WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-level dosimetry results

  1. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    interpretation or a dose measurement with a simple instrument such as a portable reflecting densitometer in the range of 10(3) to 10(6) Gy. Two projects were investigated: (1) a thin plastic film with a self adhesive tape containing a radiochromic dye which induces a colour change when exposed to ionising...... of paint and film dosemeters were installed in the 450 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and irradiated during operation for more than two years. Within the useful range of the dosemeters, dose comparisons with other dosemeter types gave satisfactory results. Application in other fields...

  3. Conductivity of alanine solution for high level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Figel, M.; Regulla, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    The amino acid alanine is well known as a dosimetric detector material for high level dosimetry. Its application is based on the formation of radicals by ionising radiation. The free radicals are earlier detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy or chemically after dissolving the irradiated samples. Of all these methods the ESR/alanine system is the most advanced and is suggested for reference dosimetry. At present, however, the high cost of the system is a serious handicap for a large scale routine application in radiation plants. In this study the variation of electrical conductivity of L-alanine solution with applied dose is investigated in the range from 0.5-200 kGy. The conductivity was measured with a 50 MHz RF oscillator. This readout method is uncomplicated and may be suitable for routine application. The experiments were performed with L-alanine solution in glass ampoules. (Author)

  4. Results of the dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dure, Elsa S.

    2000-07-01

    The appropriate way to verify the accuracy of the results of dose reported by the laboratories that offer lend personal dosimetry service is in the periodic participation of round of intercomparison dosimetry, undertaken by laboratories whose standards are trace (Secondary Laboratory). The Laboratory of External Personal Dosimetry of the CNEA-PY has participated in three rounds of intercomparison. The first two were organized in the framework of the Model Project RLA/9/030 RADIOLOGICAL WASTE SECURITY, and the irradiations were carried out in the Laboratory of Regional Calibration of the Center of Nuclear Technology Development, Belo Horizonte-Brazil (1998) and in the National Laboratory of Metrology of the ionizing radiations of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (1999). The third was organized by the IAEA and the irradiations were made in the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Braunschweig - Federal Republic of Germany (1999-2000) [es

  5. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  6. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  7. Analysis of population dosimetry data in the high level natural radiation areas, Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.; Eappen, K.P.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Jojo, P.J.; Predeep, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the Indian scenario, Kerala has huge monazite bearing sand deposits on the west coast thereby having high natural background radiation levels. Extensive studies on the radiation dosimetry as well as effects on the human health are therefore being carried out in the region. We have recently completed a dosimetric survey aimed for epidemiological studies using case control methodology. This study, in collaboration with two local colleges in Kollam, Kerala, was taken up to study the relationship of congenital malformations and radiation exposures, if any. The two conditions that were selected were mental retardation and cleft lip-palate. Stringent selection criteria were set in selecting the cases and suitable controls. A ratio of 1:3 for case:control was selected for getting the optimum statistical significance from the data generated. The paper describes the methodology of dosimetric survey and the analysis of dose data based on case and controls

  8. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings

  9. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (``burps``) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections.

  11. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (''burps'') a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections

  12. About the factors distorting biological dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The row of chemical substances that have not mutagenic effect can strengthen ionising radiation induced cytogenetic effects. For example nitrite sodium and nitrate sodium reinforce mutagenic action of radiation and cause sensitized effect although they aren't mutagens. Presence of residual amount of herbicides in food products can have influence at level of aberration in human cells. It was investigated the influence of herbicide zencor at mutagenic action of radiation. This substance has weak mutagenic activity. In the case of combined action of zencor with irradiation antagonistic effect was observed. Mutation rate turns out to be lower than expected summary value. At the same time many foods products (tea, coffee, cacao, chocolate etc., which contain melanin) are antimutagens and can also change the frequency of radiation induced mutations. Taking of medicine distort the results of dose estimation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes after acute irradiation is considered to be adequate method of biological dosimetry. In the case of chronic irradiation this analysis becomes complicated with such processes as adaptation (selection and proliferation of cells with more radioresistant genotype) and the origin of genetic un stability which leads to higher radiosensitivity. The estimation of the level of point mutations is the most precise method of biological dosimetry because their existence is less exposed to modifications

  13. Czech results at criticality dosimetry intercomparison 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantisek, Spurný; Jaroslav, Trousil

    2004-01-01

    Two criticality dosimetry systems were tested by Czech participants during the intercomparison held in Valduc, France, June 2002. The first consisted of the thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) (Al-P glasses) and Si-diodes as passive neutron dosemeters. Second, it was studied to what extent the individual dosemeters used in the Czech routine personal dosimetry service can give a reliable estimation of criticality accident exposure. It was found that the first system furnishes quite reliable estimation of accidental doses. For routine individual dosimetry system, no important problems were encountered in the case of photon dosemeters (TLDs, film badge). For etched track detectors in contact with the 232Th or 235U-Al alloy, the track density saturation for the spark counting method limits the upper dose at approximately 1 Gy for neutrons with the energy >1 MeV.

  14. Working conditions analysis according T.L. personal dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory for personal dosimetry in the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health, Belgrade, used TLD more than twenty years. Before that, film dosimetry was main method in external monitoring. T.L. dosimetry was started with Reader Toledo 654 and crystals Mg B 4 O 7 . Finally, from 1992 laboratory has Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600. Dosimeters are crystals LiF type 100, card packed, worn in standard filtrated holders. Personal dosimetry data are keeping 30 years for each worker according to regulations. The data from 1990 are in electronic form. Long experience enables conclusion that new technique means more advantages in practice. Recommendation from this laboratory practice refers to TLD read-out cycle. The longest period should be one month. LiF is recommended crystal. Glow curve deconvolution gives information about chronological irradiation. It is very important to conclude was dosimetry irradiated by 'one-shot' or continuously. Preparing calibration for determination the time since accident laboratory has to define adequate dose calibration methodology including low temperature peaks. Possibility to follow working conditions analyzing TLD glow curve is much more important than low decrease of dose severity. Time depend analyze is not possible if TLD would be read-out more than (approximately) six weeks after irradiation. If ionizing sources produce such low dose and has negligible probability of accidental exposure (according nowadays regulation read-out frequency could be once in three month), the recommendation is not to use external personal monitoring. Reading personal dosimeters once in three months deemed not useful. Complete and successful personal dosimetry dictates using system that enables glow curve shape representation to be sure that signal is ionizing irradiation result or not. Time depend analyze imparts information about protection permanence. In special circumstance, it is possible to estimate the time of exposure. This is extremely

  15. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of ionizing radiation dosimetry is the measurement of the physical and biological consequences of exposure to radiation. As these consequences are proportional to the local absorption of energy, the dosimetry of ionizing radiation is based on the measurement of this quantity. Owing to the size of the effects of ionizing radiation on materials in all of these area, dosimetry plays an essential role in the prevention and the control of radiation exposure. Its use is of great importance in two areas in particular where the employment of ionizing radiation relates to human health: radiation protection, and medical applications. Dosimetry is different for various reasons: owing to the diversity of the physical characteristics produced by different kinds of radiation according to their nature (X- and γ-photons, electrons, neutrons,...), their energy (from several keV to several MeV), the orders of magnitude of the doses being estimated (a factor of about 10 5 between diagnostic and therapeutic applications); and the temporal and spatial variation of the biological parameters entering into the calculations. On the practical level, dosimetry poses two distinct yet closely related problems: the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject exposed to radiation from a source external to his body (external dosimetry); and the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject owing to the presence within his body of some radioactive substance (internal dosimetry)

  16. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, D.A.O. de

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental units of dosimetry are defined, such as exposure rate, absorbed dose and equivalent dose. A table is given of relative biological effectiveness values for the different types of radiation. The relation between the roentgen and rad units is calculated and the concepts of physical half-life, biological half-life and effective half-life are discussed. Referring to internal dosimetry, a mathematical treatment is given to β particle-and γ radiation dosimetry. The absorbed dose is calculated and a practical example is given of the calculation of the exposure and of the dose rate for a gama source [pt

  17. A European neutron dosimetry intercomparison project (ENDIP). Results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Burger, G.; Coppola, M.

    1978-01-01

    A total of twenty groups from nine countries participated in sessions of the European Neutron Dosimetry Intercomparison Project (ENDIP) which were held during 1975 at GSF, Munich-Neuherberg and TNO, Rijswijk. The data of all participants are collected, the analysis and evaluation of the results are given in the present report. Specific chapters deal with the experimental arrangements and monitoring results at GSF and TNO, characteristics of the dosimetry systems employed by the paticipating groups and the basic physical data and correction factors employed for the determination of kerma and absorbed dose. In general, the participants in ENDIP quote systematic uncertainties of 7 to 8% in the neutron and total kerma or absorbed dose, which are mainly attributed to inadequate knowledge of basic constants. The variations in the results obtained by different participants seem to be in accordance with the relative large systematic uncertainties quoted. In order to determine the influence of the use of different values for the physical parameters, the relative responses of the participants' dosimeters have also been compared. The variances of quoted kerma and dose values are of the same order of magnitude as those of instrument responses. This result indicates inconsistencies in experimental techniques employed by the participants for the determination of kerma and absorbed dose. A separate nonparametric analysis of the ENDIP results confirmed that there are considerable systematic differences. Recommendations for future studies on neutron dosimetry for biological and medical applications are given at the end of the report

  18. Accreditation ISO/IEC 1705 in dosimetry: Experience and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Garcia, R.; Navarro Bravo, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experience in the process of accreditation of the radiation dosimetry service in which there are trials for the determination of radiation doses due to internal and external exhibitions. Is They describe the aspects that were considered for the design and development of a system of quality and results after its implementation. A review of the benefits accreditation has been reported to the organization is finally made. (Author)

  19. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, gamma) process in Na sup 2 sup 3 , giving rise to Na sup 2 sup 4 , which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na sup 2 sup 4 , is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na sup 2 sup 3 in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na sup 2 sup 4 /Na sup 2 sup 3 in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R sub B reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given

  20. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-01

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, {gamma}) process in Na{sup 23}, giving rise to Na{sup 24}, which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na{sup 24}, is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na{sup 23} in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na{sup 24}/Na{sup 23} in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R{sub B} reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzman transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given. A summary of the 4{pi

  1. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results

  2. Prediction of high level vibration test results by use of available inelastic analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a cooperative study between the United States and Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan agreed to perform a test program that would subject a large scale piping model to significant plastic strains under excitation conditions much greater than the design condition for nuclear power plants. The objective was to compare the results of the tests with state-of-the-art analyses. Comparisons were done at different excitation levels from elastic to elastic-plastic to levels where cracking was induced in the test model. The program was called the high Level Vibration Test (HLVT). The HLVT was performed on the seismic table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center in Japan. The test model was constructed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system which was previously tested by NUPEC as part of their seismic proving test program. A comparison of various analysis techniques with test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values than in the overall response values. This prediction error is magnified as the plasticity in the test model increases. There is no significant difference in the peak responses between the simplified and the detailed analyses. A comparison between various detailed finite element model runs indicates that the material properties and plasticity modeling have a significant impact on the plastic strain responses under dynamic loading reversals. 5 refs., 12 figs

  3. International nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison: results of Czech participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Votockova, I.

    1996-01-01

    An international intercomparison scheme for criticality accident dosimetry systems took place at the SILENE reactor, Valduc, France in June 1993. The dosemeters were exposed both on phantoms and in free air to radiation from the reactor, both shielded by lead and bare. The results obtained during this event by Czech participants are presented and compared with the average values obtained by the complete group of participants and with the reference values. The systems used consisted mostly of Si-diodes and thermoluminescent detectors, some supporting measurements were performed with solid state nuclear track detectors and using the albedo principle. The agreement between the data sets is very good. 7 tabs., 13 refs

  4. Results of Sludge Mobilization Testing at Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Waste stored in the Tank 241-AZ-101 at the US DOE Hanford is scheduled as the initial feed for high-level waste vitrification. Tank 241-AZ-101 currently holds over 3,000,000 liters of waste made up of a settled sludge layer covered by a layer of liquid supernant. To retrieve the waste from the tank, it is necessary to mobilize and suspend the settled sludge so that the resulting slurry can be pumped from the tank for treatment and vitrification. Two 223.8-kilowatt mixer pumps have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101 to mobilize the settled sludge layer of waste for retrieval. In May of 2000, the mixer pumps were subjected to a series of tests to determine (1) the extent to which the mixer pumps could mobilize the settle sludge layer of waste, (2) if the mixer pumps could function within operating parameters, and (3) if state-of-the-art monitoring equipment could effectively monitor and quantify the degree of sludge mobilization and suspension. This paper presents the major findings and results of the Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests, based on analysis of data and waste samples that were collected during the testing. Discussion of the results focuses on the effective cleaning radius achieved and the volume and concentration of sludge mobilized, with both one and two pumps operating in various configurations and speeds. The Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests were unique in that sludge mobilization parameters were measured using actual waste in an underground storage tank at the hanford Site. The methods and instruments that were used to measure waste mobilization parameters in Tank 241-AZ-101 can be used in other tanks. It can be concluded from the testing that the use of mixer pumps is an effective retrieval method for the mobilization of settled solids in Tank 241-AZ-101

  5. Effects of container material on PCT leach test results for high-level nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, S.B.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    A glass-based waste form used for the immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes should exhibit good resistance to aqueous corrosion since typically this is the primary process by which radionucleides could be released into the environment upon failure of other barriers. In the USA, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) provides a set of requirements to ensure the consistency of the waste forms produced and specifies the Product Consistency Test (PCT) as a measure of relative chemical durability. While the PCT procedure permits usage of both Teflon and stainless steel vessels for testing of simulated development glasses, Teflon is not permitted for testing of production glasses due to radiative degradation. The results presented in this paper indicate that there are very significant differences between tests conducted in the two types of vessels due to the well-known permeability of Teflon to atmospheric carbon dioxide which results in lowering of the solution pH and a consequent reduction in the leach rate of silicate glasses. A wide range of nuclear waste glass compositions was subjected to the PCT procedure using both Teflon and stainless steel vessels. The magnitude of the effect (up to a factor of four for B, Na, Li concentrations) depends strongly on glass composition, therefore the isolated checks performed previously were inconclusive. The permeability to CO, of two types of Teflon vessels specified in the PCT procedure was directly measured using buffer solutions: ingress of CO, is linear in time, strongly pH-dependent, and was as high as 100 ppm after 7 days. In actual PCT tests in Teflon vessels, the total CO, content was 560 ppm after 87 days and 1930 ppm after one year

  6. Laboratory corrosion tests on candidate high-level waste container materials: Results from the Belgian programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Kursten, B.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    The Belgian SAFIR-2 concept foresees the geological disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste in stainless steel containers and overpacks placed in a concrete gallery backfilled with Boom clay or a bentonite-type backfill. In addition to earlier in situ experiments, we used a laboratory approach to investigate the corrosion properties of selected stainless steels in Boom clay and bentonite environments. In the SAFIR-2 concept, AISI 316L hMo is the main candidate overpack material. As an alternative, we also investigated the higher alloyed stainless steel UHB 904L. Our study focused on localised corrosion and in particular pitting. We used cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation measurements to determine the pit nucleation potential E NP and the protection potential E PP . The evolution of the corrosion potential with time was determined by monitoring the open circuit potential in synthetic clay-water over extended periods. In this paper we present and discuss some results from our laboratory programme, focusing on long-term interactions between the stainless steel overpack and the backfill materials. We describe in particular the influence of chloride and thio-sulphate ions on the pitting corrosion behaviour. The results show that, under geochemical conditions typical for geological disposal, i.e. [Cl-] ∼ 30 mg/L for a Boom clay backfill and [Cl-] ∼ 90 mg/L for a bentonite backfill, neither AISI 316L hMo nor UHB 904L is expected to present pitting problems. An important factor in the long-term prediction of the corrosion behaviour however, is the robustness of the model for the evolution of the geochemistry of the backfill. Indeed, at chloride levels higher than 1000 mg/L, we predict pitting corrosion for AISI 316L hMo. (authors)

  7. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  8. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  9. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  10. Intermediate and high level earthquakes testing at the HDR - overview, objectives, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehlicka, P.; Malcher, L.

    1981-01-01

    The main objective of these earthquake investigations is the verification of calculation methods relating to structure dynamics which are used for the seismic design of nuclear power plants. Structures analyzed by tests and precalculations were the reactor building, the reactor pressure vessel, two large-diameter piping systems and one of the flood water tanks. Excitation methods used were eccentric mass shakers, snapback devices, explosives and solid propellant rockets. Some of the tests involving excitation of the building by shakers and two of the blast tests were carried out with the reactor pressure vessel and the pipes under operating conditions. The precalculations using both linear and nonlinear methods were made by German industry groups, independent experts groups and international partners. Soil-structure interaction can be determined accurately by means of simplified methods using frequency dependent soil springs. The reduction in the eigenfrequencies of the building when the load was increased by a factor of 25 could be predicted. Comparison of the results obtained for the vibrational behaviour of the building show that a simplification to the rotationally symmetric shell model appears to be a reasonable compromise between simple beam models and sophisticated 3D-shell models. The strong decrease in eigenfrequencies observed in the experiments during the transition from empty to partly filled reactor pressure vessel, and the resultant change of the mode shapes was perfectly reflected if the virtual mass of water was introduced in the calculation. Damping values evaluated from the measurements demonstrate that for some structures damping can remain low, even at levels of response leading to local yielding, while for other structures damping was very high at a rather low level of response. It appears that the use of generalized damping values for the seismic analysis of mechanical and structural systems is not appropriate. (orig./HP)

  11. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  12. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  13. Ionizing radiations dosimetry: new results in the megagray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, P.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial irradiation for food preservation, medical sterilization and plastic processing is in great expansion and an accurate dosimetry in the megagray range is required. It is also required for safety purposes around nuclear reactors or waste storage sites. The study of photon-matter interaction leads us to consider high-dose dosimeters among the solids in which radiolysis occurs. Organic conductors are indeed good candidates for high-dose dosimetry. These materials show original properties due to the great anisotropy of their electronic system. Radiation effects, especially on the resistivity and on the (E.S.R.) Electron Spin Resonance linewidth, are very important. We show that a simple resistance measurement allows an accurate monitoring of the absorbed dose, in the range 0.01 - 50 MGy, for X-rays, gamma-rays and electron irradiations. The E.S.R. linewidth measurements permits the use of small dosimeters between 1 and 100 MGy. Finally, some organic conductors are proposed as high-temperature dosimeters for irradiation performed up to 120 0 C. The irradiated pure silica contains a large variety of defects. Only the E' center seems helpful for dosimetry purposes, and its electron spin resonance (E.S.R.) signal is simply related to the absorbed dose in the range 0.1 - 3 MGy or even, 0.5 kGy - 5 MGy [fr

  14. Assessment of national dosimetry quality audits results for teletherapy machines from 1989 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Ullah, Asad; Mahmood, Khalid; Matiullah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ensure accuracy in radiation dose delivery, external dosimetry quality audit has an equal importance with routine dosimetry performed at clinics. To do so, dosimetry quality audit was organized by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) at the national level to investigate and minimize uncertainties involved in the measurement of absorbed dose, and to improve the accuracy of dose measurement at different radiotherapy hospitals. A total of 181 dosimetry quality audits (i.e., 102 of Co-60 and 79 of linear accelerators) for teletherapy units installed at 22 different sites were performed from 1989 to 2015. The percent deviation between users’ calculated/stated dose and evaluated dose (in the result of on-site dosimetry visits) were calculated and the results were analyzed with respect to the limits of ± 2.5% (ICRU "optimal model") ± 3.0% (IAEA on-site dosimetry visits limit) and ± 5.0% (ICRU minimal or "lowest acceptable" model). The results showed that out of 181 total on-site dosimetry visits, 20.44%, 16.02%, and 4.42% were out of acceptable limits of ± 2.5% ± 3.0%, and ± 5.0%, respectively. The importance of a proper ongoing quality assurance program, recommendations of the followed protocols, and properly calibrated thermometers, pressure gauges, and humidity meters at radiotherapy hospitals are essential in maintaining consistency and uniformity of absorbed dose measurements for precision in dose delivery.

  15. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analysis and test results for the defense high level waste shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.A.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the US DOE/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOT regulations. General Atomics designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Labs. (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This paper will compare the results of the two analytical approaches and with model testing results. The purpose of this work is to provide data to support licensing of the DHLW cask and to support the acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing

  16. Results of the argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry 2014. Measurement of thyroid burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the capability to perform direct measurements of “1”3”1I thyroid burden and the expertise in the interpretation of these data for dose assessment. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. The exercise counted with the participation of six internal dosimetry services: nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE), CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE), Roffo Institute (UBA – CNEA) and ARN. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  17. Preliminary investigation results as applied to utilization of Ukrainian salt formations for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.; Khrushchov, D.P.; Petrichenko, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    The salt-bearing formations have been investigated in five regions of Ukraine. Upper Devonian and Lower Permian evaporite formations in Dnieper-Donets Depression and in the NW part of Donets basin are considered to be promising for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Rock salt occurs there either as bedded salts or as salt pillows and salt diapirs. Preliminary studies have resulted in selection of several candidate sites that show promise for construction of a subsurface pilot lab. Ten salt domes and two sites in bedded salts have been proposed for further exploration. Based on microstructural studies it is possible to separate the body of a salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt blocks of different genesis, i.e.: (a) blocks characteristic of initial undisturbed sedimentary structure; (b) flow zones; (c) sliding planes; (d) bodies of loose or uncompacted rock salt. Ultramicrochemical examination of inclusions in halite have shown that they are composed of more than 40 minerals. It is emphasized that to assess suitability of a structure for construction of subsurface lab, and also the potential construction depth intervals, account should be taken of the results of ultra microchemical and microstructural data

  18. Induced effects of gamma-rays and fast neutrons on the D.C. electric resistivity of polyethylene for high level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, S.K.; Mashad, A.M.; Osiris, W.C.; Adawi, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of gamma- and neutron-irradiations on the D.C. electric resistivity of polyethylene were investigated. The results showed that, the D.C. electric resistivity of polyethylene decreased as the samples irradiation by gamma doses as well as fast neutron fluences over the ranges 10 2 -6x10 6 Gy, and 10 8 -10 11 n/cm 2 , respectively. Moreover, electric resistivity of the polyethylene samples indicated more sensitivity change when irradiated by fast neutrons in comparison with equivalent doses of gamma-radiation. Semi-empirical formulae were deduced for the calculation of gamma-dose and/or neutron fluence from the changes in the electric resistivity of the detector. Storage of the irradiated specimens at room decay temperature showed a continuous increase in the relative fade of electric resistivity by recovery with time. The retained electric resistivity by recovery showed values of about 47% and 33% for post specimens irradiated by 6x10 6 Gy and 1x10 11 n/cm 2 , respectively, after 80 hours

  19. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.; Guthrie, G.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-01-01

    The ORR-PSF benchmark experiment was designed to simulate the surveillance capsule-pressure vessel configuration in power reactors and to test the validity of procedures which determine the radiation damage in the vessel from test results in the surveillance capsule. The PSF metallurgical blind test was initiated to give participants an opportunity to test their current embrittlement prediction methodologies. Experimental results were withheld from the participants except for the type of information which is normally contained in surveillance reports. Preliminary analysis of the PSF metallurgical blind test results shows that: (1) current prediction methodologies, as used by the PSF Blind Test participants, are adequate, falling within +- 20 0 C of the measured values for Δ NDT. None of the different methods is clearly superior; (2) the proposed revision of Reg. Guide 1.99 (Rev. 2) gives a better representation of the fluence and chemistry dependency of Δ NDT than the current version (Rev. 1); and (3) fluence rate effects can be seen but not quantified. Fluence spectral effects are too small to be detectable in this experiment. (orig.)

  20. MATRIX 2 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-10-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to generate supplemental validation data that could be used to determine the applicability of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model to expanded DWPF glass composition regions of interest based on higher WLs. Two specific flowsheets were used in this study to provide such insight: (1) Higher WL glasses (45 and 50%) based on future sludge batches that have (and have not) undergone the Al-dissolution process. (2) Coupled operations supported by the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), which increase the TiO{sub 2} concentration in glass to greater than 2 wt%. Glasses were also selected to address technical issues associated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, nepheline formation, and homogeneity issues for coupled operations. A test matrix of 28 glass compositions was developed to provide insight into these issues. The glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), TL measurement and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) TiO{sub 2} concentrations up to {approx} 3.5 wt% were retained in DWPF type glasses, where retention is defined as the absence of crystalline TiO{sub 2} (i.e., unreacted or undissolved) in the as-fabricated glasses. Although this TiO{sub 2} content does not bound the projected SWPF high output flowsheet (up to 6 wt% TiO{sub 2} may be required in glass), these data demonstrate the potential for increasing the TiO{sub 2} limit in glass above the current limit of 2 wt

  1. Thermoluminescent dosemeters characterization for patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, William J.; Squair, Peterson L.; Gonzaga, Natalia B.; Nogueira, Maria S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the metrological characteristics of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters plays an important role in dosimetry of patients submitted to x-ray examinations for diagnostic purpose. Entrance surface doses can be measured with TL dosimeters to verify the compliance with the diagnostic reference levels. Organ doses can be estimated through TL measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom which it allows the radiation risk assessment. In this work, LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) rod and chip thermoluminescent dosimeters were characterized considering their use for patient dosimetry in computerized tomography and mammography. Preliminary results showed that TL dosimeters have a response reproducibility of 7.8% and 4.8% and homogeneity of 18.4% and 6.5% for rod and chip shapes, respectively. (author)

  2. Reference dosimetry and small-field dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy: Results from a Danish intercomparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, Claus F.; Sibolt, Patrik

    methods was performed by DTU Nutech at six Danish clinics. The first part of the intercompa-rison regarded the consistency of reference dosimetry. Absorbed dose to water under reference conditions was measured using a Farmer ionization chamber, and was found to agree within 1 % with the daily dose checks......-specific correction factors for non-reference fields....

  3. Standard practice for analysis and interpretation of physics dosimetry results for test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice describes the methodology summarized in Annex Al to be used in the analysis and interpretation of physics-dosimetry results from test reactors. This practice relies on, and ties together, the application of several supporting ASTM standard practices, guides, and methods that are in various stages of completion (see Fig. 1). Support subject areas that are discussed include reactor physics calculations, dosimeter selection and analysis, exposure units, and neutron spectrum adjustment methods. This practice is directed towards the development and application of physics-dosimetrymetallurgical data obtained from test reactor irradiation experiments that are performed in support of the operation, licensing, and regulation of LWR nuclear power plants. It specifically addresses the physics-dosimetry aspects of the problem. Procedures related to the analysis, interpretation, and application of both test and power reactor physics-dosimetry-metallurgy results are addressed in Practice E 853, Practice E 560, Matrix E 706(IE), Practice E 185, Matrix E 706(IG), Guide E 900, and Method E 646

  4. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  5. ESR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa, Oswaldo; Rossi, Bruno; Graeff, Carlos; Kinoshita, Angela; Chen Abrego, Felipe; Santos, Adevailton Bernardo dos

    2004-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is widely used for several applications such as dose assessment in accidents, medical applications and sterilization of food and other materials. In this work the dosimetric properties of natural and synthetic Hydroxyapatite, Alanine, and 2-Methylalanine are presented. Recent results on the use of a K-Band (24 GHz) ESR spectrometer in dosimetry are also presented

  6. Activities of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry on radiation overexposure analysis - results from 1994 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco C.A. da; Ramalho, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry has operated a service carried out by a multi-disciplinary Group called Radiation Overexposure analysis Group - GADE. It is composed of specialists in radiation protection and dosimetry and has the main objective of taking coordinated actions on radiation overexposure cases. This paper shows mainly the results got from 1984 to 1997 with the methodology used. It was observed that the cases are falling down due to radiation protection activities in the installation. (author)

  7. Results of first RER/8010 comparison in technological gamma ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.

    2007-01-01

    To be entitled to organize proficiency testing (PT) or interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) the organizer must demonstrate implementation of quality system according to at least one of the standards: (1) ISO/IEC 9001; (2) ISO/IEC 17025; (3) ISO/IEC Guide 43-1; (4) ISO/Guide 34. Taking it into account Laboratory for Measurements of Technological Doses operated in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was chosen by the IAEA as organizer of the first comparison in technological gamma ray dosimetry. Lecture presents details and some results of the ILC

  8. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran: final results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, F.; Haeri, S.A.; Rajabpour, M.R.; Ahmadpour, M.J.; Kanda, R.; Hayata, I.; Nakamura, S.; Sugahara, T.

    2010-01-01

    The absorbed radiation dose of each individual in the HLNRA and the control area was estimated from the dose measured by an electronic pocket dosimeter (EPDTM) for one day and an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) for one month. The accumulated doses per year and whole life in all individuals were estimated by both types of dosimeters. Using chromosomal aberrations as the main endpoint to assess the dose-effect relationship in residents of HLNRA, no positive correlation was found between the frequency of dicentric and centric ring aberrations and the cumulative dose of the inhabitants. These results as well as the earlier studies clearly show that individuals residing in HLNRAS of Ramsar have an increased frequency of detectable abnormalities in unstable aberrations. Due to some difficulties, the shape of the dose response has yet to be determined. In this paper, the methodologies applied and the results obtained from the most recent chromosome aberration studies in HLNRAS of Ramsar will be reviewed and discussed in order to conclude results and better understand such effects in particular in individuals of very HLNRAS of Ramsar. (author)

  9. Criteria and results from the analysis of the problem of site selection for the construction of high level RAW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Kozhoukharova, D.; Iliev, I.; Karagyuleva, J.

    1993-02-01

    The criteria for preliminary assessment of the Bulgarian territory and the results of the selection of prospective sites for future investigation concerning the choice of the suitable places for RAW repositories are presented. The selection of the prospective terrains has been performed in two stages: 1) Categorization of the country according to the prospective conditions for suitable sites and 2) Distinguishing and preliminary assessment of the suitable sites. The number of these sites was reduced to 20 by the method of successive screening. They are located in Northwest and Southeast Bulgaria and are built of marls, clays, granite, gneiss, serpentine and and volcanic rocks. The selected 20 sites has been subjected to preliminary investigation according to a programme specially worked out for the purpose. The investigation covers the analysis and summing up of the available geographical, geomorphological, geological, seismotectonic, hydrological, climatic, hydrogeological and geotechnical data, as well as a minimum of additional field research and laboratory tests. The results of the investigation of each site are presented and discussed. 1 ref

  10. Incorporation of high-level wastes in SYNROC: results from recent process-engineering studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Hoenig, C.L.; Ackerman, F.J.; Peters, P.E.; Grens, J.Z.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, highlights from recent engineering research and development, in particular, results from fluidized bed calcination studies of SYNROC slurry are summarized. A schematic diagram of the envisioned SYNROC process (at this stage of development) is also presented. It shows the use of a fluidized bed calciner to prepare SYNROC powder that is then fed to a storage hopper. Bellows-type canisters are filled, evacuated, sealed and preheated. The preheated canisters are loaded into a hot isotactic pressing unit where they are densified, then removed and cooled and finally loaded into a waste storage container. After sealing, this container is decontaminated and transferred to the interim storage facility and then, ultimately, to an underground repository

  11. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  12. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM

  13. Some recent multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance results on systems relevant for dosimetry and dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, F; Vanhaelewyn, G; Matthys, P

    2002-04-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) applications like e.g. EPR dosimetry and dating, are usually performed at X-band frequencies because of practical reasons (cost, sample size, etc.). However, it is increasingly recognized that the radiation-induced EPR signals are strongly composite, what might affect dose/age estimates. A few recent examples from both the dosimetry and dating field, illustrating the problems, will be presented. The involved spectra are mainly due to carbonate-derived radicals (CO2-, CO3(3-), etc.). Measurements at higher microwave frequencies are often recommended to improve the insight into the spectra and/or the practical signal quantification. Recent results at Q- and W-band frequencies will show that a multi-frequency approach indeed opens many interesting perspectives in this field but also that each frequency may have specific (dis)advantages depending on the EPR probe and application involved. The discussion will concern carbonate-containing apatite single crystals, shells, modern and fossil tooth enamel.

  14. The New Zealand audit of radiotherapy dosimetry: Practical considerations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, V.G.; Laban, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The New Zealand Radiation Protection Regulations 1982 state that the dose delivered to a radiotherapy patient must be within ±5% of the prescribed dose. Following the overdose of 153 patients because of an error in dosimetry at Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, UK, in 1988 it was decided to audit compliance with this routinely. Since 1991 every high-energy beam in NZ used for teletherapy has been independently measured every two years by staff from NRL. Since 1997 all kV x-ray beams have been measured as well. The measurements follow the dosimetry protocol TRS-277. A Sr-90 check is taken at each site to verify stability of the measurement system. Agreement within 0.5% is accepted. The SSD on a linear accelerator is set using the optical distance indicator after checking it against a mechanical front pointer. Recombination corrections are measured on each linear accelerator beam and polarity corrections as well in the case of electron beams. The results for high-energy beams have been reassuring both to the regulators and to the physicists who appreciate the independent check. The only disagreements significantly greater than 2% have caused by the use of a cylindrical chamber on a 4MV electron beam by a hospital, and confusion between SSD and isocentric set-up. When we repeated the measurement using the same set-up as the hospital the difference was resolved

  15. The result of Alanine/ESR dosimetry at Wolsung unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Choi, Hoon; Lim, Young Khi

    2008-01-01

    It needs accurate estimation of radiation level for verifying machinery and cable in Nuclear Power Plant. Therefore, in this study, we used ESR(Electron Spin Resonance) system for estimate dose of Alanine dosimeter. Alanine/ESR dosimetry, already known as a dosimetric method in medical and industrial field, was applied to estimate dose quantity at cable locations within a nuclear power plant as a part of equipment qualification program. Alanine/ESR dosimetry of absorbed dose range is 1 - 100 KGy. The alanine dosimeter is not significantly affected by temperature and fading is limited to 1% per year. The alanine dosimeters were fixed on the targeted cable or nearest position to measure dose quantity to get accurate value. Alanine dosimeters were scanned by commercially used two different ESR systems, e-scan and EMX series for alanine dosimeters. To estimate more accurate dose, two environmental correction factors, irradiation temperature and dosimeter weight, were used in calculation of absorbed dose quantity. In this study, dose values which are alinine dosimeter from Wolsong unit 1 are measured by two ESR systems. And then the results was compared each other

  16. The international dosimetry exchange for BNCT. A basis for pooling and collectively analyzing clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, K.J.; Binns, P.J.; Harling, O.K.; Kiger, W.S. III; Seppaelae, T.; Savolainen, S.; Moss, R.; Marek, M.; Rezaei, A.

    2006-01-01

    An international collaboration was organized by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to undertake a dosimetry exchange for the eventual purpose of combining results from various clinical centers that employ different methods for measuring and prescribing absorbed dose in the mixed radiation fields used for neutron capture therapy. Treatment plans calculated at NCT centers in the Czech Republic, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden were normalized to corresponding measurements performed by the MIT dosimetry group in each beam. More than half of the normalizations for individual absorbed dose components (photon, fast neutron, thermal neutron and boron) determined by comparing MIT measurements to the dose specified in treatment plans from the different centers were statistically significant and ranged from 8 to 400%. Each facility had at least one dose component that would require normalization for the specified doses to be accurately compared. These normalizations establish a technical basis to begin collectively analyzing treatment plans between the European and US centers. Simple but pertinent treatment parameters such as the maximum dose to brain can now be properly compared, once the clinical data is available. This could held to more precisely and quickly determine various dose-response relationships as for example those related to adverse events. Future efforts to determine dose normalization at other centers performing human studies as well as more sophisticated analyses using combined data from several centers should be guided by clearly defined clinical objectives with active participation from clinical BNCT experts. (author)

  17. Results of the ninth exercise of intercomparison in services of personal dosimetry in Argentina Republic in the year of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrufino, G.A.; Discacciatti, P.A.; Lopez, F.O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ninth intercomparison exercise personal dosimetry services, conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in 2011. The exercise was designed to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing personal dosimetry services in Argentina , for X-rays and gamma radiation fields . This exercise was organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority with the Ministry of Health of the Nation and the Regional Reference Laboratory Centre for Dosimetry of the National Atomic Energy Commission . The irradiations were carried out in full accordance with ISO 4037-3 . Participates all private companies in Argentina serving all personal dosimetry laboratories and agencies, provincial and national. Furthermore, the Laboratories from Cuba, Brazil and Uruguay also participate. The performance of a laboratory is considered acceptable if it meets the criteria established in the IRAM- ISO 14146 , which states: 'It is recognized that at most, one-tenth of dosimeters irradiated to exceed the limits'. Of all of the laboratories that participated , 68% reported their results within the acceptance criteria above. The primary objective of this intercomparison exercise is to provide an objective tool to evaluate the ability of personnel dosimetry services. (author)

  18. In vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation: five‐year results and technique comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warry, Alison J.; Eaton, David J.; Collis, Christopher H.; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish if the new CT‐based total body irradiation (TBI) planning techniques used at University College London Hospital (UCLH) and Royal Free Hospital (RFH) are comparable to the previous technique at the Middlesex Hospital (MXH) by analyzing predicted and measured diode results. TBI aims to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, typically using extended SSD fields with beam modulation to limit doses to organs at risk. In vivo dosimetry is used to verify the accuracy of delivered doses. In 2005, when the Middlesex Hospital was decommissioned and merged with UCLH, both UCLH and the RFH introduced updated CT‐planned TBI techniques, based on the old MXH technique. More CT slices and in vivo measurement points were used by both; UCLH introduced a beam modulation technique using MLC segments, while RFH updated to a combination of lead compensators and bolus. Semiconductor diodes were used to measure entrance and exit doses in several anatomical locations along the entire body. Diode results from both centers for over five years of treatments were analyzed and compared to the previous MXH technique for accuracy and precision of delivered doses. The most stable location was the field center with standard deviations of 4.1% (MXH), 3.7% (UCLH), and 1.7% (RFH). The least stable position was the ankles. Mean variation with fraction number was within 1.5% for all three techniques. In vivo dosimetry can be used to verify complex modulated CT‐planned TBI, and demonstrate improvements and limitations in techniques. The results show that the new UCLH technique is no worse than the previous MXH one and comparable to the current RFH technique. PACS numbers: 87.55.Qr, 87.56.N‐ PMID:25207423

  19. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.; Stein, E.; Kohn, M.; Kellner, M.; Schweighofer, K.; Cartagena, G.; Panzer, W.; Scheurer, C.; Wall, B.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis shows that radiographic techniques differed widely. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques which are poorly suited for paediatric radiology. A significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. The results of this study emphasize the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology

  20. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  1. Scoring methods and results for qualitative evaluation of public health impacts from the Hanford high-level waste tanks. Integrated Risk Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Gelston, G.M.; Farris, W.T.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this analysis is to qualitatively rank the Hanford Site high-level waste (HLW) tanks according to their potential public health impacts through various (groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric) exposure pathways. Data from all 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 23 of the 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program were analyzed for chemical and radiological carcinogenic as well as chemical noncarcinogenic health impacts. The preliminary aggregate score (PAS) ranking system was used to generate information from various release scenarios. Results based on the PAS ranking values should be considered relative health impacts rather than absolute risk values

  2. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  3. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    This publication contains the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). It provides a basis for understanding the potential interactions of waste form and repository environment, which is necessary for the development of the design and safety case for deep disposal. Types of high level waste matrices investigated include spent fuel, glasses and ceramics. Of particular interest are the experimental results pertaining to ceramic forms such as SYNROC. This publication also outlines important areas for future work, namely, standardized, collaborative experimental protocols for package-release studies, structured development and calibration of predictive models linking the performance of packaged waste and the repository environment, and studies of the long term behaviour of the wastes, including active waste samples

  4. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Dicello, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/μm. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used

  5. Retrospective radiation dosimetry using OSL of electronic components: Results of an inter-laboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassinet, C.; Woda, C.; Bortolin, E.; Della Monaca, S.; Fattibene, P.; Quattrini, M.C.; Bulanek, B.; Ekendahl, D.; Burbidge, C.I.; Cauwels, V.; Kouroukla, E.; Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Mrozik, A.; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Sholom, S.; McKeever, S.W.S.; Smith, R.W.; Veronese, I.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 MULTIBIODOSE project, two protocols using OSL of resistors removed from the circuit board of mobile phones were developed with the aim to use the resistors as fortuitous dosimeters in the event of a large scale radiological accident. This paper presents the results of an inter-laboratory comparison carried out under the umbrella of EURADOS. The two aims of this exercise were the validation of the MULTIBIODOSE protocols by a large number of laboratories and the dissemination of the method with the objective of preparing the basis for a network that could increase Europe's response capacity in the case of a mass casualty radiological emergency. Twelve institutes from eleven European countries and one institute from the USA, with various degrees of expertise in OSL dosimetry, took part in the OSL inter-laboratory comparison. Generally, a good agreement within uncertainties was observed between estimated and nominal doses. - Highlights: • Resistors in mobile phones could function as reliable fortuitous dosimeters in case of a large scale radiological accident. • Two OSL protocols were validated by an inter-laboratory comparison. • It is feasible to set up a network of laboratories so as to increase the measurement capacity

  6. Report of the results of the second phase of Research Coordinated Program of IAEA ''Regional Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimetry''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Diaz, E.; Hernandez, E.; Capote, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the results of an intercomparison program within a research coordinated program are presented. This is a second phase of the study that consisted in to evaluate the implementation of the new ICRU quantities for individual monitoring by the dosimetry laboratories. In this report the organization aspects, quality control of the irradiations performed by the reference laboratory (SSDL of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las radiaciones) as well the results of the participant laboratories are included

  7. Methods and results of the investigation of the thermomechanical behaviour of rock salt with regard to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, K.; Klarr, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the knowledge about thermal and mechanical behaviour of rock salt that has been accumulated by various R and D institutions in Germany from laboratory and in situ investigations. An important objective is to give a comprehensive overview of the investigation methods and instruments available and to discuss these methods and instruments with regard to their applicability and reliability for the investigation of the thermomechanical effects of high level radioactive waste emplacement in rock salt formations. The report is focused on the activities of the GSF-Institut fur Tieflagerung in the Asse mine regarding the disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste during the last decades. The design and the results of the most important in situ experiments are presented and discussed in detail. The results are compared to model calculations in order to evaluate the reliability of both the measurements and the calculation results. The relevance of the results for the situation in Spain is discussed in a separate chapter. As the investigations in Germany have been performed in domal salt, while the Spanish concept is based on waste disposal in bedded salt, significant differences in the thermomechanical behaviour cannot be excluded. The investigation methods, however, will be applicable. (Author)

  8. Dosimetry system 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Gritzner, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    In May 1983, the authors proposed a dosimetry system for use by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) that would incorporate the new findings and calculations of the joint United States - Japan working groups on the reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system evolved from extensive discussions with RERF personnel, numerous meetings of the scientists from Japan and the United States involved in the dosimetry reassessment research, and requirements expressed by epidemiologists and radiobiologists on the various review panels. The dosimetry system proposed was based on considerations of the dosimetry requirements for the normal work of RERF and for future research in radiobiology, the computerized input data on A-bomb survivors available in the RERF data base, the level of detail, precision, and accuracy of various components of the dosimetric estimates, and the computer resources available at RERF in Hiroshima. These discussions and our own experience indicated that, in light of the expansion of computer and radiation technologies and the desire for more detail in the dosimetry, an entirely new approach to the dosimetry system was appropriate. This resulted in a complete replacement of the T65D system as distinguished from a simpler approach involving a renormalization of T65D parameters to reflect the new dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system for RERF and the plan for implementation was accepted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Working Group on A-bomb Dosimetry chaired by Dr. R.F. Christy. The dosimetry system plan was also presented to the binational A-bomb dosimetry review groups for critical comment and was discussed at joint US-Japan workshop. A prototype dosimetry system incorporating preliminary dosimetry estimates and applicable to only a limited set of A-bomb survivors was installed on the RERF computer system in the fall of 1984. This system was successfully operated at RERF and provided an initial look at the impact of

  9. Could the description on polynuclear superhalogens by DFT be comparable with high-level ab initio results? A comparison between DFT and CCSD(T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yin-Yin; Li, Jin-Feng; Li, Miao-Miao; Zhou, Fu-Qiang; Li, Jian-Li; Yin, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A systematic density functional theory study including 17 exchange-correlation functionals was performed on different types of superhalogens with high level coupled-cluster single double including perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) results as the reference. The superhalogens selected here cover the ranges from mononuclear to polynuclear structures and from structures with halogen-atom ligands to those with non-halogen ligands, e.g., [MgX 3 ] − , [Mg 2 X 5 ] − , and [Mg 3 X 7 ] − (X = F, Cl, CN). It is clearly indicated that three double-hybrid functionals B2T-PLYP, B2GP-PLYP, B2K-PLYP as well as the range-separated hybrid functional ωB97X are capable of providing results which approach the accuracy at the CCSD(T) level. The basis set effect is usually moderate and, in most cases, it is enough to utilize the basis set of triple-ξ quality, e.g., Def2-TZVP. In addition, the results of the HF and MP2 method are also acceptable here, especially for polynuclear superhalogens where CCSD(T) is probably unpractical

  10. Accreditation ISO/IEC 1705 in dosimetry: Experience and results; Acreditacion ISO/IEC 17025 en dosimetria: Experiencia y resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Garcia, R.; Navarro Bravo, T.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experience in the process of accreditation of the radiation dosimetry service in which there are trials for the determination of radiation doses due to internal and external exhibitions. Is They describe the aspects that were considered for the design and development of a system of quality and results after its implementation. A review of the benefits accreditation has been reported to the organization is finally made. (Author)

  11. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  12. General Algorithm (High level)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General Algorithm (High level). Iteratively. Use Tightness Property to remove points of P1,..,Pi. Use random sampling to get a Random Sample (of enough points) from the next largest cluster, Pi+1. Use the Random Sampling Procedure to approximate ci+1 using the ...

  13. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Stephens, John A.

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  14. Review of the correlation between results of cytogenetic dosimetry from blood lymphocytes and EPR dosimetry from tooth enamel for victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostunov, I.K.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Golub, E.V.; Nugis, V. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare dose estimates from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry with teeth and cytogenetic dosimetry with blood lymphocytes for 30 victims of radiation accidents. The whole-body exposures estimated by tooth enamel EPR dosimetry were ranging from 0.01 to 9.3 Gy. Study group comprised victims exposed to acute and prolonged irradiation at high and low dose rate in different accidents. Blood samples were taken from each of them for cytogenetic analysis. Aberrations were scored and analysed according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines for conventional and FISH analysis. Tooth samples were collected in dental clinics after they had been extracted during ordinary practice. EPR dosimetry was performed according to the IAEA protocol. EPR dosimetry showed good correlation with dosimetry based on chromosomal analysis. All estimations of cytogenetic dose below detection limit coincide with EPR dose estimates within the ranges of uncertainty. The differences between cytogenetic and EPR assays may occur in a case of previous unaccounted exposure, non-homogeneous irradiation and due to contribution to absorbed dose from neutron irradiation. (authors)

  15. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es; Carlan, L. de [CEA DRT/LIST/DETECS/LNHB/LMD, Bat 534, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Franck, D. [IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Lis, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Badal, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, UPC, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Capello, K. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Cowan, P. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Ferrari, P. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Heide, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Henniger, J. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hooley, V. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Hunt, J. [IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kinase, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kramer, G.H. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Loehnert, D. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, S. [LARN Laboratory, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements.

  16. A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponi, Matteo, E-mail: mtamponi@aslsassari.it; Bona, Rossana; Poggiu, Angela; Marini, Piergiorgio [Medical Physics Unit, ASL Sassari, Via Enrico de Nicola, Sassari 07100 (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: This work describes a new form of the calibration curve for radiochromic dosimetry that depends on one fit parameter. Some results are reported to show that the new curve performs as well as those previously used and, more importantly, significantly reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the film orientation on the scanner, and the time after exposure. Methods: The form of the response curve makes use of the net optical densities ratio against the dose and has been studied by means of the Beer–Lambert law and a simple modeling of the film. The new calibration curve has been applied to EBT3 films exposed at 6 and 15 MV energy beams of linear accelerators and read-out in transmission mode by means of a flatbed color scanner. Its performance has been compared to that of two established forms of the calibration curve, which use the optical density and the net optical density against the dose. Four series of measurements with four lots of EBT3 films were used to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and dependence on the time after exposure, orientation on the scanner and lot of films. Results: The new calibration curve is roughly subject to the same dose uncertainty, about 2% (1 standard deviation), and has the same accuracy, about 1.5% (dose values between 50 and 450 cGy), as the other calibration curves when films of the same lot are used. Moreover, the new calibration curve, albeit obtained from only one lot of film, shows a good agreement with experimental data from all other lots of EBT3 films used, with an accuracy of about 2% and a relative dose precision of 2.4% (1 standard deviation). The agreement also holds for changes of the film orientation and of the time after exposure. Conclusions: The dose accuracy of this new form of the calibration curve is always equal to or better than those obtained from the two types of curves previously used. The use of the net optical densities ratio considerably reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the

  17. A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponi, Matteo; Bona, Rossana; Poggiu, Angela; Marini, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work describes a new form of the calibration curve for radiochromic dosimetry that depends on one fit parameter. Some results are reported to show that the new curve performs as well as those previously used and, more importantly, significantly reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the film orientation on the scanner, and the time after exposure. Methods: The form of the response curve makes use of the net optical densities ratio against the dose and has been studied by means of the Beer–Lambert law and a simple modeling of the film. The new calibration curve has been applied to EBT3 films exposed at 6 and 15 MV energy beams of linear accelerators and read-out in transmission mode by means of a flatbed color scanner. Its performance has been compared to that of two established forms of the calibration curve, which use the optical density and the net optical density against the dose. Four series of measurements with four lots of EBT3 films were used to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and dependence on the time after exposure, orientation on the scanner and lot of films. Results: The new calibration curve is roughly subject to the same dose uncertainty, about 2% (1 standard deviation), and has the same accuracy, about 1.5% (dose values between 50 and 450 cGy), as the other calibration curves when films of the same lot are used. Moreover, the new calibration curve, albeit obtained from only one lot of film, shows a good agreement with experimental data from all other lots of EBT3 films used, with an accuracy of about 2% and a relative dose precision of 2.4% (1 standard deviation). The agreement also holds for changes of the film orientation and of the time after exposure. Conclusions: The dose accuracy of this new form of the calibration curve is always equal to or better than those obtained from the two types of curves previously used. The use of the net optical densities ratio considerably reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the

  18. The value of radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities: experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paelinck, L; Reynaert, N; Thierens, H; Wagter, C de; Neve, W de

    2003-01-01

    In this study we investigate radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities with particular focus on the perturbation of the dose distribution by the film when the film is parallel to the beam axis. We considered a layered polystyrene phantom containing an air cavity as a model for the air-soft tissue geometry that may occur after surgical resection of a paranasal sinus tumour. A radiochromic film type MD-55 was positioned within the phantom so that it intersected the cavity. Two phantom set-ups were examined. In the first case, the air cavity is at the centre of the phantom, thus the film is lying along the central beam axis. In the second case, the cavity and film are located 2 cm offset from the phantom centre and the central beam axis. In order to examine the influence of the film on the dose distribution and to interpret the film-measured results, Monte Carlo simulations were performed. The film was modelled rigorously to incorporate the composition and structure of the film. Two field configurations, a 1 x 10 cm 2 field and a 10 x 10 cm 2 field, were examined. The dose behind the air cavity is reduced by 6 to 7% for both field configurations when a film that intersects the cavity contains the central beam axis. This is due to the attenuation exerted by the film when photons cross the cavity. Offsetting the beam to the cavity and the film by 2 cm removes the dose reduction behind the air cavity completely. Another result was that the rebuild-up behind the cavity for the 10 x 10 cm 2 field, albeit less significant than for the 1 x 10 cm 2 field, could only be measured by the film that was placed offset with respect to the central beam axis. Although radiochromic film is approximately soft-tissue equivalent and energy independent as compared to radiographic films, care should be taken in the case of inhomogeneous phantoms when the film intersects air cavities and contains the beam central axis. Errors in dose measurement can be expected distal to the air cavity

  19. Biological dosimetry intercomparison exercise: an evaluation of Triage and routine mode results by robust methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Barquinero, J.F.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Guerrero Carvajal, Y.C.; Stuck Oliveira, M.S.; Valdivia, P.; García Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; González Mesa, J.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.E.; Martínez López, W.; Lloyd, D.C.; Méndez Acuña, L.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Roy, L.; Lindholm, C.; Romm, H.; Güçlü, I.

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined protocols and quality management standards are indispensable for biological dosimetry laboratories. Participation in periodic proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons is also required. This harmonization is essential if a cooperative network is used to respond to a mass casualty event. Here we present an international intercomparison based on dicentric chromosome analysis for dose assessment performed in the framework of the IAEA Regional Latin American RLA/9/054 Project. The exercise involved 14 laboratories, 8 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The performance of each laboratory and the reproducibility of the exercise were evaluated using robust methods described in ISO standards. The study was based on the analysis of slides from samples irradiated with 0.75 (DI) and 2.5 Gy (DII). Laboratories were required to score the frequency of dicentrics and convert them to estimated doses, using their own dose-effect curves, after the analysis of 50 or 100 cells (triage mode) and after conventional scoring of 500 cells or 100 dicentrics. In the conventional scoring, at both doses, all reported frequencies were considered as satisfactory, and two reported doses were considered as questionable. The analysis of the data dispersion among the dicentric frequencies and among doses indicated a better reproducibility for estimated doses (15.6% for DI and 8.8% for DII) than for frequencies (24.4% for DI and 11.4% for DII), expressed by the coefficient of variation. In the two triage modes, although robust analysis classified some reported frequencies or doses as unsatisfactory or questionable, all estimated doses were in agreement with the accepted error of ±0.5 Gy. However, at the DI dose and for 50 scored cells, 5 out of the 14 reported confidence intervals that included zero dose and could be interpreted as false negatives. This improved with 100 cells, where only one confidence interval included zero dose. At the DII dose, all estimations fell within

  20. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  1. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  2. Chemical dosimetry principles in high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.

    2016-01-01

    In radiation processing, activities of principal concern are process validation and process control. The objective of such formalized procedures is to establish documentary evidence that the irradiation process has achieved the desired results. The key element of such activities is inevitably a well characterized reliable dosimetry system that is traceable to recognized national and international dosimetry standards. Only such dosimetry systems can help establish the required documentary evidence. In addition, industrial radiation processing such as irradiation of foodstuffs and sterilization of health careproducts are both highly regulated, in particular with regard to dose. Besides, dosimetry is necessary for scaling up processes from the research level to the industrial level. Thus, accurate dosimetry is indispensable

  3. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  4. Statistical results 1991-1993 of the Official Personal Dosimetry Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, E.; Drexler, G.; Wittmann, A.

    1995-01-01

    The report consists of a summary of relevant statistical data in the official personal dosimetry in 1988-1990 for the Federal States of Bavaria, Hesse, Schleswig-Holstein, and Baden-Wuerttemberg. The data are based on the survey of more than 8000 institutions with over 140000 occupational exposed persons and are derived from more than one million single measurements. The report covers informations on the institutions, on the persons as well as dosimetric values. The measuring method is described briefly with respect to dosimeters used, their range and the interpretation of values. Information on notional doses and the interpolation of values nearby the detection limits are given. (HP) [de

  5. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  8. High-Level Heat Resistance of Spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis Results from the Presence of a spoVA Operon in a Tn1546 Transposon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Koning, Rosella A.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endospore formers can produce spores that are resistant to many food processing conditions, including heat. Some spores may survive heating processes aimed at production of commercially sterile foods. Recently, it was shown that a spoVA operon, designated spoVA2mob, present on a Tn1546 transposon in Bacillus subtilis, leads to profoundly increased wet heat resistance of B. subtilis spores. Such Tn1546 transposon elements including the spoVA2mob operon were also found in several strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis, and these strains were shown to produce spores with significantly higher resistances to wet heat than their counterparts lacking this transposon. In this study, the locations and compositions of Tn1546 transposons encompassing the spoVA2mob operons in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were analyzed. Introduction of these spoVA2mob operons into B. subtilis 168 (producing spores that are not highly heat resistant) rendered mutant 168 strains that produced high-level heat resistant spores, demonstrating that these elements in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis are responsible for high level heat resistance of spores. Assessment of growth of the nine strains of each species between 5.2°C and 57.7°C showed some differences between strains, especially at lower temperatures, but all strains were able to grow at 57.7°C. Strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis that contain the Tn1546 elements (and produce high-level heat resistant spores) grew at temperatures similar to those of their Tn1546-negative counterparts that produce low-level heat resistant spores. The findings presented in this study allow for detection of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis strains that produce highly heat resistant spores in the food chain. PMID:27994575

  9. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis showed widely differing radiographic techniques. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques poorly suited for paediatric radiology. Significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. This study emphasises the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology. (author)

  10. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.; Goossens, L.; Abbott, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community

  11. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004. Part 2: Results of a previously unpublished CRP: Performance of high level waste forms and packages under repository conditions. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1991-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the CRP (Coordinated Research Projekt) on the 'Performance of High Level Waste Forms and Packages under Repository Conditions' was to contribute to the development and implementation of proper and sound technologies for HLW and spent fuel management. Special emphasis was given to the identification of various waste form properties and the study of their long term durability in simulated repository conditions. Another objective was to promote the co-operation and exchange of information between Member States on experimental concerning behaviour of the waste form. The CRP was composed of research contracts and agreements with Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan, Russia, and the United States of America. The publication includes 14 individual contributions of the participants to the CRP, which are indexed separately.

  12. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  13. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  14. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  15. Mineralogy and clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Broxton, D.E.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. An important aspect of this evaluation is to understand the geologic history of the site including the diagenetic processes that are largely responsible for the present-day chemical and physical properties of the altered tuffs. This study evaluates the use of K/Ar geochronology in determining the alteration history of the zeolitized portions of Miocene tuffs at Yucca Mountain. Clinoptilolite is not generally regarded as suitable for dating because of its open structure and large ion-exchange capacity. However, it is the most abundant zeolite at Yucca Mountain and was selected for this study to assess the feasibility of dating the zeolitization process and/or subsequent processes that may have affected the zeolites. In this study we examine the ability of this mineral to retain all or part of its K and radiogenic Ar during diagenesis and evaluate the usefulness of the clinoptilolite K/Ar dates for determining the history of alteration

  16. The Importance of Dosimetry to the Medical Management of Persons Accidentally Exposed to High Levels of Radiation; Le Role de la Dosimetrie Dans les Soins Medicaux a Donner aux Personnes Accidentellement Exposees a de Fortes Doses de Rayonnement; 0417 041d 0410 0427 0414 ; Importancia de la Dosimetria para el Tratamiento Medico de las Personas Accidentalmente Expuestas a Dosis Elevadas de Radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G. A.; Lushbaugh, C. C. [Medical Division, Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (United States); Auxier, J. A. [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-06-15

    Radiation accidents continue to occur sporadically and it appears that there is no hope of eliminating them entirely. The management of patients exposed to large doses of radiation is constantly improving because of increasing ability to prevent and treat infection and to control haemorrhage. The possible effectiveness of temporary bone marrow grafts offers promise of a further reduction in mortality. The use of this growing biological information is closely related to, and to a large extent dependent upon, improvements in physical dosimetry for radiation accidents. (author) [French] Des accidents provoques par les rayonnements continuent a se produire de temps a autre et il ne semble guere que l'on puisse esperer les eliminer entierement. Toutefois, le traitement des sujets exposes a de fortes doses de rayonnement ne cesse de s'ameliorer; on parvient, en effet, dans une mesure croissante a empecher et a traiter l*infection ainsi qu'a arreter l'hemorragie. Comme la greffe temporaire de la moelle des os semble devoir donner des resultats, on peut s*attendre a une nouvelle reduction du taux de mortalite. L'application de ces connaissances biologiques sans cesse accrues est fonction, dans une large mesure, des ameliorations apportees a la dosimetrie physique des accidents nucleaires. (author) [Spanish] De vez en cuando se siguen produciendo accidentes de irradiacion y las perspectivas de evitarlos por completo parecen ser bastante remotas. El tratamiento de las victimas expuestas a dosis elevadas de radiaciones mejora constantemente debido a la creciente posibilidad de prevenir y tratar las infecciones, y de controlar las hemorragias. Tambien es posible que la eficacia de ios injertos temporales de medula osea se traduzca en una disminucion de la mortalidad. El aprovechamiento de estos conocimientos biologicos cada vez mas amplios guarda una estrecha relacion con los perfeccionamientos en materia de dosimetria fisica en caso de accidentes de irradiacion. (author

  17. Implementation of the International Code of Practice on Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology (TRS 457): Review of Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the IAEA published Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 457). This publication recommends procedures for calibration and dosimetric measurement for the attainment of standardized dosimetry. It also addresses requirements both in standards dosimetry laboratories, especially Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), and in clinical centres for radiology, as found in most hospitals. The implementation of TRS No. 457 decreases the uncertainty in the dosimetry of diagnostic radiology beams and provides Member States with a unified and consistent framework for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, which previously did not exist. A coordinated research project (CRP E2.10.06) was established in order to provide practical guidance to professionals at SSDLs and to clinical medical physicists on the implementation of TRS No. 457. This includes the calibration of radiological dosimetry instrumentation, the dissemination of calibration coefficients to clinical centres and the establishment of dosimetric measurement processes in clinical settings. The main goals of the CRP were to: Test the procedures recommended in TRS No. 457 for calibration of radiation detectors in different types of diagnostic beams and measuring instruments for varying diagnostic X ray modalities; Test the clinical dosimetry procedures, including the use of phantoms and patient dose surveys; Report on the practical implementation of TRS No. 457 at both SSDLs and hospital sites. Testing of TRS No. 457 was performed by a group of medical physicists from hospitals and SSDLs from various institutions worldwide

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Results of the Argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2014. Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of four internal dosimetry services from the nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE) and the CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE). This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  20. Travel and the emergence of high-level drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in southwest Uganda: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Caroline A; Pearce, Richard; Pota, Hirva; Egwang, Connie; Egwang, Thomas; Bhasin, Amit; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn A; Roper, Cally

    2017-04-17

    The I164L mutation on the dhfr gene confers high level resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) but it is rare in Africa except in a cluster of reports where prevalence >10% in highland areas of southwest Uganda and eastern Rwanda. The occurrence of the dhfr I164L mutation was investigated in community surveys in this area and examined the relationship to migration. A cross-sectional prevalence survey was undertaken in among villages within the catchment areas of two health facilities in a highland site (Kabale) and a highland fringe site (Rukungiri) in 2007. Sociodemographic details, including recent migration, were collected for each person included in the study. A total of 206 Plasmodium falciparum positive subjects were detected by rapid diagnostic test; 203 in Rukungiri and 3 in Kabale. Bloodspot samples were taken and were screened for dhfr I164L. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of the I164L mutations in twelve P. falciparum positive samples giving an estimated prevalence of 8.6% in Rukungiri. Of the three parasite positive samples in Kabale, none had I164L mutations. Among the twelve I164L positives three were male, ages ranged from 5 to 90 years of age. None of those with the I164L mutation had travelled in the 8 weeks prior to the survey, although three were from households from which at least one household member had travelled during that period. Haplotypes were determined in non-mixed infections and showed the dhfr I164L mutation occurs in both as a N51I + S108N + I164L haplotype (n = 2) and N51I + C59R + S108N + I164L haplotype (n = 5). Genotyping of flanking microsatellite markers showed that the I164L occurred independently on the triple mutant (N51I, C59R + S108N) and double mutant (N51I + S108N) background. There is sustained local transmission of parasites with the dhfr I164L mutation in Rukungiri and no evidence to indicate its occurrence is associated with recent travel to highly resistant neighbouring areas. The

  1. Report of results of the tests of evaluation of the operation of service of personal dosimetry of the CNLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M.

    2005-11-01

    The ININ realized the evaluation of the service of personal dosimetry in the CNLV, in the categories: IV.- (Photons of high energy of 137 Cs) and the VA.- (Particles beta of 90 Sr/ 90 Y); in the category IV the test was satisfactory, however in the chart 1 has an underestimation a the American Standard HP over the value true conventional of a 9%; for this irregularity it is recommended to revise the procedures of evaluation of the process and the determination of the chart 1 of the HP. In the category VA, the test is also satisfactory, however the results contrasted with the chart 2 and the HP, the values were overestimated in 29% of the true conventional value, and for that problem is recommended to revise the evaluation procedures in contrast with the values determined by the standard HP. (Author)

  2. French experience in the field of internal dosimetry assessment at a nuclear workplace. Methods and results on industrial uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Rannou, A.; Pihet, P.; Dewez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of the new ICRP recommendations and the diversity of industrial exposure materials make it necessary to modify our approach of assessing internal dosimetry. This paper describes a methodology developed to asses different parameters such as activity concentration and particle size distribution at the workplace; physico-chemical characteristics of industrial dust handled; and in vitro and in vivo solubility in order to determine the absorption rate blood. The determination of such specific parameters will lead to dose calculation in terms of committed effective Dose Per Unit of Intake (DPUI). Results obtained for an industrial uranium dioxide, UO 2 , at a French nuclear facility are presented. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. TU-D-201-03: Results of a Survey On the Implementation of the TG-51 Protocol and Associated Addendum On Reference Dosimetry of External Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Muir, B [National Research Council, Ottawa, AB (Canada); Culberson, W [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Davis, S [McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Huang, Y [Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, MI (United States); Lee, S [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Columbia, MD (United States); Lowenstein, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sarfehnia, A [Sunnybrook Health Science Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tolani, N [Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Sugarland (United States); Siebers, J [University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The working group on the review and extension of the TG-51 protocol (WGTG51) collected data from American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) members with respect to their current TG-51 and associated addendum usage in the interest of considering future protocol addenda and guidance on reference dosimetry best practices. This study reports an overview of this survey on dosimetry of external beams. Methods: Fourteen survey questions were developed by WGTG51 and released in November 2015. The questions collected information on reference dosimetry, beam quality specification, and ancillary calibration equipment. Results: Of the 190 submissions completed worldwide (U.S. 70%), 83% were AAPM members. Of the respondents, 33.5% implemented the TG-51 addendum, with the maximum calibration difference for any photon beam, with respect to the original TG-51 protocol, being <1% for 97.4% of responses. One major finding is that 81.8% of respondents used the same cylindrical ionization chamber for photon and electron dosimetry, implying that many clinics are foregoing the use of parallel-plate chambers. Other evidence suggests equivalent dosimetric results can be obtained with both cylindrical and parallel-plate chambers in electron beams. This, combined with users comfort with cylindrical chambers for electrons will likely impact recommendations put forward in an upcoming electron beam addendum to the TG-51 protocol. Data collected on ancillary equipment showed 58.2% (45.0%) of the thermometers (barometers) in use for beam calibration had NIST traceable calibration certificates, but 48.4% (42.7%) were never recalibrated. Conclusion: This survey provides a snapshot of TG-51 external beam reference dosimetry practice in radiotherapy centers. Findings demonstrate the rapid take-up of the TG-51 photon beam addendum and raise issues for the WGTG51 to focus on going forward, including guidelines on ancillary equipment and the choice of chamber for electron beam

  4. Qualification and characterization programmes for disposal of a glass product resulting from high level waste vitrification in the PAMELA installation of BELGOPROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeyse, A. de; De, A.K.; Demonie, M.; Iseghem, P. van

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of a general quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programme, the quality of a conditioned waste product is achieved in two phases. The first phase is the design of a process and facility which will ensure the required quality of the product. In the second phase the conformance of the product with the preset requirements is verified. NIRAS/ONDRAF, as the agency responsible for the management of all radioactive waste in Belgium (including treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal), controls compliance with the quality requirements during both phases. The purpose of the paper is to describe the different phases of this general procedure in the case of a vitrified HLW product resulting from a vitrification campaign in the PAMELA facility at the BELGOPROCESS site. The active glass product of type SM527 produced during the vitrification of highly enriched waste concentrate (HEWC) (resulting from the reprocessing of highly enriched uranium fuel) has been selected for illustration. During the process qualification phase, the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Wiederaufarbeitung von Kernbrennstoffen mbH, responsible for the development of the vitrification process of PAMELA, defined and performed and R and D programmed for each glass product originating from the vitrification of the different HEWC solutions stored at the BELGOPROCESS site. At the end of this qualification phase a data catalogue was prepared. In order to ensure that the active glass product corresponds with the selected product from the data catalogue, the QA/QC handbook for the vitrification process describes all measures to be taken by the waste producer, BELGOPROCESS, during the vitrification. Finally, verification analyses are performed by the characterization of inactive and active samples by an independent laboratory. This phase is called the product quality verification phase. The details of the characterization programmes performed during the different phases and their results

  5. Preliminary assessment of clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Bish, D.L.; Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    At Yucca Mountain, evidence for at least three distinct temporal groups of clinoptilolites can be delineated from the preliminary K/Ar dates (2--3 Ma; 4--5 Ma; 7--11 Ma). The older K/Ar dates that are similar to published illite/smectite ages (9--12 Ma) may be crystallization ages, whereas the younger dates probably represent continued diagenetic reactions of older clinoptilolites with percolating fluids. The K/Ar dates increase with depth, suggesting minimal argon loss in the deeper samples. Internal consistency of the clinoptilolite K/Ar results at different levels within the drill holes suggest that dating of K-rich zeolites may provide useful information for assessing the zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. Variations in the K/Ar dates are probably related to Ar loss during dissolution of older clinoptilolites and to contamination by finely crystalline feldspars

  6. Pilot-Scale Test Results Of A Thin Film Evaporator System For Management Of Liquid High-Level Wastes At The Hanford Site Washington USA -11364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.; Tedesch, A.R.; Wilson, R.A.; Beck, T.H.; Larkin, J.

    2011-01-01

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  7. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of endostatin in vivo results in high level of transgene expression and inhibition of tumor growth and metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Bernhard V.; Martinet, Olivier; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Mandeli, John; Woo, Savio L. C.

    2000-04-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to be an effective strategy in cancer therapy in mice. However, its widespread application has been hampered by difficulties in the large-scale production of the antiangiogenic proteins. This limitation may be resolved by in vivo delivery and expression of the antiangiogenic genes. We have constructed a recombinant adenovirus that expresses murine endostatin that is biologically active both in vitro, as determined in endothelial cell proliferation assays, and in vivo, by suppression of angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor 165. Persistent high serum levels of endostatin (605-1740 ng/ml; mean, 936 ng/ml) were achieved after systemic administration of the vector to nude mice, which resulted in significant reduction of the growth rates and the volumes of JC breast carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the endostatin vector treatment completely prevented the formation of pulmonary micrometastases in Lewis lung carcinoma (P = 0.0001). Immunohistochemical staining of the tumors demonstrated a decreased number of blood vessels in the treatment group versus the controls. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the potential of vector-mediated antiangiogenic gene therapy as a component in cancer therapy.

  8. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  9. Ecological risk assessment of deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.; Lush, D.L.; Acton, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Contaminant fate and transport models, radiological dosimetry models, chemical dose-response models and population dynamic models were used to estimate ecological risks to moose and brook trout populations arising from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Risks from potential contaminant releases were compared with risks from physical habitat alteration in constructing a repository and service community, and with risks from increased hunting and fish pressure in the area. For a reference environment typical of a proposed location somewhere in the Canadian Shield, preliminary results suggest that the population consequences of contaminant release will be minor relative to those of habitat alteration and natural resource use

  10. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  11. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  12. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  13. Clinical results of entrance dose in vivo dosimetry for high energy photons in external beam radiotherapy using MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J. P.; Bhat, M.; Williams, T.; Kovendy, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Thomson and Nielsen T N -502 R D MOSFETs were used for entrance dose in vivo dosimetry for 6 and 10 MV photons. A total of 24 patients were tested, 10 breast. 8 prostate, 5 lung and 1 head and neck. For prostates three fields were checked. For all other plans all fields were checked. An action threshold of 8% was set for any one field and 5% for all fields combined. The total number of fields tested was 56, with a mean discrepancy of 1.4% and S.D. of 2.6%. Breasts had a mean discrepancy of 1.8% and S.D. of 2.8%. Prostates had a mean discrepancy of 1.3% and S.D. of 2.9%. For 3 fields combined, prostates had a mean of 1.3% and S.D. of 1.8%. These results are similar to results obtained with diodes and TLDs for the same techniques.

  14. JENDL Dosimetry File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Iwasaki, Shin; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Nakagawa, Tsuneo.

    1992-03-01

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d, n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form. (author) 76 refs

  15. JENDL Dosimetry File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kobayashi, Katsuhei [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Iwasaki, Shin [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujior; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1992-03-15

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d,n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form.

  16. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  17. Space dosimetry measurement results using the Pille instrument during the EUROMIR/NASAMIR space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejja, I.; Apathy, J.; Deme, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Pille dosimeter developed in Hungary for space applications is described briefly, and its two versions are presented for the two space flights. The results of the EUROMIR mission in 1995-1996 are discussed for positional dosimetric applications. The characteristic dose rates at various space stations in the Salyut range are displayed. The NASAMIR4 mission between January 1997 and September 1998 are also discussed from the dosimetric point of view. The results of the measurements are presented and a preliminary analysis is reported. (R.P.)

  18. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  19. Results of an innovative methodology to the dosimetry in mammography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feital, J.C.S.; Delgado, J.U.; Peixoto, J.G.P.; Lopes, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    Female breast is a radiosensitive organ and the main procedure to assess the carcinogenic risk associated the mammographic practices has been indicated by the mean glandular dose (MGD) measurements. However, this dosimetric quantity may not provide the accuracy required for such measurements due to the heterogeneity of glandular tissue. So twenty-one exposures happened in a phantom mammographic using a CR equipment. Results were compared with data from the literature and was found an accuracy rate 15% lower than the recommended level. Experimental values reached below the IAEA's acceptable levels for 3.0 to 6.0 cm thickness of the compressed breast. (author)

  20. Results of a dummy run of postimplant dosimetry between multi-institutional centers in prostate brachytherapy with 125I seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Manabu; Yorozu, Atsunori; Dokiya, Takushi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility and precision of postimplant dosimetry following 125 I prostate brachytherapy (PB) and to evaluate the effects of learning and experience in CT-based postimplant dosimetry. One-month postimplant CT data from two patients who underwent PB alone or combined therapy (PB+external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)) were sent to 28 institutions for postimplant dosimetry and analyzed in 2006 (study 1). Similarly, 1-month postimplant CT data from two other patients were also analyzed in 2008 (study 2; 23 institutions). For both modalities in studies 1 and 2, the variance of the difference between CT-based D90 at each institution and CT/MRI fusion-based D90 was estimated. In monotherapy, F test and Mann-Whitney U test revealed no significant difference in the variance in studies 1 and 2 (P=0.72, 0.46). In combined therapy, the variance significantly converged in study 2 compared with study 1 (P<0.05). Even in the two studies, however, the difference between the median CT-based D90 and fusion-based D90 was at least 20-30 Gy. Marked interobserver variability was seen in the prostate volume and D90 with CT alone. The precision of postimplant dosimetry based on CT alone was revealed to be limited. (author)

  1. Dosimetry methods and results for the former residents of Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    The US Government utilized Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands of Micronesia for atomspheric tests of nuclear explosives in the 1940's and 1950's. The original inhabitants of these atolls were relocated prior to the tests. During the early 1970's, a small but growing population of Marshallese people reinhabited Bikini. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in 1974 to ensure that doses and dose commitments received by Bikini residents remained within US Federal Radiation Council guidelines. Dramatic increases in 137 Cs body burdens among the inhabitants between April 1977 and 1978 may have played a significant role in the government decision to move the 140 Bikinians in residence off of the atoll in August 1978. The average 137 Cs body burden for the population was 2.3 μCi in April 1978. Several individuals, however, exceeded the maximum permissible body burden of 3 μCi, and some approached 6 μCi. The resultant total dose commitment was less than 200 mrem for the average resident. The average total dose for the mean residence interval of approx. 4.5 years was about 1 rem. The sources of exposure, the probable cause of the unexpected increase in 137 Cs body burdens, and the methods for calculating radionuclide intake and resultant doses are discussed. Suggestions are offered as to the implications of the most significant exposure pathways for the future inhabitation of Bikini and Enewetak

  2. Investigation of personnel beta and gamma dosimetry results at Amok Ltd, Cluff Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utting, R.E.; Brown, L.D.; Bradley, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Apparent skin doses significantly higher than expected have been indicated by some thermoluminescent dosimeters worn by employees at Amok Ltd., Cluff Lake. Calculations have indicated that skin doses as a result of exposure to uranium ore are likely to be no more than twice the whole body doses. Experiments were conducted to expose TL dosimeters to a variety of radioactive materials commonly found in the mill environment under different conditions. The results of these experiments togethr with a re-examination of the original dosimeters leads to the conclusion that contamination either on or inside the dosimeter badge was the cause of the abnormal apparent skin doses. It is therefore recommended that for individuals with apparent skin doses in excess of twice the body dose, the actual skin dose should be considered to be equal to twice the body dose for purposes of determining compliance with the AEC Regulations. It is further recommended that the National Dose Registry records of anomalous skin doses to Amok employees be amended to reflect this. (author)

  3. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  4. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-01

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  5. Thermoluminescent dosemeters characterization for patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology preliminary results;Caracterizacao de dosimetros termoluminescentes para dosimetria de pacientes em radiodiagnostico - resultados iniciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, William J.; Squair, Peterson L. [Faculdade Novo Rumo, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gonzaga, Natalia B. [Universidade Unincor, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Maria S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of the metrological characteristics of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters plays an important role in dosimetry of patients submitted to x-ray examinations for diagnostic purpose. Entrance surface doses can be measured with TL dosimeters to verify the compliance with the diagnostic reference levels. Organ doses can be estimated through TL measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom which it allows the radiation risk assessment. In this work, LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) rod and chip thermoluminescent dosimeters were characterized considering their use for patient dosimetry in computerized tomography and mammography. Preliminary results showed that TL dosimeters have a response reproducibility of 7.8% and 4.8% and homogeneity of 18.4% and 6.5% for rod and chip shapes, respectively. (author)

  6. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  7. Results of the Service of External Dosimetry of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba during the biennium 2010 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Perez, Daniel; Verdecia Sanchez, Maribel; Castro Soler, Ailza; Farrada Neyra, Yamilia

    2013-01-01

    The Service of Personal Dosimetry of the External Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones - CPHR of Cuba works with an automatic RADOS TLD system and includes the surveillance of the doses of whole body and extremities for photon radiation. The work presents the results of the service in the period 2010-2011, showing data related to the number and distribution of workers monitored for areas. The levels of occupational exposure area analyzed using various indicators such as: annual average dose for areas, number of workers who receive annual doses greater than zero, distribution of workers by dose intervals, and others. These indicators are compared with previous periods and with the values published by the UNSCEAR. In general, the average annual dose for all areas was less than 1 mSv for whole body and 3 mSv for hands. The number of exposed workers experienced significant variation from one year to another, considerably decreasing from 60% to 12% of the total. The work presents an analysis of this behavior and highlights that the country guarantees the personal dosimetry to 100% of exposed workers and that the results of the occupational exposure are within the established requirements

  8. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  9. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  10. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results; Dosimetria in vivo mediante detectores de TLD en implantes de prostata con semillas de I-125: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-07-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  11. Clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1973-01-01

    The main point of this paper on clinical dosimetry which is to be understood here as application of physical dosimetry on accelerators in medical practice, is based on dosimetric methodics. Following an explanation of the dose parameters and description of the dose distribution important for clinical practice as well as geometric irradiation parameters, the significance of a series of physical parameters such as accelerator energy, surface energy of average stopping power etc. is dealt with in detail. Following a section on field homogenization with bremsstrahlung and electron radiation, details on dosimetry in clinical practice are given. Finally, a few problems of dosemeter or monitor calibration on accelerators are described. The explanations are supplemented by a series of diagrams and tables. (ORU/LH) [de

  12. Statistical results 1988-1990 of the Official Personal Dosimetry Service and data compilation 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, E.; Drexler, G.; Scheibe, D.; Schraube, H.

    1994-01-01

    The report consists of a summary of relevant statistical data in the official personal dosimetry in 1988-1990 for the Federal States of Bavaria, Hesse, Schleswig-Holstein, and since 1989, Baden-Wuerttemberg. The data are based on the survey of more than 8000 institutions with over 100000 occupational exposed persons and are derived from more than one million single measurements. The report covers informations on the institutions, on the persons as well as dosimetric values. The measuring method is described briefly with respect to dosimeters used, their range and the interpretation of values. Information on notional doses and the interpolation of values nearby the detection limits are given. (HP) [de

  13. Environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    For more than 60 years, natural radiation has offered broad opportunities for basic research as evidenced by many fundamental discoveries. Within the last decade, however, dramatic changes have occurred in the motivation and direction of this research. The urgent need for economical energy sources entailing acceptably low levels of environmental impact has compelled the applied aspects of our radiation environment to become overriding considerations. It is within this general framework that state-of-the-art environmental dosimetry techniques are reviewed. Although applied motivation and relevance underscores the current milieu for both reactor and environmental dosimetry, a perhaps even more unifying force is the broad similarity of reactor and environmental radiation fields. In this review, a comparison of these two mixed radiation fields is presented stressing the underlying similarities that exist. On this basis, the evolution of a strong inner bond between dosimetry methods for both reactor and environmental radiation fields is described. The existence of this bond will be illustrated using representative examples of observed spectra. Dosimetry methods of particularly high applicability for both of these fields are described. Special emphasis is placed on techniques of high sensitivity and absolute accuracy which are capable of resolving the components of these mixed radiation fields

  14. Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzanowski, Maciej; Kopeć, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Paweł

    2011-03-01

    Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 μGy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 μSv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ∼ 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors.

  15. Removing high-level contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Using biomimicry, an Australian cleantech innovation making inroads intoChinas's industrial sector offers multiple benefits to miners and processors in Australia. Stephen Shelley, the executive chairman of Creative Water Technology (CWT), was on hand at a recent trade show to explain how his Melbourne company has developed world-class techniques in zero liquid discharge and fractional crystallization of minerals to apply to a wide range of water treatment and recycling applications. “Most existing technologies operate with high energy distillation, filters or biological processing. CWT's appliance uses a low temperature, thermal distillation process known as adiabatic recovery to desalinate, dewater and/or recycle highly saline and highly contaminated waste water,” said Shelley. The technology has been specifically designed to handle the high levels of contaminant that alternative technologies struggle to process, with proven water quality results for feed water samples with TDS levels over 300,000ppm converted to clean water with less than 20ppm. Comparatively, reverse osmosis struggles to process contaminant levels over 70,000ppm effectively. “CWT is able to reclaim up to 97% clean usable water and up to 100% of the contaminants contained in the feed water,” said Shelley, adding that soluble and insoluble contaminants are separately extracted and dried for sale or re-use. In industrial applications CWT has successfully processed feed water with contaminant levels over 650,000 mg/1- without the use of chemicals. “The technology would be suitable for companies in oil exploration and production, mining, smelting, biofuels, textiles and the agricultural and food production sectors,” said Shelley. When compared to a conventional desalination plant, the CWT system is able to capture the value in the brine that most plants discard, not only from the salt but the additional water it contains. “If you recover those two commodities... then you

  16. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  17. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  18. Hematological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluery-Herard, A.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues [fr

  19. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO 4 NH 4 Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  20. Dosimetry and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.

    1977-01-01

    Today, reactor dosimetry and shielding have wide areas of overlap as concerns both problems and methods. Increased interchange of results and know-how would benefit both. The areas of common interest include calculational methods, sensitivity studies, theoretical and experimental benchmarks, cross sections and other nuclear data, multigroup libraries and procedures for their adjustment, experimental techniques and damage functions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the latest development in each of these areas as far as shielding is concerned, and suggests a number of interactions that could be profitable for reactor dosimetry. Among them, re-evaluation of the potentialities of calculational methods (in view of the recent developments) in predicting radiation environments of interest; the application of sensitivity analysis to dosimetry problems; a common effort in the field of theoretical benchmarks; the use of the shielding one-material propagation experiments as reference spectra for detector cross sections; common standardization of the detector nuclear data used in both fields; the setting up of a common (or compatible) multigroup structure and library applicable to shielding, dosimetry and core physics; the exchange of information and experience in the fields of cross section errors, correlations and adjustment; and the intercomparison of experimental techniques

  1. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  2. Results of the regional intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2013: Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, the 1. Regional Intercomparison Exercise was organized in 2005 in the frame of the RLA 9/049. The results of this exercise led to the 2. Regional Intercomparison Exercise in 2013, which was organized in the frame of the RLA 9/066 and coordinated by Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and Tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of 19 centres from 13 countries. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this 2nd. exercise, useful to test their skills and acquired knowledge, particularly in applying the IDEAS guidelines. It is important to highlight the improvement in the general performance of the participants. (authors) [es

  3. Results of the ninth exercise of intercomparison in services of personal dosimetry in Argentina Republic in the year of 2011; Resultados del noveno ejercicio de intercomparacion de servicios de dosimetria personal realizado en la Republica Argentina en el ano 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrufino, G.A.; Discacciatti, P.A.; Lopez, F.O., E-mail: gferrufino@am.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aies (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ninth intercomparison exercise personal dosimetry services, conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in 2011. The exercise was designed to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing personal dosimetry services in Argentina , for X-rays and gamma radiation fields . This exercise was organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority with the Ministry of Health of the Nation and the Regional Reference Laboratory Centre for Dosimetry of the National Atomic Energy Commission . The irradiations were carried out in full accordance with ISO 4037-3 . Participates all private companies in Argentina serving all personal dosimetry laboratories and agencies, provincial and national. Furthermore, the Laboratories from Cuba, Brazil and Uruguay also participate. The performance of a laboratory is considered acceptable if it meets the criteria established in the IRAM- ISO 14146 , which states: 'It is recognized that at most, one-tenth of dosimeters irradiated to exceed the limits'. Of all of the laboratories that participated , 68% reported their results within the acceptance criteria above. The primary objective of this intercomparison exercise is to provide an objective tool to evaluate the ability of personnel dosimetry services. (author)

  4. Results of tooth enamel EPR dosimetry for population living in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan)], E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ivannikov, A. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, 249036 (Russian Federation); Apsalikov, K. [Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Zharlyganova, D. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Stepanenko, V.; Skvortsov, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, 249036 (Russian Federation); Berekenova, G. [Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, S. [Department of Applied Physics Faculty of Science Okayama University of Science, 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, S.; Tanaka, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Miyazawa, C. [School of Dentistry, Ohu University, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima Pref. 963-8611 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry was used on human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of settlements in the vicinity of the Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Semipalatinsk region, Kazakhstan. Measured teeth were extracted according to medical indications. In total, 105 tooth enamel samples were analyzed, including eight tooth samples from control settlement Kokpekty, which is located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS and was not subjected to any radioactive contamination. It was found that the excess doses obtained after subtraction of the contribution of natural background radiation ranged up to about 440 mGy for residents of Dolon, whose tooth enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 100 mGy for younger residents. For residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy for all ages except in one resident, for whom an extremely high dose of 1250 mGy was registered. For Bodene settlement, excess doses higher than 100 mGy were obtained for two samples from the residents having enamel formed before 1949. An extremely high dose (2800{+-}400 mGy) was obtained for one resident of Semipalatinsk City. The average excess dose for Semipalatinsk samples with enamel formation before 1949 was determined close to the average excess dose for tooth enamel samples from Dolon village.

  5. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  6. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  7. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  8. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorten Tim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD. Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+, to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results, makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are

  9. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+), to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results), makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are limitations with IHP

  10. Neutron Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding

  11. Neutron Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhavere, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding.

  12. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  13. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. E-mail: esposito@frascati.enea.it; Bertalot, L.; Maruccia, G.; Petrizzi, L.; Bignan, G.; Blandin, C.; Chauffriat, S.; Lebrun, A.; Recroix, H.; Trapp, J.P.; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-11-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties. The analysis has been carried out using the LSL-M2 code, which optimizes the neutron spectrum by means of a least-squares technique taking into account the variance and covariance files. In the second part of the activity, the possibility of extending to IFMIF the use of existing on-line in-core neutron/gamma monitors (to be located at several positions inside the IFMIF test cell for beam control, safety and diagnostic purposes) has been studied. A feasibility analysis of the modifications required to adapt sub-miniature fission chambers (recently developed by CEA-Cadarache) to the high flux test module of the test cell has been carried out. The verification of this application pertinence and a gross definition of the in-core detector characteristics are described. The option of using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) is also discussed.

  14. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  15. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Di Giorgio, M.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Sapienza, C.E.; Deminge, M.M.; Fernandez Rearte, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Cortina Ramirez, G.E.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. (authors)

  16. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O; Di Giorgio, M; Radl, A; Taja, M R; Sapienza, C E; Deminge, M M; Fernández Rearte, J; Stuck Oliveira, M; Valdivia, P; Lamadrid, A I; González, J E; Romero, I; Mandina, T; Guerrero-Carbajal, C; ArceoMaldonado, C; Cortina Ramírez, G E; Espinoza, M; Martínez-López, W; Di Tomasso, M

    2016-09-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology - ICRU and IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Pernicka, F.

    2002-01-01

    , the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK), the entrance air kerma, the air kerma, the entrance surface dose (ESD), the entrance skin dose (ESD) and the integral skin dose. Different names are used for the same quantity, e.g. entrance surface air kerma, air kerma and entrance air kerma. The same abbreviation ESD is used for both entrance surface dose (absorbed dose most likely expressed in air) and entrance skin dose (absorbed dose most likely expressed in skin tissue). Similar problems exist for dosimetry in mammography and CT. The present situation in dosimetry for medical x-ray imaging clearly indicates the need for dose quantities recommended for the different applications and the need for a harmonised system for names, symbols and units. This has been recognised by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) and resulted in the establishment of an ICRU Report Committee on patient dosimetry in medical imaging. The report proposes a harmonised system of quantities and units for patient dosimetry in medical imaging using x-rays. New symbols are proposed for various quantities. General information is provided on measurement methods, including various aspects of calibration of dosemeters, and methods of determining organ and tissue doses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is developing an international code of practice for dosimetry in x-ray diagnostic radiology. The main objective of the code of practice is to help to achieve and maintain a high level of quality in dosimetry, to improve the implementation of traceable standards at the national level and to ensure control of radiation dose in x-ray medical imaging worldwide. Compared to the ICRU, the IAEA activities put more emphasis on the practical aspects of establishment of proper calibration facilities, e.g. at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories, and provide more detailed recommendations for clinical dosimetry. Co-ordination between ICRU and IAEA activities is

  18. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  19. A multicentre ‘end to end’ dosimetry audit for cervix HDR brachytherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Antony L.; Diez, Patricia; Gandon, Laura; Wynn-Jones, Andrea; Bownes, Peter; Lee, Chris; Aird, Edwin; Bidmead, Margaret; Lowe, Gerry; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake the first multicentre fully ‘end to end’ dosimetry audit for HDR cervix brachytherapy, comparing planned and delivered dose distributions around clinical treatment applicators, with review of local procedures. Materials and methods: A film-dosimetry audit was performed at 46 centres, including imaging, applicator reconstruction, treatment planning and delivery. Film dose maps were calculated using triple-channel dosimetry and compared to RTDose data from treatment planning systems. Deviations between plan and measurement were quantified at prescription Point A and using gamma analysis. Local procedures were also discussed. Results: The mean difference between planned and measured dose at Point A was −0.6% for plastic applicators and −3.0% for metal applicators, at standard uncertainty 3.0% (k = 1). Isodose distributions agreed within 1 mm over a dose range 2–16 Gy. Mean gamma passing rates exceeded 97% for plastic and metal applicators at 3% (local) 2 mm criteria. Two errors were found: one dose normalisation error and one applicator library misaligned with the imaged applicator. Suggestions for quality improvement were also made. Conclusions: The concept of ‘end to end’ dosimetry audit for HDR brachytherapy has been successfully implemented in a multicentre environment, providing evidence that a high level of accuracy in brachytherapy dosimetry can be achieved

  20. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  1. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  2. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.W.; Thomas, B.; Conway, J.

    1977-01-01

    A dosemeter is described that is based on the TSCD principle (thermally stimulated current dosimetry). Basically this involves irradiating a responsive material and then heating it,whereby an electric current is produced. If the material is heated in an electric field the peak value of the thermally stimulated current or alternatively the total charge released by heating, can be related to the radiation dose received. The instrument described utilises a sheet coated with a thermoplastic polymer, such as a poly4-methylpent-l-ene. The polymer should have a softening point not lower than 150 0 C with an electrical resistivity of at least 10 16 chms/cm at 150 0 C. The polymer may also be PTFE. Heating should be in the range 150 0 C to 200 0 C and the electric field in the range 50 to 10,000V/mm. (U.K.)

  3. Organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Otis, Mark D.; Kuhn, Thomas; Kerr, George D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Cristy, Mark; Ryman, Jeffrey C.; Tang, Jabo S.; Maruyama, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the technical approach, complicating factors, and sensitivities and uncertainties of calculations of doses to the organs of the A-bomb survivors. It is the object of the effort so described to provide data that enables the dosimetry system to determine the fluence, kerma, absorbed dose, and similar quantities in 14 organs and the fetus, specified as being of radiobiological interest. This object was accomplished through the use of adjoint Monte Carlo computations, which use a number of random particle histories to determine the relationship of incident neutrons and gamma rays to those transported to a target organ. The system uses these histories to correlate externally-incident energy- and angle-differential fluences with the fluence spectrum (energy differential only) within the target organ. In order for the system to work in the most efficient manner possible, two levels of data were provided. The first level, represented by approximately 6,000 random adjoint-particle histories, enables the computation of the fluence spectrum with sufficient precision to provide statistically reliable (± 6 %) mean doses within any given organ. With this limited history inventory, the system can be run rapidly for all survivors. Mean organ dose and dose uncertainty are obtainable in this mode. The second mode of operation enables the system to produce a good approximation to fluence spectrum within any organ or to produce the dose in each of an array of organ subvolumes. To be statistically reliable, this level of detail requires far more random histories, approximately 40,000 per organ. Thus, operation of the dosimetry system in this mode (i.e., with this data set) is intended to be on an as-needed, organ-specific basis, since the system run time is eight times that in the mean dose mode. (author)

  4. Dosimetry in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.

  5. Mixed field dosimetry with paired ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, M.; Porro, F.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of neutron and gamma mixed-field dosimetry obtained by the Ispra Group in the framework of the European Neutron Dosimetry intercomparison Project (ENDIP). The experimental method and the formulation employed for the derivation of Kerma results are also present

  6. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  7. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  8. Dosimetry in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  9. Dosimetry in life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-06-15

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  10. Experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    During the past year a dosimetry research program has been established in the School of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The major objective of this program has been to provide research results upon which a useful internal dosimetry system could be based. The important application of this dosimetry system will be the experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations such as those published by the MIRD Committee

  11. Development and implementation of own software for dosimetry multichannel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Feltstrom, D.; Reyes Garcia, R.; Luis Simon, F. J.; Carrasco Herrera, M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop its own software for multichannel film dosimetry Radiochromic EBT2. Compare the results obtained with its use in multichannel and single-channel dosimetry. Check that the multi-channel dosimetry eliminates much of the artifacts caused by dirt, fingerprints, scratches, etc. Radiochromic in film and scanner devices. (Author)

  12. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the Dosimetry and Calibration Section was, as in previous years, mainly engaged in routine tasks: the distribution of over 6000 dosimeters (with a total of more than 10,000 films) every two months and the calibration of about 900 fixed and mobile instruments used in the radiation survey sections of RP group. These tasks were, thanks to an experienced team, well mastered. Special efforts had to be made in a number of areas to modernize the service or to keep it in line with new prescriptions. The Individual Dosimetry Service had to assure that CERN's contracting firms comply with the prescriptions in the Radiation Safety Manual (1996) that had been inspired by the Swiss Ordinance of 1994: Companies must file for authorizations with the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health requiring that in every company an 'Expert in Radiation Protection' be nominated and subsequently trained. CERN's Individual Dosimetry Service is accredited by the Swiss Federal Authorities and works closely together with other, similar services on a rigorous quality assurance programme. Within this framework, CERN was mandated to organize this year the annual Swiss 'Intercomparison of Dosimeters'. All ten accredited dosimetry services - among others those of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen and of the four Swiss nuclear power stations - sent dosimeters to CERN, where they were irradiated in CERN's calibration facility with precise photon doses. After return to their origin they were processed and evaluated. The results were communicated to CERN and were compared with the originally given doses. A report on the results was subsequently prepared and submitted to the Swiss 'Group of Experts on Personal Dosimetry'. Reference monitors for photon and neutron radiation were brought to standard laboratories to assure the traceability of CERN's calibration service to the fundamental quantities. For photon radiation, a set of ionization chambers was calibrated in the reference field

  13. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  15. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  16. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  17. Internal dosimetry and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1990-05-01

    This internal dosimetry and control report provides guidance for EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., field programs in detecting, evaluating, and controlling personnel exposure resulting from uptake of radionuclides by the body. Procedures specific to each program or facility are required to define the details of guidance from this report. Fundamental principles related to philosophy, policies, monitoring guidelines, and dose evaluation are discussed. Specific numerical guides and action levels are developed to guide the programs in evaluating the significance of specific analytical results. The requirement to thoroughly document the results and provide a formal technical base for each policy and/or practice is outlined and explained. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Neutron dosimetry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J W

    1955-03-29

    This review summarizes information on the following subjects: (1) physical processes of importance in neutron dosimetry; (2) biological effects of neutrons; (3) neutron sources; and (4) instruments and methods used in neutron dosimetry. Also, possible improvements in dosimetry instrumentation are outlined and discussed. (author)

  19. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  20. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  1. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  2. EPR dosimetry - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as co-ordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as biomarkers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the International Organisation of Standards (ISO) as well as those of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (author)

  3. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  4. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  5. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  6. Other-than-high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The main emphasis of the work in the area of partitioning transuranic elements from waste has been in the area of high-level liquid waste. But there are ''other-than-high-level wastes'' generated by the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that are both large in volume and contaminated with significant quantities of transuranic elements. The combined volume of these other wastes is approximately 50 times that of the solidified high-level waste. These other wastes also contain up to 75% of the transuranic elements associated with waste generated by the back end of the fuel cycle. Therefore, any detailed evaluation of partitioning as a viable waste management option must address both high-level wastes and ''other-than-high-level wastes.''

  7. Applications of gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Gel dosimetry has been examined as a clinical dosimeter since the 1950s. During the last two decades, however, a rapid increase in the number of investigators has been seen, and the body of knowledge regarding gel dosimetry has expanded considerably. Gel dosimetry is still considered a research project, and the introduction of this tool into clinical use is proceeding slowly. This paper will review the characteristics of gel dosimetry that make it desirable for clinical use, the postulated and demonstrated applications of gel dosimetry, and some complications, set-backs, and failures that have contributed to the slow introduction into routine clinical use

  8. Beta dosimetry using partial body dosimeters II. Results of intercomparison measurements of 1998/1999 - PTB report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Helmstaedter, K.

    2000-12-01

    In 1998 the PTB organised a second series of intercomparison measurements for selected beta dosimeters worn on the extremities. In April 1999 these intercomparison measurements and the results obtained were discussed in a one day meeting. The contributions given and the results obtained and the conclusions drawn after extensive discussions are presented in this PTB report. (orig.) [de

  9. External audit in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh

    1996-01-01

    Quality audit forms an essential part of any comprehensive quality assurance programme. This is true in radiotherapy generally and in specific areas such as radiotherapy dosimetry. Quality audit can independently test the effectiveness of the quality system and in so doing can identify problem areas and minimize their possible consequences. Some general points concerning quality audit applied to radiotherapy are followed by specific discussion of its practical role in radiotherapy dosimetry, following its evolution from dosimetric intercomparison exercises to routine measurement-based on-going audit in the various developing audit networks both in the UK and internationally. Specific examples of methods and results are given from some of these, including the Scottish+ audit group. Quality audit in radiotherapy dosimetry is now well proven and participation by individual centres is strongly recommended. Similar audit approaches are to be encouraged in other areas of the radiotherapy process. (author)

  10. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  11. Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radak, B.; Markovic, V.; Draganic, I.

    1961-01-01

    Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation is relatively new reactor dosimetry method and the number of relevant papers is rather small. Some difficulties in applying standard methods (chemical dosemeters, ionization chambers) exist because of the complexity of radiation. In general application of calorimetric dosemeters for measuring absorbed doses is most precise. In addition to adequate choice of calorimetric bodies there is a possibility of determining the yields of each component of the radiation mixture in the total absorbed dose. This paper contains a short review of the basic calorimetry methods and some results of measurements at the RA reactor in Vinca performed by isothermal calorimeter [sr

  12. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  13. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.

    2008-01-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  14. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  15. In vivo EPR dosimetry of accidental exposures to radiation: experimental results indicating the feasibility of practical use in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Minoru; Liu, K.J.; Walczak, T.M.; Swartz, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Low frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provides the potential advantage of making accurate and sensitive measurements of absorbed radiation dose in teeth in situ, i.e. without removing the teeth from the potential victim. The potential limiting factors for making such measurements are: (1) whether low frequency EPR is sufficiently sensitive to detect radiation-induced signal in human teeth; (2) whether sufficient sensitivity can be maintained under in vivo conditions. In this manuscript, we summarize results indicating that this approach is feasible. Using 1.2 GHz EPR spectroscopy, we found that the lower limit for these measurements in isolated human teeth is 0.2 Gy or lower. Measurements of radiation-induced EPR signals in the teeth of living rats were achieved with sufficient sensitivity to indicate that, when taking into consideration the larger mass of human teeth, similar measurements in human teeth in situ would provide sensitivity in the dose range for potential accidental exposures. We estimate that the current lower limit for detecting radiation doses in human teeth in situ (in vivo) is 0.5-1.0 Gy; this would be sufficient for determining if a person has been exposed to potentially life threatening doses of ionizing radiation. The limiting factor for sensitivity appears to be background signals rather than signal/noise, and there are feasible means to overcome this problem and further increase sensitivity. The additional instrumental developments required to make an effective in vivo EPR dosimetric spectrometer for the measurements in teeth in human subjects in situ, seem quite achievable

  16. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, Hanno; Rozendaal, Roel; Camargo, Priscilla; Mans, Anton; Wendling, Markus; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel; Mijnheer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the

  17. The Bad Berka dose protocol: comparative results of dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using (177)Lu-DOTATATE, (177)Lu-DOTANOC, and (177)Lu-DOTATOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Christiane; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Prasad, Vikas; Zachert, Carolin; Müller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the in vivo behavior of the (177)Lu-labeled peptides DOTATATE, DOTANOC, and DOTATOC used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRNT) of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), by measuring organ and tumor kinetics and by performing dosimetric calculations. Two hundred fifty-three patients (group 1) with metastasized NET who underwent PRRNT were examined. Out of these, 185 patients received (177)Lu-DOTATATE, 9 were treated with (177)Lu-DOTANOC, and 59 with (177)Lu-DOTATOC. Additionally, 25 patients receiving, in consecutive PRRNT cycles, DOTATATE followed by DOTATOC (group 2) and 3 patients receiving DOTATATE and DOTANOC (group 3) were analyzed. Dosimetric calculations (according to MIRD scheme) were performed using OLINDA software. In group 1, DOTATOC exhibited the lowest and DOTANOC the highest uptake and therefore mean absorbed dose in normal organs (whole body, kidney, and spleen). In group 2, there was a significant difference between DOTATATE and DOTATOC concerning kinetics and normal organ doses. (177)Lu-DOTATOC had the lowest uptake/dose delivered to normal organs and highest tumor-to-kidney ratio. There were no significant differences between the three peptides concerning tumor kinetics and mean absorbed tumor dose. The study demonstrates a correlation between high affinity of DOTANOC in vitro and high uptake in normal organs/whole body in vivo, resulting in a higher whole-body dose. DOTATOC exhibited the lowest uptake and dose delivered to normal tissues and the best tumor-to-kidney ratio. Due to large interpatient variability, individual dosimetry should be performed for each therapy cycle.

  18. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  19. Thermoluminescence albedo-neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Storruste, A.

    1986-10-01

    The report discusses neutron detection with respect to dosimetry and compares different thermoluminescent dosimetry materials for neutron dosimetry. Construction and calibration of a thermoluminescence albedo neutron dosemeter, developed by the authors, is described

  20. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  1. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  2. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  3. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces

  4. The work programme of EURADOS on internal and external dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Bottollier-Depois, J F; Gilvin, P; Harrison, R; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Tanner, R; Vargas, A; Woda, C

    2018-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been maintaining a network of institutions interested in the dosimetry of ionising radiation. As of 2017, this network includes more than 70 institutions (research centres, dosimetry services, university institutes, etc.), and the EURADOS database lists more than 500 scientists who contribute to the EURADOS mission, which is to promote research and technical development in dosimetry and its implementation into practice, and to contribute to harmonisation of dosimetry in Europe and its conformance with international practices. The EURADOS working programme is organised into eight working groups dealing with environmental, computational, internal, and retrospective dosimetry; dosimetry in medical imaging; dosimetry in radiotherapy; dosimetry in high-energy radiation fields; and harmonisation of individual monitoring. Results are published as freely available EURADOS reports and in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Moreover, EURADOS organises winter schools and training courses on various aspects relevant for radiation dosimetry, and formulates the strategic research needs in dosimetry important for Europe. This paper gives an overview on the most important EURADOS activities. More details can be found at www.eurados.org .

  5. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.

    2011-10-01

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  6. Dosimetry results of COSMOS 1887

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.; Facius, R.; Beaujean, R.; Enge, W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to measure the radiation environment inside and outside of the biosatellite COSMOS 1887. For this purpose, detector packages were built up consisting of plastic detectors and nuclear emulsions having different linear energy transfer (LET) thresholds in particle registration, and thermoluminescence dosimeters. Particle fluence rates, LET-spectra and absorbed dose are presented. Absorbed dose is measured as a function of shielding depth. The data are compared with those of other missions. (author)

  7. Results of the Service of External Dosimetry of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba during the biennium 2010 - 2011; Resultados del servicio de dosimetria externa del CPHR durante el bienio 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Perez, Daniel; Verdecia Sanchez, Maribel; Castro Soler, Ailza; Farrada Neyra, Yamilia, E-mail: daniel@cphr.edu.cu [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Externa (LDE), Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Service of Personal Dosimetry of the External Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones - CPHR of Cuba works with an automatic RADOS TLD system and includes the surveillance of the doses of whole body and extremities for photon radiation. The work presents the results of the service in the period 2010-2011, showing data related to the number and distribution of workers monitored for areas. The levels of occupational exposure area analyzed using various indicators such as: annual average dose for areas, number of workers who receive annual doses greater than zero, distribution of workers by dose intervals, and others. These indicators are compared with previous periods and with the values published by the UNSCEAR. In general, the average annual dose for all areas was less than 1 mSv for whole body and 3 mSv for hands. The number of exposed workers experienced significant variation from one year to another, considerably decreasing from 60% to 12% of the total. The work presents an analysis of this behavior and highlights that the country guarantees the personal dosimetry to 100% of exposed workers and that the results of the occupational exposure are within the established requirements.

  8. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  9. Clinical dosimetry using mosfets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, Ramaseshan; Russell, Stephen; O'Brien, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The use of metal oxide-silicon field effect transistors (MOSFETs) as clinical dosimeters is demonstrated for a number of patients with targets at different clinical sites. Methods and Materials: Commercially available MOSFETs were characterized for energy response, angular dependency of response, and effect of accumulated dose on sensitivity and some inherent properties of MOSFETs. The doses determined both by thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and MOSFETs in clinical situation were evaluated and compared to expected doses determined by calculation. Results: It was observed that a standard calibration of 0.01 Gy/mV gave MOSFET determined doses which agreed with expected doses to within 5% at the 95% confidence limit for photon beams from 6 to 25 MV and electron beams from 5 to 14 MeV. An energy-dependent variation in response of up to 28% was observed between two orientations of a MOSFET. The MOSFET doses compared very well with the doses estimated by TLDs, and the patients tolerated MOSFETs very well. A standard deviation of 3.9% between expected dose and MOSFET determined dose was observed, while for TLDs the standard deviation was 5.1%. The advantages and disadvantages of using MOSFETs for clinical dosimetry are discussed in detail. Conclusion: It was concluded that MOSFETs can be used as clinical dosimeters and can be a good alternative to TLDs. However, they have limitations under certain clinical situations

  10. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  11. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  12. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...

  13. Neutron personnel dosimetry considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The increasing development of fusion reactor technology warrants an evaluation of personnel neutron dosimetry systems to aid in the concurrent development of a radiation protection program. For this reason, current state of knowledge neutron dosimeters have been reviewed with emphasis placed on practical utilization and the problems inherent in each type of dosimetry system. Evaluations of salient parameters such as energy response, latent image instability, and minimum detectable dose equivalent are presented for nuclear emulsion films, track etch techniques, albedo and other thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques, electrical conductivity damage effects, lyoluminescence, thermocurrent, and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission. Brief summaries of dosimetry regulatory requirements and intercomparison study results help to establish compliance and recent trends, respectively. Spectrum modeling data generated by the Neutron Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Facility have been analyzed by both International Commission on Radiological Protection fluence to dose conversion factors and an adjoint technique of radiation dosimetry, in an attempt to determine the applicability of current neutron dosimetry systems to deuterium and tritium fusion reactor leakage spectra. Based on the modeling data, a wide range of neutron energies will probably be present in the leakage spectra of the TFTR facility, and no appreciable risk of somatic injury to occupationally exposed workers is expected. The relative dose contributions due to high energy and thermal neutrons indicate that neutron dosimetry will probably not be a serious limitation in the development of fusion power

  14. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  15. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  16. The personal dosimetry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  17. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  18. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  19. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  20. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  1. Dosimetry optimization at COGEMA-La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimbadjian, J.

    2000-01-01

    radiation protection trainings. The following article aims at describing the implemented radiation protection principles, the techniques used as well as the dosimetry results gained. For 1998, the monitoring of COGEMA and external companies workers shows a mean integrated dose for exposed workers of 0.8 mSv, whereas the maximum recorded value is 5.7 mSv. (author)

  2. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  3. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  4. Retrospective dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.V.; Bakhanova, E.V.; Sholom, S.V.; Pasalskaya, L.F.; Bouville, A.; Krjuchkov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The numerous cohort of Chernobyl liquidators is a very attractive subject for epidemiological follow up due to high levels of exposure, age-gender distribution and availability of patients for medical examination. However, dosimetric information related to this population is incomplete, in many cases the quality of available dose records is doubtful and uncertainties of all dose values are not determined. Naive attempts to evaluate average doses on the basis of such factors as 'distance from the reactor' obviously fail due to large variation of tasks and workplace contamination. Therefore, prior to any sensible consideration of liquidators as a subject of epidemiological study, their doses should be evaluated (reevaluated) using the methods of retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry in general got significant development over the last decade. However, most of the retrospective dosimetry techniques are time consuming, expensive and possess sensitivity threshold. Therefore, application of retrospective dosimetry for the needs of epidemiological follow up studies requires development of certain strategy. This strategy depends, of coarse, on the epidemiological design of the study, availability of resources and dosimetric information related to the time of clean up. One of the strategies of application of retrospective dosimetry may be demonstrated on the example of a cohort study with occasional nested case control consideration. In this case, the tools are needed for validation of existing dose records (of not always known quality), screening of the study cohort with express dosimetric method called to determine possible dose ranges, and 'state-of-the-art' assessment of individual doses for selected subjects (cases and controls). Verification of dose records involves analysis of the statistical regularities of dose distributions and detection of possible extraneous admixtures (presumably falsified dose records). This work is performed on impersonified data

  5. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  6. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  7. Performance of dichromate dosimetry systems in calibration and dose intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bof, E.S.; Smolko, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the High Dose Dosimetry Laboratory of Argentina during ten years of international intercomparisons for high dose with the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the IAEA, using the standard high dose dichromate dosimetry system, and the results of a high dose intercomparison regional exercise in which our Laboratory acted as a reference laboratory, using the standard high dose and low dose dichromate dosimetry system. (author)

  8. An IAEA Survey of Dosimetry Audit Networks for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grochowska, Paulina; Izewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    A Survey: In 2010, the IAEA undertook a task to investigate and review the coverage and operations of national and international dosimetry audit programmes for radiotherapy. The aim was to organize the global database describing the activities of dosimetry audit networks in radiotherapy. A dosimetry audit questionnaire has been designed at an IAEA consultants' meeting held in 2010 for organizations conducting various levels of dosimetry audits for radiotherapy. Using this questionnaire, a survey was conducted for the first time in 2010 and repeated in 2011. Request for information on different aspects of the dosimetry audit was included, such as the audit framework and resources, its coverage and scope, the dosimetry system used and the modes of audit operation, i.e. remotely and through on-site visits. The IAEA questionnaire was sent to over 80 organizations, members of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and other organizations known for having operated dosimetry audits for radiotherapy in their countries or internationally. Survey results and discussion: In response to the IAEA survey, 53 organizations in 45 countries confirmed that they operate dosimetry audit services for radiotherapy. Mostly, audits are conducted nationally, however there are five organizations offering audits abroad, with two of them operating in various parts of the world and three of them at the regional level, auditing radiotherapy centres in neighbouring countries. The distribution of dosimetry audit services in the world is given. (author)

  9. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  10. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  11. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  12. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  13. Radioiodotherapy: dosimetry planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apyan, A.; Mileshin, O.; Klyopov, A.; Shishkanov, N.; Matusevich, E.; Roziev, A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of treatment of 142 case histories of 125 patients who had been treated with radioactive iodine at the Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medicine Sciences from 1983 to 1999 are given in the presentation. Among the patients, 35 cases of diffuse toxic goiter with signs of thyrotoxicosis of a mild degree, 25 cases of Diffuse toxic goiter with severe thyrotoxicosis, 6 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck, 30 cases of thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck and lung and 1 case of thyroid cancer with metastases to bones were diagnosed. This paper gives recommendations for individual dosimetry planning for radioiodine-therapy. (authors)

  14. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  15. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  16. Polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); De Deene, Y [Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Doran, S [CRUK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ibbott, G [Radiation Physics, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et de radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)], E-mail: c.baldock@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: yves.dedeene@ugent.be

    2010-03-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

  17. Status of neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, M.F.; Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.

    1977-03-01

    The status of current international efforts to develop standardized sets of evaluated energy-dependent (differential) neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry is reviewed. The status and availability of differential data are considered, some recent results of the data testing of the ENDF/B-IV dosimetry file using 252 Cf and 235 U benchmark reference neutron fields are presented, and a brief review is given of the current efforts to characterize and identify dosimetry benchmark radiation fields

  18. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-03-15

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States.

  19. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-03-01

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States

  20. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  1. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  2. Theoretical basis for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is fundamental to all fields of science dealing with radiation effects and is concerned with problems which are often intricate as hinted above. A firm scientific basis is needed to face increasing demands on accurate dosimetry. This chapter is an attempt to review and to elucidate the elements for such a basis. Quantities suitable for radiation dosimetry have been defined in the unique work to coordinate radiation terminology and usage by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU. Basic definitions and terminology used in this chapter conform with the recent ''Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 33'' of the ICRU

  3. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  4. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  5. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  6. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  7. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  8. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  9. Neutron personal dosimetry: state-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurný, František

    2005-03-01

    State-of-art of the personal neutron dosimetry is presented, analysed and discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the problems of this type of the dosimetry of external exposure for radiation fields at nuclear power plants. A review of general problems of neutron dosimetry is given and the active individual dosimetry methods available and/or in the stage of development are briefly reviewed. Main attention is devoted to the analysis of the methods available for passive individual neutron dosimetry. The characteristics of these dosemeters were studied and are compared: their energy response functions, detection thresholds and the highest detection limits, the linearity of response, the influence of environmental factors, etc. Particular attention is devoted to their behavior in reactor neutron fields. It is concluded that the choice of the neutron personal dosemeter depends largely on the conditions in which the instrument should be used (neutron spectrum, the level of exposure and the exposure rate, etc.). The results obtained with some of these dosemeters during international intercomparisons are also presented. Particular attention is paid to the personal neutron dosimeter developed and routinely used by National Personal Dosimetry Service Ltd. in the Czech Republic. (author)

  10. Production and properties of solidified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1980-08-01

    Available information on production and properties of solidified high-level waste are presented. The review includes literature up to the end of 1979. The feasibility of production of various types of solidified high-level wast is investigated. The main emphasis is on borosilicate glass but other options are also mentioned. The expected long-term behaviour of the materials are discussed on the basis of available results from laboratory experiments. Examples of the use of the information in safety analysis of disposal in salt formations are given. The work has been made on behalf of the Danish utilities investigation of the possibilities of disposal of high-level waste in salt domes in Jutland. (author)

  11. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  12. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of the IAEA waste management programme is to coordinate and promote development of improved technology for the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Agency accomplished this objective specifically through sponsoring Coordinated Research Programmes on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High Level Waste Products'' in 1977. The primary objectives of this programme are to review and disseminate information on the properties of solidified high-level waste forms, to provide a mechanism for analysis and comparison of results from different institutes, and to help coordinate future plans and actions. This report is a summary compilation of the key information disseminated at the second meeting of this programme

  14. Aeon: Synthesizing Scheduling Algorithms from High-Level Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Jean-Noël; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    This paper describes the aeon system whose aim is to synthesize scheduling algorithms from high-level models. A eon, which is entirely written in comet, receives as input a high-level model for a scheduling application which is then analyzed to generate a dedicated scheduling algorithm exploiting the structure of the model. A eon provides a variety of synthesizers for generating complete or heuristic algorithms. Moreover, synthesizers are compositional, making it possible to generate complex hybrid algorithms naturally. Preliminary experimental results indicate that this approach may be competitive with state-of-the-art search algorithms.

  15. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  17. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  18. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...

  19. Dosimetry in radiotherapy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A series of symposia on dosimetry in medicine and biology have been held by the IAEA in co-operation with WHO. The present symposium was the first one focusing on ''Dosimetry in Radiotherapy''. The papers presented reflected the different steps in the calibration chain such as the calibration standards established by the National Standards Laboratories and the conversion of the reading of calibrated instruments to the desired quantity, i.e. absorbed dose to water at a reference point in the user's beam at the radiotherapy clinic. The programme further examined the procedures necessary for optimization of the treatment of the patient, such as treatment planning methods, dose distribution studies, new techniques of dose measurement, improvements in the physical dose distributions/conformation therapy and special problems involved in total body treatments. Results of quality assurance in radiotherapy were presented from local hospitals as well as from national and international studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Relative dosimetry by Ebt-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon A, M. A.; Rivera M, T.; Hernandez O, J. O.

    2015-10-01

    In the present work relative dosimetry in two linear accelerator for radiation therapy was studied. Both Varian Oncology systems named Varian Clinac 2100-Cd and MLC Varian Clinac i X were used. Gaf Chromic Ebt-3 film was used. Measurements have been performed in a water equivalent phantom, using 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams on both Linacs. Both calibration and Electron irradiations were carried out with the ionization chamber placed at the isocenter, below a stack of solid water slabs, at the depth of dose maximum (D max), with a Source-to-Surface Distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. Calibration and dosimetric measurements photons were carried out under IAEA-TRS 398 protocol. Results of relative dosimetry in the present work are discussed. (Author)

  1. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  2. Dosimetry of internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Internal Emitter Program endeavors to refine the correlation between radiation dose and observed biological effects. The program is presently engaged in the development of studies that will demonstrate the applicability of microdosimetry models developed under the Microdosimetry of Internal Sources Program. The program also provides guidance and assistance to Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Biology Department in the dosimetric analysis of internally deposited radionuclides. This report deals with alpha particle dosimetry plutonium 239 inhalation, and in vitro studies of chromosomal observations

  3. Individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The most important concepts and development in individual neutron dosimetry are presented, especially the dosimetric properties of the albedo technique. The main problem in albedo dosimetry is to calibrate the dosemeter in the environs of each neutron source. Some of the most used calibration techniques are discussed. The IRD albedo dosemeter used in the routine neutron individual monitoring is described in detail. Its dosimetric properties and calibration methods are discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  5. CAMAC and high-level-languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhardt, K.H.

    1976-05-01

    A proposal for easy programming of CAMAC systems with high-level-languages (FORTRAN, RTL/2, etc.) and interpreters (BASIC, MUMTI, etc.) using a few subroutines and a LAM driver is presented. The subroutines and the LAM driver are implemented for PDP11/RSX-11M and for the CAMAC controllers DEC CA11A (branch controller), BORER type 1533A (single crate controller) and DEC CA11F (single crate controller). Mixed parallel/serial CAMAC systems employing KINETIC SYSTEMS serial driver mod. 3992 and serial crate controllers mod. 3950 are implemented for all mentioned parallel controllers, too. DMA transfers from or to CAMAC modules using non-processor-request controllers (BORER type 1542, DEC CA11FN) are available. (orig.) [de

  6. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  7. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  8. Management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redon, A.; Mamelle, J.; Chambon, M.

    1977-01-01

    The world wide needs in reprocessing will reach the value of 10.000 t/y of irradiated fuels, in the mid of the 80's. Several countries will have planned, in their nuclear programme, the construction of reprocessing plants with a 1500 t/y capacity, corresponding to 50.000 MWe installed. At such a level, the solidification of the radioactive waste will become imperative. For this reason, all efforts, in France, have been directed towards the realization of industrial plants able of solidifying the fission products as a glassy material. The advantages of this decision, and the reasons for it are presented. The continuing development work, and the conditions and methods of storing the high-level wastes prior to solidification, and of the interim storage (for thermal decay) and the ultimate disposal after solidification are described [fr

  9. The CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Afaq, A; Bauer, G; Biery, K; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Cheung, H; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Dagenhart, W; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Kowalkowski, J; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) System relies on a purely software driven High Level Trigger (HLT) to reduce the full Level-1 accept rate of 100 kHz to approximately 100 Hz for archiving and later offline analysis. The HLT operates on the full information of events assembled by an event builder collecting detector data from the CMS front-end systems. The HLT software consists of a sequence of reconstruction and filtering modules executed on a farm of O(1000) CPUs built from commodity hardware. This paper presents the architecture of the CMS HLT, which integrates the CMS reconstruction framework in the online environment. The mechanisms to configure, control, and monitor the Filter Farm and the procedures to validate the filtering code within the DAQ environment are described.

  10. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  11. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  12. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose

  13. Individual monitoring dosimetry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the various types of individual monitoring systems presently in use within the European community and neutron dosimetry research being coordinated by the EURADOS working group. Research is currently being conducted on nuclear track dosimeters, primarily with CR-39 (TM), and TLD-albedo dosimeters. Studies are being conducted on the energy and angular response of each type of dosimeter. Because the response of dosimeters depends on the energy of the neutrons, it is necessary to have spectral information to accurately assess the dose. Neutron energy spectrum measurements are being performed in typical work place environments. Work is also progressing on development of calibration sources which will be representative of the neutron energy spectrum found in typical neutron exposure situations. This work utilizes 14 MeV neutrons incident on a uranium block with various other filters. Research is also continuing on neutron dosimetry using tissue equivalent proportional counters and microdosimetric techniques. The results of intercomparisons between several different instruments are discussed. In addition to personnel dosimetry, these systems are being used to record the dose to passengers and flight crews aboard commercial aircraft

  14. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    be either through direct absorption of ionising radiation or via intermediate water free radicals. Fe 2+ ions are converted to Fe 3+ ions with a corresponding change in paramagnetic properties that may be quantified using NMR relaxation measurements or optical techniques. Due to predominantly diffusion-related limitations (and references therein), alternative polymer gel dosimeters were subsequently suggested. In polymer gels, monomers such as acrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide are usually dispersed in a gelatin or agarose matrix. Monomers undergo a polymerisation reaction as a function of absorbed dose resulting in a 3D polymer gel matrix. The radiation-induced formation of polymer influences NMR relaxation properties and results in other physical changes that may be used to quantify absorbed radiation dose. As well as MRI, other quantitative techniques for measuring dose distributions include X-ray computer tomography, vibrational spectroscopy and ultrasound. Clinical applications of these radiologically tissue equivalent gel dosimeters have been reported in the literature. For further information of gel dosimetry and specifically clinical applications the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry and references therein should be consulted

  15. Cellular dosimetry in nuclear medicine imaging: training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardin, I.; Faraggi, M.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D.; Bok, B.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides used in nuclear medicine imaging emit not only diagnostically useful photons, but also energy electron emissions, responsible for dose heterogeneity at the cellular level. The mean dose delivered to the cell nucleus by electron emissions of 99m Tc, 123 I, 111 In, 67 Ga, and 201 Tl, has been calculated, for the cell nucleus, a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distribution of radioactivity. This model takes into account both the self-dose which results from the radionuclide located in the target cell, and the cross-dose, which comes from the surrounding cells. The results obtained by cellular dosimetry (D cel ) have been compared with those obtained with conventional dosimetry (D conv ), by assuming the same amount of radioactivity per cell. Cellular dosimetry shows, for a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, that the main contribution to the dose to the cell nucleus, comes from the surrounding cells. On the other hand, for a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity, the self-dose is not negligible and may be the main contribution. The comparison between cellular and conventional dosimetry shows that D cel /D conv ratio ranges from 0.61 and O.89, in case of a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, depending on the radionuclide and cell dimensions. Thus, conventional dosimetry slightly overestimates the mean dose to the cell nucleus. On the other hand, D cel /D conv ranges from 1.1 to 75, in case of a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity. Conventional dosimetry may strongly underestimates the absorbed dose to the nucleus, when radioactivity is located in the nucleus. The study indicates that in nuclear medicine imaging, cellular dosimetry may lead to a better understanding of biological effects of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  16. Image in nuclear dosimetry using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinsburg, G.; Matsuoka, M.; Watanabe, S.

    1987-01-01

    A low cost methodology to produce images of internal sick organs by radioisotopic intake, is presented. Dosimetries of thermoluminescent material and Teflon (ratio:50%) in bidimensional matrix shape are used with a Pb collimator. This collimator-bidimensional matrix system was tested ''in vivo'' and in thyroid phantoms using 99m Tc. A comparative evaluation between this method and the scintigraphy one is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Thermoluminescence, a universal tool for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radio-thermoluminescence is a transient light emission occurring when certain substances, which have been exposed to ionizing radiation, are heated. Under some conditions the quantity of emitted light is proportional to the absorbed dose. This linearity allows thermoluminescence to be used in various fields such as dosimetry, geology and age determination. Dosimeters based on thermoluminescence are passive, they do not require a source of energy and they can sustain high temperatures and high levels of irradiation. Thermoluminescence has been applied for determining the dose absorbed by meteorites and lunar rocks

  18. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  19. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  20. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  1. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  2. Vitrification of high level wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1984-02-01

    A brief historical background of the research and development work conducted in France over 25 years is first presented. Then, the papers deals with the vitrification at (1) the UP1 reprocessing plant (Marcoule) and (2) the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants (La Hague). 1) The properties of glass required for high-level radioactive waste vitrification are recalled. The vitrification process and facility of Marcoule are presented. (2) The average characteristics (chemical composition, activity) of LWR fission product solution are given. The glass formulations developed to solidify LWR waste solution must meet the same requirements as those used in the UP1 facility at Marcoule. Three important aspects must be considered with respect to the glass fabrication process: corrosiveness of the molten glass with regard to metals, viscosity of the molten glass, and, volatization during glass fabrication. The glass properties required in view of interim storage and long-term disposal are then largely developed. Two identical vitrification facilities are planned for the site: T7, to process the UP2 throughput, and T7 for the UP3 plant. A prototype unit was built and operated at Marcoule

  3. Occupational dosimetry in real time hemodynamic rooms. utility of the system Dose-aware as a training tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Monedero, M.; Rodriguez Cobo, C.; Pifarre Martinez, X.; Ruiz Martin, J.; Barros Candelero, J. M.; Goicolea Ruigomez, J.; Diaz Blaires, G.; Garcia Lunar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study in a real time dosimetry system used in the catheter laboratory room of our center. The objective was to know the occupational doses per procedure, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to evaluate its utility as a learning tool for radiation protection purposes with the simultaneous video recording of the interventions. 83 diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed, and an average dose per procedure of 0,37 μSv and 0,10 μSv for the main cardiologist and nurse were obtained, respectively. 36 of these interventions were also recorded and the images were synchronized with the dosimetric information stored and the dosimetry system. The findings were presented to the interventional cardiology team in a learning session. They showed a high level of satisfaction with this new method of optimizing the occupational doses through a customized learning session. (Author)

  4. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledezma F, L. E.; Baldomero J, R.; Agis E, K. A.

    2012-10-01

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  5. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...... of the order of +/-5% (1 sigma) for both Co-60 and electron beam plants. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of neutron exposures to personnel is an issue that has received increased attention in the last few years. It is important to consider key aspects of the whole dosimetry system when developing dose estimates. This begins with selection of proper dosimeters and survey instruments, and extends through the calibration methods. One must match the spectral response and sensitivity of the dosimeter to the spectral characteristics of the neutron fields. Threshold detectors that are insensitive to large fractions of neutrons in the lower energy portion of reactor spectra should be avoided. Use of two or more detectors with responses that complement each other will improve measurement quality. It is important to understand the spectral response of survey instruments, so that spectra which result in significant overresponse do not lead to overestimation of dose. Calibration sources that do not match operational field spectra can contribute to highly erroneous results. In those situations, in-field calibration techniques should be employed. Although some detection developments have been made in recent years, a lot can be done with existing technology until fully satisfactory, long term solutions are obtained

  7. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives; La dosimetrie individuelle des travailleurs et de patients: mise en oeuvre et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E

    2008-07-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  8. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  9. Quality control through dosimetry at a contract radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Roediger, A.H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a contract gamma radiation processing facility that caters for a large variety of different radiation applications. The choice, calibration and routine intercalibration of the dosimetry systems employed form the basis of a sound dosimetry policy in radiation processing. With the dosimetric procedures established, detailed dosimetric mapping of the irradiator upon commissioning (and whenever source modifications take place) is carried out to determine the radiation processing characteristics and peformance of the plant. Having established the irradiator parameters, routine dosimetry procedures, being part of the overall quality control measures, are employed. In addition to routine dosimetry, independent monitoring of routine dosimetry is performed on a bi-monthly basis and the results indicate a variation of better than 3%. On an annaul basis the dosimetry systems are intercalibrated through at least one primary standard dosimetry laboratory and to date a variation of better than 5% has been experienced. The company also participates in the Pilot Dose Assurance Service of the International Atomic Energy Agency, using the alanine/ESR dosimetry system. Routine calibration of the instrumentation employed is carried out on a regular basis. Detailed permanent records are compiled on all dosimetric and instrumentation calibrations, and the routine dosimetry employed at the plant. Certificates indicating the measured absorbed radiation doses are issued on request and in many cases are used for the dosimetric release of sterilized medical and pharmaceutical products. These procedures, used by Iso-Ster at its industrial gamma radiation facility, as well as the experience built up over a number of years using radiation dosimetry for process control and quality assurance are discussed. (author)

  10. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  11. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  12. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    During 1988--1990 the magnetic resonance dosimetry project was completed, as were the 250 MeV proton shielding measurements. The first cellular experiment using human cells in vitro at the 1 GeV electron storage ring was also accomplished. More detail may be found in DOE Report number-sign DOE/EV/60417-002 and the open literature cited in the individual progress subsections. We report Kinetic Energy Released in Matter (KERMA), factor measurements in several elements of critical importance to neutron radiation therapy and radiation protection for space habitation and exploration for neutron energies below 30 MeV. The results of this effort provide the only direct measurements of the oxygen and magnesium kerma factors above 20 MeV neutron energy, and the only measurements of the iron kerma factor above 15 MeV. They provide data of immediate relevance to neutron radiotherapy and impose strict criteria for normalizing and testing nuclear models used to calculate kerma factors at higher neutron energies

  13. Development of cermets for high-level radioactive waste fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method is currently under development for the solidification and fixation of commercial and defense high-level radioactive wastes in the form of ceramic particles encapsulated by metal, i.e., a cermet. The chemical and physical processing techniques which have been developed and the properties of the resulting cermet bodies are described in this paper. These cermets have the advantages of high thermal conductivity and low leach rates

  14. Apparatus for Crossflow Filtration Testing of High Level Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1998-05-01

    Remotely-operated experimental apparatuses for verifying crossflow filtration of high level nuclear waste have been constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These units have been used to demonstrate filtration processes at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The current work covers the design considerations for experimentation as well as providing results from testing at SRS

  15. Neutron dosimetry in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Smith, H.H.; Gustafsson, A.

    1965-01-01

    To study adequately the biological effects of different energy neutrons it is necessary to have high-intensity sources which are not contaminated by other radiations, the most serious of which are gamma rays. An effective dosimetry must provide an accurate measure of the absorbed dose, in biological materials, of each type of radiation at any reactor facility involved in radiobiological research. A standardized biological dosimetry, in addition to physical and chemical methods, may be desirable. The ideal data needed to achieve a fully documented dosimetry has been compiled by H. Glubrecht: (1) Energy spectrum and intensity of neutrons; (2) Angular distribution of neutrons on the whole surface of the irradiated object; (3) Additional undesired radiation accompanying the neutrons; (4) Physical state and chemical composition of the irradiated object. It is not sufficient to note only an integral dose value (e.g. in 'rad') as the biological effect depends on the above data

  16. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values.

  17. The immobilization of High Level Waste Into Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Martono, H.

    1998-01-01

    High level liquid waste is generated from the first step extraction in the nuclear fuel reprocessing. The waste is immobilized with boro-silicate glass. A certain composition of glass is needed for a certain type of waste, so that the properties of waste glass would meet the requirement either for further process or for disposal. The effect of waste loading on either density, thermal expansion, softening point and leaching rate has been studied. The composition of the high level liquid waste has been determined by ORIGEN 2 and the result has been used to prepare simulated high level waste. The waste loading in the waste glass has been set to be 19.48; 22.32; 25.27; and 26.59 weight percent. The result shows that increasing the waste loading has resulted in the higher density with no thermal expansion and softening point significant change. The increase in the waste loading increase that leaching rate. The properties of the waste glass in this research have not shown any deviation from the standard waste glass properties

  18. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the R and D on the invention of high-level combustion technology using the microgravity environment; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita kodo nensho gijutsu soshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving both the diversification of energy resources and the reduction in environmental pollutants in fuel exhaust gases, the paper conducted elucidation of combustion phenomena using microgravity facilities and research on combustors which make high-level combustion possible. In the experimental study using microgravity experimental facilities, conducted were evaluation experiments on combustion/evaporation of fuel droplets and droplet groups, elucidation/evaluation experiments of combustion characteristics of high-density fuels, evaluation experiments of flammability limit, and elucidation/evaluation experiments of emission mechanisms of NOx, etc. Analysis/evaluation of the data obtained and elucidation of the combustion mechanism were conducted. Further, by applying the results of the microgravity experiment, the high-level combustor experimental facilities were fabricated, and validation tests were started. In the international joint research with US`s NASA, the following were conducted using JAMIC`s facilities and NASA`s 2.2 second drop tower: study of mutual interference of droplet series combustion, study of binary system fuel droplet series combustion, study of combustion characteristics of solid fuels, study of behavior of flames around the lean flammable limit, etc. 151 refs., 253 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  20. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  1. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  2. Radiation transport in high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass

  3. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification

  4. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Kelley, J.A.; Zeyfang, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    Authorization for construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is expected in FY 83. The optimum time for stage 2 authorization is about three years later. Detailed design and construction will require approximately five years for stage 1, with stage 2 construction completed about two to three years later. Production of canisters of waste glass would begin in 1988, and the existing backlog of high level waste sludge stored at SRP would be worked off by about the year 2000. Stage 2 operation could begin in 1990. The technology and engineering are ready for construction and eventual operation of the DWPF for immobilizing high level radioactive waste at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Proceeding with this project will provide the public, and the leadership of this country, with a crucial demonstration that a major quantity of existing high level nuclear wastes can be safely and permanently immobilized. Early demonstration will both expedite and facilitate rational decision making on this aspect of the nuclear program. Delay in providing these facilities will result in significant DOE expenditures at SRP for new tanks just for continued temporary storage of wastes, and would probably result in dissipation of the intellectual and planning momentum that has built up in developing the project

  5. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004. Part 1: Contributions by participants in the co-ordinated research project on chemical durability and performance assessment under simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    This publication contains the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). It provides a basis for understanding the potential interactions of waste form and repository environment, which is necessary for the development of the design and safety case for deep disposal. Types of high level waste matrices investigated include spent fuel, glasses and ceramics. Of particular interest are the experimental results pertaining to ceramic forms such as SYNROC. This publication also outlines important areas for future work, namely, standardized, collaborative experimental protocols for package-release studies, structured development and calibration of predictive models linking the performance of packaged waste and the repository environment, and studies of the long term behaviour of the wastes, including active waste samples. It comprises 15 contributions of the participants on the Coordinated Research Project which are indexed individually.

  6. Lyoluminescence of saccharides as a tool for large scale dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Th; Pitt, E; Scharmann, A; Suprihadi, T [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 1. Physikalisches Inst.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence, the radiation induced chemiluminescence of solids like saccharides and salts, has been proposed as a cheap dosemeter for high level dosimetry, i.e. for therapy, accident dosimetry and spice irradiation detection. The tissue-equivalence of materials, as well as the omission of pre- and post-reading handling of these low cost dosemeter materials, may be considered advantageous in comparison with other systems. Up till now one of the factors most inhibiting the introduction of lyoluminescence in routine dosimetry is the insufficiently known role of environmental influences during the solution process, leading to large standard deviations in dose readings. Investigations concerning the behaviour of two typical saccharides and the influence of oxygen on the mechanisms of lyoluminescence are reported. (author).

  7. Radiation dosimetry and first therapy results with a 124I/131I-labeled small molecule (MIP-1095) targeting PSMA for prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zechmann, Christian M.; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Mier, Walter; Armor, Tom; Joyal, John; Stubbs, James B.; Hadaschik, Boris; Kopka, Klaus; Debus, Juergen; Babich, John W.; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is frequently over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) several PSMA-targeting molecules are under development to detect and treat metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We investigated the tissue kinetics of a small molecule inhibitor of PSMA ((S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-[ 124 I]iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido) pentan edioicacid; MIP-1095) using PET/CT to estimate radiation dosimetry for the potential therapeutic use of 131 I-MIP-1095 in men with mCRPC. We also report preliminary safety and efficacy of the first 28 consecutive patients treated under a compassionate-use protocol with a single cycle of 131 I-MIP-1095. Sixteen patients with known prostate cancer underwent PET/CT imaging after i.v. administration of 124 I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 67.4 MBq). Each patient was scanned using PET/CT up to five times at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h post injection. Volumes of interest were defined for tumor lesions and normal organs at each time point followed by dose calculations using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twenty-eight men with mCRPC were treated with a single cycle of 131 I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 4.8 GBq, range 2 to 7.2 GBq) and followed for safety and efficacy. Baseline and follow up examinations included a complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, and measurement of serum PSA. I-124-MIP-1095 PET/CT images showed excellent tumor uptake and moderate uptake in liver, proximal intestine and within a few hours post-injection also in the kidneys. High uptake values were observed only in salivary and lacrimal glands. Dosimetry estimates for I-131-MIP-1095 revealed that the highest absorbed doses were delivered to the salivary glands (3.8 mSv/MBq), liver (1.7 mSv/MBq) and kidneys (1.4 mSv/MBq). The absorbed dose calculated for the red marrow was 0.37 mSv/MBq. PSA values decreased by >50 % in 60.7 % of the men treated. Of men with bone pain, 84.6 % showed complete or moderate reduction in pain

  8. Radiation dosimetry and first therapy results with a {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I-labeled small molecule (MIP-1095) targeting PSMA for prostate cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmann, Christian M.; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Mier, Walter [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Armor, Tom; Joyal, John [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, James B. [Radiation Dosimetry Systems RDS, Inc., Apharetta, GA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kopka, Klaus [Division Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Babich, John W. [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Cornell University, Division of Radiopharmacy, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Haberkorn, Uwe [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is frequently over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) several PSMA-targeting molecules are under development to detect and treat metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We investigated the tissue kinetics of a small molecule inhibitor of PSMA ((S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-[{sup 124}I]iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido) pentan edioicacid; MIP-1095) using PET/CT to estimate radiation dosimetry for the potential therapeutic use of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 in men with mCRPC. We also report preliminary safety and efficacy of the first 28 consecutive patients treated under a compassionate-use protocol with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095. Sixteen patients with known prostate cancer underwent PET/CT imaging after i.v. administration of {sup 124}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 67.4 MBq). Each patient was scanned using PET/CT up to five times at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h post injection. Volumes of interest were defined for tumor lesions and normal organs at each time point followed by dose calculations using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twenty-eight men with mCRPC were treated with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 4.8 GBq, range 2 to 7.2 GBq) and followed for safety and efficacy. Baseline and follow up examinations included a complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, and measurement of serum PSA. I-124-MIP-1095 PET/CT images showed excellent tumor uptake and moderate uptake in liver, proximal intestine and within a few hours post-injection also in the kidneys. High uptake values were observed only in salivary and lacrimal glands. Dosimetry estimates for I-131-MIP-1095 revealed that the highest absorbed doses were delivered to the salivary glands (3.8 mSv/MBq), liver (1.7 mSv/MBq) and kidneys (1.4 mSv/MBq). The absorbed dose calculated for the red marrow was 0.37 mSv/MBq. PSA values decreased by >50 % in 60.7 % of the men treated. Of men with bone pain, 84.6 % showed complete or

  9. Dosimetry on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornet R, O. M.; Perez G, F.

    2014-08-01

    Dosimetry in its various forms plays a determining role on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy. To prove this in this paper is shown an analysis based on the risk matrix method, how the dosimetry can influence in each stages of a radiotherapy service; installation and acceptance, operation, maintenance and calibration. For each one of these stages the role that can play is analyzed as either the initiating event of a radiological accident or limiting barrier of these events of the dosimetric processes used for the individual dosimetry, the area monitoring, fixed or portable, for radiation beam dosimetry and of the patients for a radiotherapy service with cobalt-therapy equipment. The result of the study shows that the application of a prospective approach in the role evaluation of dosimetry in the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a radiological accident in radiotherapy is crucial and should be subject to permanent evaluation at each development stage of these services. (author)

  10. Human pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and dosimetry of 99m Tc labelled monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3 in patients with tumors of epithelial origin: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iznaga-Escobar, Normando E.; Morales, Alejo; Ramos, Mayra; Perez, Niuvis; Torres, Leonel A.; Alavarez, Ivette; Rodriguez, Nelson; Fraxedas, Roberto; Rodriguez, Oscar; Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Human pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry to normal organs and total body of 99m Tc-labeled monoclonal antibody ior egf/r 3 was investigated following intravenous injection in 5 patients. Following administration, blood and urine samples were collected from 4 patients up to 24 hr after injection Pharmacokinetics obtained from whole blood radioactivity showed blood disappearance described most properly by a biexponential model with a mean distribution half-life value of 0.14±0.02 hr and elimination half-life value of 31.0±13.6 hr. Whole body anterior and posterior scans were obtained at 10 min, 1,3,5 and 24 hr after injection. ROIs were drawn over the heart, liver spleen and bladder to measure the activity in the source organs. Time-activity curves for each source organ were fitted to mono- or biexponential functions by non-linear least squares regression using the flexible polyhedral method and integrated to determine organ residence times. The mean absorbed dose to the whole body and various normal organs were then estimated from residence times and from blood and urine samples using the MIRD method. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) and effective dose (ED) were calculated. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose to normal organs in rads/mCi administered (mean ± SD, n=4) were: whole body, 0.0185± 0.0023, gallbladder wall, 0.0755± 0.00761, spleen, 0.0637± 0.0167 and liver, 0.276± 0.029. The effective dose equivalent and effective dose estimates for adults were 0.039± 0.008 and 0.028± 0.004 rem/m Ci administered. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Human pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 99m} Tc labelled monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3 in patients with tumors of epithelial origin: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iznaga-Escobar, Normando E.; Morales, Alejo; Ramos, Mayra; Perez, Niuvis [Center of Molecular Immunology (CIM), Havana (Cuba); Torres, Leonel A.; Alavarez, Ivette [Center of Clinical Researches (CIC), Havana (Cuba); Rodriguez, Nelson [Center of Medical-Surgical Researches (CIMEQ), Havana (Cuba); Fraxedas, Roberto [Institute of Nephrology (INEF), Havana (Cuba); Rodriguez, Oscar [Orthopedic Hospital Frank Pais, Havana (Cuba); Stabin, Michael G. [Radiation Internal Dose Information Center (RIDIC), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Human pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry to normal organs and total body of {sup 99m} Tc-labeled monoclonal antibody ior egf/r{sup 3} was investigated following intravenous injection in 5 patients. Following administration, blood and urine samples were collected from 4 patients up to 24 hr after injection Pharmacokinetics obtained from whole blood radioactivity showed blood disappearance described most properly by a biexponential model with a mean distribution half-life value of 0.14{+-}0.02 hr and elimination half-life value of 31.0{+-}13.6 hr. Whole body anterior and posterior scans were obtained at 10 min, 1,3,5 and 24 hr after injection. ROIs were drawn over the heart, liver spleen and bladder to measure the activity in the source organs. Time-activity curves for each source organ were fitted to mono- or biexponential functions by non-linear least squares regression using the flexible polyhedral method and integrated to determine organ residence times. The mean absorbed dose to the whole body and various normal organs were then estimated from residence times and from blood and urine samples using the MIRD method. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) and effective dose (ED) were calculated. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose to normal organs in rads/mCi administered (mean {+-} SD, n=4) were: whole body, 0.0185{+-} 0.0023, gallbladder wall, 0.0755{+-} 0.00761, spleen, 0.0637{+-} 0.0167 and liver, 0.276{+-} 0.029. The effective dose equivalent and effective dose estimates for adults were 0.039{+-} 0.008 and 0.028{+-} 0.004 rem/m Ci administered. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Phase I/II 90Y-Zevalin (yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8) radioimmunotherapy dosimetry results in relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, G.A.; Dunn, W.L.; White, C.A.; Berlfein, J.R.; Ding, E.; Grillo-Lopez, A.J.; Stabin, M.; Erwin, W.; Spies, S.; Dahlbom, M.; Silverman, D.H.S.; Raubitschek, A.; Karvelis, K.; Schultheiss, T.; Witzig, T.E.; Belanger, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry studies in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were performed to estimate the radiation absorbed dose to normal organs and bone marrow from 90 Y-Zevalin (yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8) treatment in this phase I/II, multicenter trial. The trial was designed to determine the dose of Rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20, Rituxan, IDEC-C2B8, MabThera), the unlabeled antibody given prior to the radioconjugate to clear peripheral blood B cells and optimize distribution, and to determine the maximum tolerated dose of 90 Y-Zevalin [7.4, 11, or 15 MBq/kg (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mCi/kg)]. Patients received 111 In-Zevalin (indium-111 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-In2B8) on day 0 followed by a therapeutic dose of 90 Y-Zevalin on day 7. Both doses were preceded by an infusion of the chimeric, unlabeled antibody Rituximab. Following administration of 111 In-Zevalin, serial anterior/posterior whole-body scans were acquired. Major-organ radioactivity versus time estimates were calculated using regions of interest. Residence times were computed and entered into the MIRDOSE3 computer software program to calculate estimated radiation absorbed dose to each organ. Initial analyses of estimated radiation absorbed dose were completed at the clinical site. An additional, centralized dosimetry analysis was performed subsequently to provide a consistent analysis of data collected from the seven clinical sites. In all patients with dosimetry data (n=56), normal organ and red marrow radiation absorbed doses were estimated to be well under the protocol-defined upper limit of 20 Gy and 3 Gy, respectively. Median estimated radiation absorbed dose was 3.4 Gy to liver (range 1.2-7.8 Gy), 2.6 Gy to lungs (range 0.72-4.4 Gy), and 0.38 Gy to kidneys (range 0.07-0.61 Gy). Median estimated tumor radiation absorbed dose was 17 Gy (range 5.8-67 Gy). No correlation was noted between hematologic toxicity and the following variables: red marrow radiation absorbed dose, blood T 1/2 , blood AUC

  13. Radiation dosimetry of the α4β2 nicotinic receptor ligand (+-[18F]flubatine, comparing preclinical PET/MRI and PET/CT to first-in-human PET/CT results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kranz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both enantiomers of [18F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+-[18F]flubatine compared to (−-[18F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+-[18F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (−-[18F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. To support the clinical translation, we investigated a fully image-based internal dosimetry approach for (+-[18F]flubatine, comparing mouse data collected on a preclinical PET/MRI system to piglet and first-in-human data acquired on a clinical PET/CT system. Time-activity curves (TACs were obtained from the three species, the animal data extrapolated to human scale, exponentially fitted and the organ doses (OD, and effective dose (ED calculated with OLINDA. Results The excreting organs (urinary bladder, kidneys, and liver receive the highest organ doses in all species. Hence, a renal/hepatobiliary excretion pathway can be assumed. In addition, the ED conversion factors of 12.1 μSv/MBq (mice, 14.3 μSv/MBq (piglets, and 23.0 μSv/MBq (humans were calculated which are well within the order of magnitude as known from other 18F-labeled radiotracers. Conclusions Although both enantiomers of [18F]flubatine exhibit different binding kinetics in the brain due to the respective affinities, the effective dose revealed no enantiomer-specific differences among the investigated species. The preclinical dosimetry and biodistribution of (+-[18F]flubatine was shown and the feasibility of a dose assessment based on image data acquired on a small animal PET/MR and a clinical PET/CT was demonstrated. Additionally, the first-in-human study confirmed the tolerability

  14. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  15. Report of results of the tests of evaluation of the operation of service of personal dosimetry of the CNLV; Informe de resultados de las pruebas de evaluacion del funcionamiento de servicio de dosimetria personal de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-11-15

    The ININ realized the evaluation of the service of personal dosimetry in the CNLV, in the categories: IV.- (Photons of high energy of {sup 137}Cs) and the VA.- (Particles beta of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y); in the category IV the test was satisfactory, however in the chart 1 has an underestimation a the American Standard HP over the value true conventional of a 9%; for this irregularity it is recommended to revise the procedures of evaluation of the process and the determination of the chart 1 of the HP. In the category VA, the test is also satisfactory, however the results contrasted with the chart 2 and the HP, the values were overestimated in 29% of the true conventional value, and for that problem is recommended to revise the evaluation procedures in contrast with the values determined by the standard HP. (Author)

  16. The Future of Medical Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Robert D., E-mail: robert_adams@med.unc.edu

    2015-07-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given.

  17. Recent research into thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1979-04-01

    The trend of basic research in thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD), the results, and developing fields in which it can be applied are reported. This trend is outlined from the viewpoint fields of application, a new trend in TLD readers, the conditions of development of new photogenic substances, and research in the radiation characteristics of photogenic substances (radiosensitivity to particle rays and ultraviolet rays, dose rate dependence, temperature dependence at irradiation, and ..gamma.. ray energy dependence). Utilization of TLD in the medical field for measurement of environmental radiation and as a monitor for workers exposed to radiation is discussed. An international comparison of dose was necessary in order to prove its universal validity.

  18. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently

  19. Organisation of a laboratory of photographic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudain, Georges

    1961-01-01

    After a recall of the main properties of photographic dosimetry, the author describes the principle of this method, and comments the issue of chromatic sensitivity of photographic emulsions. He discusses the calibration process for gamma radiation, X rays, and thermal neutrons. He describes how fast neutron dosimetry is performed. In the next part, he describes the organisation of the photometry laboratory which has to prepare and distribute dosimeters, to collect and exploit them, and to prepare a publication of results. These different missions and tasks are described

  20. An experimental system for thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.E.G.; George, E.

    1965-08-01

    A thermoluminescent dosimeter (T.L.D.) reader has been developed for experimental investigations on the use of lithium fluoride for 'finger tip' dosimetry. The design of the reader is based on the maximum use of standard electronic units in the A.E.R.E. Type 2000 series but some new unit development has been necessary. The reader gives improved experimental facilities over present commercially-available designs. The technique for 'finger-tip' dosimetry is described and the initial experimental results are given. (author)

  1. Advances in electron dosimetry of irregular fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez V, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented an advance in Electron dosimetry of irregular fields for beams emitted by linear accelerators. At present diverse methods exist which are coming to apply in the Radiotherapy centers. In this work it is proposed a method for irregular fields dosimetry. It will be allow to calculate the dose rate absorbed required for evaluating the time for the treatment of cancer patients. Utilizing the results obtained by the dosimetric system, it has been possible to prove the validity of the method describe for 12 MeV energy and for square field 7.5 x 7.5 cm 2 with percentile error less than 1 % . (Author)

  2. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  3. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  4. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1998-01-01

    The two tasks of the Dosimetry and Calibration Section at CERN are the Individual Dosimetry Service which assures the personal monitoring of about 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation at CERN, and the Calibration Laboratory which verifies all the instruments and monitors. This equipment is used by the sections of the RP Group for assuring radiation protection around CERN's accelerators, and by the Environmental Section of TISTE. In addition, nearly 250 electronic and 300 quartz fibre dosimeters, employed in operational dosimetry, are calibrated at least once a year. The Individual Dosimetry Service uses an extended database (INDOS) which contains information about all the individual doses ever received at CERN. For most of 1997 it was operated without the support of a database administrator as the technician who had assured this work retired. The Software Support Section of TIS-TE took over the technical responsibility of the database, but in view of the many other tasks of this Section and the lack of personnel, only a few interventions for solving immediate problems were possible

  5. Dosimetry of pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  6. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  7. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  8. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  9. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  10. 'Hot particle' intercomparison dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.; Charles, M.W.; Darley, D.P.J.; Durham, J.S.; Scannell, M.J.; Soares, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements of four 'hot particles' were made at different density thickness values using five different methods. The hot particles had maximum dimensions of 650 μm and maximum beta energies of 0.97, 046, 0.36, and 0.32 MeV. Absorbers were used to obtain the dose at different depths for each dosimeter. Measurements were made using exoelectron dosimeters, an extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), Eberline RO-2 and RO-2A survey meters, and two sets of GafChromic (tm) dye film with each set read out at a different institution. From these results the dose was calculated averaged over 1 cm 2 of tissue at 18, 70, 125, and 400 μm depth. Comparisons of tissue-dose averaged over 1 cm 2 for 18, 70, and 125 μm depth based on interpolated measured values, were within 30% for the GafChromic (tm) dye film, extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), and Eberline RO-2 and 2A (tm) survey meters except for the hot particle with 0.46 MeV maximum beta energy. The results for this source showed differences of up to 60%. The extrapolation chamber and NE Extremity Tape dosimeters under-responded for measurements at 400 μm by about a factor of 2 compared with the GafChromic dye films for two hot particles with maximum beta energy of 0.32 and 0.36 MeV which each emitted two 100% 1 MeV photons per disintegration. Tissue doses determined using exoelectron dosimeters were a factor of 2 to 5 less than those determined using other dosimeters, possibly due to failures of the equipment. (author)

  11. Performance testing of dosimetry processors, status of NRC rulemaking for improved personnel dosimetry processing, and some beta dosimetry and instrumentation problems observed by NRC regional inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, N.A.; Kinneman, J.D.; Costello, F.M.; White, J.R.; Nimitz, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Early dosimetry processor performance studies conducted between 1967 and 1979 by several different investigators indicated that a significant percentage of personnel dosimetry processors may not be performing with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Results of voluntary performance testing of US personnel dosimetry processors against the final Health Physics Society Standard, Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimetry Performance by the University of Michigan for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will be summarized with emphasis on processor performance in radiation categories involving beta particles and beta particles and photon mixtures. The current status of the NRC's regulatory program for improved personnel dosimetry processing will be reviewed. The NRC is proposing amendments to its regulations, 10 CFR Part 20, that would require its licensees to utilize specified personnel dosimetry services from processors accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program of the National Bureau of Standards. Details of the development and schedule for implementation of the program will be highlighted. Finally, selected beta dosimetry and beta instrumentation problems observed by NRC Regional Staff during inspections of NRC licensed facilities will be discussed

  12. Next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, a number of external dosimetry problems have been solved. However, changes in standards and legal concepts relating to the application of dosimetry results will require further enhancements in measurement techniques and philosophy in the next 10 y. The introduction of effective dose equivalent and the legal use of probability of causation will require that much greater attention be given to determination of weighted organ dose from external exposure. An imminent change--an increase in the fast neutron quality factor--will require a new round of technology development in a field that has just received a decade of close scrutiny. For the future, we must take advantage of developments in microelectronics. The use of random access memory (RAM) and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices as detector elements, particularly for neutron dosimetry, has exciting possibilities that are just beginning to be explored. Advances in microcircuitry are leading, and will continue to lead, in the development of a new generation of small, rugged and smart radiation survey instruments that will make the most of detector data. It has become possible with very compact instruments to obtain energy spectra, linear-energy-transfer (LET) spectra, and quality factors in addition to the usual integrated dosimetric quantities: exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. These instruments will be reliable and easy to use. The user will be able to select the level of sophistication that is required for any specific application. Moreover, since the processing algorithms can be changed, changes in conversion factors can be accommodated with relative ease. During the next decade, the use of computers will continue to grow in value to the health physicist

  13. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: X-ray examinations remain an essential and widely used diagnostic tool in medicine and hence the most significant source of exposure to man-made radiation for populations. Patterns of practice in diagnostic radiology continue to evolve, with overall growth in the numbers of procedures worldwide and, particularly in developed countries, increasing importance for complex procedures such as computed tomography (CT) and interventional techniques. In order to maximise the benefits from x-rays relative to the associated radiation risks, there is a need to ensure the prior justification of all examinations and the optimisation of patient protection such that doses are as low as reasonably practicable to meet specific clinical requirements. Accordingly, patient dosimetry is a fundamental requirement in diagnostic radiology. Detailed measurements for the assessment of risks or comparison of different types of procedure require the estimation of organ and effective doses. Such comprehensive dosimetry necessarily involves the simulation of clinical practice using anthropomorphic phantoms, with either measurements in a physical phantom or calculations utilising a mathematical phantom. Simpler measurements for the routine monitoring of dose in x-ray departments can be based on practical quantities such as entrance surface dose, dose-area product and, for CT, weighted CT dose index and dose-length product. Widescale surveys reveal significant variations between departments in the typical doses for a given type of procedure and potential scope for dose reductions. In order to promote improvements in practice, the results of periodic dose surveys in departments should be compared with appropriate standards, such as diagnostic reference levels for adult and paediatric patients, that are set nationally or locally for the purposes of promoting critical review of the equipment and techniques in use. Patient dosimetry should form an essential element of routine quality

  14. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  15. Neutron dosimetry for radiation damage in fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of materials subjected to the intense neutron radiation fields characteristic of fission power reactors or proposed fusion energy devices is a field of extensive current research. These investigations seek important information relevant to the safety and economics of nuclear energy. In high-level radiation environments, neutron metrology is accomplished predominantly with passive techniques which require detailed knowledge about many nuclear reactions. The quality of neutron dosimetry has increased noticeably during the past decade owing to the availability of new data and evaluations for both integral and differential cross sections, better quantitative understanding of radioactive decay processes, improvements in radiation detection technology, and the development of reliable spectrum unfolding procedures. However, there are problems caused by the persistence of serious integral-differential discrepancies for several important reactions. There is a need to further develop the data base for exothermic and low-threshold reactions needed in thermal and fast-fission dosimetry, and for high-threshold reactions needed in fusion-energy dosimetry. The unsatisfied data requirements for fission reactor dosimetry appear to be relatively modest and well defined, while the needs for fusion are extensive and less well defined because of the immature state of fusion technology. These various data requirements are examined with the goal of providing suggestions for continued dosimetry-related nuclear data research

  16. Textbook of dosimetry. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    This textbook of dosimetry is devoted to the students in physics and technical physics of high education institutions, confronted with different application of atomic energy as well as with protection of population and environment against ionizing radiations. Atomic energy is highly beneficial for man but unfortunately incorporates potential dangers which manifest in accidents, the source of which is either insufficient training of the personnel, a criminal negligence or insufficient reliability of the nuclear facilities. The majority of the incident and accident events have had as origin the personnel errors. This was the case with both the 'Three Miles Island' (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) NPP accidents. The dosimetry science acquires a vital significance in accident situations since the data obtained by its procedures are essential in choosing the correct immediate actions, behaviour tactics, orientation of liquidation of accident consequences as well as in ensuring the health of population. An important accent is placed in this manual on clarification of the nature of physical processes taken place in dosimetric detectors, in establishing the relation between radiation field characteristics and the detector response as well as in defining different dosimetric quantities. The terminology and the units of physical quantities is based on the international system of units. The book contains the following 15 chapters: 1. Ionizing radiation field; 2. Radiation doses; 3. Physical bases of gamma radiation dosimetry; 4. Ionization dosimetric detectors; 5. Semiconductor dosimetric detectors; 6. Scintillation detection in the gamma radiation dosimetry; 7. Luminescent methods in dosimetry; 8. The photographic and chemical methods of gamma radiation dosimetry; 9. Neutron dosimetry; 10. Dosimetry of high intensity radiation; 11. Dosimetry of high energy Bremsstrahlung; 12. Measurement of the linear energy transfer; 13. Microdosimetry; 14. Dosimetry of incorporated

  17. Resonance phenomena at high level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobeslavsky, E.; Dittes, F.M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1994-11-01

    We investigate the behaviour of resonances as a function of the coupling strength between bound and unbound states on the basis of a simple S-matrix model. Resonance energies and widths are calculated for well isolated, overlapping and strongly overlapping resonance states. The formation of shorter and longer time scales (trapping effect) is traced. We illustrate that the cross section results from an interference of all resonance states in spite of the fact that their lifetimes may be very different. (orig.)

  18. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  19. High-level waste canister envelope study: structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The structural integrity of waste canisters, fabricated from standard weight Type 304L stainless steel pipe, was analyzed for sizes ranging from 8 to 24 in. diameter and 10 to 16 feet long under normal, abnormal, and improbable life cycle loading conditions. The canisters are assumed to be filled with vitrified high-level nuclear waste, stored temporarily at a fuel reprocessing plant, and then transported for storage in an underground salt bed or other geologic storage. In each of the three impact conditions studies, the resulting impact force is far greater than the elastic limit capacity of the material. Recommendations are made for further study

  20. High level trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, U.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestabo, A.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Schulz, M.; Steinbeck, T.; Wiebalck, A.; Skaali, B.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will detect up to 20,000 particles in a single Pb-Pb event resulting in a data rate of ∼75 MByte/event. The event rate is limited by the bandwidth of the data storage system. Higher rates are possible by selecting interesting events and subevents (High Level trigger) or compressing the data efficiently with modeling techniques. Both require a fast parallel pattern recognition. One possible solution to process the detector data at such rates is a farm of clustered SMP nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, and connected by a high bandwidth, low latency network

  1. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  2. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  3. The High Level Vibration Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  4. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  5. Criteria for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes is storage without the intention of retrieval. But in such storage, it may be useful and in some cases necessary to have the possibility of retrieval at least for a certain period of time. In order to propose some criteria for HLW disposal, one has to examine how this basic concept is to be applied. HLW is waste separated as a raffinate in the first cycle of solvent extraction in reprocessing. Such waste contains the bulk of fission products which have long half lives, therefore the safety of a disposal site, at least after a certain period of time, must be intrinsic, i.e. not based on human intervention. There is a consensus that such a disposal is feasible in a suitable geological formation in which the integrity of the container will be reinforced by several additional barriers. Criteria for disposal can be proposed for all aspects of the question. The author discusses the aims of the safety analysis, particularly the length of time for this analysis, and the acceptable dose commitments resulting from the release of radionuclides, the number and role of each barrier, and a holistic analysis of safety external factors. (Auth.)

  6. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  7. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  8. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodda, B.-G.; Dix, Siegfried; Merz, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  9. Interlaboratory niobium dosimetry comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, P.

    1980-01-01

    For an interlaboratory comparison of neutron dosimetry using niobium the 93 sup(m)Nb activities of irradiated niobium monitors were measured. This work was performed to compare the applied techniques of dosimetry with Nb in different laboratories. The niobium monitors were irradiated in the fast breeder EBRII, USA and the BR2, Belgium. The monitors were dissolved and several samples were prepared. Their niobium contents were determined by the 94 Nb-count rates. since the original specific count rate was known. The KX radiations of the 93 sup(m)Nb of the samples and of a calibrated Nb-foil were compared. This foil was measured by PTB, Braunschweig and CBNM, Geel, which we additionally compared with the KX radiation of 88 Sr produced by a thin 88 Y source from a 88 Y-standard solution (PTB). (orig.) [de

  10. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  11. Thermo-luminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M; Schorn, B; Schneider, E

    1981-01-01

    The development of paediatric radiology which began in the late 195O's has been characterised by the need to limit the dose of ionising radiation to which the child is subjected. The aim has been to keep radiation exposure as low as possible by the introduction of suitable techniques and by the development of new methods. It is therefore surprising that studies in dosimetry in the paediaytric age range have only been carried out in recent years. One reason for this may have been the fact that a suitable technique of measurement was not available at the time. The introduction of solid state dosimetry based on thermo-luminescence, first into radiotherapy (1968) and subsequently into radiodiagnosis, has made it possible to abandon the previously widely used ionisation chamber. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate the suitability of this form of dose measurement for paediatric radiological purposes and to stimulate its application in this field.

  12. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, H.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor [fr

  13. Sustainable Development and High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mikael [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Sustainable development, defined by the BrundtIand Commission as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', relates to a number of issues such as population, health, food, species and ecosystems, energy, industrial development, urbanization, societal issues and economy, and how these global challenges could be met within a long term strategy. It is not obvious how the principle may be applied to final disposal of radioactive waste, but the global scope of the principle suggests that no sector in society should be exempted from scrutinizing its practices in the light of the challenge presented by sustainable development. Waste management, as pointed out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, cannot be seen as a free standing practice in need of its own justification. The produced waste cannot be seen separately from the other components of nuclear production. However, the existence of very long-lived radioactive nuclei in the spent fuel warrants a careful examination of this subpractice. Health based post-closure criteria or standards for long-lived waste, usually make use of the concept of partitioning dose limit. ICRP recommends that individuals in the public do not receive a yearly dose in excess of 1 mSv as a result of releases in connection with activities involving the use of ionising radiation, and that any single facility does not generate a dose burden to individuals in excess of a fraction of this value. For an operating facility, this fraction is normally at least a factor of three. By definition, operational changes are not possible for a closed repository. It follows from this that the partitioning has another function. One interpretation is that it can allow for the simultaneous use and burdens of future generation's activities. Both the Swedish and the proposed US criteria and from EPA and NRC, as well as standards from

  14. Sustainable Development and High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development, defined by the BrundtIand Commission as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', relates to a number of issues such as population, health, food, species and ecosystems, energy, industrial development, urbanization, societal issues and economy, and how these global challenges could be met within a long term strategy. It is not obvious how the principle may be applied to final disposal of radioactive waste, but the global scope of the principle suggests that no sector in society should be exempted from scrutinizing its practices in the light of the challenge presented by sustainable development. Waste management, as pointed out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, cannot be seen as a free standing practice in need of its own justification. The produced waste cannot be seen separately from the other components of nuclear production. However, the existence of very long-lived radioactive nuclei in the spent fuel warrants a careful examination of this subpractice. Health based post-closure criteria or standards for long-lived waste, usually make use of the concept of partitioning dose limit. ICRP recommends that individuals in the public do not receive a yearly dose in excess of 1 mSv as a result of releases in connection with activities involving the use of ionising radiation, and that any single facility does not generate a dose burden to individuals in excess of a fraction of this value. For an operating facility, this fraction is normally at least a factor of three. By definition, operational changes are not possible for a closed repository. It follows from this that the partitioning has another function. One interpretation is that it can allow for the simultaneous use and burdens of future generation's activities. Both the Swedish and the proposed US criteria and from EPA and NRC, as well as standards from Canada, UK and

  15. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardies, Manuel [INSERM U601, 9 Quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes (France)]. E-mail: manu@nantes.inserm.fr; Flux, Glenn [Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Lassmann, Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Julis-Maximilians University, Wuerzburg (Germany); Monsieurs, Myriam [Department of Health Physics, University of Ghent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki and HUS, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Strand, Sven-Erik [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University (Sweden)

    2006-12-20

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  16. Sixth symposium on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet contains all abstracts of papers presented in 13 sessions. Main topics: Cross sections and Kerma factors; analytical radiobiology; detectors for personnel monitoring; secondary charged particles and microdosimetric basis of q-value for neutrons; personnel dosimetry; concepts for radiation protection; ambient monitoring; TEPC and ion chambers in radiation protection; beam dosimetry; track detectors (CR-39); dosimetry at biomedical irradiation facilities; health physics at therapy facilities; calibration for radiation protection; devices for beam dosimetry (TLD and miscellaneous); therapy and biomedical irradiation facilities; treatment planning. (HP)

  17. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  18. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  19. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  20. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  1. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to give a new user some practical information on the use of radiochromic films for medical applications. While various aspects of radiochromic film dosimetry for medical applications have been covered in some detail in several other excellent review articles which have appeared in the last few years [Niroomand-Rad, A., Blackwell, C.R., Coursey, B.M., Gall, K.P., McLaughlin, W.L., Meigooni, A.S., Nath, R., Rodgers, J.E., Soares, C.G., 1998. Radiochromic dosimetry: recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med. Phys. 25, 2093-2115; Dempsey, J.F., Low, D.A., Mutic, S., Markman, J., Kirov, A.S., Nussbaum, G.H., Williamson, J.F., 2000. Validation of a precision radiochromic film dosimetry system for quantitative two-dimensional imaging of acute exposure dose distributions. Med. Phys. 27, 2462-2475; Butson, M.J., Yu, P.K.N., Cheung, T., Metcalfe, P., 2003. Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry. Mater. Sci. Eng. R41, 61-120], it is the intent of the present author to present material from a more user-oriented and practical standpoint. That is, how the films work will be stressed much less than how to make the films work well. The strength of radiochromic films is most evident in applications where there is a very high dose gradient and relatively high absorbed dose rates. These conditions are associated with brachytherapy applications, measurement of small fields, and at the edges (penumbra regions) of larger fields

  2. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden; In vivo-dosimetri inom straalbehandling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Blomquist, Michael (Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  3. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis

  4. Natural dose level determination at Johor State with thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Termizi Ramli; Yusof Jasman

    1995-01-01

    This paperwork presented the results of using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method in measuring background dose level, which is done at State of Johor, South Malaysia. The problems faced also discussed

  5. High level waste management in Asia: R and D perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokattey, Sangeeta; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to provide an overview, about the status of R and D and current trends in high level radioactive waste management, particularly in Asian countries. The INIS database (for the period 1976 to 2010) was selected for this purpose, as this is the most authoritative global source of information, in the area of Nuclear Science and Technology. Appropriate query formulations on the database, resulted in the retrieval of 4322 unique bibliographic records. Using the content analysis method (which is both a qualitative as well as a quantitative research method), all the records were analyzed. Part One of the analysis details Scientometric R and D indicators, such as the countries and the institutions involved in R and D, the types of publications, and programmes and projects related to High Level Waste management. Part Two is a subject-based analysis, grouped under the following broad categories: I. Waste Processing 1. Partitioning and transmutation (including ADS) II. Waste Immobilization 1. Glass waste forms and 2. Crystalline ceramics and other waste forms III. Waste Disposal 1. Performance assessment and safety evaluation studies 2. Geohydrological studies a. Site selection and characterization, b. In situ underground experiments, c. Rock mechanical characterization 3. Deep geological repositories a. Sorption, migration and groundwater chemistry b. Engineered barrier systems and IV. Waste Packaging Materials. The results of this analysis are summarized in the study. (author)

  6. Dosimetry in Interventional Radiology - Effective Dose Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Jarvinen, H.; Nikodemova, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    Interventional radiological procedures can lead to significant radiation doses to patients and to staff members. In order to evaluate the personal doses with respect to the regulatory dose limits, doses measured by dosimeters have to be converted to effective doses (E). Measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) using a single unshielded dosimeter above the lead apron can lead to significant overestimation of the effective dose, while the measurement with dosimeter under the apron can lead to underestimation. To improve the accuracy, measurements with two dosimeters, one above and the other under the apron have been suggested ( d ouble dosimetry ) . The ICRP has recommended that interventional radiology departments develop a policy that staff should wear two dosimeters. The aim of this study was to review the double dosimetry algorithms for the calculation of effective dose in high dose interventional radiology procedures. The results will be used to develop general guidelines for personal dosimetry in interventional radiology procedures. This work has been carried out by Working Group 9 (Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff) of the CONRAD project, which is a Coordination Action supported by the European Commission within its 6th Framework Program.(author)

  7. The United Kingdom's radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Allahverdi, M.; Powley, S.K.; Nisbet, A.

    2003-01-01

    The first comprehensive national dosimetry intercomparison in the United Kingdom involving all UK radiotherapy centres was carried out in the late 1980s. Out of this a regular radiotherapy dosimetry audit network evolved in the early 1990s. The network is co-ordinated by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and comprises eight co-operative regional groups. Audits are based on site visits using ionization chambers and epoxy resin water substitute phantoms. The basic audit methodology and phantom design follows that of the original national intercomparison exercise. However, most of the groups have evolved more complex methods, to extend the audit scope to include other parameters, other parts of the radiotherapy process and other treatment modalities. A number of the groups have developed phantoms to simulate various clinical treatment situations, enabling the sharing of phantoms and expertise between groups, but retaining a common base. Besides megavoltage external beam photon dosimetry, a number of the groups have also included the audit of kilovoltage X ray beams, electron beams and brachytherapy dosimetry. The National Physical Laboratory is involved in the network and carries out basic beam calibration audits to link the groups. The network is described and the methods and results are illustrated using the Scottish+ group as an example. (author)

  8. A new method for dosimetry with films radiochromic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Carot, I.

    2013-01-01

    in this paper a new method is presented and the results of the comparison between the calibration is summarized based on a planning reference and calibration obtained from the irradiated fragments measure different dose levels multichannel compare dosimetry based on the weighted average dosimetry described by Micke et al.(present in the FilmQAPro software) and, finally, show different results obtained with the method proposed in several applications clinics. (Author)

  9. Advances in biomedical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Radiation dosimetry, the accurate determination of the absorbed dose within an irradiated body or a piece of material, is a prerequisite for all applications of ionizing radiation. This has been known since the very first radiation applications in medicine and biology, and increasing efforts are being made by radiation researchers to develop more reliable, effective and safe instruments, and to further improve dosimetric accuracy for all types of radiation used. Development of new techniques and instrumentation was particularly fast in the field of both medical diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Thus, in Paris in October the IAEA held the latest symposium in its continuing series on dosimetry in medicine and biology. The last one was held in Vienna in 1975. High-quality dosimetry is obviously of great importance for human health, whether the objectives lie in the prevention and control of risks associated with the nuclear industry, in medical uses of radioactive substances or X-ray beams for diagnostic purposes, or in the application of photon, electron or neutron beams in radiotherapy. The symposium dealt with the following subjects: General aspects of dosimetry; Special physical and biomedical aspects; Determination of absorbed dose; Standardization and calibration of dosimetric systems; and Development of dosimetric systems. The forty or so papers presented and the discussions that followed them brought out a certain number of dominant themes, among which three deserve particular mention. - The recent generalization of the International System of Units having prompted a fundamental reassessment of the dosimetric quantities to be considered in calibrating measuring instruments, various proposals were advanced by the representatives of national metrology laboratories to replace the quantity 'exposure' (SI unit = coulomb/kg) by 'Kerma' or 'absorbed dose' (unit joule/kg, the special name of which is 'gray'), this latter being closer to the practical

  10. Fiscal 1996 report on the results of the R and D of technology of high-level treatment/effective use of domestic/industrial wastes, etc. (for public); 1996 nendo Shin Energy Sangyo gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku seikatsu sangyo haikibutsu shori yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing environmental loads of waste and effectively using resource by waste recycling, a study was conducted of high-level treatment/effective use technology for domestic/industrial wastes, etc. The paper reported the results of fiscal 1996. In the EcoCement producing technology using the synthetic urban type waste, EcoCement with stable quality was obtained using sewage sludge and industrial waste as raw materials. In the specified freon decomposition disposal technology, an experiment was carried out on durability, etc. of the processing unit. In the high speed/reduced smell biological garbage disposal technology, technology of fermenting disposal, etc. were established, and at the same time technology of making garbage compost was developed. In the technology to manufacture environment friendly type plastic containers, etc., a degradation behavior was grasped of degradable plastics in the compost. In the spread type waste plastic/thermal recycle technology, studied were a system to collect waste and a system to make waste solid fuel. Technology to recycle coolant freon was studied. 14 refs., 261 figs., 137 tabs.

  11. Dental tissue as a thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaimani, F.; Zahmatkesh, M.H.; Akhlaghpoor, Sh.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thermoluminescence dosimetry is one of the dosimetry procedures used widely as routine and personal dosimeters. In order to extend this kind of dosimeters, dental tissue has been examined and was found promising as a Thermoluminescence Dosimetry dosimeter. Materials and Methods: In this study, 70 health teeth were collected. The only criterion, wich was considered for selection of the teeth, was the healthiness of them regardless of age and gender of the donors. All collected samples were washed and cleaned and milled uniformly. The final powder had a uniform grain size between 100-300 micrometer. The sample was divided into four groups. Group A and B were used for measurement of density and investigation of variation of thermoluminescent characteristics with temperature respectively. Groups C and D were used for investigation of variation of thermoluminescent intensity with dose and fading of this intensity with time. In all cases the results obtained with dental tissue were compared to a standard LiF, thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter. Results: It was found that, average density of the dental tissue was 1.570 g/cm 3 , which is comparable to density of LiF, which is 1.612g/cm 3 . It was also concluded that the range of 0-300 d ig C , dental tissue has a simple curve with two specific peaks at 140 and 25 d ig C respectively. The experiment also showed that, the variation of relative intensity versus dose is linear in the range of 0.04-0.1 Gy. The fading rate of dental tissue is higher than LiF but still in the acceptable range (14% per month in compare to 5.2% per month). Conclusion: Dental tissue as a natural dosimeter is comparable with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry and can be used in accidental events with a good approximation

  12. On risk assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major concerns with the continued growth of the nuclear power industry is the production of the high level radioactive wastes. The risks associated with the disposal of these wastes derives from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. In the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected 35 year nuclear power program is determined. An index of relative nuclide hazard appropriate to problems involving the management of high level radioactive wastes is developed. As an illustration of the methodology, risk analyses are made for two proposed methods for waste management: extraterrestrial disposal and interim surface storage. The results of these analyses indicate that, within the assumptions used, the risks of these management schemes are small compared with natural background radiation doses. (Auth.)

  13. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immobilisation of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E; Kesson, S E; Ware, N G; Hibberson, W; Major, A [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Inst. of Advanced Studies

    1979-03-15

    It is stated that the elements occurring in high-level nuclear reactor wastes can be safely immobilised by incorporating them within the crystal lattices of the constituent minerals of a synthetic rock (SYNROC). The preferred form of SYNROC can accept up to 20% of high level waste calcine to form dilute solid solutions. The constituent minerals, or close structural analogues, have survived in a wide range of geochemical environments for periods of 20 to 2,000 Myr whilst immobilising the same elements present in nuclear wastes. SYNROC is unaffected by leaching for 24 hours in pure water or 10 wt % NaCl solution at high temperatures and pressure whereas borosilicate glasses completely decompose in a few hours in much less severe hydrothermal conditions. The combination of these leaching results with the geological evidence of long-term stability indicates that SYNROC would be vastly superior to glass in its capacity to safely immobilise nuclear wastes, when buried in a suitable geological repository. A dense, compact, mechanically strong form of SYNROC suitable for geological disposal can be produced by a process as economical as that which incorporates radioactive waste in borosilicate glasses.

  15. The IAEA/WHO thermoluminescent dosimetry intercomparison used for the improvement of clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.

    1981-01-01

    Results of thermoluminescent dosimetry collected over 5 years in the Eastern Mediterranean region of WHO were analyzed in an attempt to improve clinical dosimetry. Data for 16 radiotherapy departments showed considerable inconsistencies. It was found that the clinical dosemeters used by 3 of the departments were not working properly. The remainder of the departments had one or more dosemeters in perfect working order but the procedure for measuring machine output was inadequate or the correction factors (pressure, temperature) were wrongly applied due to lack of reliable instruments for such measurements. Problems encountered in the sending and returning of TLD dosemeters for assessment are discussed

  16. Dosimetry of hands and human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harr, R.

    2008-12-01

    The human factor in facilities where open radioactive sources are managed it can be controlled through the use of the ring dosimetry, however, that these devices only provide qualitative information that is not extrapolated to legislative limits. lt is present the case analysis of hands dosimetry of female person with responsibility for professional standards and a very high profile with ratings that allow her to have a high level of knowledge of the basic standards, and because with an attitude and a culture rooted of radiation protection, among other qualities. Their records reveal a trend in which monthly doses are below the 7 mSv, and only occasionally are between 7 and 12 mSv per month and hand. The other case correspond to a technician, trained in radiological techniques, also with a high profile, with two courses for occupationally exposed personnel more than 10 annual retraining, and work experience of over 10 years as occupationally exposed personnel, in which knowledge of standards and because of the entrenched culture of radiation protection and their interest degree in the care of their exposure is still in a phase half, in this case also shows a trend in the monthly dose where found registers between 7 and 11 mSv per month and hand. The third case is of a second technician with less experience and most basic knowledge, his dose register not show a real trend, sometimes be found reads of irregular values as if the dosimeter is not used and some other times as if misused by exposing to purpose (was observed at least one reading above the monthly 30 mSv). By way of conclusion, it is noted that the hands dosimetry is a useful tool to monitor transactions through the data compilation susceptible to analysis with variations which can be placed in the context of the human factor. (Author)

  17. Comparison of Real-Time Intraoperative Ultrasound-Based Dosimetry With Postoperative Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Shi Peipei; Liu Bingren; Gupta, Nilendu; Bahnson, Robert R.; Wang, Jian Z.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether real-time intraoperative ultrasound (US)-based dosimetry can replace conventional postoperative computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between December 2001 and November 2002, 82 patients underwent 103 Pd prostate brachytherapy. An interplant treatment planning system was used for real-time intraoperative transrectal US-guided treatment planning. The dose distribution was updated according to the estimated seed position to obtain the dose-volume histograms. Postoperative CT-based dosimetry was performed a few hours later using the Theraplan-Plus treatment planning system. The dosimetric parameters obtained from the two imaging modalities were compared. Results: The results of this study revealed correlations between the US- and CT-based dosimetry. However, large variations were found in the implant-quality parameters of the two modalities, including the doses covering 100%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate volume and prostate volumes covered by 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescription dose. The mean relative difference was 38% and 16% for doses covering 100% and 90% of the prostate volume and 10% and 21% for prostate volumes covered by 100% and 150% of the prescription dose, respectively. The CT-based volume covered by 200% of the prescription dose was about 30% greater than the US-based one. Compared with CT-based dosimetry, US-based dosimetry significantly underestimated the dose to normal organs, especially for the rectum. The average US-based maximal dose and volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose for the rectum was 72 Gy and 0.01 cm 3 , respectively, much lower than the 159 Gy and 0.65 cm 3 obtained using CT-based dosimetry. Conclusion: Although dosimetry using intraoperative US-based planning provides preliminary real-time information, it does not accurately reflect the postoperative CT-based dosimetry. Until studies have determined whether US-based dosimetry or

  18. Photon dosimetry intercomparisons at Tygerberg and Groote Schuur hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.T.L.; Symons, J.E.; Schreuder, A.N.; Van der Merwe, E.J.; Rossouw, A.; Hough, J.K.; Lazarus, G.L.

    1994-08-01

    A national photon dosimetry intercomparison was undertaken at 8 hospitals at the beginning of 1989 prior to the commencement of randomised clinical trials involving neutron therapy at the National Accelerator Centre. The results obtained were in agreement at all but two hospitals. Following these studies it was agreed that a uniform photon dosimetry protocol, the AAPM TG2 protocol, be adopted countrywide. The clinical program at the National Accelerator Centre is now far advanced and it was deemed appropriate to undertake a new photon dosimetry intercomparison at two local hospitals, through which all patients are referred. The procedure involved was to compare the doses measured at each hospital under specified conditions by National Accelerator staff with the doses measured by the hospital physicists using their own equipment and protocols. The results obtained were in good agreement, confirming the validity of the dosimetry techniques used. 8 refs., 8 tabs

  19. Special workshop on lung dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    A Special Workshop on Lung Dosimetry was convened in Salt Lake City, Utah, on April 21-22, 1982, to stimulate the use of improved radiation dosimetry and to formulate a stronger basis for dose-response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. The two-day workshop was held in conjunction with the 30th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society. Publication is planned

  20. Argentine intercomparison programme for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, B.N.; Papadopulos, S.B.; Cruzate, J.; Kunst, J.J.; Saravi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In 1997 began in Argentine, sponsored by Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) the intercomparison program for personal dosimetry laboratories, on a voluntary basis. Up to know 6 exercises have been done. The program began with a workshop to present the quantities, personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and extremities dose equivalent, Hs(d). The first aim of this program was to know the true sate of personal dosimetry laboratories in the country, and then introduce the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) into the dose measurements. The Regional Reference Center for Dosimetry (CCR), belonging to CNEA and the Physical Dosimetry Laboratory of ARN performed the irradiation. Those were done air free and on ICRU phantom, using x-ray, quality ISO: W60, W110 and W200; and 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma rays. The irradiation was made following ISO 4037 (2) recommendations. There are studied the dose, energy and angular response of the different measuring system. The range of the dose analyzed was from 0.2 mSv up to 80 mSv. The beam incidence was normal and also 20 o and 60 o . The dosimeters irradiation's were performed kerma in free in air and in phantom in order to study the availability of the service to evaluate the behavior as a function of kerma free in air or Hp(10). At the same time several items have been asked to each participant referring to the action range, the detectors characteristics, the laboratory procedures, the existence of an algorithm and its use for the dosimeter evaluation and the wish to participate in a quality assurance program. The program worked in writing a standard of personal dosimetry laboratories, that was published in 2001. In this work the results of each laboratory and its performance based on the ICRP-60 and ICRP-35 acceptance criteria are shown. Also the laboratory evolution and inquiry analyses have been included. (author)

  1. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  2. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Determining the lower limit of detection for personnel dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Carlson, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A simple method for determining the lower limit of detection (LLD) for personnel dosimetry systems is described. The method relies on the definition of a critical level and a detection level. The critical level is the signal level above which a result has a small probability of being due to a fluctuation of the background. All results below the critical level should not be reported as an indication of a positive result. The detection level is the net signal level (i.e., dose received) above which there is a high confidence that a true reading will be detected and reported as a qualitatively positive result. The detection level may be identified as the LLD. A simple formula is derived to allow the calculation of the LLD under various conditions. This type of formula is being used by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for personnel dosimetry. Participants in either the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for personnel dosimetry or DOELAP can use performance test results along with a measurement of background levels to estimate the LLDs for their dosimetry system. As long as they maintain their dosimetry system such that the LLDs are less than half the lower limit of the NVLAP or DOELAP test exposure ranges, dosimetry laboratories can avoid testing failures due to poor performance at very low exposures

  4. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  5. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program's (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant's melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy

  6. Patient-specific dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: a clinical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalkia, M.T.; Stefanoyiannis, A.P.; Chatziioannou, S.N.; Efstathopoulos, E.P.; Round, W.H.; Nikiforidis, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) belong to a relatively rare class of neoplasms. Nonetheless, their prevalence has increased significantly during the last decades. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment approach for inoperable or metastasised NETs. The therapeutic effect is based on the binding of radiolabelled somatostatin analogue peptides with NETs’ somatostatin receptors, resulting in internal irradiation of tumours. Pre-therapeutic patient-specific dosimetry is essential to ensure that a treatment course has high levels of safety and efficacy. This paper reviews the methods applied for PRRT dosimetry, as well as the dosimetric results presented in the literature. Focus is given on data concerning the therapeutic somatostatin analogue radiopeptides 111 In-[DTPA o , D -Phe 1 ]-octreotide ( 111 In-DTPA-octreotide), 90 Y-[DOTA o ,Tyr 3 ]-octreotide ( 90 Y-DOTATOC) and 177 Lu-[DOTA o ,Tyr 3 ,Thr 8 ]-octreotide ( 177 Lu-DOTATATE). Following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee formalism, dosimetric analysis demonstrates large interpatient variability in tumour and organ uptake, with kidneys and bone marrow being the critical organs. The results are dependent on the image acquisition and processing protocol, as well as the dosimetric imaging radiopharmaceutical.

  7. Aqueous chemical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous chemical dosimetry based on ceric and ferrous sulfate solutions and on a number of fluorescence-induced systems is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the factors affecting the response of these dosimeters to radiation and the corrections necessary for more accurate dosimetry under various irradiation conditions. The effect of cerous and ceric ion, oxygen, and sulfuric acid concentration on the ceric dosimeter is discussed together with the effects of temperature, energy of radiation, degraded energy spectra, and peroxysulfuric acids. Practical aspects of ceric/cerous dosimetry are given. Although ferrous sulfate solution is the most important and widely studied reference dosimeter, general agreement has not been reached on the ''best'' value for the molar extinction coefficient of ferric ions nor on the correction necessary to the G(Fe 3 - ) value for irradiations at temperatures significantly different from 25 0 C. New data are presented which indicate that the larger temperature coefficients given in the literature are more accurate. The ferrous sulfate system has been of great importance in establishing the primary radiolytic yields for 0.4 M sulfuric acid solution; it is shown how the failure to take into account the effect of oxygen and ferrous sulfate concentrations has led to erroneously high estimates of the zero solute concentration values in acid solutions. Some of the methods for extending the dose ranges measurable with ferrous sulfate-based solutions are reviewed. Substances which on irradiation give highly fluorescent products are among the most sensitive aqueous chemical dosimeters. These include benzoate and terephthalate solutions and the more recent coumarin and trimesate solutions. Advantages and disadvantages system are discussed. (author)

  8. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  9. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Nielsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 both the Individual Dosimetry and Calibration Sections worked under the condition of a status quo and concentrated fully on the routine part of their work. Nevertheless, the machine for printing the bar code which will be glued onto the film holder and hence identify the people when entering into high radiation areas was put into operation and most of the holders were equipped with the new identification. As far as the Calibration Section is concerned the project of the new source control system that is realized by the Technical Support Section was somewhat accelerated

  10. NRPB patient dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.; Hillier, M.; Bungay, D.; Wall, B.

    1994-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) have been used by NRPB to investigate the doses received by patients undergoing diagnostic examinations with x-rays, and these measurements have formed the basis for national recommendations on patient protection. Monitoring typical levels of patient dose should represent an essential element of routine quality assurance in x-ray departments. In order to promote more widespread measurements in hospitals, NRPB has drawn on a wealth of experience to establish a high-quality service providing TLDs for medical dosimetry by post. (author)

  11. Dosimetry in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzi, A.E

    2014-01-01

    The steady growth in the use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging requires to maintain a proper management of patient’s dose. Dosimetry in Radiology is a difficult topic to address, but vital for proper estimation of the dose the patient is receiving. The awareness that every day is perceived in our country on these issues is the appropriate response to this problem. This article describes the main dosimetric units used and easily exemplifies doses in radiology through internationally known reference values. (authors) [es

  12. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  13. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period

  14. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  15. Code for Internal Dosimetry (CINDY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Sula, M.J.; Johnson, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    The CINDY (Code for Internal Dosimetry) Software Package has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to address the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11 by providing the capabilities to calculate organ dose equivalents and effective dose equivalents using the approach of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 30. The code assist in the interpretation of bioassay data, evaluates committed and calendar-year doses from intake or bioassay measurement data, provides output consistent with revised DOE orders, is easy to use, and is generally applicable to DOE sites. Flexible biokinetics models are used to determine organ doses for annual, 50-year, calendar-year, or any other time-point dose necessary for chronic or acute intakes. CINDY is an interactive program that prompts the user to describe the cases to be analyzed and calculates the necessary results for the type of analysis being performed. Four types of analyses may be specified. 92 figs., 10 tabs

  16. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system

  17. Separation processes for high-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    During World War II, production of nuclear materials in the United States for national defense, high-level waste (HLW) was generated as a byproduct. Since that time, further quantities of HLW radionuclides have been generated by continued nuclear materials production, research, and the commercial nuclear power program. In this paper HLW is defined as the highly radioactive material resulting from the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The HLW is the liquid waste generated during the recovery of uranium and plutonium in a fuel processing plant that generally contains more than 99% of the nonvolatile fission products produced during reactor operation. Since this paper deals with waste separation processes, spent reactor fuel elements that have not been dissolved and further processed are excluded

  18. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B 2 O 3 content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B 2 O 3 and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume

  19. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  20. Engineering-scale vitrification of commercial high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Hanson, M.S.; Knowlton, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    To date, technology for immobilizing commercial high-level waste (HLW) has been extensively developed, and two major demonstration projects have been completed, the Waste Solidification Engineering Prototypes (WSEP) Program and the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP). The feasibility of radioactive waste solidification was demonstrated in the WSEP program between 1966 and 1970 (McElroy et al. 1972) using simulated power-reactor waste composed of nonradioactive chemicals and HLW from spent, Hanford reactor fuel. Thirty-three engineering-scale canisters of solidified HLW were produced during the operations. In early 79, the NWVP demonstrated the vitrification of HLW from the processing of actual commercial nuclear fuel. This program consisted of two parts, (1) waste preparation and (2) vitrification by spray calcination and in-can melting. This report presents results from the NWVP

  1. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  2. Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Mac Farlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY

  3. High-level radioactive waste glass and storage canister design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Management of high-level radioactive wastes is a primary concern in nuclear operations today. The main objective in managing these wastes is to convert them into a solid, durable form which is then isolated from man. A description is given of the design and evaluation of this waste form. The waste form has two main components: the solidified waste and the storage canister. The solid waste form discussed in this study is glass. Waste glasses have been designed to be inert to water attack, physically rugged, low in volatility, and stable over time. Two glass-making processes are under development at PNL. The storage canister is being designed to provide high-integrity containment for solidified wastes from processing to terminal storage. An outline is given of the steps in canister design: material selection, stress and thermal analyses, quality verification, and postfill processing. Examples are given of results obtained from actual nonradioactive demonstration tests. 14 refs

  4. Supervision of the ATLAS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, S.; Meessen, C.; Qian, Z.; Touchard, F.; Negri, France A.; Zobernig, H.; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics; Negri, France A.

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system provides software-based event selection after the initial LVL1 hardware trigger. It is composed of two stages, the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter. The HLT is implemented as software tasks running on large processor farms. An essential part of the HLT is the supervision system, which is responsible for configuring, coordinating, controlling and monitoring the many hundreds of processes running in the HLT. A prototype implementation of the supervision system, using tools from the ATLAS Online Software system is presented. Results from scalability tests are also presented where the supervision system was shown to be capable of controlling over 1000 HLT processes running on 230 nodes.

  5. Immobilization of high-level wastes into sintered glass: 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.O.; Messi de Bernasconi, N.; Audero, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to immobilize the high-level radioactive wastes from fuel elements reprocessing, borosilicate glass was adopted. Sintering experiments are described with the variety VG 98/12 (SiO 2 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO and Na 2 O) (which does not present devitrification problems) mixed with simulated calcinated wastes. The hot pressing line (sintering under pressure) was explored in two variants 1: In can; 2: In graphite matrix with sintered pellet extraction. With scanning electron microscopy it is observed that the simulated wastes do not disolve in the vitreous matrix, but they remain dispersed in the same. The results obtained point out that the leaching velocities are independent from the density and from the matrix type employed, as well as from the fact that the wastes do no dissolve in the matrix. (M.E.L.) [es

  6. Is intraoperative real-time dosimetry in prostate seed brachytherapy predictive of biochemical outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Taussky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze intraoperative (IO dosimetry using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, performed before and after prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT, and compare it to dosimetry performed 30 days following the LDR-BT implant (Day 30. Material and methods : A total of 236 patients underwent prostate LDR-BT using 125 I that was performed with a three-dimensional TRUS-guided interactive inverse preplanning system (preimplant dosimetry. After the implant procedure, the TRUS was repeated in the operating room, and the dosimetry was recalculated (postimplant dosimetry and compared to dosimetry on Day 30 computed tomography (CT scans. Area under curve (AUC statistics was used for models predictive of dosimetric parameters at Day 30. Results : The median follow-up for patients without BF was 96 months, the 5-year and 8-year biochemical recurrence (BR-free rate was 96% and 90%, respectively. The postimplant median D 90 was 3.8 Gy lower (interquartile range [IQR], 12.4-0.9, and the V 100 only 1% less (IQR, 2.9-0.2% than the preimplant dosimetry. When comparing the postimplant and the Day 30 dosimetries, the postimplant median D 90 was 9.6 Gy higher (IQR [–] 9.5-30.3 Gy, and the V 100 was 3.2% greater (0.2-8.9% than Day 30 postimplant dosimetry. The variables that best predicted the D 90 of Day 30 was the postimplant D 90 (AUC = 0.62, p = 0.038. None of the analyzed values for IO or Day 30 dosimetry showed any predictive value for BR. Conclusions : Although improving the IO preimplant and postimplant dosimetry improved dosimetry on Day 30, the BR-free rate was not dependent on any dosimetric parameter. Unpredictable factors such as intraprostatic seed migration and IO factors, prevented the accurate prediction of Day 30 dosimetry.

  7. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, J.H.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure

  8. Using track detectors in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.

    1977-01-01

    The usage of track detectors of charged particles provides a new possibility of neutron dosimetry. Presented is a comparison of the main dosimetric characteristics of three various types of track detectots of fast neutrons, i.e. glass in the contact with 232 Th; KODAK LR115 cellulose nitrate; MAKROFOL E polycarbonate. Results of studing energy dependences of detectors are presented. Results obtained using phantoms under radiation fields of various sources of complex gamma-neutron radiation are discussed [ru

  9. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S.

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations

  10. Discovery of high-level tasks in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.; Jonker, P.P.; Dankelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding surgical high-level tasks from sensor readings is important for surgical workflow analysis. Surgical high-level task recognition is also a challenging task in ubiquitous computing because of the inherent uncertainty of sensor data and the complexity of the operating

  11. Characteristics of solidified high-level waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The object of the report is to contribute to the establishment of a data bank for future preparation of codes of practice and standards for the management of high-level wastes. The work currently in progress on measuring the properties of solidified high-level wastes is being studied

  12. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  13. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at

  14. Internal Dosimetry. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindorf, C. [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-12-15

    The Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) is a committee within the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The MIRD Committee was formed in 1965 with the mission to standardize internal dosimetry calculations, improve the published emission data for radionuclides and enhance the data on pharmacokinetics for radiopharmaceuticals [18.1]. A unified approach to internal dosimetry was published by the MIRD Committee in 1968, MIRD Pamphlet No. 1 [18.2], which was updated several times thereafter. Currently, the most well known version is the MIRD Primer from 1991 [18.3]. The latest publication on the formalism was published in 2009 in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4], which provides a notation meant to bridge the differences in the formalism used by the MIRD Committee and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [18.5]. The formalism presented in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4] will be used here, although some references to the quantities and parameters used in the MIRD primer [18.3] will be made. All symbols, quantities and units are presented.

  15. Dosimetry of industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Rodriguez J, R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez V, R.; Ramirez G, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2007-01-01

    The gamma rays are produced during the disintegration of the atomic nuclei, its high energy allows them to cross thick materials. The capacity to attenuate a photons beam allows to determine the density, in line, of industrial interest materials as the mining. By means of two active dosemeters and a TLDs group (passive dosimetry) the dose rates of two sources of Cs-137 used for determining in line the density of mining materials were determined. With the dosemeters the dose levels in diverse points inside the grave that it harbors the sources and by means of calculations the isodoses curves were determined. In the phase of calculations was supposed that both sources were punctual and the isodose curves were calculated for two situations: naked sources and in their Pb packings. The dosimetry was carried out around two sources of 137 Cs. The measured values allowed to develop a calculation procedure to obtain the isodoses curves in the grave where the sources are installed. (Author)

  16. Managing commercial high-level radioactive waste: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This summary presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste - an issue that has been debated over the last decade and that now appears to be moving toward major congressional action. After more than 20 years of commercial nuclear power, the Federal Government has yet to develop a broadly supported policy for fulfilling its legal responsibility for the final isolation of high-level radioactive waste. OTA's study concludes that until such a policy is adopted in law, there is a substantial risk that the false starts, shifts of policy, and fluctuating support that have plagued the final isolation program in the past will continue. The continued lack of final isolation facilities has raised two key problems that underlie debates about radioactive waste policy. First, some question the continued use of nuclear power until it is shown that safe final isolation for the resulting wastes can and will be accomplished, and argue that the failure to develop final isolation facilities is evidence that it may be an insoluble problem. Second, because there are no reprocessing facilities or federal waste isolation facilities to accept spent fuel, existing reactors are running out of spent fuel storage space, and by 1986 some may face a risk of shutting down for some period. Most of the 72,000 metric tons of spent fuel expected to be generated by the year 2000 will still be in temporary storage at that time. While it is possible that utilities could provide all necessary additional storage at reactor sites before existing basins are filled, some supplemental storage may be needed if there are delays in their efforts

  17. Protocol for X-ray dosimetry and exposure arrangements employed in studies of late somatic effects in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Broerse, J.J.; Scarpa, G.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    A number of European laboratories studying the late effects of ionizing radiation in animals have established an effective cooperation within the European Late Effects Project Group (EULEP) since 1970. To facilitate the exchange of biological results several techniques, including quality control of the experimental animals, pathology and dosimetry, have to be standardized. The most important aspects of the procedures for X-irradiation and dosimetry of small animals are summarized. These include recommendations on irradiation conditions, dosimetry methods, characteristics of phantoms and factors affecting X-ray dosimetry. X-irradiation procedures employed by the participating institutes are described and the results of five X-ray dosimetry intercomparisons are reported. The introduction of a common dosimetry protocol has resulted in improvements in exposure arrangements and absolute dosimetry. (author)

  18. Evaluation of instrumental parameters for obtaining acceptable analytical results of the Dosimetry Laboratory of Chemistry of the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences, CNEN-NE, Recife, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Cunha, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental parameters need to be evaluated for obtaining acceptable analytical results for a specific instrument. The performance of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer can be verified for wavelengths and absorbances with appropriate materials (solutions of different concentrations of K 2 CrO 4 , for example). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the results of the procedures to control the quality of the measurements carried out in the laboratory in the last four years. The samples were analyzed in the spectrophotometer and control graphics were obtained for K 2 CrO 4 and Fe 3+ absorbance values. The variation in the results obtained for the stability of the spectrophotometer and for the control of its calibration did not exceed 2%. (author)

  19. Dating by fission track method: study of neutron dosimetry with natural uranium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iunes, P.J.

    1990-06-01

    Fission track dating is described, focalizing the problem of the decay constant for spontaneous fission of 238 U and the use of neutron dosimetry in fission track analysis. Experimental procedures using thin films of natural uranium as neutron dosimeters and its results are presented. The author shows a intercomparison between different thin films and between the dosimetry with thin film and other dosimetries. (M.V.M.). 52 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs

  20. New materials for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madatov, R.S.; Necefov, A.I.; Qabulov, I.A.; Seferova, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The utilization of nuclear energy and beginning the production of radioactive nuclides are the reasons for radiation safety problems actualization. As a result of this, a new specific peculiar properties such as environmental, psychological, biological and etc. that are originated due to radioactive irradiation have been observed. Dosimetric equipment is used with the purpose of environmental protection, radiation detection, radiation safety assessment and distribution of information. The principle of operation of this equipment is based on the ionization effect. However, the equipment is differed one from another by the registration method. The main imperfections of dosimetric equipment are a narrowness of irradiation range as well as small values of energy sensitivity and stability. Taking into account of all above-stated imperfections, the obtaining of a new radiation-resistant materials and production of modern dosimetric detectors on their basis are one of the actual problems in dosimetry. At present the detectors on the basis of semiconductor materials such as Ge, Si, CdTe, CdS and etc. are widespread. Their principle of operation is also based on the ionization process, but the mechanism of its is differ from gas detectors. It is connected with that the carrier mobility for electrons in semiconductors is varied from 1400 up to 4000 cm 2 /(V·sec), and for holes from 400 up to 2000 cm 2 /(V·sec). It provides high level of detection for detectors on the basis of semiconductors. Initial conductivity of semiconductors differs one from another and it restricts the efficiency of detectors. The investigations on two directions have been carried out by this reason. The first direction is the increasing of radiation resistance of existing materials. The second direction is the obtaining of a new materials with high radiation resistance. It is known that the laminated materials on the basis of tellurium, for instance TeInS 2 are high sensitivity to X

  1. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  2. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  3. Techniques for radiation measurements: Micro-dosimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Micro-dosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nano-meter, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental Micro-dosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with Micro-dosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using Micro-dosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. (authors)

  4. Boron dose determination for BNCT using Fricke and EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ciesielski, B.

    1995-01-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) the dominant dose delivered to the tumor is due to α and 7 Li charged particles resulting from a neutron capture by 10 B and is referred to herein as the boron dose. Boron dose is directly attributable to the following two independent factors, one boron concentration and the neutron capture energy dependent cross section of boron, and two the energy spectrum of the neutrons that interact with boron. The neutron energy distribution at a given point is dictated by the incident neutron energy distribution, the depth in tissue, geometrical factors such as beam size and patient's dimensions. To account for these factors can be accommodated by using Monte Carlo theoretical simulations. However, in conventional experimental BNCT dosimetry, e.g., using TLDs or ionization chambers, it is only possible to estimate the boron dose. To overcome some of the limitations in the conventional dosimetry, modifications in ferrous sulfate dosimetry (Fricke) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry in alanine, enable to measure specifically boron dose in a mixed gamma neutron radiation fields. The boron dose, in either of the dosimeters, is obtained as a difference between measurements with boronated and unboronated dosimeters. Since boron participates directly in the measurements, the boron dosimetry reflects the true contribution, integral of the neutron energy spectrum with boron cross section, of the boron dose to the total dose. Both methods are well established and used extensively in dosimetry, they are presented briefly here

  5. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  6. Film dosimetry for IMRT: sensitivity corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchowerska, N.; Hoban, P.; Davison, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The trend towards conformal, dynamic and intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments has furthered the need for true integrating dosimetry. In traditional radiotherapy, film dosimetry is commonly used. The accuracy and reproducibility of film optical density as an indicator of dose, has been associated with several variables. These include the effects of film specific sensitivity, direction of exposure, chemical processing and film scanner sensitivity. In this study, a procedure is developed to account for these variables, with a particular view to film being used as a dosimeter for conformal treatments. An effective sensitometric curve was established by exposing part of a single sheet of film to known doses. All films were processed together and scanned using a DuoscanT1200 transmission scanner, resulting in 12 bit image files. The images were analysed using Osiris software and the results fitted to the modified Williamson equation: P P s (l - 10 αD ) This yields values of α [film sensitivity], and P s [saturation pixel value], allowing individual dosimetry films to be normalised to this sensitometric calibration curve. For validation, a piece of Kodak X Omat-V film was sealed in a head phantom and exposed to a total of 51 IMRT fields, delivered from 6 gantry angles. The rest of the sheet of film was resealed and exposed to four known doses, providing sensitometric data, specific to this exposure. All films were then processed, scanned and analysed as described above. Observed variations in serial films exposed to 50cGy is in the order of 9% [mean 25.0,standard deviation = 3.2]. The automatic gain of the scanner system typically contributed 4% variation and needs to be carefully monitored. Results indicate that by using the sensitometric data from each exposure, the collective errors can be minimised. The IMRT exposure results confirm that the above process is viable for use in dosimetry for conformal radiation therapy. Copyright (2000) Australasian

  7. Background dose subtraction in personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picazo, T.; Llorca, N.; Alabau, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed to consider the mode of the frequency distribution of the low dose dosemeters from each clinic that uses X rays as the background environmental dose that should be subtracted from the personnel dosimetry to evaluate the doses due to practice. The problems and advantages of this indirect method to estimate the environmental background dose are discussed. The results for 60 towns are presented. (author)

  8. Skin dosimetry - radiological protection aspects of skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following a Workshop in Skin Dosimetry, a summary of the radiological protection aspects is given. Aspects discussed include routine skin monitoring and dose limits, the need for careful skin dosimetry in high accidental exposures, techniques for assessing skin dose at all relevant depths and the specification of dose quantities to be measured by personal dosemeters and the appropriate methods to be used in their calibration. (UK)

  9. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  10. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  11. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  12. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives; Dossier 2005. Les recherches de l'Andra sur le stockage geologique des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue. Resultats et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  13. Results of EPR dosimetry for population in the vicinity of the most contaminating radioactive fallout trace after the first nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivannikov, Alexander; Zhumadilov, Kassym; Tieliewuhan, Eldana

    2006-01-01

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for tooth enamel is applied to individual radiation dose determination to residents of two villages (Dolon and Mostik) in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. These villages are located near the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace of the most contaminating surface nuclear test conducted in 1949. It is found that excess doses obtained by subtraction of natural background dose from dose absorbed in enamel range up to 440 mGy to residents of Dolon, whose enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 120 mGy to younger residents. To residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy regardless of age except for one resident with an extremely high dose of 1.25 Gy. These results are in agreement with the pattern of radioactive contamination of the territory after the nuclear test of 1949 except one case of extremely high dose, which should be additionally investigated. (author)

  14. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues 60 years after intake: results of TL measurements and applications for Techa River dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Volchkova, A.Yu.; Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Verdi, E. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Veronese, I. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); El-Faramawy, N.A. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Ain Shams University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Goeksu, H.Y. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Adiyaman University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    This article focuses on the study of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues of Techa riverside residents 60 years after intake. The Techa River was contaminated by radioactive wastes in the 1950s. Contamination of the river system, including water, bottom sediment, floodplain soil, and grass, depended on the distance from the source of releases. Therefore, the average {sup 90}Sr intake was different in different settlements located downstream the river. An additional factor influencing {sup 90}Sr accumulation in the teeth is the rate of tissue mineralization at the time of intake which depended on the donor's age at the time of releases. Measurements of {sup 90}Sr concentration in various dental tissues (enamel, crown, and root dentin) of 166 teeth were performed about 60 years after the main intake using the method of thermoluminescence passive beta detection. The paper presents the current levels of tooth tissue contamination, and the tooth-to-tooth variability of {sup 90}Sr concentration in tooth tissues was assessed for the tissues which were matured at the time of massive liquid radioactive waste releases into the Techa River. A model describing the expected levels of {sup 90}Sr in matured dental tissues depending on age and intake has been elaborated for the population under study. The results obtained will be used for calculation of internal dose in enamel and for interpretation of tooth doses measured by means of the electron paramagnetic resonance method, among the population of the Techa River region. (orig.)

  15. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces

  16. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  17. Phantom positioning variation in the Gamma Knife® Perfexion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saraiva, Crystian [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of small volume ionization chamber has become required for the dosimetry of equipment that use small radiation fields. A pinpoint ionization chamber is ideal for the dosimetry of a Gamma Knife® Perfexion (GKP) unit. In this work, this chamber was inserted into the phantom, and measurements were performed with the phantom in different positions, in order to verify if the change in the phantom positioning affects the dosimetry of the GKP. Three different phantom positions were performed. The variation in the result is within the range allowed for the dosimetry of a GKP equipment. (author)

  18. Activity Of EURADOS In Environmental Solid State Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Duch, M. A.; Haninger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Working Group 3 (WG3) of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) carries out research projects and coordinated activities to advance the scientific understanding of environmental dosimetry and especially to promote the technical development of new methods in environmental monitoring. In this field of dosimetry, the measurement of small additional doses caused by artificial radiation on top of the natural environmental radiation is a challenge. Further, WG3 stimulates the organisation of intercomparison programmes and the definition of standards and recommendations in the field of environmental radiation monitoring (ERM). WG3 has played a significant role in the harmonisation of early warning dosimetry network stations in Europe and has organised 6 EURADOS intercomparison exercises; in which 42 institutions from 19 countries have participated. Today, about 5000 stations provide real-time dose rate data to a database run by the European Commission. Within WG3 a subgroup (S1) on spectrometry system was formed in 2013. Since then, WG3 has been involved in the field of spectrometry systems used both for dosimetric and spectrometric monitoring in the environment. A remarkable result of the WG3 - S1 is that many members contributed to the new European Joint Research Project 'Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe' which started in 2014. A second subgroup WG3 - S2 on passive dosimetry in ERM was inaugurated in 2014. To gain an overview of the passive dosimetry practice in ERM, WG3 - S2 decided to collect information by means of a questionnaire which has been send to European dosimetry services. One of the results was the identification of some open questions, problems in ERM (for example terminology, protocol of routine dosimetry, uncertainty assessment) which require clarification for harmonisation of ERM using passive dosimeters. Another result was that there exists a need for intercomparisons. The first intercomparison for passive

  19. High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team Final Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the process used and results obtained by the High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team to select a primary and backup alternative salt disposition method for the Savannah River Site

  20. Mathematical operations in cytogenetic dosimetry: Dosgen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia L, O.; Zequera J, T.

    1996-01-01

    Handling of formulas and mathematical procedures for fitting and using of dose-response relationships in cytogenetic dosimetry is often difficulted by the absence of collaborators specialized in mathematics and computation. DOSGEN program contains the main mathematical operations which are used in cytogenetic dosimetry. It is able to run in IBM compatible Pc's by non-specialized personnel.The program possibilities are: Poisson distribution fitting test for the number of aberration per cell, dose assessment for whole body irradiation, dose assessment for partial irradiation and determination of irradiated fraction. The program allows on screen visualization and printing of results. DOSGEN has been developed in turbo pascal and is 33Kb of size. (authors). 4 refs

  1. Criticality accident dosimetry with ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, F; Fattibene, P; Onori, S; Pantaloni, M

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the ESR alanine and sugar detectors for criticality accident dosimetry was experimentally investigated during an intercomparison of dosimetry techniques. Tests were performed irradiating detectors both free-in-air and on-phantom during controlled critcality excursions at the SILENE reactor in Valduc, France. Several grays of absorbed dose were imparted in neutron gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions. Analysed results confirmed the potential of these systems which can immediately provide an acute dose assessment with an average underestimate of 30%in the various fields. This performance allows for the screening of severely exposed individuals and meets the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of accident absorbed doses.

  2. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  3. Automated generation of partial Markov chain from high level descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameret, P.-A.; Rauzy, A.; Roussel, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to generate partial Markov chains from high level implicit descriptions, namely AltaRica models. This algorithm relies on two components. First, a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to compute shortest paths in a graph. Second, the definition of a notion of distance to select which states must be kept and which can be safely discarded. The proposed method solves two problems at once. First, it avoids a manual construction of Markov chains, which is both tedious and error prone. Second, up the price of acceptable approximations, it makes it possible to push back dramatically the exponential blow-up of the size of the resulting chains. We report experimental results that show the efficiency of the proposed approach. - Highlights: • We generate Markov chains from a higher level safety modeling language (AltaRica). • We use a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to generate partial Markov chains. • Hence we solve two problems: the first problem is the tedious manual construction of Markov chains. • The second problem is the blow-up of the size of the chains, at the cost of decent approximations. • The experimental results highlight the efficiency of the method

  4. Alanine dosimetry for clinical applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M.

    2006-05-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Therapy level alanine dosimetry at the UK Nationational Physical Laboratory, alanine as a precision validation tool for reference dosimetry, composition of alanine pellet dosimeters, the angular dependence of the alanine ESR spectrum, the CIAE alanine dosimeter for radiotherapy level, a correction for temporal evolution effects in alanine dosimetry, next-generation services foe e-traceability to ionization radiation national standards, establishing e-traceability to HIST high-dose measurement standards, alanine dosimetry of dose delivery from clinical accelerators, the e-scan alanine dosimeter reader, alanine dosimetry at ISS, verification of the integral delivered dose for IMRT treatment in the head and neck region with ESR/alanine dosimetry, alanine dosimetry in helical tomotherapy beams, ESR dosimetry research and development at the University of Palermo, lithium formate as a low-dose EPR radiation dosimeter, sensitivity enhancement of alanine/EPR dosimetry. (HSI)

  5. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaize, S.; Ailloud, J.; Mariani, J.; Millot, J.P.

    1958-01-01

    We have studied fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry through the recoil protons they produce in hydrogenated samples. In spectrometric, we used nuclear emulsions, in dosimetric, we used polyethylene coated with zinc sulphide and placed before a photomultiplier. (author) [fr

  6. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  7. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  8. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Desrosiers, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Dosimetry serves important functions in radiation processing, where large absorbed doses and dose rates from photon and electron sources have to be measured with reasonable accuracy. Proven dosimetry systems are widely used to perform radiation measurements in development of new processes, validation, qualification and verification (quality control) of established processes and archival documentation of day-to-day and plant-to-plant processing uniformity. Proper calibration and traceability of routine dosimetry systems to standards are crucial to the success of many large-volume radiation processes. Recent innovations and advances in performance of systems that enhance radiation measurement assurance and process diagnostics include dose-mapping media (new radiochromic film and solutions), optical waveguide systems for food irradiation, solid-state devices for real-time and passive dosimetry over wide dose-rate and dose ranges, and improved analytical instruments and data acquisition. (author)

  9. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Reddy, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The last few years have seen a significant increase in the use of ionising radiation in industrial processes and also international trade in irradiated products. With this, the demand for internationally accepted dosimetric techniques, accredited to international standards has also increased which is further stimulated by the emergence of ISO-9000 series of standards in industries. The present paper describes some of the important dosimetric techniques used in radiation processing, the role of IAEA in evolving internationally accepted standards and work carried out at the Defence Laboratories, Jodhpur in the development of a cheap, broad dose range and simple dosimeter for routine dosimetry. For this polyhydroxy alcohols viz., mannitol, sorbitol and inositol were studied using the spectrophotometric read out method. Out of the alcohols studied mannitol was found to be most promising covering a dose range of 0.01 kGy - 100 kGy. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Dosimetry of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahr, R.

    1975-03-01

    Following an explanation of the physical fundamentals of neutron dosimetry, the special needs in medicine and biology are gone into. It is shown that the dose equivalent used in radiation protection simplifies in an undue manner the complicated dependence of the biological effects. The reason for this is the fact that the RBE for heavy recoil nuclei, amongst others, depends on the energy and sort of particle, whereas it is approximately equal to one for electrons independent of the energy. It is thus necessary in the fields of biology and medicine to have additional information on energy spectra of the neutrons as well as of all charged secondary particles as a function of the position in the phantom. These are obtained partly by calculation and partly by special dosemeters. The accuracy achieved so far is 5%. (ORU/LH) [de

  11. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.

  12. Advances in electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.

    1980-04-01

    Starting from the two most important interactions of electrons with matter, energy loss and scattering, a review is given of a number of effects which are important in electron dosimetry. For determining the absorbed dose in a phantom by means of ionization chambers, imformation is required on the electron spectrum at the location of the measurement, on the stopping powers of different materials and on disturbances such as the displacement of the effective point of measurements from the centre of the chamber. By means of figures and photographs of electron traces in bubble chambers, the origin of the formation of the absorbed dose maximum in a phantom is explained. It is shown, how by multiple scattering, the similarity of dose distributions in different media can be explained and how by Monte-Carlo calculations absorbed dose distributions in the surroundings of inhomogeneities (e.g. cavities) in a phantom can be determined. (orig.) [de

  13. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  14. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  15. Glasses used for the high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1983-06-01

    High level radioactive wastes generated by the reprocessing of spent fuels is an important concern in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the status of the knowledge about glasses used for the treatment of these liquids [fr

  16. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  17. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  18. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho

    2000-03-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing 32 P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  19. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  20. Properties and characteristics of high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper has briefly reviewed many of the characteristics and properties of high-level waste glasses. From this review, it can be noted that glass has many desirable properties for solidification of high-level wastes. The most important of these include: (1) its low leach rate; (2) the ability to tolerate large changes in waste composition; (3) the tolerance of anticipated storage temperatures; (4) its low surface area even after thermal shock or impact

  1. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  2. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  3. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  5. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  6. Safety of geological disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents an analysis of barrier performance of high-level waste disposal. Advantages of a multi-barrier system in repository are checked through experiments and simulations; thermal restriction, glass-leaching, and nuclide migration in both buffer materials and surrounding rock media. The temperature distribution in a repository is calculated with TRUMP code, then the pit interval is determined according to the temperature criteria of compacted bentonite. The simulation code for glass corrosion, STRAG, is developed on the basis of the experimental findings of the JSS project in which the actual radioactive glass fabricated CEA/Marcoule was used. STRAG is then verified through agreements of the simulated and measured values. Nuclide migration in compacted bentonite is calculated by SWIFT code, and the results show the bentonite capability for retention of nuclides released from waste glass. Migration of cesium isotope in rock is also examined with the small granite core samples, of which results suggest that bulk-granite except for fractures is expected as a porous media. (author)

  7. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded

  8. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

  9. Preliminary estimates of cost savings for defense high level waste vitrification options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The potential for realizing cost savings in the disposal of defense high-level waste through process and design modificatins has been considered. Proposed modifications range from simple changes in the canister design to development of an advanced melter capable of processing glass with a higher waste loading. Preliminary calculations estimate the total disposal cost (not including capital or operating costs) for defense high-level waste to be about $7.9 billion dollars for the reference conditions described in this paper, while projected savings resulting from the proposed process and design changes could reduce the disposal cost of defense high-level waste by up to $5.2 billion

  10. Internal dosimetry, past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the progress in the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides (internal dosimetry) since World War II. Previous to that, only naturally occurring radionuclides were available and only a limited number of studies of biokinetics and dosimetry were done. The main radionuclides studied were 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 224 Ra but natural uranium was also studied mainly because of its toxic effect as a heavy metal, and not because it was radioactive. The effects of 226 Ra in bone, mainly from the radium dial painters, also formed the only bases for the radiotoxicity of radionuclides in bone for many years, and it is still, along with 224 Ra, the main source of information on the effects of alpha emitters in bone. The publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection that have an impact on internal dosimetry are used as mileposts for this review. These series of publications, more than any other, represent a broad consensus of opinion within the radiation protection community at the time of their publication, and have formed the bases for radiation protection practice throughout the world. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; it is meant to be a personnel view of the evolution of internal dosimetry, and to present the author's opinion of what the future directions in internal dosimetry will be. 39 refs., 2 tabs

  11. SU-E-P-03: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, a Bespoke National Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, I; Lye, J; Alves, A; Lehmann, J; Kenny, J; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, (ACDS) was a pilot program to enable the Australian Government to determine whether a locally designed audit program was suitable for mitigating dosimetric error risk to radiotherapy patients within Australia. The outcomes from four years of operations will be presented and discussed with a focus why and how the pilot requirements were met. The consequnces of success will be considered, the lessons learnt from the pilot program and how they are impacting the future ACDS design, operation and engagement with stakeholders. Methods: The ACDS was designed over 2010/11 by experts drawn from the three professions in consultation with the national Department of Health. The list of outcomes required over a three year pilot was expressed in a Memorandum of Understanding, (MoU) between Health and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which hosted the ACDS. Results: The ACDS has achieved all the MoU requirements. This paper describes how the staff within the ACDS engaged with the professional clinical workforce and provided a successful and functioning audit service. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses within the MoU and the ACDS structure and how the ACDS resolved a number of conflicting issues. It identifies the successes within the ACDS and how these were achieved. It provides details to assist and advise those seeking to design or modify national or regional auditing programs. Finally the paper reviews potential futures for the ACDS. Conclusion: The raw number of audits and outcomes indicate that the ACDS has met the MoU auditing requirements. The reasons for the ACDS’ success are highly dependent on: attracting quality staff who can respond with agility to changing situations, a high level of communication with the professional community, a high level of engagement by the community and an interested and engaged Federal Department. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service is a

  12. SU-E-P-03: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, a Bespoke National Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, I; Lye, J; Alves, A [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Vic (Australia); Lehmann, J [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Kenny, J [Epworth HealthCare, Richmond, VIC (Australia); Dunn, L [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Kron, T [Peter MacCallum Cancer Instit., Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, (ACDS) was a pilot program to enable the Australian Government to determine whether a locally designed audit program was suitable for mitigating dosimetric error risk to radiotherapy patients within Australia. The outcomes from four years of operations will be presented and discussed with a focus why and how the pilot requirements were met. The consequnces of success will be considered, the lessons learnt from the pilot program and how they are impacting the future ACDS design, operation and engagement with stakeholders. Methods: The ACDS was designed over 2010/11 by experts drawn from the three professions in consultation with the national Department of Health. The list of outcomes required over a three year pilot was expressed in a Memorandum of Understanding, (MoU) between Health and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which hosted the ACDS. Results: The ACDS has achieved all the MoU requirements. This paper describes how the staff within the ACDS engaged with the professional clinical workforce and provided a successful and functioning audit service. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses within the MoU and the ACDS structure and how the ACDS resolved a number of conflicting issues. It identifies the successes within the ACDS and how these were achieved. It provides details to assist and advise those seeking to design or modify national or regional auditing programs. Finally the paper reviews potential futures for the ACDS. Conclusion: The raw number of audits and outcomes indicate that the ACDS has met the MoU auditing requirements. The reasons for the ACDS’ success are highly dependent on: attracting quality staff who can respond with agility to changing situations, a high level of communication with the professional community, a high level of engagement by the community and an interested and engaged Federal Department. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service is a

  13. 11. International conference on solid radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylova, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The main problems discussed during the international conference on solid radiation dosimetry which took place in June 1995 in Budapest are briefly considered. These are the basic physical processes, materials applied for dosimetry, special techniques, personnel monitoring, monitoring of environmental effects, large-dose dosimetry, clinic dosimetry, track detector used for dosimetry, dosimetry in archaeology and geology, equipment and technique for dosimetric measurements. The special attention was paid to superlinearity in the TLD-100 (LiF, Mg, Ti) response function when determining doses of gamma radiation, heavy charged particles, low-energy particle fluxes in particular. New theoretical models were considered

  14. An optimal retrieval, processing, and blending strategy for immobilization of Hanford high-level tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.

    1996-01-01

    Hanford tank waste will be separated into high-level and low-level portions; each portion will then be vitrified (other waste forms are also being considered for low-level waste) to produce a stable glass form for disposal. Because of the wide variability in the tank waste compositions, blending is being considered as a way to reduce the number of distinct compositions that must be vitrified and to minimize the resultant volume of vitrified waste. Three years of computational glass formulation and blending studies have demonstrated that blending of the high-level waste before vitrification can reduce the volume of high-level waste glass required by as much as 50 percent. This level of reduction would be obtained if all the high-level waste were blended together (Total Blend) prior to vitrification, requiring the retrieval and pretreatment of all tank waste before high-level vitrification was started. This paper will present an overall processing strategy that should be able to match the blending performance of the Total Blend and be more logistically feasible. The strategy includes retrieving, pretreating, blending and vitrifying Hanford tank waste. This strategy utilizes blending both before and after pretreatment. Similar wastes are blended before pretreatment, so as not to dilute species targeted for removal. The high-level portions of these pretreated early blends are then selectively blended to produce a small number of high-level vitrification feed streams

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements

  16. Nutritional strategies of high level natural bodybuilders during competition preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, A J; Simper, T; Barker, M E

    2018-01-01

    Competitive bodybuilders employ a combination of resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, calorie reduction, supplementation regimes and peaking strategies in order to lose fat mass and maintain fat free mass. Although recommendations exist for contest preparation, applied research is limited and data on the contest preparation regimes of bodybuilders are restricted to case studies or small cohorts. Moreover, the influence of different nutritional strategies on competitive outcome is unknown. Fifty-one competitors (35 male and 16 female) volunteered to take part in this project. The British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF) runs an annual national competition for high level bodybuilders; competitors must qualify by winning at a qualifying events or may be invited at the judge's discretion. Competitors are subject to stringent drug testing and have to undergo a polygraph test. Study of this cohort provides an opportunity to examine the dietary practices of high level natural bodybuilders. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of bodybuilders competing at the BNBF finals. Volunteers completed a 34-item questionnaire assessing diet at three time points. At each time point participants recorded food intake over a 24-h period in grams and/or portions. Competitors were categorised according to contest placing. A "placed" competitor finished in the top 5, and a "Non-placed" (DNP) competitor finished outside the top 5. Nutrient analysis was performed using Nutritics software. Repeated measures ANOVA and effect sizes (Cohen's d ) were used to test if nutrient intake changed over time and if placing was associated with intake. Mean preparation time for a competitor was 22 ± 9 weeks. Nutrient intake of bodybuilders reflected a high-protein, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet. Total carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes decreased over time in both male and female cohorts ( P  preparation (5.1 vs 3.7 g/kg BW) than DNP competitors ( d  = 1.02, 95% CI

  17. MOSFET dosimetry: temperature effects in-vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.K.N.; Cheung, T.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 deg C up to 40 deg C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in-vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependant on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry the detector should be placed for approximately 60 seconds on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 seconds after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  18. Clinical dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.; Jovanovska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Diagnostic and interventional procedures involving x-rays are the most significant contributor to total population dose form man made sources of ionizing radiation. Purpose and aim: X-ray imaging generally covers a diverse range of examination types, many of which are increasing in frequency and technical complexity. Materials and methods: The European Directives 96/29 and 97/43 EURATOM stress the importance of accurate dosimetry and require calibration of all measuring equipment related to application of ionizing radiation in medicine. Results: The paper gives and overview of current system of dosimetry of ionizing radiations that is relevant for metrology and clinical applications. It also reflects recently achieved international harmonization in the field promoted by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Discussion: Objectives of clinical dose measurements in diagnostic and interventional radiology are multiple, as assessment of equipment performance, or assessment of risk emerging from use of ionizing radiation Conclusion: Therefore, from the clinical point of view, the requirements for dosimeters and procedures to assess dose to standard dosimetry phantoms and patients in clinical diverse modalities, as computed tomography are presented

  19. Quality assurance in radiotherapy dosimetry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaibao; Luo Suming; Cheng Jinsheng; He Zhijian; An Jinggang; Hu Yimin; Feng Ningyuan

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the SSDL in the Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene cooperated with Beijing Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical science joined the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (NO.8769/RO). According to the requirements of the project, an External Audit Group (EAG) in China was established in 1996 with the responsibilities of operating TLD-based quality audit for radiotherapy dosimetry. Since then. The national TLD dose quality audit services have been carried out in 7 provinces in China. Besides this, the national programmes for brachytherapy and stereostatic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment dosimetry were initiated in 2001. The activity measurement intercomparison between the SSDL and some hospitals for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources has been performed using a HDR well-type ionization chamber (Model HDR 1000 plus) and CDX-2000A Charge Digitizer, which were calibrated in Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, USA. The preliminary results indicated that the agreement between SSDL measured activity and hospital stated activity was within ±5% for more than 80% of total participants

  20. Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Yuan, Y.; Zielen, A.J.

    1979-05-01

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) Code provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility. The UDAD Code incorporates the radiation dose from the airborne release of radioactive materials, and includes dosimetry of inhalation, ingestion, and external exposures. The removal of raioactive particles from a contaminated area by wind action is estimated, atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity from specific sources are calculated, and source depletion as a result of deposition, fallout, and ingrowth of radon daughters are included in a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model. The average air concentration at any given receptor location is assumed to be constant during each annual release period, but to increase from year to year because of resuspension. Surface contamination and deposition velocity are estimated. Calculation of the inhalation dose and dose rate to an individual is based on the ICRP Task Group Lung Model. Estimates of the dose to the bronchial epithelium of the lung from inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters are calculated based on a dose conversion factor from the BEIR report. External radiation exposure includes radiation from airborne radionuclides and exposure to radiation from contaminated ground. Terrestrial food pathways include vegetation, meat, milk, poultry, and eggs. Internal dosimetry is based on ICRP recommendations. In addition, individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. This code also may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant

  1. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program

  2. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  3. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  4. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  5. Effects of temperature variation on MOSFET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J; Yu, Peter K N

    2004-01-01

    This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown that the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 deg. C up to 40 deg. C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependent on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However, the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry, the detector should be placed for approximately 60 s on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 s after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. (note)

  6. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  7. THE HIGH LEVEL ACCESSION DIALOGUE FOR MACEDONIA: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Karadjoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals for the Republic of Macedonia is membership in the European Union. At the end of 2011, the Commission launched a so-called High Level Accession Dialogue for Macedonia, with a possibility to start the negotiations after the fulfillment of the Dialogue goals and benchmarks. For these reasons, the main goal of this paper will be to give an answer of the dilemma whether the Accession Dialogue for Macedonia is an accelerator of the entrance in the European Union, or is just a sophisticated tool for delay of the start of the negotiations for final accession. The expected results will correspond with the future EU plans for Macedonia, but also for the other Western Balkan countries, i.e. we will try to examine whether these countries have a realistic perspective for entrance in the European Union, or they are just a “declarative décor” for the vocabulary of the Brussels diplomats and member countries representatives. That will help to determine i.e. to try to predict the next steps of these countries, connected with the European integration, regardless of the actual constellation in the European Union concerning the Enlargement policy. The descriptive method, content analyses method, comparative method, but also the inductive and deductive methods will be used in this paper.

  8. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  9. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  10. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume.

  11. High-level water purifying technology. Kodo josui shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H; Tsukiashi, K [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-07-01

    Research and development have been carried out on a high-level water purifying system using ozone and activated charcoals to supply drinking water free of carcinogenic matters and odors. This system comprises a system to utilize ozone by using silent discharge and oxygen enriching device, and a living organism/activated charcoal treatment system. The latter system utilizes living organisms deposited on activated charcoal surfaces to remove polluting substances including ammonia. The treatment experimenting equipment comprises an ozone generating system, an ozone treating column, an activated charcoal treating column, an ozone/activated charcoal control device, and a water amount and quality measuring system. An experiment was carried out using an experimental plant with a capacity of 20 m[sup 3]/day on water taken from the sedimentation process at an actual water purifying plant. As a result, trihalomethane formation potential was removed at about 40% in the ozone treatment, and at 70% in the whole treatment combining the ozone and living organism/activated charcoal treatments. For parameterization of palatability of water, a method is being studied that utilizes nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate degrees of water cluster. The method is regarded promising. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  12. NOx AND HETEROGENEITY EFFECTS IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Dan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Orlando, Thom

    2000-01-01

    We summarize contributions from our EMSP supported research to several field operations of the Office of Environmental Management (EM). In particular we emphasize its impact on safety programs at the Hanford and other EM sites where storage, maintenance and handling of HLW is a major mission. In recent years we were engaged in coordinated efforts to understand the chemistry initiated by radiation in HLW. Three projects of the EMSP (''The NOx System in Nuclear Waste,'' ''Mechanisms and Kinetics of Organic Aging in High Level Nuclear Wastes, D. Camaioni--PI'' and ''Interfacial Radiolysis Effects in Tanks Waste, T. Orlando--PI'') were involved in that effort, which included a team at Argonne, later moved to the University of Notre Dame, and two teams at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Much effort was invested in integrating the results of the scientific studies into the engineering operations via coordination meetings and participation in various stages of the resolution of some of the outstanding safety issues at the sites. However, in this Abstract we summarize the effort at Notre Dame

  13. Synroc - a multiphase ceramic for high level nuclear waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.; Vance, E.R.; Hart, K.P.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Mercer, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Many natural minerals - particularly titanates - are very durable geochemically, having survived for millions of years with very little alteration. Moreover, some of these minerals have quantitatively retained radioactive elements and their daughter products over this time. The Synroc concept mimics nature by providing an all-titanate synthetic mineral phase assemblage to immobilise high level waste (HLW) from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations for safe geological disposal. In principle, many chemically hazardous inorganic wastes arising from industry could also be immobilised in highly durable ceramics and disposed of geologically, but in practice the cost structure of most industries is such that lower cost waste management solutions - for example, the development of reusable by-products or the use of cements rather than ceramics - have to be devised. In many thousands of aqueous leach tests at ANSTO, mostly at 70-90 deg C, Synroc has been shown to be exceptionally durable. The emphases of the recent ANSTO program have been on tailoring of the Synroc composition to varying HLW compositions, leach testing of Synroc containing radioactive transuranic actinides, study of leaching mechanisms by SEM and TEM, and the development and costing of a conceptual fully active Synroc fabrication plant design. A summary of recent results on these topics will be presented. 29 refs., 4 figs

  14. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  15. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  16. Application of SYNROC to high-level defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewhey, J.D.; Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Coles, D.G.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The SYNROC method for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes is currently being applied to US defense wastes in tank storage at Savannah River, South Carolina. The minerals zirconolite, perovskite, and hollandite are used in SYNROC D formulations to immobilize fission products and actinides that comprise up to 10% of defense waste sludges and coexisting solutions. Additional phase in SYNROC D are nepheline, the host phase for sodium; and spinel, the host for excess aluminum and iron. Up to 70 wt % of calcined sludge can be incorporated with 30 wt % of SYNROC additives to produce a waste form consisting of 10% nepheline, 30% spinel, and approximately 20% each of the radioactive waste-bearing phases. Urea coprecipitation and spray drying/calcining methods have been used in the laboratory to produce homogeneous, reactive ceramic powders. Hot pressing and sintering at temperatures from 1000 to 1100 0 C result in waste form products with greater than 97% of theoretical density. Hot isostatic pressing has recently been implemented as a processing alternative. Characterization of waste-form mineralogy has been done by means of XRD, SEM, and electron microprobe. Leaching of SYNROC D samples is currently being carried out. Assessment of radiation damage effects and physical properties of SYNROC D will commence in FY81

  17. High-level radioactive waste fixation in sintered vitreous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.O.; Messi de Bernasconi, N.; Audero, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The safe storage of high-level wastes from fuel elements reprocessing includes, as a first step, the fixation of the same in materials having a good resistance to the leaching in aqueous medium, such as borosilicate glass. As an alternative to the usual method of the molten glasses, a procedure for the sintering of a powdered glass and waste mixture at lower temperatures (600-700 deg C) has been developed, which minimizes the volatilization of active compounds during the process. Two glasses matrices of different composition and characteristics were used, to which the simulated wastes were added in the ratio of a 10% in weight of oxides. Two sintering techniques were employed 1: cold pressing and further sintering; 2: hot pressing and sintering under pressure. The densities were measured, the microstructure of the samples was analyzed and leaching essays were made in distilled water. The pellet's microstructure was observed by means of optical microscopy, by reflection in polished samples and by transparency in thin slices. The presence of crystalline compounds was analyzed by means of x rays and electron microprobe. The results have shown the convenience to continue with hot pressing essays, because a denser product with a higher resistance to the leaching is thus obtained. (M.E.L.) [es

  18. High level natural radiation areas with special regard to Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The studies of high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) around the world are of great importance for determination of risks due to long-term low-level whole body exposures of public. Many areas of the world possess HLNRAs the number of which depends on the criteria defined. Detailed radiological studies have been carried out in some HLNRAs the results of which have been reported at least in three international conferences. Among the HLNRAs, Ramsar has so far the highest level of natural radiation in some areas where radiological studies have been of concern. A program was established for Ramsar and its HLNRAs to study indoor and outdoor gamma exposures and external and internal doses of the inhabitants, 226 Ra content of public water supplies and hot springs, of food stuffs, etc., 222 Rn levels measured in 473 rooms of near 350 houses, 16 schools and 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels in different seasons, cytogenetic effects on inhabitants of Talesh Mahalleh, the highest radiation area, compared to that of a control area and radiological parameters of a house with a high potential for internal and external exposures of the inhabitants. It was concluded that the epidemiological studies in a number of countries did not show any evidence of increased health detriment in HLNRAs compared to control groups. In this paper, the conclusions drawn from studies in some HLNRAs around the world in particular Ramsar are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. Decay rates of resonance states at high level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Gorin, T.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1996-05-01

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation of an open quantum mechanical system is solved by using the stationary bi-orthogonal eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitean time independent Hamilton operator. We calculate the decay rates at low and high level density in two different formalism. The rates are, generally, time dependent and oscillate around an average value due to the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions. The decay law is studied disregarding the oscillations. In the one-channel case, it is proportional to t -b with b∼3/2 in all cases considered, including the critical region of overlapping where the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions is large. Starting from the shell model, we get b∼2 for 2 and 4 open decay channels and all coupling strengths to the continuum. When the closed system is described by a random matrix, b∼1+K/2 for K=2 and 4 channels. This law holds in a limited time interval. The distribution of the widths is different in the two models when more than one channel are open. This leads to the different exponents b in the power law. Our calculations are performed with 190 and 130 states, respectively, most of them in the critical region. The theoretical results should be proven experimentally by measuring the time behaviour of de-excitation of a realistic quantum system. (orig.)

  20. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs