WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-level waste repository

  1. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  2. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  3. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  4. Monitoring of geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high level radioactive waste are designed to provide isolation of the waste from human environment for many thousands of years. This report discusses the possible purposes for monitoring geological repositories at the different stages of a repository programme, the use that may be made of the information obtained and the techniques that might be applied. This report focuses on the different objectives that monitoring might have at various stages of a programme, from the initiation of work on a candidate site, to the period after repository closure. Each objective may require somewhat different types of information, or may use the same information in different ways. Having evaluated monitoring requirements, the report concludes with a brief evaluation of available monitoring techniques

  5. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  6. Potential host media for a high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustrulid, W

    1982-01-01

    Earlier studies of burial of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories had concentrated on salt formations for well-publicized reasons. However, under the Carter administration, significant changes were made in the US nuclear waste management program. Changes which were made were: (1) expansion of the number of rock types under consideration; (2) adoption of the multiple-barrier approach to waste containment; (3) additional requirements for waste retrieval; and (4) new criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the isolation of high-level waste in geologic repositories. Results of the studies of different types of rocks as repository sites are summarized herein. It is concluded that each generic rock type has certain advantages and disadvantages when considered from various aspects of the waste disposal problem and that characteristics of rocks are so varied that a most favorable or least favorable rock type cannot be easily identified. This lack of definitive characteristics of rocks makes site selection and good engineering barriers very important for containment of the wastes. (BLM)

  7. Underground excavation methods for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshel, J.; Gupta, D.; Nataraja, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on rock excavation methods for a High-Level Waste repository that should be selected to limit the potential for creating preferential pathways for groundwater to travel to the waste packages or for radionuclides to migrate to the accessible environment. The use of water and other foreign substances should be controlled so that the repository performance is not compromised. The excavated openings should remain stable so that operations can be carried out safely and the retrievability option maintained. As per the current conceptual designs presented by the Department of Energy, the exploratory shaft facility becomes a part of the repository if the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for repository development. Therefore, the methods of constructing the underground openings should be compatible with the performance requirements for the repository. Also, the degree of damage to the rock surrounding the openings and the extent of the damage zone should not preclude adequate site characterization. The ESf construction and operation should be compatible with the site data gathering activities, such as geological, thermomechanical, hydrological and geochemical testing

  8. Testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Menamin, T.

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions was held on 17 to 21 October 1988 in Cadarache, France, and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and the Savannah River Laboratory (US DOE). Participants included representatives from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the United States. The first part of the conference featured a workshop on in situ testing of simulated nuclear waste forms and proposed package components, with an emphasis on the materials interface interactions tests (MIIT). MIIT is a sevent-part programme that involves field testing of 15 glass and waste form systems supplied by seven countries, along with potential canister and overpack materials as well as geologic samples, in the salt geology at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. This effort is still in progress and these proceedings document studies and findings obtained thus far. The second part of the meeting emphasized multinational experimental studies and results derived from repository systems simulation tests (RSST), which were performed in granite, clay and salt environments

  9. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  10. Thermal characteristics of rocks for high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Kenji; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Okamoto, Masamichi; Kumata, Masahiro; Araki, Kunio; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-12-01

    Heat released by the radioactive decay of high-level waste in an underground repository causes a long term thermal disturbance in the surrounding rock mass. Several rocks constituting geological formations in Japan were gathered and specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient and compressive strength were measured. Thermal analysis and chemical analysis were also carried out. It was found that volcanic rocks, i.e. Andesite and Basalt had the most favorable thermal characteristics up to around 1000 0 C and plutonic rock, i.e. Granite had also favorable characteristics under 573 0 C, transition temperature of quartz. Other igneous rocks, i.e. Rhyolite and Propylite had a problem of decomposition at around 500 0 C. Sedimentary rocks, i.e. Zeolite, Tuff, Sandstone and Diatomite were less favorable because of their decomposition, low thermal conductivity and large thermal expansion coefficient. (author)

  11. High-level waste repository-induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth, Dorset (United Kingdom); Senger, R. [Intera Inc., Ennetbaden (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a high-level waste (HLW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects on the host rock and engineered barriers arising principally from the heat generated by the waste. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement rooms and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock, with a focus on chemical effects of the waste and engineered materials on the host rock. The assessment of the repository-induced effects shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock immediately adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are controllable by limiting the heat load and gas effects are limited by ensuring acceptably low gas production rates and by the natural tendency of the gas to escape along the excavations and the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) rather than through the undisturbed rock. Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The SF/HLW emplacement rooms (emplacement drifts) are designed, constructed, operated and finally backfilled in such a way that formation of excavation damaged zones is limited. Specifically this is achieved

  12. High-level waste repository-induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J.; Smith, P.; Savage, D.; Senger, R.

    2016-10-01

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a high-level waste (HLW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects on the host rock and engineered barriers arising principally from the heat generated by the waste. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement rooms and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock, with a focus on chemical effects of the waste and engineered materials on the host rock. The assessment of the repository-induced effects shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock immediately adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are controllable by limiting the heat load and gas effects are limited by ensuring acceptably low gas production rates and by the natural tendency of the gas to escape along the excavations and the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) rather than through the undisturbed rock. Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The SF/HLW emplacement rooms (emplacement drifts) are designed, constructed, operated and finally backfilled in such a way that formation of excavation damaged zones is limited. Specifically this is achieved

  13. Final repositories for high-level radioactive waste; Endlagerung hochradioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    The brochure on final repositories for high-level radioactive waste covers the following issues: What is the origin of radioactive wastes? How large are the waste amounts? What is going to happen with the wastes? What is the solution for the Waste disposal? A new site search is started. Safety requirements for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Comparison of host rocks. Who is responsible and who will pay? Final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes worldwide. Short summary: History of the search for a final repository for high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  14. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  15. Neotectonic movement feature in preselection area for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Gao Yang; He Jianguo; Li Jianzhong; Gao Honglei; Xu Guoqing

    2010-01-01

    Neotectonic activity intensity is an important criteria for evaluating high level radioactive waste repository. The guiding ideology, methods and application of neotectonic study are elaborated in the paper. According to comparison research between the south and north part of east Tianshan area, the south part of east Tianshan is regarded as relative stable or relative weak in neotectonic movement in Neogene period and was selected as preselection area for high level radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  16. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded

  17. High level radioactive waste repositories. Task 3. Review of underground handling and emplacement. 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in an underground repository appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transport by road/rail to repository site; handling techniques within repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; conventional and radiological safety; costs; and major areas of uncertainty requiring research or development.

  18. Performance of high level waste forms and engineered barriers under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The IAEA initiated in 1977 a co-ordinated research programme on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High-Level Waste Forms'' which was terminated in 1983. As there was a continuing need for international collaboration in research on solidified high-level waste form and spent fuel, the IAEA initiated a new programme in 1984. The new programme, besides including spent fuel and SYNROC, also placed greater emphasis on the effect of the engineered barriers of future repositories on the properties of the waste form. These engineered barriers included containers, overpacks, buffer and backfill materials etc. as components of the ''near-field'' of the repository. The Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Performance of High-Level Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers Under Repository Conditions had the objectives of promoting the exchange of information on the experience gained by different Member States in experimental performance data and technical model evaluation of solidified high level waste forms, components of the waste package and the complete waste management system under conditions relevant to final repository disposal. The programme includes studies on both irradiated spent fuel and glass and ceramic forms as the final solidified waste forms. The following topics were discussed: Leaching of vitrified high-level wastes, modelling of glass behaviour in clay, salt and granite repositories, environmental impacts of radionuclide release, synroc use for high--level waste solidification, leachate-rock interactions, spent fuel disposal in deep geologic repositories and radionuclide release mechanisms from various fuel types, radiolysis and selective leaching correlated with matrix alteration. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. The function of packing materials in a high-level nuclear waste repository and some candidate materials: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Shade, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    Packing materials should be included in waste package design for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. A packing material barrier would increase confidence in the waste package by alleviating possible shortcomings in the present design and prolonging confinement capabilities. Packing materials have been studied for uses in other geologic repositories; appropriately chosen, they would enhance the confinement capabilities of salt repository waste packages in several ways. Benefits of packing materials include retarding or chemically modifying brines to reduce corrosion of the waste package, providing good thermal conductivity between the waste package and host rock, retarding or absorbing radionuclides, and reducing the massiveness of the waste package. These benefits are available at low percentage of total repository cost, if the packing material is properly chosen and used. Several candidate materials are being considered, including oxides, hydroxides, silicates, cement-based mixtures, and clay mixtures. 18 refs

  20. Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Boyle, J.W.

    1984-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel and requires the Secretary of Energy to evaluate five potential repository sites. One factor that is to be examined is transportation of radioactive materials to such a repository and whether transportation might be affected by shipments to a defense-only repository, or to one that accepts both defense and commercial waste. In response to this requirement, The Department of Energy has undertaken an evaluation of the cost and risk associated with the potential shipments. Two waste-flow scenarios are considered which are related to the total quantity of defense high-level waste which will be placed in a repository. The low-flow case is based on a total of 6700 canisters being transported from one site, while the high-flow case assumes that a total of 20,000 canisters will be transported from three sites. For the scenarios considered, the estimated shipping costs range from $105 million to $257 million depending upon the mode of transport and the repository location. The total risks associated with shipping defense high-level waste to a repository are estimated to be significantly smaller than predicted for other transportation activities. In addition, the cost of shipping defense high-level waste to a repository does not depend on whether the site is a defense-only or a commercial repository. Therefore, the transportation considerations are not a basis for the selection of one of the two disposal options

  1. Symposium on the development of nuclear waste policy: Siting the high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) attempted to formulate a viable national policy for managing the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The NWPA authorized the selection of two repository sites: the first to be constructed in the West and a second site developed in the eastern United States. A detailed process for site selection was outlined in the NWPA. In addition, the NWPA authorized open-quotes the development of a waste transportation system; required the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit a proposal to construct a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) after conducting a study of the need for, and feasibility of such a facility; and required the President to evaluate the use of the repositories ... for the disposal of high-level waste resulting from defense activitiesclose quotes (DOE, 1988, p. 1). A series of provisions granting oversight participation to states and Indian tribes, as well as a compensation package for the ultimate host state were also included. Responsibility for implementing the NWPA was assigned to DOE

  2. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for high-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An engineering project study aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of constructing a deep repository for high-level waste (Type C repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set representing typical geological and rock mechanical conditions as found outside the so-called Permocarboniferous basin in the regions under investigation by Nagra in Cantons Aargau, Schaffhausen, Solothurn and Zuerich. The repository is intended for disposal of high-level waste and any intermediate-level waste from re-processing in which the concentration of long-lived alpha-emitters exceeds the permissible limits set for a Type B repository. Final disposal of high-level waste is in subterranean, horizontally mined tunnels and of intermediate-level waste in underground vertical silos. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of around 6'000 HWL-cylinders (gross volume of around 1'200 m3) and around 10'000 m3 of intermediate-level waste. The total excavated volume is around 1'100'000 m3 and a construction time for the whole repository (up to the beginning of emplacement) of around 15 years is expected. For the estimated 50-year emplacement operations, a working team of around 60 people will be needed and a team of around 160 for the simultaneous tunnelling operations and auxiliary work. The project described in the present report permits the conclusion that construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste and, if necessary, spent fuel-rods is feasible with present-day technology

  3. Surrounding rock stress analysis of underground high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Wang Guangdi

    2006-01-01

    During decay of nuclear waste, enormous energy was released, which results in temperature change of surrounding rock of depository. Thermal stress was produced because thermal expansion of rock was controlled. Internal structure of surrounding rock was damaged and strength of rock was weakened. So, variation of stress was a dynamic process with the variation of temperature. BeiShan region of Gansu province was determined to be the depository field in the future, it is essential to make research on granite in this region. In the process of experiment, basic physical parameters of granite were analyzed preliminary with MTS. Long range temperature and stress filed was simulated considering the damage effect of surrounding rock, and rules of temperature and stress was achieved. (authors)

  4. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  5. Selection of the host rock for high level radioactive waste repository in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanxin; Wang Wenguang; Chen Zhangru

    2001-01-01

    The authors has briefly introduced the experiences of the host rock selection and the host rock types in other countries for high level radioactive waste repository. The potential host rocks in China are investigated. They include granite, tuff, clay, basalt, salt, and loess. The report has expounded the distributions, scale, thickness, mineral and chemical composition, construction, petrogenesis and the ages of the rock. The possibility of these rocks as the host rock has been studied. The six pieces of distribution map of potential rocks have been made up. Through the synthetical study, it is considered that granite as the host rock of high level radioactive waste repository is possible

  6. Thermal analysis of a ventilated high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    The cooling response of a single ventilated storage room in an unventilated array of rooms is examined. Calculations show that ventilation provides a thermal sink in the heated system inducing temperature gradients in the formation different from the unventilated case. An asymptotic cool-down limit exists for the storage room temperature; this minimum temperature depends on inlet air temperature, ventilation flow rate, and convective heat transfer coefficient. For inlet air at 75 0 F and 50,000 cfm and a heat transfer coefficient of 0.8 Btu h- 0 F-ft 2 , the limit is about 100 0 F. A storage room sealed for 5 years will achieve temperatures of approximately 180 0 F, and approximately 4 months would be required in order to cool the storage room floor to a temperature of 120 0 F with a flow rate of 50,000 cfm at an inlet air temperature of 75 0 F, assuming a convective heat transfer coefficient of 0.8 Btu/h- 0 F-ft 2 . Two months would be needed to cool the exhaust air to 120 0 F. For large air flow rates, the cooling time is independent of the flow rate. Increasing the storage room surface area by 25% over the baseline model depresses the cool-down temperatures by only 4 0 F and decreases cooling times by 20%. Modifications in canister design or width have virtually no effect on the cooling, but placing the waste deeper beneath the storage rooms and/or using longer canisters can lower the operating temperatures and cooling times. Reducing the canisters from 3.5 kW power density for 10-year-old waste (108.5 kW/acre) to 2.0 kW/canister (62 kW/acre) reduces cooling temperatures by more than 20 0 F and reduces cooling times to a few weeks or less. The cooling times are nearly independent of the conductivity of the geologic formation. The temperature increase in the air brought from the surface down the supply shaft to the storage room level is about 5 to 7 F 0 per 1000 feet. Temperature increases in regionsshould not be seriously restricted 30 or more feet away

  7. Effects of heat from high-level waste on performance of deep geological repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the effects of heat on the deep geological repository systems and its different components. The report is focussed specifically on effects due to thermal energy release solely from high-level waste or spent fuel. It reviews the experimental data and theoretical models of the effects of heat both on the behaviour of engineered and natural barriers. A summary of the current status of research and repository development including underground test facilities is presented

  8. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report

  9. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report.

  10. Human intrusion into geologic repositories for high-level radioactive waste: potential and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, F X [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1981-12-01

    Isolation of high-level radioactive waste over long periods of time requires protection not only from natural events and processes, but also from the deliberate or inadvertent activities of future societies. This paper evaluates the likelihood of inadvertent human intrusion due to the loss of societal memory of the repository site. In addition measures to prevent inadvertent intrusion, and to guide future societies in any decision to deliberately intrude into the repository are suggested.

  11. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.; Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1985-02-01

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  12. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  13. Aspects on the gas generation and migration in repositories for high level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Andre; Buhmann, Dieter; Meleshyn, Artur; Moenig, Joerg; Spiessl, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    In a deep geological repository for high-level waste, gases may be produced during the post-closure phase by several processes. The generated gases can potentially affect safety relevant features and processes of the repository, like the barrier integrity, the transport of liquids and gases in the repository and the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository into the biosphere. German long-term safety assessments for repositories for high-level waste in salt which were performed prior 2010 did not explicitly consider gas transport and the consequences from release of volatile radionuclides. Selected aspects of the generation and migration of gases in repositories for high-level waste in a salt formation are studied in this report from the viewpoint of the performance assessment. The knowledge on the availability of water in the repository, in particular the migration of salt rock internal fluids in the temperature field of the radioactive waste repository towards the emplacement drifts, was compiled and the amount of water was roughly estimated. Two other processes studied in this report are on the one hand the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository and their potential impact in the biosphere and on the other hand the transport of gases along the drifts and shafts of the repository and their interaction with the fluid flow. The results presented show that there is some gas production expected to occur in the repository due to corrosion of container material from water disposed of with the backfill and inflowing from the host rock during the thermal phase. If not dedicated gas storage areas are foreseen in the repository concept, these gases might exceed the storage capacity for gases in the repository. Consequently, an outflow of gases from the repository could occur. If there are failed containers for spent fuel, radioactive gases might be released from the containers into the gas space of the backfill and subsequently transported together

  14. Synthetic hydrogeological study on Beishan preselected area for high-level radioactive waste repository in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Ji Ruili; Wang Hailong; Liu Shufen; Zong Zihua; Dong Jiannan; Zhang Ming

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of large scale field hydrogeological investigation, synthetic hydrogeological studies related to groundwater system characteristics, permeability of rock bodies, groundwater dynamic, hydrogeochemistry, isotopic hydrology, CFC's of groundwater and groundwater flow field simulation were carried out for Beishan area, Gansu province. According to analysis on a large amount of hydrogeological data, the characteristics of groundwater circulation, groundwater hydrodynamics and hydrgeochemistry were described and the suitability of Beishan area as the potential area of high-level radioactive waste disposal was evaluated in the paper. Through this study, the hydrogeological study and evaluation methods in the siting of China's high level radioactive waste repository were set up. Furthermore, the important hydrogeological scientific evidence was provided for optimal site filtration of China's high-level radioactive waste repository in Beishan area. (authors)

  15. General conceptual design study for a high-level radioactive waste repository in a granite formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The object of the general conceptual design study for a high level radioactive wastes repository in a deep lying granite formation is to ensure that technology available in 1980 is suitable for building, operating and finally closing such a repository. It is feasible to build and operate a 1000 m deep repository, located in a granite batholith, receiving 30000 AVM canisters (after 30 years surface cooling), the disposal rate being 1000 canisters per year. Cost of the operation amounts to 1,3% of the corresponding amount of electricity. The building, operating and final closing phases will take 81 years

  16. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100 degrees C and could reach 250 degrees C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields

  17. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  18. System analysis methods for geological repository of high level radioactive waste in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiming; Wang Ju; Li Yunfeng; Jin Yuanxin; Zhao Honggang

    2009-01-01

    Taking Beishan granite site as an example, this paper proposes the conceptual and structural design of repository for high level radioactive waste at first. Then the function, structure, environment and evolution of the repository are described by the methodology of system analysis. Based on these designs and descriptions, a calculation model for the repository is developed with software GoldSim. At last, this calculation model is applied to emulate the space-time distribution of repository radiotoxicity, to analyze the sensitivity of parameters in the model, to optimize the design parameters, and to predict and assess the repository performance. The results of this study can provide technical supports for resources allocation and coordination of R and D projects. (authors)

  19. Instrument reliability for high-level nuclear-waste-repository applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogue, F.; Binnall, E.P.; Armantrout, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation will be needed to evaluate the characteristics of proposed high-level nuclear-wasted-repository sites and to monitor the performance of selected sites during the operational period and into repository closure. A study has been done to assess the reliability of instruments used in Department of Energy (DOE) waste repository related experiments and in other similar geological applications. The study included experiences with geotechnical, hydrological, geochemical, environmental, and radiological instrumentation and associated data acquisition equipment. Though this paper includes some findings on the reliability of instruments in each of these categories, the emphasis is on experiences with geotechnical instrumentation in hostile repository-type environments. We review the failure modes, rates, and mechanisms, along with manufacturers modifications and design changes to enhance and improve instrument performance; and include recommendations on areas where further improvements are needed

  20. Designing shafts for handling high-level radioactive wastes in mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambley, D.F.; Morris, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Waste package conceptual designs developed in the United States by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management are the basis for specifying the dimensions and weights of the waste package and transfer cask combinations to be hoisted in the waste handling shafts in mined geologic repositories for high-level radioactive waste. The hoist, conveyance, counterweight, and hoist ropes are then sized. Also taken into consideration are overwind and underwind arrestors and safety features required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Other design features such as braking systems, chairing system design, and hoisting speed are considered in specifying waste hoisting system parameters for example repository sites

  1. Fuzzy distributions in probabilistic environmental impact assessment: application to a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.; Joshi, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental modeling with a satisfaction levels of the end user in relation to a defined parameter coupled with imprecision that stems from the field data is a key issue. In the context of this issue success of possibility theory based on fuzzy sets has high visibility in comparison with conventional probability theory. Environmental impact assessments of a high level waste repository is focused using the new approach because the problems under consideration includes a number of qualitative uncertainties at different levels, apart from being quite complex; decision-maker's need to have a transparent assessment result that will enable him to understand underlying assumptions and to judge resulting doses. Fuzzy distributions have been tried to resolve the issues related to the safety of environment from the waste repository. Paper describes the details of fuzzy distribution, fuzzy logic and its possible application to deal the qualitative and quantitative uncertainty in connection with waste repository. (author)

  2. Fair rules for siting a high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, D.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic repositories are designed to resolve the ever-growing problem of high-level nuclear waste, but these facilities invite intense local opposition due to the perceived severity of the risks and the possibility of stigma effects. This analysis examines whether the perceived fairness of the siting process affects local residents' support for hosting a repository. In particular, a survey of 1,001 Nevada residents is used to test the hypothesis that an individual's willingness to accept a local repository will increase if he or she is convinced that this is the safest disposal option available. A logistic analysis indicates that beliefs regarding relative suitability have an independent effect on the acceptability of a local repository (i.e., Yucca Mountain). The article then considers the question of how to implement an optimizing strategy for siting facilities, comparing an idealized strategy against the original Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Amendments Act of 1987. Although choosing the safest site seems as if it could enhance public acceptance of the repository program, there is currently little prospect of identifying the best option to the high-level waste problem and, as a results, little chance of gaining the public support that is necessary to promote a successful siting outcome. 81 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  3. Anticipated Degradation Modes of Metallic Engineered Barriers for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic engineered barriers must provide a period of absolute containment to high-level radioactive waste in geological repositories. Candidate materials include copper alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. The national programs of nuclear waste management have to identify and assess the anticipated degradation modes of the selected materials in the corresponding repository environment, which evolves in time. Commonly assessed degradation modes include general corrosion, localized corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Laboratory testing and modeling in metallurgical and environmental conditions of similar and higher aggressiveness than those expected in service conditions are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials. This review focuses on the anticipated degradation modes of the selected or reference materials as corrosion-resistant barriers in nuclear repositories. These degradation modes depend not only on the selected alloy but also on the near-field environment. The evolution of the near-field environment varies for saturated and unsaturated repositories considering backfilled and unbackfilled conditions. In saturated repositories, localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking may occur in the initial aerobic stage, while general corrosion and hydrogen-assisted cracking are the main degradation modes in the anaerobic stage. Unsaturated repositories would provide an oxidizing environment during the entire repository lifetime. Microbiologically influenced corrosion may be avoided or minimized by selecting an appropriate backfill material. Radiation effects are negligible provided that a thick-walled container or an inner shielding container is used.

  4. Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.

    1989-02-01

    This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. (ed.)

    1989-02-01

    This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Mathematical modelling of heat production in deep geological repository of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanda, O.

    2017-01-01

    Waste produced by nuclear industry requires special handling. Currently, there is a research taking place, focused at possibilities of nuclear waste storage in deep geological repositories, hosted in stable geological environment. The high-level nuclear waste produces significant amount of heat for a long time, which can affect either environment outside of or within the repository in a negative way. Therefore to reduce risks, it is desirable to know the principles of such heat production, which can be achieved using mathematical modeling. This thesis comes up with a general model of heat production-time dependency, dependable on initial composition of the waste. To be able to model real situations, output of this thesis needs to be utilized in an IT solution. (authors)

  7. Source terms for analysis of accidents at a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubayi, V.; Davis, R.E.; Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to identifying source terms from possible accidents during the preclosure phase of a high-level nuclear waste repository. A review of the literature on repository safety analyses indicated that source term estimation is in a preliminary stage, largely based on judgement-based scoping analyses. The approach developed here was to partition the accident space into domains defined by certain threshold values of temperature and impact energy density which may arise in potential accidents and specify release fractions of various radionuclides, present in the waste form, in each domain. Along with a more quantitative understanding of accident phenomenology, this approach should help in achieving a clearer perspective on scenarios important to preclosure safety assessments of geologic repositories. 18 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Site characterization information needs for a high-level waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Nataraja, M.S.; Justus, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    At each of the three candidate sites recommended for site characterization for High-Level Waste Geologic Repository development, the DOE has proposed to conduct both surface-based testing and in situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. The basic information needs and consequently the planned surface-based and in situ testing program will be governed to a large extent by the amount of credit taken for individual components of the geologic repository in meeting the performance objectives and siting criteria. Therefore, identified information to be acquired from site characterization activities should be commensurate with DOE's assigned performance goals for the repository system components on a site-specific basis. Because of the uncertainties that are likely to be associated with initial assignment of performance goals, the information needs should be both reasonably and conservatively identified

  9. Overall review strategy for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's High-Level Waste Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Overall Review Strategy gives general guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for conducting it's license application and pre-license application reviews. These reviews are in support of the Commission's construction authorization decision for a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Objectives and strategies are defined that focus the staff's reviews on determining compliance with requirements of 10 CFR Part 60. These strategies define how the staff prioritizes its reviews on those key technical uncertainties considered to be most important to repository performance. Strategies also give guidance for developing, in an integrated way, the License Application Review Plan together with supporting performance assessments, analyses, and research

  10. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  11. High level nuclear waste repository in salt: Sealing systems status and planning report: Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the initial conceptual design studies for a repository sealing system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The first step in the initial design studies was to review the current design level, termed schematic designs. This review identified practicality of construction and development of a design methodology as two key issues for the conceptual design. These two issues were then investigated during the initial design studies for seal system materials, seal placement, backfill emplacement, and a testing and monitoring plan. The results of these studies have been used to develop a program plan for completion of the sealing system conceptual design. 60 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Status of technology for isolating high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingsberg, C.; Duguid, J.

    1980-10-01

    This report attempts to summarize the status of scientific and technological knowledge relevant to long-term isolation of high-level and transuranic wastes in a mined geologic repository. It also identifies and evaluates needed information and identifies topics in which work is under way or needed to reduce uncertainties. The major findings and conclusions on the following topics are presented: importance of the systems approach; prospects for successful isolation of wastes; need for site-specific investigations; human activities in the future; importance of modelling; disposal of transuranic wastes; status of technology of isolation barriers, performance assessment, site selection and characterization, and potential host rocks

  13. Transferring knowledge about high-level waste repositories: An ethical consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, S.; Kornwachs, K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present requirements to Information and Documentation Systems for high-level waste repositories from an ethical point of view. A structured synopsis of ethical arguments used by experts from Europe and America is presented. On the one hand the review suggests to reinforce the obligation to transfer knowledge about high level waste repositories. This obligation is reduced on the other hand by the objection that ethical obligations are dependent on the difference between our and future civilizations. This reflection results in proposing a list of well-balanced ethical arguments. Then a method is presented which shows how scenarios of possible future civilizations for different time horizons and related ethical arguments are used to justify requirements to the Information and Documentation System

  14. Environmental program planning for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report was prepared to illustrate the policy and actions that the State of Nevada believe are required to assure that the quality of the environment is adequately considered during the course of the DOE work at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The report describes the DOE environmental program and the studies planned by NWPO to reflect the State's position toward environmental protection. 41 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Hydrological performance assessment on siting the high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Wang Ju; Wang Zhiming; Su Rui; Lv Chuanhe; Zong Zihua

    2007-01-01

    Based on the research experiences in China and some developed countries in the world, the processes and methods on hydrological performance assessment for the siting of high radioactive repository are discussed in this paper. The methods and contents of hydrological performance assessment are discussed respectively for region, area and site hydrological investigation stages. At the same time, the hydrological performance assessment of the potential site for high level radioactive waste in China is introduced. (authors)

  16. Numerical aspects of the modelling of the local effects of a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreri, J.C.; Ventura, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical approximations adapted for the development of the computational models for the prediction of the effects of the emplacement of a high level waste repository are reviewed. The problems considered include: the thermal history of the rocky mass constituting the burial media, the flow of underground water and the associated migration of radionuclides in the same media. Results associated with verification of the implemented codes are presented. Their limitations and advantages are discussed. (Author) [es

  17. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Conceptual repository design in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Griffin, J.R.; Davies, J.W.; Burton, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives an interim report on UK studies on possible designs for a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. The properties of the waste are described and general technical considerations of consequences of disposal in the rock. As an illustration, two basic designs are described associated with pre-cooling in an intermediate store. Firstly, a 'wet repository' is outlined wherein canisters are sealed up closely in boreholes in the rock in regions of low groundwater movement. Secondly, a 'dry repository' above sea level is described where emplacement in tunnels is followed by a loose backfill containing activity absorbers. A connection to deep permeable strata maintains water levels below emplacement positions. Variants on the two basic schemes (tunnel emplacement in a wet repository and in situ cooling) are also assessed. It is concluded that all designs discussed produce a size of repository feasible for construction in the UK. Further, (1) a working figure of 100 0 C per maximum rock temperature is not exceeded, (2) no insuperable engineering problems have so far been found, though rock mechanics studies are at an early stage; (3) it is not possible to discount the escape of a few long-lived 'man-made' isotopes. A minute increment to natural activity in the biosphere may occur from traces of uranium and its decay chains; (4) at this stage, all the designs are still possible candidates for the construction of a UK repository. (author)

  18. Draft environmental impact statement. High-level waste repository site suitability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of HLWRSSC is to present guidelines which will help in the development of safe waste management schemes. Current regulations require solidification of all high-level waste within 5 years of their generation and transfer to a Federal waste repository within 10 years. Development of the proposed HLWRSSC is part of the overall NRC program to close the ''back end'' of the commercial LWR fuel cycle. In this document, the need for the HLWRSSC is reviewed, and the national energy policy, the need for electrical energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Considerations for HLWRSSC are presented, including the nature of the repository, important site-related factors, and radiological risk assessment methodology. Radiological and nonradiological environment impacts associated with the HLWRSSC are defined. Alternatives to the criteria are presented, and the cost-benefit-risk evaluation is reviewed

  19. A conceptual subsurface facility design for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.G., III; Bhattacharyya, K.K.; Segrest, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the design, construction, operation and closure of a repository in which to permanently dispose of the nation's high level nuclear waste. In addition to the objective of safely isolating the waste inventory, the repository must provide a safe working environment for its workforce, and protect the public. The conceptual design for this facility is currently being developed. Tunnel Boring Machine will be used to excavate 228 kilometers of tunneling to construct the facility over a 30 year period. The excavation operations will be physically separated from the waste emplacement operations, and each operation will have its own dedicated ventilation system. The facility is being designed to remain open for 150 years

  20. Radionuclide release from high level waste forms under repository conditions in clay or granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Lanza, F.

    1990-01-01

    The behaviour of both fully active and simulated vitrified high level waste (HLW) has been studied under conditions that are likely to occur in future repositories in clay and granite. The simulated HLW was doped with Cs, Sr, Tc and the actinides and the leaching of these elements from the glass has been measured together with their concentrations in the water of the near-field and their distribution between the various components of the repository. The diffusion coefficients of several elements in Boom clay has also been measured. The results show that the concentrations of Tc and the actinides in the near-field of a repository will be very low and that the actinides will only diffuse very slowly away from the vicinity of the glass. 24 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of granite for high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Zhou Hongwei; Jiang Pengfei; Yang Chunhe

    2008-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes (HLW) repository is a special deep underground engineering, and in the stages of site selection, designing, constructing ,the stability evaluation, lots of important rock mechanics problems need to be resolved. During the decay of nuclear waste, enormous thermal energy was released and temperature variation caused dynamic distribution of stress and deformation field of surrounding rock of repository. BeiShan region of Gansu province was selected to be the repository field in the future, it is of practical significance to do research on granite in this region. Based on the concept model of HLW repository, this thesis calculates temperature field, stress field and deformation field of HLW repository surrounding rock under the condition of TM coupled with applying the finite difference FLAC 3D . From this study, thermo-mechanical characteristic of granite is obtained primarily under given canister heat source and given decay law function. And these results show that the reasonable space between disposal hole is 8 m-12 m, and the peak temperature of the canister surface is 130 ℃, the centerline temperature between pits is about 40 ℃ which is maintained for about hundreds of years under given heating output at -500 m depth. (authors)

  2. Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Disruption scenarios for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.

    1986-01-01

    A high-level waste repository located in unsaturated welded tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would rely on six different, although not entirely independent, barriers to prevent escape of radioactivity. These barriers are the waste canister, fuel cladding, slow dissolution of the spent fuel itself, and slow movement of released contaminants in three different hydrogeologic units: the unsaturated Topopah Spring welded tuff unit, the unsaturated Calico Hills nonwelded tuff unit, and the saturated tuff aquifer. Fifty-eight processes and events that might affect such a repository were reviewed. Eighty-three different sequences were identified by which these processes and events could lead to failure of one or more barriers. Sequences which had similar consequences were grouped, yielding 17 categories. The repository system has considerable redundancy; most of the more likely disruptions affect only one or a few barriers. Occurrence of more than one disruption is needed before such disruptions would cause release of radioactivity. Future studies of repository performance must assess the likelihood and consequences of multiple-disruption scenarios to evaluate how well the repository meets performance standards

  4. Office of Geologic Repositories quality assurance plan for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This document sets forth geologic repository program-wide quality assurance program requirements and defines management's quality assurance responsibilities for the Office of Geologic Repositories and its projects. (LM)

  5. Socioeconomic impacts of large-scale developments: implications for high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Hamm, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste repositories will likely be located in sparsely settled rural areas in the US. These projects will significantly affect the economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social (the socioeconomic) dimensions of those rural areas. The impacts and means of mitigating them thus require careful analysis. This paper examines some of the potential socioeconomic impacts likely to occur in rural areas as a result of repository siting and development, and it describes some of the characteristics of mitigation programs that are likely to be necessary, if the impacts are to be addressed. Both (1) standard impacts, those resulting from the fact that, like many other large-scale developments, repositories will involve a substantial number of new workers and residents (relative to the size of existing communities), and (2) special impacts, those resulting from the fact that repositories store radioactive materials, are examined. The discussion indicates that economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social impacts (standard and special) of these repositories will be substantial and problematic in many cases. Unless the impacts are effectively addressed with carefully planned and well financed mitigation efforts that insure that high-quality planning information is provided to local residents, and that local residents are involved in impact planning and management throughout the siting and development process, repository siting is unlikely to be effectively and equitably achieved. 44 references

  6. Application of GIS in siting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao

    2010-01-01

    High level radioactive waste geo-disposal is directly related to environment protection and Sustainable Utilization of nuclear energy. To ensure both success and long-term safe disposal of the high level-radioactive waste, finding suitable sites is an important step in the research. Meanwhile, siting and evaluation the geo-disposal repository for high level-radioactive waste need a wide range of relevant information, including geology and geophysical surveys data, geochemistry data and other geoscience data in the field. At the same time, some of the data has its spatial property. Geographic information system (GIS) have a role to play in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of the siting disposal repository. GIS has greatly enhanced our ability to store, analyze and communicate accounts of the information. This study was conducted to compare the more suitable sites for the repository using GIS -based on the data which belongs to the preselected area in BeiShan, Gansu Province, China. First, the data of the pre-selected site is captured by GIS and stored in the geoscience database. Then, according to the relevant guide line in the field, the analysis models based on GIS are build. There are some thematic layers of the sites character grouped into two basic type, namely social factors(town, traffic and nuclear plant) and natural factors (water, land and animals and plants).In the paper, a series of GIS models was developed to compare the pre-selected areas in order to make optimal decision. This study shows that with appropriate and enough information GIS used in modeling is a powerful tool for site selection for disposal repository. (authors)

  7. Elicitation and use of expert judgment in performance assessment for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Hora, S.C.; Keeney, R.L.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents the concept of formalizing the elicitation and use of expert judgment in the performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories in deep geologic formations. The report begins with a discussion of characteristics (advantages and disadvantages) of formalizing expert judgment examples of previous uses of expert judgment in radioactive waste programs, criteria that can assist in deciding when to formalize expert judgment, and the relationship of formal use of expert judgment to data collection and modeling. The current state of the art with respect to the elicitation, use, and communication of formal expert judgment is presented. The report concludes with a discussion on potential applications of formal expert judgment in performance assessment of HLW repositories. 93 refs

  8. Siting high-level nuclear waste repositories: A progress report for Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohlich, R.K.; Vild, B.F.

    1986-03-01

    In this booklet, we will not try to argue the pros and cons of nuclear power or weapons production. We will focus instead on the issue of nuclear waste disposal. With the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, the US Congress and the President charged federal and state regulators with the responsibility of settling that issue by the end of this century - with extensive public involvement. This booklet, now in its second printing, is designed to explain the nature of ''high-level'' nuclear waste, the essential criteria for its safe and permanent disposal, and Rhode Island's participation in the federal repository program. It has been funded from a USDOE grant derived from a utility-financed Nuclear Waste Fund established under the NWPA. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Siting the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository: Social impacts for Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshansky, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States has been an issue of great controversy, particulary for the states under consideration. In addition to concerns expressed about the geological stability of the proposed sites, numerous social issues have been raised by the general public--most of which have been addressed by the draft environmental impact statements. Among the social impacts raised by the Department of Engery and the general public, those receiving the greatest attention were the potential influence of the repository on local economics, tourism, and the health status of the local residents. The major issues of interest in the present study include 1) the effects of respondent knowledge of nuclear waste disposal issues on opinions of health effects and tourism, particularly as they are affected by visitation patterns, and 2) the effects of occupation and education (in particular) on knowledge of nuclear waste disposal issues and opinions on technical and non-technical aspects of siting the repository. Preliminary results indicate that only about 40 percent of the respondents have visited the national parks in southeastern Utah, but over 70 percent feel they are informed about the issues associated with siting the repository. Over 60 percent of the respondents were very concerned about the possible negative effect the repository could have on jobs, tourism, health effects, and environmental quality. Cross-tabulations indicate that the respondents self rating on knowledge of nuclear disposal issues has a statistically significant influence on responses to socioeconomic issues, yet the same self rating scale is significantly influenced by the frequency with which respondents have visited the national parks in southeastern Utah

  10. Regional hydrogeological conceptual model of candidate Beishan area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailong; Guo Yonghai

    2014-01-01

    The numerical modeling of groundwater flow is an important aspect of hydrogeological assessment in siting of a high level radioactive waste disposal repository. Hydrogeological conceptual model is the basic and premise of numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Based on the hydrogeological analysis of candidate Beishan area, surface water system was created by using DEM data and the modeling area is determined. Three-dimensional hydrogeological structure model was created through GMS software. On the basis of analysis and description of boundary condition, flow field, groundwater budget and hydrogeological parameters, hydrogeological conceptual model was set up for the Beishan area. (authors)

  11. Containment barrier metals for high-level waste packages in a Tuff repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.W.; McCright, R.D.; O`Neal, W.C.

    1983-10-12

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Waste Package project is part of the US Department of Energy`s Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. The NNWSI project is working towards the development of multibarriered packages for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste in tuff in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The final engineered barrier system design may be composed of a waste form, canister, overpack, borehole liner, packing, and the near field host rock, or some combination thereof. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) role is to design, model, and test the waste package subsystem for the tuff repository. At the present stage of development of the nuclear waste management program at LLNL, the detailed requirements for the waste package design are not yet firmly established. In spite of these uncertainties as to the detailed package requirements, we have begun the conceptual design stage. By conceptual design, we mean design based on our best assessment of present and future regulatory requirements. We anticipate that changes will occur as the detailed requirements for waste package design are finalized. 17 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

  12. Containment barrier metals for high-level waste packages in a Tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; McCright, R.D.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Waste Package project is part of the US Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. The NNWSI project is working towards the development of multibarriered packages for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste in tuff in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The final engineered barrier system design may be composed of a waste form, canister, overpack, borehole liner, packing, and the near field host rock, or some combination thereof. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) role is to design, model, and test the waste package subsystem for the tuff repository. At the present stage of development of the nuclear waste management program at LLNL, the detailed requirements for the waste package design are not yet firmly established. In spite of these uncertainties as to the detailed package requirements, we have begun the conceptual design stage. By conceptual design, we mean design based on our best assessment of present and future regulatory requirements. We anticipate that changes will occur as the detailed requirements for waste package design are finalized. 17 references, 4 figures, 10 tables

  13. Waste Package and Material Testing for the Proposed Yucca Mountain High Level Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, Thomas; Pasupathi, V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the repository lifetime, the waste package containment barriers will perform various functions that will change with time. During the operational period, the barriers will function as vessels for handling, emplacement, and waste retrieval (if necessary). During the years following repository closure, the containment barriers will be relied upon to provide substantially complete containment, through 10,000 years and beyond. Following the substantially complete containment phase, the barriers and the waste package internal structures help minimize release of radionuclides by aqueous- and gaseous-phase transport. These requirements have lead to a defense-in-depth design philosophy. A multi-barrier design will result in a lower breach rate distributed over a longer period of time, thereby ensuring the regulatory requirements are met. The design of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) has evolved. The initial waste package design was a thin walled package, 3/8 inch of stainless steel 304, that had very limited capacity, (3 PWR and 4 BWR assemblies) and performance characteristics, 300 to 1,000 years. This design required over 35,000 waste packages compared to today's design of just over 10,000 waste packages. The waste package designs are now based on a defense-in-depth/multi-barrier philosophy and have a capacity similar to the standard storage and rail transported spent nuclear fuel casks. Concurrent with the development of the design of the waste packages, a comprehensive waste package materials testing program has been undertaken to support the selection of containment barrier materials and to develop predictive models for the long-term behavior of these materials under expected repository conditions. The testing program includes both long-term and short-term tests and the results from these tests combination with the data published in the open literature are being used to develop models for predicting performance of the waste packages

  14. Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.; Juhas, M.C.; Logan, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  15. Siting the high level radioactive waste repository in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.

    1992-01-01

    For more than twenty-five years after the National Academy of Science issued its 1957 report recommending a Mined Geologic Disposal System (''MGDS'') for high level radioactive waste, no substantial progress was made in selecting and siting a repository. The United States Congress attempted to give substantive and procedural direction to the program in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Seeing that very little had been accomplished some five years later, Congress gave further direction and tentatively selected a single site, Yucca Mountain in Nevada, in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1987. Selection of the Yucca Mountain site created a political conflict between federal and state authorities. Until recently, that conflict stalled the site characterization and evaluation program. Standards development under a polycentric regulatory regime has also been slow and has created a number of technical, legal and policy controversies. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), charged with setting radiation protection rules, may be developing regulatory standards which are technically unachievable and, therefore, legally unprovable in a licensing proceeding. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), having the responsibility for licensing and setting performance objectives, may be taking an overly conservative approach. This approach could seriously impact the cost and may preclude the ability to reach an affirmative finding on license issuance. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for siting, construction and operation of the repository. In so doing, DOE must apply both EPA and NRC standards. To the extent that EPA and NRC standards are untimely, poorly defined, unrealistic, inconsistent, and technically or legally unsound, DOE may be forestalled from fulfilling its responsibilities. The US must rethink its approach to siting the high level radioactive waste repository and take realistic, timely action to preserve the nuclear option. (Author)

  16. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories: analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The responses from various discussion groups on site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories are presented. The consensus, principal concern, and minority opinion on each issue are given. The visual aids used in the workshop are included

  17. Peer review for high-level nuclear waste repositories: Generic technical position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, W.D.; Donnelly, J.P.; Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-02-01

    This document provides guidance on the use of the peer review process in the high-level nuclear waste repository program. The applicant must demonstrate in the license application that the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations in 10 CFR Part 60 have been met. Confidence in the data used to support the license application is obtained through a quality assurance (AQ) program. Peer reviews may be used as part of the QA actions necessary to provide adequate confidence in the work being reviewed. Because of several unique conditions inherent to the geologic repository program, expert judgment will need to be utilized in assessing the adequacy of work. Peer reviews are a mechanism by which these judgments may be made. This document provides guidance on areas where a peer review is appropriate, the acceptability of peers, and the conduct and documentation of a peer review

  18. Hydrogeological characteristics of Beishan preselected area, Gansu province for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Yang Tianxiao; Liu Shufen

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater is the major carrier for radionuclide migration in the high-level radioactive waste disposal. For this reason the hydrogeological study is one of the main contents in repository siting. According to the field investigation which has been carried out during the last few years and some data from the previous study, the author describes the general hydrogeological situation and groundwater circulation, as well as chemical characteristics of groundwater in Beishan preselected area, Gansu province. The research shows that main hydrogeological characteristics of the Beishan area is water-bearing character, low permeability and slow water movement while the major chemical feature of groundwater is high mineralization. This recognition will provide an important basis for repository siting in the site area

  19. Sample performance assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository: sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is the USA's first attempt at long-term storage of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW). In theory, the reasoning for such a repository seems sound. In practice, there are many scenarios and cases to be considered while putting such a project into effect. Since a goal of YMP is to minimize dangers associated with long-term storage of HLW, it is important to estimate the dose rate to which current and future generations will be subjected. The lifetime of the repository is simulated to indicate the radiation dose rate to the maximally exposed individual; it is assumed that if the maximally exposed individual would not be harmed by the annual dose, the remaining population will be at even smaller risk. The determination of what levels of exposure can be deemed harmless is a concern, and the results from the simulations as compared against various regulations are discussed. (author)

  20. Stress corrosion cracking tests on high-level-waste container materials in simulated tuff repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, T.; Jain, H.; Soo, P.

    1986-06-01

    Types 304L, 316L, and 321 austenitic stainless steel and Incoloy 825 are being considered as candidate container materials for emplacing high-level waste in a tuff repository. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of these materials under simulated tuff repository conditions was evaluated by using the notched C-ring method. The tests were conducted in boiling synthetic groundwater as well as in the steam/air phase above the boiling solutions. All specimens were in contact with crushed Topopah Spring tuff. The investigation showed that microcracks are frequently observed after testing as a result of stress corrosion cracking or intergranular attack. Results showing changes in water chemistry during test are also presented

  1. Sample performance assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository: sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkaczyk, A. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is the USA's first attempt at long-term storage of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW). In theory, the reasoning for such a repository seems sound. In practice, there are many scenarios and cases to be considered while putting such a project into effect. Since a goal of YMP is to minimize dangers associated with long-term storage of HLW, it is important to estimate the dose rate to which current and future generations will be subjected. The lifetime of the repository is simulated to indicate the radiation dose rate to the maximally exposed individual; it is assumed that if the maximally exposed individual would not be harmed by the annual dose, the remaining population will be at even smaller risk. The determination of what levels of exposure can be deemed harmless is a concern, and the results from the simulations as compared against various regulations are discussed. (author)

  2. Selection criteria for container materials at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1989-11-01

    A geological repository has been proposed for the permanent disposal of the nation's high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain in the Nevada desert. The containers for this waste must remain intact for the unprecedented service lifetime of 1000 years. A combination of engineering, regulatory, and licensing requirements complicate the container material selection. In parallel to gathering information regarding the Yucca Mountain service environment and material performance data, a set of selection criteria have been established which compare candidate materials to the performance requirements, and allow a quantitative comparison of candidates. These criteria assign relative weighting to varied topic areas such as mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, fabricability, and cost. Considering the long service life of the waste containers, it is not surprising that the corrosion behavior of the material is a dominant factor. 7 refs

  3. Seismotectonic investigations for Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository: Rationale for defining scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Blackford, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The geologic, seismic, and engineering characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site and its environs need to be investigated in sufficient scope and detail to provide reasonable assurance that they are sufficiently well understood to permit an adequate evaluation of the proposed site for the development of a high-level waste repository. The paper examines the extent of seismotectonic investigations needed for proper evaluation of the geologic setting. At the Yucca Mountain site, a thorough understanding of tectonic phenomena such as seismicity and faulting is critical to the identification of potentially disqualifying conditions. Study of the tectonic movement, stress, or co-tectonic effects that could affect the performance of the waste-handling facilities, waste package, underground openings, shaft and borehole seals, and long-term alteration of geohydrology would be necessary. In addition, the uncertainties involved in evaluating the effect of seismotectonics on the radionuclide transport mechanism need to be thoroughly investigated. 8 refs., 1 fig

  4. Thermoelastic analysis of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste repositories in salt. A semi-analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1977-04-01

    An underground repository containing heat generating, High Level Waste or Spent Unreprocessed Fuel may be approximated as a finite number of heat sources distributed across the plane of the repository. The resulting temperature, displacement and stress changes may be calculated using analytical solutions, providing linear thermoelasticity is assumed. This report documents a computer program based on this approach and gives results that form the basis for a comparison between the effects of disposing of High Level Waste and Spent Unreprocessed Fuel

  5. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Status of Equipment Development for a High-Level Waste Repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B.; Filbert, W.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Graf, R.

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, a potential site for a deep geological repository mainly for heat generating high-level waste was selected back on February 22, 1977: a salt dome located near the village of Gorleben, at the shores of the Elbe River in Northern Germany. Concurrent with site exploration from the surface, and later exploration mine construction, a large-scale R and D effort was conducted to have the science and technology needed to license and later operate a repository available when needed. An important part of these efforts was the development and 1:1 scale demonstration of all technologies required to run a repository, which had not been state-of-the-art. Underground exploration of the Gorleben site has come to a moratorium due to political decisions taken by the former Federal Government formed by a coalition between the Social Democrats and the Green Party back in 2000. However, research and development in regard to emplacement techniques and equipment has continued. This paper reflects the consistent, long-term technological effort that has led to having available all advanced technologies required to run a repository for spent fuel and HLW. The paper details previous achievements and points at present optimization work. (authors)

  7. Aspects of potential magmatic disruption of a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Self, S.; Vaniman, D.; Amos, R.; Perry, F.

    1983-01-01

    Volcanic hazard studies, combining standard techniques of hazard appraisal and risk assessment are being undertaken with respect to storage of high-level, radioactive waste in southern Nevada. Consequence studies, the emphasis of this work, are evaluated by tracing the steps of ascent of basaltic magma including intersection and disruption of a repository followed by surface eruption. Theoretical considerations suggest basalt magma ascends rapidly from mantle depth (10's of cm/sec in the bubble-free regime) but may be trapped temporarily and fractionate at the mantle/crust interface. Basalt centers are fed from narrow linear dikes. Local sheet-like intrusions formed at depths of 200 to 300 m probably due to a combination of extensional faulting during emplacement and trapping within low-density tuff country rock, aided in part by a low magma-volatile content. Incorporation of radioactive waste in basalt magma is controlled by the dimensions of basalt dikes at repository depths and the depth of magma fragmentation. Dispersal pathways of waste should follow the pyroclastic component of a Strombolian eruption. The maximum volume of waste deposited with basaltic tephra can be traced approximately by assuming waste material is dispersed in the same patterns as country rock lithic fragments. Based on a basalt magma cycle that is similar to typical Strombolian centers, 180 m 3 of a repository inventory will be deposited in a scoria cone (of which approx. 1 m 3 will be exposed to the surface in a 10,000-year period), 320 to 900 m 3 will be deposited in a scoria-fall sheet (up to 12-km dispersal), and 21 m 3 will be dispersed regionally with a fine-grained particle component. 62 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  8. Key radionuclides and parameters that determine performance of geologic repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhong Ahn; Atsuyuki Suzuki

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results of a mathematical analysis for performance of the engineered barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The main body of the mathematical model developed in this study is mass transport of actinides in a bentonite region. In an analysis of actinide transport, radioactive decay chain and effects of low solubilities must be taken into account. In many previous models for mass transport in engineered barriers including radioactive decay chain, however, boundary conditions at the interface between the waste form and the bentonite region cannot be determined flexibly. In some models, solubility-limited boundary condition is assumed for all the members in a chain. In order to investigate what are key radionuclides and parameters that control performance of engineered barriers of a geologic repository, we must evaluate mass transport with the source boundary condition determined by a detailed analysis on mass transfer at the boundary. In this study, we developed a mathematical model, which can determine whether the inner boundary condition is solubility-limited or congruent release, based on a mathematical analysis for mass transfer at the glass dissolution location, and how long the solubility-limited boundary condition applies. Based on the mathematical model, we point out radionuclides and parameters that have primary influences on the performance of a repository, and investigate a reasonable strategy for coupling geologic disposal and partitioning of those key radionuclides from the standpoint of reducing hazard of geologic disposal. (authors). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 8 refs

  9. NRC regulations for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories: technical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Bell, M.J.; Regnier, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria fo disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

  10. Third report, development of site suitability and design performance data base for a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    This report presents the results of mining and geotechnical studies provided as support for the development of a technical data base suitable for the generation of a regulatory framework governing high-level nuclear waste disposal: flow path models for basalts, salt domes, and crystalline rocks; simplistic model evaluations; loss of administrative control; repository conceptual designs; repository design considerations; and design performance criteria

  11. Geohydrology surrounding a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Kroitoru, L.; Andrews, R.W.; Thackston, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Gibson Dome area in the Paradox Basin in southeastern Utah has been identified as a potential location for a high-level nuclear waste repository on the basis of an adequate thickness of bedded salt formations at desirable depths, suitable topography for surface facilities, few known archaeological sites, less resource potential than otherwise similar areas, and long-term geologic and tectonic stability. The area appears also suitable from a geohydrologic viewpoint, on the basis of data collected and analyses performed to date. The upper, near-surface, geologic formations include both regionally continuous water-bearing formations and locally perched ground waters that discharge into nearby surface streams and into the Colorado River. Below the Paradox salts, the formations of interest with respect to repository safety include regionally continuous water-bearing formations, with the Leadville limestone being the principal water-transmitting unit. Flows in all water-bearing formations are essentially horizontal. If a vertical connection were established through a potential repository, hydraulic gradients indicate that the flow would first be downward from the upper to the lower formations and then laterally, principally in the Leadville formation. There are some indications that minor leakage could occur into the Colorado River as close as Cataract Canyon, about 20 to 25 km (10 to 15 miles) from a potential repository location in Davis Canyon, or into the Colorado River in Marble Canyon (Arizona), about 240 km (150 miles) to the southwest. Groundwater flow from a repository to these locations is unlikely, however, since water would first have to penetrate the essentially impermeable salt layers before it would reach the Leadville formation. 11 references, 4 figures

  12. Field instrumentation and testing needs for a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, J.; Maini, T.

    1981-03-01

    A review has been conducted of the testing and measurement needs posed by a deep geologic High Level Waste (HLW) repository in crystalline or argillaceous rocks. Siting, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of the repository have been covered, together with the planning of a Test and Demonstration Facility. Instruments and methods available have been critically assessed in their ability to fulfil the aforementioned testing and monitoring programmes. Special attention has been paid to the relation of measurements to the data needs and to the tests likely to generate such data. This assessment has concentrated on measurements of absolute rock stresses, monitoring of changes in rock stress, evaluation of the rock mass deformability, measurement of relative displacements and determination of the hydrogeologic parameters of the rock mass. Other measurements have been studied with a lesser degree of attention. The overall conclusion is that, from the instrumentation and testing points of view, present plans for a test and demonstration facility in the early nineties and a repository soon after 2000 are indeed feasible. Specific conclusions on the state-of-the-art and development needs are presented in the report. (author)

  13. Establishing the concept of buffer for a high-level radioactive waste repository: An approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The buffer is a key component of the engineered barrier system in a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. The present study reviewed the requirements and functional criteria of the buffer reported in literature, and also based on the results, proposed an approach to establish a buffer concept which is applicable to an HLW repository in Korea. The hydraulic conductivity, radionuclide-retarding capacity (equilibrium distribution coefficient and diffusion coefficient), swelling pressure, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, organic carbon content, and initialization rate were considered as major technical parameters for the functional criteria of the buffer. Domestic bentonite (Ca-bentonite) and, as an alternative, MX-80 (Na-bentonite) were proposed for the buffer of an HLW repository in Korea. The technical specifications for those proposed bentonites were set to parameter values that conservatively satisfy Korea's functional criteria for the Ca-bentonite and Swedish criteria for the Na-bentonite. The thickness of the buffer was determined by evaluating the means of shear behavior, radionuclide release, and heat conduction, which resulted in the proper buffer thickness of 0.25 to 0.5 m. However, the final thickness of the buffer should be determined by considering coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical evaluation and economics and engineering aspects as well.

  14. Impact of thermal constraints on the optimal design of high-level waste repositories in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malbrain, C; Lester, R K [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1982-12-01

    An approximate, semi-analytical heat conduction model for predicting the time-dependent temperature distribution in the region of a high-level waste repository has been developed. The model provides the basis for a systematic, inexpensive examination of the impact of several independent thermal design constraints on key repository design parameters and for determining the optimal set of design parameters which satisfy these constraints. Illustrative calculations have been carried out for conceptual repository designs for spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel and reprocessed PWR high-level waste in salt and granite media.

  15. Retrievability of high-level nuclear waste from geologic repositories - Regulatory and rock mechanics/design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanious, N.S.; Nataraja, M.S.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Retrievability of nuclear waste from high-level geologic repositories is one of the performance objectives identified in 10CFR60 (Code of Federal Regulations, 1985). 10CFR60.111 states that the geologic repository operations area shall be designed to preserve the option of waste retrieval. In designing the repository operations area, rock mechanics considerations play a major role especially in evaluating the feasibility of retrieval operations. This paper discusses generic considerations affecting retrievability as they relate to repository design, construction, and operation, with emphasis on regulatory and rock mechanics aspects

  16. Aspects of possible magmatic disruption of a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Amos, R.; Perry, F.; Self, S.; Vaniman, D.

    1982-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) region is located within the central section of a north-northeast-trending basaltic volcanic belt of late Cenozoic age, a part of the Quaternary volcanic province of the Great Basin. Future volcanism within the belt represents a potential hazard to storage of high-level radioactive waste within a buried repository located in the southwestern NTS. The hazards of future volcanism in the region are being characterized through a combination of volcanic hazards studies, probability determinations, and consequence analyses. Basaltic activity within the NTS regions is divided into two age groups consisting of relatively large-volume silicic cycle basalts (8 to 10 Myr) and rift basalts (< 8 to 0.3 Myr). This paper describes the processes of basaltic magmatism ranging from derivation of basalt melts at depth, through ascent through the upper mantle and crust, to surface eruption. Each stage in the evolution and dispersal of basaltic magma is described, and the disruption and potential dispersal of stored radioactive waste is evaluated. These data document areas of knowns and unknowns in the processes of basaltic volcanisms and provide background data necessary to assist calculations of radiation release levels due to disruption of a repository. 9 figures, 11 tables

  17. Sandia studies of high-level waste canisters and overpacks applicable for a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Schaefer, D.W.; Glass, R.S.; Ruppen, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop candidate materials for use as high-level waste (HLW) overpacks or canisters in a salt repository has been in progress at Sandia National Laboratories since 1976. The main objective of this program is to provide a waste package barrier having a long lifetime in the chemical and physical environment of a repository. This paper summarizes the recent corrosion and metallurgical study results for the prime overpack material, TiCode-12, in the areas of uniform corrosion (extremely low rate and extent); local attack, e.g., pits and crevices (none were found); stress corrosion cracking susceptibility (no significant changes in macroscopic tensile properties were detected); hydrogen sorption-embrittlement effects; effects of gamma irradiation in solution; and sensitization effects (testing is still in process in the last three areas). Previous candidate screening analyses on other alloys and recent work on alternate overpack alloys are reviewed. All phases of these interrelated laboratory, hot-cell, and field experimental studies are described. 16 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  18. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J.

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent 'chaotic' processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: 'to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study'. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  19. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent `chaotic` processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: `to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study`. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  20. Potential role of ABC-assisted repositories in U.S. plutonium and high-level waste disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.; Favale, A.; Myers, T. [Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This paper characterizes the issues involving deep geologic disposal of LWR spent fuel rods, then presents results of an investigation to quantify the potential role of Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) in an integrated national nuclear materials and high level waste disposition strategy. The investigation used the deep geological repository envisioned for Yucca Mt., Nevada as a baseline and considered complementary roles for integrated ABC transmutation systems. The results indicate that although a U.S. geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of plutonium, the minor actinides, and selected long-lived fission products can result in the following substantial benefits: plutonium burndown to near zero levels, a dramatic reduction of the long term hazard associated with geologic repositories, an ability to place several-fold more high level nuclear waste in a single repository, electricity sales to compensate for capital and operating costs.

  1. Unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock related to high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    Research results are summarized for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract with the University of Arizona focusing on field and laboratory methods for characterizing unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport related to high-level radioactive waste repositories. Characterization activities are presented for the Apache Leap Tuff field site. The field site is located in unsaturated, fractured tuff in central Arizona. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and thermal characteristics of the tuff are summarized, along with methodologies employed to monitor and sample hydrologic and geochemical processes at the field site. Thermohydrologic experiments are reported which provide laboratory and field data related to the effects conditions and flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. 29 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs

  2. Shaft seals for final high-level radioactive waste repositories. ELSA. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudla, W.; Schreiter, F.; Gruner, M.

    2013-01-01

    The state of the art in science and technology fir shaft seals with long-term stability is summarized regarding their applicability for high-level waste repository in Germany. The concepts and drafts for the shaft sealing systems ERAM, Asse, Konrad, the WIPP side, the RESEAL concept, the NAGRA concept and the project LASA are reviewed. The methodology of applying partial factors in a safety analysis is summarized and the applicability of this method for geotechnical sealing structures is confirmed. To establish geomechanical boundary conditions of the host rocks and clay stone the stress-strain behavior of the rock mass adjoining the shaft has to be identified including time-dependent thermo-mechanical processes. The general and special requirements for the design of shaft sealing systems, especially in salt rock and clay formations are described, derived from the safety requirements (BMU 2010). Finally general information needs were identified.

  3. Swelling pressures of a potential buffer material for high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik

    1999-01-01

    The swelling pressure of a potential buffer material was measured and the effect of dry density, bentonite content and initial water content on the swelling pressure was investigated to provide the information for the selection of buffer material in a high-level waste repository. Swelling tests were carried out according to Box-Behnken's experimental design. Measured swelling pressures were in the wide range of 0.7 Kg/cm 2 to 190.2 Kg/cm 2 under given experimental conditions. Based upon the experimental data, a 3-factor polynomial swelling model was suggested to analyze the effect of dry density, bentonite content and initial water content on the swelling pressure. The swelling pressure increased with an increase in the dry density and bentonite content, while it decreased with increasing the initial water content and, beyond about 12 wt.% of the initial water content, levelled to nearly constant value. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Seismic design ampersand analysis considerations for high level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Q.A.

    1993-01-01

    A high level nuclear waste repository, like the one at Nevada's Yucca Mountain that is being investigated for site suitability, will have some unique seismic design and analysis considerations. These are discussed, and a design philosophy that can rationally account for the unique performance objectives of such facilities is presented. A case is made for the use of DOE's performance goal-based seismic design and evaluation methodology that is based on a hybrid open-quotes deterministicclose quotes and open-quotes probabilisticclose quotes concept. How and to what extent this methodology should be modified to adopt it for a potential site like Yucca Mountain is also outlined. Finally, the issue of designing for seismic fault rupture is discussed briefly, and the desirability of using the proposed seismic design philosophy in fault rupture evaluation is described

  5. Seismic design and analysis considerations for high level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Q.A.

    1993-01-01

    A high level nuclear waste repository, like the one at Nevada's Yucca Mountain that is being investigated for site suitability, will have some unique seismic design and analysis considerations. These are discussed, and a design philosophy that can rationally account for the unique performance objectives of such facilities is presented. A case is made for the use of DOE's performance goal-based seismic design and evaluation methodology that is based on a hybrid ''deterministic'' and ''probabilistic'' concept. How and to what extent this methodology should be modified to adopt it for a potential site like Yucca Mountain is also outlined. Finally, the issue of designing for seismic fault rupture is discussed briefly, and the desirability of using the proposed seismic design philosophy in fault rupture evaluation is described

  6. Use of geostatistics in high level radioactive waste repository site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, P G [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA)

    1980-09-01

    In evaluating and characterizing sites that are candidates for use as repositories for high-level radioactive waste, there is an increasing need to estimate the uncertainty in hydrogeologic data and in the quantities calculated from them. This paper discusses the use of geostatistical techniques to estimate hydrogeologic surfaces, such as the top of a basalt formation, and to provide a measure of the uncertainty in that estimate. Maps of the uncertainty estimate, called the kriging error, can be used to evaluate where new data should be taken to affect the greatest reduction in uncertainty in the estimated surface. The methods are illustrated on a set of site-characterization data; the top-of-basalt elevations at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington.

  7. Leaching of vitrified high-level-active-waste in a near reality simulated repository system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeschen, W.; Wolf, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    In the FRG it is planned to vitrify the high level waste from spent fuel reprocessing and to dispose of in a salt-mine. If water penetrates into the repository a highly corrosive brine (Q-brine) will be formed and radioactive material may be leached from the glasses and transported to human environment. The corrosion system of brine, corroded steel containers of the vitrified waste, and waste-glasses was investigated under near reality conditions. Experiments in hydrothermal environment were carried out including gamma radiation of the waste-glasses and ceramic In Can Lining between glasses and metallic containments. Screening experiments by application of external cobalt-gamma-radiation showed no principal changes in leaching behaviour of simulate glasses compared to leaching without radiation. Radiation effects result in pH changes mainly which are diminished by buffer capacity of Q-brine. Lining of steel containments with ceramic fleece does not reduce leaching but retards solution of Mo and Sr into brine. Decreasing of elements Sr, Cs and Mo in the near surface area of the glass and increasing of Zr and Ti has been found to be enhanced considerably in presence of canister corrosion products in Q-brine as well as in NaCl-leaching solution. (orig.) With 13 refs., 22 figs [de

  8. On ocean island geological repository - a second-generation option for disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of an ocean subseabed geological high-level waste repository with access via an ocean island is discussed. The technical advantages include, in addition to geologic waste isolation, geographical isolation, near-zero groundwater flow through the disposal site, and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup in the event of a failure of the repository geological waste isolation system. The institutional advantages may include reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of a repository accepting wastes from many countries would allow cost sharing, aid international nonproliferation goals, and ensure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. Major uncertainties that are identified in this concept are the uncertainties in rock conditions at waste disposal depths, costs, and ill-defined institutional issues

  9. Total system performance predictions (TSPA-1995) for the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S.D.; Andrews, R.W.; McNeish, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The management and operating contractor for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been recently completed a new performance assessment of the ability of the repository to isolate and contain nuclear waste for long time periods (up to 1,000,000 years). Sensitivity analyses determine the most important physical parameters and processes, using the most current information and models

  10. Is it possible to demonstrate compliance with the regulations for high-level-waste repositories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    The regulations that currently govern repositories for spent fuel and high-level waste require demonstrations that are sometimes described as impossible to make. To make them will require an understanding of the current and the future phenomena at repository sites; it will also require credible estimates of the probabilities that the phenomena will occur in the distant future. Experts in many fields emdash earth sciences, statistics, numerical modeling, and the law emdash have questioned whether any amount of data collection can allow modelers to meet these requirements with enough confidence to satisfy the regulators. In recent years some performance assessments have begun to shed light on this question because they use results of actual site investigations. Although these studies do not settle the question definitively, a review of a recent total-system assessment suggests that compliance may be possible to demonstrate. The review also suggests, however, that the demonstration can be only at the ''reasonable'' levels of assurance mentioned, but not defined, in the regulations

  11. Seismic considerations in sealing a potential high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Richardson, A.M.; Lin, Ming

    1993-01-01

    The potential repository system is intended to isolate high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain according the performance objective--10 CFR 60.112. One subsystem that may contribute to achieving this objective is the sealing subsystem. This subsystem is comprised of sealing components in the shafts, ramps, underground network of drifts, and the exploratory boreholes. Sealing components can be rigid, as in the case of a shaft seal, or can be more compressible, as in the case of drift fill comprised of mined rockfill. This paper presents the preliminary seismic response of discrete sealing components in welded and nonwelded tuff. Special consideration is given to evaluating the stress in the seal, and the behavior of the interface between the seal and the rock. The seismic responses are computed using both static and dynamic analyses. Also presented is an evaluation of the maximum seismic response encountered by a drift seal with respect to the angle of incidence of the seismic wave. Mitigation strategies and seismic design considerations are proposed which can potentially enhance the overall response of the sealing component and subsequently, the performance of the overall repository system

  12. Seismic considerations in sealing a potential high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Richardson, A.M.; Lin, Ming

    1992-01-01

    The potential repository system is intended to isolate high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. One subsystem that may contribute to achieving this objective is the sealing subsystem. This subsystem is comprised of sealing components in the shafts, ramps, underground network of drifts, and the exploratory boreholes. Sealing components can be rigid, as in the case of a shaft seal, or can be more compressible, as in the case of drift fill comprised of mined rockfill. This paper presents the preliminary seismic response of discrete sealing components in welded and nonwelded tuff. Special consideration is given to evaluating the stress in the seal, and the behavior of the interface between the seal and the rock. The seismic responses are computed using both static and dynamic analyses. Also presented is an evaluation of the maximum seismic response encountered by a drift seal with respect to the angle of incidence of the seismic wave. Mitigation strategies and seismic design considerations are proposed which can potentially enhance the overall response of the sealing component and subsequently, the performance of the overall repository system

  13. Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Rock: Numerical Assessment for High Level Waste Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Siqueira da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep and stable geological formations with low permeability have been considered for high level waste definitive repository. A common problem is the modeling of radionuclide migration in a fractured medium. Initially, we considered a system consisting of a rock matrix with a single planar fracture in water saturated porous rock. Transport in the fracture is assumed to obey an advection-diffusion equation, while molecular diffusion is considered the dominant mechanism of transport in porous matrix. The partial differential equations describing the movement of radionuclides were discretized by finite difference methods, namely, fully explicit, fully implicit, and Crank-Nicolson schemes. The convective term was discretized by the following numerical schemes: backward differences, centered differences, and forward differences. The model was validated using an analytical solution found in the literature. Finally, we carried out a simulation with relevant spent fuel nuclide data with a system consisting of a horizontal fracture and a vertical fracture for assessing the performance of a hypothetical repository inserted into the host rock. We have analysed the bentonite expanded performance at the beginning of fracture, the quantified radionuclide released from a borehole, and an estimated effective dose to an adult, obtained from ingestion of well water during one year.

  14. The convention planning process: Potential impact of a high-level Nuclear Waste Repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunreuther, H.; Easterling, D.; Kleindorfer, P.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents results from two studies that test whether a high level nuclear waste repository sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will diminish the willingness of meeting planners to schedule conventions, trade shows, and other meetings in Las Vegas. The first study, a focus group interview with nine meeting planners from the Philadelphia area, found little evidence that planners' selection decisions would be influenced by environmental hazards (e.g., earthquakes, pollution), unless planners were led to believe that these hazards would have a direct impact on convention delegates and the planner could conceivably be held personally responsible for any such impacts. Participants did point out that they would be sensitive to continued media coverage of a negative event, as this might stigmatize the city in the eyes of delegates. The results from the focus group guided the development of a larger and more formal questionnaire survey of meeting planners who were known to have selected Las Vegas for a meeting. Of the 153 planners recruited, 114 had a future meeting scheduled and 39 had arranged a meeting that was recently held in the city. Subjects first answered a number of questions that described the process by which they chose Las Vegas among the possible convention cities. They were then instructed to reconsider their decision in light of seven different scenarios pertaining to the repository at Yucca Mountain

  15. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information

  16. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information.

  17. Closure development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robitz, E.S. Jr.; McAninch, M.D. Jr.; Edmonds, D.P.; Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes Phase 1 activities for closure development of the high-level nuclear waste package task for the tuff repository. Work was conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract 9172105, administered through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), funded through the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The goal of this phase was to select five closure processes for further evaluation in later phases of the program. A decision tree methodology was utilized to perform an objective evaluation of 15 potential closure processes. Information was gathered via a literature survey, industrial contacts, and discussions with project team members, other experts in the field, and the LLNL waste package task staff. The five processes selected were friction welding, electron beam welding, laser beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and plasma arc welding. These are felt to represent the best combination of weldment material properties and process performance in a remote, radioactive environment. Conceptual designs have been generated for these processes to illustrate how they would be implemented in practice. Homopolar resistance welding was included in the Phase 1 analysis, and developments in this process will be monitored via literature in Phases 2 and 3. Work was conducted in accordance with the YMP Quality Assurance Program. 223 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  18. The ramifications of a delay in the national high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1988-05-01

    This thesis examines the ramifications to the nuclear power industry if a national high-level waste repository is not operational by 1998 as mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The principal effect of a delay examined here is the potential shortage of spent fuel storage. In order to assess this impact, a computer model of a nuclear utility was developed. Data for 107 US reactors was then entered into the model to assess the impact for individual facilities. This model estimates that a delay to the year 2003 will cost industry between $21.4 million and $35.8 million in 1988 dollars. Similarly, a delay to the year 2010 is estimated to have between a $85.4 million and $142.4 million impact. Four other potential effects of a delay on industry are also examined: the potential inadequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund; an increased difficulty in obtaining licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; increased friction between industry and the Department of Energy; and a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power. This thesis also presents a framework for developing a policy to deal with the potential effects of a delay. An argument is made for a policy which includes anticipation, participation, and education. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. United States regulations for institutional controls at high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccone, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The United States regulations for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are found at Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Parts 60 and 63, which cover deep geologic disposal at a generic site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, respectively. As an independent regulator, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing and oversight of a high-level waste repository in the United States. The licensing approach for disposal has discreet decisions, made by the NRC, that include approval of construction authorisation, approval to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste, and approval for permanent closure. For construction authorisation approval, the applicant must provide a description of the programme to be used to maintain the records. The NRC will have an active oversight role during the construction and operation period, which can be on the order of 100 years for the facility before permanent closure. The oversight activities are part of the active institutional controls, and serve as a means of conveying knowledge for that initial period, given that this will likely involve multiple generations of workers for both the implementer and the regulator. Additionally, the NRC provides requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at 10 CFR Chap. 73.51. For permanent closure approval, the applicant must provide a detailed description of the measures to be employed-such as land use controls, construction of monuments, and preservation of records. The NRC's regulatory role in any licensing action is to apply the applicable regulations and guidance, and to review applications for proposed actions to determine if compliance with regulations has been achieved. The burden of proof is on the applicant or licensee to show that the proposed action is safe, to demonstrate that regulations are met, and to ensure continued compliance with the regulations

  20. Long-Term Waste Package Degradation Studies at the Yucca Mountain Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, K. G.; Bullard, B. E.; Longsine, D. E.; Mehta, S.; Lee, J. H.; Monib, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Site Recommendation (SR) process for the potential repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underway. Fulfillment of the requirements for substantially complete containment of the radioactive waste emplaced in the potential repository and subsequent slow release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) into the geosphere will rely on a robust waste container design, among other EBS components. Part of the SR process involves sensitivity studies aimed at elucidating which model parameters contribute most to the drip shield and waste package degradation characteristics. The model parameters identified included (a) general corrosion rate model parameters (temperature-dependence and uncertainty treatment), and (b) stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model parameters (uncertainty treatment of stress and stress intensity factor profiles in the Alloy 22 waste package outer barrier closure weld regions, the SCC initiation stress threshold, and the fraction of manufacturing flaws oriented favorably for through-wall penetration by SCC). These model parameters were reevaluated and new distributions were generated. Also, early waste package failures due to improper heat treatment were added to the waste package degradation model. The results of these investigations indicate that the waste package failure profiles are governed by the manufacturing flaw orientation model parameters and models used

  1. Geological repository layout for radioactive high level long lived waste in argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussen, JL

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the 1991 French radioactive waste act, ANDRA has studied the feasibility of a geological repository in the argillite layer of the Bure site for high level long lived waste. This presentation is focussed on the underground facilities which constitute the specific component of this project. The preliminary underground layout which has been elaborated is based on four categories of data: - the waste characteristics and inventory; - the geological properties of the host argillite; - the long term performance objectives of the repository; - the specifications in terms of operation and reversibility. The underground facilities consist of two types of works: the access works (shafts and drifts) and the disposal cells. The function of the access works is to permit the implementation of two concurrent activities: the nuclear operations (transfer and emplacement of the disposal packages into the disposal cells) and the construction of the next disposal cells. The design of the drifts network which matches up to this function is also influenced by two other specifications: the minimization of the drift dimensions in order to limit their influence on the integrity of the geological formation and the necessity of a safe ventilation in case of fire. The resulting layout is a network of 4 parallel drifts (2 of them being dedicated to the operation, the other two being dedicated to the construction activities). The average diameter of these access drifts is 7 meters. The link between the surface and the underground is ensured by 4 shafts. The most important function of the disposal cells is to contribute to the long term performance of the repository. In this regard, the thermal and geotechnical considerations play an important role. The B wastes (intermediate level wastes) are not (or not very) exothermic. Consequently, the design of their disposal cells result mainly from geotechnical considerations. The disposal packages (made of concrete) are piled up in

  2. SPRAYED CLAY TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEEP REPOSITORY OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hausmannová

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sealing barrier will play very important role in the Czech disposal concept of high level radioactive waste. It follows Swedish SKB3 design where granitic rock environment will host the repository. Swelling clay based materials as the most favorable for sealing purposes were selected. Such clays must fulfill certain requirements (e.g. on swelling properties, hydraulic conductivity or plasticity and must be stable for thousands of years. Better sealing behavior is obtained when the clay is compacted. Technology of the seal construction can vary according to its target dry density. Very high dry density is needed for buffer (sealing around entire canister with radioactive waste. Less strict requirements are on material backfilling the access galleries. It allows compaction to lower dry density than in case of buffer. One of potential technology for backfilling is to compact clay layers in most of the gallery profile by common compaction machines (rollers etc. and to spray clay into the uppermost part afterwards. The paper introduces the research works on sprayed clay technology performed at the Centre of Experimental Geotechnics of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Large scale in situ demonstration of filling of short drift in the Josef Gallery is also mentioned.

  3. Economic appraisal of deployment schedules for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Phuong Hoai Linh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep geological repository (DGR is considered as the definitive management solution for high-level waste (HLW. Countries defined different DGR implementation schedules, depending on their national context and political choices. We raise the question of the economic grounds of such political decisions by providing an economic analysis of different DGR schedules. We investigate the optimal timing for DGR commissioning based on available Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA data (2013. Two scenarios are considered: (1 rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with the same initial operational period, and (2 rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with a shorter operational period, i.e. initial closure date. Given the long timescales of such projects, we also take into account the discounting effect. The first finding is that it appears more economically favorable to extend the interim storage than to dispose of the HLW immediately. Countries which chose “immediate” disposal are willing to accept higher costs to quickly solve the problem. Another interesting result is that there is an optimal solution with respect to the length of DGR operational period and the waste flow for disposal. Based on data provided by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA, we find an optimal operating period of about 15 years with a flow of 2000 tHM/year.

  4. Economic appraisal of deployment schedules for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai Linh Doan, Phuong; Duquesnoy, T.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    The deep geological repository (DGR) is considered as the definitive management solution for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Countries defined different DGR implementation schedules, depending on their national context and political choices. We raise the question of the economic grounds of such political decisions by providing an economic analysis of different DGR schedules. We investigate the optimal timing for DGR commissioning based on available Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) data (2013). Two scenarios are considered: -1) rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with the same initial operational period, and -2) rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with a shorter operational period, i.e. initial closure date. Given the long timescales of such projects, we also take into account the discounting effect. The first finding is that it appears more economically favorable to extend the interim storage than to dispose of the HLW immediately. Countries which chose 'immediate' disposal are willing to accept higher costs to quickly solve the problem. Another interesting result is that there is an optimal solution with respect to the length of DGR operational period and the waste flow for disposal. Based on data provided by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), we find an optimal operating period of about 15 years with a flow of 2000 tHM/year. (authors)

  5. Natural analogues to the conditions around a final repository for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-12-01

    This report documents the proceedings resulting from a Workshop held at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, USA, from 1-3 October, 1984. The theme of the Workshop was entitled 'Natural analogues to the conditions around a final repository for high-level radioactive waste', and was restricted to ultimate disposal in a crystalline bedrock environment. The Workshop provided an important first step in co-ordinating and focussing different national and individual interests and approaches towards natural analogue studies. One of the points highlighted at the concluding forum of the meeting was the necessity to first define the geochemical processes which are assumed to occur after disposal of the radioactive waste, and then locate suitable analogue systems which can be used to test the mechanisms of one, or a simple combination of these geochemical processes. Even accepting that the choice of which geochemical process(es) to be selected for validation will be sensitive to individual national disposal strategies, farfield radionuclide retardation mechanisms in the geosphere were considered to be a central topic of importance, and should therefore be given high priority. At this early stage in the development of natural analogue studies it was not possible to cover all the important aspects. In retrospect, the role of the models should have received more attention; bridging the gap between geoscientists and the modellers was seen as being of prime importance in future meetings of this nature. (author)

  6. SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II.

    1992-09-01

    Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community

  7. The preliminary design and feasibility study of the spent fuel and high level waste repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.; Holub, J.; Kucerka, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the year 1993, began the Program of Development of the Spent Fuel and High Level Waste Repository in the Conditions of the Czech Republic. During the first phase, the basic concept and structure of the Program has been developed, and the basic design criteria and requirements were prepared. In the conditions of the Czech Republic, only an underground repository in deep geological formation is acceptable. Expected depth is between 500 to 1000 meters and as host rock will be granites. A preliminary variant design study was realized in 1994, that analyzed the radioactive waste and spent fuel flow from NPPs to the repository, various possibilities of transportation in accordance to the various concepts of spent fuel conditioning and transportation to the underground structures. Conditioning and encapsulation of spent fuel and/or radioactive waste is proposed on the repository site. Underground disposal structures are proposed at one underground floor. The repository will have reserve capacity for radioactive waste from NPPs decommissioning and for waste non acceptable to other repositories. Vertical disposal of unshielded canisters in boreholes and/or horizontal disposal of shielded canisters is studied. As the base term of the start up of the repository operation, the year 2035 has been established. From this date, a preliminary time schedule of the Project has been developed. A method of calculating leveled and discounted costs within the repository lifetime, for each of selected 5 variants, was used for economic calculations. Preliminary expected parametric costs of the repository are about 0,1 Kc ($0.004) per MWh, produced in the Czech NPPs. In 1995, the design and feasibility study has gone in more details to the technical concept of repository construction and proposed technologies, as well as to the operational phase of the repository. Paper will describe results of the 1995 design work and will present the program of the repository development in next period

  8. Bentonite as backfill in a final repository for high-level waste: chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The present Nagra concept for disposal of high-level waste foresees emplacing the steel containers enclosing the borosilicate glass in tunnels at a depth of 1000 to 1500 m. These tunnels are to be backfilled with bentonite. Bentonites are suitable as a backfill due to their swelling capability, their low hydraulic conductivity and their sorption properties. This report is restricted to chemical aspects of the backfill material: swelling capability, sorption properties and long-term stability. Under repository conditions, the swelling of monmorillonite upon water inflow is primarily innercrystalline. Cation adsorption, which is important for nuclide retention in the repository, can be described by appropriate models. It can be concluded from natural analogue studies and from laboratory experiments that the properties of the backfill material will not alter significantly over a periode of 10/sup 6/ years. Nevertheless in the long term, the formulation of mixed-layer illite/monmorillonite cannot be ruled out. Such mixed-layer clays still have good swelling and sorption properties. Given the quantity ratios foreseen, no adverse changes due to radioactive decay are to be expected. The interaction between the bentonite and the container corrosion products must, in the absence of literature data, be investigated experimentally. The type of reaction products expected (iron-containing clay minerals) and the high bentonite/iron ratio lead to the conclusion that the function of the backfill need not be impaired by these processes. Because of its better stability, a calcium bentonite is preferable to the sodium variant. A low iron content is desirable because, under reducing conditions, the surface charge of the montorillonite is increased by reduction of iron(III). Organic and sulphidic contaminants should also be kept to a minimum

  9. Numerical method for analysis of temperature rises and thermal stresses around high level radioactive waste repository in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste should result in temperature rises and thermal stresses which change the hydraulic conductivity of the rock around the repository. For safety analysis on disposal of high-level radioactive waste into hard rock, it is necessary to find the temperature rises and thermal stresses distributions around the repository. In this paper, these distribution changes are analyzed by the use of the finite difference method. In advance of numerical analysis, it is required to simplify the shapes and properties of the repository and the rock. Several kinds of numerical models are prepared, and the results of this analysis are examined. And, the waste disposal methods are discussed from the stand-points of the temperature rise and thermal stress analysis. (author)

  10. Source term evaluation model for high-level radioactive waste repository with decay chain build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Manish; Sunny, Faby; Oza, R B

    2016-09-18

    A source term model based on two-component leach flux concept is developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The long-lived radionuclides associated with high-level waste may give rise to the build-up of activity because of radioactive decay chains. The ingrowths of progeny are incorporated in the model using Bateman decay chain build-up equations. The model is applied to different radionuclides present in the high-level radioactive waste, which form a part of decay chains (4n to 4n + 3 series), and the activity of the parent and daughter radionuclides leaching out of the waste matrix is estimated. Two cases are considered: one when only parent is present initially in the waste and another where daughters are also initially present in the waste matrix. The incorporation of in situ production of daughter radionuclides in the source is important to carry out realistic estimates. It is shown that the inclusion of decay chain build-up is essential to avoid underestimation of the radiological impact assessment of the repository. The model can be a useful tool for evaluating the source term of the radionuclide transport models used for the radiological impact assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  11. Summary report of first and foreign high-level waste repository concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Reference repository concepts designs adopted by domestic and foreign waste disposal programs are reviewed. Designs fall into three basic categories: deep borehole from the surface; disposal in boreholes drilled from underground excavations; and disposal in horizontal tunnels or drifts. The repository concepts developed in Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Canada, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Denmark, West Germany and the United States are described. 140 refs., 315 figs., 19 tabs

  12. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories: analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the views and recommendations of invited State officials and legislators participating in a workshop concerned with preliminary site suitability criteria for high level radioactive waste repositories. The workshops were open to the public and were conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during September 1977 in three regional locations across the United States. This contractor report is the second of two reports and consolidates the discussion by State officials on the role of a State in siting a repository, NRC's waste management program, the transportation of high level wastes, the number and location of repositories and concerns with the socio-economic impacts of siting a repository in a community. The recommendations to the NRC can be categorized into four areas. These were: (1) general recommendations, (2) procedural recommendations, (3) recommendations for improving communications, and (4) specific recommendations on the preliminary siting criteria. The recommendations emphasized the need for early State involvement in the siting process, the need for an impacted State to assess repository operations, the need for early solution of waste transportation concerns, and the requirement that any repository developed insure the protection of the public health and safety as its most important characteristic. Other participant recommendations are included in the body of the report

  13. Chemotoxic materials in a final repository for high-level radioactive wastes. CHEMOTOX concept for defence in depth concerning ground water protection from chemotoxic materials in a final high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Sailer, Michael; Schmidt, Gerhard; Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Krone, Juergen; Tholen, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in a final repository includes chemotoxic materials. The chemotoxic materials are either part of the radioactive material or part of the packaging material, or the structures within the repository. In the frame of the licensing procedure it has to be demonstrated that no hazardous pollution of the ground water or other disadvantageous changes can occur. The report describes the common project of the Oeko-Institut e.V., the DBE Technology GmbH and the GRS mbH concerning the possible demonstration of a systematic protection of the groundwater against chemotoxic materials in case of a final high-level-radioactive waste repository in the host materials salt and clay stone.

  14. Regional Groundwater Flow Assessment in a Prospective High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of nuclear energy will result in high-level radioactive waste (HLRW, which brings potential environmental dangers. Selecting a proper disposal repository is a crucial step in the development of nuclear energy. This paper introduces firstly the hydrogeological conditions of the Beishan area in China. Next, a regional groundwater model is constructed using a multiphase flow simulator to analyze the groundwater flow pattern in the Beishan area. Model calibration shows that the simulated and observed hydraulic heads match well, and the simulated regional groundwater flow pattern is similar to the surface flow pattern from the channel network, indicating that the groundwater flow is mainly dependent on the topography. In addition, the simulated groundwater storage over the period from 2003 to 2014 is similar to the trend derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite-derived results. Last, the established model is used to evaluate the influences of the extreme climate and regional faults on the groundwater flow pattern. It shows that they do not have a significant influence on the regional groundwater flow patterns. This study will provide a preliminary reference for the regional groundwater flow assessment in the site of the HLRW in China.

  15. Sorption of strontium on uranyl peroxide: implications for a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Rosa; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan; Casas, Ignasi; Giménez, Javier

    2010-09-15

    Strontium-90 is considered the most important radioactive isotope in the environment and one of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in groundwaters at nuclear facilities. The uranyl peroxide studtite (UO2O2 . 4H2O) has been observed to be formed in spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments and seems to have a relatively high sorption capacity for some radionuclides. In this work, the sorption of strontium onto studtite is studied as a function of time, strontium concentration in solution and pH. The main results obtained are (a) sorption is relatively fast although slower than for cesium; (b) strontium seems to be sorbed via a monolayer coverage of the studtite surface, (c) sorption has a strong dependence on ionic strength, is negligible at acidic pH, and increases at neutral to alkaline pH (almost 100% of the strontium in solution is sorbed above pH 10). These results point to uranium secondary solid phase formation on the spent nuclear fuel as an important mechanism for strontium retention in a high-level nuclear waste repository (HLNW). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical properties of buffer materials for repositories of high-level nuclear waste, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Ogata, Nobuhide

    1993-01-01

    Compacted bentonites have attracted increasing attention as back filling (buffer) materials for repositories of high-level nuclear waste. However, since little has been known concerning the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonites, it is necessary to clarify the fundamental swelling characteristics and the quantitative evaluation on this characteristics is required. For this purpose, a theoretical model concerning the swelling characteristics (swelling deformation and swelling pressure) of compacted bentonites were developed. The following conclusions were drawn from this theoretical study; (1) The evaluation formula of the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonites based on the diffuse double layer theory has been proposed by combining the theoretical model and the theoretical equation to estimate the swelling characteristics of a crystal. (2) The applicability of the evaluation formula proposed in this study has been confirmed by the comparison of the experimental results with calculated results. The sensitivity of this evaluation formula has also been investigated to find that the swelling characteristics is strongly dependent on the ion concentration of pore water and on the montmorillonite content of bentonite. (author)

  17. High level waste repository site suitability criteria. Environmental impact statement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The approach (methodology) which has been developed for the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) is described. A suggested outline is presented for the High Level Waste Repository Site Suitability Criteria EIS together with a detailed description of the approach to be used in preparing the EIS. In addition, a methodology is presented by which the necessary cost/benefit/risk comparisons of alternative sets of site suitability criteria can be made. The TERA environmental research data bank, a computerized data bank which contained information on current and historical licensing activities for power plants was modified to include information on generic or programmatic EIS related issues. The content of the modified data bank was utilized to develop the EIS outline presented in this report. The report recommends that a modified matrix evaluation approach be used to make the cost/benefit/risk comparisons. The suggested matrix is designed to facilitate between criteria comparative analyses of economic, environmental, sociological and radiological risk factors. The quantitative compositing of dollar cost and benefits, environmental and sociological impacts, and radiological risks is to be performed using a semi-analytical, semi-visual procedure based on the concept of ''decision surfaces.''

  18. Supplemental Performance Analyses for the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S. D.; McNeish, J. A.; Coppersmith, K.; Jenni, K. E.; Rickertsen, L. D.; Swift, P. N.; Wilson, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. Based on internal reviews of the S and ER and its key supporting references, the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (2) and the Analysis Model Reports and Process Model Reports cited therein, the DOE has recently identified and performed several types of analyses to supplement the treatment of uncertainty in support of the consideration of a possible site recommendation. The results of these new analyses are summarized in the two-volume report entitled FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis (SSPA) (3,4). The information in this report is intended to supplement, not supplant, the information contained in the S and ER. The DOE recognizes that important uncertainties will always remain in any assessment of the performance of a potential repository over thousands of years (1). One part of the DOE approach to recognizing and managing these uncertainties is a commitment to continued testing and analysis and to the continued evaluation of the technical basis supporting the possible recommendation of the site, such as the analysis contained in the SSPA. The goals of the work described here are to provide insights into the implications of newly quantified uncertainties, updated science, and evaluations of lower operating temperatures on the performance of a potential Yucca Mountain repository and to increase confidence in the results of the TSPA described

  19. Modelling magma-drift interaction at the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, Andrew W.; Sparks, Steve; Bokhove, Onno; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Britain E.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the possible ascent of alkali basalt magma containing 2 wt percent water through a dike and into a horizontal subsurface drift as part of a risk assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. On intersection of the dike with the

  20. Environmental remediation of high-level nuclear waste in geological repository. Modified computer code creates ultimate benchmark in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Isolation of high-level nuclear waste in permanent geological repositories has been a major concern for over 30 years due to the migration of dissolved radio nuclides reaching the water table (10,000-year compliance period) as water moves through the repository and the surrounding area. Repositories based on mathematical models allow for long-term geological phenomena and involve many approximations; however, experimental verification of long-term processes is impossible. Countries must determine if geological disposal is adequate for permanent storage. Many countries have extensively studied different aspects of safely confining the highly radioactive waste in an underground repository based on the unique geological composition at their selected repository location. This paper discusses two computer codes developed by various countries to study the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical process in these environments, and the migration of radionuclide. Further, this paper presents the results of a case study of the Magma-hydrothermal (MH) computer code, modified by the author, applied to nuclear waste repository analysis. The MH code verified by simulating natural systems thus, creating the ultimate benchmark. This approach based on processes similar to those expected near waste repositories currently occurring in natural systems. (author)

  1. Geochemical modelling of bentonite porewater in high-level waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersin, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The description of the geochemical properties of the bentonite backfill that serves as engineered barrier for nuclear repositories is a central issue for perfomance assessment since these play a large role in determining the fate of contaminants released from the waste. In this study the porewater chemistry of bentonite was assessed with a thermodynamic modelling approach that includes ion exchange, surface complexation and mineral equilibrium reactions. The focus was to identify the geochemical reactions controlling the major ion chemistry and acid-base properties and to explore parameter uncertainties specifically at high compaction degrees. First, the adequacy of the approach was tested with two distinct surface complexation models by describing recent experimental data performed at highly varying solid/liquid ratios and ionic strengths. The results indicate adequate prediction of the entire experimental data set. Second, the modelling was extended to repository conditions, taking as an example the current Swiss concept for high-level waste where the compacted bentonite backfill is surrounded by argillaceous rock. The main reactions controlling major ion chemistry were found to be calcite equilibrium and concurrent Na-Ca exchange reactions and de-protonation of functional surface groups. Third, a sensitivity analysis of the main model parameters was performed. The results thereof indicate a remarkable robustness of the model with regard to parameter uncertainties. The bentonite system is characterised by a large acid-base buffering capacity which leads to stable pH-conditions. The uncertainty in pH was found to be mainly induced by the pCO 2 of the surrounding host rock. The results of a simple diffusion-reaction model indicate only minor changes of porewater composition with time, which is primarily due to the geochemical similarities of the bentonite and the argillaceous host rock. Overall, the results show the usefulness of simple thermodynamic models to

  2. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on Functional Design Criteria for a Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Busch, J.S.; Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Tisue, M.W.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) draft report entitled Functional Design Criteria for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository in Salt, dated January 23, 1984. Recommendations are given for improving the ONWI draft report

  3. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  4. Hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Lv Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the research experiences of our country and some developed countries in the world, the purpose, process and methods, as well as the function of hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high radioactive waste are discussed. Meanwhile, the topic related to the acquisition of hydrogeological parameters is described as well, aiming at providing reference for the future study. (authors)

  5. Public opposition to the siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository: The importance of trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines several dimensions of public opposition to the proposed siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In order to provide a context for the public's views of the repository in metropolitan Clark County, both governmental studies of the repository siting process are analyzed, as well as elements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This analysis suggests that one potentially key component of the public's opposition to the siting, as well as their perceptions of risk of the facility, may be the result of a lack of trust in the Department of Energy. Empirical analysis of survey data collected in Nevada in 1988 confirms the strong relationship between political trust and repository risk perceptions

  6. Modelling bentonite pore waters for the Swiss high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, E.

    1993-11-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to contribute to definition of representative compositions of bentonite pore waters in the near-field of the Swiss repository for high-level radioactive waste. Such compositions are necessary for determining the solubility limits of radionuclides for the safety analysis KRISTALLIN I. The model developed here is based on the premise, supported by experimental data, that the composition of bentonite pore waters is largely controlled by the dissolution or precipitation of reactive trace solids in bentonite. Selectivity constants for the exchange equilibria among Na-K, Na-Ca, and Ca-Mg were derived from water-bentonite interaction experiments performed for NAGRA by the British Geological Survey (BGS). An important parameter for the prediction of radionuclide solubilities is the oxidation potential of the bentonite water. Since the BGS experiments yielded no information on this, the oxidation potential had to be estimated from model assumptions. Bentonite pore waters were defined by computer simulation with the geochemical code MINEQL. They have been modelled in a closed system, i.e. assuming the bentonite, once it has reacted with a fixed volume of groundwater, does not exchange further chemical species with an external reservoir. No attempt was made to model the evolution of the pore water by simulating diffusive exchange processes. It can be anticipated that uncertainties in the concentrations of some major elements (e.g. Al, Si) will not significantly affect the calculated radionuclide solubilities. The latter will depend primarily on the concentrations of a few major ligands (OH - , Cl - and CO 3 -2 ) and, for multivalent elements, also on the oxidation potential of the solution. (author) 10 figs., 22 tabs., 40 refs

  7. Analogues to features and processes of a high-level radioactive waste repository proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Stuckless, John S.; with a Foreword by Abraham Van Luik, U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-01-01

    Natural analogues are defined for this report as naturally occurring or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have taken place over time periods of decades to millennia and on spatial scales as much as tens of kilometers. Analogues provide an important temporal and spatial dimension that cannot be tested by laboratory or field-scale experiments. Analogues provide one of the multiple lines of evidence intended to increase confidence in the safe geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Although the work in this report was completed specifically for Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste under the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the applicability of the science, analyses, and interpretations is not limited to a specific site. Natural and anthropogenic analogues have provided and can continue to provide value in understanding features and processes of importance across a wide variety of topics in addressing the challenges of geologic isolation of radioactive waste and also as a contribution to scientific investigations unrelated to waste disposal. Isolation of radioactive waste at a mined geologic repository would be through a combination of natural features and engineered barriers. In this report we examine analogues to many of the various components of the Yucca Mountain system, including the preservation of materials in unsaturated environments, flow of water through unsaturated volcanic tuff, seepage into repository drifts, repository drift stability, stability and alteration of waste forms and components of the engineered barrier system, and transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated rock zones.

  8. Role of waste packages in the safety of a high level waste repository in a deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretheau, F.; Lewi, J.

    1990-06-01

    The safety of a radioactive waste disposal facility lays on the three following barriers placed between the radioactive materials and the biosphere: the waste package; the engineered barriers; the geological barrier. The function assigned to each of these barriers in the performance assessment is an option taken by the organization responsible for waste disposal management (ANDRA in France), which must show that: expected performances of each barrier (confinement ability, life-time, etc.) are at least equal to those required to fulfill the assigned function; radiation protection requirements are met in all situations considered as credible, whether they be the normal situation or random event situations. The French waste management strategy is based upon two types of disposal depending on the nature and activity of waste packages: - surface disposal intended for low and medium level wastes having half-lives of about 30 years or less and alpha activity less than 3.7 MBq/kg (0.1 Ci/t), for individual packages and less than 0.37 MBq/kg (0.01 Ci/t) in the average. Deep geological disposal intended for TRU and high level wastes. The conditions of acceptance of packages in a surface disposal site are subject to the two fundamental safety rules no. I.2 and III.2.e. The present paper is only dealing with deep geological disposal. For deep geological repositories, three stages are involved: stage preceding definitive disposal (intermediate storage, transportation, handling, setting up in the disposal cavities); stage subsequent to definitive sealing of the disposal cavities but prior to the end of operation of the repository; stage subsequent to closure of the repository. The role of the geological barrier has been determined as the essential part of long term radioactivity confinement, by a working group, set up by the French safety authorities. Essential technical criteria relating to the choice of a site so defined by this group, are the following: very low permeability

  9. Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; F. Hua

    2005-04-12

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure.

  10. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  11. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project

  12. Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, K.G.; Hua, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure

  13. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 metres below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time

  14. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 meters below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time.

  15. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation

  16. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  17. Guidelines for the operation and closure of deep geological repositories for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The operation and closure of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes is a long term project involving many disciplines. This unique combination of nuclear operations in a deep underground location will require careful planning by the operating organization. The basic purpose of the operation stage of the deep repository is to ensure the safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. The purpose of the closure stage is to ensure that the wastes are safely isolated from the biosphere, and that the surface region can be returned to normal use. During these two stages of operation and closure, it is essential that both workers and the public are safely protected from radiation hazards, and that workers are protected from the hazards of working underground. For these periods of the repository, it is essential to carry out monitoring for purposes of radiological protection, and to continue testing and investigations to provide data for repository performance confirmation and for final safety assessment. Over the lengthy stages of operation and closure, there will be substantial feedback of experience and generation of site data. These will lead both to improved quality of operation and a better understanding of the site characteristics, thereby enhancing the confidence in the ability of the repository system to isolate the waste and protect future generations. 15 refs

  18. Fabrication and closure development of corrosion resistant containers for Nevada's Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.; Domian, H.A.; LaCount, D.F.; Robitz, E.S.; Stein, K.O.

    1989-11-01

    US Congress and the President have determined that the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is to be characterized to determine its suitability for construction of the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Work in connection with this site is carried out within the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing, developing, and projecting the performance of the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) is involved with the YMP as a subcontractor to LLNL. B ampersand W's role is to recommend and demonstrate a method for fabricating the metallic waste container and a method for performing the final closure of the container after it has been filled with waste. Various fabrication and closure methods are under consideration for the production of containers. This paper presents progress to date in identifying and evaluating the candidate manufacturing processes. 2 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  19. A Rock Mechanics and Coupled Hydro mechanical Analysis of Geological Repository of High Level Nuclear Waste in Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kibok

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a few case studies on fractured hard rock based on geological data from Sweden, Korea is one of a few countries where crystalline rock is the most promising rock formation as a candidate site of geological repository of high level nuclear waste. Despite the progress made in the area of rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanics, extensive site specific study on multiple candidate sites is essential in order to choose the optimal site. For many countries concerned about the safe isolation of nuclear wastes from the biosphere, disposal in a deep geological formation is considered an attractive option. In geological repository, thermal loading continuously disturbs the repository system in addition to disturbances a recent development in rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanical study using DFN(Discrete Fracture Network) - DEM(Discrete Element Method) approach mainly applied in hard, crystalline rock containing numerous fracture which are main sources of deformation and groundwater flow

  20. The importance of counting cows: Social and economic effects of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, J.; Brody, J.; Galavotti, C.

    1987-01-01

    Impact assessments that rely on existing records and extrapolation from broad geographic areas provide inadequate information about social and economic conditions important in siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Texas has used an alternative approach, involving systematic surveys of representative samples of local residents, farm operators and businesses in the proposed site counties and comparison areas. Results show that this technique is useful in describing current economic conditions, including characteristics of key sectors of the economy, changes related to the siting process, and expectations that may influence investment. In addition, the surveys are useful in assessing the degree of consensus in local communities and in identifying possible differential effects of a repository on particular groups. They also provide a baseline for long-term monitoring of repository effects and contribute to their understanding of the underlying processes that shape public response to the nuclear waste program

  1. Thermal modeling for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.

    1994-03-01

    Repository performance models based on numerical simulation of fluid and heat flows have recently been developed by several different groups. Model conceptualizations generally focus on large-scale average behavior. This comparison finds that current performance assessment (PA) models use generally similar approximations and parameters. Certain differences exist in some performance-relevant parameters, especially absolute permeabilities, characteristic curves, and thermal conductivities. These reflect present uncertainties about the most appropriate parameters applicable to Yucca Mountain and must be resolved through future field observations and laboratory measurements. For a highly heterogeneous fractured-porous hydrogeologic system such as Yucca Mountain, water infiltration through the unsaturated zone is expected to be dominated by highly localized phenomena. These include fast channelized flow along preferential paths in fractures, and frequent local ponding. The extended dry repository concept proposed by the Livermore group is reviewed. Predictions of large-scale drying around the repository on the average for large thermal loads cannot be taken to indicate that waste packages will not be contacted by liquid water, and that aqueous-phase transport of contaminants is not possible. Specifically, the authors find that modest water infiltration, on the order of a few millimeters per year, would be sufficient to overwhelm the vaporization capacity of the repository heat and inundate the waste packages within a time frame of a few thousand years. A preliminary analysis indicates that channelized flow of water may persist over large vertical distances. The vaporization-condensation cycle has a capacity for generating huge amounts of ponded water. A small fraction of the total condensate, if ponded and then episodically released, would be sufficient to cause liquid phase to make contact with the waste packages

  2. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive was involves preventing releases to the biosphere for a long period of time and subsequently limiting the magnitude of releases by means of a series of safety barriers: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of void spacer and access routes on repository closure. The geological barriers are formed by the crystalline bed-rock and the overlying sedimentary layers. In order to perform a safety assessment the behaviour of these technical barriers and of the host rock must be understood and this understanding must be translated into quantitative models which allow calculation of repository performance. For the particular case of a Swiss repository, the main criterion is the individual dose limit of 10 mrem/year, which is given in the safety guidelines of the Swiss authorities. The procedure for the safety analysis involves examination of all scenarios which could give rise to radionuclide release from the repository. Qualitative considerations of both the magnitude of their consequences and their likelihood are used in order to identify a restricted number of scenarios for quantitative analysis

  3. Monitoring a repository for high-level radioactive waste in Germany. Possibilities and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobmann, M.; Haverkamp, B.; Eilers, G.

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the new BMU safety requirements of September 2010 imposed upon the final storage of radioactive waste generating heat, the operator of a repository in Germany must establish a monitoring program which furnishes relevant measured information during the operations phase and for a defined period of time after closure of the repository. Within the framework of a feasibility study, an assessment basis was established to show in what format information about the status of a closed repository mine could be obtained technically without impairing the safety of barriers, for instance, by cable ducts. As a conceptual design basis, processes and measured quantities relevant to monitoring were attributed to the components of the current safety demonstration concept. For one model variant, monitoring possibilities of these processes were shown on the basis of monitoring modules. Some first experiments are being carried out in European underground laboratories about the use of wireless transmission systems in the repository area. On the basis of those activities, experiments could also be designed in the German exploratory mine of Gorleben in order to examine to what extent information obtained by monitoring could be transmitted in a wireless mode in rock salt formations. As far as the autonomous supply of electricity to measurement systems is concerned, which must be guaranteed on a long-term basis, there is now a possibility of using thermoelectric isotope generators or betavoltaic batteries. (orig.)

  4. Regional groundwater chemical characteristics of Aqishan pre-selected site for high level radioactive waste repository and its hydrogeological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Dong Jiannan; Liu Shufen; Zhou Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Aqishan area located in Xinjiang Uygur Automonous Region is one of the main preselected site of disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Groundwater chemical feature is one of the most important consideration factors in the siting and site evaluation for high-level radioactive waste repository, From 2012 to 2013, the regional field hydrogeochemical investigation was carried out in study area and more than 30 groundwater samples were collected. According to the measurement data, the groundwater chemical features for different subareas are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the location of discharge area of groundwater in Aqishan area was estimated according to the chemical features of different subareas. (authors)

  5. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; El Amin, Mohamed F.; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since

  6. Analysis on regional hydrogeological condition of Beishan preselected area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository in Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Liu Shufen; Lu Chuanhe

    2004-01-01

    Based on the field investigation which has been carried out in the Beishan preselected area for high level radioactive waste repository in Gansu province during the last few years and the previous hydrogeological investigation results, the different groundwater types are divided initially and the hydrogeological features of different water-bearing media are described in this paper. Meanwhile, the preliminary evaluation of the regional hydrogeological condition of the study area is carried out. (author)

  7. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes

  8. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  9. Siting of repositories for high level nuclear waste geological and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahagen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Two studies have been conducted in Sweden under contract from SKN-National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The responsibilities of SKN has been transferred to SKI as of July 1, 1992. The first study is related to a compilation of experience and lessons learned from siting of nuclear waste repositories and other controversial facilities in seven countries. The second study is aimed at compiling examples of the state of knowledge related to the regional geological information with relevance to siting of a repository in Sweden. This paper is drawing the general combined conclusions from both these studies. The first study reviewed programs for siting of nuclear and hazardous waste disposal facilities in Canada, Finland, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. The main topics reviewed are related to a/ The use of technical screening, b/ Legal framework and local veto, c/ Public involvement, d/ Interim storage and schedule flexibility, e/ Sequential vs. parallel characterization. The second study focused on the regional geological information available for Sweden and if this information allows for a ''grouping'' of tectonic regions in Sweden with significant differences in history and characteristics. Factors studied as potentially important for siting are bedrock properties, mineralizations, ground water conditions and available volume for a repository. The experience gained from these studies is aimed to be used as background information in the review of the program conducted for the Swedish nuclear utilities by SKB. SKB will according to current plans initiate siting for a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden during 1993. (author). 2 refs

  10. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2007-11-01

    , although the presence of aromatic compounds and PAHs in groundwater is not desirable by itself, they are of no consequence for the long-term performance of the repository. 5. Detergents and lubricants. The same reasoning as for fuels and engine emissions can be applied in this case. The amount of detergents should be minimized, although in the amounts that they are expected to occur, no important impact is foreseen. 6. Materials from human activities. Among them, the ones having potentially a more important effect are fibres from clothes, due to the presence of cellulose, and therefore it is recommended to minimise human-related wastes, although no large amounts of these materials are expected to be present after the repository closure. The effects that organic substances can have in the repository will always depend on the amounts present in the repository after closure. The estimated average concentrations are below 1.7x10 -4 kg/m 3 (0.17 mg/L) of hydrocarbons in the deposition tunnels and less than 8.4x10 -4 kg/m 3 (0.84 mg/L) of carbohydrates, assuming a total saturation in the pore water and an even distribution of the organic materials. This should be compared to the organic material found in groundwater at natural circumstances. At 500 m depth the DOC (dissolved organic carbon) content usually are approximately 0.5.2 mg/L. Three processes are deemed to have the largest possible impact on the performance of the repository: i) Increase of the reducing capacity and decrease of the redox potential in the short-term, and increased rate of depletion of the oxygen trapped during the repository operation stage. ii) Increase in the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to the presence of organic complexants, which is expected to be a process of more relevance in the long-term. Many organic molecules with complexing capacity, such as short organic acids like acetate are, however, oxidised as a consequence of microbial metabolism. The acetate concentration in ground water

  11. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta [Vita vegrandis, Hindaas (Sweden); Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    , although the presence of aromatic compounds and PAHs in groundwater is not desirable by itself, they are of no consequence for the long-term performance of the repository. 5. Detergents and lubricants. The same reasoning as for fuels and engine emissions can be applied in this case. The amount of detergents should be minimized, although in the amounts that they are expected to occur, no important impact is foreseen. 6. Materials from human activities. Among them, the ones having potentially a more important effect are fibres from clothes, due to the presence of cellulose, and therefore it is recommended to minimise human-related wastes, although no large amounts of these materials are expected to be present after the repository closure. The effects that organic substances can have in the repository will always depend on the amounts present in the repository after closure. The estimated average concentrations are below 1.7x10{sup -4} kg/m{sup 3} (0.17 mg/L) of hydrocarbons in the deposition tunnels and less than 8.4x10{sup -4} kg/m{sup 3} (0.84 mg/L) of carbohydrates, assuming a total saturation in the pore water and an even distribution of the organic materials. This should be compared to the organic material found in groundwater at natural circumstances. At 500 m depth the DOC (dissolved organic carbon) content usually are approximately 0.5.2 mg/L. Three processes are deemed to have the largest possible impact on the performance of the repository: i) Increase of the reducing capacity and decrease of the redox potential in the short-term, and increased rate of depletion of the oxygen trapped during the repository operation stage. ii) Increase in the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to the presence of organic complexants, which is expected to be a process of more relevance in the long-term. Many organic molecules with complexing capacity, such as short organic acids like acetate are, however, oxidised as a consequence of microbial metabolism. The acetate

  12. Thermal stresses in a repository for ultimate storage of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlert, C.

    1981-01-01

    An important factor to be considered in evaluating the suitability of a salt mine as a waste repository is the deformation behaviour of rock salt, as this is the predominant type of rock in this formation. Equations are presented and explained describing the elastic, plastic, and viscoplastic deformation mechanisms contributing to overall rock salt deformation, and use of these equations is made through a specially developed arithmetic method. As there are stratifications and discontinuties in the formation to be considered in the computation, additional criteria are to be taken into account in the integrity considerations, especially the figures of material equations for all other types of rock occurring in the formation. (DG) [de

  13. Technology needs for selecting and evaluating high-level waste repository sites in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes properties and processes that govern the performance of the geological barrier in a nuclear waste isolation system in crystalline rock and the state-of-the-art in the understanding of these properties and processes. Areas and topics that require further research and development as well as technology needs for investigating and selecting repository sites are presented. Experiences from the Swedish site selection program are discussed, and a general investigation strategy is presented for an area characterization phase of an exploratory program in crystalline rocks. 255 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Operational procedures for receiving, packaging, emplacing, and retrieving high-level and transuranic waste in a geologic repository in TUFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, A.W.; Mulkin, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, directed by the Nevada Operations Office of the Department of Energy, is currently developing conceptual designs for a commercial nuclear waste repository. In this paper, the preliminary repository operating plans are identified and the proposed repository waste inventory is discussed. The receipt rates for truck and rail car shipments of waste are determined as are the required repository waste emplacement rates

  15. Creep in crystalline rock with application to high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, P.; Simonen, A.

    1992-06-01

    The time-dependent strength and deformation properties of hard crystalline rock are studied. Theoretical models defining the phenomena which can effect these properties are reviewed. The time- dependent deformation of the openings in the proposed nuclear waste repository is analysed. The most important factors affecting the subcritical crack growth in crystalline rock are the stress state, the chemical environment, temperature and microstructure of the rock. There are several theoretical models for the analysis of creep and cyclic fatigue: deformation diagrams, rheological models thermodynamic models, reaction rate models, stochastic models, damage models and time-dependent safety factor model. They are defective in describing the three-axial stress condition and strength criteria. In addition, the required parameters are often too difficult to determine with adequate accuracy. Therefore these models are seldom applied in practice. The effect of microcrack- driven creep on the stability of the work shaft, the emplacement tunnel and the capsulation hole of a proposed nuclear waste repository was studied using a numerical model developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. According to the model, the microcrack driven creep progresses very slowly in good quality rock. Poor rock quality may accelerate the creep rate. The model is very sensitive to the properties of the rock and secondary stress state. The results show that creep causes no stability problems on excavations in good rock. The results overestimate the effect of the creep, because the analysis omitted the effect of support structures and backfilling

  16. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, Jon C.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Sallaberry, Cédric J.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of this development, a detailed performance assessment (PA) for the YM repository was completed in 2008 and supported a license application by the DOE to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the construction of the YM repository. The following aspects of the 2008 YM PA are described in this presentation: (i) conceptual structure and computational organization, (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques in use, (iii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for physical processes, and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for expected dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) specified the NRC’s regulations for the YM repository. - Highlights: ► An overview of performance assessment for the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository is presented. ► Conceptual structure and computational organization are described. ► Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are described. ► Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for physical processes are presented. ► Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for expected dose are presented.

  17. Engineering studies: high-level radioactive waste repositories task 3 - review of underground handling and emplacement. 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The report reviews proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in an underground repository with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transport by road/rail to repository site; handling techniques within repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; conventional and radiological safety; costs; and major areas of uncertainty requiring research or development. In carrying out this programme due attention was given to work already carried out both in the U.K. and overseas and where appropriate comparisons with this work have been made to substantiate and explain the observations made in this report. The examination and use of this previous work however has been confined to those proposals which were considered capable of meeting the basic design criterion for a U.K. based repository, that the maximum temperature achieved by the host rock should not exceed 100/sup 0/C.

  18. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance

  19. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-10-03

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance.

  20. The ground water chemical characteristics of Beishan area-the China's potential high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianxiao; Guo Yonghai

    2004-01-01

    The ground water chemical characteristics have impact on nuclide migration in high level waste repository, so the study on the ground water chemical characteristics is an important aspect in site screening and characterization. The geochemical modeling of the reaction trend between ground water and solid phase, the water-rock interaction modeling of the formation and evolution of ground water chemistry, the modeling of the reaction between ground water and nuclear waste are all carried out in this paper to study the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area. The study illustrates that the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area is favorable to the disposal of high level nuclear waste and to prevent the nuclides migration. (author)

  1. Can Sisyphus succeed? Getting U.S. high-level nuclear waste into a geological repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, D Warner

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government has the obligation of managing the high-level radioactive waste from its defense activities and also, under existing law, from civilian nuclear power generation. This obligation is not being met. The January 2012 Final Report from the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future provides commendable guidance but little that is new. The author, who served on the federal Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board from 1989 to 1994 and subsequently on the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council from 1994 to 1999, provides a perspective both on the Commission's recommendations and a potential path toward progress in meeting the federal obligation. By analogy to Sisyphus of Greek mythology, our nation needs to find a way to roll the rock to the top of the hill and have it stay there, rather than continuing to roll back down again. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  3. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D.; Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in minded repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models

  4. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in mined repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models.

  5. Effects of perched water on thermally driven moisture flow at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository for high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Muller, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical modeling was conducted to identify potential perched-water sites and examine the effects of perched water on thermally driven moisture flow at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository for high-level nuclear waste. It is demonstrated that perched-water zones may occur at two horizons on the up-dip side of faults such as the Ghost Dance Fault (GDF): in nonwelded volcanic strata [such as the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded (PTn) stratigraphic unit], where juxtaposition of welded strata against nonwelded may constitute a barrier to lateral flow within the nonwelded strata; and in fractured horizons of underlying welded units [such as the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit] because of focused infiltration fed by overlying perched zones. The potential perched zones (PPZs) may contain perched water (which would flow freely into a well or opening) if infiltration rates are high enough. At lower infiltration rates, the PPZs contain only capillary-held water at relatively high saturations. Areas of the proposed repository that lie below PPZs are likely to experience relatively high percolation flux even if the PPZ contains only capillary-held water at high saturation. As a result, PPZs that contain only capillary-held water may be as important to repository performance as those that contain perched water. Thermal loading from emplaced waste in the repository is not likely to have an effect on PPZs located on adequate distance above the repository (such as in the PTn). As a result, such PPZs may be considered as permanent features of the environment. On the other hand, PPZs close to the repository depth (such as those that may occur in the TSw rock unit) would experience an initial period of spatial growth and increased saturation following waste emplacement. Thereafter, drying would begin at the repository horizon with perched-zone growth simultaneously above and below the repository. As a result, after the initial period of expansion, PPZs close to the repository horizon

  6. Assessment of volcanic and tectonic hazards to high level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallmann, P.C.; Miller, I.; Kossik, R.

    1993-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a computer program (RIP) for performing probabilistic total system performance assessment and site characterization strategy evaluation which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and to guide characterization activities. The performance assessment model incorporated in RIP has three basic component models: (1) waste package behavior, (2) radionuclide transport pathways, and (3) disruptive events. Classes of disruptive events are specified in RIP by (1) a disruption rate (events/yr.), (2) open-quotes event descriptorsclose quotes which describe event characteristics and magnitude, and (3) the consequences associated with an event. One of the strengths of RIP is its flexibility, which allows it to evaluate different sites and conceptual models. Examples of seismic and volcanic disruptive event models constructed by GAI for Yucca Mountain are presented. Analysis of the results of these models indicates that for the simulated models, neither of these event classes significantly impacts the performance of the proposed repository over a 10,000 year time span

  7. Evaluation of kriging techniques for high level radioactive waste repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    Kriging is a statistical method for estimating functions that describe spatially distributed phenomena such as groundwater elevation and depth to basalt. It produces a contour model of the geologic formation of a potential site with an associated measure of uncertainty, and it can be used to optimize the selection of additional sampling locations. Kriging was applied to water potential data and top-of-basalt elevations from the Hanford site; the computer code BLUEPACK was used to perform the computations. The water potential contours were in close agreement with a hand-drawn contour map which is used as a standard. It is concluded that kriging can be a useful tool for geologic waste repository site characterization

  8. Prediction of temperature increases in a salt repository expected from the storage of spent fuel or high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, G.H.

    1978-04-01

    Comparisons in temperature increases incurred from hypothetical storage of 133 MW of 10-year-old spent fuel (SF) or high-level waste (HLW) in underground salt formations have been made using the HEATING5 computer code. The comparisons are based on far-field homogenized models that cover areas of 65 and 25 sq miles for SF and HLW, respectively, and near-field unit-cell models covering respective areas of 610 ft 2 and 400 ft 2 . Preliminary comparisons based on heat loads of 150 kW/acre and 3.5 kW/canister indicated near-field temperature increases about 20% higher for the storage of the spent fuel than for the high-level waste. In these comparisons, it was also found that the thermal energy deposited in the salt after 500 years is about twice the energy deposited by the high-level waste. The thermal load in a repository containing 10-year-old spent fuel was thus limited to 60 kW/acre to obtain comparable far-field thermal effects as obtained in a repository containing 10-year-old high-level waste loaded at 150 kW/acre. Detailed far-field and unit-cell comparisons of transient temperature increases have been made based on these loadings. Unit-cell comparisons were made between a canister containing high-level waste with an initial heat production rate of 2.1 kW and a canister containing a PWR spent fuel assembly producing 0.55 kW. Using a three-dimensional unit-cell model, a maximum salt temperature increase of 260 0 F was calculated for the high-level waste prior to back-filling (5 years after burial), whereas a maximum temperature increase of 110 0 F was calculated for the spent fuel prior to backfilling (25 years after burial). Comparisons were also made between various configurational models for the high-level waste showing the applicability of each model

  9. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  10. Initial demonstration of the NRC`s capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; Fehringer, D.; Ford, W.; Margulies, T.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.; Randall, J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes.

  11. Technical position on items and activities in the high-level waste geologic repository program subject to quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.B.; Bilhorn, S.G.; Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    This document provides guidance on how to identify items and activities subject to Quality Assurance in the high-level nuclear waste repository program for pre-closure and post-closure phases of the repository. In the pre-closure phase, structures, systems and components essential to the prevention or mitigation of an accident that could result in an off-site radiation dose of 0.5rem or greater are termed ''important to safety''. In the post-closure phase, the barriers which are relied on to meet the containment and isolation requirements are defined as ''important to waste isolation''. These structures, systems, components, and barriers, and the activities related to their characterization, design, construction, and operation are required to meet quality assurance (QA) criteria to provide confidence in the performance of the geologic repository. The list of structures, systems, and components important to safety and engineered barriers important to waste isolation is referred to as the ''Q-List'' and lies within the scope of the QA program. 10 refs

  12. Effect of buffer thickness on the retardation of radionuclide release from the high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kang, Chul Hyung; Han, Kyung Won

    2000-12-01

    The radionuclide release from buffer in the high-level waste repository to the surrounding host rock was assessed, and the effect of the radial buffer thickness on the release rate was analyzed. The total release rates decrease sharply with increasing radial buffer thickness up to 0.25 m, and decrease moderately at the buffer thickness between 0.25 m and 0.5 m. But increasing the radial buffer thickness beyond 0.5 m has little effect in reducing radionuclide release. Therefore a radial buffer thickness between 0.25 m and 0.5 m is sufficient based on the viewpoint of radionuclide retention

  13. Workshop material for state review of USNRC site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing criteria on which to judge whether a proposed site for a geologic repository is suitable for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. To aid in its analysis and assessment, NRC is planning three early independent reviews of the site suitability criteria development effort: a peer review by experts outside of NRC; a review by the National Academy of Sciences; and a review by State officials. This document has been prepared to aid workshop participants in understanding the Preliminary Site Suitability Criteria and to prepare them to contribute to an evaluation of those criteria

  14. Selection and Basic Properties of the Buffer Material for High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhijian

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive wastes arising from a wide range of human activities are in many different physical and chemical forms, contaminated with varying radioactivity. Their common features are the potential hazard associated with their radioactivity and the need to manage them in such a way as to protect the human environment. The geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely disposing high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineered barrier system. The buffer is one of the main engineered barriers for HLW repository. It is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing property, radio nuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering property,canister supporting property, and stress buffering property over a long period of time. Bentonite is selected as the main content of buffer material that can satisfy the above requirements. The Gaomiaozi deposit is selected as the candidate supplier for China's buffer material of high level radioactive waste repository. This paper presents the geological features of the GMZ deposit and basic properties of the GMZ Na-bentonite. It is a super-large deposit with a high content of montmorillonite (about 75%), and GMZ-1, which is Na-bentonite produced from GMZ deposit is selected as the reference material for China's buffer material study.

  15. Self-sealing of rock fractures. A possibility around the repositories of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Nakata, Eiji

    1995-01-01

    To the goal of the safe geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW), we must provide long-term confidence for the isolation of HLW in various ways. In particular, groundwater flow, the most likely transport media of radioactive nuclides from HLW, must be restricted around a repository for long time. For that purpose, grouting techniques using cement, bentonite, or other materials have been studied in many countries. In this paper we report the results of a series of experiments on silica precipitation behavior in a flow path with negative temperature gradients in granite and also describe a natural example of hydrothermal alteration of diatomite intruded by andesite. Based on these, we will discuss the possibility of self-sealing around HLW repository. (J.P.N.)

  16. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Kraus, N.N.; Chalmers, J.; Gesel, G.; Flynn, J.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes a program of research designed to assess the potential impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse economic impacts may be expected to result from two related social processes. One has to do with perceptions of risk and socially amplified reactions to ''unfortunate events'' associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The second process that may trigger significant adverse impacts is that of stigmatization. The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, social amplification, and stigmatization are discussed in this paper and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse effects on tourism, migration, and business development

  17. Decommissioning of surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-11-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the decommissioning of the surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. A cost/risk index (figure of merit), expressed as $/manrem, is proposed as an evaluation criteria. On the basis of this cost/risk index, we gain insight into the advisability of adapting certain decontamination design options into the original facility. Three modes are considered: protective storage, entombment, and dismantlement. Cost estimates are made for the direct labor involved in each of the alternative modes for a baseline design case. Similarly, occupational radiation exposures are estimated, with a larger degree of uncertainty, for each of the modes. Combination of these estimates produces the cost/risk index. To illustrate the methodology, an example using a preliminary baseline repository design is discussed

  18. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff development of the license application review plan for a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.; Holonich, J.J.; Lee, M.P.; Delligatti, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has recently started a new initiative to develop the License Application Review Plan (LARP) which the staff will use in its reviews of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) license application (LA) for a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This paper describes the staff's approach for developing the LARP, the development schedule and current status, the organization and content of the LARP, and the staff's LA review strategy. Therefore, it gives a preview of the draft LARP which will be made available in late 1993. It also describes how the LARP will be used as guidance to the staff in conducting reviews of regulatory and technical issues important to the licensing of a geologic repository. Finally, the benefits to the NRC staff, DOE, and other parties are discussed

  19. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  20. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada--hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  1. The study of fracture mineralization and relationship with high level radioactive waste of deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Cristina N.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive investigations of the Ordovician, Dinantian and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Sellafield area of northwest England were undertaken by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. as a possible national site for geological disposal of intermediate and low-level radioactive waste. Very detailed studies of fracture mineralisation at Sellafield were thus put in hand by Nirex Ltd. and the results summarised by the British Geological Survey. Deep (up to 2 km) boreholes were put down with excellent core recovery. It is generally agreed that the most significant pathway for the escape of all but a very few radionuclides is by solution in and advection of groundwater. In this context, rock fracture systems are particularly important because they offer a potentially rapid pathway to the surface and the biosphere. One striking aspect of this work is that the fracture mineralisation seemingly records major and rapid fluctuations in redox conditions -sometimes during apparently continuous precipitation of cements (ferroan and non-ferroan calcites, dolomite). Carbonate cements record variations in Fe 2+ availability. Fe(III) precipitates also as oxide (hematite) and Fe(II) as sulphide (pyrite). This study focuses on these elements and valence states and also on Mn; another element susceptible to redox controls but known to respond differently from Fe. Shallow sub-surface stores or repositories would be more likely to have oxidising or fluctuating redox conditions. The mineralisation sequences documented at Sellafield are potentially promising in this context. Ferroan carbonate cements are sensitive indicators of later movement of oxidising ground waters. (author)

  2. Evaluation of engineering aspects of backfill placement for high level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Kleppe, J.; Gonano, L.

    1984-04-01

    This report includes the identification and subjective evaluation of alternative schemes for backfilling around waste packages and within emplacement rooms. The aspects of backfilling specifically considered in this study include construction and testing; costs have not been considered. However, because construction and testing are simply implementation and verification of design, a design basis for backfill is required. A generic basis has been developed for this study by first identifying qualitative performance objectives for backfill and then weighting each with respect to its potential influence on achieving the repository system performance objectives. Alternative backfill materials and additives have been identified and evaluated with respect to the perceived extent to which each combination can be expected to achieve the backfill design basis. Several distinctly different combinations of materials and additives which are perceived to have the highest potential for achieving the backfill design basis have been selected for further study. These combinations include zeolite/clinoptilolite, bentonite, muck, and muck mixed with bentonite. Feasible alternative construction and testing procedures for each selected combination have been discussed. Recommendations have been made regarding appropriate backfill schemes for hard rock (i.e., basalt at Hanford, Washington, tuff at Nevada Test Site, and generic granite) and salt (i.e., domal salt on the Gulf Coast and generic bedded salt). 27 references, 8 figures, 31 tables

  3. Technical basis for high-level waste repository land control requirements for Palo Duro Basin, Paradox Basin, and Richton Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.P.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-02-01

    Three sites, the Palo Duro Basin in Texas, the Paradox Basin in Utah, and the Richton Dome in Mississippi, are being investigated by the US Department of Energy for high-level radioactive-waste disposal in mined, deep geologic repositories in salt. This report delineates the use of regulatory, engineering, and performance assessment information to establish the technical basis for controlled area requirements. Based on the size of the controlled area determined, plus that of the geologic repository operations area, recommendations of possible land control or ownership area requirements for each locale are provided. On a technical basis, the following minimum land control or ownership requirements are recommended, assuming repository operations area of 2240 ac (907 ha), or 3.5 mi 2 (9.1 km 2 ): Palo Duro Basin - 4060 ac (1643 ha), or 6.3 mi 2 (16.4 km 2 ); Paradox Basin - 4060 ac (1643 ha), or 6.3 mi 2 (16.4 km 2 ); and Richton Dome - 5000 ac (2024 ha), or 7.8 mi 2 (20.2 km 2 ). Of the factors used to determine the technically based recommendations, one was found to dominate each locale. For the Palo Duro and Paradox Basins, the dominant factor was the need to limit potential radionuclide release by ground-water flow to the accessible environment. For the Richton Dome, the dominant factor was the need to limit the potential effects of solution mining on dome and repository integrity

  4. Three-dimensional thermal analysis of a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenbach, T.J.

    1979-04-01

    The analysis used the TRUMP computer code to evaluate the thermal fields for six repository scenarios that studied the effects of room ventilation, room backfill, and repository thermal diffusivity. The results for selected nodes are presented as plots showing the effect of temperature as a function of time. 15 figures, 6 tables

  5. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon

    2005-09-19

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  6. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, F.; Pasupathi, P.; Brown, N.; Mon, K.

    2005-01-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  7. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories. Discussion Group reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The NRC Waste Management Program and the Office of State Programs held three regional workshops to solicit ideas from State executives and legislators on the siting and licensing procedures for high level waste repositories and to solicit comments on the NRC preliminary site suitability criteria. The workshops were held in Denver, Colorado; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the period 19-30 September 1977. The reports from these workshops are contained herein. The workshops were attended by 170 invited State executives and legislators from 46 states. In addition, there were over 80 observers from diverse backgrounds including the general public, government, industry, professional consultants and university faculty. The workshops were announced in the Federal Register on September 1, 1977

  9. Effects of silica redistribution on performance of high-level nuclear waste repositories in saturated geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.; Pruess, K.

    1985-11-01

    Evaluation of the thermohydrological conditions near high-level waste packages is needed for the design of the waste canister and for overall repository design and performance assessment. Most available studies in this area have assumed that the hydrologic properties of the host rock do not change in response to the thermal, mechanical or chemical effects caused by waste emplacement. However, the ramifications of this simplifying assumption have not been substantiated. We have studied dissolution and precipitation of silica in thermally driven flow systems, including changes in formation porosity and permeability. Using numerical simulation, we compare predictions of thermohydrological conditions with and without inclusion of silica redistribution effects. Two cases were studied, namely, a canister-scale problem, a repository-wide thermal convection problem, and different pore models were employed for the permeable medium (fractures with uniform or non-uniform cross sections). We find that silica redistribution generally has insignificant effects on host rock and canister temperatures, pore pressures, or flow velocites

  10. Review of scenario selection approaches for performance assessment of high-level waste repositories and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banano, E.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    The selection of scenarios representing plausible realizations of the future conditions-with associated probabilities of occurrence-that can affect the long-term performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is the commonly used method for treating the uncertainty in the prediction of the future states of the system. This method, conventionally referred to as the ''scenario approach,'' while common is not the only method to deal with this uncertainty; other method ''ch as the environmental simulation approach (ESA), have also been proposed. Two of the difficulties with the scenario approach are the lack of uniqueness in the definition of the term ''scenario'' and the lack of uniqueness in the approach to formulate scenarios, which relies considerably on subjective judgments. Consequently, it is difficult to assure that a complete and unique set of scenarios can be defined for use in a performance assessment. Because scenarios are key to the determination of the long-term performance of the repository system, this lack of uniqueness can present a considerable challenge when attempting to reconcile the set of scenarios, and their level of detail, obtained using different approaches, particularly among proponents and regulators of a HLW repository

  11. Review of scenario selection approaches for performance assessment of high-level waste repositories and related issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banano, E.J. [Beta Corporation International, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, R.G. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1995-08-01

    The selection of scenarios representing plausible realizations of the future conditions-with associated probabilities of occurrence-that can affect the long-term performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is the commonly used method for treating the uncertainty in the prediction of the future states of the system. This method, conventionally referred to as the ``scenario approach,`` while common is not the only method to deal with this uncertainty; other method ``ch as the environmental simulation approach (ESA), have also been proposed. Two of the difficulties with the scenario approach are the lack of uniqueness in the definition of the term ``scenario`` and the lack of uniqueness in the approach to formulate scenarios, which relies considerably on subjective judgments. Consequently, it is difficult to assure that a complete and unique set of scenarios can be defined for use in a performance assessment. Because scenarios are key to the determination of the long-term performance of the repository system, this lack of uniqueness can present a considerable challenge when attempting to reconcile the set of scenarios, and their level of detail, obtained using different approaches, particularly among proponents and regulators of a HLW repository.

  12. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Marschall, P.; Zuidema, P.; Gribi, P.

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  13. Qualification of existing data for high-level nuclear waste repositories: Generic technical position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, W.D.; Donnelly, J.P.; Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-02-01

    This document provides guidance on methods of qualifying data not initially collected under a 10 CFR Part 60, Subpart G quality assurance (QA) program. The license applicant for a geologic repository must demonstrate that the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations in 10 CFR Part 60 have been met. Confidence in the data used to support the license application is obtained through a QA program. Some data which have not been initially generated under a 10 CFR Part 60, Subpart G QA program may be needed to support a license application to construct and operate a geologic repository. This document provides guidance on the use and qualification of data not initially collected under a Subpart G, QA program

  14. NRC's geotechnical engineering research needs for the high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Philip, J.; Lorig, L.J.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    To develop the capability for independently assessing the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) geologic repository design within a limited time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff needs to perform certain research well before receiving the license application. The NRC staff is using a number of factors to identify the areas that it needs to research. The staff assigns priorities to the needed research based on programmatic considerations and the significance of the work. In the geotechnical engineering field, the staff is conducting research in the following three areas: response of the repository to repeated strong ground motion, rock-mass sealing, and coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical interactions. In this paper, the NRC staff also presents the areas of additional research needed in the geotechnical engineering field

  15. The near-field transport in a repository for high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranguiz, L.R.

    1995-05-01

    The thesis is focused on the modelling of a redox front which is created when the oxidants produced by a radiolytic process in a damaged canister escape to the surroundings, and on a fast and flexible model to calculate the radionuclide transport in the repository. In addition, the thesis includes an attempt to validate the processes involved in the redox front model and a sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties in the parameter values regarding the release of radionuclides from the Swedish KBS-3 repository. The redox front model considers that the transport of oxidants in the clay surrounding the canister is by diffusion and that the transport in the fractures in the rock is by flow with diffusion into the rock matrix.The assumed radiolysis rates denoted high and low in the thesis are probably not realistic, but can be seen as upper limits. thus it is unlikely that the redox front will ever move past the bentonite clay surrounding the canister, and if it does, the front may move less than 100 m. The model to calculate the transport of radionuclides in the near-field uses a coarse compartmentalization of the repository by embedding analytical solutions in zones where other techniques, such as finite difference methods, would need a very fine discretization. Only a few compartments are required to obtain a good accuracy in the calculated release. 34 refs, 17 figs

  16. The near-field transport in a repository for high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranguiz, L.R.

    1995-05-01

    The thesis is focused on the modelling of a redox front which is created when the oxidants produced by a radiolytic process in a damaged canister escape to the surroundings, and on a fast and flexible model to calculate the radionuclide transport in the repository. In addition, the thesis includes an attempt to validate the processes involved in the redox front model and a sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties in the parameter values regarding the release of radionuclides from the Swedish KBS-3 repository. The redox front model considers that the transport of oxidants in the clay surrounding the canister is by diffusion and that the transport in the fractures in the rock is by flow with diffusion into the rock matrix.The assumed radiolysis rates denoted high and low in the thesis are probably not realistic, but can be seen as upper limits. thus it is unlikely that the redox front will ever move past the bentonite clay surrounding the canister, and if it does, the front may move less than 100 m. The model to calculate the transport of radionuclides in the near-field uses a coarse compartmentalization of the repository by embedding analytical solutions in zones where other techniques, such as finite difference methods, would need a very fine discretization. Only a few compartments are required to obtain a good accuracy in the calculated release. 34 refs, 17 figs.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF THE THERMAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF ENGINEERED BARRIERS IN A HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KWON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate design of engineered barriers, including canister, buffer and backfill, is important for the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three-dimensional computer simulations were carried out under different condition to examine the thermal and mechanical behavior of engineered barriers and rock mass. The research looked at five areas of importance, the effect of the swelling pressure, water content of buffer, density of compacted bentonite, emplacement type and the selection of failure criteria. The results highlighted the need to consider tensile stress in the outer shell of a canister due to thermal expansion of the canister and the swelling pressure from the buffer for a more reliable design of an underground repository system. In addition, an adequate failure criterion should be used for the buffer and backfill.

  18. Effects of long-term exposure of tuffs to high-level nuclear waste-repository conditions. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.; Carter, J.; Halleck, P.; Johnson, P.; Shankland, T.; Andersen, R.; Spicochi, K.; Heller, A.

    1982-02-01

    Tests have been performed to explore the effects of extended exposure of tuffs from the southwestern portion of the Nevada Test Site to temperatures and pressures similar to those that will be encountered in a high-level nuclear waste repository. Tuff samples ranging from highly welded, nonzeolitized to unwelded, highly zeolitized varieties were subjected to temperatures of 80, 120, and 180 0 C; confining pressures of 9.7 and 19.7 MPa; and water-pore pressures of 0.5 to 19.7 MPa for durations of 2 to 6 months. The following basic properties were measured before and after exposure and compared: tensile strength, uniaxial compressive strength, grain density, porosity, mineralogy, permeability, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. Depending on rock type and exposure conditions, significant changes in ambient tensile strength, compressive strength, grain density, and porosity were measured. Mineralogic examination, permeability, and thermal property measurements remain to be completed

  19. Analysis of the stability of underground high-level nuclear waste repository in discontinuous rock mass using 3DEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-03-01

    For the safe design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in deep location, it is necessary to confirm the stability of the underground excavations under the high overburden pressure and also to investigate the influence of discontinuities such as fault, fracture zone, and joints. In this study, computer simulations using 3DEC, which is a Distince Element (DEM) code, were carried out for determining important parameters on the stability of the disposal tunnel and deposition holes excavated in 500 m deep granite body. The development of plastic zone and stress and strain distributions were analyzed with various modelling conditions with variation on the parameters including joint numbers, tunnel size, joint properties, rock properties, and stress ratio. Furthermore, the influence of fracture zone, which is located around the underground excavations, on the stability of the excavation was investigated. In this study, the variation of stress and strain distribution due to the variation of fracture zone location, dip, and width was analyzed

  20. Development of uncertainty analyses for the transport of radionuclides from a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Stage one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, B.

    1986-10-01

    The escape of radionuclides from a repository for high level waste is described by the near field model LCHCAL and the geosphere models GEO1/SU and NUCDIF. These models are used to calculate the radionuclide outflow to the biosphere. The uncertainties in the input parameters to the near field and geosphere models are handled by the uncertainty analysis models PARVAR and SYVAC/SU. The uncertainty analysis models have been tested on two nuclides, 14 C and 135 Cs, for cases with pure surface sorption and matrix diffusion. In the case of surface sorption five input parameters and for matrix diffusion six input parameters were varied. The results of the uncertainty analyses are presented in the form of histograms, scatter plots, isocontour plots and 3-dimensional plots of the radionuclide release to the biosphere. Also the ten highest maximum release rates and correlation coefficients are presented. (orig.)

  1. Management of scientific and engineering data collected during site characterization of a potential high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, C.M.; Heitland, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository encompasses many diverse investigations to determine the nature of the site. Laboratory and on-site investigations are being conducted of the geology, hydrology, mineralogy, paleoclimate, geotechnical properties, and past use of the area, to name a few. Effective use of the data from these investigations requires development of a system for the collection, storage, and dissemination of those scientific and engineering data needed to support model development, design, and performance assessment. The time and budgetary constraints associated with this project make sharing of technical data within the geoscience community absolutely critical to the successful solution of the complex scientific problem challenging us

  2. First update to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulatory strategy for the high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.; Linehan, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has updated its initial regulatory strategy for the High-Level Waste Repository Licensing Program. The update describes changes to the initial strategy and summarizes progress and future activities. This paper summarizes the first update of the regulatory strategy. In general the overall strategy of identifying and reducing uncertainties is unchanged. Identifying regulatory and institutional uncertainties is essentially complete, and therefore, the current and future emphasis is on reducing those regulatory and institutional uncertainties identified to date. The NRC staff has improved the methods of reducing regulatory uncertainties by (1) enhancing the technical basis preparation process for potential rulemakings and guidance and (2) designing a new guidance document, called a staff position, for clarifying regulatory uncertainties. For guiding the US DOE's reduction of technical uncertainties, the NRC staff will give more emphasis to prelicense application reviews and less emphasis on preparing staff technical positions

  3. An analysis of the thermal and mechanical behavior of engineered barriers in a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.; Lee, J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate design of engineered barriers, including canister, buffer and backfill, is important for the safe disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three-dimensional computer simulations were carried out under different condition to examine the thermal and mechanical behavior of engineered barriers and rock mass. The research looked at five areas of importance, the effect of the swelling pressure, water content of buffer, density of compacted bentonite, emplacement type and the selection of failure criteria. The results highlighted the need to consider tensile stress in the outer shell of a canister due to thermal expansion of the canister and the swelling pressure from the buffer for a more reliable design of an underground repository system. In addition, an adequate failure criterion should be used for the buffer and backfill.

  4. Basic rock properties for the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kang, Chul Hyung

    1999-04-01

    Deep geological radioactive waste disposal is generally based on the isolation of the waste from the biosphere by multiple barriers. The host rock is one of these barriers which should provide a stable mechanical and chemical environment for the engineered barriers. In the evaluation of the safety of the high-level radioactive waste disposal systems, an important part of the safety analysis is an assessment of the coupling or interaction between thermal, hydrological, and mechanical effects. In order to do this assessment, adequate data on the characteristics of different host rocks are necessary. The properties of the rock and rock discontinuity are very complex and their values vary in a wide range. The accuracy of the result of the assessment depends on the values of these properties used. The present study is an attempt to bring together and condense data for the basic properties of various rock masses, which are needed in the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the deep geological radioactive waste repository. The testing and measurement methods for these basic properties are also presented. Domestic data for deep geological media should be supplemented in the future, due to the insufficiency and the lack of accuracy of the data available at present. (author). 28 refs., 21 figs

  5. Experiences from risk communication in the siting of a geological repository for high level waste in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thegerstroem, C.; Engstroem, S. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    SKB is planning in the year 2001 to designate two siting alternatives for further site characterisation. The work in the municipalities of Oesthammar, Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp is taking place in an atmosphere of constructive discussions. There is a growing feeling in Sweden among broad categories of the public that the nuclear waste exists and should be taken care of by our generation, without many of these people ever getting positive to the use of nuclear energy. While the NIMBY syndrome might still have a good grip on some, there has never been a more constructive debate about the nuclear waste than now, even though there still is a lot of work to do. Siting a geological repository for high level waste puts our democratic system under hard tests. The decision making process is about openness, skills in interacting with the public, respect of people's fears and concerns and at last but not the least independent, competent and visible participation by other stakeholders (politicians locally and nationally, regulatory bodies etc). Good skills in risk communication are important ingredients that might facilitate SKB's task as a developer. Far more important however, is the trust we might get from past and present record of handling the waste and from the way we work and behave in the feasibility studies in the municipalities where SKB is involved.

  6. Experiences from risk communication in the siting of a geological repository for high level waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.; Engstroem, S.

    1999-01-01

    SKB is planning in the year 2001 to designate two siting alternatives for further site characterisation. The work in the municipalities of Oesthammar, Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp is taking place in an atmosphere of constructive discussions. There is a growing feeling in Sweden among broad categories of the public that the nuclear waste exists and should be taken care of by our generation, without many of these people ever getting positive to the use of nuclear energy. While the NIMBY syndrome might still have a good grip on some, there has never been a more constructive debate about the nuclear waste than now, even though there still is a lot of work to do. Siting a geological repository for high level waste puts our democratic system under hard tests. The decision making process is about openness, skills in interacting with the public, respect of people's fears and concerns and at last but not the least independent, competent and visible participation by other stakeholders (politicians locally and nationally, regulatory bodies etc). Good skills in risk communication are important ingredients that might facilitate SKB's task as a developer. Far more important however, is the trust we might get from past and present record of handling the waste and from the way we work and behave in the feasibility studies in the municipalities where SKB is involved

  7. Basic rock properties for the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of a high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kang, Chul Hyung

    1999-04-01

    Deep geological radioactive waste disposal is generally based on the isolation of the waste from the biosphere by multiple barriers. The host rock is one of these barriers which should provide a stable mechanical and chemical environment for the engineered barriers. In the evaluation of the safety of the high-level radioactive waste disposal systems, an important part of the safety analysis is an assessment of the coupling or interaction between thermal, hydrological, and mechanical effects. In order to do this assessment, adequate data on the characteristics of different host rocks are necessary. The properties of the rock and rock discontinuity are very complex and their values vary in a wide range. The accuracy of the result of the assessment depends on the values of these properties used. The present study is an attempt to bring together and condense data for the basic properties of various rock masses, which are needed in the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the deep geological radioactive waste repository. The testing and measurement methods for these basic properties are also presented. Domestic data for deep geological media should be supplemented in the future, due to the insufficiency and the lack of accuracy of the data available at present. (author). 28 refs., 21 figs.

  8. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs

  10. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Case, F.I.; Land, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Information that is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) pertinent to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The principal emphasis in this report period was on column studies of migration of uranium and technetium in water from well J-13 at the Yucca Mountain site. Columns 1 cm in diameter and about 5 cm long were constructed and carefully packed with ground tuff. The characteristics of the columns were tested by determination of elution curves of tritium and TcO 4 - . Elution peaks obtained in past studies with uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations that suggested irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. To try to understand these observations, the effects of flow rate and temperature on uranium migration were studied in detail. Sorption ratios calculated from the elution peaks became larger as the flow rate decreased and as the temperature increased. These observations support the conclusion that the sorption of uranium is kinetically hindered. To confirm this, batch sorption ratio experiments were completed for uranium as a function of time for a variety of conditions

  11. Comprehensive comparison of preselected regions for a high level radioactive waste repository: a subjective quantitative evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Zong Zihua; Jin Yuanxin; Zhu Pengfei; Su Rui; Chen Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive features of the 6 preselected regions (Northwest China, Southwest China East China, South China, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang regions) for China's high level radioactive waste repository, this paper uses the subjective quantitative method to evaluate the weight of each site selection criterion and provides the scores of each region. The results shows that the future natural changes and the hydrogeological conditions are considered as the most important natural siting criteria, while the social impact and human activities are the most important social siting criteria. According to the scores, the priority order of the regions are Northwest China, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, South China, East China, Southwest China. On the whole, the scores of' the regions in western China (Northwest China, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia) are higher than those in eastern China (South China, East China Southwest China), which obviously shows that the participated experts considers that the disposal of high level waste in west China is more favorable than in east China. (authors)

  12. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the conceptual repository of high-level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.M.; Wang, J.; Ke, D.; Cai, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    In order to safely dispose of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), RD guide of HLW disposal was published in February 2006 in China. The spent fuel from nuclear power plants will be reprocessed first, followed by verification and final disposal. A conceptual repository 3D configuration comprises a single vertical borehole in a continuous and homogeneous hard rock, containing a canister surrounded by an over-pack and a bentonite layer, and the backfilled upper portion of the gallery using FLAC3D. To take into account in situ stress, geothermal gradient and groundwater of Beishan area, thermal relief of HLW and swelling pressure of buffer/backfill material made by GMZ01 bentonite, the TM, HM and THM evolution of the whole configuration is simulated over a period of 100 years. The results demonstrate that temperature is hardly affected by the couplings. In contrast, the influence of the couplings on the mechanical stresses is considerable. The repository has long-term stability in fully THM coupling action condition. (authors)

  13. Thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite as a buffer material for a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Jong Youl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal conductivities were measured under various disposal conditions. • They were significantly influenced by the water content and dry density. • They were not sensitive to the temperature and the anisotropic structure. • A new model of thermal conductivity was proposed for the thermal analysis. - Abstract: Bentonite buffer is one of the major barrier components of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, and the thermal conductivity of the bentonite buffer is a key parameter for the thermal performance assessment of the HLW repository. This study measured the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite as a buffer material and investigated its dependence upon various disposal conditions: the dry density, water content, anisotropic structure of the compacted bentonite, and temperature. The measurement results showed that the thermal conductivity was significantly influenced by the water content and dry density of the compacted bentonite, while there was not a significant variation with respect to the temperature. The anisotropy of the thermal conductivity had a negligible variation for an increasing dry density. The present study also proposed a geometric mean model of thermal conductivity which best fits the experimental data.

  14. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions

  15. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  16. Closure development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository; Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robitz, E.S. Jr.; McAninch, M.D. Jr.; Edmonds, D.P. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (USA). Nuclear Power Div.]|[Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research and Development Div.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes Phase 1 activities for closure development of the high-level nuclear waste package task for the tuff repository. Work was conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract 9172105, administered through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), funded through the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The goal of this phase was to select five closure processes for further evaluation in later phases of the program. A decision tree methodology was utilized to perform an objective evaluation of 15 potential closure processes. Information was gathered via a literature survey, industrial contacts, and discussions with project team members, other experts in the field, and the LLNL waste package task staff. The five processes selected were friction welding, electron beam welding, laser beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and plasma arc welding. These are felt to represent the best combination of weldment material properties and process performance in a remote, radioactive environment. Conceptual designs have been generated for these processes to illustrate how they would be implemented in practice. Homopolar resistance welding was included in the Phase 1 analysis, and developments in this process will be monitored via literature in Phases 2 and 3. Work was conducted in accordance with the YMP Quality Assurance Program. 223 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Glossary of terms used in the disposal of high-level wastes: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This glossary provides definitions of words and phrases specific to, or used in a special way in, documents of the US Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. In many cases, two or more definitions of a word or phrase are given. Sources are provided for all definitions. 33 refs

  18. Proposed sealing field tests for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Tyburski, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains a general description of the field tests proposed for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project repository sealing program. The tests are intended to resolve various performance and emplacement concerns associated with sealing components. Ten discrete tests are proposed to address these concerns. These tests are divided into two categories -- simple and complex tests. The simple tests are: the small-scale in situ tests: the intermediate-scale borehole seal tests; the fracture grouting tests; the surface backfill tests; and the grouted rock mass tests. The complex tests are the seepage control tests; in situ backfill tests; in situ bulkhead tests; large-scale shaft seal tests; and remote borehole seal tests. These tests are proposed to be performed in welded and nonwelded tuff environments. The final selection of sealing tests will depend on the nature of the geologic and hydrologic conditions encountered during the development of the exploratory studies facility. Some tests may be performed before license application and some after license application

  19. NRC assessment of the high-level waste repository quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    As part of its licensing responsibilities, the NRC is independently reviewing the DOE quality assurance program applied to the site characterization phase activities. Data collected and other information generated during this phase of the program will ultimately be used in a license application to demonstrate the suitability of one site for long-term isolation of waste. They must therefore fall under the quality assurance program to provide confidence in their adequacy. This NRC review consists of three main activities: development of staff guidance on quality assurance measures appropriate for site characterization activities; review of DOE QA plans and procedures; and audits and other reviews of the implementation of the program

  20. The WP-CAVE concept for an underground high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, G.

    1984-02-01

    A central, nearly spherical cave, of diameter 40 m is excavated in rock and the waste fuel is placed in it. The fuel canisters are placed in cylindrical holes in large concrete balls which are stored at the bottom of a central stack in the cave. Other empty balls fill the rest of the cave. By natural convection, the heat is evenly distributed in the cave and the surrounding central rock body. A clay barrier, which completely surrounds the rock body, prevents ground water circulation for a very long time and protects the cave against tectonic movements. The cave can store approx. 350 tons of fuel after the 10 years of intermediate storage

  1. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of glass commercial high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable to the reference glass composition described in PNL-3838 and carbon steel canister described in ONWI-438. They provide preliminary numerical values for the commercial high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses and regulatory requirements become available. 13 references, 1 figure

  2. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  3. Nonmetallic engineered barriers, their properties and role in a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisy, F.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency of engineered barrier systems depends to a great extent on the properties of the materials used. Backfill and sealing materials must fulfill certain requirements and criteria. They must feature low hydraulic conductivity, high retardation capacity, extremely good sorption properties for a wide range of radionuclides potentially leachable from the deposited waste, low permeability, good compatibility with engineered and natural barriers, good workability, and availability in the necessary quantity and at a reasonable price. Some basic properties are presented of materials which fulfill, to a considerable degree, these requirements and which are thus suggested as suitable backfills, sealings of buffers, namely clay- and cement-based materials (concretes, mortars, etc.). A brief information is also given on some other materials like bitumen, asphalt, etc. (Z.S.) 4 refs

  4. Proposed method for assigning metric tons of heavy metal values to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    A proposed method is described for assigning an equivalent metric ton heavy metal (eMTHM) value to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository. This method for establishing a curie equivalency between defense high-level waste and irradiated commercial fuel is based on the ratio of defense fuel exposure to the typical commercial fuel exposure, MWd/MTHM. application of this technique to defense high-level wastes is described. Additionally, this proposed technique is compared to several alternate calculations for eMTHM. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Fabrication development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.; Holbrook, R.L.; LaCount, D.F.; Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH

    1990-09-01

    This final report completes Phase 1 of an engineering study of potential manufacturing processes for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. An extensive literature and industry review was conducted to identify and characterize various processes. A technical specification was prepared using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler ampersand Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) to develop the requirements. A complex weighting and evaluation system was devised as a preliminary method to assess the processes. The system takes into account the likelihood and severity of each possible failure mechanism in service and the effects of various processes on the microstructural features. It is concluded that an integral, seamless lower unit of the container made by back extrusion has potential performance advantages but is also very high in cost. A welded construction offers lower cost and may be adequate for the application. Recommendations are made for the processes to be further evaluated in the next phase when mock-up trials will be conducted to address key concerns with various processes and materials before selecting a primary manufacturing process. 43 refs., 26 figs., 34 tabs

  6. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  7. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

  8. Long-term stability of the near-field about high-level radioactive waste repository in thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling action condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuemiao; Wang Ju; Ke Dan; Cai Meifeng

    2008-01-01

    It is a long-term process for the high-level radioactive waste repository, from opening, construction to end of its service. The long-term stability of the near-field is the key issue for the design of HLW repository because the opening and heat generated from the HLW. Through a nationwide investigation, Beishan area, a Gobi desert in Gansu province, is considered as a suitable candidate and GMZ bentonite deposit which located in Xinghe County, Inner Mongolia has been proposed for the supplier of buffer/backfill material for HLW geological repository in China. According to the R and D guide of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China, the 3D model of HLW repository with high-level radioactive waste, canister and buffer/backfill material is established using FLAC3D. To take into account in situ stress, geothermal gradient, groundwater, thermal relief of HLW and swelling pressure of buffer/backfill material, the evolution of temperature, stress and displacement of HLW repository under thermo-mechanical coupling, hydro-mechanical coupling and thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling conditions was analyzed respectively. The long-term stability of HLW repository in Beishan area was studied. (authors)

  9. The challenge of long-term participatory repository governance. Lessons learned for high level radioactive waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landstroem, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    Voluntaristic siting procedures for deep geological repositories are becoming increasingly common; they reconfigure the relationship of repositories and society in ways that have implications for the long-term governance of these facilities. This paper identifies three challenges emerging in relation to this question: principles of monitoring, repository content, and facility closure. This paper discusses them in a comparison with similar challenges being addressed in Belgian partnerships founded to facilitate the siting and design of a low- and intermediate level short lived waste repository. The empirical exploration confirms the importance of securing stakeholder engagement throughout the repository lifecycle, for which there is a need to develop knowledge about how to encourage long-term democratic governance systems.

  10. Evaluation of long-term behavior of concretes in high level waste repositories. An accelerated leaching test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes an accelerated leaching method that with a rapid process allows to develop and evaluate cements for use in a nuclear disposal, and the understanding of the long term effects. The method has been developed to study the stability of cementitious materials in contact with bentonite, to be used in high level radioactivity waste repositories. Nitric acid has been selected to simulate in an accelerated way the pH decreasing produced when concrete is in contact with groundwaters.

    El presente trabajo describe un ensayo acelerado de lixiviación, que mediante un proceso rápido, permite desarrollar y evaluar cementos para su uso en instalaciones nucleares, y la comprensión de su comportamiento a largo plazo. El método se ha desarrollado para estudiar la estabilidad de materiales de base cemento, en contacto con bentonita, que serán utilizados en almacenamientos de resíduos radiactivos de alta actividad. Como agente lixiviante se seleccionó el ácido nítrico, con objeto de simular de forma acelerada, la disminución del pH que se produce cuando el hormigón entra en contacto con aguas subterráneas.

  11. On the time-dependent behavior of a cylindrical salt dome with a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1988-01-01

    In a salt dome with a repository for high-level radioactive and heat-generating waste, thermal stresses develop. These stresses can influence the isolation capability of the salt dome if these stresses can initiate cracks or introduce movements along existing closed flaws. The influence of the thermomechanical properties of the rock salt and the surrounding rocks on the thermal stresses and the surface rise is discussed. This discussion is based on a number of finite element creep analyses of a homogeneous cylindrical salt dome. The parameters, varied in the analyses, are constants in the thermomechanical constitutive behavior of salt and rocks, and furthermore the thermal loading has been varied. It is shown that variations in the creep properties, which result in differences in creep strain rate of a factor of 100, have only a very limited influence on the thermal stresses and the surface rise. Of more importance is the elastic stiffness of the materials. In all creep analyses the thermal stresses in the salt are compressive and the shear stresses remain below 2 MPa. The results are evaluated using an analytical treatment. Based on this evaluation, it is shown that the observed trends in the numerical results have a more general character and are not strictly limited to the geometry chosen. It is concluded that the thermal stresses in the salt formation are not strongly dependent on the creep properties of the rock salt

  12. The long-term strength and deformation properties of crystalline rock in a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuokko, T.

    1990-12-01

    The time-dependent phenomena which can affect the strength and deformation properties of hard crystal line rock are clarified. Suitable measuring methods for field conditions are also summarized. The significance of time is evaluated around a shaft in a high level nuclear waste repository. According to the investigation it is generally held that creep and cyclic fatigue are the most important phenomena. They arise from subcritical crack growth which is most affected by stress intensity, chemical environment, temperature, and microstructure. There are many theoretical models, which can be used to analyse creep and cyclic fatigue, but they are defective in describing the triaxial stress condition and strength criteria. Additionally, the required parameters are often too difficult to determine with adequate accuracy. The joint creep rate depends on the affecting stress regime, on the water conditions, and on the properties of filling material. The acoustic emission method is suited to observe long-term microcrack development in field conditions. The computer program developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is used to evaluate the time-dependent de-formation around a main shaft. According to the model the enlargement of the shaft radius by 30 cm takes millions of years. The possible reduction of shaft radius by 3 mm will happen during 200 years. The model is very sensitive to changes in stress state, in the uniaxial compressive strength, and in the stress corrosion index

  13. Conceptual modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical processes in bentonite buffer for high-level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Young; Park, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, thermal-hydrological-chemical modeling for the alteration of a bentonite buffer is carried out using a simulation code TOUGHREACT. The modeling results show that the water saturation of bentonite steadily increases and finally the bentonite is fully saturated after 10 years. In addition, the temperature rapidly increases and stabilizes after 0.5 year, exhibiting a constant thermal gradient as a function of distance from the copper tube. The change of thermal-hydrological conditions mainly results in the alteration of anhydrite and calcite. Anhydrite and calcite are dissolved along with the inflow of groundwater. They then tend to precipitate in the vicinity of the copper tube due to its high temperature. This behavior induces a slight decrease in porosity and permeability of bentonite near the copper tube. Furthermore, this study finds that the diffusion coefficient can significantly affect the alteration of anhydrite and calcite, which causes changes in the hydrological properties of bentonite such as porosity and permeability. This study may facilitate the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  14. Proposed nomination of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Correspondence and request for oral presentations for US Department of Energy public hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains correspondence and requests by the public citizens for oral presentation at the public hearings for the proposed nomination of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Written comments are also included on: the proposed nomination; the issues to be addressed in the Environmental Assessment; and the issues to be addressed by any Site Characterization Plan, if developed

  15. Status report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and geologic repository disposal of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.E.; Bell, M.J.; Dragonette, K.S.; Johnson, T.C.; Roles, G.W.; Lohaus, P.H.; Regnier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    On 27 December 1982, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its regulations to provide specific requirements for licensing the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The regulations establish performance objectives for land disposal of waste; technical requirements for the siting, design, operations, and closure activities for a near-surface disposal facility; technical requirements concerning waste form and classification that waste generators must meet for the land disposal of waste; institutional requirements; financial assurance requirements; and administrative and procedural requirements for licensing a disposal facility. Waste generators must comply with the waste form and classification provisions of the new rule, on 27 December 1983, one year later. During this implementation period, licensees must develop programmes to ensure compliance with the new waste form and classification provisions. The NRC is also promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. (author)

  16. Fundamental properties of monolithic bentonite buffer material formed by cold isostatic pressing for high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, S.; Yamanaka, Y.; Kato, K.; Asano, H.; Ueda, H.

    1999-01-01

    The methods of fabrication, handling, and emplacement of engineered barriers used in a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste should be planned as simply as possible from the engineering and economic viewpoints. Therefore, a new concept of a monolithic buffer material around a waste package have been proposed instead of the conventional concept with the use of small blocks, which would decrease the cost for buffer material. The monolithic buffer material is composed of two parts of highly compacted bentonite, a cup type body and a cover. As the forming method of the monolithic buffer material, compaction by the cold isostatic pressing process (CIP) has been employed. In this study, monolithic bentonite bodies with the diameter of about 333 mm and the height of about 455 mm (corresponding to the approx. 1/5 scale for the Japanese reference concept) were made by the CIP of bentonite powder. The dry densities: ρd of the bodies as a whole were measured and the small samples were cut from several locations to investigate the density distribution. The swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity as function of the monolithic body density for CIP-formed specimens were also measured. High density (ρd: 1.4--2.0 Mg/m 3 ) and homogeneous monolithic bodies were formed by the CIP. The measured results of the swelling pressure (3--15 MPa) and hydraulic conductivity (0.5--1.4 x 10 -13 m/s) of the specimens were almost the same as those for the uniaxial compacted bentonite in the literature. It is shown that the vacuum hoist system is an applicable handling method for emplacement of the monolithic bentonite

  17. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs

  18. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

  19. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, horizontal emplacment mode: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packaging, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts and underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and horizontal emplacement. This report specifically addresses the horizontal emplacement mode, the passive alternate design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs

  20. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proposed Action addressed in this EIS is to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste currently in storage at 72 commercial and 5 DOE sites across the United States. The EIS evaluates (1) projected impacts on the Yucca Mountain environment of the construction, operation and monitoring, and eventual closure of the geologic repository; (2) the potential long-term impacts of repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; (3) the potential impacts of transporting these materials nationally and in the State of Nevada; and (4) the potential impacts of not proceeding with the Proposed Action

  1. A geotechnical evaluation of potentially acceptable sites for a high-level nuclear waste repository near the Red Lake Indian Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The scope and work which served as the basis for this report included the following major activities; (1) A review and summary of the screening methodologies utilized by DOE for the selection of proposed nuclear waste repository sites, including a description of the inherent weakness in those methodologies. (2) A description of the geologic and hydrologic features of the rock bodies selected by DOE and an identification of those features which could result in hazardous conditions as a result of the location of a high-level nuclear waste repository. (3) An assessment of potential environmental impacts of the repository and discussion of endanged species in the proposed repository project areas. This report is organized in three major sections in relationship to the scope of work. A list of references is also included at the end of this report. 37 refs., 2 figs

  2. General conceptual design study for a high level radioactive waste repository in a granite formation. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The object of the general conceptual design study for a repository for disposal of radioactive waste in a granite formation is to ensure that the technology available in 1980 is suitable for the construction of such a repository. The recommended techniques and equipment are suitable for construction of a repository, located at a depth of 1000 metres in a granite batholith, with a capacity of 30,000 AVM canisters, cooled for 30 years on the surface, at a rate of 1,000 canisters per year. The structure consists of six access shafts of 4 and 5 metres diameter, drilled from the surface by the big-hole method, serving a network of 82 parallel galleries, 2,300 metres long, mined by conventional blasting. Shafts 100 metres deep are drilled in the floor of each gallery (74 shafts per gallery), each shaft accommodating five canisters. This represents an aggregate gallery length of 200 kilometres and an aggregate shaft length of 600 kilometres. The cost of the operation is 1.3% of the cost (ex-works) of the energy produced by the power stations generating the waste. Construction, operation and final abandonment will take 81 years. The sensitivity study of the design showed, by varying certain parameters, that location of the repository at a depth of 500 metres is not recommended and that the area covered by the repository of 4 km 2 is halved if the canisters are first cooled for 100 years

  3. A conceptual frame for the development of models for the prediction of the local effects of a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias; Ferreri, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Safety analyses assocciated with the elimination of radioactive wastes in rock masses assume, in all cases, the existance of wastes which will corrode the waste canisters producing the liberation of radionuclides in the rocky and their ultimate migration towards the biosphere. A conceptual discussion is presented which allows the specification to be met by the models for the prediction of the effects of the emplacement of a high level waste repository located at a depth of 500 m in a granitic rock. Furthermore, the radionuclides giving the largest contribution to the radiological impact are identified. (Author) [es

  4. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    This publication contains the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). It provides a basis for understanding the potential interactions of waste form and repository environment, which is necessary for the development of the design and safety case for deep disposal. Types of high level waste matrices investigated include spent fuel, glasses and ceramics. Of particular interest are the experimental results pertaining to ceramic forms such as SYNROC. This publication also outlines important areas for future work, namely, standardized, collaborative experimental protocols for package-release studies, structured development and calibration of predictive models linking the performance of packaged waste and the repository environment, and studies of the long term behaviour of the wastes, including active waste samples

  5. Evaluation of commercial repository capacity for the disposal of defense high-level waste. Comments and responses for DOE/DP--0020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) requires that the President evaluate the use of disposal capacity at one or more repositories to be developed for permanent disposal of civilian spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste for the disposal of defense high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy prepared a report titled ''An Evaluation of Commercial Repository Capacity for the Disposal of Defense High-Level Waste,'' DOE/DP-0020, to provide input for the President's evaluation. The report constituted the Department's input and recommendation to be considered by the President in making his evaluation. Although not required by the Act, the Department made the July 1984 draft of the report available to the general public for review and comment in order to increase public awareness, and develop a public record on the issue of disposal of defense high-level waste. Over 400 copies of the draft report were distributed. Thirty comment letters containing over 400 comments were received from representatives of states, localities, and Indian tribes, federal agencies, organizations representing utilities, public interest groups, individual utilities, and private citizens. All letters were reviewed and considered. Where appropriate, changes were made in the final report reflecting the comments received

  6. Repository for high level radioactive wastes in Brazil: the importance of geochemical (Micro thermometric) studies and fluid migration in potential host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Alves, James Vieira; Neves, Jose Marques Correia

    2003-01-01

    A detailed fluid inclusion study of host rocks, is of fundamental importance in the selection of geologically suitable areas for high level nuclear waste repository constructions (HLRW). The LIFM-CDTN is enabled to develop studies that confirm: the presence or not, of corrosive fluid in minerals from host rocks of the repository and the possible presence of micro fractures (and fluid leakage) when these rocks are submitted to high temperatures. These fluid geochemistry studies, with permeability determinations by means of pressurized air injection must be carried out in rocks hosting nuclear waste. Micro fracture determination is of vital importance since many naturally corrosive solutions, present in the mineral rocks, could flow out through these plans affecting the walls of the repository. (author)

  7. Influence of temperature elevation on the sealing performance of a potential buffer material for a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W.-J.; Lee, J.-O.; Kang, C.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The sealing performance of buffer material in a high-level waste repository depends largely upon the hydraulic conductivity, the swelling pressure, and the dissolution of organic carbon in the buffer material. Temperature effects on these properties were evaluated. The hydraulic conductivity and the swelling pressure of compacted bentonite increase with increasing temperature, but the effect of temperature elevation is not large. The dissolution of organic carbon in bentonite also increases with increasing temperature, but the resultant aqueous concentrations of organic carbon in bentonite suspensions are less than those of deep groundwater in granite. Therefore, the organic carbon dissolved from the bentonite will not cause a significant increase in the organic carbon content of deep groundwater in the repository environment. Overall, temperature effects on the sealing performance of buffer material in a waste repository is not important, if the maximum temperature is maintained below 100 deg. C

  8. The anti NPP movement in change. New challenges due to the search for a final repository for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2013-01-01

    The German Bundestag has decided on June 28th, 2013 the law on the site selection (StandAG) has been enacted as ''national consensus'' for ''social peace''. The compromise is considered to solve the polarized conflict with respect to the site for an final repository for high-level radioactive waste. New challenges result for the government and the civil society.

  9. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Ortega. J.; Tarrasa. F.; Cuevas, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  10. AN EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TITANIUM ALLOYS IN US HIGH-LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. De; K. Mon; G. Gordon; D. Shoesmith; F. Hua

    2006-02-21

    This paper evaluates hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility of titanium alloys in environments anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository with particular emphasis on the. effect of the oxide passive film on the hydrogen absorption process of titanium alloys being evaluated. The titanium alloys considered in this review include Ti 2, 5 , 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 24 and 29. In general, the concentration of hydrogen in a titanium alloy can increase due to absorption of atomic hydrogen produced from passive general corrosion of that alloy or galvanic coupling of it to a less noble metal. It is concluded that under the exposure conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain repository, the HIC of titanium drip shield will not occur because there will not be sufficient hydrogen in the metal even after 10,000 years of emplacement. Due to the conservatisms adopted in the current evaluation, this assessment is considered very conservative.

  11. AN EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TITANIUM ALLOYS IN US HIGH-LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. De; K. Mon; G. Gordon; D. Shoesmith; F. Hua

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility of titanium alloys in environments anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository with particular emphasis on the. effect of the oxide passive film on the hydrogen absorption process of titanium alloys being evaluated. The titanium alloys considered in this review include Ti 2, 5 , 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 24 and 29. In general, the concentration of hydrogen in a titanium alloy can increase due to absorption of atomic hydrogen produced from passive general corrosion of that alloy or galvanic coupling of it to a less noble metal. It is concluded that under the exposure conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain repository, the HIC of titanium drip shield will not occur because there will not be sufficient hydrogen in the metal even after 10,000 years of emplacement. Due to the conservatisms adopted in the current evaluation, this assessment is considered very conservative

  12. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Perspective on methods to calculate a fee for disposal of defense high-level waste in combined (civilian/defense) repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Energy intends to send the high-level waste from defense operations to combined civilian/defense repositories for disposal. The federal government must pay a fee to cover its fair share of the cost for the disposal system. This report provides an overview perspective on the defense high-level waste (DHLW) quantities and characteristics and on potential alternatives for calculation and payment of the disposal fee. Information on the DHLW expected from government sites includes the number of waste canisters, radioactivity, thermal decay power, mass of defense reactor fuel, and total electrical energy-equivalents. Ranges in quantities are shown where different operating scenarios are being considered. Several different fee determination methods are described and fees for different quantities of waste are estimated. Information is also included on possible payment alternatives, production and shipping schedules, and credits which could be applied to the fee

  14. Probabilistic safety assessment for a generic deep geological repository for high-level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resele, G.; Holocher, J.; Mayer, G.; Hubschwerlen, N.; Niemeyer, M.; Beushausen, M.; Wollrath, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the selection procedure for the search of a final site location for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the comparison and evaluation of different potentially suitable repository systems in different types of host rocks will be an essential and crucial step. Since internationally accepted guidelines on how to perform such quantitative comparisons between repository systems with regard to their long-term safety behaviour are still lacking, in 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection launched the project 'VerSi' (Vergleichende Sicherheitsanalysen - Comparing Safety Assessments) that aims at the development of a methodology for the comparison of long-term safety assessments. A vital part of the VerSi project is the performance of long-term safety assessments for the comparison of two repository systems. The comparison focuses on a future repository for heat-generating, i.e. high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Germany. Rock salt is considered as a potential host rock for such a repository, and one repository system in VerSi is defined similarly to the potential site located in the Gorleben salt dome. Another suitable host rock formation may be clay. A generic location within the lower Cretaceous clays in Northern Germany is therefore chosen for the comparison of safety assessments within the VerSi project. The long-term safety assessment of a repository system for heat-generating radioactive waste at the generic clay location comprises different steps, amongst others: - Identifying the relevant processes in the near-field, in the geosphere and in the biosphere which are relevant for the long-term safety behaviour. - Development of a safety concept for the repository system. - Deduction of scenarios of the long-term evolution of the repository system. - Definition of statistic weights, i. e. the likelihood of occurrence of the scenarios. - Performance of a

  15. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Kraus, N.; Flynn, J.; Chalmers, J.; Gesell, G.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the potential impacts of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse impacts may be expected to result from perceptions of risk, stigmatization, and socially amplified reactions to 'unfortunate events' associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, stigmatization, and social amplification are discussed and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse economic effects. The possibility that intense negative imagery associated with the repository may cause significant harm to Nevada's economy can no longer be ignored by serious attempts to assess the risks and impacts of this unique facility. The behavioral processes described here appear relevant as well to the social impact assessment of any proposed facility that produces, uses, transports, or disposes of hazardous materials

  16. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; Layman, M; Kraus, N; Flynn, J; Chalmers, J; Gesell, G

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the potential impacts of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse impacts may be expected to result from perceptions of risk, stigmatization, and socially amplified reactions to "unfortunate events" associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, stigmatization, and social amplification are discussed and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse economic effects. The possibility that intense negative imagery associated with the repository may cause significant harm to Nevada's economy can no longer be ignored by serious attempts to assess the risks and impacts of this unique facility. The behavioral processes described here appear relevant as well to the social impact assessment of any proposed facility that produces, uses, transports, or disposes of hazardous materials.

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of this development, an extensive performance assessment (PA) for the YM repository was completed in 2008 (1) and supported a license application by the DOE to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the construction of the YM repository (2). This presentation provides an overview of the conceptual and computational structure of the indicated PA (hereafter referred to as the 2008 YM PA) and the roles that uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis play in this structure.

  18. Thermo-Hydro Mechanical Characteristics and Processes in the Clay Barrier of a High Level Radioactive Waste Repository. State of the Art Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.

    2004-07-01

    This document is a summary of the available information on the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of the bentonite barrier of a high-level radioactive waste repository and of the processes taking place in it during the successive repository operation phases. Mainly the thermal properties, the volume change processes (swelling and consolidation), the permeability and the water retention capacity are analysed. A review is made of the existing experimental knowledge on the modification of the these properties by the effect of temperature, water salinity, humidity and density of the bentonite, and their foreseen evolution as a consequence of the processes expected in the repository. The compiled evolution refers mostly to the FEBEX (Spain), the MX-80 (US) and the FoCa (France) bentonite, considered as reference barrier materials in several European disposal concepts. (Author) 102 refs.

  19. Thermo-Hydro Mechanical Characteristics and Processes in the Clay Barrier of a High Level Radioactive Waste Repository. State of the Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.

    2004-01-01

    This document is a summary of the available information on the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of the bentonite barrier of a high-level radioactive waste repository and of the processes taking place in it during the successive repository operation phases. Mainly the thermal properties, the volume change processes (swelling and consolidation), the permeability and the water retention capacity are analysed. A review is made of the existing experimental knowledge on the modification of the these properties by the effect of temperature, water salinity, humidity and density of the bentonite, and their foreseen evolution as a consequence of the processes expected in the repository. The compiled evolution refers mostly to the FEBEX (Spain), the MX-80 (USA) and the FoCa (France) bentonite, considered as reference barrier materials in several European disposal concepts. (Author) 102 refs

  20. Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-06-01

    This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. Volume II contains appendices for: (1) thermal analysis supplement; (2) fractionation process experimental results supplement; (3) cost analysis supplement; and (4) radiological risk analysis supplement

  1. Risk assessment for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository site: Estimation of volcanic disruption. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, we model the volcanism near the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A. by estimating the instantaneous recurrence rate using a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with Weibull intensity and by using a homogeneous Poisson process to predict future eruptions. We then quantify the probability that any single eruption is disruptive in terms of a (prior) probability distribution, since not every eruption would result in disruption of the repository. Bayesian analysis is performed to evaluate the volcanic risk. Based on the Quaternary data, a 90% confidence interval for the instantaneous recurrence rate near the Yucca Mountain site is (1.85 x 10 -6 /yr, 1.26 x 10 -5 /yr). Also, using these confidence bounds, the corresponding 90% confidence interval for the risk (probability of at least one disruptive eruption) for an isolation time of 10 4 years is (1.0 x 10 -3 , 6.7 x 10 -3 ), if it is assumed that the intensity remains constant during the projected time frame

  2. Sensitivity analysis on mechanical stability of the underground excavations for an high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hwa; Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-01-01

    For the safe design of an underground nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the major parameters on the tunnel stability. In this study, sensitivity analysis was carried out to find the major parameters on the mechanical stability point of view. Fourteen parameters consisted of 10 site parameters and 4 design parameters were included in the FLAC3D. From the numerical analyses employing single parameter variation, it was possible to determine important parameters. In order to investigate the interaction between the parameters, fractional factorial design for the parameters, such as in situ stress ratio, depth, tunnel dimensions, joint spacing, joint stiffness, friction angle, and rock strength, was carried out. And in order to investigate the interaction between design parameters, fractional factorial design for parameters, such as in situ stress, depth, tunnel size, tunnel spacing and borehole spacing, was carried out

  3. An integrated approach to isotopic study of crystalline rock for a high-level waste repository: Area phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated approach to assessing isotopic systems in crystalline rock is planned for area phase studies. This approach combines radiogenic isotope systems with petrography in order to characterize potential crystalline repository media. The coeval use of selected isotope systems will minimize the limitations of each method and provide intensive parameters yielding data on alteration timing, secondary mineral formation, temperature history, and radionuclide species migration. Isotope systems will be selected in order to measure differences in sensitivity to thermal disturbances and mobility due to fluid interaction. Comparative evaluation of isotope pair behavior may be used in combination with mineral versus whole-rock dates to provide data on heating and mobilization of alkali elements, lanthanides, and gases, caused by future introduction of waste

  4. Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.; Gaither, K.; Freeze, G.; McCord, J.; Kalinich, D.; Saulnier, G.; Statham, W.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. Since completion of the S and ER, supplemental analyses have examined possible impacts of new information and alternative assumptions on the estimates of the consequences of these events. Specifically, analyses of the consequences of igneous disruption address uncertainty regarding: (1) the impacts of changes in the repository footprint and waste package spacing on the probability of disruption; (2) impacts of alternative assumptions about the appropriate distribution of future wind speeds to use in the analysis; (3) effects of alternative assumptions about waste particle sizes; and (4) alternative assumptions about the number of waste packages damaged by igneous intrusion; and (5) alternative assumptions about the exposure pathways and the biosphere dose conversion factors used in the analysis. Additional supplemental analyses, supporting the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), have examined the results for both igneous disruption and human intrusion, recalculated for a receptor group located 18 kilometers (km) from the repository (the location specified in 40 CFR 197), rather than at the 20 km distance used in the S and ER analyses

  5. Reduction on high level radioactive waste volume and geological repository footprint with high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Yuji, E-mail: fukaya.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate the number of canisters and its footprint for HTGR. • We proposed new waste loading method for direct disposal of HTGR. • HTGR can significantly reduce HLW volume compared with LWR. - Abstract: Reduction on volume of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) and footprint in a geological repository due to high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been investigated. A helium-cooled and graphite-moderated commercial HTGR was designed as a Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300), and that has particular features such as significantly high burn-up of approximately 120 GWd/t, high thermal efficiency around 50%, and pin-in-block type fuel. The pin-in-block type fuel was employed to reduce processed graphite volume in reprocessing. By applying the feature, effective waste loading method for direct disposal is proposed in this study. By taking into account these feature, the number of HLW canister generations and its repository footprint are evaluated by burn-up fuel composition, thermal calculation and criticality calculation in repository. As a result, it is found that the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 60% compared with Light Water Reactor (LWR) representative case for direct disposal because of the higher burn-up, higher thermal efficiency, less TRU generation, and effective waste loading proposed in this study for HTGR. But, the reduced ratios change to 20% and 50% if the long term durability of LWR canister is guaranteed. For disposal with reprocessing, the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 30% compared with LWR because of the 30% higher thermal efficiency of HTGR.

  6. The relation of equity issues to risk perceptions and socioeconomic impacts of a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how equity concerns are an important component of the debater on controversial public policy decisions such as those regarding high-level waste disposal. In science policy, concepts of fairness need to be applied to what counts as evidence, as well as to process (means) and outcomes (ends). A science policy decision that involves technologies perceived as risky may have a better chance of enduring over time if all the key parties feel that they have been fairly treated. One task of risk communication is to engage in a dialogue with affected parties and the public about what is fair in terms of process, evidence, and outcomes

  7. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  8. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit''. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes

  9. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1993-07-01

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit``. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes.

  10. Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository and the progress in site characterization at the Beishan potential site in NW China's Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Zhangru; Chen Weiming; Wang Wenguang

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository is summarized in this paper. The distribution and characteristics of granite, tuff, clay stone, salt and loess in China are described, while maps showing the distribution of host rocks are presented. Because of the wide distribution, large scale, good heat conductivity and suitable mechanical properties, granite is considered as the most potential host rock. Some granite bodies distributed in NW China, SW China, South China and Inner Mongolia have been selected as potential areas. Detailed site characterization at Beishan area, Gansu Province NW China is in progress

  11. Application of ArcGIS to the geoscience data management of the preselected site in Beishan high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Gao Min

    2010-01-01

    The site selection of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is long-term and complicated system project. In the study, the information and data are not only related to different research fields, but also of large volume, diverse types and dispersed storage. In order to wholly manage and effectively make use of the information, the authors study how to set up the platform of the geoscience database to store, manage and apply the diverse type, based on ArcGIS, and present the data management and sharing solution. (authors)

  12. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects. Annual report, October 1984-September 1985. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; Jacobs, G.K.; Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Whatley, S.K.

    1986-05-01

    Information pertaining to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository, which is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE), is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, emphasis was placed on the evaluation of information pertinent to the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. Results on the sorption/solubility behavior of technetium, neptunium, and uranium in the basalt/water geochemical system are summarized and compared to the results of DOE. Also, summaries of results are reported from two geochemical modeling studies: (1) an evaluation of the information developed by DOE on the native copper deposits of Michigan as a natural analog for the emplacement of copper canisters in a repository in basalt, and (2) calculation of the solubility and speciation of radionuclides for representative groundwaters from the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada

  13. Approach to resolution of geologic uncertainty in the licensing of a high-level-waste repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Resolution of uncertainty in geological information is an essential element in the licensing process for a geologic repository. Evaluation of these uncertainties within the licensing framework established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is required. The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI), in focusing its site characterization program on unsaturated tuff, has developed a logic hierarchy of technical issues, including key issues, issues, and information needs. Key issues are statements of major requirements whose lack could be disqualifying. An example of a key issue is the demonstration of radionuclide containment and isolation within the required release limits and transport time set by the EPA and NRC. Key issues are broken down into issues, such as the groundwater flow time to the accessible environment. Resolving uncertainty ultimately comes back to satisfying individual information needs that collectively form issues. Hydraulic conductivity is an example of an information need required to determine groundwater flow rate. Sources of uncertainty often arise in either amount, quality, or other limitations in geological data. The hierarchical structuring of geological information needs provides a perspective that allows proportionate attention to be placed on various site characterization activities, and to view them within the whole range of licensing issues that must be satisfied to ensure public health and safety. However, it may not prevent an issue from being contentious, as some geological questions are known to be emotion-laden. The mitigation of uncertainty in geological information ultimately will depend on the validity and credibility of the information presented during the licensing process

  14. A model for the analysis of a normal evolution scenarios for a deep geological granite repository for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormenzana Lopez, J.L.; Cunado, M.A.; Lopez, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The methodology usually used to evaluate the behaviour of deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes comprises three phases: Identification of factors (processes, characteristics and events) that can affect the repository. Generation of scenarios. In general, a normal evolution scenario (Reference Scenario) and various disruptive scenarios (earthquake, human intrusion, etc) are considered. Evaluation of the behaviour of the repository in each scenario. The normal evolution scenario taking into account all factors with a high probability of occurrence is the first to be analysed. The performance assessment of behaviour being carried out by ENRESA for the AGP Granite has led to the identification of 63 of these factors. To analyse repository behaviour in the normal evolution scenario, it is necessary to first of all create an integrated model of the global system. This is a qualitative model including the 63 factors identified. For a global view of a such a complex system, it is very useful to graphically display the relationship between factors in an Influence Diagram. This paper shows the Influence Diagram used in the analysis of the AGP Granite Reference Scenario. (Author)

  15. A comparison study of single and double layer repositories for high level radioactive wastes within a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Jong Won; Bae, Dae Suk

    2004-02-01

    The present study is to analyze and compare a long term thermohydro mechanical interaction behavior of a single layer and a double layer repository for high level radioactive wastes within a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass, and then to contribute this understanding to the development of a Korean disposal concept. The model includes a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass, PWR spent nuclear fuel in a disposal canister surrounded by compacted bentonite inside a deposition hole, and mixed bentonite backfilled in the rest of the space within a repository cavern. It is assumed that two joint sets exist within the model. Joint set 1 includes joints of 56 .deg. dip angle, spaced at 20 m, and joint set 2 is in the perpendicular direction to joint set 1 and includes joints of .deg. dip angle, spaced at 20 m. The two dimensional distinct element code, UDEC is used for the analysis. To understand the joint behavior adjacent to the repository cavern, Barton-Bandis joint model is used. Effect of the decay heat from PWR spent fuels on the repository model has been analyzed, and a steady state flow algorithm is used for the hydraulic analysis

  16. Expected dose for the early failure scenario classes in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Hansen, C.W.; Sallaberry, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In support of this development and an associated license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the DOE completed an extensive performance assessment (PA) for the proposed YM repository in 2008. This presentation describes the determination of expected dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) specified in the NRC regulations for the YM repository for the early waste package (WP) failure scenario class and the early drip shield (DS) failure scenario class in the 2008 YM PA. The following topics are addressed: (i) properties of the early failure scenario classes and the determination of dose and expected dose the RMEI, (ii) expected dose and uncertainty in expected dose to the RMEI from the early WP failure scenario class, (iii) expected dose and uncertainty in expected dose to the RMEI from the early DS failure scenario class, (iv) expected dose and uncertainty in expected dose to the RMEI from the combined early WP and early DS failure scenario class with and without the inclusion of failures resulting from nominal processes, and (v) uncertainty in the occurrence of early failure scenario classes. The present article is part of a special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety devoted to the 2008 YM PA; additional articles in the issue describe other aspects of the 2008 YM PA. - Highlights: • Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. DOE in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. • Properties of the early failure scenario classes (i.e. early waste package failure and early drip shield failure) in the 2008 YM performance assessment are described. • Determination of dose, expected dose and expected (mean

  17. A Methodology to analyze the biosphere in the assessment of deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overall R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with the Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropriate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and practical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better practical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methodology. This methodology is widely based on an international working group on ''Reference Biospheres'', part of the BIOMOVS II Project. Specific software developments have been carried out in collaboration with Qunti Sci Itd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. (Author)

  18. Modelling of radionuclide migration and heat transport from an High-Level-Radioactive-Waste-repository (HLW) in Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Put, M.; Henrion, P.

    1992-01-01

    For the modelling of the migration of radionuclides in the Boom clay formation, the analytical code MICOF has been updated with a 3-dimensional analytical solution for discrete sources. the MICOF program is used for the calculation of the release of α and β emitters from the HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES (HLW). A coherent conceptual model is developed which describes all the major physico-chemical phenomena influencing the migration of radionuclides in the Boom clay. The concept of the diffusion accessible porosity is introduced and included in the MICOF code. Different types of migration experiments are described with their advantages and disadvantages. The thermal impact of the HLW disposal in the stratified Boom clay formation has been evaluated by a finite element simulation of the coupled heat and mass transport equation. The results of the simulations show that under certain conditions thermal convection cells may form, but the convective heat transfer in the clay formation is negligible. 6 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs., 5 appendices

  19. Problems of geologic survey of high level radioactive waste repositories illustrated on the testing site in the Melechov Massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlcoch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Major attention is paid to problems associated with the geologic maps of the prospective repository site, which lies within the Bohemian Massif. Structural geology, survey through boreholes, and primary database are also discussed briefly. (P.A.)

  20. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004. Part 2: Results of a previously unpublished CRP: Performance of high level waste forms and packages under repository conditions. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1991-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the CRP (Coordinated Research Projekt) on the 'Performance of High Level Waste Forms and Packages under Repository Conditions' was to contribute to the development and implementation of proper and sound technologies for HLW and spent fuel management. Special emphasis was given to the identification of various waste form properties and the study of their long term durability in simulated repository conditions. Another objective was to promote the co-operation and exchange of information between Member States on experimental concerning behaviour of the waste form. The CRP was composed of research contracts and agreements with Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan, Russia, and the United States of America. The publication includes 14 individual contributions of the participants to the CRP, which are indexed separately.

  1. Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .)

    2007-04-01

    A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

  2. Repository schemes for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Report on task no. 1(b)- Review of schemes for argillaceous and saliferous formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Report examines international proposals for the underground storage of high level radioactive waste. From this study proposals have been developed in relation to conditions that can be expected in the United Kingdom. This Report is restricted to the consideration of repositories in the softer rocks, the clays and the shales which can be encountered in many parts of the United Kingdom. It has also considered the construction of a repository in rock salt. The only such deposits which could be developed for the purpose are found under the North Sea. For the purpose of this Study it has been assumed that suitable sites can be located near enough to a coast line to allow works to be constructed from the land. The likely cost of a repository will vary widely depending upon the nature of the ground in which it is constructed and the depth. The choice here is not an engineering matter but is dictated by the degree of protection which it is necessary to give to the environment, both within the forseeable future and for many generations to come. Costs are estimated making various assumptions.

  3. Application of Ga-Al discrimination plots in identification of high strength granitic host rocks for deep geological repository of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.; Trivedi, R.K.; Purohit, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent disposal of vitrified high level wastes and in some cases even spent fuel, is being planned in specifically designed and built deep geological repository located in the depth range of 500-600m in appropriate host rock at carefully selected sites. Such facilities are expected to provide very long term isolation and confinement to the disposed waste by means of long term mechanical stability of such structures that results from very high strength and homogeneity of the chosen rock, geochemical compatible environment around the disposed waste and general lack of groundwater. In Indian geological repository development programme, granites have been selected as target host rock and large scale characterization studies have been undertaken to develop database of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and rock mechanical characteristics. The paper proposes a new approach for demarcation of high strength homogeneous granite rocks from within an area of about 100 square kilometres wherein a cocktail of granites of different origins with varying rock mass characteristics co exists. The study area is characterised by the presence of A, S and I type granites toughly intermixed. The S type granites are derived from sedimentary parent material and therefore carry relics of parent fabric and at times undigested material with resultant reduction in their strength and increased inhomogeneity. On the other hand I type varieties are derived from igneous parents and are more homogeneous with sufficient strength. The A type granites are emplaced as molten mass in a complete non-tectonic setting with resultant homogeneous compositions, absence of tectonic fabric and very high strength. Besides they are silica rich with less vulnerability to alterations with time. Thus A type granites are most suited for construction of Deep Geological Repository. For developing a geochemical approach for establishing relation between chemical compositions and rock strength parameters, a

  4. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  5. France's State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-06-13

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  6. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to have serious adverse economic impacts on the city of Las Vegas and the State of Nevada. Adverse economic impacts may be expected to result from two related social processes. One has to do with perceptions of risk and socially amplified reactions to unfortunate events associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The second process that may trigger significant adverse impacts is that of stigmatization. The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, social amplification, and stigma are discussed in this paper and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse effects on tourism, migration, and business development

  7. Achieving transparency in the total system performance assessment of a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Rickertsen, L.; Cotton, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper has presented an approach to quantitative assessment of the degree of postclosure defense-in-depth provided by the reference system of the VA (Viability Assessment). This approach identifies principal barriers, assesses barriers for common uncertainty and failure mode, conducts barrier neutralization analyses, and evaluates overall defense-in-depth. The neutralization approach of step 3 is particularly useful in untangling the contributions of various barriers to the results calculated by performance assessments. In fact, it provides the only way of assessing the contribution of barriers that are fully redundant with one another. The approach has been applied to the VA reference system. It shows how the natural transport barriers contribute to performance of the system. Since their individual contributions are redundant, uncertainties in those individual contributions are reduced in importance. The analyses also suggest uncertainties common to both of these barriers are important to the safety assessment. Thus, the approach appears to be capable of determining the contribution of the principal barriers to system performance. The ability to use performance assessment to show not only how the repository system is expected to perform, but also how it achieves that performance, should contribute substantially towards providing needed transparency to the safety case for a geologic repository. It is also a valuable tool during the development of the repository design and associated safety case, by identifying areas in which performance would be enhanced by increased redundancy

  8. Product traceability and quality as applied to the united states transuranic and high-level waste repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.Y.; Orrell, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    As with any repository program, predictions of the performance of a site over very long time frames may often meet with skepticism from the public and decision-makers, such as regulatory and governmental agencies. Experience at the WIPP and the YMP indicate that demonstrating the defensibility of data, conceptual models, computer codes, and numerical analyses is critical. Five overarching principles have been found to be the basis of a technically and publicly acceptable repository. The principles are traceability, transparency, reproducibility, retrievability, and reviews. - Traceability allows one to understand the source and justification of data and other input that generate conclusions. - Transparency allows one to follow the logic, calculations, and other operations that produce results. - Reproducibility allows one to reconstruct the results without recourse to the originator of the information. - Retrievability allows one to retrieve documentation that demonstrate these overarching principles. - Reviews ensure that the work is technically acceptable, complete, and accurate. This paper discusses how these principles are applied to the WIPP and the YMP. By setting up quality assurance and management controls (e.g., procedures, audits, peer reviews) these principles are implemented. Without successfully applying these principles the WIPP would not have gone from research to industrial maturity. The YMP is ensuring that these are implemented for activities that support licensing. Any repository program concerned with demonstrating defensibility to the public and regulators would do well by incorporating traceability, transparency, reproducibility, retrievability, and reviews into their program. (authors)

  9. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  10. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  11. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a 'snapshot' or 'base case' look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future

  12. Recommended safety, reliability, quality assurance and management aerospace techniques with possible application by the DOE to the high-level radioactive waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, W.M. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Aerospace SRQA and management techniques, principally those developed and used by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center on the manned space flight programs, have been assessed for possible application by the DOE and the DOE-contractors to the high level radioactive waste repository program that results from the implementation of the NWPA of 1982. Those techniques believed to have the greatest potential for usefulness to the DOE and the DOE-contractors have been discussed in detail and are recommended to the DOE for adoption; discussion is provided for the manner in which this transfer of technology can be implemented. Six SRQA techniques and two management techniques are recommended for adoption by the DOE; included with the management techniques is a recommendation for the DOE to include a licensing interface with the NRC in the application of the milestone reviews technique. Three other techniques are recommended for study by the DOE for possible adaptation to the DOE program

  13. Isotope method for the recognition of groundwater formation in China's preselected high level radioactive waste disposal repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Ju; Liu Shufen; Su Rui; Lu Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Yemaquan region in Beishan area. Gansu province, is one of the preselected sites of disposal repository for high level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Hydrogeological condition is an important aspect for site evaluation and the groundwater formation is a key factor to reflect the hydrogeological conditions for a certain area. Isotopic method is the one of the important means to determine the groundwater formation. Through the sampling and analysis of shallow groundwater isotopes of Yemaquan region, combined with geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics, the issue of groundwater formation in the study region was discussed. The main cognition is that the groundwater in the region was formed from the infiltration of modern rainfall and the strong evaporation was happened for the shallow groundwater, which indicates the circulation conditions were relatively good for the shallow groundwater. This cognition provides very important hydrogeological information and basis for the evaluation of Yemaquan preselected site. (authors)

  14. Shaft seals for final high-level radioactive waste repositories. ELSA. Pt. 1; Schachtverschluesse fuer Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle. ELSA. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, W.; Schreiter, F.; Gruner, M. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Jobmann, M.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Mueller-Hoeppe, N.; Herold, P. [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2013-04-30

    The state of the art in science and technology fir shaft seals with long-term stability is summarized regarding their applicability for high-level waste repository in Germany. The concepts and drafts for the shaft sealing systems ERAM, Asse, Konrad, the WIPP side, the RESEAL concept, the NAGRA concept and the project LASA are reviewed. The methodology of applying partial factors in a safety analysis is summarized and the applicability of this method for geotechnical sealing structures is confirmed. To establish geomechanical boundary conditions of the host rocks and clay stone the stress-strain behavior of the rock mass adjoining the shaft has to be identified including time-dependent thermo-mechanical processes. The general and special requirements for the design of shaft sealing systems, especially in salt rock and clay formations are described, derived from the safety requirements (BMU 2010). Finally general information needs were identified.

  15. Pre-construction geologic section along the cross drift through the potential high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Juan, C.S.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Site Characterization effort for the US Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project, tunnels excavated by tunnel boring machines provide access to the volume of rock that is under consideration for possible underground storage of high-level nuclear waste beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Exploratory Studies Facility, a 7.8-km-long, 7.6-m-diameter tunnel, has been excavated, and a 2.8-km-long, 5-m-diameter Cross Drift will be excavated in 1998 as part of the geologic, hydrologic and geotechnical evaluation of the potential repository. The southwest-trending Cross Drift branches off of the north ramp of the horseshoe-shaped Exploratory Studies Facility. This report summarizes an interpretive geologic section that was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project as a tool for use in the design and construction of the Cross Drift

  16. Use of an analog site near Raymond, California, to develop equipment and methods for characterizing a potential high-level, nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umari, A.M.J.; Geldon, A.; Patterson, G.; Gemmell, J.; Earle, J.; Darnell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, currently is being investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Planned hydraulic-stress and tracer tests in fractured, tuffaceous rocks below the water table at Yucca Mountain will require work at depths in excess of 1,300 feet. To facilitate prototype testing of equipment and methods to be used in aquifer tests at Yucca Mountain, an analog site was selected in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada near Raymond, California. Two of nine 250- to 300-feet deep wells drilled into fractured, granitic rocks at the Raymond site have been instrumented with packers, pressure transducers, and other equipment that will be used at Yucca Mountain. Aquifer tests conducted at the Raymond site to date have demonstrated a need to modify some of the equipment and methods conceived for use at Yucca Mountain

  17. Vermont's involvement with the DOE's high-level radioactive waste disposal crystalline repository project. Final technical report, January 1-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with siting a second repository for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Because of this siting process, the DOE has looked to localities in 17 states in the eastern US for possible sites in crystalline rock. During the beginning of the progress report period, crystalline rocks in Vermont were under consideration as sites for further study. Vermont, through the Vermont State Geologist's Office, was closely involved with the DOE program during this period. Our main function has been to review DOE reports; attend DOE workshops and meetings; and inform the Vermont public, with the help of the DOE, about the high-level nuclear waste repository siting process. Nine sites in Vermont were under consideration during the Regional Characterization Phase until January 16, 1986. Because of this fact, there was considerable public interest in this program. Upon release of the Draft Area Recommendation Report, Vermont crystalline rock bodies were dropped from consideration. A site in New Hampshire and two sites in Maine remained on the list. Because of the draft status of the report and the possibility that a site 20 miles from the Vermont border in New Hampshire could remain as a selected site, Vermont has stayed active and interested. Two briefings and hearings were held in the State during the comment period January 16 through April 16, 1986. A thorough review of the Draft Area Recommendation Report was completed using reviewers from our Office, State agencies, outside experts, and citizen groups. With the announcement on May 28, 1986 of the suspension of the second repository siting process in crystalline rocks, our Office has worked toward closing out our active involvement

  18. Salton Sea geothermal field as a natural analog for the near-field in a salt high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elders, W.A.; Moody, J.B.; Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), on the delta of the Colorado River in southern California, is being studied as a natural analog for the near-field environment of proposed nuclear waste repositories in salt. A combination of mineralogical and geochemical methods is being employed to develop a three-dimenisonal picture of temperature, salinity, lithology, mineralogy, and chemistry of reactions between the reservoir rocks and the hot brines. Our aim is to obtain quantitative data on mineral stabilities and on mobilities of the naturally occurring radionuclides of concern in Commercial High-Level Waste (CHLW). These data will be used to validate the EQ3/6 geochemical code under development to model the salt near-field repository behavior. Maximum temperatures encountered in wells in the SSGF equal or exceed peak temperatures expected in a salt repository. Brines produced from these wells have major element chemistry similar to brines from candidate salt sites. Relative to the rocks, these brines are enriched in Na, Mn, Sr, Ra, and Po, depleted in Ba, Si, Mg, Ti, and Al, and strongly depleted in U and Th. However, the unaltered rocks contain only about 2 to 3 ppm of U and 4 to 12 ppm of Th, largely in detrital epidotes and zircons. Samples of hydrothermally altered rocks from a wide range of temperature and salinity show rather similar uniform low concentrations of these elements, even when authigenic illite, chlorite, ipidote and feldspar are present. These observations suggest that U and Th are relatively immobile in these hot brines. However, Ra, Po, Cs, and Sr are relatively mobile. Work is continuing to document naturally occurring radionuclide partitioning between SSGF minears and brine over a range of temperature, salinity, and lithology. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Social transactions with future generations for the management of high level radioactive waste in deep repositories: Reflections on institutional control and retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Viala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel is a key issue and one of the most sensitive aspect of radioactive waste management. Recognising that it is the responsibility of our generation to find a way to isolate the waste, deep geological disposals have been envisaged to provide a definitive solution to the problem, in order to avoid 'undue burden on future generations'. However, even if they are buried, the wastes still exist and human intrusion is still possible as well as releases into the environment in the very far future. At the same time, the ongoing reflections on the ethical aspects of disposals show that it is of great worth that we guarantee future generations the same right of control and responsibility that we ourselves enjoy. This paper presents some reflections on the social transactions associated with the management and design of geological repositories. It is focused on the mission of institutional control in the transmission to future generation of a safety patrimony, composed of the know-how and techniques that permit the human community to 'domesticate' and control the risk. As it appears that the efficiency and the confidence in the control system rely mainly on the capability of implementing corrective actions, some considerations on the role, the consequences and the implementation of retrievability are also presented

  20. Numerical and experimental investigations on the time dependent behavior of a salt dome with a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Vons, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of in-situ measurements, performed in a 300 m deep dry-drilled borehole, in the ASSE-mine. Convergence measurements at ambient as well as elevated temperatures and pressure measurements at elevated temperatures are discussed. Creep equations derived from these experiments are used for the numerical analysis of the time dependent behavior of a salt dome with a HLW repository. The analyses show that the total stresses in the salt remain compressive with deviatoric components smaller than 3 MPa. 9 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  1. Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.

    1988-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs

  2. Environmental program planning for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    Environmental protection during the course of siting and constructing a repository is mandated by NWPA in conjunction with various phases of repository siting and development. However, DOE has issued no comprehensive, integrated plan for environmental protection. Consequently, it is unclear how DOE will accomplish environmental assessment, monitoring, impact mitigation, and site reclamation. DOE should, therefore, defer further implementation of its current characterization program until a comprehensive environmental protection plan is available. To fulfill its oversight responsibilities the State of Nevada has proposed a comprehensive environmental program for the Yucca Mountain site that includes immediately undertaking studies to establish a 12-month baseline of environmental information at the site; adopting the DOE Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and the engineering design plans it will contain as the basis for defining the impact potential of site characterization activities; using the environmental baseline and the SCP to evaluate the efficacy of the preliminary impact analyses reported by DOE in the EA; using the SCP as the basis for discussions with federal, state, and local regulatory authorities to decide which environmental requirements apply and how they can be complied with; using the SCP, the EA impact review, and the compliance requirements to determine the scope of reclamation measures needed; and developing environmental monitoring and impact mitigation plans based on the EA impact review, compliance requirements, and anticipated reclamation needs

  3. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Study on the regional crust stability of Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Xu Guoqing; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Weiming; Guo Yonghai; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the crust stability of the Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository. The studies include regional tectonic structure and its evolution, regional geophysical field, crust structure, regional deep-rooted faults, regional seismological activity, regional neo-tectonics, regional modern stress field and its numerical simulation, geological interpretation of TM satellite and its application in the study of crust stability, and the evaluation on crust stability. The research in the past years indicates that the west part of Gansu province (the area we studied) can be divided into 8 parts with different crust stability: (1) Beishan stable area; (2) East Huahai stable area; (3) Huahai sub-stable area; (4) Yumenzheng sub-unstable area; (5) Yumenshi sub-unstable area; (6) Daxueshan sub-unstable area; (7) Jiayuguan unstable area; and (8) Beiqilian unstable area. Among those parts, the Beishan area possess the best conditions, its crust stability accords with the demands on candidate site for HLW repositories, which are described in the International atomic energy agency's safety series No.111-G-4.1 Guidelines. Therefore, the Beishan area is suitable region for further work. (author)

  6. Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow processes at a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Two complementary numerical models for analyzing high-level nuclear waste emplacement at Yucca Mountain have been developed. A vertical cross-sectional (X-Z) model permits a realistic representation of hydrogeologic features, such as alternating tilting layers of welded and non-welded tuffs. fault zones, and surface topography. An alternative radially symmetric (R-Z) model is more limited in its ability to describe the hydrogeology of the site, but is better suited to model heat transfer in the host rock. Our models include a comprehensive description of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes, including strong enhancements of vapor diffusion from pore-level phase change effects. The neighborhood of the repository is found to partially dry out from the waste heat. A condensation halo of large liquid saturation forms around the drying zone, from which liquid flows downward at large rates. System response to infiltration from the surface and to ventilation of mined openings is evaluated. The impact of the various flow processes on the waste isolation capabilities of the site is discussed

  7. Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow processes at a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Two complementary numerical models for analyzing high-level nuclear waste emplacement at Yucca Mountain have been developed. A vertical cross-sectional (X-Z) model permits a realistic representation of hydrogeologic features, such as alternating tilting layers of welded and non-welded tuffs, fault zones, and surface topography. An alternative radially symmetric (R-Z) model is more limited in its ability to describe the hydrogeology of the site, but is better suited to model heat transfer in the host rock. Our models include a comprehensive description of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes, including strong enhancements of vapor diffusion from pore-level phase change effects. The neighborhood of the repository is found to partially dry out from the waste heat. A condensation halo of large liquid saturation forms around the drying zone, from which liquid flows downward at large rates. System response to infiltration from the surface and to ventilation of mined openings is evaluated. The impact of the various flow processes on the waste isolation capabilities of the site is discussed

  8. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E.

    2000-01-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  9. Surveys for desert tortoise on the proposed site of a high-level nuclear waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; Sauls, M.L.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1983-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage Program is a national search for suitable sites to isolate commercial spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste. The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, was initiated to study the suitability of a portion of Yucca Mountain on the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a location for such a repository. EG and G was contracted to provide information concerning the ecosystems encountered on the site. A comprehensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the status and completeness of the existing biological information for the previously undisturbed area. Site specific studies were begun in 1981 when preliminary field surveys confirmed the presence of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizi) within the project area FY82 studies were designed to determine the overall distribution and abundance of the tortoise within the area likely to be impacted by NNWSI activities. The Yucca Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site is situated close to the northern range limit of the desert tortoise. Prior to the 1982 surveys, the desert tortoise was reported from only nine locations on NTS. A known population had been under study in Rock Valley about 25 miles southeast of the project area. However, the distribution and population densities of tortoise in the southwest portion of NTS were virtually unknown. Results of our surveys indicate that desert tortoise can be expected, albeit in small numbers, in a wide range of Mojavean and Transitional habitats

  10. Milestones for Selection, Characterization, and Analysis of the Performance of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P.

    2014-02-01

    This report presents a concise history in tabular form of events leading up to site identification in 1978, site selection in 1987, subsequent characterization, and ongoing analysis through 2008 of the performance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The tabulated events generally occurred in five periods: (1) commitment to mined geologic disposal and identification of sites; (2) site selection and analysis, based on regional geologic characterization through literature and analogous data; (3) feasibility analysis demonstrating calculation procedures and importance of system components, based on rough measures of performance using surface exploration, waste process knowledge, and general laboratory experiments; (4) suitability analysis demonstrating viability of disposal system, based on environment-specific laboratory experiments, in-situ experiments, and underground disposal system characterization; and (5) compliance analysis, based on completed site-specific characterization. Because the relationship is important to understanding the evolution of the Yucca Mountain Project, the tabulation also shows the interaction between four broad categories of political bodies and government agencies/institutions: (a) technical milestones of the implementing institutions, (b) development of the regulatory requirements and related federal policy in laws and court decisions, (c) Presidential and agency directives and decisions, and (d) critiques of the Yucca Mountain Project and pertinent national and world events related to nuclear energy and radioactive waste.

  11. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberid, J; Barcala, J M; Campos, R; Cuevas, A M; Fernandez, E [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  12. The use of performance assessment for the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon H.; Andrews, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the introduction and overview of the Yucca Mountain site, the overview of waste package and EBS design, the organization of CRWMS M and O, the overview of total system performance assessment (TSPA), the components of TSPA model, the examples results of TSPA component models, and the example results of TSPA scoping sensitivity analyses. 22 figs

  13. The hydrothermal stability of cement sealing materials in the potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Hinkebein, T.E.; Myers, J.

    1991-01-01

    Cementitious materials, together with other materials, are being considered to seal a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. A concern with cementitious materials is the chemical and mineralogic changes that may occur as these materials age while in contact with local ground waters. A combined theoretical and experimental approach was taken to determine the ability to theoretically predict mineralogic changes. The cementitious material selected for study has a relatively low Ca:Si ratio approaching that of the mineral tobermorite. Samples were treated hydrothermally at 200 degrees C with water similar to that obtained from the J-13 well on the Nevada Test Site. Post-test solutions were analyzed for pH as well as dissolved K, Na, Ca, Al, and Si. Solid phases formed during these experiments were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X- ray diffraction. These findings were compared with predictions made by the geochemical modeling code EQ3NR/E06. It was generally found that there was good agreement between predicted and experimental results

  14. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  15. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain

  16. Use of simplified models in the performance assessment of a high-level waste repository system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensado, Osvaldo; Mohanty, Sitakanta; Kanno, Takeshi; Tochigi, Yoshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores simplifications to the H12 performance assessment model to enhance performance in Monte Carlo analyses. It is shown that similar reference case results to those of the H12 model can be derived by describing the buffer material surrounding a waste package as a planar body. Other possible simplifications to the performance assessment model in areas related to the stratification of the host rock transmissivity domain and solubility constraints in the buffer material are explored. (author)

  17. NRC iterative performance assessment Phase 2. Development of capabilities for review of a performance assessment for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, R.G.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Baca, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    In order to better review a potential license application to construct and operate a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff (and its contractor) has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents the demonstration of the second phase of this capability. The demonstration made use of the scenario selection procedure developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide a set of scenarios, with corresponding probabilities, for use in the consequence analysis of a potential HLW disposal site in unsaturated tuff. Models of release of radionuclides from the waste form and transport in ground water, air and by direct pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year period. The input values of parameters necessary for the consequence models were sampled numerous times using Latin Hypercube Sampling from assumed probability distributions. The results from the consequence models were then used to generate Complementary Cumulative Distribution Functions (CCDFs) for either release to the accessible environment or effective dose equivalents to a target population. CCDFs were calculated for probabilistically significant combinations (scenarios) of four disruptive events; drilling, pluvial climate, seismicity and magmatism. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the calculated releases and effective dose equivalents were also used to determine the importance of the parameters. Because of the preliminary nature of the analysis and the lack of an adequate data base, the results and conclusions presented in this report should be carefully interpreted. They should not be misconstrued to represent the actual performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository nor serve as an endorsement of the methods used

  18. A natural analogue for near-field behaviour in a high level radioactive waste repository in salt: the Salton Sea geothermal field, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elders, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), in the sediments of the delta of the Colorado River, we are developing a three-dimensional picture of active water/rock reactions at temperatures of 0 C and salinities of 7 to 25 weight percent to produce quantitative data on mineral stabilities and mobilities of naturally-occurring radio-nuclides. The aim is to produce data to validate geochemical computer codes being developed to assess the performance of a Commercial High-Level Waste (CHLW) repository in salt. Among the findings to date are: (1) greenschist facies metamorphism is occurring; (2) brine compositions are fairly similar to those expected in candidate salt repository sites; (3) U and Th concentrations in the rocks are typical for sedimentary rocks; (4) the brines are enriched in Na, Mn, Zn, Sr, Ra Po and strongly depleted in U and Th relative to the rocks; (5) significant radioactive disequilibria exist in brines and solid phases of the SSGF. The disequilibria in the actinide series allow estimation of the rates of brine-rock interaction and understanding of hydrologic processes and radionuclide behaviour. Work is continuing emphasizing the reactions of authigenic clay minerals, epidotes, feldspars, chlorites and sulphates. So far, adapting geochemical codes to the necessary combination of high salinity and high temperature has lagged behind the natural analogue study of the SSGF so that validation is still in progress. In the future our data can be also used in validating performance assessment codes which couple geochemistry and transport processes, and in design of waste packages and back fill compositions. (author)

  19. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    Chapter 6 discusses the repository design features and operating procedures that will be used to ensure compliance with regulatory limits for preclosure releases, performance objectives for waste retrieval, and performance objectives for postclosure or long-term waste isolation. Chapter 7 discusses the analyses that were conducted in developing the repository design and the impacts of various external factors on the design of repository elements and the repository as a whole. Chapter 8 discusses the engineering design information needs that were identified during conceptual design as necessary to advance the current conceptual design to License Application Design (LAD). The quality assurance (QA) program applicable to the Architect/Engineer (A/E) activities during the repository conceptual design effort is defined in Chapter 9. 146 refs., 44 figs., 21 tabs

  20. Evolution of repository and waste package designs for Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Voegele, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the evolution of the engineered barrier design for the proposed Yucca Mountain disposal system. Initially, the underground facility used a fairly standard panel and drift layout excavated mostly by drilling and blasting. By 1993, the layout of the underground facility was changed to accommodate construction by a tunnel boring machine. Placement of the repository in unsaturated zone permitted an extended period without backfilling; placement of the waste package in an open drift permitted use of much larger, and thus hotter packages. Hence in 1994, the underground facility design switched from floor emplacement of waste in small, single walled stainless steel or nickel alloy containers to in-drift emplacement of waste in large, double-walled containers. By 2000, the outer layer was a high nickel alloy for corrosion resistance and the inner layer was stainless steel for structural strength. Use of large packages facilitated receipt and disposal of high volumes of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, in-drift package placement saved excavation costs. Options considered for in-drift emplacement included different heat loads and use of backfill. To avoid dripping on the package during the thermal period and the possibility of localized corrosion, titanium drip shields were added for the disposal drifts by 2000. In addition, a handling canister, sealed at the reactor to eliminate further handling of bare fuel assemblies, was evaluated and eventually adopted in 2006. Finally, staged development of the underground layout was adopted to more readily adjust to changes in waste forms and Congressional funding. - Highlights: • Progression of events associated with repository design to accommodate tunnel boring machine and in-drift waste package emplacement are discussed. • Change in container design from small, single-layered stainless steel vessel to large, two-layered nickel alloy vessel is discussed. • The addition of drip shield to limit the

  1. Impacts of new developments in partitioning and transmutation on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Jor-Shan Choi; Halsey, W.; Pasternak, A.; Cotton, T.; Burns, J.; McCabe, A.; Colglazier, W.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-03-01

    During the 1970s, the United States and other countries thoroughly evaluated the options for the safe and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The worldwide scientific community concluded that deep geologic disposal was clearly the most technically feasible alternative. They also ranked the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of radionuclides among the least favored options. A 1982 report by the International Atomic Energy Agency summarized the key reasons for that ranking: ''Since the long-term hazards are already low, there is little incentive to reduce them further by P-T. Indeed the incremental costs of introducing P-T appear to be unduly high in relation to the prospective benefits.'' Recently, the delays encountered by the US geologic disposal program for HLW, along with advanced in the development of P-T concepts, have led some to propose P-T as a means of reducing the long-term risks from the radioactive wastes that require disposal and thus making it easier to site, license, and build a geologic repository. This study examines and evaluates the effects that introducing P-T would have on the US geologic disposal program

  2. Fabrication development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository; Phase 1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domian, H.A.; Holbrook, R.L.; LaCount, D.F. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (USA). Nuclear Power Div.]|[Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research and Development Div.

    1990-09-01

    This final report completes Phase 1 of an engineering study of potential manufacturing processes for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. An extensive literature and industry review was conducted to identify and characterize various processes. A technical specification was prepared using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) to develop the requirements. A complex weighting and evaluation system was devised as a preliminary method to assess the processes. The system takes into account the likelihood and severity of each possible failure mechanism in service and the effects of various processes on the microstructural features. It is concluded that an integral, seamless lower unit of the container made by back extrusion has potential performance advantages but is also very high in cost. A welded construction offers lower cost and may be adequate for the application. Recommendations are made for the processes to be further evaluated in the next phase when mock-up trials will be conducted to address key concerns with various processes and materials before selecting a primary manufacturing process. 43 refs., 26 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. Dose rates as a function of time due to postulated radionuclide releases from the U.S. Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Dade W.; Sun, Lin-Shen C.; Cherry, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository, which is located in a remote area in the State of Nevada, is being constructed for the long-term care and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and vitrified high-level radioactive waste. In accordance with U.S. law, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) promulgated Standards that limit the dose rates to members of the public due to the consumption of ground water, alone, and the consumption of ground water plus agricultural products irrigated with the contaminated ground water, and other exposures, such as those from external sources and the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. As part of this exercise, the USEPA identified eight specific radionuclides to which their Standards are to apply. These are: 14 C, 99 Tc, 129 I, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 237 Np, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. For purposes of the associated dose rate estimates, a range of conservative assumptions have been applied, all of which are designed to assure that the estimated dose rates are well above what might be expected under 'real-world' conditions. As a first step, it was assumed that: (1) at 10 4 year after repository closure, a fractional release of 10 -5 of the entire repository radionuclide inventory occurred; (2) the only prior reduction in the inventory was that due to radioactive decay; and (3) the sole path of exposure to neighboring population groups was through the consumption of 2 L d -1 of contaminated ground water. The accompanying analyses revealed that, of the eight radionuclides, only 226 Ra, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, will represent a significant source of dose at that time. To provide perspective and insights, the next step was to estimate the committed effective dose rates for all eight radionuclides based on an assumed fractional release each year of 10 -5 of the inventory from the time of repository closure up through the 10 6 year. For purposes of providing perspective, it was assumed that each dose rate estimate was independent, that is, no releases

  4. A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, Ralph; Winnard, T.; Ross, S.; Best, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as

  5. Assessment of risk associated with long-term corrosion of alloy 22 and Ti-7 in the potential yucca mountain high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, T.M.; Pensado, O.; Dunn, D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The potential high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain (YM) may rely on the robustness of the outer container of the waste package (WP) as one of many barriers for waste isolation. The container is proposed to be constructed of Alloy 22, a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy known to be resistant to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Additionally, drip shields (DS) will be emplaced above the WP to minimize the groundwater contact, in the form of seepage, with the WP. The candidate alloy to construct the drip shields is a titanium based alloy (Ti-7) with some small amounts of Pd and is also known for resistance to localized corrosion. To enhance confidence of long-term WP and DS lifetimes, it is necessary to assess the conditions under which loss of passivity or localized degradation processes could occur. The accelerated degradation processes may include uniform passivity breakdown, localized corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. This paper evaluates how such processes may occur under the long-term YM repository conditions. In the uniform passivity breakdown, three potential concerns are evaluated. The first is anodic sulphur segregation at the interface between the passive film and the bare metal. This paper models the cyclic behavior of free transient fast dissolution (induced by sulfur segregation) and re-passivation. The second is the potential accumulation of corrosion products on the WP surface, which may act as cathode of large surface area leading to fast corrosion. The effective ratio of the corrosion product area to the bare metal area is evaluated. The third is the ion selectivity in the corrosion products to alter the aqueous chemistry, which may accelerate or inhibit the corrosion. Thermodynamics of ionic sorption in the corrosion products is reviewed. In the localized corrosion, the groundwater chemistry on the WP surface is evaluated at the temperatures of the WP above 100 deg. C during the early

  6. Mineralogy and clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Broxton, D.E.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. An important aspect of this evaluation is to understand the geologic history of the site including the diagenetic processes that are largely responsible for the present-day chemical and physical properties of the altered tuffs. This study evaluates the use of K/Ar geochronology in determining the alteration history of the zeolitized portions of Miocene tuffs at Yucca Mountain. Clinoptilolite is not generally regarded as suitable for dating because of its open structure and large ion-exchange capacity. However, it is the most abundant zeolite at Yucca Mountain and was selected for this study to assess the feasibility of dating the zeolitization process and/or subsequent processes that may have affected the zeolites. In this study we examine the ability of this mineral to retain all or part of its K and radiogenic Ar during diagenesis and evaluate the usefulness of the clinoptilolite K/Ar dates for determining the history of alteration

  7. The influences of scientific information on the growing in opinion for high level waste repository. Focusing on education in civil engineering course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Chijimatsu, Masakazu

    2002-01-01

    In this research, survey of awareness and attitude to high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal on 36 students of a postgraduate course was conducted. They have been studying civil and rock engineering, so they belong to 'the Group' that acquires high education, culture and faculty to understand the science in geological disposal of HLW. First of all the awareness of danger or safety to HLW disposal was examined. Some 23% regard HLW disposal as safe, on the contrary 60% feel danger. This is similar to the awareness of the average public. And some 72% think that HLW should be disposal, but only 6% agree the repository in their town. It shows that the Group of high education has a tendency of calmly understand the necessity of disposal, but they also have a nature so-called 'not in my back yard (NIMBY)'. After that, the students were divided in two groups. Then, one group received information from the promoter, and another received information from opponents. The result of second questionnaire shows that the awareness of danger is affected strongly by given information even in this Group, but they become thoughtful and prudent in their opinion and decision-making as increasing information. Finally in this paper it is studied that 'what is the role of education of civil engineering?' and 'what is key issue in R and D of HLW disposal?' considering Public Acceptance. (author)

  8. Strontium Isotopes in Pore Water as an Indicator of Water Flux at the Proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.; Futa, K.

    2004-01-01

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would be constructed in the high-silica rhyolite (Tptp) member of the Miocene-age Topopah Spring Tuff, a mostly welded ash-flow tuff in the ∼500-m-thick unsaturated zone. Strontium isotope compositions have been measured in pore water centrifuged from preserved core samples and in leachates of pore-water salts from dried core samples, both from boreholes in the Tptp. Strontium isotope ratios ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) vary systematically with depth in the surface-based boreholes. Ratios in pore water near the surface (0.7114 to 0.7124) reflect the range of ratios in soil carbonate (0.7112 to 0.7125) collected near the boreholes, but ratios in the Tptp (0.7122 to 0.7127) at depths of 150 to 370 m have a narrower range and are more radiogenic due to interaction with the volcanic rocks (primarily non-welded tuffs) above the Tptp. An advection-reaction model relates the rate of strontium dissolution from the rocks with flow velocity. The model results agree with the low transport velocity (∼2 cm per year) calculated from carbon-14 data by I.C. Yang (2002, App. Geochem., v. 17, no. 6, p. 807-817). Strontium isotope ratios in pore water from Tptp samples from horizontal boreholes collared in tunnels at the proposed repository horizon have a similar range (0.7121 to 0.7127), also indicating a low transport velocity. Strontium isotope compositions of pore water below the proposed repository in core samples from boreholes drilled vertically downward from tunnel floors are more varied, ranging from 0.7112 to 0.7127. The lower ratios ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of 0.7115. Ratios lower than 0.7115 likely reflect interaction of construction water with concrete in the tunnel inverts, which had an 87 Sr/ 86 Sr < 0.709. These low Sr ratios indicate penetration of construction water to depths of ∼20 m below the tunnels within three years after construction, a transport velocity of ∼7 m per year. These studies show that

  9. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects: Report for April 1986-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Batch sorption ratio determinations were conducted for strontium, cesium, uranium, and technetium onto samples of tuff using real and synthetic groundwater J-13. There were no significant differences in sorption ratios in experiments with real and synthetic groundwater. Columns 1 cm in diameter and about 5 cm long were constructed, and experiments were conducted with the objective of correlating the results of batch and the column experiments. The characteristics of the columns were tested by determination of elution curves in J-13 containing tritium and technetium as the TcO 4 - ion. For strontium and cesium, fairly good correlation between values of the sorption ratio obtained by the two methods was observed. Little or no technetium sorption was observed with either method. The elution peaks obtained with neptunium and uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations which suggest irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. An experiment was performed to provide information on the compositions of the first groundwaters that will contact waste canisters in a tuff-hosted repository after very near field temperatures have cooled to below 100/degree/C. Synthetic groundwater J-13 was slowly dripped onto a slab of tuff maintained at 95-100/degree/C, and the result was a thin encrustation of solids on the slab as the water evaporated. Fresh J-13 groundwater was then allowed to contact the encrustation in a vessel maintained at 90/degree/C. The principal result of the experiment was a significant loss of calcium and magnesium from the fresh J-13 groundwater

  10. Geo-metadata design for the GIS of the pre-selected site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Gao Min

    2008-01-01

    The information system for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste aims at the integrated management and full application of multi-sourceful information in the research for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. And the establishment and operation of the system need geo-metadata's support of multi-sourceful information. In the paper, on the basis of geo-data analysis for pre-selected site of disposal of high-level radioactive waste, we can apply the existing metadata standards. Also we can research and design the content information, management pattern and application for geo-metadata of the multi-sourceful information. (authors)

  11. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  12. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, horizontal emplacement mode: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    Chapter 6 discusses the repository design features and operating procedures that will be used to ensure compliance with regulatory limits for preclosure releases, performance objectives for waste retrieval, and performance objectives for post closure or long-term waste isolation. Chapter 7 discusses the analyses that were conducted in developing the repository design and the impacts of various external factors on the design of repository elements and the repository as a whole. These discussions are divided into preclosure design analysis, post closure design analysis, and engineering analysis of design. Also discussed are the structures, systems, and components that have been identified as important to safety and the barriers that have been, or need to be, identified as important to waste isolation. Chapter 8 discusses the engineering design information needs that were identified during conceptual design as necessary to advance the current conceptual design to Licence Application Design. These information needs should be resolved during the site characterization program or by other technology development studies. The discussion of these design issues and data needs is arranged according to the major elements of the repository. Chapter describes the quality assurance program. 146 refs., 40 figs., 22 tabs

  13. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  14. Social impacts of hazardous and nuclear facilities and events: Implications for Nevada and the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository; [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenburg, W.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Carter, L.F.; Willard, W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Lodwick, D.G. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States); Hardert, R.A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Levine, A.G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Sociology; Kroll-Smith, S. [New Orleans Univ., LA (United States); Couch, S.R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Edelstein, M.R. [Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Social impacts of a nuclear waste repository are described. Various case studies are cited such as Rocky Flats Plant, the Feed Materials Production Center, and Love Canal. The social impacts of toxic contamination, mitigating environmental stigma and loss of trust are also discussed.

  15. Social impacts of hazardous and nuclear facilities and events: Implications for Nevada and the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenburg, W.R.; Carter, L.F.; Willard, W.; Lodwick, D.G.; Hardert, R.A.; Levine, A.G.; Couch, S.R.; Edelstein, M.R.

    1992-05-01

    Social impacts of a nuclear waste repository are described. Various case studies are cited such as Rocky Flats Plant, the Feed Materials Production Center, and Love Canal. The social impacts of toxic contamination, mitigating environmental stigma and loss of trust are also discussed

  16. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  17. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  18. Radiation-Induced Defects in Kaolinite as Tracers of Past Occurrence of Radionuclides in a Natural Analogue of High Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T.; Fourdrin, C.; Calas, G.

    2007-05-01

    Understanding the processes controlling migrations of radioelements at the Earth's surface is an important issue for the long-term safety assessment of high level nuclear waste repositories (HLNWR). Evidence of past occurrence and transfer of radionuclides can be found using radiation-induced defects in minerals. Clay minerals are particularly relevant because of their widespread occurrence at the Earth's surface and their finely divided nature which provides high contact area with radioactive fluids. Owing to its sensitivity to radiations, kaolinite can be used as natural, in situ dosimeter. Kaolinite is known to contain radiation-induced defects which are detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. They are differentiated by their nature, their production kinetics and their thermal stability. One of these defects is stable at the scale of geological periods and provides a record of past radionuclide occurrence. Based on artificial irradiations, a methodology has been subsequently proposed to determine paleodose cumulated by kaolinite since its formation. The paleodose can be used to derive equivalent radioelement concentrations, provided that the age of kaolinite formation can be constrained. This allows quantitative reconstruction of past transfers of radioelements in natural systems. An example is given for the Nopal I U-deposit (Chihuahua, Mexico), hosted in hydrothermally altered volcanic tufs and considered as analogue of the Yucca Mountain site. The paleodoses experienced by kaolinites were determined from the concentration of defects and dosimetry parameters of experimental irradiations. Using few geochemical assumption, a equivalent U-content responsible for defects in kaolinite was calculated from the paleodose, a dose rate balance and model ages of kaolinites constrained by tectonic phases. In a former study, the ages were assumptions derived from regional tectonic events. In thepresent study, ages of mineralization events are measured from U

  19. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  20. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  1. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  2. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  3. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  4. A new integrated approach to demonstrate the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, N.; Krone, J.; Niehues, N.; Raitz von Frentz, R.

    2000-01-01

    Multi-barrier systems are accepted as the basic approach for long term environmental safe isolation of radioactive waste in geological repositories. Assessing the performance of natural and engineered barriers is one of the major difficulties in producing evidence of environmental safety for any radioactive waste disposal facility, due to the enormous complexity of scenarios and uncertainties to be considered. This paper outlines a new methodological approach originally developed basically for a repository in salt, but that can be transferred with minor modifications to any other host rock formation. The approach is based on the integration of following elements: (1) Implementation of a simple method and efficient criteria to assess and prove the tightness of geological and engineered barriers; (2) Using the method of Partial Safety Factors in order to assess barrier performance at certain reasonable level of confidence; (3) Integration of a diverse geochemical barrier in the near field of waste emplacement limiting systematically the radiological consequences from any radionuclide release in safety investigations and (4) Risk based approach for the assessment of radionuclide releases. Indicative calculations performed with extremely conservative assumptions allowed to exclude any radiological health consequences from a HLW repository in salt to a reference person with a safety level of 99,9999% per year. (author)

  5. Milestones for Selection, Characterization, and Analysis of the Performance of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report presents a concise history in tabular form of events leading up to site identification in 1978, site selection in 1987, subsequent characterization, and ongoing analysis through 2009 of the performance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high - level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The tabulated events generally occurred in five periods: (1) commitment to mined geologic disposal and identification of sites; (2) site selection and analysis, based on regional geologic characterization through literature and analogous data; (3) feasibility analysis demonstrating calculation procedures and importance of system components, based on rough measures of performance using surface exploration, waste process knowledge, and general laboratory experiments; (4) suitability analysis demonstrating viability of disposal system, based on environment - specific laboratory experiments, in - situ experiments, and underground disposal system characterization; and (5) compliance analysis, based on completed site - specific characterization . The current sixth period beyond 2010 represents a new effort to set waste management policy in the United States. Because the relationship is important to understanding the evolution of the Yucca Mountain Project , the tabulation also shows the interaction between the policy realm and technical realm using four broad categories of events : (a) Regulatory requirements and related federal policy in laws and court decisions, (c) Presidential and agency directives, (c) technical milestones of implementing institutions, and (d) critiques of the Yucca Mountain Project and pertinent national and world events related to nuclear energy and radioactive waste. Preface The historical progression of technical milestones for the Yucca Mountain Project was originally developed for 10 journal articles in a special issue of Reliability Engineering System Safety on the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain license

  6. Thermohydromechanical stability analysis upon joint characteristics and depth variations in the region of an underground repository for the study of a disposal concept of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Bae, Dae Suk; Kang, Chul Hyung; Choi, Jong Won

    2003-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand a long term(500 years) thermohydromechanical interaction behavior in the vicinity of a repository cavern upon joint location and repository depth variations, and then, to contribute to the development of a disposal concept. The model includes a saturated rock mass, PWR spent fuels in a disposal canister surrounded by compacted bentonite inside a deposition hole, and mixed bentonite backfilled in the rest of the space within a cavern. It is assumed that two joint sets exist within a model. A joint set 1 includes 56 .deg. dip joints, 20m spaced, and a joint set 2 is in the direction perpendicular to a joint set 1 and includes 34 .deg. dip joints, 20m spaced. In order to understand the behavior change upon joint location variations, 5 different models of 500m depth are analyzed, and additional 3 different models of 1km depth are analyzed to understand the effect of a depth variation. The two dimensional distinct element code, UDEC is used for the analysis. To understand the joint behavior adjacent to a repository cavern, Barton-Bandis joint model is used. Effect of the decay heat for PWR spent fuels on a repository model is analyzed, and a steady state algorithm is used for a hydraulic analysis. According to the thermohydromechanical interaction behavior of a repository model upon variations of joint locations and a repository depth, during the period of 500 years from waste emplacement, the effect of a depth variation on the stress and displacement behavior of a model is comparatively smaller than the effect of decay heat from radioactive materials. From the study of the joint location variation effect, it is advisable not to locate an underground opening in the region very close to the joint crossings

  7. Near Field sorption Data Bases for Compacted MX-80 Bentonite for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    Bentonites of various types and compacted forms are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Nagra is currently considering an Opalinus clay (OPA) formation in the Zuercher Weinland as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. A compacted MX-80 bentonite is foreseen as a potential backfill material. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and one of the requirements for such an assessment are sorption data bases (SDB) for the bentonite near-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop the SDB. One of the pre-requisites for developing a SDB is a water chemistry for the compacted bentonite porewater. For a number of reasons mentioned in the report, and discussed in more detail elsewhere, this is not a straightforward task. There are considerable uncertainties associated with the major ion concentrations and in particular with the system pH and Eh. The MX-80 SDB was developed for a reference bentonite porewater (pH = 7.25) which was calculated using the reference OPA porewater. In addition, two further SDBs are presented for porewaters calculated at pH values of 6.9 and 7.9 corresponding to lower and upper bound values calculated for the range of groundwater compositions anticipated for the OPA host rock. 'In house' sorption isotherm data were measured for Cs(I), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV), Se(IV) and 1(-1) on the 'as received' MX-80 material equilibrated with a simulated porewater composition. Complementary 'in house' sorption edge and isotherm measurements on conditioned Na/Ca montmorillonites were also available for many of these radionuclides. These data formed the core of the SDB. Nevertheless, some of the required sorption data still had to be obtained from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing selection procedures and the modifications

  8. Monitoring a repository for high-level radioactive waste in Germany. Possibilities and limits; Ueberwachung eines Endlagers fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle in Deutschland. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Haverkamp, B. [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Eilers, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Pursuant to the new BMU safety requirements of September 2010 imposed upon the final storage of radioactive waste generating heat, the operator of a repository in Germany must establish a monitoring program which furnishes relevant measured information during the operations phase and for a defined period of time after closure of the repository. Within the framework of a feasibility study, an assessment basis was established to show in what format information about the status of a closed repository mine could be obtained technically without impairing the safety of barriers, for instance, by cable ducts. As a conceptual design basis, processes and measured quantities relevant to monitoring were attributed to the components of the current safety demonstration concept. For one model variant, monitoring possibilities of these processes were shown on the basis of monitoring modules. Some first experiments are being carried out in European underground laboratories about the use of wireless transmission systems in the repository area. On the basis of those activities, experiments could also be designed in the German exploratory mine of Gorleben in order to examine to what extent information obtained by monitoring could be transmitted in a wireless mode in rock salt formations. As far as the autonomous supply of electricity to measurement systems is concerned, which must be guaranteed on a long-term basis, there is now a possibility of using thermoelectric isotope generators or betavoltaic batteries. (orig.)

  9. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B.

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P CO 2 . In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab→Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some appreciation of the uncertainties

  10. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P{sub CO{sub 2}}. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab{yields}Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some

  11. An analysis of the factors affecting the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of Kyungju ca-bentonite for use as a clay-based sealing material for a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owen; Kwon, Sang Ki

    2012-01-01

    The buffer and backfill are important components of the engineered barrier system in a high-level waste repository, which should be constructed in a hard rock formation at a depth of several hundred meters below the ground surface. The primary function of the buffer and backfill is to seal the underground excavation as a preferred flow path for radionuclide migration from the deposited high-level waste. This study investigates the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of Kyungju Ca-bentonite, which is the candidate material for the buffer and backfill in the Korean reference high-level waste disposal system. The factors that influence the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the buffer and backfill are analyzed. The factors considered are the dry density, the temperature, the sand content, the salinity and the organic carbon content. The possibility of deterioration in the sealing performance of the buffer and backfill is also assessed.

  12. The anti NPP movement in change. New challenges due to the search for a final repository for high-level radioactive waste; Die Anti-AKW-Bewegung im Wandel. Neue Herausforderungen durch die Endlagersuche fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (FFU)

    2013-07-01

    The German Bundestag has decided on June 28th, 2013 the law on the site selection (StandAG) has been enacted as ''national consensus'' for ''social peace''. The compromise is considered to solve the polarized conflict with respect to the site for an final repository for high-level radioactive waste. New challenges result for the government and the civil society.

  13. Sandstone uranium deposits of Meghalaya: natural analogues for radionuclide migration and backfill material in geological repository for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    Sandstone uranium deposits serve as potential natural analogue to demonstrate safety offered by geological media against possible release of nuclear waste from their confinement and migration towards biosphere. In this study, available database on geochemical aspects of Domisiat uranium deposit of Meghalaya has been evaluated to highlight the behavior of radionuclides of concern over long term in a geological repository. Constituents like actinides (U and Th), fission products and RE elements are adequately retained in clays and organic matters associated with these sandstone deposits. The study also highlights the possibility of utilization of lean ore discarded during mining and milling as backfill material in far field areas and optimizing near field buffers/backfills in a geological repository located in granitic rocks in depth range of 400-500m. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  15. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  16. Proposed methodology for completion of scenario analysis for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. [Assessment of post-closure performance for a proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberds, W.J.; Plum, R.J.; Visca, P.J.

    1984-11-01

    This report presents the methodology to complete an assessment of postclosure performance, considering all credible scenarios, including the nominal case, for a proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Hanford Site, Washington State. The methodology consists of defensible techniques for identifying and screening scenarios, and for then assessing the risks associated with each. The results of the scenario analysis are used to comprehensively determine system performance and/or risk for evaluation of compliance with postclosure performance criteria (10 CFR 60 and 40 CFR 191). In addition to describing the proposed methodology, this report reviews available methodologies for scenario analysis, discusses pertinent performance assessment and uncertainty concepts, advises how to implement the methodology (including the organizational requirements and a description of tasks) and recommends how to use the methodology in guiding future site characterization, analysis, and engineered subsystem design work. 36 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  18. Methodology for the development of scenarios for the evaluation of the behaviour of a deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste in a granite formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Martin, A.; Alonso, J.; Gonzalez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In time, deep geological repositories for radioactive waste undergo significant environmental changes caused either by natural processes or by human actions. In view of a long-term safety analysis, it is fundamental to identify all the possible evolutions of the system. This process is denominated scenario development. This paper deals with the methodology used to generate scenarios within the framework of the AGP (Deep Geological Repository) project for assessing behaviour in granite medium. It begins with a brief description of the methodology used to identify the relevant factors for the safety analysis on the system. It then presents the details of the actual scenario-generating methodology which consists of dividing the entire system into barrier states or subsystems a graphic procedure by means of which the factors are represented in relation to their predictable impact or extent of their effect on the subsystems. This methodology is a good tool for displaying and grouping the most significant scenarios for the subsequent analysis of consequences. (Author)

  19. Thermal Analysis of Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in a Generic Bedded Salt repository using the Semi-Analytical Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    An example case is presented for testing analytical thermal models. The example case represents thermal analysis of a generic repository in bedded salt at 500 m depth. The analysis is part of the study reported in Matteo et al. (2016). Ambient average ground surface temperature of 15°C, and a natural geothermal gradient of 25°C/km, were assumed to calculate temperature at the near field. For generic salt repository concept crushed salt backfill is assumed. For the semi-analytical analysis crushed salt thermal conductivity of 0.57 W/m-K was used. With time the crushed salt is expected to consolidate into intact salt. In this study a backfill thermal conductivity of 3.2 W/m-K (same as intact) is used for sensitivity analysis. Decay heat data for SRS glass is given in Table 1. The rest of the parameter values are shown below. Results of peak temperatures at the waste package surface are given in Table 2.

  20. Waste acceptance product specifications for vitrified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Sproull, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 mandated that all high-level waste (HLW) be sent to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE published the Environmental Assessment in 1982 which identified borosilicate glass as the chosen HLW form. 1 In 1985 the Department of Energy instituted a Waste Acceptance Process to assure that DWPF glass waste forms would be acceptable to such a repository. This assurance was important since production of waste forms will precede repository construction and licensing. As part of this Waste Acceptance Process, the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) formed the Waste Acceptance Committee (WAC). The WAC included representatives from the candidate repository sites, the waste producing sites and DOE. The WAC was responsible for developing the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) which defined the requirements the waste forms must meet to be compatible with the candidate repository geologies

  1. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  2. Study on the methodology of hydrogeological character in preselected site for high-level waste repository in Beishan area, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Su Rui; Yang Tianxiao

    2003-01-01

    The results of regional hydrogeological investigations conducted during 1996-2000 were summarized. The study was started with the surface hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and groundwater isotopic and humic acid investigations. The key-points are focused on the characteristics of water-bearing formation, hydrogeochemistry, groundwater isotopes as well as humic acid. On the bases of a large quantity of hydrogeological data, the hydrogeological conditions of each groundwater unit, groundwater circulation characteristics, groundwater hydrodynamics and hydrgeochemistry are described. In addition, the modeling about groundwater flow state, groundwater chemical balance, interaction among water-rock-nuclear waste is carried out, then the suitability of the Beishan site for the high-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated. The report comprehensively and deeply shows the hydrogeological characteristics of weak water bearing, low permeability and slow moving as well as the hydrogeochemical features of mild alkalinity and high mineralization in Beishan area. The results will provide an important basis for the evaluation of the site. (authors)

  3. Other-than-high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The main emphasis of the work in the area of partitioning transuranic elements from waste has been in the area of high-level liquid waste. But there are ''other-than-high-level wastes'' generated by the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that are both large in volume and contaminated with significant quantities of transuranic elements. The combined volume of these other wastes is approximately 50 times that of the solidified high-level waste. These other wastes also contain up to 75% of the transuranic elements associated with waste generated by the back end of the fuel cycle. Therefore, any detailed evaluation of partitioning as a viable waste management option must address both high-level wastes and ''other-than-high-level wastes.''

  4. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  5. Thermal-hydraulic-geochemical coupled processes around disposed high level nuclear waste in deep granite hosted geological repositories: frontier areas of advanced groundwater research in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Indian policy for permanent disposal of high level nuclear wastes with radionuclide having very long half lives include their immobilization in a stable matrix i.e. glasses of suitable composition, its storage in high integrity steel canisters and subsequent disposal in suitable host rock like granites at a depth of 400-500m in stable geological set up. The site for such disposal facilities are selected after vigorous assessment of their stability implying an exhaustive site selection methodology based on a large number of criteria and attributes. In India, an area of about 70000 square kilometers occupied by granites has been subjected to such evaluation for generating comprehensive database on host rock parameters. The sites selected after such intensive analysis are expected to remain immune to processes like seismicity, volcanism, faulting, uplift, erosion, flooding etc. even in distant future spanning over tens of thousands of years. Nevertheless, groundwater has emerged as the only credible pathway through which disposed waste can eventually find its way to accessible biosphere. Hence groundwater research constitutes one of the most important aspects in demonstration of safety of such disposal. The disposed waste due to continuous emission of decay heat creates high temperature field around them with resultant increase in groundwater temperature in the vicinity. Hot groundwater on reacting with steel canisters, backfill clays and cement used around the disposed canister, produces geochemical environment characterized by altered Ph, Eh and groundwater compositions. Acceleration in geochemical interaction among waste-groundwater-clay-cement-granite often results in dissolution or precipitation reactions along the groundwater flow paths i.e. fractures with resultant increase or decrease in their permeability. Thus thermal, hydraulic and geochemical processes work interdependently around the disposed waste. These coupled processes also control the release and

  6. The IAEA's high level radioactive waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saire, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the different activities that are performed under the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) high level radioactive waste management programme. The Agency's programme is composed of five main activities (information exchange, international safety standards, R ampersand D activities, advisory services and special projects) which are described in the paper. Special emphasis is placed on the RADioactive WAste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which was implemented in 1991 to document international consensus that exists on the safe management of radioactive waste. The paper also raises the question about the need for regional repositories to serve certain countries that do not have the resources or infrastructure to construct a national repository

  7. Discussion of quantitative assessment index system of suitability of the site for geological disposal repository of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Rui; Wang Ju

    2014-01-01

    Site selection and suitability assessment of site are one of important tasks of research and development of geological disposal engineering for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Quantitative assessment of suitability of the site is based on the scientific, reasonable and operational index system. The discussion of index screening of quantitative assessment of suitability of the site is conducted. Principle of index screening is presented and index systems are established for different stages of site selection, including planning stage of site selection, region or area investigation stage, site characterization and site confirmation stage. But the considerations are taken of the complexity of site selection of geological disposal engineering for HLW and itself development of quantitative assessment method, so improvement of the index systems presented above is needed in the further. (authors)

  8. Staff analysis of public comments on proposed rule 10 CFR Part 60, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    On February 25, 1981, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission published rules which establish procedures for the licensing of geologic disposal, by the US Department of Energy, of high-level radioactive wastes. On July 8, 1981, proposed technical criteria which would be used in the evaluation of license applications under those procedural rules were published in the Federal Register. The Commission received 93 comment letters on the proposed technical criteria, 89 of which were received in time for the Commission to consider in preparing the final technical criteria which were published on June 21, 1983. This document presents a detailed analysis of the comments received on the proposed rule by the Commission's staff and also contains the Rationale for the Performance Objectives of 10 CFR Part 60

  9. Deep ground water microbiology in Swedish granite rock and it's relevance for radio-nuclide migration from a Swedish high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1989-03-01

    Data on numbers, species and activity of deep ground water microbial populations in Swedish granite rock have been collected. Specific studies are performed on radio-nuclid uptake on bacteria judge to be probable inhabitants in Swedish nuclear waste repositories. An integrated mobile field laboratory was used for water sampling and for the immediate counting and inoculation of the samples from boreholes at levels between 129 and 860 m. A sampler adapted for the collection of undisturbed samples for gas analysis was used to collect samples for bacterial enumerations and enrichments. The sampler can be opened and closed from the surface at the actual sampling depth. The samples can subsequently be brought to the surface without contact with air and with the pressure at the actual sampling depth. The number of bacteria were determined in samples from the gas sampler when this was possible. Else numbers are determined in the water that is pumped up to the field lab. The average total number of bacteria is 3 x 10 5 bacterial ml -1 . The number of bacteria possible to recover with plate count arrays from 0.10 to 21.9%. (author)

  10. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  11. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  12. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options

  13. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004. Part 1: Contributions by participants in the co-ordinated research project on chemical durability and performance assessment under simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    This publication contains the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). It provides a basis for understanding the potential interactions of waste form and repository environment, which is necessary for the development of the design and safety case for deep disposal. Types of high level waste matrices investigated include spent fuel, glasses and ceramics. Of particular interest are the experimental results pertaining to ceramic forms such as SYNROC. This publication also outlines important areas for future work, namely, standardized, collaborative experimental protocols for package-release studies, structured development and calibration of predictive models linking the performance of packaged waste and the repository environment, and studies of the long term behaviour of the wastes, including active waste samples. It comprises 15 contributions of the participants on the Coordinated Research Project which are indexed individually.

  14. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  15. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects: Report for April 1986--September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1988-07-01

    During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Batch sorption ratio determinations were conducted for strontium, cesium, uranium, and technetium onto samples of tuff using real and synthetic groundwater J-13. There were no significant differences in sorption ratios in experiments with real and synthetic groundwater. Columns were tested by determination of elution curves in J-13 containing tritium and technetium as the TcO 4 /sup /minus// ion. For strontium and cesium, fairly good correlation between values of the sorption ratio obtained by the two methods was observed. Little technetium sorption was observed with either method. The elution peaks obtained with neptunium and uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations which suggest irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. Synthetic groundwater J-13 was slowly dripped onto a slab of tuff maintained at 95--100/degree/C, and the result was a thin encrustation of solids on the slab as the water evaporated. Fresh J-13 groundwater was then allowed to contact the encrustation in a vessel maintained at 90/degree/C. The principal result of the experiment was a significant loss of calcium and magnesium from the fresh J-13 groundwater. 13 refs. 25 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Consequences of the Thermal Transient on the Evolution of the Damaged Zone Around a Repository for Heat-Emitting High-Level Radioactive Waste in a Clay Formation: a Performance Assessment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Weetjens, Eef; Sillen, Xavier; Vietor, Tim; Li, Xiangling; Delage, Pierre; Labiouse, Vincent; Charlier, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A proper evaluation of the perturbations of the host rock induced by the excavation and the emplacement of exothermic wastes is essential for the assessment of the long-term safety of high-level radioactive waste disposals in clay formations. The impact of the thermal transient on the evolution of the damaged zone (DZ) has been explored in the European Commission project TIMODAZ (thermal impact on the damaged zone around a radioactive waste disposal in clay host rocks, 2006-2010). This paper integrates the scientific results of the TIMODAZ project from a performance assessment (PA) point of view, showing how these results support and justify key PA assumptions and the values of PA model parameters. This paper also contextualises the significance of the thermal impact on the DZ from a safety case perspective, highlighting how the project outcomes result into an improved understanding of the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of the clay host rocks. The results obtained in the TIMODAZ project strengthen the assessment basis of the safety evaluation of the current repository designs. There was no evidence throughout the TIMODAZ experimental observations of a temperature-induced additional opening of fractures nor of a significant permeability increase of the DZ. Instead, thermally induced plasticity, swelling and creep seem to be beneficial to the sealing of fractures and to the recovery of a very low permeability in the DZ, close to that of an undisturbed clay host rock. Results from the TIMODAZ project indicate that the favourable properties of the clay host rock, which guarantee the effectiveness of the safety functions of the repository system, are expected to be maintained after the heating-cooling cycle. Hence, the basic assumptions usually made in PA calculations so far are expected to remain valid, and the performance of the system should not be affected in a negative way by the thermal evolution of the DZ around a radioactive waste repository in clay host rock.

  17. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  18. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  19. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The

  20. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, U.

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The present study also pays

  1. A TRANSPORTATION RISK ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR ANALYZING THE TRANSPORT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TO THE PROPOSED YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis addressed the potential for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 origins for 34 types of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, and 10,911 rail shipments. The analysis evaluated transportation over 59,250 unique shipment links for travel outside Nevada (shipment segments in urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 links in Nevada. In addition, the analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The analysis also used mode-specific accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. This complex mix of data and information required an innovative approach to assess the transportation impacts. The approach employed a Microsoft(reg s ign) Access database tool that incorporated data from many sources, including unit risk factors calculated using the RADTRAN IV transportation risk assessment computer program. Using Microsoft(reg s ign) Access, the analysts organized data (such as state-specific accident and fatality rates) into tables and developed queries to obtain the overall transportation impacts. Queries are instructions to the database describing how to use data contained in the database tables. While a query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one sequence of queries that is used to calculate a particular transportation impact. For example, the incident-free dose to off-link populations in a state is calculated by a query that uses route segment lengths for each route in a state that could be used by shipments, populations for each segment, number of shipments on each segment, and an incident-free unit risk factor calculated using RADTRAN IV. In addition to providing a method for using large volumes of data in the calculations, the

  2. Southern Nevada residents' views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    Two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans' views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada

  3. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  4. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to contribute to the implementation of Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The major conclusion of that review is that NWPA provides sufficient authority for developing and operating a waste management system based on disposal in geologic repositories. Substantial new authority for other facilities will not be required unless major unexpected problems with geologic disposal are encountered. OTA also concludes that DOE's Draft Mission Plan published in 1984 falls short of its potential for enhancing the credibility and acceptability of the waste management program

  5. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Evaluation of alternative shaft-sinking techniques for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories. Final report (Task 3), June 1981-July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonano, L.; Findley, D.; Wildanger, W.; Gates, R.; Phillips, S.

    1983-03-01

    This report represents the results of Task 3 of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Contract, Technical Assistance for Repository Design. The purpose of the complete project is to provide NRC with technical assistance for the following reasons: To enable the focused, adequate review by NRC of aspects related to design and construction of an in situ test facility and final geologic repository, as presented in US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Characterization Reports (SRC), To ascertain that the DOE site characterization program will provide, as far as possible, all the information necessary to permit a review to be conducted by NRC of a license application for construction authorization. It is assumed that the Site Characterization Report and License Application will describe the exploratory shaft and concept designs for the repository shafts. This report provides a comparative evaluation of various shaft sinking techniques for production shafts for a repository. The primary comparative evaluation has been conducted for 14-ft internal diameter shafts developed in two composite media using four different methods of sinking/lining. The technical, cost and schedule comparisons draw a major distinction between shafts sunk blind and those which utilize bottom access. Based on the system of ranking introduced to grade the significant attributes of each method and the resulting design, it is concluded that for application to repository access, no one particular method of sinking exhibits a clear overall superiority. When a specific site is made available for a study of the most suitable shaft sinking methods, it will be necessary to establish actual geological conditions and technological capabilities and the comparisons presented herein reviewed accordingly

  7. Radiation transport in high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass

  8. The Development of an Effective Transportation Risk Assessment Model for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, Thomas; Winnard, Thomas; Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.

    2001-01-01

    Past approaches for assessing the impacts of transporting spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste have not been effectively implemented or have used relatively simple approaches. The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis considers 83 origins, 34 fuel types, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, 10,911 rail shipments, consisting of 59,250 shipment links outside Nevada (shipment kilometers and population density pairs through urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 shipment links in Nevada. There was additional complexity within the analysis. The analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The model also considered different accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. To capture the all of the complexities of the transportation analysis, a Microsoft(reg s ign) Access database was created. In the Microsoft(reg s ign) Access approach the data is placed in individual tables and equations are developed in queries to obtain the overall impacts. While the query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one equation for a particular impact. This greatly simplifies the validation effort. Furthermore, in Access, data in tables can be linked automatically using query joins. Another advantage built into MS Access is nested queries, or the ability to develop query hierarchies. It is possible to separate the calculation into a series of steps, each step represented by a query. For example, the first query might calculate the number of shipment kilometers traveled through urban, rural and suburban zones for all states. Subsequent queries could join the shipment kilometers query results with another table containing the state and mode specific accident rate to produce accidents by state. One of the biggest advantages of the nested queries is in validation

  9. France’s State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo’s severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution. PMID:28608831

  10. Shaft sealing concepts for high-level radioactive waste repositories based on the host-rock options rock salt and clay stone; Schachtverschlusskonzepte fuer zukuenftige Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle fuer die Wirtsgesteinsoptionen Steinsalz und Ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram; Gruner, Matthias [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdbau und Spezialtiefbau; Herold, Philipp; Jobmann, Michael [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Unlike the shaft barriers used for the dry preservation of former mine workings and underground storage sites, shaft seals designed for radioactive-waste repositories must also fulfil additional requirements associated with the design diversity of the sealing system. This diversity makes use of the simple redundancy principle in order to prevent the proliferation of defects. In practice this means combining several sealing elements made from different materials or from materials with different properties. The R and D project, Shaft sealing systems for final repositories for high-level radioactive waste (ELSA) - phase 2: concept design for shaft seals and testing of the functional elements of shaft seals', which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), set out to investigate potential sealing elements for the two host-rock options rock salt and mudstone. This paper combines the text that the authors presented at the First International Freiberg Shaft Colloquium held at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology on 01.10.2014 with a presentation on the sealing elements that were investigated as part of the R and D project.

  11. France’s State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo’s severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  12. In-situ test programs related to design and construction of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories. Final report (Task 2), June 1981-November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Bauhof, F.; Gonano, L.

    1983-03-01

    The media and sites considered include (1) basalt at Hanford, Washington; (2) tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site; (3) domal salt at specific Gulf Coast sites; (4) bedded salt at an unspecified site; and (5) granite at an unspecified site. A licensing perspective is outlined and a defensible rationale developed and utilized for the test selection process. This rationale essentially consists of: establishing the information needs for construction authorization; assessing the relevant capabilities of available tests; and matching the capabilities of specific tests to the perceived information needs. The information needs at any time consist of the additional information (if any) needed in order to predict satisfactory repository system performance with the required level of confidence, and thus are a function of: the significance of the repository engineered components and site characteristics to system performance; the currently available information, which may be supplemented with time; and the acceptable level of confidence in satisfactory performance for each licensing step. Determination of the acceptable levels of confidence and the significance of repository system components is outside the scope of this report. Suitable assumptions have thus been made regarding the development of information needs for construction authorization by the time of initial site submittals. Tests which are available and respond to the perceived media/site specific information needs, either by simulation or assessment of site characteristics, are identified and their capabilities assessed. Specific in situ tests are investigated and described in detail. Research and development which might be effective in improving test capabilities have been recommended

  13. Investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository. Part A: Geology at Yucca Mountain. Part B: Modeling of hydro-tectonic phenomena relevant to Yucca Mountain. Annual report - Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, J.S.; Schluter, C.M.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    This document is an annual report describing investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository.This document describes research studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski, and others. As part of their first annual report, they take this opportunity to clarify the technical basis of their concerns and summarize the critical geological field evidence and related information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. Proposed nomination of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Registration and transcript of proceedings of US Department of Energy public hearings, Las Vegas, Nevada, March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this public hearing were: (1) to solicit comments on the nomination of Yucca Mountain for site characterization as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository; (2) to solicit issues to be included in an Environmental Assessment supporting the Department's formal nomination of that site; and (3) to solicit issues to be addressed in the Site Characterization Plan which would subsequently be issued prior to proceeding with site characterization. The public hearing utilized a panel comprising of three persons, including a chairperson, who were not employees of the Department of Energy, and who had not participated in the preparation of the proposed nomination of Yucca Mountain. This volume contains statements from 29 participants, beginning with those of the Governor of Nevada

  15. US Department of Energy public hearing for the proposed nomination of Yucca Mountain as a potential high level radioactive waste repository. Registration and transport of proceedings, Reno, Nevada - March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this public hearing was: (1) to solicit comments on the nomination of Yucca Mountain for site characterization as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository; (2) to solicit issues to be included in an Environmental Assessment supporting the Departments' formal nomination of that site; and (3) to solicit issues to be addressed in the Site Characterization Plan which would subsequently be issued prior to proceeding with site characterization. The public hearing utilized a panel comprising of three persons including a chairperson, who were not employees of the Department of Energy, and who had not participated directly in the preparation of the proposed nomination of Yucca Mountain. This volume contains statements from 24 participants

  16. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  17. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Berreth, J.R.; Freeby, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle

  18. Risk analysis methodology for spent fuel repositories in bedded salt: methodlogy summary and differences between spent fuel and high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepping, R.E.; Chu, M.S.

    1981-06-01

    In the absence of spent fuel reprocessing plans, unreprocessed spent fuel has become a candidate waste form for geologic disposal. In order to understand the public health risks from such disposal and to gain insights into the factors that influence them, a methodology is needed to combine the effects of site geology and hydrology, physical and chemical properties of the waste form, and the details of the engineering design. This report outlines such a methodology which the authors currently are applying to the analysis of unreprocessed spent fuel disposal. The methodology is the same methodology as was developed to describe the risks from geologic disposal of wastes from reprocessed spent fuel. The difference between spent fuel wastes and wastes from reprocessing that may affect the applicability of the methodology are highlighted

  19. Gas phase migration of C-14 through barrier materials applicable for use in a high-level nuclear waste repository located in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, L.R.

    1988-12-01

    A study of the movement of 14 CO 2 through proposed barrier media has been conducted. Diffusion coefficients for crushed tuff, bentonite and a 90:10% by wt. mixture of crushed tuff and bentonite were measured for two diffusion lengths. The ability of 14 CO 2 to penetrate a microsilica-containing portland cement mortar proposed for repository use was also examined. The specimens were subjected to uniaxially-applied compressive loads prior to the diffusion tests to simulate the onset of environmentally-induced microcracks. 91 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  20. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  1. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035

  2. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  3. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelin, R.

    1984-05-01

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  4. Disposal of high level and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The waste products from the nuclear industry are relatively small in volume. Apart from a few minor gaseous and liquid waste streams, containing readily dispersible elements of low radiotoxicity, all these products are processed into stable solid packages for disposal in underground repositories. Because the volumes are small, and because radioactive wastes are latecomers on the industrial scene, a whole new industry with a world-wide technological infrastructure has grown up alongside the nuclear power industry to carry out the waste processing and disposal to very high standards. Some of the technical approaches used, and the Regulatory controls which have been developed, will undoubtedly find application in the future to the management of non-radioactive toxic wastes. The repository site outlined would contain even high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels being contained without significant radiation dose rates to the public. Water pathway dose rates are likely to be lowest for vitrified high-level wastes with spent PWR fuel and intermediate level wastes being somewhat higher. (author)

  5. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  6. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  7. Strategic lessons in high-level waste management planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Neil

    1999-07-01

    This presentation discusses some issues in the planning and execution of high-level waste (HLW) disposal. The topics are (1) Initial considerations, (2) Issues in structuring a programme, (3) Disposal concepts, (4) Geological environments, (5) Site selection and characterisation, (6) Waste transport, (7) Performance assessment methodology and application, (8) Some key issues. The options for spent fuel management can give rise to a variety of different wastes. The quantity of waste arising will affect the volume of rock required for deposition, both with respect to rock integrity and requirements for heat dissipation. A repository must not be considered in isolation from the rest of the waste management programme. The repository development plan should be supported by a schedule of activities and related funding mechanisms, implying a long-term commitment in policy terms, and should include a corresponding legal and regulatory framework. The idea that disposed waste might be retrieved by future generations for processing under new technology is discussed. Safeguards requirements on fissile material within spent fuel or any other wastes imply indefinite control. Disposal concepts include the geological environment and the engineered barrier system within it. Site selection involves several steps: regional-scale characterisation, local characterisation, hydrological studies, etc. Key issues are retrieval vs. safeguards, optimisation of repository design, reducing long programme timescales, international collaboration.

  8. Strategic lessons in high-level waste management planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Neil

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses some issues in the planning and execution of high-level waste (HLW) disposal. The topics are (1) Initial considerations, (2) Issues in structuring a programme, (3) Disposal concepts, (4) Geological environments, (5) Site selection and characterisation, (6) Waste transport, (7) Performance assessment methodology and application, (8) Some key issues. The options for spent fuel management can give rise to a variety of different wastes. The quantity of waste arising will affect the volume of rock required for deposition, both with respect to rock integrity and requirements for heat dissipation. A repository must not be considered in isolation from the rest of the waste management programme. The repository development plan should be supported by a schedule of activities and related funding mechanisms, implying a long-term commitment in policy terms, and should include a corresponding legal and regulatory framework. The idea that disposed waste might be retrieved by future generations for processing under new technology is discussed. Safeguards requirements on fissile material within spent fuel or any other wastes imply indefinite control. Disposal concepts include the geological environment and the engineered barrier system within it. Site selection involves several steps: regional-scale characterisation, local characterisation, hydrological studies, etc. Key issues are retrieval vs. safeguards, optimisation of repository design, reducing long programme timescales, international collaboration

  9. Contact-metamorphic illitization and related consequences for the functioning of backfill barriers in high level radioactive waste repositories (South Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehmann, C.

    2000-01-01

    A clay barrier, consisting of smectite, is common to most disposal designs for HLW repositories. Concerns are that elevated temperatures and long time periods may alter the two properties, the barrier is employed: a high swelling as well as cation exchange capacity (CEC). A ''natural analogue'' approach has therefore been attempted to predict smectite characteristics and stability in relation to time/temperature. The following investigations were performed in order to determine changes in swelling capacity and CEC: (1) Conversion of smectite to other clay minerals. (2) Changes in the layer charge characteristics of the clay minerals. (3) Swelling potential measurements of the smectitic interlayer. Smectite was thermally unstable and transformed into illite via illite/smectite interstratifications (I/S) and chlorite at temperature exceeding about 100 deg. C. The swelling potential was directly related to the proportion of smectite. As a conclusion it can be stated that elevated temperatures (> 70 deg. C) result in the transformation of smectite into illite. For backfill purposes it is recommended that the clay content in the backfill barrier should be as high as technically possible and that mixing the bentonite with K-bearing minerals (granite) should be avoided. (author)

  10. Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the High-Level Waste Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.E.; Salmon, R.

    1990-08-01

    The High-Level Waste Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes spent fuel and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the High-Level Waste Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. 3 figs

  11. Criticality in a high level waste repository. A review of some important factors and an assessment of the lessons that can be learned from the Oklo reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The conditions and scenarios that might allow sufficient 239 Pu and/or 235 U to accumulate together with enough water to allow for moderation of neutron energies and thereby achieving a state where neutron-induced fission reactions could be sustained at a rate significantly above the natural rate of spontaneous fission is discussed. The uranium deposit in Oklo, Gabon, which was the site of naturally-occurring neutron-induced fission reactions approximately 2000 My ago is described. The chemistry, mineralogy, and conditions of the nuclear reactor operations are reviewed. Results of modelling the conditions for criticality at Oklo are used to estimate the amounts of spent fuel uranium that must be assembled in a favorable geometry in order to produce a similar reactive situation in a geologic repository. The amounts of uranium that must be transported and redeposited to reach a critical configuration are extremely large in relation to those that could be transported under any reasonably achievable conditions. In addition, transport and redeposition scenarios often require opposite chemical characteristics. It is concluded that the likelihood of achieving a critical condition due to accumulation of a critical mass of uranium outside the canisters after disposal is negligible. Criticality inside the canister is rendered impossible by the use of low-solubility materials inside the canisters that fill space and prevent the entry of enough water to allow moderation of neutron energies. Criticality due to plutonium outside the canister can be ruled out because it requires a series of processes, each of which has a vanishingly small probability. 25 refs, 9 tabs, 8 figs

  12. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.

    1985-01-01

    With the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), Congress for the first time established in law a comprehensive Federal policy for commercial high-level radioactive waste management, including interim storage and permanent disposal. NWPA provides sufficient authority for developing and operating a high-level radioactive waste management system based on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Authorization for other types of waste facilities will not be required unless major problems with geologic disposal are discovered, and studies to date have identified no insurmountable technical obstacles to developing geologic repositories. The NWPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit to Congress three key documents: (1) a Mission Plan, containing both a waste management plan with a schedule for transferring waste to Federal facilities and an implementation program for choosing sites and developing technologies to carry out that plan; (2) a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal, to include a site-specific design for a long-term federal storage facility, an evaluation of whether such an MRS facility is needed and feasible, and an analysis of how an MRS facility would be integrated with the repository program if authorized by Congress; and (3) a study of alternative institutional mechanisms for financing and managing the radioactive waste system, including the option of establishing an independent waste management organization outside of DOE. The Mission Plan and the report on alternative institutional mechanisms were submitted to the 99th US Congress in 1985. The MRS proposal is to be submitted in early 1986. Each of these documents is discussed following an overview of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

  13. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  14. Review and critique of the US Department of Energy environmental program plan for site characterization for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report provides a review and critique of the US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental program plan for site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain which principally addresses compliance with federal and state environmental regulation and to a lesser extent monitoring and mitigation of significant adverse impacts and reclamation of disturbed areas. There are 15 documents which comprise the plan and focus on complying with the environmental requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, (NWPA) and with single-media environmental statutes and their regulations. All elements of the plan follow from the 1986 statutory environmental assessment (EA) required by NWPA which concluded that no significant adverse impacts would result from characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. The lack of appropriate environmental planning and review for site characterization at Yucca Mountain points to the need for an oversight function by the State of Nevada. It cannot be assumed that on its own DOE will properly comply with environmental requirements, especially the substantive requirements that comprise the intent of NEPA. Thus, procedures must be established to assure that the environmental interests of the State are addressed in the course of the Yucca Mountain Project. Accordingly, steps will be taken by the State of Nevada to review the soundness and efficacy of the DOE field surveys, monitoring and mitigation activities, reclamation actions, and ecological impact studies that follow from the DOE environmental program plans addressed by this review.

  15. Review and critique of the US Department of Energy environmental program plan for site characterization for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a review and critique of the US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental program plan for site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain which principally addresses compliance with federal and state environmental regulation and to a lesser extent monitoring and mitigation of significant adverse impacts and reclamation of disturbed areas. There are 15 documents which comprise the plan and focus on complying with the environmental requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, (NWPA) and with single-media environmental statutes and their regulations. All elements of the plan follow from the 1986 statutory environmental assessment (EA) required by NWPA which concluded that no significant adverse impacts would result from characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. The lack of appropriate environmental planning and review for site characterization at Yucca Mountain points to the need for an oversight function by the State of Nevada. It cannot be assumed that on its own DOE will properly comply with environmental requirements, especially the substantive requirements that comprise the intent of NEPA. Thus, procedures must be established to assure that the environmental interests of the State are addressed in the course of the Yucca Mountain Project. Accordingly, steps will be taken by the State of Nevada to review the soundness and efficacy of the DOE field surveys, monitoring and mitigation activities, reclamation actions, and ecological impact studies that follow from the DOE environmental program plans addressed by this review

  16. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences

    1980-10-01

    Current strategies in most countries favour the immobilisation of high-level radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses, and their burial in large, centralised, mined repositories. Strong public opposition has been encountered because of concerns over safety and socio-political issues. The author develops a new disposal strategy, based on immobilisation of wastes in an extremely resistant ceramic, SYNROC, combined with burial in an array of widely dispersed, very deep drill holes. It is demonstrated that the difficulties encountered by conventional disposal strategies can be overcome by this new approach.

  17. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  18. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  19. On the role of anisotropy in the perturbation of Boom Clay by a deep disposal repository for high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillen, X.; Li, X.L.; Van Marcke, P.; Chen, G.; Bastiaens, W.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. All along the characterisation programme of the Boom Clay, a potential host rock for geological disposal of long-lived, heat-emitting radioactive waste, evidences of anisotropy of key thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) properties have been collected through direct observations and laboratory measurements. In parallel, evidences of anisotropic THM behaviour of the clay massif were obtained during excavations and in-situ experiments in the underground research laboratory HADES at Mol. Careful analysis of the observations and simple modelling reveal the key role of the anisotropy of the material properties and, to a lesser extent, the in situ stresses in the development of a damaged zone around the galleries and the hydro-mechanical perturbation in the clay massif. As a consequence of the sedimentary deposition process, clay formations often exhibit visible bedding. This is the case for Boom Clay. Like other deep clays, Boom Clay also exhibits pronounced strain anisotropy under certain hydro-mechanical loading. Isotropic compression tests performed in the early nineties have shown that, for Boom Clay at a depth of about 225 m, the increments of deformation perpendicular to the bedding planes, i.e. vertical, are about two times larger than increments of deformation parallel to the bedding planes, i.e. horizontal. Moreover, it was observed that this mechanical anisotropy decreases progressively as the isotropic stress is increased. Drained heating tests under constant isotropic loading also evidenced anisotropic behaviour during thermo-consolidation. Like the mechanical properties, hydraulic and thermal properties of the Boom Clay also show anisotropy: lab and in situ measurements suggest that the horizontal hydraulic conductivity is about twice the vertical one while the ratio between horizontal and vertical thermal conductivities is about 1.4. The anisotropic THM behaviour of the Boom Clay was evidenced during excavations

  20. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  1. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  2. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This study presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. Broad in scope and balanced in approach, its coverage extends from technological and organizational questions to political ramifications...the environmental impact of building repositories...and even dealing with Indian tribes affected by repository site selection and development. Emphasis is on workable strategies for implementing the National Waste Policy Act of 1982, including a mission plan for the program...a monitored retrievable storage proposal...and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the program. Nine appendicies are included. They furnish additional data on such topics as policymaking, history, and the system issues resolved in NWPA

  3. Characteristics and behaviour of C-14, Cl-36, Pu-239 and Tc-99 in the Biosphere in the context of performance assessments of geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, A.; Perez-Sanchez, D.; Trueba, C.; Moraleda, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of the safety of high-level radioactive wastes repositories is a requisite of the radioactive waste management policy. Criteria for the safety of those facilities [IAEA, 1995] require protection of the population and the environment over a time scale appropriate to the characteristics of the disposed wastes. In order to demonstrate compliance with the relevant principles and regulations, there is the requirement for an analysis and quantification of system behavior including the transport of radionuclides from the facility to the biosphere, their transport in the biosphere and the resulting exposure of humans, including the evaluation of radiation doses from both external and internal exposure. Realistic models to simulate the transport of radionuclides in the environment are essential. The biosphere model needs to represent the transport and accumulation of radionuclides in the different media, including characterization of the pathways through which the contaminants give rise to exposure of humans. Such modeling needs to take account of the specific characteristics of the radionuclides involved, which have different physical, chemical and biological characteristics and behaviors and could require conceptually different models to predict their transport through, and distribution in, the relevant environmental media. Key radionuclides that have been shown to contribute most to the doses estimated in high-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessments were identified in [Watkins and Smith, 1999]. The important factors that determine whether a radionuclide will be a key contributor to dose are: its total inventory, half-life, solubility and adsorption potential, and biosphere flux-to-dose conversion factor. Only a limited number of radionuclides are likely to be important for the groundwater release and transport pathway from the point of view of their contribution to annual individual dose to humans: ''237Np (and its progeny), ''129I, ''99Tc

  4. Possible effects of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on consumer demand for goods and services produced in the host community. An overview of the Finnish study; Ydinjaetteen loppusijoituslaitoksen mahdolliset vaikutukset kuluttajien valintoihin ja loppusijoituspaikkakunnan tuotteiden menekkiin markkinoilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, I.; Niva, M.; Timonen, P. [Kuluttajatutkimuskeskus, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of a series of reports evaluating the possible impacts of a proposed Finnish high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository on consumer behavior and, subsequently, on the host community` s economy. In addition to the overview, the study consists of three parts: Report I reviews the literature on the impacts of analogous industrial facilities; Report II examines the possible reactions of industry and trade, and Report III studies the consumers` risk perceptions in relation to their consuming practices. Theoretically, this series of reports is based on previous research on risk perception, with two modifications. Report II studies products currently available on the consumer market to find out what possibilities the marketplace offers to a consumer interested in environmental risks to act according to his/her risk perception. Report III studies those everyday consuming practices on the basis of which consumers define risks. These two contexts mold the consumer reaction to risks that stem from industrial installations. The proposed HLNW repository benefits the host community in various direct and indirect ways, and may create new opportunities for developing the local economy. The proposed repository may also have negative impacts on the local economy. Food production in particular and, to a lesser extent, tourism might be affected harmfully. Consumer reaction is unlikely to be targeted at other goods produced in the proposed host communities. Under normal conditions (i.e., the repository functions as planned), consumers have fairly few possibilities to identify the products of this community without an extensive search for information, given the structure of the current food market: the proposed communities have few products with specific local identity. Also, fairly few consumers are willing to spend a substantial amount of time for studying the products and their raw materials in detail. Also, consumers are confident that they can manage

  5. Possible effects of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on consumer demand for goods and services produced in the host community. An overview of the Finnish study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, I.; Niva, M.; Timonen, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of a series of reports evaluating the possible impacts of a proposed Finnish high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository on consumer behavior and, subsequently, on the host community' s economy. In addition to the overview, the study consists of three parts: Report I reviews the literature on the impacts of analogous industrial facilities; Report II examines the possible reactions of industry and trade, and Report III studies the consumers' risk perceptions in relation to their consuming practices. Theoretically, this series of reports is based on previous research on risk perception, with two modifications. Report II studies products currently available on the consumer market to find out what possibilities the marketplace offers to a consumer interested in environmental risks to act according to his/her risk perception. Report III studies those everyday consuming practices on the basis of which consumers define risks. These two contexts mold the consumer reaction to risks that stem from industrial installations. The proposed HLNW repository benefits the host community in various direct and indirect ways, and may create new opportunities for developing the local economy. The proposed repository may also have negative impacts on the local economy. Food production in particular and, to a lesser extent, tourism might be affected harmfully. Consumer reaction is unlikely to be targeted at other goods produced in the proposed host communities. Under normal conditions (i.e., the repository functions as planned), consumers have fairly few possibilities to identify the products of this community without an extensive search for information, given the structure of the current food market: the proposed communities have few products with specific local identity. Also, fairly few consumers are willing to spend a substantial amount of time for studying the products and their raw materials in detail. Also, consumers are confident that they can manage

  6. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams

  7. High level waste management in Asia: R and D perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokattey, Sangeeta; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to provide an overview, about the status of R and D and current trends in high level radioactive waste management, particularly in Asian countries. The INIS database (for the period 1976 to 2010) was selected for this purpose, as this is the most authoritative global source of information, in the area of Nuclear Science and Technology. Appropriate query formulations on the database, resulted in the retrieval of 4322 unique bibliographic records. Using the content analysis method (which is both a qualitative as well as a quantitative research method), all the records were analyzed. Part One of the analysis details Scientometric R and D indicators, such as the countries and the institutions involved in R and D, the types of publications, and programmes and projects related to High Level Waste management. Part Two is a subject-based analysis, grouped under the following broad categories: I. Waste Processing 1. Partitioning and transmutation (including ADS) II. Waste Immobilization 1. Glass waste forms and 2. Crystalline ceramics and other waste forms III. Waste Disposal 1. Performance assessment and safety evaluation studies 2. Geohydrological studies a. Site selection and characterization, b. In situ underground experiments, c. Rock mechanical characterization 3. Deep geological repositories a. Sorption, migration and groundwater chemistry b. Engineered barrier systems and IV. Waste Packaging Materials. The results of this analysis are summarized in the study. (author)

  8. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  9. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  10. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  11. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  12. Review of high-level waste form properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison

  13. The precautionary principle and high-level nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The 'Precautionary Principle' has grown from the broadening observation that there is compelling evidence that damage to humans and the world-wide environment is of such a magnitude and seriousness that new principles for conducting human activities are necessary. One of the various statements of the Precautionary Principle is: when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically. The use of a precautionary principle was a significant recommendation emerging from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and it is gaining acceptance in discussions ranging from global warming to activities that affect the marine environment, and far beyond. In the US high-level nuclear waste policy, there is a growing trend on the part of geologic repository proponents and regulators to shift the required safety evaluation from a deterministic analysis of natural and engineered barriers and their interactions to risk assessments and total system waste containment and isolation performance assessment. This is largely a result of the realisation that scientific 'proof' of safety cannot be demonstrated to the level repository proponents have led the American public to expect. Therefore, they are now developing other methods in an attempt to effectively lower the repository safety expectations of the public. Implicit in this shift in demonstration of 'proof' is that levels of uncertainty far larger than those generally taken as scientifically acceptable must be accepted in repository safety, simply because greater certainty is either too costly, in time and money, or impossible to achieve at the potential Yucca Mountain repository site. In the context of the Precautionary Principle, the repository proponent must bear the burden of providing 'Acceptable' proof, established by an open

  14. Standards for high level waste disposal: A sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, W.W.; Powers, V.; Johnson, F.X.; Cornland, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel from commercial power stations contains high levels of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and fission products, all of which pose serious challenges for permanent disposal because of the very long half-lives of some isotopes. The 'nuclear nations' have agreed on the use of permanent geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of high-level nuclear waste. However, it is premature to claim that a geologic repository offers permanent isolation from the biosphere, given high levels of uncertainty, nascent risk assessment frameworks for the time periods considered, and serious intergenerational equity issues. Many have argued for a broader consideration of disposal options that include extended monitored retrievable storage and accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes. In this paper we discuss and compare these three options relative to standards that emerge from the application of sustainable development principles, namely long-lasting technical viability, intergenerational equity, rational resource allocation, and rights of future intervention. We conclude that in order to maximise the autonomy of future generations, it is imperative to leave future options more open than does permanent disposal

  15. A critically educated public explores high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    It is vital to the citizens of Nevada that they and their children are given an opportunity to explore all sides of the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository site for spent nuclear fuel. The state-wide, national and international implications demand a reasoned and complete approach to this issue, which has become emotionally and irrationally charged and fueled by incomplete perception and information. The purpose of this paper is to provide curriculum suggestions and recommend concomitant policy developments that will lead to the implementation of a Critical Thinking (CT) approach to High Level Radioactive Waste Management

  16. Ventilation System Strategy for a Prospective Korean Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki

    2005-01-01

    In the stage of conceptual design for the construction and operation of the geologic repository for radioactive wastes, it is important to consider a repository ventilation system which serves the repository working environment, hygiene and safety of the public at large, and will allow safe maintenance like moisture content elimination in repository for the duration of the repositories life, construction/operation/closure, also allowing safe waste transportation and emplacement. This paper describes the possible ventilation system design criteria and requirements for the prospective Korean radioactive waste repositories with emphasis on the underground rock cavity disposal method in the both cases of low and medium-level and high-level wastes. It was found that the most important concept is separate ventilation systems for the construction (development) and waste emplacement (storage) activities. In addition, ventilation network system modeling, natural ventilation, ventilation monitoring systems and real time ventilation simulation, and fire simulation and emergency system in the repository are briefly discussed.

  17. Integrating the commercial and defense high level waste programs - A utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonto, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provided that disposal of high-level wastes resulting from defense activities be included in the authorized repository unless the President determined that separate facilities are required. President Reagan approved commingling of defense and civilian wastes on April 30, 1985. The impacts of this decision on the repository schedule, civilian spent fuel acceptance rates, and cost sharing are reviewed and recommendations for resolving these issues are presented

  18. A comparison of high-level waste form characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Notz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US DOE is responsible for the eventual disposal in a repository of spent fuels, high-level waste (HLW) and other radioactive wastes that may require long-term isolation. This includes light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW as the two major sources, plus other forms including non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources (such as activated metals in the Greater-Than-Class-C category). The Characteristics Data Base, sponsored by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was created to systematically tabulate the technical characteristics of these materials. Data are presented here on the immobilized HLW forms that are expected to be produced between now and 2020

  19. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  20. UPDATING AN EXPERT ELICITATION IN THE LIGHT OF NEW DATA: TEN YEARS OF PROBABILISTIC VOLCANIC HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR THE PROPOSED HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.V. Perry; A. Cogbill; R. Kelley

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) considers volcanism to be a potentially disruptive class of events that could affect the safety of the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields depends on an adequate understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of past eruptions. At Yucca Mountain, the hazard is due to an 11 Ma-history of basaltic volcanism with the latest eruptions occurring in three Pleistocene episodes to the west and south of Yucca Mountain. An expert elicitation convened in 1995-1996 by the DOE estimated the mean hazard of volcanic disruption of the repository as slightly greater than 10 -8 dike intersections per year with an uncertainty of about two orders of magnitude. Several boreholes in the region have encountered buried basalt in alluvial-filled basins; the youngest of these basalts is dated at 3.8 Ma. The possibility of additional buried basalt centers is indicated by a previous regional aeromagnetic survey conducted by the USGS that detected approximately 20 magnetic anomalies that could represent buried basalt volcanoes. Sensitivity studies indicate that the postulated presence of buried post-Miocene volcanoes to the east of Yucca Mountain could increase the hazard by an order of magnitude, and potentially significantly impact the results of the earlier expert elicitation. Our interpretation of the aeromagnetic data indicates that post-Miocene basalts are not present east of Yucca Mountain, but that magnetic anomalies instead represent faulted and buried Miocene basalt that correlates with nearby surface exposures. This interpretation is being tested by drilling. The possibility of uncharacterized buried volcanoes that could significantly change hazard estimates led DOE to support an update of the expert elicitation in 2004-2006. In support of the expert elicitation data needs, the DOE is sponsoring (1) a new higher-resolution, helicopter-borne aeromagnetic survey

  1. Suggestions on R and D work of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    The difference between repository and generic underground facilities is described. Some differences and similarities of site selection between the low and medium radioactive waste disposal, nuclear power station and high-level radioactive waste repository are also discussed here. We trend to extremely emphasize the safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal because of high toxicity, long half-life and long safety disposal period of this kind of radioactive wastes; because radioactive waste in the repository is of high specific activities and buried in depth, it would be difficult to meddle with its safety. In case of repository system being destroyed, the author considers that in the stages of regional and area site selection, the first task is to investigate regional tectonic stability. Some problems about disposal options and others are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  3. Management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redon, A.; Mamelle, J.; Chambon, M.

    1977-01-01

    The world wide needs in reprocessing will reach the value of 10.000 t/y of irradiated fuels, in the mid of the 80's. Several countries will have planned, in their nuclear programme, the construction of reprocessing plants with a 1500 t/y capacity, corresponding to 50.000 MWe installed. At such a level, the solidification of the radioactive waste will become imperative. For this reason, all efforts, in France, have been directed towards the realization of industrial plants able of solidifying the fission products as a glassy material. The advantages of this decision, and the reasons for it are presented. The continuing development work, and the conditions and methods of storing the high-level wastes prior to solidification, and of the interim storage (for thermal decay) and the ultimate disposal after solidification are described [fr

  4. Future health physics prospects in high-level nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Mayberry, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of health physics activities anticipated to be required at a high-level nuclear waste repository and to project the numbers of health physics personnel expected to be required to carry out these activities. Health physics personnel receiving consideration in the projections include the health physics manager, shift supervisors, area supervisors, health physicists, and technologists. Phases of the repository addressed are construction, operation, retrieval, and decommissioning. Specific topics discussed in the process of developing the projections are: (a) the basic features of a geologic repository, (b) the staffing requirements of such a repository, (c) health physics involvement in repository operations, and (d) the anticipated schedule for operation of repositories in the United States. A quantitative assessment of future health physics prospects in high-level nuclear waste management is included

  5. Immobilisation of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E; Kesson, S E; Ware, N G; Hibberson, W; Major, A [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Inst. of Advanced Studies

    1979-03-15

    It is stated that the elements occurring in high-level nuclear reactor wastes can be safely immobilised by incorporating them within the crystal lattices of the constituent minerals of a synthetic rock (SYNROC). The preferred form of SYNROC can accept up to 20% of high level waste calcine to form dilute solid solutions. The constituent minerals, or close structural analogues, have survived in a wide range of geochemical environments for periods of 20 to 2,000 Myr whilst immobilising the same elements present in nuclear wastes. SYNROC is unaffected by leaching for 24 hours in pure water or 10 wt % NaCl solution at high temperatures and pressure whereas borosilicate glasses completely decompose in a few hours in much less severe hydrothermal conditions. The combination of these leaching results with the geological evidence of long-term stability indicates that SYNROC would be vastly superior to glass in its capacity to safely immobilise nuclear wastes, when buried in a suitable geological repository. A dense, compact, mechanically strong form of SYNROC suitable for geological disposal can be produced by a process as economical as that which incorporates radioactive waste in borosilicate glasses.

  6. High-level waste management technology program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  7. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities

  9. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

  10. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  11. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  12. Waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, S.J. Jr.; Carr, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the United States of America the selected method for disposal of radioactive waste is mined repositories located in suitable geohydrological settings. Currently four types of host rocks are under consideration: tuff, basalt, crystalline rock and salt. Development of waste package designs for incorporation in mined salt repositories is discussed. The three pertinent high-level waste forms are: spent fuel, as disassembled and close-packed fuel pins in a mild steel canister; commercial high-level waste (CHLW), as borosilicate glass in stainless-steel canisters; defence high-level waste (DHLW), as borosilicate glass in stainless-steel canisters. The canisters are production and handling items only. They have no planned long-term isolation function. Each waste form requires a different approach in package design. However, the general geometry and the materials of the three designs are identical. The selected waste package design is an overpack of low carbon steel with a welded closure. This container surrounds the waste forms. Studies to better define brine quantity and composition, radiation effects on the salt and brines, long-term corrosion behaviour of the low carbon steel, and the leaching behaviour of the spent fuel and borosilicate glass waste forms are continuing. (author)

  13. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  14. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  15. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  16. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program's (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of t