. Abstract. We report preparation of nanocomposites by non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with metal-tetraphenylporphyrins (M-TPP). Fourier ...

  4. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymers for Radiation Shielding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, S. (Technical Monitor); Vaidyanathan, Ranji

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the use of Extrusion Freeform Fabrication (EEF) for the fabrication of carbon nanotubes. The presentation addresses TGA analysis, Raman spectroscopy, radiation tests, and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubes.

  6. A carbon nanotube wall membrane for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeongho; Baek, Youngbin; Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong; Lee, Hong H; Yoon, Jeyong; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2015-05-14

    Various forms of carbon nanotubes have been utilized in water treatment applications. The unique characteristics of carbon nanotubes, however, have not been fully exploited for such applications. Here we exploit the characteristics and corresponding attributes of carbon nanotubes to develop a millimetre-thick ultrafiltration membrane that can provide a water permeability that approaches 30,000 l m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1), compared with the best water permeability of 2,400 l m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) reported for carbon nanotube membranes. The developed membrane consists only of vertically aligned carbon nanotube walls that provide 6-nm-wide inner pores and 7-nm-wide outer pores that form between the walls of the carbon nanotubes when the carbon nanotube forest is densified. The experimental results reveal that the permeance increases as the pore size decreases. The carbon nanotube walls of the membrane are observed to impede bacterial adhesion and resist biofilm formation.

  7. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  8. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  9. Liquid crystalline order of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Ahlawat, Aditya; Mulkern, Brian; Doyle, Robert; Mongeau, Jennifer; Ogilvie, Alex

    2007-03-01

    Topological defects formed during phase transitions in liquid crystals provide a direct proof of the standard Cosmological model and are direct links to the Early Universe. On the other hand in Nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes can be manipulated and oriented directly by changing the liquid crystalline state of the nanotubes, in combination with organic liquid crystals. Currently there are no nano-assemblers, which makes the liquid crystal state of the nanotubes, one of the few ways of controlling them. We show the design of a fast and efficient polarized light ellipsometric system (a new modification of previous optical systems) that can provide fast quantitative real time measurements in two dimensions of the formation of topological defects in liquid crystals during phase transitions in lab settings. Our aim is to provide fundamental information about the formation of optically anisotropic structures in liquid crystals and the orientation of carbon nanotubes in electric field.

  10. Functionalized carbon nanotubes for potential medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Yuhong; Yan, Bing

    2010-06-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes display unique properties that enable a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity. High aspect ratio, unique optical property and the likeness as small molecule make carbon nanotubes an unusual allotrope of element carbon. After functionalization, carbon nanotubes display potentials for a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steini Moura, Cassio [Faculty of Physics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, 90619-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Balzaretti, Naira Maria; Amaral, Livio [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P.: 15051, 91501-070, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gribel Lacerda, Rodrigo; Pimenta, Marcos A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, C.P.: 702, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

  12. Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Stein Moura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

  13. Immobilization of enzymes onto carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs has opened a new door in nanotechnology. With their high surface area, unique electronic, thermal and mechanical properties, CNTs have been widely used as carriers for protein immobilization. In fact, carbon nanotubes present ideal support system without diffusional limitations, and also have the possibility of surface covalent functionalization. It is usually the oxidation process that introduces carboxylic acid groups. Enzymes and other proteins could be adsorbed or covalently attached onto carbon nanotubes. Adsorption of enzyme is a very simple and inexpensive immobilization method and there are no chemical changes of the protein. It has also been found that this technique does not alter structure and unique properties of nanotubes. However, a major problem in process designing is relatively low stability of immobilized protein and desorption from the carrier. On the other hand, while covalent immobilization provides durable attachment the oxidation process can reduce mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes. It can also affect the active site of enzyme and cause the loss of enzyme activity. Bioimmobilization studies have showed that there are strong interactions between carbon nanotubes surface and protein. The retention of enzyme structure and activity is critical for their application and it is of fundamental interest to understand the nature of these interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy provide an insight into the structural changes that occur during the immobilization. The aim of this paper is to summarize progress of protein immobilization onto carbon nanotubes.

  14. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, Jeffrey L. [Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401-3305 USA; Ferguson, Andrew J. [Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401-3305 USA; Cho, Chungyeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3003 USA; Grunlan, Jaime C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3003 USA

    2018-01-22

    Conversion of waste heat to voltage has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of a number of critical energy sectors, such as the transportation and electricity-generation sectors, and manufacturing processes. Thermal energy is also an abundant low-flux source that can be harnessed to power portable/wearable electronic devices and critical components in remote off-grid locations. As such, a number of different inorganic and organic materials are being explored for their potential in thermoelectric-energy-harvesting devices. Carbon-based thermoelectric materials are particularly attractive due to their use of nontoxic, abundant source-materials, their amenability to high-throughput solution-phase fabrication routes, and the high specific energy (i.e., W g-1) enabled by their low mass. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) represent a unique 1D carbon allotrope with structural, electrical, and thermal properties that enable efficient thermoelectric-energy conversion. Here, the progress made toward understanding the fundamental thermoelectric properties of SWCNTs, nanotube-based composites, and thermoelectric devices prepared from these materials is reviewed in detail. This progress illuminates the tremendous potential that carbon-nanotube-based materials and composites have for producing high-performance next-generation devices for thermoelectric-energy harvesting.

  15. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Ferguson, Andrew J; Cho, Chungyeon; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2018-01-22

    Conversion of waste heat to voltage has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of a number of critical energy sectors, such as the transportation and electricity-generation sectors, and manufacturing processes. Thermal energy is also an abundant low-flux source that can be harnessed to power portable/wearable electronic devices and critical components in remote off-grid locations. As such, a number of different inorganic and organic materials are being explored for their potential in thermoelectric-energy-harvesting devices. Carbon-based thermoelectric materials are particularly attractive due to their use of nontoxic, abundant source-materials, their amenability to high-throughput solution-phase fabrication routes, and the high specific energy (i.e., W g -1 ) enabled by their low mass. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) represent a unique 1D carbon allotrope with structural, electrical, and thermal properties that enable efficient thermoelectric-energy conversion. Here, the progress made toward understanding the fundamental thermoelectric properties of SWCNTs, nanotube-based composites, and thermoelectric devices prepared from these materials is reviewed in detail. This progress illuminates the tremendous potential that carbon-nanotube-based materials and composites have for producing high-performance next-generation devices for thermoelectric-energy harvesting. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C.; Heimbeck, Martin S.; Everitt, Henry O.; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro

    2016-04-01

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ˜-30 dB with a low insertion loss (fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  17. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  18. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  19. Superconductivity in the Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieong, Chao

    This is an experimental study of the superconductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs)--more specifically the CNTs studied is 0.4 nm diameter single-wall CNTs existing inside the channels of the AFI zeolite crystal, abbreviated as CNT AFI--by probing the magnetization property of this CNT AFI system. These human engineered 4-Angstrom CNTs, which is a nanoscale and low-dimensional material, are approaching the limit set by nature, and superconductivity in the CNTs in general is theoretically (microscopic or first-principles) both interesting and challenging. Hence, empirical studies are important in providing useful guiding information. The magnetization and specific-heat studies could provide convincing evidences supporting or critiquing the electrical transport results of the CNT AFI system. But probing the superconductivity in this system, as the superconducting signal is very small in a large background, is another challenge. Therefore the high-resolution calorimetry and magnetometry techniques detailedin this thesis are invaluable. With improved method of fabrication to increase the CNTs content inside the channels of the AFI crystallites, the empirical results [Nanoscale 4, 21-41 (2012)]were markedly different from those published in 2001 [Science 292, 2462 (2001)]. The magnetization results of this thesis largely agree with the results from the electrical transport study [Phys. Rev. B 81, 174530 (2010)], but there is some result that raises doubt in the critical current interpretation there. Lastly, there is still some electrical transport result of this system that has not been explained convincingly and is of interest.

  20. Determinants of carbon nanotube toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanone, Sophie; Andujar, Pascal; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Boczkowski, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    In the last few years questions have been raised regarding the potential toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to humans and environment. It is believed that the physico-chemical characteristics of these materials are key determinants of CNT interaction with living organisms, and hence determine their toxicity. As for other nanomaterials, the most important of these characteristics are the length, diameter, surface area, tendency to agglomerate, bio-durability, presence and nature of catalyst residues as well as chemical functionalization of the CNT. This review highlights the recent advancements in the understanding of the CNT properties which are essential in determining CNT toxicity. Hence the focus is on CNT dimensions, surface properties, bio-durability and corona formation as these fields have evolved greatly in recent years. A deeper understanding of these events and their underlying mechanisms could provide a molecular explanation of the biological and physiological responses following CNT administration and therefore help in the development of safe by design materials. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical reactions confined within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, Scott A; Rance, Graham A; Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2016-08-22

    In this critical review, we survey the wide range of chemical reactions that have been confined within carbon nanotubes, particularly emphasising how the pairwise interactions between the catalysts, reactants, transition states and products of a particular molecular transformation with the host nanotube can be used to control the yields and distributions of products of chemical reactions. We demonstrate that nanoscale confinement within carbon nanotubes enables the control of catalyst activity, morphology and stability, influences the local concentration of reactants and products thus affecting equilibria, rates and selectivity, pre-arranges the reactants for desired reactions and alters the relative stability of isomeric products. We critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the confinement of chemical reactions inside carbon nanotubes from a chemical perspective and describe how further developments in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and the incorporation of multifunctionality are essential for the development of this ever-expanding field, ultimately leading to the effective control of the pathways of chemical reactions through the rational design of multi-functional carbon nanoreactors.

  2. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S; Al-Marzouki, F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Abdel-Daiem, A

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc. For commercial applications, large quantities and high purity of carbon nanotubes are needed. Different types of carbon nanotubes can be synthesized in various ways. The most common techniques currently practiced are arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition and flame synthesis. The purification of CNTs is carried out using various techniques mainly oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering chemical functionalization, etc. However, high-purity purification techniques still have to be developed. Real applications are still under development. This paper addresses the current research on the challenges that are associated with synthesis methods, purification methods, and dispersion and toxicity of CNTs within the scope of different engineering applications, energy, and environmental impact.

  3. Bulk Cutting of Carbon Nanotubes Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Kirk J. (Inventor); Rauwald, Urs (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Schmidt, Howard K. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Gu, Zhenning (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for attaining short carbon nanotubes utilizing electron beam irradiation, for example, of a carbon nanotube sample. The sample may be pretreated, for example by oxonation. The pretreatment may introduce defects to the sidewalls of the nanotubes. The method is shown to produces nanotubes with a distribution of lengths, with the majority of lengths shorter than 100 tun. Further, the median length of the nanotubes is between about 20 nm and about 100 nm.

  4. Synthesis of silver impregnated carbon nanotubes and cyclodextrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver impregnated carbon nanotubes and cyclodextrin polymers were synthesised by first functionalising carbon nanotubes in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid before impregnating them with silver nanoparticles. The silver impregnated functionalised carbon nanotubes were then polymerised with β cyclodextrin using ...

  5. Carbon nanotubes: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Christian Peter

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess exceptional material properties, making them desirable for use in a variety of applications. In this work, CNTs were grown using two distinct catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) procedures, floating catalyst CVD and thermal CVD, which differed in the method of catalyst introduction. Reaction conditions were optimized to synthesize nanotubes with desired characteristics, and the effects of varying growth parameters were studied. These parameters included gas composition, temperature, reaction duration, and catalyst and substrate material. The CNT products were then examined using several approaches. For each CVD method, nanotube growth rates were determined and the formation and termination mechanisms were investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on nanotube diameters and morphology were also explored to identify means of controlling these important properties. In addition to investigating the effects of different growth parameters, the material properties of nanotubes were also studied. The floating catalyst CVD method produced thick mats of nanotubes, and the mechanical response of these samples was examined using in-situ compression and tension testing. These results indicated that mat structure is composed of discontinuous nanotubes, and a time-dependent response was also observed. In addition, the electrical resistance of bulk CNT samples was found to increase for tubes grown with higher catalyst concentrations and with bamboo morphologies. The properties of nanotubes synthesized using thermal CVD were also examined. Mechanical testing was performed using the same in-situ compression approach developed for floating catalyst CVD samples. A second characterization method was devised, where an optical approach was used to measure the deflection of patterned nanotubes exposed to an applied fluid flow. This response was also simulated, and comparisons with the experimental data were used to determine the flexural

  6. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  7. Carbon nanotubes for thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei

    As the integration scale of transistors/devices in a chip/system keeps increasing, effective cooling has become more and more important in microelectronics. To address the thermal dissipation issue, one important solution is to develop thermal interface materials with higher performance. Carbon nanotubes, given their high intrinsic thermal and mechanical properties, and their high thermal and chemical stabilities, have received extensive attention from both academia and industry as a candidate for high-performance thermal interface materials. The thesis is devoted to addressing some challenges related to the potential application of carbon nanotubes as thermal interface materials in microelectronics. These challenges include: 1) controlled synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates via chemical vapor deposition and the fundamental understanding involved; 2) development of a scalable annealing process to improve the intrinsic properties of synthesized carbon nanotubes; 3) development of a state-of-art assembling process to effectively implement high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes into a flip-chip assembly; 4) a reliable thermal measurement of intrinsic thermal transport property of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films; 5) improvement of interfacial thermal transport between carbon nanotubes and other materials. The major achievements are summarized. 1. Based on the fundamental understanding of catalytic chemical vapor deposition processes and the growth mechanism of carbon nanotube, fast synthesis of high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates (e.g., copper, quartz, silicon, aluminum oxide, etc.) has been successfully achieved. The synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on the bulk copper substrate by the thermal chemical vapor deposition process has set a world record. In order to functionalize the synthesized carbon nanotubes while maintaining their good vertical alignment

  8. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  9. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  10. Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Razumiene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate.

  11. Orientational Growth of Carbon Nanotube for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky, S.; Cui, Y.; Burger, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the superior properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) could improve numerous devices such as electronics and sensors, many efforts have been made in investigating the growth mechanism of MWCNT to synthesize high quality MWCNT. Most applications require uniform aligned CNT. In this presentation, a directional growth of CNT will be reported. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Temperature and pressure are two important growth parameters for fabricating carbon nanotubes. It is found that the nanotube diameter distribution mainly depends on the growth-temperature. With the substrate surface normal either along or against the gravity vector, different growth orientations of MWCNT are observed by scanning electron microscopy although the Raman spectra are similar for samples synthesized at different locations. The sizes of these carbon nanotubes in each sample are quite uniform and the length of the tube is up to several tens of micrometers. These results suggest the gravitation effects in the growth of long and small diameter CNT.

  12. Lipid nanoscaffolds in carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukner, Catharina; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.; Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V.

    2013-09-01

    We present the fabrication of lipid nanoscaffolds inside carbon nanotube arrays by employing the nanostructural self-assembly of lipid molecules. The nanoscaffolds are finely tunable into model biomembrane-like architectures (planar), soft nanochannels (cylindrical) or 3-dimensionally ordered continuous bilayer structures (cubic). Carbon nanotube arrays hosting the above nanoscaffolds are formed by packing of highly oriented multiwalled carbon nanotubes which facilitate the alignment of lipid nanostructures without requiring an external force. Furthermore, the lipid nanoscaffolds can be created under both dry and hydrated conditions. We show their direct application in reconstitution of egg proteins. Such nanoscaffolds find enormous potential in bio- and nano-technological fields.We present the fabrication of lipid nanoscaffolds inside carbon nanotube arrays by employing the nanostructural self-assembly of lipid molecules. The nanoscaffolds are finely tunable into model biomembrane-like architectures (planar), soft nanochannels (cylindrical) or 3-dimensionally ordered continuous bilayer structures (cubic). Carbon nanotube arrays hosting the above nanoscaffolds are formed by packing of highly oriented multiwalled carbon nanotubes which facilitate the alignment of lipid nanostructures without requiring an external force. Furthermore, the lipid nanoscaffolds can be created under both dry and hydrated conditions. We show their direct application in reconstitution of egg proteins. Such nanoscaffolds find enormous potential in bio- and nano-technological fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data on the alignment of lipid nanostructures, control and time resolved 2-d images of egg ovalbumin encapsulation and a summary picture of the present work. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02068a

  13. Phase Behavior of Carbon Nanotube Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    We study the phase behavior of nanotube suspensions stabilized by surfactants or amphiphilic polymers. The control of the composition of the solutions allows the interaction potential between the nanotubes to be finely tuned. As a consequence, it is possible to quantitatively analyze important phenomena such as percolation or liquid crystalline phase transitions. In particular, we describe how the percolation of rod-like particles is quantitatively decreased in the presence of attractive interactions (1). We show that rod-like particles respond much more strongly than spheres to attractive interactions; strengthening thereby the technological interest of carbon nanotubes to achieve low percolation thresholds for electrostatic dissipation or electromagnetic shielding. By contrast, carbon nanotubes which experience repulsive interactions can spontaneously order and form liquid crystalline solutions (2). Aligning and packing nanotubes is a major challenge to obtain macroscopic materials with improved properties. We will briefly discuss at the end of the presentation, our latest results concerning the fabrication of fibers aligned nanotubes (3). In particular, we will present new treatments of these fibers which lead to unusual mechanical properties and shape memory effects with giant stress recovery (4). *B. Vigolo, C. Coulon, M. Maugey, C. Zakri, P. Poulin, Science 2005. *S. Badaire, C. Zakri, M. Maugey, A. Derr'e, J. Barisci, G. Wallace, P. Poulin, Adv. Mat. 2005. *P. Miaudet, M. Maugey, A. Derr'e, V. Pichot, P. Launois, P. Poulin, C. Zakri, Nanoletters 2005. *P. Miaudet, A. Derr'e, M. Maugey, C. Zakri, P. Poulin, in preparation.

  14. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L.; Cola, Baratunde A.

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna—a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current—was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ˜2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (˜10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation.

  15. Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2010-03-02

    An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

  16. Carbon nanotubes as anti-bacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Teodora; Matea, Cristian T; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Buzoianu, Anca Dana; Suciu, Soimita; Puia, Cosmin; Zdrehus, Claudiu; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

    2017-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections that have evolved via natural selection have increased alarmingly at a global level. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of novel antibiotics for the treatment of these infections. Functionalized carbon nanotubes through their unique properties hold great promise in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. This new family of nanovectors for therapeutic delivery proved to be innovative and efficient for the transport and cellular translocation of therapeutic molecules. The current review examines the latest progress in the antibacterial activity of carbon nanotubes and their composites.

  17. Carbon nanotubes as nanopipette: modelling and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ho Jung; Byun, Ki Ryang; Kang, Jeong Won

    2004-06-01

    This paper shows that carbon nanotubes can be applied to a nanopipette. Nanospace in atomic force microscope multi-wall carbon nanotube tips is filled with molecules and atoms with charges and then, the tips can be applied to nanopipette when the encapsulated media flow off under applying electrostatic forces. Since the nanospace inside the tips can be refilled, the tips can be permanently used in ideal conditions of no chemical reaction and no mechanical deformation. Molecular dynamics simulations for nanopipette applications showed the possibility of nanolithography or single-metallofullerene-transistor array fabrication.

  18. Topological phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milz, Lars; Marganska-Lyzniak, Magdalena; Grifoni, Milena [Institut I - Theoretische Physik Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The topological superconducting phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes is discussed. Under the assumption of a short-ranged pairing potential, there are two spin-singlet states: an s-wave and an exotic p + ip-wave that are possible because of the special structure of the honeycomb lattice. The consequences for the possible presence of Majorana edge states in carbon nanotubes are addressed. In particular, regions in the magnetic field-chemical potential plane possibly hosting localized Majorana modes are discussed.

  19. Tailoring carbon nanotube density for modulating electro-to-heat conversion in phase change composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenpu; Zou, Ruqiang; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gui, Xuchun; Chen, Renjie; Lin, Jianhua; Shang, Yuanyuan; Cao, Anyuan

    2013-09-11

    We report a carbon nanotube array-encapsulated phase change composite in which the nanotube distribution (or areal density) could be tailored by uniaxial compression. The n-eicosane (C20) was infiltrated into the porous array to make a highly conductive nanocomposite while maintaining the nanotube dispersion and connection among the matrix with controlled nanotube areal density determined by the compressive strains along the lateral direction. The resulting electrically conductive composites can store heat at driven voltages as low as 1 V at fast speed with high electro-to-heat conversion efficiencies. Increasing the nanotube density is shown to significantly improve the polymer crystallinity and reduce the voltage for inducing the phase change process. Our results indicate that well-organized nanostructures such as the nanotube array are promising candidates to build high-performance phase change composites with simplified manufacturing process and modulated structure and properties.

  20. Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Carbon-Phenenolic Ablator Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikolaev, P.; Stackpoole, M.; Fan, W.; Cruden, B. A.; Waid, M.; Moloney, P.; Arepalli, S.; Arnold, J.; Partridge, H.; Yowell, L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of PICA (phenolic impregnated carbon ablator) as the selected material for heat shielding for future earth return vehicles. It briefly reviews the manufacturing of PICA and the advantages for the use of heat shielding, and then explains the reason for using Carbon Nanotubes to improve strength of phenolic resin that binds carbon fibers together. It reviews the work being done to create a carbon nanotube enhanced PICA. Also shown are various micrographic images of the various PICA materials.

  1. Computational Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomechanics of individual carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes and their application as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites has been reviewed with interplay of theoretical modeling, computer simulations and experimental observations. The emphasis in this work is on elucidating the multi-length scales of the problems involved, and of different simulation techniques that are needed to address specific characteristics of individual nanotubes and nanotube polymer-matrix interfaces. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are shown to be sufficient to describe the generic behavior such as strength and stiffness modulus but are inadequate to describe elastic limit and nature of plastic buckling at large strength. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations are shown to bring out explicit atomic nature dependent behavior of these nanoscale materials objects that are not accessible either via continuum mechanics based descriptions or through classical molecular dynamics based simulations. As examples, we discus local plastic collapse of carbon nanotubes under axial compression and anisotropic plastic buckling of boron-nitride nanotubes. Dependence of the yield strain on the strain rate is addressed through temperature dependent simulations, a transition-state-theory based model of the strain as a function of strain rate and simulation temperature is presented, and in all cases extensive comparisons are made with experimental observations. Mechanical properties of nanotube-polymer composite materials are simulated with diverse nanotube-polymer interface structures (with van der Waals interaction). The atomistic mechanisms of the interface toughening for optimal load transfer through recycling, high-thermal expansion and diffusion coefficient composite formation above glass transition temperature, and enhancement of Young's modulus on addition of nanotubes to polymer are discussed and compared with experimental observations.

  2. Nickel oxide nanotube synthesis using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sacrificial templates for supercapacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed M; Sahu, Rakesh P; Wallar, Cameron J; Chen, Ri; Zhitomirsky, Igor; Puri, Ishwar K

    2017-02-17

    A novel approach for the fabrication of nickel oxide nanotubes based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sacrificial template is described. Electroless deposition is employed to deposit nickel onto carbon nanotubes. The subsequent annealing of the product in the presence of air oxidizes nickel to nickel oxide, and carbon is released as gaseous carbon dioxide, leaving behind nickel oxide nanotubes. Electron microscopy and elemental mapping confirm the formation of nickel oxide nanotubes. New chelating polyelectrolytes are used as dispersing agents to achieve high colloidal stability for both the nickel-coated carbon nanotubes and the nickel oxide nanotubes. A gravimetric specific capacitance of 245.3 F g(-1) and  an areal capacitance of 3.28 F cm(-2) at a scan rate of 2 mV s(-1) is achieved, with an electrode fabricated using nickel oxide nanotubes as the active element with a mass loading of 24.1 mg cm(-2).

  3. High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Tang, Jianshi; Kumar, Bharat; Falk, Abram; Farmer, Damon; Tulevski, George; Jenkins, Keith; Afzali, Ali; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John; Hannon, James; Haensch, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    As conventional monolithic silicon technology struggles to meet the requirements for the 7-nm technology node, there has been tremendous progress in demonstrating the scalability of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors down to the size that satisfies the 3-nm node and beyond. However, to date, circuits built with carbon nanotubes have overlooked key aspects of a practical logic technology and have stalled at simple functionality demonstrations. Here, we report high-performance complementary carbon nanotube ring oscillators using fully manufacturable processes, with a stage switching frequency of 2.82 GHz. The circuit was built on solution-processed, self-assembled carbon nanotube arrays with over 99.9% semiconducting purity, and the complementary feature was achieved by employing two different work function electrodes.

  4. Shear Flow Induced Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes in Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure for the fabrication of natural rubber composite with aligned carbon nanotubes is provided in this study. The two-step approach is based on (i the preparation of mixture latex of natural rubber, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and other components and (ii the orientation of carbon nanotubes by a flow field. Rubber composite sheets filled with variable volume fraction of aligned carbon nanotubes were fabricated and then confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies. An obvious increase in thermal conductivity has been obtained after the alignment of carbon nanotubes. The dynamic mechanical analysis was carried out in a tear mode for the composite.

  5. Geckolike high shear strength by carbon nanotube fiber adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Y.; Nakayama, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube adhesives can adhere strongly to surfaces as a gecko does. The number of carbon nanotube layers is an important determinant of the contact area for adhesion. Balancing the catalyst ratio and buffer layer used for chemical vapor deposition processing controls the number of carbon nanotube layers and their distribution. The features of carbon nanotubes determine the shear strength of adhesion. Carbon nanotubes with a broad distribution of layers exhibit enhanced shear strength with equivalent adhesive capability to that of a natural Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko)

  6. Growth of carbon nanotubes from C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morjan, R.E.; Nerushev, O.A.; Sveningsson, M.; Rohmund, F.; Falk, L.K.L.; Campbell, E.E.B. [Department of Experimental Physics, Goeteborg University and Chalmers University of Technology, 41296, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes can be obtained from a multitude of molecular precursors in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. Here we demonstrate that the use of C{sub 60} as the carbon feedstock gas in an iron-catalyzed thermal CVD experiment leads to the formation of films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The critical role of the diameter of the catalyst particles in determining the efficiency of nanotube growth is clearly demonstrated. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the characterisation of the nanotube material. The structural properties of the individual nanotubes show distinctive differences to acetylene-grown multi-walled nanotubes. (orig.)

  7. Titania carbon nanotube composites for enhanced photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios

    Photocatalytic composites have been used for the past few decades in a wide range of applications. The most common application is the purification of air and water by removing toxic compounds. There is limited use however towards biocidal applications. Despite their high efficiency, photocatalytic materials are not comparable to the effectiveness of conventional biocidal compounds such as chlorine and alcoholic disinfectants. On the other hand, nearly a decade ago with the discovery of the carbon nanotubes a new vibrant scientific field emerged. Nanotubes are unique structures of carbon that posse amazing electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. In this research carbon nanotubes are used as photocatalytic enhancers. They were coated with anatase titania to form a composite material. Two different types of nanotubes (metallic versus non-metallic) were used and the photocatalytic activity was measured. The metallic tubes demonstrated exceptional photocatalytic properties, while non-metallic tubes had low photocatalytic efficiency. The reason for that difference was investigated and was the major focus of this research. The research concluded that the reasons for the high efficiency of the carbon nanotubes were (i) the metallic nature of the tubes and (ii) the possible bond between the titania coating and the underlying graphite layers (C-O-Ti). Since both composites had the same indications regarding the C-O-Ti bond, the metallic nature of the carbon nanotubes is believed to be the most dominant factor contributing to the enhancement of the photocatalysis. The composite material may have other potential applications such as for sensing and photovoltaic uses.

  8. Improved Method of Purifying Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of removing the residues of fabrication from carbon nanotubes has been invented. These residues comprise amorphous carbon and metal particles that are produced during the growth process. Prior methods of removing the residues include a variety of processes that involved the use of halogens, oxygen, or air in both thermal and plasma processes. Each of the prior methods entails one or more disadvantages, including non-selectivity (removal or damage of nanotubes in addition to removal of the residues), the need to dispose of toxic wastes, and/or processing times as long as 24 hours or more. In contrast, the process described here does not include the use of toxic chemicals, the generation of toxic wastes, causes little or no damage to the carbon nanotubes, and involves processing times of less than 1 hour. In the improved method, purification is accomplished by flowing water vapor through the reaction chamber at elevated temperatures and ambient pressures. The impurities are converted to gaseous waste products by the selective hydrogenation and hydroxylation by the water in a reaction chamber. This process could be performed either immediately after growth or in a post-growth purification process. The water used needs to be substantially free of oxygen and can be obtained by a repeated freeze-pump-thaw process. The presence of oxygen will non-selectively attach the carbon nanotubes in addition to the amorphous carbon.

  9. Coaxial PANI/TiN/PANI nanotube arrays for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Huo, Kaifu; Fu, Jijiang; Zhang, Xuming; Gao, Biao; Chu, Paul K

    2013-10-03

    Coaxial PANI/TiN/PANI nanotube arrays prepared by electrochemical polymerization of PANI on nanoporous TiN nanotube arrays exhibit a high specific capacitance of 242 mF cm(-2), excellent rate capability with the capacitance remaining at 69% when the current density is increased 50 times from 0.2 to 10 mA cm(-2), and a long cycling life with less than 0.005% decay per cycle.

  10. Selective ion transport in functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylova, Olga N.; Calixte, Emvia I.; Shuford, Kevin L.

    2017-11-01

    Ion transport through functionalized carbon nanotubes in an external electric field is studied using all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The surface of carbon nanotubes has been functionalized with hydrogens and hydroxyl groups, and ionic current passing through the nanochannels has been examined with respect to the extent of surface modification. We are able to dramatically increase the ionic current passing through the nanotube via the appropriate surface modification. An analysis of the electrostatic potential within the tube shows higher ionic currents result from an increase in accessible pathways coupled with a global shift toward more direct ion passage. Moreover, through judicious choice of structure, the current can be modulated to a large degree with ion selectivity.

  11. Coupling of carbon and peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Javier; Vázquez-Vázquez, Carlos; Kalinin, Arseny; Geckeler, Kurt E; Granja, Juan R

    2014-02-12

    Two of the main types of nanotubular architectures are the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and the self-assembling cyclic peptide nanotubes (SCPNs). We here report the preparation of the dual composite resulting from the ordered combination of both tubular motifs. In the resulting architecture, the SWCNTs can act as templates for the assembly of SCPNs that engage the carbon nanotubes noncovalently via pyrene "paddles", each member of the resulting hybrid stabilizing the other in aqueous solution. The particular hybrids obtained in the present study formed highly ordered oriented arrays and display complementary properties such as electrical conductivity. Furthermore, a self-sorting of the cyclic peptides toward semiconducting rather than metallic SWCNTs is also observed in the aqueous dispersions. It is envisaged that a broad range of exploitable properties may be achieved and/or controlled by varying the cyclic peptide components of similar SWCNT/SCPN hybrids.

  12. Flow-driven voltage generation in carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flow of various liquids and gases over single-walled carbon nanotube bundles induces an electrical signal (voltage/current) in the sample along the ... to the nanotubes, the gas flow effect can be seen for a variety of solids ranging from single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphite and doped semiconductors.

  13. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    modifies their transport behaviour. Interaction between electrons inside and outside a quantum dot is manifested in SU(4) Kondo behavior and level renormalization. Interaction within a dot leads to Wigner molecules and more complex correlated states. This review takes an experimental perspective informed...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two....... In single quantum dots defined in short lengths of nanotube, the energy levels associated with each degree of freedom, and the spin-orbit coupling between them, are revealed by Coulomb blockade spectroscopy. In double quantum dots, the combination of quantum numbers modifies the selection rules of Pauli...

  14. Making junctions between carbon nanotubes using an ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Krasheninnikov, A V; Keinonen, J; Banhart, F

    2003-01-01

    Making use of empirical potential molecular dynamics, we study ion bombardment of crossed single-walled carbon nanotubes as a tool to join the nanotubes. We demonstrate that ion irradiation should result in welding of crossed nanotubes, both suspended and deposited on substrates. We further predict optimum ion doses and energies for ion-mediated nanotube welding which may potentially be used for developing complicated networks of joined nanotubes.

  15. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  16. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are small cylindrical molecules with a typical diameter of 1 nm and lengths of up to micrometers. These intriguing molecules exhibit, depending on the exact atomic structure, either semiconducting or metallic behavior. This makes them ideal candidates for possible future molecular

  17. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  18. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review...

  19. Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Minus, Marilyn L.; Jain, Rahul; Nepal, Dhriti; Kumar, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the extraordinary potential to change our lives by improving existing products and enabling new ones. Current and future research and industrial workforce professionals are very likely to encounter some aspects of nanotechnology including CNT science and technology in their education or profession. The simple structure…

  20. Biodistribution of Carbon Nanotubes in Animal Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter Horn; Clausen, Per Axel

    2017-01-01

    The many interesting physical and chemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) make it one of the most commercially attractive materials in the era of nanotechnology. Here, we review the recent publications on in vivo biodistribution of pristine and functionalized forms of single-walled and multi...

  1. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  2. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  3. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  4. In-line manufacture of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Nicol Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo; Martini, Fabrizio; Corripio Luna, Oscar Enrique

    2015-04-28

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are facilitated by methods and apparatus disclosed herein. Advantageously, the methods and apparatus make use of a single production unit, and therefore provide for uninterrupted progress in a fabrication process. Embodiments of control systems for a variety of CNT production apparatus are included.

  5. Conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gets, A. V.; Krainov, V. P., E-mail: vpkrainov@mail.ru [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperatures is calculated. It is shown that it is much higher than the well-known conductivity of a model 1D Fermi system. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Zhong, G.; Esconjauregui, S.; Zhang, C.; Fouquet, M.; Hofmann, S. [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    We review the growth mechanisms of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, in terms of what controls the growth rate and control of the catalyst lifetime. We also review the production of very high-density forests, in terms of increasing the catalyst particle density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Electrochemical Metal Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dunsch, L.; Janda, Pavel; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Shinohara, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 427-435 ISSN 1344-9931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * electrodeposition * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.800, year: 2001

  8. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yanmei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  9. Collective mechanochemical growth of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedewy, Mostafa M. K. M. A.

    Hierarchically ordered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising for integration in high-performance structural composites, electrical interconnects, thermal interfaces, and filtration membranes. These and other applications require CNTs that are monodisperse, well aligned, and densely packed. Moreover, because more than 1 billion CNTs per square centimeter grow simultaneously in a typical chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, understanding the collective chemical and mechanical effects of growth is key to engineering the properties of CNT-based materials. This dissertation presents tailored synthesis processes, characterization techniques, and mathematical models that enable improved control of the morphology of as-grown CNT "forests.". First, a comprehensive characterization methodology, combining synchrotron X-ray scattering and attenuation with real-time height kinetics, enabled mapping the spatiotemporal evolution of CNT diameter distribution, alignment and density. By this method, the forest mass kinetics were measured and found to follow the S-shaped Gompertz curve of population growth. Dividing a forest into subpopulations revealed size-dependent activation-deactivation competition. Additionally, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the kinetics of CNT nucleation are S-shaped. Based on these findings, a collective growth model is proposed, wherein randomly oriented CNTs first nucleate then self-organize and lift-off during a crowding stage, followed by a density decay stage until self-termination when the density drops below the self-supporting threshold. Next, further X-ray data analysis enabled modeling the mechanics of entangled CNTs and proved that mechanical coupling is not only responsible for the self-organization into the aligned morphology, but is also an important limiting mechanism as significant forces ensue from diameter-dependent CNT growth rates. A custom-built CVD system was used for mechanical manipulation of growing

  10. Defect complexes in carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashapa, MG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of defect complexes on the stability, structural and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes is investigated using the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method implemented...

  11. Synthesis, characterisation and applications of coiled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Monica J; Harris, Andrew T

    2010-04-01

    Coiled carbon nanotubes are helical carbon structures formed when heptagonal and pentagonal rings are inserted into the hexagonal backbone of a 'straight' nanotube. Coiled carbon nanotubes have been reported with both regular and irregular helical structures. In this work the structure, growth mechanism(s), synthesis, properties and potential applications of coiled carbon nanotubes are reviewed. Published data suggests that coiled carbon nanotube synthesis occurs due to nonuniform extrusion of carbon from a catalyst surface. To date, coiled carbon nanotubes have been synthesised using catalyst modification techniques including: (i) the addition of S or P containing compounds during synthesis; (ii) the use of binary or ternary metal catalysts; (iii) the use of microwaves to create a local temperature gradient around individual catalyst particles and; (iv) the use of pH control during catalyst preparation. In most instances coiled carbon nanotubes are produced as a by-product; high yield and/or large-scale synthesis of coiled carbon nanotubes remains problematic. The qualitative analysis of coiled carbon nanotubes is currently hindered by the absence of specific characterisation data in the literature, e.g., oxidation profiles measured by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectra of pure coiled carbon nanotube samples.

  12. Nicotine adsorption on single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Eduardo C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Fagan, Solange B.; Zanella, Ivana [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano - UNIFRA, 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Filho, Antonio G. Souza, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This work reports a theoretical study of nicotine molecules interacting with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through ab initio calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Different adsorption sites for nicotine on the surface of pristine and defective (8,0) SWCNTs were analyzed and the total energy curves, as a function of molecular position relative to the SWCNT surface, were evaluated. The nicotine adsorption process is found to be energetically favorable and the molecule-nanotube interaction is intermediated by the tri-coordinated nitrogen atom from the nicotine. It is also predicted the possibility of a chemical bonding between nicotine and SWCNT through the di-coordinated nitrogen.

  13. Porous carbon nanotubes: Molecular absorption, transport, and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzeiri, Irena; Patra, Niladri; Král, Petr

    2014-03-01

    We use classical molecular dynamics simulations to study nanofluidic properties of porous carbon nanotubes. We show that saturated water vapor condenses on the porous nanotubes, can be absorbed by them and transported in their interior. When these nanotubes are charged and placed in ionic solutions, they can selectively absorb ions in their interior and transport them. Porous carbon nanotubes can also be used as selective molecular sieves, as illustrated on a room temperature separation of benzene and ethanol.

  14. Preparation of carbon nanotube bioconjugates for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhuang; Tabakman, Scott M; Chen, Zhuo; Dai, Hongjie

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention in recent years. Here, we summarize our previously developed protocols for functionalization and bioconjugation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for various biomedical applications including biological imaging; using nanotubes as Raman, photoluminescence and photoacoustic labels; sensing using nanotubes as Raman tags and drug delivery. Sonication of SWNTs in solutions of phospholipid-polyethylene glycol (PL-PEG...

  15. International Assessment of Carbon Nanotube Manufacturing and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    in Japan. Similarly, nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) have been added to ceramic materials (e.g., alumina ) to enhance the fracture toughness of the...ICMR was built around Eklund’s work to mass- produce nanopowders produced by CO2 laser pyrolysis. ICMR moved to Silicon Valley two years later and...nanotube secondary battery using carbon nanotubes (Korea) • Method of synthesizing carbon nanotubes in the multistage bipolar alumina mould and

  16. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.

  17. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  18. Double quantum dots in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stecher, Javier; Wunsch, Bernhard; Lukin, Mikhail; Demler, Eugene; Rey, Ana Maria

    2010-03-01

    We study the behavior of few-electrons confined in a double-well quantum dot in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. These carbon nanostructures exhibit richer physics than GaAs ones due to the additional valley degree of freedom. We calculate and characterize the low energy eigenstates in the presence of a magnetic field and double-well detuning. Spin-orbit coupling lifts the spin and valley degeneracy and, in the presence of exchange interactions, leads, at small detunings and weak magnetic fields, to a spin-valley antisymmetric two-electron ground state which is not a pure spin-singlet state. At large detuning, the strong Coulomb interactions accessible in carbon nanotubes can substantially modify the non-interacting eigenstates via higher orbital-level mixing. The latter manifest in current transport experiments by the disappearance of the Pauli blockade.

  19. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.

    2011-03-01

    Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.

  1. Contact resistance of carbon nanotubes and metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ihm, Jisoon; Yoon, Young-Gui; Louie, Steven G.

    2000-03-01

    The quantum conductance of a metallic carbon nanotube with one end immersed in a jellium metal is studied. We find that the incident π-band electrons go through the tube without being scattered by the surrounding metal and contribute a quantum unit (2e^2/h) to the conductance. On the other hand, the incident π-band electrons experience strong resonant back-scattering because the low-angular-momentum states at the Fermi level have a dominantly metallic character in the nanotube-jellium metal coexistence region. These results provide a possible explanation for the experimentally observed conductance of one quantum unit instead of two for nanotubes with one end dipped into liquid metal such as mercury. The detailed form of the immersion-length dependence of the conductance, which is strongly related to the coherence of the electronic state in the immersed part of the tube, will also be discussed.

  2. On the Nanoindentation of the Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre P. Teodorescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new inverse approach is proposed in this paper, which combines elements of nonlocal theory and molecular mechanics, based on the experimental results available in the nanoindentation literature. The effect of the inlayer van der Waals atomistic interactions for carbon nanotubes with multiple walls (MWCNT is included by means of the Brenner-Tersoff potential and experimental results. The neighboring walls of MWCNT are coupled through van der Waals interactions, and the shell buckling would initiate in the outermost shell, when nanotubes are short. The nanoindentation technique is simulated for the axially compressed of individual nanotubes, in order to evaluate the load-unloaded-displacement, the curve critical buckling and the appropriate values for local Lamé constants.

  3. Carbon Nanotubes for Space Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiadis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Landi, Brian J.; Denno, Patrick L.; DiLeo, Roberta A.; VanDerveer, William; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be envisioned as an individual graphene sheet rolled into a seamless cylinder (single-walled, SWNT), or concentric sheets as in the case of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) (1). The role-up vector will determine the hexagonal arrangement and "chirality" of the graphene sheet, which will establish the nanotube to be metallic or semiconducting. The optoelectronic properties will depend directly on this chiral angle and the diameter of the SWNT, with semiconductor types exhibiting a band gap energy (2). Characteristic of MWNTs are the concentric graphene layers spaced 0.34 nm apart, with diameters from 10-200 nm and lengths up to hundreds of microns (2). In the case of SWNTs, the diameters range from 0.4 - 2 nm and lengths have been reported up to 1.5 cm (3). SWNTs have the distinguishable property of "bundling" together due to van der Waal's attractions to form "ropes." A comparison of these different structural types is shown in Figure 1. The use of SWNTS in space photovoltaic (PV) applications is attractive for a variety of reasons. Carbon nanotubes as a class of materials exhibit unprecedented optical, electrical, mechanical properties, with the added benefit of being nanoscale in size which fosters ideal interaction in nanomaterial-based devices like polymeric solar cells. The optical bandgap of semiconducting SWNTs can be varied from approx. 0.4 - 1.5 eV, with this property being inversely proportional to the nanotube diameter. Recent work at GE Global Research has shown where a single nanotube device can behave as an "ideal" pn diode (5). The SWNT was bridged over a SiO2 channel between Mo contacts and exhibited an ideality factor of 1, based on a fit of the current-voltage data using the diode equation. The measured PV efficiency under a 0.8 eV monochromatic illumination showed a power conversion efficiency of 0.2 %. However, the projected efficiency of these junctions is estimated to be > 5 %, especially when one considers the

  4. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  5. C{sub 60} fullerene decoration of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, V. A., E-mail: victordemin88@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation); Blank, V. D.; Karaeva, A. R.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Mordkovich, V. Z. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Parkhomenko, Yu. N. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Perezhogin, I. A.; Popov, M. Yu. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Skryleva, E. A. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Urvanov, S. A. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Chernozatonskii, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new fully carbon nanocomposite material is synthesized by the immersion of carbon nanotubes in a fullerene solution in carbon disulfide. The presence of a dense layer of fullerene molecules on the outer nanotube surface is demonstrated by TEM and XPS. Fullerenes are redistributed on the nanotube surface during a long-term action of an electron beam, which points to the existence of a molecular bond between a nanotube and fullerenes. Theoretical calculations show that the formation of a fullerene shell begins with the attachment of one C{sub 60} molecule to a defect on the nanotube surface.

  6. Carbon nanotubes: Sensor properties. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Zaporotskova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent publications dealing with dealing with the fabrication of gas and electrochemical biosensors based on carbon nanotubes have been reviewed. Experimental and theoretical data on the working principles of nanotubes have been presented. The main regularities of the structure, energy parameters and sensor properties of modified semiconducting systems on the basis of cabon nanotubes have been studied by analyzing the mechanisms of nanotubule interaction with functional groups (including carboxyl and amino groups, metallic nanoparticles and polymers leading to the formation of chemically active sensors. The possibility of using boundary modified nanotubes for the identification of metals has been discussed. Simulation results have been reported for the interaction of nanotubes boundary modified by –СООН and –NH2 groups with atoms and ions of potassium, sodium and lithium. The simulation has been carried out using the molecular cluster model and the MNDO and DFT calculation methods. Sensors fabricated using this technology will find wide application for the detection of metallic atoms and their ions included in salts and alkali.

  7. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Using Sol Gel Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2002-12-01

    Since 1990, carbon nanotubes were discovered and they have been the object of intense scientific study ever since. A carbon nanotube is a honeycomb lattice rolled into a cylinder. The diameter of a carbon nanotube is of nanometer size and the length is in the range of micrometer. Many of the extraordinary properties attributed to nanotubes, such as tensile strength and thermal stability, have inspired predictions of microscopic robots, dent-resistant car bodies and earthquake-resistant buildings. The first products to use nanotubes were electrical. Some General Motors cars already include plastic parts to which nanotubes were added; such plastic can be electrified during painting so that the paint will stick more readily. Two nanotube-based lighting and display products are well on their way to market. In the long term, perhaps the most valuable applications will take further advantage of nanotubes' unique electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes can in principle play the same role as silicon does in electronic circuits, but at a molecular scale where silicon and other standard semiconductors cease to work. There are several routes to synthesize carbon nanotubes; laser vaporization, carbon arc and vapor growth. We have applied a different route using sol gel chemistry to obtain carbon nanotubes. This work is patent-pending.

  8. Universal Selective Dispersion of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes from Commercial Sources Using a Supramolecular Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Pochorovski, Igor; Lin, Pei; Pitner, Gregory; Yan, Xuzhou; Gao, Theodore Z; To, John W F; Lei, Ting; Will, John W; Wong, H-S Philip; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-06-27

    Selective extraction of semiconducting carbon nanotubes is a key step in the production of high-performance, solution-processed electronics. Here, we describe the ability of a supramolecular sorting polymer to selectively disperse semiconducting carbon nanotubes from five commercial sources with diameters ranging from 0.7 to 2.2 nm. The sorting purity of the largest-diameter nanotubes (1.4 to 2.2 nm; from Tuball) was confirmed by short channel measurements to be 97.5%. Removing the sorting polymer by acid-induced disassembly increased the transistor mobility by 94 and 24% for medium-diameter and large-diameter carbon nanotubes, respectively. Among the tested single-walled nanotube sources, the highest transistor performance of 61 cm2/V·s and on/off ratio >104 were realized with arc discharge carbon nanotubes with a diameter range from 1.2 to 1.7 nm. The length and quality of nanotubes sorted from different sources is compared using measurements from atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The transistor mobility is found to correlate with the G/D ratio extracted from the Raman spectra.

  9. Fabrication and application of polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylvaganam, Kausala; Zhang, Liangchi C

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being used in place of carbon fibers in making composites due to their high strength, high aspect-ratio and excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. Although carbon nanotubes were discovered more than a decade ago, works on preparation of satisfactory composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes have encountered difficulties. This review will discuss some registered patents and relevant papers on the fabrication of carbon nanotube-polymer composites on improving material properties such as electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and radiation detection which have a broad range of applications in nano-electronic devices, and space and medical elements.

  10. Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Dyke, Christopher A.; Maya, Francisco; Stewart, Michael P.; Chen, Bo; Flatt, Austen K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to covalently attach functionalized carbon nanotubes to silicon. This step allows for the introduction of carbon nanotubes onto all manner of silicon surfaces, and thereby introduction of carbon nano - tubes covalently into silicon-based devices, onto silicon particles, and onto silicon surfaces. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed as individuals in surfactant were functionalized. The nano - tube was first treated with 4-t-butylbenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate to give increased solubility to the carbon nanotube; the second group attached to the sidewall of the nanotube has a silyl-protected terminal alkyne that is de-protected in situ. This gives a soluble carbon nanotube that has functional groups appended to the sidewall that can be attached covalently to silicon. This reaction was monitored by UV/vis/NJR to assure direct covalent functionalization.

  11. Carbon Micronymphaea: Graphene on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube (CNT, graphene, and their hybrid structure under various operating conditions during a one-step synthesis via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. We focus on the synthetic aspects of carbon hybrid material composed of heteroepitaxially grown graphene on top of a vertical array of carbon nanotubes, called carbon micronymphaea. We characterize the structural features of this unique nanocomposite by uses of electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We observe carbon nanofibers, poorly aligned and well-aligned vertical arrays of CNT sequentially as the growth temperature increases, while we always discover the carbon hybrids, called carbon micronymphaea, at specific cooling rate of 15°C/s, which is optimal for the carbon precipitation from the Ni nanoparticles in this study. We expect one-pot synthesized graphene-on-nanotube hybrid structure poses great potential for applications that demand ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratios with intact graphitic nature and directional electronic and thermal transports.

  12. Assessment of chemically separated carbon nanotubes for nanoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zaric, Sasa; Tu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xinran; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Hongjie

    2008-02-27

    It remains an elusive goal to obtain high performance single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT) electronics such as field effect transistors (FETs) composed of single- or few-chirality SWNTs, due to broad distributions in as-grown materials. Much progress has been made by various separation approaches to obtain materials enriched in metal or semiconducting nanotubes or even in single chiralties. However, research in validating SWNT separations by electrical transport measurements and building functional electronic devices has been scarce. Here, we performed length, diameter, and chirality separation of DNA functionalized HiPco SWNTs by chromatography methods, and we characterized the chiralities by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. The use of these combined methods provided deeper insight to the degree of separation than either technique alone. Separation of SWNTs by chirality and diameter occurred at varying degrees that decreased with increasing tube diameter. This calls for new separation methods capable of metallicity or chirality separation of large diameter SWNTs (in the approximately 1.5 nm range) needed for high performance nanoelectronics. With most of the separated fractions enriched in semiconducting SWNTs, nanotubes placed in parallel in short-channel (approximately 200 nm) electrical devices fail to produce FETs with high on/off switching, indicating incomplete elimination of metallic species. In rare cases with a certain separated SWNT fraction, we were able to fabricate FET devices composed of small-diameter, chemically separated SWNTs in parallel, with high on-/off-current (I(on)/I(off)) ratios up to 105 owing to semiconducting SWNTs with only a few (n,m) chiralities in the fraction. This was the first time that chemically separated SWNTs were used for short channel, all-semiconducting SWNT electronics dominant by just a few (n,m)'s. Nevertheless, the results suggest that

  13. Magneto-carbonization method for production of carbon fiber, and high performance carbon fibers made thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Ozcan, Soydan; Eberle, Claude C.; Abdallah, Mohamed Gabr; Mackiewicz, Ludtka Gail; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Paulauskas, Felix Leonard; Rivard, John Daniel Kennedy

    2017-08-08

    Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from fiber precursor, wherein the fiber precursor is subjected to a magnetic field of at least 3 Tesla during a carbonization process. The carbonization process is generally conducted at a temperature of at least 400.degree. C. and less than 2200.degree. C., wherein, in particular embodiments, the carbonization process includes a low temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 400.degree. C. or 500.degree. C. and less than or up to 1000.degree. C., 1100.degree. C., or 1200.degree. C., followed by a high temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 1200.degree. C. In particular embodiments, particularly in the case of a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber precursor, the resulting carbon fiber may possess a minimum tensile strength of at least 600 ksi, a tensile modulus of at least 30 Msi, and an ultimate elongation of at least 1.5%.

  14. High-performance silicon nanotube tunneling FET for ultralow-power logic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-03-01

    To increase typically low output drive currents from tunnel field-effect transistors (FETs), we show a silicon vertical nanotube (NT) architecture-based FET\\'s effectiveness. Using core (inner) and shell (outer) gate stacks, the silicon NT tunneling FET shows a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold slope, ultralow off -state leakage current, higher drive current compared with gate-all-around nanowire silicon tunnel FETs. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  15. Carbon nanotube based stationary phases for microchip chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview and critical evaluation of the use of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microchip chromatography. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, such as a very high surface area and intriguing adsorptive behaviour, have...... already been demonstrated in more classical formats, for improved separation performance in gas and liquid chromatography, and for unique applications in solid phase extraction. Carbon nanotubes are now also entering the field of microfluidics, where there is a large potential to be able to provide...... integrated, tailor-made nanotube columns by means of catalytic growth of the nanotubes inside the fluidic channels. An evaluation of the different implementations of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microfluidic chromatography devices is given in terms of separation performance...

  16. The Vibration of a Linear Carbon Chain in Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Ding

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An explicit solution for the vibration of a carbon chain inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs was obtained using continuum modeling of the van der Waals (vdW interactions between them. The effect of the initial tensile force and the amplitude of the carbon chain as well as the radii of the CNTs on the vibration frequency were analyzed in detail, respectively. Our analytical results show that the vibration frequency of the carbon chain in a (5,5 CNT could be around two orders of magnitude higher than that of an independent carbon chain without initial tensile force. For a given CNT radius, the vibration frequency nonlinearly increases with increasing amplitude and initial tensile force. The obtained analytical cohesive energy and vibration frequency are reasonable by comparison of present molecular dynamics (MD simulations. These findings will be a great help towards understanding the vibration property of a nanowire in nanotubes, and designing nanoelectromechanical devices.

  17. Multifunctional Flexible Composites Based on Continuous Carbon Nanotube Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    emitters, solid-phase microextraction and catalysis . Different from graphene- based aerogels (GBAs) and membranes (GBMs), GBFs have demonstrated...nanotube dry-spun yarns, Carbon, 48, 2802–2811, 2010. 22. A. S. Wu and T. -W. Chou. Carbon nanotube fibers for advanced composites, Materials Today , 15...Applied Physics Letters, 100, 201908, 2012. 8. A. S. Wu and T. -W. Chou. Carbon nanotube fibers for advanced composites, Materials Today , 15, 302

  18. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2010-01-01

    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  19. Quantum dot attachment and morphology control by carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez, Beatriz H.; Klinke, Christian; Kornowski, Andreas; Weller, Horst

    2008-01-01

    Novel applications in nanotechnology rely on the design of tailored nano-architectures. For this purpose, carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles are intensively investigated. In this work we study the influence of non-functionalized carbon nanotubes on the synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles by means of organometallic colloidal routes. This new synthesis methodology does not only provide an effective path to attach nanoparticles non-covalently to carbon nanotubes but represents also a new way to cont...

  20. Quantum Dot Attachment and Morphology Control by Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Beatriz H.; Klinke, Christian; Kornowski, Andreas; Weller, Horst

    2007-12-01

    Novel applications in nanotechnology rely on the design of tailored nano-architectures. For this purpose, carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles are intensively investigated. In this work we study the influence of non-functionalized carbon nanotubes on the synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles by means of organometallic colloidal routes. This new synthesis methodology does not only provide an effective path to attach nanoparticles non-covalently to carbon nanotubes but represents also a new way to control the shape of nanoparticles.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  3. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Composites from Modified Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Ian; Wool, Richard

    2006-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their impressive mechanical properties are ideal reinforcement material. Acrylated epoxidized soy oil (AESO) has been previously shown to have favorable interactions with carbon nanotubes. CNTs mixed into AESO, both with and without styrene as a co-monomer, using mechanical shear mixing showed dispersion only on the micron level, resulting in modest mechanical property improvements. Greater improvements were seen, especially in the rubbery modulus, when the resin's viscosity was kept high, either through a reduction of the styrene content, or by curing at a lower temperature. CNTs were also dispersed via sonication in methyl methacrylate. The resulting dispersion was then mixed with AESO. The resulting composites showed better CNT dispersion, with no micron-sized aggregates, as verified using SEM and optical microscopy. The mechanical properties also showed greater improvement.

  5. Direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on silicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis from Glycine max oil on silicon substrate using ferrocene as catalyst at 650 °C. Glycine max oil, a plant-based hydrocarbon precursor was used as a source of carbon and argon as a carrier gas. The as-grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes ...

  6. A Carbon Nanotube Cable for a Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in connection with the possibility to use them for the construction of a space elevator. From the fundamental information about the structure of a carbon nanotube and the chemical bond between carbon atoms, Young's modulus and the ultimate tensile strength are…

  7. Electrostatic sensing and electrochemistry with single carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental study of devices based on single carbon nanotubes in the context of (bio)sensing in aqueous solutions. Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules of sp2- carbon, about one nanometer in diameter and typically several micrometers long, which have semiconducting

  8. Metallic/semiconducting ratio of carbon nanotubes in a bundle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since from the discovery of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by. Iijima and Ichihashi [1], much efforts have been devoted to improve the methods of nanotube production, and significant progress has been made to narrow the diame- ter distribution of nanotubes produced by different catalysts and growth processes.

  9. Charge Transfer from Carbon Nanotubes to Silicon in Flexible Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokai; Mariano, Marina; McMillon-Brown, Lyndsey; Huang, Jing-Shun; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Reed, Mark A; Jung, Yeonwoong; Taylor, André D

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical fragility and insufficient light absorption are two major challenges for thin flexible crystalline Si-based solar cells. Flexible hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/Si solar cells are demonstrated by applying scalable room-temperature processes for the fabrication of solar-cell components (e.g., preparation of SWNT thin films and SWNT/Si p-n junctions). The flexible SWNT/Si solar cells present an intrinsic efficiency ≈7.5% without any additional light-trapping structures. By using these solar cells as model systems, the charge transport mechanisms at the SWNT/Si interface are investigated using femtosecond transient absorption. Although primary photon absorption occurs in Si, transient absorption measurements show that SWNTs also generate and inject excited charge carriers to Si. Such effects can be tuned by controlling the thickness of the SWNTs. Findings from this study could open a new pathway for designing and improving the efficiency of photocarrier generation and absorption for high-performance ultrathin hybrid SWNT/Si solar cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Super-tough carbon-nanotube fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Alan B.; Collins, Steve; Muñoz, Edgar; Razal, Joselito M.; Ebron, Von Howard; Ferraris, John P.; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Kim, Bog G.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2003-06-01

    The energy needed to rupture a fibre (its toughness) is five times higher for spider silk than for the same mass of steel wire, which has inspired efforts to produce spider silk commercially. Here we spin 100-metre-long carbon-nanotube composite fibres that are tougher than any natural or synthetic organic fibre described so far, and use these to make fibre supercapacitors that are suitable for weaving into textiles.

  11. Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakajin, Olgica

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are an excellent platform for the fundamental studies of transport through channels commensurate with molecular size. Water transport through carbon nanotubes is also believed to be similar to transport in biological channels such as aquaporins. I will discuss the transport of gas, water and ions through microfabricated membranes with sub-2 nanometer aligned carbon nanotubes as ideal atomically-smooth pores. The measured gas flow through carbon nanotubes exceeded predictions of the Knudsen diffusion model by more than an order of magnitude. The measured water flow exceeded values calculated from continuum hydrodynamics models by more than three orders of magnitude and is comparable to flow rates extrapolated from molecular dynamics simulations and measured for aquaporins. More recent reverse osmosis experiments reveal ion rejection by our membranes. Based on our experimental findings, the current understanding of the fundamentals of water and gas transport and of ion rejection will be discussed. The potential application space that exploits these unique nanofluidic phenomena will be explored. The extremely high permeabilities of these membranes, combined with their small pore size will enable energy efficient filtration and eventually decrease the cost of water purification.[4pt] In collaboration with Francesco Fornasiero, Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PLS, LLNL, Livermore, CA 94550; Sangil Kim, NSF Center for Biophotonics Science & Technology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento CA 95817; Jung Bin In, Mechanical Engineering Department, UC Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720; Hyung Gyu Park, Jason K Holt, and Michael Stadermann, Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PLS, LLNL; Costas P. Grigoropoulos, Mechanical Engineering Department, UC Berkeley; Aleksandr Noy, Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PLS, LLNL and School of Natural Sciences, University of California at Merced.

  12. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes by CVD and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Alan; Delzeit, Lance; Nguyen, Cattien; Stevens, Ramsey; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) exhibits extraordinary mechanical and unique electronic properties and offers significant potential for structural, sensor, and nanoelectronics applications. An overview of CNT, growth methods, properties and applications is provided. Single-wall, and multi-wall CNTs have been grown by chemical vapor deposition. Catalyst development and optimization has been accomplished using combinatorial optimization methods. CNT has also been grown from the tips of silicon cantilevers for use in atomic force microscopy.

  14. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  15. Effect of Carbon Nanotube Size on Compressive Strengths of Nanotube Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanoscale science to construction material has already begun. In recent times, various nanofibers have raised the interest of researchers due to their exceptional mechanical properties and high potential to be used as reinforcement within cement matrix. Carbon nanotube (CNT is one of the most important areas of research in the field of nanotechnology. The size and exceptional mechanical properties of CNT show their high potential to be used to produce high performance next generation cementitious composites. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of size of CNTs on compressive strengths of CNT reinforced cement composites. Seven different sizes of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs were used to produce MWNT-cement composites. A trend was observed regarding the effect of nanotube size on compressive strength of composites in most cases. MWNT with outside diameter (OD of 20 nm or less exhibited relatively better performance. Smaller MWNT can be distributed at much finer scale and consequently filling the nanopore space within the cement matrix more efficiently. This in turn resulted in stronger composites.

  16. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Theoretical analysis of hydrogen spillover mechanism on carbon nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juarez-Mosqueda, Rosalba; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Kuc, Agnieszka B; Pettersson, Lars G M; Heine, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The spillover mechanism of molecular hydrogen on carbon nanotubes in the presence of catalytically active platinum clusters was critically and systematically investigated by using density-functional theory...

  18. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  19. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  20. Ferroelectric-carbon nanotube memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Shivareddy, Sai G.; Correa, Margarita; Resto, Oscar; Choi, Youngjin; Cole, Matthew T.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Scott, James F.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Lu, Haidong; Gruverman, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    One-dimensional ferroelectric nanostructures, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and CNT-inorganic oxides have recently been studied due to their potential applications for microelectronics. Here, we report coating of a registered array of aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) grown on silicon substrates by functional ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) which produces structures suitable for commercial prototype memories. Microstructural analysis reveals the crystalline nature of PZT with small nanocrystals aligned in different directions. First-order Raman modes of MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si show the high structural quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition at elevated temperature. PZT exists mostly in the monoclinic Cc/Cm phase, which is the origin of the high piezoelectric response in the system. Low-loss square piezoelectric hysteresis obtained for the 3D bottom-up structure confirms the switchability of the device. Current-voltage mapping of the device by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) indicates very low transient current. Fabrication and functional properties of these hybrid ferroelectric-carbon nanotubes is the first step towards miniaturization for future nanotechnology sensors, actuators, transducers and memory devices.

  1. Review of toxicity studies of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Norihiro; Izumi, Hiroto; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2017-09-28

    We reviewed studies on pulmonary, reproductive, and developmental toxicity caused by carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In paricular, we analyzed how CNT exposure affects the several processes of pulmonary toxicity, including inflammation, injury, fibrosis, and pulmonary tumors. In pulmonary toxicity, there are various processes, including inflammation, injury, fibrosis, respiratory tumor in the lungs, and biopersistence of CNTs and genotoxicity as tumor-related factors, to develop the respiratory tumor. We evaluated the evidence for the carcinogenicity of CNTs in each process. In the fields of reproductive and developmental toxicity, studies of CNTs have been conducted mainly with mice. We summarized the findings of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of CNTs. In animal studies, exposure to CNTs induced sustained inflammation, fibrosis, lung cancer following long-term inhalation, and gene damage in the lung. CNTs also showed high biopersistence in animal studies. Fetal malformations after intravenous and intraperitoneal injections and intratracheal instillation, fetal loss after intravenous injection, behavioral changes in offsprings after intraperitoneal injection, and a delay in the delivery of the first litter after intratracheal instillation were reported in mice-administered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) appeared to be embryolethal and teratogenic in mice when given by intravenous injection; moreover, the tubes induced death and growth retardation in chicken embryos. CNTs are considered to have carcinogenicity and can cause lung tumors. However, the carcinogenicity of CNTs may attenuate if the fiber length is shorter. The available data provide initial information on the potential reproductive and developmental toxicity of CNTs.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  3. Carbon paste electrode incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotube ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preparation and electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube paste electrode modified with ferrocene (FCMCNPE) was investigated for electrocatalytic behaviour toward oxidation of -acetyl--cysteine (NAC) in the presence of tryptophan (Trp) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry ...

  4. Selective synthesis and device applications of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes using isopropyl alcohol as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yuchi; Wang, Chuan; Liu, Jia; Liu, Bilu; Lin, Xue; Parker, Jason; Beasley, Cara; Wong, H-S Philip; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-08-28

    The development of guided chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a great platform for wafer-scale integration of aligned nanotubes into circuits and functional electronic systems. However, the coexistence of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes is still a major obstacle for the development of carbon-nanotube-based nanoelectronics. To address this problem, we have developed a method to obtain predominantly semiconducting nanotubes from direct CVD growth. By using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the carbon feedstock, a semiconducting nanotube purity of above 90% is achieved, which is unambiguously confirmed by both electrical and micro-Raman measurements. Mass spectrometric study was performed to elucidate the underlying chemical mechanism. Furthermore, high performance thin-film transistors with an on/off ratio above 10(4) and mobility up to 116 cm(2)/(V·s) have been achieved using the IPA-synthesized nanotube networks grown on silicon substrate. The method reported in this contribution is easy to operate and the results are highly reproducible. Therefore, such semiconducting predominated single-walled carbon nanotubes could serve as an important building block for future practical and scalable carbon nanotube electronics.

  5. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarillo-Herrero, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic transport through nanostructures can be very different from trans- port in macroscopic conductors, especially at low temperatures. Carbon na- notubes are tiny cylinders made of carbon atoms. Their remarkable electronic and mechanical properties, together with their small size (a few nm in

  6. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis of covalently functionalized single-chirality carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pingli; Meany, Brendan; Wang, Chunyan; Piao, Yanmei; Kwon, Hyejin; Deng, Shunliu; Wang, YuHuang

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the separation of chirality-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by degree of surface functionalization using high-performance CE. Controlled amounts of negatively charged and positively charged functional groups were attached to the sidewall of chirality-enriched SWCNTs through covalent functionalization using 4-carboxybenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate or 4-diazo-N,N-diethylaniline tetrafluoroborate, respectively. Surfactant- and pH-dependent studies confirmed that under conditions that minimized ionic screening effects, separation of these functionalized SWCNTs was strongly dependent on the surface charge density introduced through covalent surface chemistry. For both heterogeneous mixtures and single-chirality-enriched samples, covalently functionalized SWCNTs showed substantially increased peak width in electropherogram spectra compared to nonfunctionalized SWCNTs, which can be attributed to a distribution of surface charges along the functionalized nanotubes. Successful separation of functionalized single-chirality SWCNTs by functional density was confirmed with UV-Vis-NIR absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies of fraction collected samples. These results suggest a high degree of structural heterogeneity in covalently functionalized SWCNTs, even for chirality-enriched samples, and show the feasibility of applying CE for high-performance separation of nanomaterials based on differences in surface functional density. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Based Devices for Intracellular Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Riju Mohan

    Scientific investigations on individual cells have gained increasing attention in recent years as efforts are being made to understand cellular functioning in complex processes, such as cell division during embryonic development, and owing to realization of heterogeneity amongst a population of a single cell type (for instance, certain individual cancer cells being immune to chemotherapy). Therefore devices enabling electrochemical detection, spectroscopy, optical observations, and separation techniques, along with cell piercing and fluid transfer capabilities at the intra-cellular level, are required. Glass pipettes have conventionally been used for single cell interrogation, however their poor mechanical properties and an intrusive conical geometry have led to limited precision and frequent cell damage or death, justifying research efforts to develop novel, non-intrusive cell probes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for their superior physical properties and tunable chemical structure. They possess a high aspect ratio and offer minimally invasive thin carbon walls and tubular geometry. Moreover, possibility of chemical functionalization of CNTs enables multi-functional probes. In this dissertation, novel nanofluidic instruments that have nanostructured carbon tips will be presented along with techniques that utilize the exceptional physical properties of carbon nanotubes, to take miniature biomedical instrumentation to the next level. New methods for fabricating the probes were rigorously developed and their operation was extensively studied. The devices were mechanically robust and were used to inject liquids to a single cell, detect electrochemical signals and enable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) while inducing minimal harm to the cell. Particular attention was focused on the CVD process-which was used to deposit carbon, fluid flow through the nanotubes, and separation of chemical species (atto-liter chromatography) at the nanometer scale that

  9. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Organogels with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Winey, Karen

    2008-03-01

    Organogels are fascinating thermally reversible viscoelastic materials that are comprised of an organic liquid and low concentrations (typically gelators. We have fabricated the first organogel/carbon nanotube composites using 12-hydroxystearic acid (HSA) as the gelator molecule and pristine and carboxylated multi-wall carbon nanotubes as the nanofillers and 1,2-dichlorobenzene as the organic solvent. We have achieved significant improvements in the mechanical and electrical properties of organogels by incorporating these carbon nanotubes. For example, the linear viscoelastic regime of the HSA organogel, an indicator of the strength of the gel, extends by a factor of 4 with the incorporation of 0.2 wt% of the carboxylated nanotubes. Also, the carbon nanotubes (specially the pristine tubes) improve the electrical conductivity of the organogels, e.g. six orders of magnitude enhancement in electrical conductivity with 0.2 wt% of pristine tubes. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments indicate that the nanotubes do not affect the thermoreversibility of the organogels.

  10. Carbon nanotubes in thermotropic low molar mass liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymura, Stefan; Park, Ji Hyun; Dierking, Ingo; Scalia, Giusy

    Carbon nanotubes constitute a highly anisotropic form of carbon with outstanding mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Their dispersion and organization are important but challenging and this chapter describes the advantages of using thermotropic liquid crystals as host for nanotube dispersion and ordering. The self organization of LCs is an attractive way to manipulate nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes or graphene akes. Compared to standard carbon nanotube composites (e.g. with disordered polymer hosts) the introduction of the nanotubes into an LC allows not only the transfer of the outstanding nanotube properties to the oscopic phase, providing strength and conductivity, but these properties also become anisotropic, following the transfer of the orientational order from the LC to the CNTs...

  11. Nonlinear optical response of multiwalled carbon-nanotube dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sean M.; Hold, Stephanie V.; Brennan, Margaret E.; Cadek, Martin; Drury, Anna; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Blau, Werner J.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental measurements of nonlinear optical extinction of nanosecond laser pulses by a set of conjugated copolymer/multiwalled carbon-nanotube composites dispersed in solution are reported here. The polymer poly(para-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctyloxy-meta-phenylenevinylene) and multiwalled carbon-nanotube composites were varied according to nanotube mass content. The experiments were performed with an open-aperture Z scan with 6-ns Gaussian pulses at 532 nm from a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear optical extinction of the incident pulses displays enhanced dissipation of the incident light for lower incident intensities relative to increasing multiwalled carbon-nanotube content. Either the multiwalled carbon nanotubes or the polymer dominates the nonlinear response of the composite depending on the relative mass of polymer to nanotube. Effective optical coefficients with a nonlinear absorption based model are calculated, and their intensity dependence is investigated. Mechanistic implications of the optical dissipation are also discussed.

  12. Template-Free Synthesis of Ruthenium Oxide Nanotubes for High-Performance Electrochemical Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Kwang-Heon; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Hoon; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-08-05

    One-dimensional, hydrous ruthenium oxide nanotubes (RuO2·1.84H2O) have been successfully achieved using a template-free, microwave-hydrothermal process. These were found to be amorphous in nature and have a large specific surface area of 250 m(2)·g(-1), producing a specific and volumetric capacitance of 511 F·g(-1) and 531 F·cm(-3), respectively, at a discharging current density of 0.5 A·g(-1). When used as an electrode material in an electrochemical capacitor or ultracapacitor, they produced a significant improvement in capacitance, rate capability, and cyclability that can be attributed to the hollow nature of tubes allowing greater contact between the active surface of the electrode and the electrolyte.

  13. Methods of Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes by Photooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Colon, Marisabel (Inventor); Meador, Michael A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of photooxidizing carbon nanotubes, such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are purified and dispersed in a solvent, such as n-methyl pyrrolidinone or dimethylformamide. A singlet oxygen sensitizer like Rose Bengal is added to the solution. Oxygen gas is continuously supplied while irradiating the solution while irradiating the solution with ultraviolet light to produce singlet oxygen to oxidize the single-walled carbon nanotubes. Advantageously, the method significantly increases the level of oxidation compared with prior art methods.

  14. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We present here a proof of concept for a novel fabrication method of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, utilizing black silicon nanograss (a forest of silicon nanometer-sized spikes created with reactive ion etching) coated with titanium tungsten diffusion barrier as a template. The method...... allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  15. Preparation of array of long carbon nanotubes and fibers therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Paul N.; DePaula, Ramond F.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Usov, Igor O.

    2015-11-19

    An array of carbon nanotubes is prepared by exposing a catalyst structure to a carbon nanotube precursor. Embodiment catalyst structures include one or more trenches, channels, or a combination of trenches and channels. A system for preparing the array includes a heated surface for heating the catalyst structure and a cooling portion that cools gas above the catalyst structure. The system heats the catalyst structure so that the interaction between the precursor and the catalyst structure results in the formation of an array of carbon nanotubes on the catalyst structure, and cools the gas near the catalyst structure and also cools any carbon nanotubes that form on the catalyst structure to prevent or at least minimize the formation of amorphous carbon. Arrays thus formed may be used for spinning fibers of carbon nanotubes.

  16. Ternary CNTs@TiO2/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Madian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes (NTs synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li+ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs@TiO2/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO2/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li+ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO2/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  17. Controlling the catalyst during carbon nanotube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J; Hofmann, S; Cantoro, M; Parvez, A; Ducati, C; Zhong, G; Sharma, R; Mattevi, C

    2008-11-01

    We have recently been able to grow single-walled carbon nanotubes by purely thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at temperatures as low as 400 degrees C. This has been achieved by separating the catalyst pre-treatment step from the growth step. In the pre-treatment step, a thin film catalyst is re-arranged into a series of nano-droplets, which are then the active catalysts. Both steps have been studied by in-situ environmental transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We have also studied the catalyst yield, the weight of nanotubes grown per weight of transition metal catalyst. Using very thin layers of Fe on Al2O3 support in a remote plasma-assisted CVD, we have achieved yields of order 100,000. This may be due to control of catalyst poisoning by ensuring an etching path.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes Growth on Graphite Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were synthesized on graphite fibers by thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). On the fiber surface, iron nanoparticles are coated and act as catalysts for CNT growth. The growth temperature ranges from 550 to 1000 C at an ambient pressure. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane contents of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis. At high growth temperatures (greater than 800 C), the rapid inter-diffusion of the transition metal iron on the graphite surface results in a rough fiber surface with no CNT grown on the surface. When the growth temperature is relatively low (650 - 800 C), CNT are fabricated on the graphite surface with catalytic particles on the nanotube top ends. Using micro Raman spectroscopy in the breath mode region, single-walled or multi-walled CNT can be determined, depending on methane concentrations.

  19. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Lerner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (<1000 cfu/ml. In contrast, the carrier mobility is affected comparably by Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml.

  20. Hydrogen Evolution on Hydrophobic Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Abha; Giri, Jyotsnendu; Daraio, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    We investigate for the first time hydrophobic carbon nanotube-based electrochemical cells as an alternative solution to hydrogen sorting. We show that the electrically conducting surface of the nanotube arrays can be used as a cathode for hydrogen generation and absorption by electrolyzing water. We support our findings with Raman and gas chromatography measurements. These results suggest that carbon nanotube forests, presenting a unique combination of hydrophobicity and conductivity, are sui...

  1. Noncovalently silylated carbon nanotubes decorated with quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Bottini, Massimo; Magrini, Andrea; Dawson, Marcia I.; Rosato, Nicola; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Mustelin, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    A nanoassembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes coated by a thin layer of silica followed by quantum dots was prepared. That the quantum dots retained their photoluminescent properties after deposition onto the silylated carbon nanotubes suggests that the thin layer of silica prevented the quenching of the fluorescence by the nanotubes. This fluorescent nanoassembly represents an excellent building block for photoelectric and optical devices and biological nanoprobes.

  2. A complete carbon counter electrode for high performance quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2017-03-01

    The proposed research describes the design and fabrication of a quasi-solid state dye sensitized solar cells (Q-DSSCs) with a complete carbon based counter electrode (CC-CE) and gel infused membrane electrolyte. For CE, the platinized fluorinated tin oxide glass (Pt/FTO) was replaced by the soft cationic functioned multiwall carbon nanotubes (SCF-MWCNT) catalytic layer coated on woven carbon fiber fabric (CFF) prepared on handloom by interlacing of carbon filament tapes. SCF-MWCNT were synthesized by functionalization of cationised lipase from Candida Ragusa. Cationised enzyme solution was prepared at pH ∼3 by using acetic acid. The cationic enzyme functionalization of MWCNT causes the minimum damage to the tubular morphology and assist in fast anchoring of negative iodide ions present in membrane electrolyte. The high electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance (RCT = 2.12 Ω) of our proposed system of CC-CE shows that the woven CFF coated with cationised lipase treated carbon nanotubes enriched with positive surface ions. The Q-DSSCs fabricated with CC-CE and 5 wt% PEO gel infused PVDF-HFP membrane electrolyte exhibit power conversion efficiency of 8.90% under masking. Our suggested low cost and highly efficient system of CC-CE helps the proposed quasi-solid state DSSCs structure to stand out as sustainable next generation solar cells.

  3. Carbon composites composites with carbon fibers, nanofibers, and nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Deborah D L

    2017-01-01

    Carbon Composites: Composites with Carbon Fibers, Nanofibers, and Nanotubes, Second Edition, provides the reader with information on a wide range of carbon fiber composites, including polymer-matrix, metal-matrix, carbon-matrix, ceramic-matrix and cement-matrix composites. In contrast to other books on composites, this work emphasizes materials rather than mechanics. This emphasis reflects the key role of materials science and engineering in the development of composite materials. The applications focus of the book covers both the developing range of structural applications for carbon fiber composites, including military and civil aircraft, automobiles and construction, and non-structural applications, including electromagnetic shielding, sensing/monitoring, vibration damping, energy storage, energy generation, and deicing. In addition to these new application areas, new material in this updated edition includes coverage of cement-matrix composites, carbon nanofibers, carbon matrix precursors, fiber surface ...

  4. Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI REN ZHONG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a Ni–Cu–Al catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 20–60 nm, while their outer diameter is about 40–80 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the Ni–Cu–Al catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.

  5. Carbon nanotube reinforced polyacrylonitrile and poly(etherketone) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul

    The graphitic nature, continuous structure, and high mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them good candidate for reinforcing polymer fiber. The different types of CNTs including single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), few-wall carbon nanotubes (FWNTs), and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) differ in terms of their diameter and number of graphitic walls. The desire has been to increase the concentration of CNTs as much as possible to make next generation multi-functional materials. The work in this thesis is mainly focused on MWNT and CNF reinforced polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite fibers, and SWNT, FWNT, and MWNT reinforced poly(etherketone) (PEK) composite fibers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the spinning of 20% MWNT or 30% CNF reinforced polymer fiber spun using conventional fiber spinning. Also, this is the first study to report the PEK/CNT composite fibers. The fibers were characterized for their thermal, tensile, mechanical, and dynamic mechanical properties. The fiber structure and morphology was studied using WAXD and SEM. The effect of two-stage heat drawing, sonication time for CNF dispersion, fiber drying temperature, and molecular weight of PAN was also studied. Other challenges associated with processing high concentrations of solutions for making composite fibers have been identified and reported. The effect of CNT diameter and concentration on fiber spinnability and electrical conductivity of composite fiber have also been studied. This work suggests that CNT diameter controls the maximum possible concentration of CNTs in a composite fiber. The results show that by properly choosing the type of CNT, length of CNTs, dispersion of CNTs, fiber spinning method, fiber draw ratio, and type of polymer, one can get electrically conducting fibers with wide range of conductivities for different applications. The PEK based control and composite fibers possess high thermal

  6. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  7. Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composites, A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    et thermiques. Ces propriétés extraordinaires découlent de leur unique structure tubulaire; les nanotubes se présentent comme des feuilles de...structure unique. Les nanotubes de carbone sont des allotropes du carbone se présentant comme des feuilles de graphite enroulées en cylindres. Selon

  8. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method with Atomistix tool kit. The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental set-ups. The study ...

  9. Very short functionalized carbon nanotubes for membrane applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, A.; Reijerkerk, Sander; Potreck, Jens; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Mekhalif, Z.; Delhalle, J.

    2010-01-01

    The cutting and functionalization of carbon nanotubes is described, applying a single-step ball-mill based process. Very short carbon nanotubes bearing primary amine functions were produced, characterized and incorporated in polymeric membranes. The gas separation performance of the composite

  10. Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dommele, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen containing Carbon Nanotubes (NCNT) have altered physical- and chemical properties with respect to polarity, conductivity and reactivity as compared to conventional carbon nanotubes (CNT) and have potential for use in electronic applications or catalysis. In this thesis the incorporation of

  11. Cross-linking of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with polymeric amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Stuart, M. C. A.; Landaluce, T. F.; Fausti, D.; Rudolf, P.; Picchioni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes is considered as an essential step to enable their manipulation and application in potential end-use products. In this paper we introduce a new approach to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by applying an amidation-type grafting reaction with

  12. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe Fetterman, Yevgeny Raitses, and Michael Keidar

    2008-04-08

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  13. Re-grown aligned carbon nanotubes with improved field emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Xiaodai; Zhu, Yanwu; Varghese, Binni; Gao, Xingyu; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a simple technique to improve the field emission property of multi-walled carbon nanotubes is presented. Re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are grown on the same substrates after the as-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are transferred to other substrates using polydimethylsiloxane as intermediation. For the duration of the synthesis of the re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes, similar synthesis parameters used in growing the as-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are utilized. As a form of possible application, field emission studies show -2.6 times improvement in field enhancement factor and more uniform emission for the re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the turn-on field is reduced from 2.85 V/microm to 1.40 V/microm. Such significant improvements are attributed to new emission sites comprising of sharp carbonaceous impurities encompassing both tip and upper portion of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. As such, this technique presents a viable route for the production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with better field emission quality.

  14. Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Jr., Roger G.; Resasco, Daniel E.; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    2016-11-29

    Compositions for detecting and/or destroying cancer tumors and/or cancer cells via photodynamic therapy are disclosed, as well as methods of use thereof. The compositions comprise a linking protein or peptide attached to or otherwise physically associated with a carbon nanotube to form a targeted protein-carbon nanotube complex.

  15. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  16. Kinetics of laser-assisted carbon nanotube growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, Y. van de; Bellouard, Y.; Mandamparambil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth is an attractive mask-less process for growing locally aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in selected places on temperature sensitive substrates. The nature of the localized process results in fast carbon nanotube growth with high experimental

  17. Activity of catalase adsorbed to carbon nanotubes: effects of carbon nanotube surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengdong; Luo, Shuiming; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-15

    Nanomaterials have been studied widely as the supporting materials for enzyme immobilization. However, the interactions between enzymes and carbon nanotubes (CNT) with different morphologies and surface functionalities may vary, hence influencing activities of the immobilized enzyme. To date how the adsorption mechanisms affect the activities of immobilized enzyme is not well understood. In this study the adsorption of catalase (CAT) on pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (O-SWNT), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) was investigated. The adsorbed enzyme activities decreased in the order of O-SWNT>SWNT>MWNT. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichrois (CD) analyses reveal more significant loss of α-helix and β-sheet of MWNT-adsorbed than SWNT-adsorbed CAT. The difference in enzyme activities between MWNT-adsorbed and SWNT-adsorbed CAT indicates that the curvature of surface plays an important role in the activity of immobilized enzyme. Interestingly, an increase of β-sheet content was observed for CAT adsorbed to O-SWNT. This is likely because as opposed to SWNT and MWNT, O-SWNT binds CAT largely via hydrogen bonding and such interaction allows the CAT molecule to maintain the rigidity of enzyme structure and thus the biological function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfur cathode based on layered carbon matrix for high-performance Li–S batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Feng; Qian, Ji; Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Teng; Xu, Rui; Ye, Yusheng; Li, Wenhui; Li, Li; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-03-01

    A novel carbon/sulfur composite has been fabricated by means of thermal and hydro-thermal treatments to serve as the cathode in Li -S batteries. The carbon matrix consists of graphene nanosheet (GS) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The "GS/MWCNT@S" composite allows for infiltration of electrolyte into the cathode, assists in entrapment of polysulfide intermediates, and accommodates some of the stress and volume expansion that occurs during charge discharge processes. In addition, the uniform distribution of sulfur in the conductive carbon matrix promotes utilization of the active materials. A Li-S cell containing the GS/MWCNT@S cathode delivered a capacity of 1290.8 mAh/g and exhibited stable specific capacities up to 612.1 mAh/g after 200 cycles at 0.1 C. These results demonstrate that this cathode material is a promising candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density.

  19. Interlayer shear behaviors of graphene-carbon nanotube network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huasong; Liu, Yilun

    2017-09-01

    The interlayer shear resistance plays an important role in graphene related applications, and different mechanisms have been proposed to enhance its interlayer load capacity. In this work, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and theoretical analysis to study interlayer shear behaviors of three dimensional graphene-carbon (3D-GC) nanotube networks. The shear mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) crosslink with different diameters are obtained which is one order of magnitude larger than that of other types of crosslinks. Under shear loading, 3D-GC exhibits two failure modes, i.e., fracture of graphene sheet and failure of CNT crosslink, determined by the diameter of CNT crosslink, crosslink density, and length of 3D-GC. A modified tension-shear chain model is proposed to predict the shear mechanical properties and failure mode of 3D-GC, which agrees well with MD simulation results. The results presented in this work may provide useful insights for future development of high-performance 3D-GC materials.

  20. Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-09-08

    Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.

  1. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Cobalt Oxide-Manganese Dioxide-Nickel Oxide Ternary 1D Hybrid Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Sarkar, Debasish; Karmakar, Keshab; Mandal, Kalyan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal

    2016-08-17

    We report a facile method to design Co3O4-MnO2-NiO ternary hybrid 1D nanotube arrays for their application as active material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This as-prepared novel supercapacitor electrode can store charge as high as ∼2020 C/g (equivalent specific capacitance ∼2525 F/g) for a potential window of 0.8 V and has long cycle stability (nearly 80% specific capacitance retains after successive 5700 charge/discharge cycles), significantly high Coulombic efficiency, and fast response time (∼0.17s). The remarkable electrochemical performance of this unique electrode material is the outcome of its enormous reaction platform provided by its special nanostructure morphology and conglomeration of the electrochemical properties of three highly redox active materials in a single unit.

  2. Vertically Aligned Co9 S8 Nanotube Arrays onto Graphene Papers as High-Performance Flexible Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongbin; Li, Xifei; Bai, Zhimin; Li, Jianwei; Han, Yan; Li, Dejun

    2017-10-14

    Paper-like electrodes are emerging as a new category of advanced electrodes for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). Graphene, a promising two-dimensional material with high conductivity, can be easily processed into papers. Here, we report a rational design of flexible architecture with Co9 S8 nanotube arrays (NAs) grown onto graphene paper (GP) via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. When employed as flexible free-standing electrode for SCs, the proposed architectured Co9 S8 /GPs exhibits superior electrochemical performance with ultrahigh capacitance and outstanding rate capability (469 F g-1 at 10 A g-1 ). These results demonstrate that the new nanostructured Co9 S8 /GPs can be potentially applied in high performance flexible supercapacitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. THz bandwidth optical switching with carbon nanotube metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Chipouline, Arkadi; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2012-03-12

    We provide the first demonstration of exceptional light-with-light optical switching performance of a carbon nanotube metamaterial - a hybrid nanostructure of a plasmonic metamaterial with semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. A modulation depth of 10% in the near-IR with sub-500 fs response time is achieved with a pump fluence of just 10 μJ/cm², which is an order of magnitude lower than in previously reported artificial nanostructures. The improved switching characteristics of the carbon nanotube metamaterial are defined by an excitonic nonlinearity of carbon nanotubes resonantly enhanced by a concentration of local fields in the metamaterial. Since the spectral position of the excitonic response and metamaterial plasmonic resonance can be adjusted by using carbon nanotubes of different diameter and scaling of the metamaterial design, the giant nonlinear response of the hybrid metamaterial - in principle - can be engineered to cover the entire second and third telecom windows, from O- to U-band.

  4. Thermophoretic Motion of Water Nanodroplets confined inside Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-01-01

    We study the thermophoretic motion of water nanodroplets confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the nanodroplets move in the direction opposite the imposed thermal gradient with a terminal velocity that is linearly proportional to the gradient....... The translational motion is associated with a solid body rotation of the water nanodroplet coinciding with the helical symmetry of the carbon nanotube. The thermal diffusion displays a weak dependence on the wetting of the water-carbon nanotube interface. We introduce the use of the Moment Scaling Spectrum (MSS......) in order to determine the characteristics of the motion of the nanoparticles inside the carbon nanotube. The MSS indicates that affinity of the nanodroplet with the walls of the carbon nanotubes is important for the isothermal diffusion, and hence for the Soret coefficient of the system....

  5. Carbon Nanotube Electrode Arrays For Enhanced Chemical and Biological Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie

    2003-01-01

    Applications of carbon nanotubes for ultra-sensitive electrical sensing of chemical and biological species have been a major focus in NASA Ames Center for Nanotechnology. Great progress has been made toward controlled growth and chemical functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and integration into micro-fabricated chip devices. Carbon nanotube electrode arrays devices have been used for sub-attomole detection of DNA molecules. Interdigitated carbon nanotubes arrays devices have been applied to sub ppb (part per billion) level chemical sensing for many molecules at room temperature. Stability and reliability have also been addressed in our device development. These results show order of magnitude improvement in device performance, size and power consumption as compared to micro devices, promising applications of carbon nanotube electrode arrays for clinical molecular diagnostics, personal medical testing and monitoring, and environmental monitoring.

  6. Polyvinylferrocene for noncovalent dispersion and redox-controlled precipitation of carbon nanotubes in nonaqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianwen; Rutledge, Gregory C; Hatton, T Alan

    2013-08-06

    We report noncovalent dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in organic liquids with extremely high loading (∼2 mg mL(-1)) using polyvinylferrocene (PVF). In contrast to common dispersants, PVF does not contain any conjugated structures or ionic moieties. PVF is also shown to be effective in controlling nanotube dispersion and reprecipitation because it exhibits redox-switchable affinity for solvents, while maintaining stable physical attachment to CNTs during redox transformation. This switchability provides a novel approach to creating CNT-functionalized surfaces. The material systems described here offer new opportunities for applications of CNTs in nonaqueous media, such as nanotube-polymer composites and organic liquid-based optical limiters, and expand the means of tailoring nanotube dispersion behavior via external stimuli, with potential applications in switching devices. The PVF/CNT hybrid system with enhanced redox response of ferrocene may also find applications in high-performance biosensors and pseudocapacitors.

  7. Measuring carbon nanotube band gaps through leakage current and excitonic transitions of nanotube diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapanis, Argyrios; Jones, David A; Comfort, Everett; Lee, Ji Ung

    2011-05-11

    The band gap of a semiconductor is one of its most fundamental properties. It is one of the defining parameters for applications, including nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. Measuring the band gap, however, has received little attention for quasi-one-dimensional materials, including single-walled carbon nanotubes. Here we show that the current-voltage characteristics of p-n diodes fabricated with semiconducting carbon nanotubes can be used along with the excitonic transitions of the nanotubes to measure both the fundamental (intrinsic) and renormalized nanotube band-gaps.

  8. Large-scale carbon nanotube synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kiern J; Dunens, Oscar M; See, Chee H; Harris, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a form of crystalline carbon with extraordinary chemical, physical, electrical and mechanical properties, making them potentially valuable in a broad range of applications. These properties have resulted in an unprecedented level of interest in the development of techniques to manufacture CNTs, and consequently a raft of competing patents have been issued, with universities and commercial entities alike looking to obtain patent protection for their inventions. In this paper we review relevant aspects of international patent law, summarize CNT definitions and discuss patent irregularities, and discuss the implications of the widening gap between nanotechnology practice and the underlying patent law. This is followed by a review of the chemical vapour deposition technique of CNT synthesis, in particular using a fluidised bed, identified as the most promising method to date for the large-scale, low cost production of CNTs. We further examine the carbon nanotube patent space, focusing primarily on patents for CNTs produced via CVD and FBCVD techniques. This patent space is both convoluted and uncertain, and it appears likely that some form of litigation will ensue in future to ultimately determine intellectual property ownership in various regions. We also discuss the likely effect of this 'patent thicket' on the commercialisation of large-scale CNT synthesis processes.

  9. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity risk of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Novel materials are often commercialized without a complete assessment of the risks they pose to human health because such assessments are costly and time-consuming; additionally, sometimes the methodology needed for such an assessment does not exist. Carbon nanotubes have the potential for widespread application in engineering, materials science and medicine. However, due to the needle-like shape and high durability of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), concerns have been raised that they may induce asbestos-like pathogenicity when inhaled. Indeed, experiments in rodents supported this hypothesis. Notably, the genetic alterations in MWCNT-induced rat malignant mesothelioma were similar to those induced by asbestos. Single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) cause mitotic disturbances in cultured cells, but thus far, there has been no report that SWCNTs are carcinogenic. This review summarizes the recent noteworthy publications on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of CNTs and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for this carcinogenicity. The nanoscale size and needle-like rigid structure of CNTs appear to be associated with their pathogenicity in mammalian cells, where carbon atoms are major components in the backbone of many biomolecules. Publishing adverse events associated with novel materials is critically important for alerting people exposed to such materials. CNTs still have a bright future with superb economic and medical merits. However, appropriate regulation of the production, distribution and secondary manufacturing processes is required, at least to protect the workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Li-Chu; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Tan, Yuen-Fen; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an important class of nanomaterials, which have numerous novel properties that make them useful in technology and industry. Generally, there are two types of CNTs: single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes. SWNTs, in particular, possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, allowing for a wide range of applications in various fields, including the electronic, computer, aerospace, and biomedical industries. However, the use of SWNTs has come under scrutiny, not only due to their peculiar nanotoxicological profile, but also due to the forecasted increase in SWNT production in the near future. As such, the risk of human exposure is likely to be increased substantially. Yet, our understanding of the toxicological risk of SWNTs in human biology remains limited. This review seeks to examine representative data on the nanotoxicity of SWNTs by first considering how SWNTs are absorbed, distributed, accumulated and excreted in a biological system, and how SWNTs induce organ-specific toxicity in the body. The contradictory findings of numerous studies with regards to the potential hazards of SWNT exposure are discussed in this review. The possible mechanisms and molecular pathways associated with SWNT nanotoxicity in target organs and specific cell types are presented. We hope that this review will stimulate further research into the fundamental aspects of CNTs, especially the biological interactions which arise due to the unique intrinsic characteristics of CNTs.

  11. Ultrastrong, Stiff and Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [North Carolina State University; Yong, Zhenzhong [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics; Li, Qingwen [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics; Bradford, Philip D. [North Carolina State University; Liu, Wei [Donghua University, Shanghai, China; Tucker, Dennis S. [Tucker Technical Solutions; Cai, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo [North Carolina State University; Zhu, Yuntian [North Carolina State University

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an order of magnitude stronger than any current engineering fiber. However, for the past two decades it has been a challenge to utilize their reinforcement potential in composites. Here we report CNT composites with unprecedented multifunctionalities, including record high strength (3.8 GPa), Young s modulus (293 GPa), electrical conductivity (1230 S cm-1) and thermal conductivity (41 W m-1 K-1). These superior properties are derived from the long length, high volume fraction, good alignment and reduced waviness of the CNTs, which were produced by a novel processing approach that can be easily scaled up for industrial production.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Integration with a CMOS Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maximiliano S.; Lerner, Betiana; Resasco, Daniel E.; Pareja Obregon, Pablo D.; Julian, Pedro M.; Mandolesi, Pablo S.; Buffa, Fabian A.; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the integration of a sensor based on carbon nanotubes using CMOS technology. A chip sensor (CS) was designed and manufactured using a 0.30 μm CMOS process, leaving a free window on the passivation layer that allowed the deposition of SWCNTs over the electrodes. We successfully investigated with the CS the effect of humidity and temperature on the electrical transport properties of SWCNTs. The possibility of a large scale integration of SWCNTs with CMOS process opens a new route in the design of more efficient, low cost sensors with high reproducibility in their manufacture. PMID:22319330

  13. Carbon Nanotubes as Thermally Induced Water Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Brownian motors (TBMs) are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations to provide useful work. We introduce a TBM-based nanopump which enables continuous water flow through a carbon nanotube (CNT) by imposing an axial thermal gradient along its surface. We impose spatial asymmetry...... along the CNT by immobilizing certain points on its surface. We study the performance of this molecular motor using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the MD trajectories, we compute the net water flow and the induced velocity profiles for various imposed thermal gradients. We find that spatial...

  14. An electrothermal carbon nanotube gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takeshi; Chiamori, Heather C; Suter, Marcel; Zhou, Qin; Sosnowchik, Brian D; Lin, Liwei

    2007-12-01

    We show both gas pressure and species sensing capabilities based on the electrothermal effect of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). Upon exposure to gaseous environments, the resistance of a heated MWCNT is found to change following the conductive heat-transfer variances of gas molecules. To realize this mechanism, a suspended MWCNT is constructed by synthesis and assembly in localized chemical vapor deposition that is accomplished within seconds via real-time electrical feedback control. Vacuum pressure sensitivity and gas species differentiability are observed and analyzed. Such MWCNT electrothermal sensors are compact, fast and reversible in responses, and fully integratable with microelectronics.

  15. Metallic Carbon Nanotubes and Ag Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-04

    The goal of this DOE solar energy research was to understand how visible light interacts with matter, and how to make electric excitations evolve into separated electrons and holes in photovoltaic cells, especially in nanoparticles and nanowires. Our specific experiments focused on A) understanding plasmon enhanced spectroscopy and charge-transfer (metal-to-molecule) photochemistry on the surface of metallic particles and B) the spectroscopy and photochemistry of carbon nanotubes and graphene. I also worked closely with R. Friesner on theoretical studies of photo-excited electrons near surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles; this process is relevant to the Gratzel photovoltaic cell.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissker, Uhland; Hampel, Silke; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology. PMID:28883334

  17. Carbon nanotubes produced from natural cellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Barry; Xie, Xinfeng; Qian, Yuhui; Daniel, Geoffrey; Peterson, Michael; Jellison, Jody

    2008-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced from wood fiber using a low temperature process, which included continuous oxidization at 240 degrees C and cyclic oxidation at 400 degrees C. The inside diameter of the CNTs was approximately 4-5 nm and the outside diameter ranged from 10 nm to 20 nm. No CNTs were produced when pure lignin and cellulose were tested indicating that the molecular and spatial arrangement of cell wall plays an important role in CNT formation. The research suggests that the chemical components in the secondary plant cell wall and their differential ablation properties are critical for the formation of CNTs at these comparatively low temperatures.

  18. Carbon nanotube radio-frequency electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Donglai; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-05-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered a promising material for radio-frequency (RF) applications, owing to its high carrier mobility and saturated drift velocity, as well as ultra-small intrinsic gate capacitance. Here, we review progress on CNT-based devices and integrated circuits for RF applications, including theoretical projection of RF performance of CNT-based devices, preparation of CNT materials, fabrication, optimization of RF field-effect transistors (FETs) structures, and ambipolar FET-based RF applications, and we outline challenges and prospects of CNT-based RF applications.

  19. Carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Liao, Susan; Li, Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matrix composites, and CNTs reinforced ceramic matrix composites), their mechanical properties, cell experiments in vitro, and biocompatibility tests in vivo.

  20. Adhesive Behavior of Single Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yohei; Ishikawa, Atsunori; Nakayama, Yoshikazu

    2010-06-01

    We examined the adhesion of a carbon nanotube (CNT) tip using a manipulation technique with a transmission electron microscope. In addition, we estimated the maximum normal adhesion possibility of a CNT-based gecko tape. The adhesive behavior of a single isolated CNT to Au solid surfaces has high normal strength (6.84 nN), which has a linear relation to the cross section of a CNT, indicating the mechanism: van der Waals force was inferred from the contact of two flat surfaces. Adhesion measurements conducted on several surface materials verify that the surface chemistry affects adhesive properties of CNT tips.

  1. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  2. Octagonal Defects at Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaskólski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate knee-shaped junctions of semiconductor zigzag carbon nanotubes. Two dissimilar octagons appear at such junctions; one of them can reconstruct into a pair of pentagons. The junction with two octagons presents two degenerate localized states at Fermi energy (EF. The reconstructed junction has only one state near EF, indicating that these localized states are related to the octagonal defects. The inclusion of Coulomb interaction splits the localized states in the junction with two octagons, yielding an antiferromagnetic system.

  3. Direct pressure sensor using carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Nghia Trong

    2016-01-01

    Im Gegensatz zu herkömmlichen Dehnungsmessstreifen können Carbon nanotube (CNT)-basierte Komposite zusätzlich eine ausgeprägte Druck-abhängigkeit des Widerstandes aufweisen. Deshalb können Drucksensoren aus CNT-Nanokomposite ohne den Einsatz von Verformungskörpern wie z. B. Biegebalken aufgebaut werden. Die möglichen Anwendungsgebiete für diese direkt messenden Sensoren wurden in der vorliegenden Arbeit bei drei industriellen Anwendungen wie z. B. bei Robotergreifarmen gezeigt. Die Zielstellu...

  4. Superconductivity in single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Yavari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   By using Greens function method we first show that the effective interaction between two electrons mediated by plasmon exchange can become attractive which in turn can lead to superconductivity at a high critical temperature in a singl wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. The superconducting transition temperature Tc for the SWCNT (3,3 obtained by this mechanism agrees with the recent experimental result. We also show as the radius of SWCNT increases, plasmon frequency becomes lower and leads to lower Tc.

  5. Thermodynamics on Soluble Carbon Nanotubes: How Do DNA Molecules Replace Surfactants on Carbon Nanotubes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuichi; Inoue, Ayaka; Niidome, Yasuro; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Here we represent thermodynamics on soluble carbon nanotubes that enables deep understanding the interactions between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and molecules. We selected sodium cholate and single-stranded cytosine oligo-DNAs (dCn (n = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, and 20)), both of which are typical SWNT solubilizers, and successfully determined thermodynamic properties (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS values) for the exchange reactions of sodium cholate on four different chiralities of SWNTs ((n,m) = (6,5), (7,5), (10,2), and (8,6)) for the DNAs. Typical results contain i) the dC5 exhibited an exothermic exchange, whereas the dC6, 8, 10, 15, and 20 materials exhibited endothermic exchanges, and ii) the energetics of the dC4 and dC7 exchanges depended on the associated chiral indices and could be endothermic or exothermic. The presented method is general and is applicable to any molecule that interacts with nanotubes. The study opens a way for science of carbon nanotube thermodynamics. PMID:23066502

  6. Carbon nanotube oscillator surface profiling device and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian [Tampa, FL; Woods, Lilia M [Tampa, FL; Bondarev, Igor V [Fuquay Varina, NC

    2011-11-15

    The proposed device is based on a carbon nanotube oscillator consisting of a finite length outer stationary nanotube and a finite length inner oscillating nanotube. Its main function is to measure changes in the characteristics of the motion of the carbon nanotube oscillating near a sample surface, and profile the roughness of this surface. The device operates in a non-contact mode, thus it can be virtually non-wear and non-fatigued system. It is an alternative to the existing atomic force microscope (AFM) tips used to scan surfaces to determine their roughness.

  7. Covalent Crosslinking of Carbon Nanotube Materials for Improved Tensile Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James S.; Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany A.; Meador, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted much interest in recent years due to their exceptional mechanical properties. Currently, the tensile properties of bulk carbon nanotube-based materials (yarns, sheets, etc.) fall far short of those of the individual nanotube elements. The premature failure in these materials under tensile load has been attributed to inter-tube sliding, which requires far less force than that needed to fracture individual nanotubes.1,2 In order for nanotube materials to achieve their full potential, methods are needed to restrict this tube-tube shear and increase inter-tube forces.Our group is examining covalent crosslinking between the nanotubes as a means to increase the tensile properties of carbon nanotube materials. We are working with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheet and yarn materials obtained from commercial sources. Several routes to functionalize the nanotubes have been examined including nitrene, aryl diazonium, and epoxide chemistries. The functional nanotubes were crosslinked through small molecule or polymeric bridges. Additionally, electron beam irradiation induced crosslinking of the non-functional and functional nanotube materials was conducted. For example, a nanotube sheet material containing approximately 3.5 mol amine functional groups exhibited a tensile strength of 75 MPa and a tensile modulus of 1.16 GPa, compared to 49 MPa and 0.57 GPa, respectively, for the as-received material. Electron beam irradiation (2.2x 1017 ecm2) of the same amine-functional sheet material further increased the tensile strength to 120 MPa and the modulus to 2.61 GPa. This represents approximately a 150 increase in tensile strength and a 360 increase in tensile modulus over the as-received material with only a 25 increase in material mass. Once we have optimized the nanotube crosslinking methods, the performance of these materials in polymer matrix composites will be evaluated.

  8. Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cirillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior. The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Silke; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review. PMID:24587993

  10. Non-Planar Nanotube and Wavy Architecture Based Ultra-High Performance Field Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2016-11-01

    This dissertation presents a unique concept for a device architecture named the nanotube (NT) architecture, which is capable of higher drive current compared to the Gate-All-Around Nanowire architecture when applied to heterostructure Tunnel Field Effect Transistors. Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, heterostructure NT TFET leverages physically larger tunneling area thus achieving higher driver current (ION) and saving real estates by eliminating arraying requirement. We discuss the physics of p-type (Silicon/Indium Arsenide) and n-type (Silicon/Germanium hetero-structure) based TFETs. Numerical TCAD simulations have shown that NT TFETs have 5x and 1.6 x higher normalized ION when compared to GAA NW TFET for p and n-type TFETs, respectively. This is due to the availability of larger tunneling junction cross sectional area, and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination, while achieving sub 60 mV/dec performance for more than 5 orders of magnitude of drain current, thus enabling scaling down of Vdd to 0.5 V. This dissertation also introduces a novel thin-film-transistors architecture that is named the Wavy Channel (WC) architecture, which allows for extending device width by integrating vertical fin-like substrate corrugations giving rise to up to 50% larger device width, without occupying extra chip area. The novel architecture shows 2x higher output drive current per unit chip area when compared to conventional planar architecture. The current increase is attributed to both the extra device width and 50% enhancement in field effect mobility due to electrostatic gating effects. Digital circuits are fabricated to demonstrate the potential of integrating WC TFT based circuits. WC inverters have shown 2× the peak-to-peak output voltage for the same input, and ~2× the operation frequency of the planar inverters for the same peak-to-peak output voltage. WC NAND circuits have shown 2× higher peak-to-peak output voltage, and 3× lower high-to-low propagation

  11. Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Metin

    2016-03-01

    Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied in the present work. Governing equation of motion of multiwalled carbon nanotube is obtained using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The effect of van der Waals interaction coefficient is considered between inner and outer nanotubes. Dispersion relations are obtained and discussed in detail. Effect of nonlocal parameter and van der Waals interaction to the torsional wave propagation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is investigated. It is obtained that torsional van der Waals interaction between adjacent tubes can change the rotational direction of multiwalled carbon nanotube as in-phase or anti-phase. The group and escape velocity of the waves converge to a limit value in the nonlocal elasticity approach.

  12. Making Macroscopic Assemblies of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Richard E.; Colbert, Daniel T.; Smith, Ken A.; Walters, Deron A.; Casavant, Michael J.; Qin, Xiaochuan; Yakobson, Boris; Hauge, Robert H.; Saini, Rajesh Kumar; Chiung, Wan-Ting; hide

    2005-01-01

    A method of aligning and assembling single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to fabricate macroscopic structures has been invented. The method entails suspending SWNTs in a fluid, orienting the SWNTs by use of a magnetic and/or electric field, and then removing the aligned SWNTs from suspension in such a way as to assemble them while maintaining the alignment. SWNTs are essentially tubular extensions of fullerene molecules. It is desirable to assemble aligned SWNTs into macroscopic structures because the common alignment of the SWNTs in such a structure makes it possible to exploit, on a macroscopic scale, the unique mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties that individual oriented SWNTs exhibit at the molecular level. Because of their small size and high electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes, and especially SWNTs, are useful for making electrical connectors in integrated circuits. Carbon nanotubes can be used as antennas at optical frequencies, and as probes in scanning tunneling microscopes, atomic-force microscopes, and the like. Carbon nanotubes can be used with or instead of carbon black in tires. Carbon nanotubes are useful as supports for catalysts. Ropes of SWNTs are metallic and, as such, are potentially useful in some applications in which electrical conductors are needed - for example, they could be used as additives in formulating electrically conductive paints. Finally, macroscopic assemblies of aligned SWNTs can serve as templates for the growth of more and larger structures of the same type. The great variety of tubular fullerene molecules and of the structures that could be formed by assembling them in various ways precludes a complete description of the present method within the limits of this article. It must suffice to present a typical example of the use of one of many possible variants of the method to form a membrane comprising SWNTs aligned substantially parallel to each other in the membrane plane. The apparatus used in this variant

  13. A comparative study of primary secondary amino (PSA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as QuEChERS absorbents for the rapid determination of diazepam and its major metabolites in fish samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Huan; Wu, Lidong

    2016-01-30

    A simple and fast modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method is presented for the determination of diazepam and its three major metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam (benzodiazepines) in fish samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry. Muscle tissues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned with primary secondary amino (PSA) adsorbents. The cleanup effect of PSA was compared with that of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in term of extraction efficiency. The better results were obtained when PSA was used. The chromatography separation was achieved within 5.0 min on a C18 column. The limit of detection was 0.5 µg kg(-1) and the limit of quantification was 2.5 µg kg(-1). Average recoveries of diazepam and its main metabolites were in the range of 88.5-110.1%, with a relative standard deviation lower than 10.0%. The proposed method for fish samples gives good recoveries, linearity, precision and accuracy. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Fabrication and performance of contamination free individual single-walled carbon nanotube optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuxiu; Cheng, Rong; Liu, Jianqiang; Li, Tie

    2014-06-01

    Contamination free individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) optical devices are fabricated using a hybrid method in the purpose of increase sensitivity as well as further understanding the sensing mechanism. The devices were tested in vacuum to avoid contamination. Three typical devices are discussed comparatively. Under infrared lamp illumination, photovoltaic and photoconductive properties are revealed in device A and B respectively, while device C shows no detectable signal. The photoresponse of device B reaches 108% at 78 K, much larger than that of horizontally aligned or network carbon nanotube devices, indicating priority of the individual nanotube device structure. Interestingly, the temperature characteristics of device A and B are just the opposite. The individual SWCNT devices hold promise in high performance and low cost optical sensors as well as nano-scale solar cells.

  15. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. S. T.; Alves, O. L.; Barbieri, E.

    2013-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO3-MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO3-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO3-MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO3-MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO3-MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  16. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  17. A cell nanoinjector based on carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xing; Kis, Andras; Zettl, Alex; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2007-01-30

    Technologies for introducing molecules into living cells are vital for probing the physical properties and biochemical interactions that govern the cell's behavior. Here we report the development of a nanoscale cell injection system-termed the nanoinjector-that uses carbon nanotubes to deliver cargo into cells. A single multi-walled carbon nanotube attached to an atomic force microscope tip was functionalized with cargo via a disulfide-based linker. Penetration of cell membranes with this 'nanoneedle', followed by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bonds within the cell's interior, resulted in the release of cargo inside the cells. The capability of the nanoinjector was demonstrated by injection of protein-coated quantum dots into live human cells. Single-particle tracking was employed to characterize the diffusion dynamics of injected quantum dots in the cytosol. This new technique causes no discernible membrane or cell damage, and can deliver a discrete number of molecules to the cell's interior without the requirement of a carrier solvent.

  18. Networking Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Herrera, J. M.; Terrones, M.; Terrones, H.; Meunier, V.

    2006-03-01

    The unique electronic and mechanical properties of individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much interest as candidates for molecular electronic devices and reinforced materials. However, their integration in organized architectures remains a major challenge. Recent breakthroughs reported on the Self-Assembly of 1D Nanostructures[1], and on the coalescence mechanism for interconnecting CNTs[2], point to the possibility of designing and obtaining Ordered Networks based on CNTs (ON- CNTs). We propose a set with different complex architectures of ON- CNTs based on --but not limited to-- armchair and zigzag nanotubes. In addition to the study of the energetics of the structures, we have systematically investigated their electronic transport properties in the framework of the Landauer-Buttiker formalism and equilibrium Green functions. To take curvature into account, we employed a semi-empirical Hamiltonian based on 4 orbitals (s,px,py,pz) per carbon atom. Further insight is obtained analyzing the electron pathways from a scattering point of view, which allows a real-space analysis of the wave function from the transmitted electrons across the structure. [1]Whang D etal. Nanoletters,3 (2003). Tao A etal. Nanoletters,3 (2003). [2]Terrones M etal. PRL,89 (2002). Endo M etal. Nanoletters,5 (2005).

  19. Stiff and Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian; Wang, Xin; Li, Qingwen; Bradford, Philip; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Tucker, Dennis; Cai, Wei; Wang, Hsin

    2012-02-01

    It has been a challenge for two decades to assemble the extremely strong carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into macroscopic CNT composites that break the strength ceiling of carbon fiber composites. Here we report the fast incorporation of long CNTs into polymer matrix using a novel approach, stretch-winding, to produce composites that are much stronger than any current engineering composite. The CNT composites reach a strength of 3.8 GPa, an excellent electrical conductivity and a high thermal conductivity. These superior properties are primarily derived from the long length, high volume fraction, good alignment and reduced waviness of the CNTs that are produced. The combination of high strength and excellent electrical and thermal conductivities makes CNT composites a promising enabler of new aerospace technologies and adventures.

  20. Crystallization and mechanical properties of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jing; Iftekharul Haque, Rubaiyet; Larsen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were purified and functionalized by nitric acid and octadecylamine. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the functionalization of the single-walled carbon nanotubes. Polyvinylidene flouride nanocomposites containing 1 wt......% purified or functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared by solution blending and injection molding. The dispersion of different carbon nanotubes in dimethylformamide and in polyvinylidene flouride has been investigated. Mechanical properties show that adding single-walled carbon nanotubes...

  1. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  2. Differentiating Left- and Right-Handed Carbon Nanotubes by DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Geyou; Streit, Jason K; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Zheng, Ming

    2016-12-28

    New structural characteristics emerge when solid-state crystals are constructed in lower dimensions. This is exemplified by single-wall carbon nanotubes, which exhibit a degree of freedom in handedness and a multitude of helicities that give rise to three distinct types of electronic structures: metals, quasi-metals, and semiconductors. Here we report the use of intrinsically chiral single-stranded DNA to achieve simultaneous handedness and helicity control for all three types of nanotubes. We apply polymer aqueous two-phase systems to select special DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes, each of which we argue must have an ordered DNA structure that binds to a nanotube of defined handedness and helicity and resembles a well-folded biomacromolecule with innate stereoselectivity. We have screened over 300 short single-stranded DNA sequences with palindrome symmetry, leading to the selection of more than 20 distinct carbon nanotube structures that have defined helicity and handedness and cover the entire chiral angle range and all three electronic types. The mechanism of handedness selection is illustrated by a DNA sequence that adopts two distinct folds on a pair of (6,5) nanotube enantiomers, rendering them large differences in fluorescence intensity and chemical reactivity. This result establishes a first example of functionally distinguishable left- and right-handed carbon nanotubes. Taken together, our work demonstrates highly efficient enantiomer differentiation by DNA and offers a first comprehensive solution to achieve simultaneous handedness and helicity control for all three electronic types of carbon nanotubes.

  3. Carbon Nanotubes as Active Components for Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-De Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique structure of carbon nanotubes endows them with fantastic physical and chemical characteristics. Carbon nanotubes have been widely studied due to their potential applications in many fields including conductive and high-strength composites, energy storage and energy conversion devices, sensors, field emission displays and radiation sources, hydrogen storage media, and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and quantum wires. Some of these applications have been realized in products, while others show great potentials. The development of carbon nanotubes-based sensors has attracted intensive interest in the last several years because of their excellent sensing properties such as high selectivity and prompt response. Carbon nanotube-based gas sensors are summarized in this paper. Sensors based on single-walled, multiwalled, and well-aligned carbon nanotubes arrays are introduced. Modification of carbon nanotubes with functional groups, metals, oxides, polymers, or doping carbon nanotubes with other elements to enhance the response and selectivity of the sensors is also discussed.

  4. Light Emission from Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misewich, James

    2004-03-01

    Since their discovery in 1991, research in carbon nanotubes has grown rapidly. Part of this interest is driven by the remarkable electrical and mechanical properties demonstrated by carbon nanotubes which could have significant technological impact (1,2). Recent progress has included demonstrations of interesting opto-electronic properties of carbon nanotubes. In one experiment we have shown that single carbon nanotubes can be a source of infrared optical emission (3). We have also shown how a single carbon nanotube can be used as a photoconductive detector (4). In this talk, we will examine the opto-electronic properties of individual single wall carbon nanotubes. (1) M.S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, and Ph. Avouris (eds.), "Carbon Nanotubes", Topics Appl. Phys. 80, (2001). (2) Ph. Avouris, Acct. Chem. Res. 35, 1026 (2002). (3) J.A. Misewich, R. Martel, Ph. Avouris, J. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, Science 300, 783 (2003). (4) M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J.A. Misewich, R. Martel, and Ph. Avouris, Nanoletters 3, 1067 (2003).

  5. Dephasing and hyperfine interaction in carbon nanotubes double quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynoso, Andres Alejandro; Flensberg, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the return probability experiment, which is used to measure the dephasing time T-2*, in a double quantum dot (DQD) in semiconducting carbon nanotubes with spin-orbit coupling and disorder-induced valley mixing. Dephasing is due to hyperfine interaction with the spins of the C...... with these for DQDs in clean nanotubes, whereas the disorder effect is always relevant when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nanotube axis....

  6. Ultrasonic Spraying of Carbon Nanotubes using Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Anthony; Davis, Robert; Vanfleet, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Because of their unique electrical and mechanical properties, thin films of carbon nanotubes have several potential applications, especially in the fields of organic electronics and photovoltaics. We present a method for spraying thin films of nanotubes that have been suspended in organic solvents N-methyl Pyrollidone (NMP) and N-Cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP). The sprayed nanotubes are randomly oriented, and films are transparent, conductive, and mechanically stable.

  7. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene Doped with Carbon Materials for High-Performance Supercapacitor: A Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariffah Nur Jannah Syed Zainol Abidin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT, graphene oxide (GO, and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC as a dopant in the preparation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene- (PEDOT- based hybrid nanocomposites was presented here. The hybrid nanocomposites were prepared via the electrochemical method in aqueous solution. The FTIR and Raman spectra confirmed the successful incorporation of dopants (MWCNT, GO, and NCC into PEDOT matrix in the process of formation of the hybrid nanocomposites. It was observed that the choice of the carbon material affected the morphologies and supercapacitive properties of the hybrid nanocomposites. Incorporation of GO with PEDOT produces a paper-like sheet nanocomposite in which the wrinkled surface results in larger surface area compared to the network-like and rod-like structures of PEDOT/MWCNT and PEDOT/NCC, respectively. Owing to larger surface area, PEDOT/GO exhibits the highest specific capacitance (120.13 F/g, low equivalent series resistance (34.44 Ω, and retaining 87.99% of the initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles, signifying a long-term cycling stability. Furthermore, the high performance of PEDOT/GO is also demonstrated by its high specific energy and specific power.

  8. Multiscale carbon nanotube-carbon fiber reinforcement for advanced epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekyarova, E; Thostenson, E T; Yu, A; Kim, H; Gao, J; Tang, J; Hahn, H T; Chou, T-W; Itkis, M E; Haddon, R C

    2007-03-27

    We report an approach to the development of advanced structural composites based on engineered multiscale carbon nanotube-carbon fiber reinforcement. Electrophoresis was utilized for the selective deposition of multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on woven carbon fabric. The CNT-coated carbon fabric panels were subsequently infiltrated with epoxy resin using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) to fabricate multiscale hybrid composites in which the nanotubes were completely integrated into the fiber bundles and reinforced the matrix-rich regions. The carbon nanotube/carbon fabric/epoxy composites showed approximately 30% enhancement of the interlaminar shear strength as compared to that of carbon fiber/epoxy composites without carbon nanotubes and demonstrate significantly improved out-of-plane electrical conductivity.

  9. Rotational actuator of motor based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Fennimore, Adam M.; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D.

    2008-11-18

    A rotational actuator/motor based on rotation of a carbon nanotube is disclosed. The carbon nanotube is provided with a rotor plate attached to an outer wall, which moves relative to an inner wall of the nanotube. After deposit of a nanotube on a silicon chip substrate, the entire structure may be fabricated by lithography using selected techniques adapted from silicon manufacturing technology. The structures to be fabricated may comprise a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT), two in plane stators S1, S2 and a gate stator S3 buried beneath the substrate surface. The MWNT is suspended between two anchor pads and comprises a rotator attached to an outer wall and arranged to move in response to electromagnetic inputs. The substrate is etched away to allow the rotor to freely rotate. Rotation may be either in a reciprocal or fully rotatable manner.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Emitter for X-ray Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Su Kang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The carbon nanotube field emitter array was grown on silicon substrate through a resist-assisted patterning (RAP process. The shape of the carbon nanotube array is elliptical with 2.0 × 0.5 mm2 for an isotropic focal spot size at anode target. The field emission properties with triode electrodes show a gate turn-on field of 3 V/µm at an anode emission current of 0.1 mA. The author demonstrated the X-ray source with triode electrode structure utilizing the carbon nanotube emitter, and the transmitted X-ray image was of high resolution.

  11. Resistance-based biosensor of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosovas-Machuca, E S; Vera-Reveles, G; Rodríguez-Aranda, M C; Ortiz-Dosal, L C; Segura-Cardenas, Emmanuel; Gonzalez, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) are a good choice for resistive biosensors due to their great resistance changes when immunoreactions take place, they are also low-cost, more biocompatible than single-walled carbon nanotubes, and resistive measurement equipment is usually not expensive and readily available. In this work a novel resistive biosensor based on the immobilization of an antigen through a silanization process over the surface of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) is reported. Results show that the biosensor increases its conductivity when adding the antigen and decreases when adding the antibody making them good candidates for disease diagnosis.

  12. Correlation and dimensional effects of trions in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia

    2010-01-01

    We study the binding energies of singlet trions, i.e., charged excitons, in carbon nanotubes. The problem is modeled, through the effective-mass model, as a three-particle complex on the surface of a cylinder, which we investigate using both one- and two-dimensional expansions of the wave function...... are used to compute physical binding energies for a wide selection of carbon nanotubes. In addition, the dependence on dielectric screening is examined. Our findings indicate that trions are detectable at room temperature in carbon nanotubes with radius below 8 Å....

  13. Raman spectroscopic characterization of multiwall carbon nanotubes and of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bokobza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work Raman spectroscopy was used for extensive characterization of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs and of MWCNTs/rubber composites. We have measured the Raman spectra of bundled and dispersed multiwall carbon nanotubes. All the Raman bands of the carbon nanotubes are seen to shift to higher wavenumbers upon debundling on account of less intertube interactions. Effects of laser irradiation were also investigated. Strong effects are observed by changing the wavelength of the laser excitation. On the other hand, at a given excitation wavelength, changes on the Raman bands are observed by changing the laser power density due to sample heating during the measurement procedure.

  14. Transport Properties of Carbon-Nanotube/Cement Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Baoguo; Yang, Zhengxian; Shi, Xianming; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    This paper preliminarily investigates the general transport properties (i.e., water sorptivity, water permeability, and gas permeability) of carbon-nanotube/cement composites. Carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are dispersed into cement mortar to fabricate the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced cement-based composites by applying ultrasonic energy in combination with the use of surfactants (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate). Experimental results indicate that even at a very small dosage the addition of MWNTs can help decrease water sorptivity coefficient, water permeability coefficient, and gas permeability coefficient of cement mortar, which suggests that CNTs can effectively improve the durability properties of cement-based composites.

  15. Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  16. Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingqi; Wang, Qingxiao; Yue, Weisheng; Guo, Zaibing; Li, Liang; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xianbin; Abutaha, Anas I; Alshareef, H N; Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, X X

    2014-08-07

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations.

  17. Carbon nanospheres derived from Lablab purpureus for high performance supercapacitor electrodes: a green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gomaa A M; Divyashree, A; Supriya, S; Chong, Kwok Feng; Ethiraj, Anita S; Reddy, M V; Algarni, H; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2017-10-17

    Carbon nanospheres derived from a natural source using a green approach were reported. Lablab purpureus seeds were pyrolyzed at different temperatures to produce carbon nanospheres for supercapacitor electrode materials. The synthesized carbon nanospheres were analyzed using SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA, Raman spectroscopy, BET and XRD. They were later fabricated into electrodes for cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy testing. The specific capacitances were found to be 300, 265 and 175 F g-1 in 5 M KOH electrolyte for carbon nanospheres synthesized at 800, 700 and 500 °C, respectively. These are on a par with those of prior electrodes made of biologically derived carbon nanospheres but the cycle lives were remarkably higher than those of any previous efforts. The electrodes showed 94% capacitance retention even after 5200 charge/discharge cycles entailing excellent recycling durability. In addition, the practical symmetrical supercapacitor showed good electrochemical behaviour under a potential window up to 1.7 V. This brings us one step closer to fabricating a commercial green electrode which exhibits high performance for supercapacitors. This is also a waste to wealth approach based carbon material for cost effective supercapacitors with high performance for power storage devices.

  18. Filled carbon nanotubes in biomedical imaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martincic, Markus; Tobias, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been advocated as promising candidates in the biomedical field in the areas of diagnosis and therapy. In terms of drug delivery, the use of carbon nanotubes can overcome some limitations of 'free' drugs by improving the formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs, allowing targeted delivery and even enabling the co-delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. Two different approaches are currently being explored for the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents by carbon nanotubes, namely attachment of the payload to the external sidewalls or encapsulation into the inner cavities. Although less explored, the latter confers additional stability to the chosen diagnostic or therapeutic agents, and leaves the backbone structure of the nanotubes available for its functionalization with dispersing and targeting moieties. Several drug delivery systems and diagnostic agents have been developed in the last years employing the inner tubular cavities of carbon nanotubes. The research discussed in this review focuses on the use of carbon nanotubes that contain in their interior drug molecules and diagnosis-related compounds. The approaches employed for the development of such nanoscale vehicles along with targeting and releasing strategies are discussed. The encapsulation of both biomedical contrast agents and drugs inside carbon nanotubes is further expanding the possibilities to allow an early diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

  19. Some Observations on Carbon Nanotubes Susceptibility to Cell Phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Fraczek-Szczypta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs on cell phagocytosis. Three kinds of carbon nanotubes: single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, and ultra-long single-walled carbon nanotubes (ULSWCNTs before and after additional chemical functionalization were seeded with macrophage cell culture. Prior to biological testing, the CNTs were subjected to dispersion process with the use of phosphate buffered solution (PBS and PBS containing surfactant (Tween 20 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The results indicate that the cells interaction with an individual nanotube is entirely different as compared to CNTs in the form of aggregate. The presence of the surfactant favors the CNTs dispersion in culture media and facilitates phagocytosis process, while it has disadvantageous influence on cells morphology. The cells phagocytosis is a more effective for MWCNTs and SWCNHs after their chemical functionalization. Moreover, these nanotubes were well dispersed in culture media without using DMSO or surfactant. The functionalized carbon nanotubes were easily dispersed in pure PBS and seeded with cells.

  20. Multiporous carbon allotropes transformed from symmetry-matched carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs with homogeneous diameters have been proven to transform into new carbon allotropes under pressure but no studies on the compression of inhomogeneous CNTs have been reported. In this study, we propose to build new carbon allotropes from the bottom-up by applying pressure on symmetry-matched inhomogeneous CNTs. We find that the (3,0 CNT with point group C3v and the (6,0 CNT with point group C6v form an all sp3 hybridized hexagonal 3060-Carbon crystal, but the (4,0 CNT with point group D4h and the (8,0 CNT with point group D8h polymerize into a sp2+sp3 hybridized tetragonal 4080-Carbon structure. Their thermodynamic, mechanical and dynamic stabilities show that they are potential carbon allotropes to be experimentally synthesized. The multiporous structures, excellently mechanical properties and special electronic structures (semiconductive 3060-Carbon and semimetallic 4080-Carbon imply their many potential applications, such as gases purification, hydrogen storage and lightweight semiconductor devices. In addition, we simulate their feature XRD patterns which are helpful for identifying the two carbon crystals in future experimental studies.

  1. Multiporous carbon allotropes transformed from symmetry-matched carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yingxiang, E-mail: yingxiangcai@ncu.edu.cn; Wang, Hao; Xu, Shengliang; Hu, Yujie; Liu, Ning; Xu, Xuechun [Department of Physics, NanChang University, Jiangxi, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with homogeneous diameters have been proven to transform into new carbon allotropes under pressure but no studies on the compression of inhomogeneous CNTs have been reported. In this study, we propose to build new carbon allotropes from the bottom-up by applying pressure on symmetry-matched inhomogeneous CNTs. We find that the (3,0) CNT with point group C{sub 3v} and the (6,0) CNT with point group C{sub 6v} form an all sp{sup 3} hybridized hexagonal 3060-Carbon crystal, but the (4,0) CNT with point group D{sub 4h} and the (8,0) CNT with point group D{sub 8h} polymerize into a sp{sup 2}+sp{sup 3} hybridized tetragonal 4080-Carbon structure. Their thermodynamic, mechanical and dynamic stabilities show that they are potential carbon allotropes to be experimentally synthesized. The multiporous structures, excellently mechanical properties and special electronic structures (semiconductive 3060-Carbon and semimetallic 4080-Carbon) imply their many potential applications, such as gases purification, hydrogen storage and lightweight semiconductor devices. In addition, we simulate their feature XRD patterns which are helpful for identifying the two carbon crystals in future experimental studies.

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes integrated in microcantilevers for application of tensile strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Madsen, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    variations in the response. Using a simple resistor model we estimate the expected conductance-strain response for a multi-walled carbon nanotube, and compare to our results on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as well as measurements by others on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Integration of nanotubes...

  3. Gas Composition Sensing Using Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a lightweight, small sensor for inert gases that consumes a relatively small amount of power and provides measurements that are as accurate as conventional approaches. The sensing approach is based on generating an electrical discharge and measuring the specific gas breakdown voltage associated with each gas present in a sample. An array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a substrate is connected to a variable-pulse voltage source. The CNT tips are spaced appropriately from the second electrode maintained at a constant voltage. A sequence of voltage pulses is applied and a pulse discharge breakdown threshold voltage is estimated for one or more gas components, from an analysis of the current-voltage characteristics. Each estimated pulse discharge breakdown threshold voltage is compared with known threshold voltages for candidate gas components to estimate whether at least one candidate gas component is present in the gas. The procedure can be repeated at higher pulse voltages to estimate a pulse discharge breakdown threshold voltage for a second component present in the gas. The CNTs in the gas sensor have a sharp (low radius of curvature) tip; they are preferably multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or carbon nanofibers (CNFs), to generate high-strength electrical fields adjacent to the tips for breakdown of the gas components with lower voltage application and generation of high current. The sensor system can provide a high-sensitivity, low-power-consumption tool that is very specific for identification of one or more gas components. The sensor can be multiplexed to measure current from multiple CNT arrays for simultaneous detection of several gas components.

  4. Scattering of terahertz radiation from oriented carbon nanotube films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Schroeder, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Session title: IThC-THz Interactions with Condensed Matter. We report on the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to measure scattering from multi-walled carbon nanotubes aligned normal to the film plane. Measurements indicate scattering from the nanotubes is significantly stronger than...

  5. A Computational Experiment on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott; Lonie, David C.; Chen, Jiechen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been developed and employed in an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Computations were carried out to determine the electronic structure, radial breathing modes, and the influence of the nanotube's diameter on the…

  6. Filled and empty states of carbon nanotubes in water: Dependence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have carried out a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing a narrow carbon nanotube as a solute to investigate the filling and emptying of the nanotube and also the modifications of the density and hydrogen bond distributions of water inside and also in the vicinity of the outer surfaces of the ...

  7. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of suspended single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeRoy, B.J.; Lemay, S.G.; Kong, J.; Dekker, C.

    2004-01-01

    We have performed low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy measurements on single-wall carbon nanotubes that are freely suspended over a trench. The nanotubes were grown by chemical vapor deposition on a Pt substrate with predefined trenches etched into it. Atomic resolution was obtained on the

  8. Submicrosecond-timescale readout of carbon nanotube mechanical motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, H.B.; Johnston, S.R.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report fast readout of the motion of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. A close-proximity high electron mobility transistor amplifier is used to increase the bandwidth of the measurement of nanotube displacements from the kHz to the MHz regime. Using an electrical detection scheme with the

  9. Complexes of carbon nanotubes with oligonucleotides in thin Langmuir-Blodgett films to detect electrochemically hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. S.; Egorova, V. P.; Krylova, H. V.; Lipnevich, I. V.; Orekhovskaya, T. I.; Veligura, A. A.; Govorov, M. I.; Shulitsky, B. G.

    2014-10-01

    Self-assembled complexes consisting of thin multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and DNA-oligonucleotides which are able to a cooperative binding to complementary oligonucleotides have been investigated. It was establised a high-performance charge transport in nanostructured Langmuir-Blodgett complexes thin MWCNTs/DNA. A method to electrochemically detect DNA hybridization on the self-organized structures has been proposed.

  10. Polypyrrole functionalized with carbon nanotubes as an efficient and new electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kakarla Raghava; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of chemical functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polypyrrole (PPy) via chemical oxidative polymerization on the electrical conductivity and electrochemical supercapacitive properties of the PPy-MWCNTs functional hybrids. They demonstrate good specific capacitance up to 268 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and a good cycling stability, which is higher than that of pure PPy. These advanced electrodes can be used as high-performance electrochemical energy storage supercapacitors.

  11. Fracture of Carbon Nanotube - Amorphous Carbon Composites: Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for use as reinforcements in next generation structural composite materials because of their extremely high specific stiffness and strength. They cannot, however, be viewed as simple replacements for carbon fibers because there are key differences between these materials in areas such as handling, processing, and matrix design. It is impossible to know for certain that CNT composites will represent a significant advance over carbon fiber composites before these various factors have been optimized, which is an extremely costly and time intensive process. This work attempts to place an upper bound on CNT composite mechanical properties by performing molecular dynamics simulations on idealized model systems with a reactive forcefield that permits modeling of both elastic deformations and fracture. Amorphous carbon (AC) was chosen for the matrix material in this work because of its structural simplicity and physical compatibility with the CNT fillers. It is also much stiffer and stronger than typical engineering polymer matrices. Three different arrangements of CNTs in the simulation cell have been investigated: a single-wall nanotube (SWNT) array, a multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) array, and a SWNT bundle system. The SWNT and MWNT array systems are clearly idealizations, but the SWNT bundle system is a step closer to real systems in which individual tubes aggregate into large assemblies. The effect of chemical crosslinking on composite properties is modeled by adding bonds between the CNTs and AC. The balance between weakening the CNTs and improving fiber-matrix load transfer is explored by systematically varying the extent of crosslinking. It is, of course, impossible to capture the full range of deformation and fracture processes that occur in real materials with even the largest atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. With this limitation in mind, the simulation results reported here provide a plausible upper limit on

  12. Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Different ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into numerous consumer products, and have also been employed in various industrial areas because of their extraordinary properties. The large scale production and wide applications of CNTs make their release into the environment a major concern. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the degree of potential CNT contamination in the environment, which requires a sensitive and accurate technique for selectively detecting and quantifying CNTs in environmental matrices. In this study, a simple device based on utilizing heat generated/temperature increase from CNTs under microwave irradiation was built to quantify single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and carboxylated CNTs (MWCNT-COOH) in three environmentally relevant matrices (sand, soil and sludge). Linear temperature vs CNT mass relationships were developed for the three environmental matrices spiked with known amounts of different types of CNTs that were then irradiated in a microwave at low energies (70-149 W) for a short time (15-30 s). MWCNTs had a greater microwave response in terms of heat generated/temperature increase than SWCNTs and MWCNT-COOH. An evaluation of microwave behavior of different carbonaceous materials showed that the microwave measurements of CNTs were not affected even with an excess of other organic, inorganic carbon or carbon based nanomaterials (fullerene, granular activated carbon and graphene oxide) mainly because micr

  13. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothi, Kapil; Simate, Geoffrey S; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny E; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates carbon nanotube (CNT) production from coal pyrolysis wherein the output gases are used in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The carbon products are similar to those using commercial coal gas as feedstock, but coal is a relatively cheaper feedstock compared to high purity source gases. A Gibbs minimization model has been developed to predict the volume percentages of product gases from coal pyrolysis. Methane and carbon monoxide were the largest carbon components of the product stream and thus formed the primary source for CNT synthesis. Both the model and the observations showed that increasing the furnace temperature led to a decrease in the absolute quantities of "useful" product gases, with the optimal temperature between 400 and 500 °C. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic rate law for CNT from coal pyrolysis was derived as d[CNT]/dt = K([CO][CH4])(1/2), where K is a function of several equilibrium constants representing various reactions in the CNT formation process.

  14. Flame Synthesis Used to Create Metal-Catalyzed Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.

    2001-01-01

    Metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are highly ordered carbon structures of nanoscale dimensions. They may be thought of as hollow cylinders whose walls are formed by single atomic layers of graphite. Such cylinders may be composed of many nested, concentric atomic layers of carbon or only a single layer, the latter forming a single-walled carbon nanotube. This article reports unique results using a flame for their synthesis. Only recently were carbon nanotubes discovered within an arc discharge and recognized as fullerene derivatives. Today metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are of great interest for many reasons. They can be used as supports for the metal catalysts like those found in catalytic converters. Open-ended nanotubes are highly desirable because they can be filled by other elements, metals or gases, for battery and fuel cell applications. Because of their highly crystalline structure, they are significantly stronger than the commercial carbon fibers that are currently available (10 times as strong as steel but possessing one-sixth of the weight). This property makes them highly desirable for strengthening polymer and ceramic composite materials. Current methods of synthesizing carbon nanotubes include thermal pyrolysis of organometallics, laser ablation of metal targets within hydrocarbon atmospheres at high temperatures, and arc discharges. Each of these methods is costly, and it is unclear if they can be scaled for the commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In contrast, flame synthesis is an economical means of bulk synthesis of a variety of aerosol materials such as carbon black. Flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes could potentially realize an economy of scale that would enable their use in common structural materials such as car-body panels. The top figure is a transmission electron micrograph of a multiwalled carbon nanotube. The image shows a cross section of the atomic structure of the nanotube. The dark lines are individual atomic layer planes of

  15. Microtribology of aqueous carbon nanotube dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Kristiansen, Kai De Lange

    2011-09-23

    The tribological behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous humic acid (HA) solutions was studied using a surface forces apparatus (SFA) and shows promising lubricant additive properties. Adding CNTs to the solution changes the friction forces between two mica surfaces from "adhesion controlled" to "load controlled" friction. The coefficient of friction with either single-walled (SW) or multi-walled (MW) CNT dispersions is in the range 0.30-0.55 and is independent of the load and sliding velocity. More importantly, lateral sliding promotes a redistribution or accumulation, rather than squeezing out, of nanotubes between the surfaces. This accumulation reduced the adhesion between the surfaces (which generally causes wear/damage of the surfaces), and no wear or damage was observed during continuous shearing experiments that lasted several hours even under high loads (pressures â∼10 MPa). The frictional properties can be understood in terms of the Cobblestone Model where the friction force is related to the fraction of the adhesion energy dissipated during impacts of the nanoparticles. We also develop a simple generic model based on the van der Waals interactions between particles and surfaces to determine the relation between the dimensions of nanoparticles and their tribological properties when used as additives in oil- or water-based lubricants. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Carbon nanotube--poly(3-octylthiophene) composite photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, David L; Czerw, Richard; Harrison, Benjamin

    2006-07-01

    The effects of varying nanotube loading/concentration in carbon nanotube-poly(3-octylthiophene) blends used as thin film photovoltaic cells, have been studied. The network of single walled nanotubes clearly aids in exciton separation and modifies carrier mobility within the active layer as suggested by a bulk heterojunction model. Further, modifications to the metal-polymer interface occur with the addition of nanotubes leading to variations in the observed VOC of the photovoltaic cells. Finally, the "nanocomposite" devices exhibit significant enhancements to external power conversion efficiencies, with the overall efficiency strongly dependent on device design parameters such as the addition of buffer layers.

  17. Locally addressable tunnel barriers within a carbon nanotube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biercuk, M.; Mason, N.; Chow, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report the realization and characterization of independently controllable tunnel barriers within a carbon nanotube. The nanotubes are mechanically bent or kinked using an atomic force microscope, and top gates are subsequently placed near each kink. Transport measurements indicate that the kinks...... form gate-controlled tunnel barriers, and that gates placed away from the kinks have little or no effect on conductance. The overall conductance of the nanotube can be controlled by tuning the transmissions of either the kinks or the metal-nanotube contacts....

  18. Channeling of protons through radial deformed carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borka Jovanović, V.; Borka, D.; Galijaš, S. M. D.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we have presented a theoretical investigation of the channeling of 1 GeV protons with the radial deformed (10, 0) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We have calculated channeling potential within the deformed nanotubes. For the first time we presented theoretically obtained spatial and angular distributions of channeled protons with radially deformed SWNT. We used a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique. We show that the spatial and angular distributions depend strongly of level of radial deformation of nanotube. These results may be useful for nanotube characterization and production and guiding of nanosized ion beams.

  19. Production and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanotube-Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pavel; Arepalli, Sivaram; Holmes, William; Gorelik, Olga; Files, Brad; Scott, Carl; Santos, Beatrice; Mayeaux, Brian; Victor, Joe

    1999-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winning discovery of the Buckuball (C60) in 1985 at Rice University by a group including Dr. Richard Smalley led to the whole new class of carbon allotropes including fullerenes and nanotubes. Especially interesting from many viewpoints are single-walled carbon nanotubes, which structurally are like a single graphitic sheet wrapped around a cylinder and capped at the ends. This cylinders have diameter as small as 0.5 - 2 nm (1/100,000th the diameter of a human hair) and are as long as 0.1 - 1 mm. Nanotubes are really individual molecules and believed to be defect-free, leading to high tensile strength despite their low density. Additionally, these fibers exhibit electrical conductivity as high as copper, thermal conductivity as high as diamond, strength 100 times higher than steel at one-sixth the weight, and high strain to failure. Thus it is believed that developments in the field of nanotechnology will lead to stronger and lighter composite materials for next generation spacecraft. Lack of a bulk method of production is the primary reason nanotubes are not used widely today. Toward this goal JSC nanotube team is exploring three distinct production techniques: laser ablation, arc discharge and chemical vapor deposition (CVD, in collaboration with Rice University). In laser ablation technique high-power laser impinges on the piece of carbon containing small amount of catalyst, and nanotubes self-assemble from the resulting carbon vapor. In arc generator similar vapor is created in arc discharge between carbon electrodes with catalyst. In CVD method nanotubes grow at much lower temperature on small catalyst particles from carbon-containing feedstock gas (methane or carbon monoxide). As of now, laser ablation produces cleanest material, but mass yield is rather small. Arc discharge produces grams of material, but purity is low. CVD technique is still in baby steps, but preliminary results look promising, as well as perspective of scaling the process

  20. Fluorescence labeling of carbon nanotubes and visualization of a nanotube-protein hybrid under fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shige H; Khan, Shahbaz; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Yoshikazu; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2011-04-11

    Biological applications of carbon nanotubes have been hampered by the inability to visualize them using conventional optical microscope, which is the most common tool for the observation and measurement of biological processes. Recently, a number of fluorescence labeling methods for biomolecules and various fluorescence probes have been developed and widely utilized in biological fields. Therefore, labeling carbon nanotubes with such fluorophores under physiological conditions will be highly useful in their biological applications. In this Article, we present a method to fluorescently label nanotubes by combining a detergent and a fluorophore commonly used in biological experiments. Fluorophores carrying an amino group (Texas Red hydrazide or BODIPY FL-hydrazide) were covalently attached to the hydroxyl groups of Tween 20 using carbonyldiimidazole. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that nanotubes were efficiently solubilized and labeled by this fluorescently labeled detergent. By using this technique, we also demonstrated multicolor fluorescence imaging of a nanotube-protein hybrid.

  1. Fluorescent single walled carbon nanotube/silica composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishkumar, B C; Doorn, Stephen K; Baker, Gary A; Dattelbaum, Andrew M

    2008-11-25

    We present a new approach for the preparation of single walled carbon nanotube silica composite materials that retain the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of the encapsulated nanotubes. Incorporation of isolated nanotubes into optically transparent matrices, such as sol-gel prepared silica, to take advantage of their near-infrared emission properties for applications like sensing has been a challenging task. In general, the alcohol solvents and acidic conditions required for typical sol-gel preparations disrupt the nanotube/surfactant assembly and cause the isolated nanotubes to aggregate leading to degradation of their fluorescence properties. To overcome these issues, we have used a sugar alcohol modified silica precursor molecule, diglycerylsilane, for encapsulation of nanotubes in silica under aqueous conditions and at neutral pH. The silica/nanotube composite materials have been prepared as monoliths, at least 5 mm thick, or as films (characteristics of the silica encapsulated carbon nanotubes by means of redox doping studies as well as demonstrated their potential for biosensing applications. Such nanotube/silica composite systems may allow for new sensing and imaging applications that are not currently achievable.

  2. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  3. Application of carbon nanotubes flexible strain sensor in smart textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong CHENG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart textiles have not only the necessary functions of daily wear, but also the intelligence. The focus of the current textile materials research is the selection of flexible material. For flexible materials, carbon material is one of the ideal materials for preparing flexible strain gauges. The application of flexible strain sensor prepared by carbon nanotubes as a flexible material in smart textiles is the research content. The research status of carbon nanotubes flexible strain sensor is introduced from the aspects of the structure, properties and application. The characteristics and functions of flexible strain gages prepared with carbon nanotube fibers and carbon nanotube films as flexible materials are discussed in terms of selection, preparation method, performance test and application. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of the flexible strain sensor of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from the aspects of preparation difficulty, production cost and practical application effect. High sensitivity with high strain will be a key research direction for carbon nanotube flexible strain sensors.

  4. Effects of Atomic-Scale Structure on the Fracture Properties of Amorphous Carbon - Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The fracture of carbon materials is a complex process, the understanding of which is critical to the development of next generation high performance materials. While quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are the most accurate way to model fracture, the fracture behavior of many carbon-based composite engineering materials, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) composites, is a multi-scale process that occurs on time and length scales beyond the practical limitations of QM methods. The Reax Force Field (ReaxFF) is capable of predicting mechanical properties involving strong deformation, bond breaking and bond formation in the classical molecular dynamics framework. This has been achieved by adding to the potential energy function a bond-order term that varies continuously with distance. The use of an empirical bond order potential, such as ReaxFF, enables the simulation of failure in molecular systems that are several orders of magnitude larger than would be possible in QM techniques. In this work, the fracture behavior of an amorphous carbon (AC) matrix reinforced with CNTs was modeled using molecular dynamics with the ReaxFF reactive forcefield. Care was taken to select the appropriate simulation parameters, which can be different from those required when using traditional fixed-bond force fields. The effect of CNT arrangement was investigated with three systems: a single-wall nanotube (SWNT) array, a multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) array, and a SWNT bundle system. For each arrangement, covalent bonds are added between the CNTs and AC, with crosslink fractions ranging from 0-25% of the interfacial CNT atoms. The SWNT and MWNT array systems represent ideal cases with evenly spaced CNTs; the SWNT bundle system represents a more realistic case because, in practice, van der Waals interactions lead to the agglomeration of CNTs into bundles. The simulation results will serve as guidance in setting experimental processing conditions to optimize the mechanical properties of CNT

  5. Biochemical Sensors Using Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for detecting presence of biomolecules in a selected subset, or in each of several selected subsets, in a fluid. Each of an array of two or more carbon nanotubes ("CNTs") is connected at a first CNT end to one or more electronics devices, each of which senses a selected electrochemical signal that is generated when a target biomolecule in the selected subset becomes attached to a functionalized second end of the CNT, which is covalently bonded with a probe molecule. This approach indicates when target biomolecules in the selected subset are present and indicates presence or absence of target biomolecules in two or more selected subsets. Alternatively, presence of absence of an analyte can be detected.

  6. Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemiresistive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixian Tang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of simple and low-cost chemical sensors is critically important for improving human life. Many types of chemical sensors have been developed. Among them, the chemiresistive sensors receive particular attention because of their simple structure, the ease of high precise measurement and the low cost. This review mainly focuses on carbon nanotube (CNT-based chemiresistive sensors. We first describe the properties of CNTs and the structure of CNT chemiresistive sensors. Next, the sensing mechanism and the performance parameters of the sensors are discussed. Then, we detail the status of the CNT chemiresistive sensors for detection of different analytes. Lastly, we put forward the remaining challenges for CNT chemiresistive sensors and outlook the possible opportunity for CNT chemiresistive sensors in the future.

  7. Carbon nanotubes dispersed in liquid crystal elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ji, Yan

    Liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs), as the name indicates, unite the anisotropic order of liquid crystals and rubber elasticity of elastomers into polymer networks. One of the most notable features of LCEs is that properly aligned LCEs exhibit dramatic and reversible shape deformation (e.g. elongation-contraction) in response to various stimuli. In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were introduced into LCEs. Besides enabling remote and spatial control of the actuation via light and electronic field, CNTs are also utilized to align mesogens as well as to improve the mechanical and electronic property of the composites. Some potential applications of CNT-LCE nanocomposites have been demonstrated. This chapter describes the preparation of CNT dispersed LCEs, new physical properties resulted from CNTs, their actuation and their proposed applications.

  8. Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemiresistive Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ruixian; Shi, Yongji; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Liangming

    2017-04-18

    The development of simple and low-cost chemical sensors is critically important for improving human life. Many types of chemical sensors have been developed. Among them, the chemiresistive sensors receive particular attention because of their simple structure, the ease of high precise measurement and the low cost. This review mainly focuses on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based chemiresistive sensors. We first describe the properties of CNTs and the structure of CNT chemiresistive sensors. Next, the sensing mechanism and the performance parameters of the sensors are discussed. Then, we detail the status of the CNT chemiresistive sensors for detection of different analytes. Lastly, we put forward the remaining challenges for CNT chemiresistive sensors and outlook the possible opportunity for CNT chemiresistive sensors in the future.

  9. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Carbon nanotubes for interconnects process, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dijon, Jean; Maffucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as interconnect material for horizontal, on-chip and 3D interconnects. The authors demonstrate the uses of bundles of CNTs, as innovative conducting material to fabricate interconnect through-silicon vias (TSVs), in order to improve the performance, reliability and integration of 3D integrated circuits (ICs). This book will be first to provide a coherent overview of exploiting carbon nanotubes for 3D interconnects covering aspects from processing, modeling, simulation, characterization and applications. Coverage also includes a thorough presentation of the application of CNTs as horizontal on-chip interconnects which can potentially revolutionize the nanoelectronics industry. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the state-of-the-art on exploiting carbon nanotubes for interconnects for both 2D and 3D integrated circuits. Provides a single-source reference on carbon nanotubes for interconnect applications; Includes c...

  11. Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis, purification, and medical applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eatemadi, Ali; Daraee, Hadis; Karimkhanloo, Hamzeh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Abasi, Mozhgan; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    .... Parameters such as structure, surface area, surface charge, size distribution, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state as well as purity of the samples have considerable impact on the reactivity of carbon nanotube...

  12. A novel multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-based nanocomposite for PEFC electrodes ... A novel nanocomposite comprising MWNTs and mixed-conducting polymeric components (electronic and ionic) is prepared, characterized and investigated as a ...

  13. Atom Collision-Induced Resistivity of Carbon Nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hugo E. Romero; Kim Bolton; Arne Rosén; Peter C. Eklund

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation of unusually strong and systematic changes in the electron transport in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes that are undergoing collisions with inert gas atoms or small molecules...

  14. Controlling electrical percolation in multicomponent carbon nanotube dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrylyuk, A.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269067590; Hermant, M. -C; Schilling, T.; Klumperman, B.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube reinforced polymeric composites can have favourable electrical properties, which make them useful for applications such as flat-panel displays and photovoltaic devices. However, using aqueous dispersions to fabricate composites with specific physical properties requires that the

  15. Polymerization Initiated at the Sidewalls of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Hudson, Jared L.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been developed for growing polymer chains via anionic, cationic, or radical polymerization from the side walls of functionalized carbon nanotubes, which will facilitate greater dispersion in polymer matrices, and will greatly enhance reinforcement ability in polymeric material.

  16. Conformal Carbon Nanotubes for Stray Light Suppression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to apply CVD and non-CVD carbon nanotubes to complex shapes that numerous scientists have requested for stray light control.  Currently, CVD...

  17. The Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raniszewski, Grzegorz; Miaskowski, Arkadiusz; Wiak, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to present the results of the investigation into the applications of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles as nanoheaters for targeted thermal ablation of cancer cells...

  18. High-Conductance Thermal Interfaces Based on Carbon Nanotubes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel thermal interface material (TIM) that is based on an array of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for high heat flux applications. For...

  19. Hot-wire chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, FR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing entirely to their structure, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess some of the most remarkable chemical and physical properties. More specifically, they exhibit exceptional strength and toughness, chemical inertness, magnetism, and electrical...

  20. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Deposition on Model Environmental Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on model environmental surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Deposition behaviors of MWNTs on positively and negatively charged surfaces were in good agreement with Der...