WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-k mim applications

  1. Investigation of MIM Diodes for RF Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Adnan

    2015-05-01

    Metal Insulator Metal (MIM) diodes that work on fast mechanism of tunneling have been used in a number of very high frequency applications such as (Infra-Red) IR detectors and optical Rectennas for energy harvesting. Their ability to operate under zero bias condition as well as the possibility of realizing them through printing makes them attractive for (Radio Frequency) RF applications. However, MIM diodes have not been explored much for RF applications. One reason preventing their widespread RF use is the requirement of a very thin oxide layer essential for the tunneling operation that requires sophisticated nano-fabrication processes. Another issue is that the reliability and stable performance of MIM diodes is highly dependent on the surface roughness of the metallic electrodes. Finally, comprehensive RF characterization has not been performed for MIM diodes reported in the literature, particularly from the perspective of their integration with antennas as well as their rectification abilities. In this thesis, various metal deposition methods such as sputtering, electron beam evaporation, and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) are compared in pursuit of achieving low surface roughness. It is worth mentioning here that MIM diodes realized through ALD method have been presented for the first time in this thesis. Amorphous metal alloy have also been investigated in terms of their low surface roughness. Zinc-oxide has been investigated for its suitability as a thin dielectric layer for MIM diodes. Finally, comprehensive RF characterization of MIM diodes has been performed in two ways: 1) by standard S-parameter methods, and 2) by investigating their rectification ability under zero bias operation. It is concluded from the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging that surface roughness as low as sub 1 nm can be achieved reliably from crystalline metals such as copper and platinum. This value is comparable to surface roughness achieved from amorphous alloys, which are non

  2. Alternative high-k dielectrics for semiconductor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Elshocht, S.; Adelmann, C.; Clima, S.; Pourtois, G.; Conard, T.; Delabie, A.; Franquet, A.; Lehnen, P.; Meersschaut, J.; Menou, N.; Popovici, M.; Richard, O.; Schram, T.; Wang, X. P.; HARDY, An

    2009-01-01

    Although the next generation high-k gate dielectrics has been defined for the 45 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology node, threshold voltage control and equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling remain concerns for future devices. Therefore, the authors explored the effect of incorporating dysprosium in the gate stack. Results suggest that improved EOT-leakage scaling is possible by adding Dy to the interfacial SiO2 layer in a 1:1 ratio or by adding 10% Dy to bulk HfO2. The d...

  3. Magnesium Powder Injection Molding (MIM) of Orthopedic Implants for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M.; Schaper, J. G.; Suckert, M. R.; Dahms, M.; Ebel, T.; Willumeit-Römer, R.; Klassen, T.

    2016-04-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) has a high potential for the economic near-net-shape mass production of small-sized and complex-shaped parts. The motivation for launching Mg into the MIM processing chain for manufacturing biodegradable medical implants is related to its compatibility with human bone and its degradation in a non-toxic matter. It has been recognized that the load-bearing capacity of MIM Mg parts is superior to that of biodegradable polymeric components. However, the choice of appropriate polymeric binder components and alloying elements enabling defect-free injection molding and sintering is a major challenge for the use of MIM Mg parts. This study considered the full processing chain for MIM of Mg-Ca alloys to achieve ultimate tensile strength of up to 141 MPa with tensile yield strength of 73 MPa, elongation at fracture Af of 7% and a Young's modulus of 38 GPa. To achieve these mechanical properties, a thermal debinding study was performed to determine optimal furnace and atmosphere conditions, sintering temperature, heating rates, sintering time and pressure.

  4. MIMS - MEDICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    MIMS, Medical Information Management System is an interactive, general purpose information storage and retrieval system. It was first designed to be used in medical data management, and can be used to handle all aspects of data related to patient care. Other areas of application for MIMS include: managing occupational safety data in the public and private sectors; handling judicial information where speed and accuracy are high priorities; systemizing purchasing and procurement systems; and analyzing organizational cost structures. Because of its free format design, MIMS can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. File structures, data categories, field lengths and formats, including alphabetic and/or numeric, are all user defined. The user can quickly and efficiently extract, display, and analyze the data. Three means of extracting data are provided: certain short items of information, such as social security numbers, can be used to uniquely identify each record for quick access; records can be selected which match conditions defined by the user; and specific categories of data can be selected. Data may be displayed and analyzed in several ways which include: generating tabular information assembled from comparison of all the records on the system; generating statistical information on numeric data such as means, standard deviations and standard errors; and displaying formatted listings of output data. The MIMS program is written in Microsoft FORTRAN-77. It was designed to operate on IBM Personal Computers and compatibles running under PC or MS DOS 2.00 or higher. MIMS was developed in 1987.

  5. Effect of C8mimPF6 on miniemulsion polymerization for application in new latex coating products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Binjie; Kong, Yiyang; Zheng, Rongmeihui; Dong, Jie; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Zhao, Huanhuan

    2016-08-15

    C8mimPF6, as a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with non-volatility and a low melting point, may replace conventional coalescing agents in latex coatings, thus preventing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions caused by coalescing agents. In this study, systematic investigations on the effect of various factors including initiator type, initiator concentration, temperature and C8mimPF6 concentration on the conversion of latex and droplet/particle size of a miniemulsion during polymerization have been conducted. The presence of C8mimPF6 has shown to have a marked effect on the reaction rate. Such an effect strongly depends on the type of initiator being used. For polymerization initiated by 2,2-azobis (isobutyronitrile) (AIBN), C8mimPF6 had a promoting effect on the reaction rate at low concentrations, but this effect might be reversed upon certain C8mimPF6 concentrations, e.g. 10 wt%. While initiated by H2O2/Vc, this promoting effect faded even at low C8mimPF6 concentrations. The different limiting factors, which determine the reaction rate with different types of initiator, may contribute to the results. For reactions initiated by hydrophobic AIBN, the reaction was dominated by kinetics. The presence of C8mimPF6 may cause an enhanced chain propagation rate and reduced chain termination rate, which may further contribute to the increase in reaction rate at lower concentrations of C8mimPF6. With hydrophilic H2O2/Vc, the resistance for the transfer of radicals into a droplet/particle might be increased significantly with increasing C8mimPF6 concentration due to a tighter interfacial structure at lower concentrations of C8mimPF6. Thus, such transfer of radicals may become a limiting step whilst the presence of C8mimPF6 increases the transfer resistance on radicals resulting in a decrease in reaction rate. The reaction temperature, which is related to the decomposition temperature of the initiator being used, was another factor affecting the conversion

  6. Implementation of nanoscale circuits using dual metal gate engineered nanowire MOSFET with high-k dielectrics for low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Pravin, J.; Nirmal, D.; Prajoon, P.; Ajayan, J.

    2016-09-01

    This work covers the impact of dual metal gate engineered Junctionless MOSFET with various high-k dielectric in Nanoscale circuits for low power applications. Due to gate engineering in junctionless MOSFET, graded potential is obtained and results in higher electron velocity of about 31% for HfO2 than SiO2 in the channel region, which in turn improves the carrier transport efficiency. The simulation is done using sentaurus TCAD, ON current, OFF current, ION/IOFF ratio, DIBL, gain, transconductance and transconductance generation factor parameters are analysed. When using HfO2, DIBL shows a reduction of 61.5% over SiO2. The transconductance and transconductance generation factor shows an improvement of 44% and 35% respectively. The gain and output resistance also shows considerable improvement with high-k dielectrics. Using this device, inverter circuit is implemented with different high-k dielectric material and delay have been decreased by 4% with HfO2 when compared to SiO2. In addition, a significant reduction in power dissipation of the inverter circuit is obtained with high-k dielectric Dual Metal Surround Gate Junctionless Transistor than SiO2 based device. From the analysis, it is found that HfO2 will be a better alternative for the future nanoscale device.

  7. Extraction and dielectric properties of curcuminoid films grown on Si substrate for high-k dielectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakhel, A.A.; Jasim, Khalil E. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 15503 (Bahrain); Henari, F.Z., E-mail: fzhenari@rcsi-mub.com [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 15503 (Bahrain)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • The unknown insulating properties of curcuminoid extract are systematically studied. • Optical study gives a bandgap of 3.15 eV and a refractive index of 1.92 at 505 nm. • Turmeric is a high-k environmental friendly material for use in microelectronics. • Curcuminoid extract can be used as insulator of MIS devices with ε{sup ′}{sub ∞}≈54.2. -- Abstract: Curcuminoids were extracted from turmeric powder and evaporated in vacuum to prepare thin films on p-Si and glass substrates for dielectric and optical investigations. The optical absorption spectrum of the prepared amorphous film was not identical to that of the molecular one, which was identified by a strong wide absorption band in between ∼220 and 540 nm. The onset energy of the optical absorption of the film was calculated by using Hamberg et al. method. The dielectric properties of this material were systematically studied for future eco friendly applications in metal–insulator–semiconductor MIS field of applications. The complex dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range of 1–1000 kHz and was analysed in-terms of dielectric impedance Z{sup *}(ω) and modulus M{sup *}(ω). Generally, the curcuminoid complex can be considered as a high-k material and can be used in the environmental friendly production of microelectronic devices.

  8. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David; Wehrer, Rebecca; Palmisiano, Marc; Wanlass, Mark; Murray, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIM) are under development for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion applications. MIM devices are typified by series-interconnected photovoltaic cells on a common, semi-insulating substrate and generally include rear-surface infrared (IR) reflectors. The MIM architecture is being implemented in InGaAsSb materials without semi-insulating substrates through the development of alternative isolation methodologies. Motivations for developing the MIM structure include: reduced resistive losses, higher output power density than for systems utilizing front surface spectral control, improved thermal coupling and ultimately higher system efficiency. Numerous design and material changes have been investigated since the introduction of the MIM concept in 1994. These developments as well as the current design strategies are addressed.

  9. Evaluation of Synthesis & Processing Routes for the High K- Boron Nitride Nano Tubes (BNNTS) for Thermal Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of processing the High Thermal Conductivity Boron Nitride Nano Tubes (High-K BNNTs) that...

  10. Application of an empirical saturation rule to TGLF to unify low-k and high-k turbulence dominated regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xiang; Chan, Vincent S.; Chen, Jiale; Li, Zeyu; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Zhuang, Ge; the CFETR Physics team

    2018-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological turbulence saturation model and apply it to the TGLF turbulence transport model (Staebler et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 055909), which captures the physics of interaction between low-k and high-k turbulence consistent with the multi-scale gyro-kinetic simulation result reported by Howard (2016 Nucl. Fusion. 23 056109). The new model, TGLF-Vx is tested with three discharges from DIII-D and EAST tokamak, which cover both low-k and high-k turbulence dominated regimes. It is found that the profile match can be substantially improved over previous models when evolving T e, T i and n e simultaneously. Good agreement for all three discharges is obtained with one fixed parameter in the model when taking experimental uncertainties into consideration. Lastly, TGLF-Vx is applied to explore the sensitivity of the predicted CFETR steady-state performance to different transport models. Our result shows that a scenario using only RF auxiliary heating could be significantly affected.

  11. A formal MIM specification and tools for the common exchange of MIM diagrams: an XML-Based format, an API, and a validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Augustin; Karac, Evrim I; Sunshine, Margot; Chang, Lucas; Nussinov, Ruth; Aladjem, Mirit I; Kohn, Kurt W

    2011-05-17

    The Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) notation offers a standard set of symbols and rules on their usage for the depiction of cellular signaling network diagrams. Such diagrams are essential for disseminating biological information in a concise manner. A lack of software tools for the notation restricts wider usage of the notation. Development of software is facilitated by a more detailed specification regarding software requirements than has previously existed for the MIM notation. A formal implementation of the MIM notation was developed based on a core set of previously defined glyphs. This implementation provides a detailed specification of the properties of the elements of the MIM notation. Building upon this specification, a machine-readable format is provided as a standardized mechanism for the storage and exchange of MIM diagrams. This new format is accompanied by a Java-based application programming interface to help software developers to integrate MIM support into software projects. A validation mechanism is also provided to determine whether MIM datasets are in accordance with syntax rules provided by the new specification. The work presented here provides key foundational components to promote software development for the MIM notation. These components will speed up the development of interoperable tools supporting the MIM notation and will aid in the translation of data stored in MIM diagrams to other standardized formats. Several projects utilizing this implementation of the notation are outlined herein. The MIM specification is available as an additional file to this publication. Source code, libraries, documentation, and examples are available at http://discover.nci.nih.gov/mim.

  12. A formal MIM specification and tools for the common exchange of MIM diagrams: an XML-Based format, an API, and a validation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) notation offers a standard set of symbols and rules on their usage for the depiction of cellular signaling network diagrams. Such diagrams are essential for disseminating biological information in a concise manner. A lack of software tools for the notation restricts wider usage of the notation. Development of software is facilitated by a more detailed specification regarding software requirements than has previously existed for the MIM notation. Results A formal implementation of the MIM notation was developed based on a core set of previously defined glyphs. This implementation provides a detailed specification of the properties of the elements of the MIM notation. Building upon this specification, a machine-readable format is provided as a standardized mechanism for the storage and exchange of MIM diagrams. This new format is accompanied by a Java-based application programming interface to help software developers to integrate MIM support into software projects. A validation mechanism is also provided to determine whether MIM datasets are in accordance with syntax rules provided by the new specification. Conclusions The work presented here provides key foundational components to promote software development for the MIM notation. These components will speed up the development of interoperable tools supporting the MIM notation and will aid in the translation of data stored in MIM diagrams to other standardized formats. Several projects utilizing this implementation of the notation are outlined herein. The MIM specification is available as an additional file to this publication. Source code, libraries, documentation, and examples are available at http://discover.nci.nih.gov/mim. PMID:21586134

  13. Thermal Preconditioning of MIMS Type K Thermocouples to Reduce Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Type K thermocouples are the most widely used temperature sensors in industry and are often used in the convenient mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) format. The MIMS format provides almost total immunity to oxide-related drift in the 800°C-1000°C range. However, crystalline ordering of the atomic structure causes drift in the range 200°C-600°C. Troublesomely, the effects of this ordering are reversible, leading to hysteresis in some applications. Typically, MIMS cable is subjected to a post-manufacturing high-temperature recrystallization anneal to remove cold-work and place the thermocouple in a `known state.' However, variations in the temperatures and times of these exposures can lead to variations in the `as-received state.' This study gives guidelines on the best thermal preconditioning of 3 mm MIMS Type K thermocouples in order to minimize drift and achieve the most reproducible temperature measurements. Experimental results demonstrate the consequences of using Type K MIMS thermocouples in different states, including the as-received state, after a high-temperature recrystallization anneal and after preconditioning anneals at 200°C, 300°, 400°C and and 500°C. It is also shown that meaningful calibration is possible with the use of regular preconditioning anneals.

  14. Modeling and optimization of series resistance of planar MIM capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajolet, A.; Clerc, R.; Pananakakis, G.; Picollet, E.; Segura, N.; Boret, S.; Bruyère, S.; Manceau, J. P.; Giraudin, J.-C.; Delpech, P.; Montès, L.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2006-07-01

    Integrated circuits for analog and telecom applications require metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitors with not only a high capacitance value (typically 5 nF/mm 2), but also a low series resistance Rs. The optimization of this latter parameter is investigated in this paper, by means of a simple analytical model, taking into account both the impact of material parameters and device architectures, suggesting possible strategies for Rs minimization. Such a model is also suitable for MIM circuit simulation, and can be also extended to other devices, such as to the gate series resistance modeling of RF MOSFET. Results are in good agreement with numerical simulations and HF measurements, performed on state of the art planar MIM devices. Moreover, discussion on via placement to access the top electrode has been held, in order to optimize the series resistance of the capacitor.

  15. Medical Information Management System (MIMS) CareWindows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiphout, R. M.; Schiffman, R. M.; Christner, M. F.; Ward, R.; Purves, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    The demonstration of MIMS/CareWindows will include: (1) a review of the application environment and development history, (2) a demonstration of a very large, comprehensive clinical information system with a cost effective graphic user server and communications interface. PMID:1807755

  16. Metal Injection Molding (MIM of Magnesium and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research has highlighted that magnesium and its alloys as biodegradable material are highly suitable for biomedical applications. The new material fully degrades into nontoxic elements and offers material properties matching those of human bone tissue. As biomedical implants are rather small and complex in shape, the metal injection molding (MIM technique seems to be well suited for the near net shape mass production of such parts. Furthermore, MIM of Mg-alloys is of high interest in further technical fields. This study focusses on the performance of MIM-processing of magnesium alloy powders. It includes Mg-specific development of powder blending, feedstock preparation, injection molding, solvent and thermal debinding and final sintering. Even though Mg is a highly oxygen-affine material forming a stable oxide layer on each particle surface, the material can be sintered to nearly dense parts, providing mechanical properties matching those of as cast material. An ultimate tensile strength of 142 MPa, yield strength of 67 MPa, elastic modulus of 40 GPa and 8% elongation at fracture could be achieved using novel organic polymer binders for the feedstock preparation. Thus, first implant demonstrator parts could be successfully produced by the MIM technique.

  17. Tunable nonreciprocal transmission system based on MIM waveguide with Kerr nonlinear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenfeng; Luo, Xin; Zhai, Xiang; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    A novel nonreciprocal MIM waveguide with Kerr nonlinear material in near-infrared region is proposed and the corresponding transmission characteristics are investigated. In the proposed MIM waveguide, a transmission contrast ratio up to 49.2 dB can be achieved between forward and backward transmission by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, revealing an excellent nonreciprocal effect. Moreover, the proposed nonreciprocal MIM waveguide can also be flexibly controlled as forward transmission or backward transmission at different wavelengths. Therefore, our results can offer a new possibility and important application in highly integrated optical circuits.

  18. Design of high breakdown voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with high-K/low-K compound dielectric structure for power electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Zhenchao; Liu, Dong; Bai, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a vertical GaN p-n diode with a high-K/low-K compound dielectric structure (GaN CD-VGD) is proposed and designed to achieve a record high breakdown voltage (BV) with a low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). By introducing compound dielectric structure, the electric field near the p-n junction interface is suppressed due to the effects of high-K passivation layer, and a new electric field peak is induced into the n-type drift region, because of a discontinuity of electrical field at the interface of high-K and low-K layer. Therefore the distribution of electric field in GaN p-n diode becomes more uniform and an enhancement of breakdown voltage can be achieved. Numerical simulations demonstrate that GaN CD-VGD with a BV of 10650 V and a Ron,sp of 14.3 mΩ cm2, resulting in a record high figure-of-merit of 8 GW/cm2.

  19. Voltage and oxide thickness dependent tunneling current density and tunnel resistivity model: Application to high-k material HfO2 based MOS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, N. P.; Maity, Reshmi; Baishya, Srimanta

    2017-11-01

    In this paper presents a straightforward efficient investigation of tunneling current density for ultra thin oxide layer based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices to realization the gate current as a function of applied potential and oxide thickness. Solutions to the Schrödinger's wave equation are evolved for the different potential energy regions of the MOS device considering appropriate effective mass for each region. For finding approximate mathematical solutions to linear differential equations using spatially changeable coefficients the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation technique is considered. A p-substrate based n-channel MOS device has been analyzed consisting of SiO2 material as the oxide dielectric along with high-k material HfO2. The tunnel resistivity is correspondingly assessed employing this tunneling current density model. Synopsys Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool results are employed to validate the analytical model. Tremendous agreements among the results are observed.

  20. MIMS circuit scrapbook V.I.

    CERN Document Server

    Mims, Forrest

    2000-01-01

    Here it is--a collection of Forrest Mims's classic work from the original Popular Electronics magazine! Using commonly available components and remarkable ingenuity, Forrest shows you how to build and experiment with circuits like these:analog computers color organs digital phase-locked loops frequency-to-voltage and voltage-to-frequency converters interval timers LED oscilloscopes light wave communicators magnetic field sensors optoelectronics pseudorandom number generators tone sequencers and much, much, more!

  1. Streamlining U.S. Army Military Installation Map (MIM) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Assurance Plans ( QAPs ). Serves as the standardized data structure across all Army training and testing installations. Once populated, this...produced NGA MIMs and supporting documentation. All aspects reflect the layout, fonts, and features which are common to MIMs. Based on SRP QAP (CIP

  2. Tunneling in high-K isomeric decays

    CERN Document Server

    Shizuma, T; Shimizu, Y R

    2002-01-01

    We have systematically investigated highly-K-forbidden transitions observed in the Hf, W and Os region, using the gamma-tunneling model in which low-K and high-k states interact through a process of quantum tunneling. The measured hindrance factors are compared with the values calculated using the gamma-tunneling model. Isotope dependences of gamma-tunneling probabilities particularly for neutron-rich nuclei and the relation to stimulated decays of isomers are discussed. (author)

  3. Rheological assessment of titanium MIM feedstocks [Journal article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available remelting and forming operations can then be avoided, except in the manufacture of large components. Metal injection moulding (MIM) is an effective process for producing complex net-shape components in large volumes from metal powders. Nevertheless...

  4. An Automated Medical Information Management System (OpScan-MIMS) in a Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S.; Baker, T.G.; Ritchey, M.G.; Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an automated medical information management system within a clinic setting. The system includes an optically scanned data entry system (OpScan), a generalized, interactive retrieval and storage software system(Medical Information Management System, MIMS) and the use of time-sharing. The system has the advantages of minimal hardware purchase and maintenance, rapid data entry and retrieval, user-created programs, no need for user knowledge of computer language or technology and is cost effective. The OpScan-MIMS system has been operational for approximately 16 months in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The system's application to medical audit, quality assurance, clinic management and clinical training are demonstrated.

  5. Can we model solute transfer in heterogeneous soils with MIM model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimene, Erij; Lassabatere, Laurent; Winiarski, Thierry; Gourdon, Remy

    2017-04-01

    The fate of pollutants in the vadose zone must be understood, in particular, underneath infiltration basins for an optimum management of these plants. Stormwaters carry pollutants (heavy metals, organics, emerging pollutant like nanoparticles, etc.) and thus constitute a risk for groundwater and soil quality. Most infiltration basins are settled over highly permeable soils that exhibit a strong lithological heterogeneity. The impact of such lithological heterogeneity on flow and solute transfer has already been questioned. Previous studies have already proved that lithological heterogeneity was prone to the establishment of preferential flows. In more details, the concomitance of several materials with contrasting hydraulic properties induces funneled flow at the interfaces between less permeable and more permeable lithofacies. Solutes are then carried by water fluxes quickly along preferential flow pathways and have restricted access to zones far from these pathways. It can clearly be imagined that such pattern could be modeled by a MIM model postulating water fraction into two fractions, one mobile and the other immobile, with solute transport by convection and dispersion in mobile water fraction and solute diffusion at the interface between mobile and immobile water fractions. The application of MIM approach to the case of solute transport in strongly heterogeneous soils may be quite advantageous: simplification of the problem, fewer parameters, ease of modeling, numerical computation, gain in computation time, etc. However, such consistency has never been investigated in details. In this paper, we focus on the possibility to model solute transport in a strongly heterogeneous deposit using MIM model. The deposit has been the subject of intensive campaigns of characterization of its lithology and the hydraulic and hydrodispersive properties of its lithofacies. Numerical computations were performed for a section of deposit 13.5 m wide and 2.5 m deep. Numerical

  6. Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) field test installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R.L.; Waymire, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuess, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The MIMS program is funded by the Department of Energy under the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The program objective is to develop cost effective, modular, multi-sensor monitoring systems. Both in-plant and ground based sensors are envisioned. It is also desirable to develop sensors/systems that can be fielded/deployed in a rapid fashion. A MIMS architecture was selected to allow modular integration of sensors and systems and is based on LonWorks technology, commercially developed by Echelon Corporation. The first MIMS fieldable hardware was demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The field test, known within the DOE as the Item Tracking and Transparency (IT&I) demonstration, involved the collaboration and cooperation of five DOE laboratories (Sandia (SNL), Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), Pacific Northwest (PNL), Los Alamos (LANL), and Oak Ridge (ORNL)). The IT&T demonstration involved the monitoring of special nuclear material as it was transported around the facility utilizing sensors from the participating labs. The scenario was programmed to ignore normal activity in the facility until entry into the room where the material was stored. A second demonstration, which involved three separate scenarios, was conducted at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The participants included representatives from SNL, LLNL, PNL, and INEL. DOE has selected INEL as the long term testbed for MIMS developed sensors, systems, and scenarios. This paper will describe the installation, intended purpose, and results of the field demonstrations at LLNL and INEL under the MIMS program.

  7. MIM-Induced Membrane Bending Promotes Dendritic Spine Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikangas, Juha; Kourdougli, Nazim; Senju, Yosuke; Chazal, Genevieve; Segerstråle, Mikael; Minkeviciene, Rimante; Kuurne, Jaakko; Mattila, Pieta K; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M; Becker, Lore; Racz, Ildikó; Hans, Wolfgang; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; von Ossowski, Lotta; Taira, Tomi; Lappalainen, Pekka; Rivera, Claudio; Hotulainen, Pirta

    2015-06-22

    Proper morphogenesis of neuronal dendritic spines is essential for the formation of functional synaptic networks. However, it is not known how spines are initiated. Here, we identify the inverse-BAR (I-BAR) protein MIM/MTSS1 as a nucleator of dendritic spines. MIM accumulated to future spine initiation sites in a PIP2-dependent manner and deformed the plasma membrane outward into a proto-protrusion via its I-BAR domain. Unexpectedly, the initial protrusion formation did not involve actin polymerization. However, PIP2-dependent activation of Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly was required for protrusion elongation. Overexpression of MIM increased the density of dendritic protrusions and suppressed spine maturation. In contrast, MIM deficiency led to decreased density of dendritic protrusions and larger spine heads. Moreover, MIM-deficient mice displayed altered glutamatergic synaptic transmission and compatible behavioral defects. Collectively, our data identify an important morphogenetic pathway, which initiates spine protrusions by coupling phosphoinositide signaling, direct membrane bending, and actin assembly to ensure proper synaptogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-k materials in the electrolyte/insulator/silicon configuration. Characterization and application in bio-electronics; Hoch-k-Materialien in der Elektrolyt/Isolator/Silizium-Konfiguration. Charakterisierung und Anwendung in der Bioelektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallrapp, F.

    2006-12-19

    In order to elicit action potentials in nerve cells adhered on electrodes, a certain current is required across the electrode. Electrochemical reactions may cause damage to cells and electrodes. This is evaded by using silicon electrodes which are insulated by a dielectric. In doing so, only capacitive current is flowing, and electrochemical are avoided. The aim of this work was to fabricate novel stimulation chips exhibiting an enhanced capacitance which render new biological applications possible. These chips were to be characterized and used for the stimulation of cells. The formerly used dielectric SiO{sub 2} was replaced by HfO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, with both of them featuring a higher dielectric constant. They were deposited on the silicon substrate by ALD (atomic layer deposition). The chips were characterized in the electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (EIS) configuration. Owing to the low leakage current of the EIS configuration, the characterization of the high-k materials was possible in more detail as compared to using a metallic top contact (MIS configuration). The voltage-dependent capacitances of the HfO{sub 2} films could be interpreted by means of a common metal/SiO{sub 2}/silicon system. In contrast, the TiO{sub 2} films exhibited interesting properties which could only be rationalized with the help of numerical calculations assuming free electrons in the TiO{sub 2}. The low-lying conduction band of TiO{sub 2} caused accumulation of electrons within the TiO{sub 2} for certain voltages, which led to an enhanced capacitance. The effects of high voltages, frequency, film thickness and interlayer composition were examined and brought into compliance with the model. The novel TiO{sub 2} stimulation devices featured a five-fold capacitance increase as compared to former SiO{sub 2} chips. Using them, two fundamental stimulation mechanisms were induced in HEK293 cells expressing the recombinant potassium channel Kv1.3: Opening of ion channels and

  9. Giant Magnetic Field Enhancement in Hybridized MIM Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-10-23

    We propose numerically an approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the magnetic near field intensity at a magnetic hot spot in a hybridized metal-insulatormetal (MIM) structure. First we insert in part of the dielectric layer of the MIM, at its center, another dielectric material of a high refractive index (HRI). This results in an increase in the magnetic near field enhancement of the magnetic plasmon (MP) resonance by 82% compared with the MIM without the HRI material. We then couple this enhanced MP resonance to a propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) to achieve a further enhancement of 438%. The strong coupling between the MP and the SPP is demonstrated by the large anti-crossing in the reflection spectra. The resulting maximum magnetic field enhancement at the gap is ~ |H / Hi|² = 3555.

  10. Increased Multilayer Fabrication and RF Characterization of a High-Density Stacked MIM Capacitor Based on Selective Etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, VFG; Xie, HK

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a high-density multilayer stacked metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor based on a novel process of depositing the MIM multilayer on pillars followed by polishing and selective etching steps to form a stacked capacitor with merely three photolithography steps. In this paper, the pillars were made of glass to prevent substrate loss, whereas an oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric was employed for lower leakage, better voltage/frequency linearity, and better stress compensation. MIM capacitors with six dielectric layers were successfully fabricated, yielding capacitance density of 3.8 fF/mu m(2), maximum capacitance of 2.47 nF, and linear and quadratic voltage coefficients of capacitance below 21.2 ppm/V and 2.31 ppm/V-2. The impedance was measured from 40 Hz to 3 GHz, and characterized by an analytically derived equivalent circuit model to verify the radio frequency applicability. The multilayer stacking-induced plate resistance mismatch and its effect on the equivalent series resistance (ESR) and effective capacitance was also investigated, which can be counteracted by a corrected metal thickness design. A low ESR of 800 m Omega was achieved, whereas the self-resonance frequency was >760 MHz, successfully demonstrating the feasibility of this method to scale up capacitance densities for high-quality-factor, high-frequency, and large-value MIM capacitors.

  11. Volatiles in High-K Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Messenger, Scott R.; Nguyen, Ann; Boyce, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Chlorine is an unusual isotopic system, being essentially unfractionated ((delta)Cl-37 approximately 0 per mille ) between bulk terrestrial samples and chondritic meteorites and yet showing large variations in lunar (approximately -4 to +81 per mille), martian, and vestan (HED) samples. Among lunar samples, the volatile-bearing mineral apatite (Ca5(PO4)3[F,Cl,OH]) has been studied for volatiles in K-, REE-, and P (KREEP), very high potassium (VHK), low-Ti and high-Ti basalts, as well as samples from the lunar highlands. These studies revealed a positive correlation between in-situ (delta)Cl-37 measurements and bulk incompatible trace elements (ITEs) and ratios. Such trends were interpreted to originate from Cl isotopic fractionation during the degassing of metal chlorides during or shortly after the differentiation of the Moon via a magma ocean. In this study, we investigate the volatile inventories of a group of samples for which new-era volatile data have yet to be reported - the high-K (greater than 2000 ppm bulk K2O), high-Ti, trace element-rich mare basalts. We used isotope imaging on the Cameca NanoSIMS 50L at JSC to obtain the Cl isotopic composition [((Cl-37/(35)Clsample/C-37l/(35)Clstandard)-1)×1000, to get a value in per thousand (per mille)] which ranges from approximately -2.7 +/- 2 per mille to +16.1 +/- 2 per mille (2sigma), as well as volatile abundances (F & Cl) of apatite in samples 10017, 10024 & 10049. Simply following prior models, as lunar rocks with high bulk-rock abundances of ITEs we might expect the high-K, high-Ti basalts to contain apatite characterized by heavily fractionated (delta)Cl-37 values, i.e., Cl obtained from mixing between unfractionated mantle Cl (approximately 0 per mille) and the urKREEP reservoir (possibly fractionated to greater than +25 per mille.). However, the data obtained for the studied samples do not conform to either the early degassing or mixing models. Existing petrogentic models for the origin of the high-K

  12. Metal Injection Molding (MIM of NdFeB Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig T.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increased and unstable prices for Rare Earth elements there are activities to develop alternative hard magnetic materials. Reducing the amount of material necessary to produce complex sintered NdFeB magnets can also help to reduce some of the supply problem. Metal Injection Molding (MIM is able to produce near net shape parts and can reduce the amount of finishing to achieve final geometry. Although MIM of NdFeB has been patented and published fairly soon after the development of the NdFeB magnets there has never been an industrial production. This could be due to the fact that MIM was very young at that time and hardly developed. Thus, the feasibility of the process needs to be revaluated. This paper presents results of our work on determining the process parameters influencing the magnetic properties of the sintered magnets as well as the shrinkage during processing. The role of binder and powder loading on the alignment of the particles as well as on the carbon and oxygen contamination was examined.

  13. Parameter Optimization Of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316l Via Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N.; Ibrahim1, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Asmawi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) are well known as a worldwide application of powder injection molding (PIM) where as applied the shaping concept and the beneficial of plastic injection molding but develops the applications to various high performance metals and alloys, plus metal matrix composites and ceramics. This study investigates the strength of green part by using stainless steel 316L/ Natural hydroxyapatite composite as a feedstock. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) was mixed with Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) by adding 40 wt. % Low Density Polyethylene and 60 %wt. Palm Stearin as a binder system at 63 wt. % powder loading consist of 90 % wt. of SS316 L and 10 wt. % NHAP prepared thru critical powder volume percentage (CPVC). Taguchi method was functional as a tool in determining the optimum green strength for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. The green strength was optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. The optimum injection parameters for highest green strength were established at A1, B2, C0 and D1 and where as calculated based on Signal to Noise Ratio.

  14. High-K Strategy Scale: A Measure of the High-K Independent Criterion of Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Giosan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at testing whether factors documented in the literature as being indicators of a high-K reproductive strategy have effects on fitness in extant humans. A 26-item High-K Strategy Scale comprising these factors was developed and tested on 250 respondents. Items tapping into health and attractiveness, upward mobility, social capital and risks consideration, were included in the scale. As expected, the scale showed a significant correlation with perceived offspring quality and a weak, but significant association with actual number of children. The scale had a high reliability coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha = .92. Expected correlations were found between the scale and number of medical diagnoses, education, perceived social support, and number of previous marriages, strengthening the scale's construct validity. Implications of the results are discussed.

  15. Solvation Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen Sulfide in [C4mim][PF6], [C4mim][BF4], and [C4mim][Cl] Ionic Liquids, Determined by Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Badillo, Joel; Gallo, Marco; Alvarado, Sandra; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2015-08-20

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and acid gases from natural gas is accomplished by absorption processes using a solvent. The gas solubility in a liquid can be used to measure the degree of removal of the gas and is quantified by the Henry's constant, the free energy of solvation at infinite dilution, or the excess chemical potential. In this work, Henry's constants and thermodynamic properties of solvation of H2S were calculated in three ionic liquids: [C4mim][PF6], [C4mim][BF4], and [C4mim][Cl] ([C4mim], 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium). The first step in this work was the evaluation of the force fields for the gas and condensed phases in order to obtain accurate values for the excess chemical potential for H2S on each ionic liquid using free energy perturbation techniques. In the H2S-[C4mim][PF6] and H2S-[C4mim][BF4] systems, the results obtained by molecular simulation agree with the experimental values reported in the literature. However, the solvation free energy calculated for the H2S-[C4mim][Cl] system can be considered predictive because of the lack of experimental data at the simulated conditions. Based on these results, the best solvent for removing H2S is [C4mim][Cl] because it has the highest affinity for this species (lowest value of the Henry's constant). Also, solvation thermodynamic properties such as enthalpy and entropy were calculated in order to evaluate their contribution to the free energy of solvation.

  16. A Review on Resistive Switching in High-k Dielectrics: A Nanoscale Point of View Using Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lanza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM structures have raised as the most promising configuration for next generation information storage, leading to great performance and fabrication-friendly Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAM. In these cells, the memory concept is no more based on the charge storage, but on tuning the electrical resistance of the insulating layer by applying electrical stresses to reach a high resistive state (HRS or “0” and a low resistive state (LRS or “1”, which makes the memory point. Some high-k dielectrics show this unusual property and in the last years high-k based RRAM have been extensively analyzed, especially at the device level. However, as resistance switching (in the most promising cells is a local phenomenon that takes place in areas of ~100 nm2, the use of characterization tools with high lateral spatial resolution is necessary. In this paper the status of resistive switching in high-k materials is reviewed from a nanoscale point of view by means of conductive atomic force microscope analyses.

  17. X-ray computed microtomography studies of MIM and DPR parts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muchavi, Noluntu S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available of the evolution of porosity in metal injection moulding (MIM) and direct powder rolling (DPR) products. 17-4 PH stainless steel (as-moulded, as-debound and sintered) dog-bone samples produced via MIM and Ti-HDH strips (as-rolled and sintered) produced via DPR...

  18. MIM, a Potential Metastasis Suppressor Gene in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a modified version of the mRNA differential display technique, five human bladder cancer cell lines from low grade to metastatic were analyzed to identify differences in gene expression. A 316-bp cDNA (C11300 was isolated that was not expressed in the metastatic cell line TccSuP. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene was identical to KIAA 0429, has a 5.3-kb transcript that mapped to 8824.1. The protein is predicted to be 356 amino acids in size and has an actin-binding WH2 domain. Northern blot revealed expression in multiple normal tissues, but none in a metastatic breast cancer cell line (SKBR3 or in metastatic prostatic cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3. We have named this gene Missing in Metastasis (MIM and our data suggest that it may be involved in cytoskeletal organization.

  19. Wide band dispersionless slow light in hetero-MIM plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dacheng; Du, Kang; Liang, Shuhai; Zhang, Wending; Mei, Ting

    2016-10-03

    A flat slow-light band over a wide frequency range is obtained in the hetero-MIM (metal-insulator-metal) waveguide with zero group velocity dispersion (GVD). The zero GVD originates from dispersion compensation by the photonic mode and the plasmonic mode, the mechanism of which does not exist in the homo-MIM structure. By changing dielectric permittivity of the insulator or the difference of two different metallic plasma frequencies, the group index and the bandwidth can be tuned. The dispersionless slow light characteristic in the hetero-MIM waveguide may be useful in the new design of plasmonic devices.

  20. Reliability characterization of MEMS switch using MIM test structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Dubey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nitride thin film dielectrics are used in capacitive radio frequency micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS switches since they provide a low insertion loss, good isolation, and low return loss. The lifetime of these switches is believed to be adversely affected by charge trapping in the silicon nitride. The goal of this research was to characterize Si3N4-based MIM (Metal–Insulator–Metal capacitors to describe the mechanisms responsible for the conduction and trapping behaviour in MEMS switches. The silicon nitride films were deposited by ICP chemical vapour deposition at room temperatures. The upper Si3N4 layer was removed by the reactive ion etching process (RIE in order to provide contact paths to the bottom electrode. In the near-stoichiometric films, different electrical characterizations were performed to study dependence of the leakage current on different electrical parameters. It was concluded that the Poole–Frenkel mechanism dominated the conduction in the silicon nitride films at high fields.

  1. High-K isomers as probes of octupole collectivity in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, P.M., E-mail: p.walker@surrey.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Minkov, N. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-11-01

    The influence of the octupole deformation on the structure of high-K isomeric states in the region of heavy even-even actinide nuclei is studied through a reflection asymmetric deformed shell model (DSM). Two-quasiparticle states with high-K values are constructed by taking into account the pairing effect through a DSM + BCS procedure with constant pairing interaction. The behaviour of two-quasiparticle energies and magnetic dipole moments of K{sup {pi}=}6{sup +}, 6{sup -} and 8{sup -} configurations, applicable to mass numbers in the range A=234-252, was examined over a wide range of quadrupole and octupole deformations. A pronounced sensitivity of the magnetic moments to the octupole deformation is found. The result suggests a possibly important role for high-K isomers in determining the degree of octupole deformation in heavy actinide nuclei.

  2. Chronic effects of the ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] towards the microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun; Beadham, Ian; Wu, Jie; Chen, Xiao-Di; Hu, Lan; Gu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chronic effects of the ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] (mp 73 °C) towards the microalga, Scenedesmus quadricauda were studied by flow cytometry, monitoring multiple endpoints of cell density, esterase activity, membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species and chlorophyll fluorescence. Toxicity was clearly in evidence, and although increased esterase activity indicated hormesis during initial exposure to [C4mim][Cl], inhibition of both esterase activity and chlorophyll fluorescence became apparent after 3 days. Cell density was also decreased by culturing with [C4mim][Cl], but this effect was clearly concentration-dependent and only became significant during the second half of the experiment. In contrast, [C4mim][Cl] had only a modest effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused little damage to cell membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Matrix of MIM Elements with Anodic Aluminuim Oxide for Vacuum Luminescent Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiova, A. I.; Utkina, E. A.

    1996-04-01

    The structure of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) elements with anodic alimunium oxide is described. These structures may be especially important for large size displays when compared with thin film transistor structures.

  4. Design optimization and fabrication of Mach- Zehnder interferometer based on MIM plasmonic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Shun; Okamoto, Toshihiro; El-Zohary, Salah E; Haraguchi, Masanobu

    2016-07-25

    We proposed and designed a compact unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on metal/insulator/metal (MIM) plasmonic waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. The MZI was fabricated by a lithography technique and we provide, for the first time experimental evaluation of the transmission performance of the MZI using MIM PWGs. The experimental results were in good agreement with the numerical simulations. The proposed structure could be considered as a key device for on-chip optical integrated circuits.

  5. Ultra-narrow band perfect absorbers based on Fano resonance in MIM metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Fang, Jiawen; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Junyan; Yu, Honglin

    2017-12-01

    Metallic nanostructures have attracted numerous attentions in the past decades due to their attractive plasmonic properties. Resonant plasmonic perfect absorbers have promising applications in a wide range of technologies including photothermal therapy, thermophotovoltaics, heat-assisted magnetic recording and biosensing. However, it remains to be a great challenge to achieve ultra-narrow band in near-infrared band with plasmonic materials due to the large optical losses in metals. In this letter, we introduced Fano resonance in MIM metamaterials composed of an asymmetry double elliptic cylinders (ADEC), which can achieve ultra-narrow band perfect absorbers. In theoretical calculations, we observed an ultranarrow band resonant absorption peak with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 8 nm and absorption amplitude exceeding 99% at 930 nm. Moreover, we demonstrate that the absorption increases with the increase of asymmetry and the absorption resonant wavelength can be tuned by changing the size and arrangement of the unit cell. The asymmetry metallic nanostructure also exhibit a higher refractive sensitivity as large as 503 nm/RIU with high figure of merit of 63, which is promising for high sensitive sensors. Results of this work are desirable for various potential applications in micro-technological structures such as biological sensors, narrowband emission, photodetectors and solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) cells.

  6. Investigation of capacitance characteristics in metal/high-k ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. C − V characteristic; high-k dielectric; interface state density; MIS structure; nanotechnology; TCAD simulation. Abstract. Capacitance vs. voltage ( C − V ) curves at AC high frequency of a metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) capacitorare investigated in this paper. Bi-dimensional simulations with Silvaco TCAD ...

  7. Registration error of the liver CT using deformable image registration of MIM Maestro and Velocity AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Nitta, Kazunori; Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Numajiri, Haruko; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Mizumoto, Masashi; Aihara, Teruhito; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2017-05-04

    Understanding the irradiated area and dose correctly is important for the reirradiation of organs that deform after irradiation, such as the liver. We investigated the spatial registration error using the deformable image registration (DIR) software products MIM Maestro (MIM) and Velocity AI (Velocity). Image registration of pretreatment computed tomography (CT) and posttreatment CT was performed in 24 patients with liver tumors. All the patients received proton beam therapy, and the follow-up period was 4-14 (median: 10) months. We performed DIR of the pretreatment CT and compared it with that of the posttreatment CT by calculating the dislocation of metallic markers (implanted close to the tumors). The fiducial registration error was comparable in both products: 0.4-32.9 (9.3 ± 9.9) mm for MIM and 0.5-38.6 (11.0 ± 10.0) mm for Velocity, and correlated with the tumor diameter for MIM (r = 0.69, P = 0.002) and for Velocity (r = 0.68, P = 0.0003). Regarding the enhancement effect, the fiducial registration error was 1.0-24.9 (7.4 ± 7.7) mm for MIM and 0.3-29.6 (8.9 ± 7.2) mm for Velocity, which is shorter than that of plain CT (P = 0.04, for both). The DIR performance of both MIM and Velocity is comparable with regard to the liver. The fiducial registration error of DIR depends on the tumor diameter. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced CT improves the accuracy of both MIM and Velocity. H28-102; July 14, 2016 approved.

  8. Improvement of magnetic properties of Fe-50mass%Ni in MIM process; MIM process ni okeru Fe-50mass%Ni no jiki tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujita, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Fujita, M.; Ninomiya, R. [Mitsuikinzoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be one of processing for required to more complicated parts of magnetic components. In this study, the effect of different types of powders (prealloyed and mixed elemental powders) on the magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-50mass%Ni) through the MIM technique was investigated. Approximately 94% of theoretical density was obtained by using the prealloyed powder, and the retained carbon and oxygen contents were controlled to be low. On the other hand, 96% of theoretical density was obtained by using the mixed elemental powder, but the magnetic properties were inferior to that of prealloyed powder's because of high retained oxygen content. By using the carbonyl Fe powder with high carbon, the retained oxygen and carbon content could be controlled to be low, resulting in the improved magnetic properties. (author)

  9. Metastable Innershell Molecular State (MIMS II: K-shell X-ray satellites in heavy ion impact on solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young K. Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastable Innershell Molecular State (MIMS, an innershell-bound ultra-high-energy molecule, was previously proposed to explain a ∼40% efficiency of soft-X-ray generation in ∼0.05 keV/amu nanoparticle impact on solids. Here, the MIMS model has been extended and applied to interpreting the experimental K-shell X-ray satellite spectra for more than 40 years in keV-MeV/amu heavy-ion impact on solids. The binding energies of the K-shell MIMS of elements from Al to Ti were determined to be 80–200 eV. The successful extension of the model to the K-shell MIMS confirms that all elements in the periodic table and their combinations are subjected to the MIMS formation.

  10. On the leakage problem of MIM capacitors due to improper etching of titanium nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor structures are fabricated in a technology using TiN as electrode material. The electrical characterization revealed devices with small and large leakage currents. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) inspection showed a correlation between high

  11. Usability and User Satisfaction of Multimedia Instructional Message (MIM) for Packet Tracer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Mohd Syahrizad; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri

    2016-01-01

    Simulation-aided learning has capability in improving student's learning performance. However, the positive effect of simulation-aided learning still being discussed, which at times has not played the purported role expected. To address these problems, Multimedia Instructional Message (MIM) appeared to be an essential supporting tool in ensuring…

  12. Mechanical Design of the NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H,; Smith, D. R.; Ellis, R.; Labik, G.; Priniski, C.

    2005-09-26

    The NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic measures small-scale density fluctuations by the heterodyne detection of waves scattered from a millimeter wave probe beam at 280 GHz and {lambda}=1.07 mm. To enable this measurement, major alterations were made to the NSTX vacuum vessel and Neutral Beam armor. Close collaboration between the PPPL physics and engineering staff resulted in a flexible system with steerable launch and detection optics that can position the scattering volume either near the magnetic axis ({rho} {approx} .1) or near the edge ({rho} {approx} .8). 150 feet of carefully aligned corrugated waveguide was installed for injection of the probe beam and collection of the scattered signal in to the detection electronics.

  13. High-k dielectrics as bioelectronic interface for field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borstlap, D.

    2007-03-15

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) are employed as bioelectronic sensors for the cell-transistor coupling and for the detection of DNA sequences. For these applications, thermally grown SiO{sub 2} films are used as standard gate dielectric. In the first part of this dissertation, the suitability of high-k dielectrics was studied to increase the gate capacitance and hence the signal-to-noise ratio of bioelectronic ISFETs: Upon culturing primary rat neurons on the corresponding high-k dielectrics, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, yttria stabilised zirkonia (YSZ), DyScO{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, LaAlO{sub 3}, GdScO{sub 3} and LaScO{sub 3} proved to be biocompatible substrates. Comprehensive electrical and electrochemical current-voltage measurements and capacitance-voltage measurements were performed for the determination of the dielectric properties of the high-k dielectrics. In the second part of the dissertation, standard SiO{sub 2} ISFETs with lower input capacitance and high-k dielectric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, YSZ und DyScO{sub 3} ISFETs were comprehensively characterised and compared with each other regarding their signal-to-noise ratio, their ion sensitivity and their drift behaviour. The ion sensitivity measurements showed that the YSZ ISFETs were considerably more sensitive to K{sup +} and Na{sup +} ions than the SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} und DyScO{sub 3} ISFETs. In the final third part of the dissertation, bioelectronic experiments were performed with the high-k ISFETs. The shape of the signals, which were measured from HL-1 cells with YSZ ISFETs, differed considerably from the corresponding measurements with SiO{sub 2} and DyScO{sub 3} ISFETs: After the onset of the K{sup +} current, the action potentials measured with YSZ ISFETs showed a strong drift in the direction opposite to the K{sup +} current signal. First coupling experiments between HEK 293 cells, which were transfected with a K{sup +} ion channel, and YSZ ISFETs affirmed the assumption from the HL-1

  14. Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A generalized interactive information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C. A.; Hipkins, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive information system is described. It is a general purpose, free format system which offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. Examples of the system's operation, commentary on the examples, and a complete listing of the system program are included.

  15. Modeling of leakage currents in high-k dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegert, Gunther Christian

    2012-03-15

    Leakage currents are one of the major bottlenecks impeding the downscaling efforts of the semiconductor industry. Two core devices of integrated circuits, the transistor and, especially, the DRAM storage capacitor, suffer from the increasing loss currents. In this perspective a fundamental understanding of the physical origin of these leakage currents is highly desirable. However, the complexity of the involved transport phenomena so far has prevented the development of microscopic models. Instead, the analysis of transport through the ultra-thin layers of high-permittivity (high-k) dielectrics, which are employed as insulating layers, was carried out at an empirical level using simple compact models. Unfortunately, these offer only limited insight into the physics involved on the microscale. In this context the present work was initialized in order to establish a framework of microscopic physical models that allow a fundamental description of the transport processes relevant in high-k thin films. A simulation tool that makes use of kinetic Monte Carlo techniques was developed for this purpose embedding the above models in an environment that allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the electronic transport in such films. Existing continuum approaches, which tend to conceal the important physics behind phenomenological fitting parameters, were replaced by three-dimensional transport simulations at the level of single charge carriers. Spatially localized phenomena, such as percolation of charge carriers across pointlike defects, being subject to structural relaxation processes, or electrode roughness effects, could be investigated in this simulation scheme. Stepwise a self-consistent, closed transport model for the TiN/ZrO{sub 2} material system, which is of outmost importance for the semiconductor industry, was developed. Based on this model viable strategies for the optimization of TiN/ZrO{sub 2}/TiN capacitor structures were suggested and problem areas

  16. SU-E-J-80: A Comparative Analysis of MIM and Pinnacle Software for Adaptive Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, J; Duggar, W; Morris, B; Yang, C [University of Mississippi Med. Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: IMRT treatment is often administered with image guidance and small PTV margins. Change in body habitus such as weight loss and tumor response during the course of a treatment could be significant, thus warranting re-simulation and re-planning. Adaptive planning is challenging and places significant burden on the staff, as such some commercial vendors are now offering adaptive planning software to stream line the process of re-planning and dose accumulation between different CT data set. The purpose of this abstract is to compare the adaptive planning tools between Pinnacle version 9.8 and MIM 6.4 software. Methods: Head and Neck cases of previously treated patients that experienced anatomical changes during the course of their treatment were chosen for evaluation. The new CT data set from the re-simulation was imported to Pinnacle and MIM software. The dynamic planning tool in pinnacle was used to calculate the old plan with fixed MU setting on the new CT data. In MIM, the old CT was registered to the new data set, followed by a dose transformation to the new CT. The dose distribution to the PTV and critical structures from each software were analyzed and compared. Results: 9% difference was observed between the Global maximum doses reported by both software. Mean doses to organs at risk and PTV’s were within 6 % however pinnacle showed greater difference in PTV coverage change. Conclusion: MIM software adaptive planning corrects for geometrical changes without consideration for the effect of radiological path length on dose distribution; however Pinnacle corrects for both geometric and radiological effect on the dose distribution. Pinnacle gives a better estimate of the dosimetric impact due to anatomical changes.

  17. Advances in imaging and quantification of electrical properties at the nanoscale using Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Stuart; Stanke, Fred; Yang, Yongliang; Amster, Oskar

    Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM) is a mode for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) enabling imaging of unique contrast mechanisms and measurement of local permittivity and conductivity at the 10's of nm length scale. sMIM has been applied to a variety of systems including nanotubes, nanowires, 2D materials, photovoltaics and semiconductor devices. Early results were largely semi-quantitative. This talk will focus on techniques for extracting quantitative physical parameters such as permittivity, conductivity, doping concentrations and thin film properties from sMIM data. Particular attention will be paid to non-linear materials where sMIM has been used to acquire nano-scale capacitance-voltage curves. These curves can be used to identify the dopant type (n vs p) and doping level in doped semiconductors, both bulk samples and devices. Supported in part by DOE-SBIR DE-SC0009856.

  18. Mindfulness Integrative Model (MIM): Cultivating positive states of mind towards oneself and the others through mindfulness and self-compassion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal; Carlos García-Rubio; David Paniagua; Gustavo García-Diex

    2016-01-01

    ...). MIM main hypothesis is that mindfulness practice leads to an increment in mindfulness trait, which leads to an increase of self-compassion, and these in turn, lead to increase positive mental states...

  19. Galvanic corrosion of metal injection molded (MIM) and conventional brackets with nickel-titanium and copper-nickel-titanium archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siargos, Barbara; Bradley, Thomas G; Darabara, Myrsini; Papadimitriou, George; Zinelis, Spiros

    2007-03-01

    To compare the galvanic coupling of conventional and metal injection molded (MIM) brackets with commonly used orthodontic archwires. Six of each type of bracket were suspended in lactic acid along with a sample of orthodontic wire (three nickel-titanium and three copper-nickel-titanium) for 28 days at 37 degrees C. The potential differences between the wires and brackets were recorded per second throughout the duration of the experiment. The MIM brackets exhibited potential differences similar to those seen for the conventional brackets. The greatest potential difference was found for MIM brackets with nickel-titanium wires (512 mV), whereas MIM brackets with copper-nickel-titanium wires had the smallest difference (115 mV). Scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy-dispersive spectroscopic analysis of the tie-wing area of each bracket type indicated similar elemental composition in both brackets, but in slightly different percentages by weight. The MIM bracket exhibited extensive internal porosity, whereas the conventional bracket was more solid internally. The composition and manufacturing processes involved in fabricating MIM brackets impart corrosive properties similar to those seen in the bracket-wing area of conventional brackets and may provide a measurable benefit when taking into account the increased corrosion between the bracket and brazing alloy of conventional brackets.

  20. Péptidos miméticos con capacidad de atravesar barreras biológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Villamil, Ximena Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El estudio de los gamma-péptidos miméticos basados en cis-gamma-amino-L-prolina con capacidad de atravesar la membrana celular en diferentes organismos, constituye una temática de gran interés en el área de biomedicina para su futuro desarrollo como transportadores moleculares. Estos análisis ayudan a profundizar y entender, como las características intrínsecas de cada compuesto asociadas a su estructura, constituyen factores cruciales para su desarrollo como transportadores. Como continuació...

  1. Analysis and Geometry : MIMS-GGTM, in Honour of Mohammed Salah Baouendi

    CERN Document Server

    Kacimi, Aziz; Kallel, Sadok; Mir, Nordine

    2015-01-01

    This book includes selected papers presented at the MIMS (Mediterranean Institute for the Mathematical Sciences) - GGTM (Geometry and Topology Grouping for the Maghreb) conference, held in memory of Mohammed Salah Baouendi, a most renowned figure in the field of several complex variables, who passed away in 2011. All research articles were written by leading experts, some of whom are prize winners in the fields of complex geometry, algebraic geometry and analysis. The book offers a valuable resource for all researchers interested in recent developments in analysis and geometry.

  2. A narrativa dos afetos no documentário O Samba que mora em mim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Pavan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intents to understand the affectionate look of theBrazilian filmmaker Geórgia Guerra-Peixe. We can see that look in her documentarycalled O samba que mora em mim, winner of the jury special award of the São PauloFilm Festival [Mostra de Cinema de São Paulo], in 2010. For this study we interviewedGeórgia, collected information published in the press when the documentary was release,in february 2011, and we make a film analysis.

  3. Two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid [C4mim]Ac by macroporous resin and ion exchange resin from Schisandra chinensis fruits extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-22

    In this study, two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim]Ac) were studied through a digestion extraction system of extracting biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis. The RP-HPLC detection method for [C4mim]Ac was established in order to investigate the recovery efficiency of IL. The recycling method of [C4mim]Ac is divided into two steps, the first step was the separation of lignans from the IL solution containing HPD 5000 macroporous resin, the recovery efficiency and purity of [C4mim]Ac achieved were 97.8% and 67.7%, respectively. This method cannot only separate the lignans from [C4mim]Ac solution, also improve the purity of lignans, the absorption rate of lignans in [C4mim]Ac solution was found to be higher (69.2%) than that in ethanol solution (57.7%). The second step was the purification of [C4mim]Ac by the SK1B strong acid ion exchange resin, an [C4mim]Ac recovery efficiency of 55.9% and the purity higher than 90% were achieved. Additionally, [C4mim]Ac as solvent extraction of lignans from S. chinensis was optimized, the hydrolysis temperature was 90°C and the hydrolysis time was 2h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of thermal debinding on the final properties of Fe–Si soft magnetic alloys for metal injection molding (MIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Páez-Pavón, A.; Jiménez-Morales, A. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ing. de materiales e Ing. Química, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Santos, T.G. [UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Quintino, L. [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Torralba, J.M. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ing. de materiales e Ing. Química, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) may be used to produce soft magnetic materials with optimal mechanical and magnetic properties. Unlike other techniques, MIM enables the production of complex and small Fe–Si alloy parts with silicon contents greater than 3% by weight. In MIM process development, it is critical to design a proper debinding cycle not only to ensure complete removal of the binder system but also to obtain improved properties in the final part. This work is a preliminary study on the production of Fe-3.8Si soft magnetic parts by MIM using pre-alloyed powders and a non-industrialized binder. Two different heating rates during thermal debinding were used to study their effect on the final properties of the part. The final properties of the sintered parts are related to thermal debinding. It has been demonstrated that the heating rate during thermal debinding has a strong influence on the final properties of Fe–Si soft magnetic alloys. - Highlights: • The properties of MIM Fe-Si alloy are influenced by the debinding heating rate. • The slow debinding led to a lower porosity, lower oxygen content and grain growth. • The magnetization of the sintered samples improved after a slow thermal debinding.

  5. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangho Shin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE and low density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

  6. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwangho; Heo, Youngmoo; Park, Hyungpil; Chang, Sungho; Rhee, Byungohk

    2013-12-12

    In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE)) and polypropylene (PP) resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

  7. Rediseño del robot bípedo MIMBOT para incorporar habilidades miméticas

    OpenAIRE

    Zango Casado, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Este Proyecto propone el rediseño del robot bípedo PASIBOT para evolucionarlo al nuevo robot bípedo MIMBOT, partiendo del modelo con un grado de libertad e incorporándole dos nuevos grados de libertad actuados en cada pierna que permitan nuevos comportamientos miméticos, como el alargamiento, el acortamiento y la elevación del paso. Además, se exportará el modelo rediseñado al programa MSC. Adams para comprobar su viabilidad mediante la simulación de algunas de las nuevas habilidades mimética...

  8. Structural and optical properties of germanium nanostructures on Si(100 and embedded in high-k oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Samit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The structural and optical properties of Ge quantum dots (QDs grown on Si(001 for mid-infrared photodetector and Ge nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices for floating gate memory devices are presented. The infrared photoluminescence (PL signal from Ge islands has been studied at a low temperature. The temperature- and bias-dependent photocurrent spectra of a capped Si/SiGe/Si(001 QDs infrared photodetector device are presented. The properties of Ge nanocrystals of different size and density embedded in high-k matrices grown using radio frequency magnetron sputtering have been studied. Transmission electron micrographs have revealed the formation of isolated spherical Ge nanocrystals in high-k oxide matrix of sizes ranging from 4 to 18 nm. Embedded nanocrystals in high band gap oxides have been found to act as discrete trapping sites for exchanging charge carriers with the conduction channel by direct tunneling that is desired for applications in floating gate memory devices.

  9. A novel design for monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The design for the fabrication of Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion described in this paper utilizes a novel, interdigitated contacting scheme that increases the flexibility in the size of the component cells and hence the output current and voltage of the module. This flexibility is gained at the expense of only minimally increased grid obscuration. Because the design uses the grid fingers of the component cells as the interconnect structure, the area of the device used for this purpose becomes negligible. In this paper the authors report on the specifics of the design as well as issues related to the fabrication of the modules. Preliminary performance data for representative modules also are offered.

  10. Strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and MIM nanocavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM nanocavity. By changing the meta-atom sizes, we achieve the meta-atomic electric dipole, quadrupole or multipole interaction with the plasmonic nanocavity, in which characteristic anticrossing behaviors demonstrate the occurrence of the strong coupling. The various interactions present obviously different splitting values and behaviors of dependence on the meta-atomic position. The largest Rabi-type splittings, about 360.0 meV and 306.1 meV, have been obtained for electric dipole and quadrupole interaction, respectively. We attribute the large splitting to the highly-confined cavity mode and the large transition dipole of the meta-atom. Also the Rabi-type oscillation in time domain is given.

  11. Capillary rheological studies of 17-4 PH MIM feedstocks prepared using a custom CSIR binder system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an attempt to establish the rheological properties of 17-4 PH stainless steel MIM feedstocks prepared using a proprietary CSIR wax-based binder system. The influence of powder and feedstock characteristics on the rheological...

  12. Investigation of 6T SRAM memory circuit using high-k dielectrics based nano scale junctionless transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Pravin, J.; Nirmal, D.; Prajoon, P.; Mohan Kumar, N.; Ajayan, J.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper the Dual Metal Surround Gate Junctionless Transistor (DMSGJLT) has been implemented with various high-k dielectric. The leakage current in the device is analysed in detail by obtaining the band structure for different high-k dielectric material. It is noticed that with increasing dielectric constant the device provides more resistance for the direct tunnelling of electron in off state. The gate oxide capacitance also shows 0.1 μF improvement with Hafnium Oxide (HfO2) than Silicon Oxide (SiO2). This paved the way for a better memory application when high-k dielectric is used. The Six Transistor (6T) Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) circuit implemented shows 41.4% improvement in read noise margin for HfO2 than SiO2. It also shows 37.49% improvement in write noise margin and 30.16% improvement in hold noise margin for HfO2 than SiO2.

  13. High performance trench MOS barrier Schottky diode with high-k gate oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Dong-Yuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Cai, Yin-Fei; Shi, Yi; Zheng, You-Liao

    2015-07-01

    A novel trench MOS barrier Schottky diode (TMBS) device with a high-k material introduced into the gate insulator is reported, which is named high-k TMBS. By simulation with Medici, it is found that the high-k TMBS can have 19.8% lower leakage current while maintaining the same breakdown voltage and forward turn-on voltage compared with the conventional regular trench TMBS. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00607), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61106089 and 61376097), and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LR14F040001).

  14. Is a Successful High-K Fitness Strategy Associated with Better Mental Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Giosan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between a high-K fitness strategy and mental health. These associations were tested on a sample of 1400 disaster workers who had exposure to a singular traumatic event and who underwent psychological evaluations. The results showed that high-K was an important negative predictor of psychopathology, accounting for significant variance in PTSD, general psychopathology, functional disability, anger, and sleep disturbances. Implications of the results are discussed.

  15. Hacia una teoría mimética de lo político: René Girard y su escuela

    OpenAIRE

    González Hernández, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    La tesis doctoral Hacia una teoria mimética de lo político: René Girard y su escuela, es un estudio sobre la obra del pensador franco-americano René Girard, impulsor de la teoría mimética y exponente de una concepción antropológica que se expresa de forma privilegiada en el espacio de las relaciones sociales intersubjetivas, explorando las posibilidades de dicho enfoque mimético en el marco de lo político. Se trata de un estudio que, debido a la extraordinaria riqueza multidisciplinar de la o...

  16. A standard MIGS/MIMS compliant XML Schema: toward the development of the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, Renzo; Gray, Tanya; Murphy, Sean; Kagan, Leonid; Kravitz, Saul; Lombardot, Thierry; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML) is a core project of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that implements the "Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence" (MIGS) specification and its extension, the "Minimum Information about a Metagenome Sequence" (MIMS). GCDML is an XML Schema for generating MIGS/MIMS compliant reports for data entry, exchange, and storage. When mature, this sample-centric, strongly-typed schema will provide a diverse set of descriptors for describing the exact origin and processing of a biological sample, from sampling to sequencing, and subsequent analysis. Here we describe the need for such a project, outline design principles required to support the project, and make an open call for participation in defining the future content of GCDML. GCDML is freely available, and can be downloaded, along with documentation, from the GSC Web site (http://gensc.org).

  17. Using Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM) to characterize defects in dopants and dielectrics in semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Stuart; Yang, Yongliang; Stanke, Fred; Amster, Oskar

    As semiconductor technologies adopt advanced designs and materials, it becomes critical to be able to characterize, at the nanoscale, dopant distributions, dielectric properties and interface and thin-film quality. Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM) is an atomic force microscope (AFM) based electrical measurement technique that measures local permittivity and conductivity at nanoscale dimensions. It can also measure the capacitance of the tip-sample junction or nanostructures. Non-linear properties of samples and nano-structures can be probed by applying a bias to the sMIM tip and recording capacitance-voltage curves. This talk will present results of characterizing and imaging a number of materials and structures from advanced semiconductor technologies. Examples will include (1) quantifying the doping level and imaging the doping distributions of both Si and III-V devices, and (2) quantifying dielectric properties including the use of capacitance-voltage curves to characterize defects in buried gate oxides.

  18. Heterozygous CAV1 frameshift mutations (MIM 601047) in patients with atypical partial lipodystrophy and hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Henian; Alston, Lindsay; Ruschman, Jennifer; Hegele, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Background Mice with a deleted Cav1 gene encoding caveolin-1 develop adipocyte abnormalities and insulin resistance. From genomic DNA of patients with atypical lipodystrophy and hypertriglyceridemia who had no mutations in any known lipodystrophy gene, we used DNA sequence analysis to screen the coding regions of human CAV1 (MIM 601047). Results We found a heterozygous frameshift mutation in CAV1, designated I134fsdelA-X137, in a female patient who had atypical partial lipodystrophy, with subcutaneous fat loss affecting the upper part of her body and face, but sparing her legs, gluteal region and visceral fat stores. She had severe type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia, with recurrent pancreatitis. In addition, she had some atypical features, including congenital cataracts and neurological findings. Her father was also heterozygous for this mutation, and had a similar pattern of fat redistribution, hypertriglyceridemia and congenital cataracts, with milder neurological involvement. An unrelated patient had a different heterozygous frameshift mutation in the CAV1 gene, designated -88delC. He also had a partial lipodystrophy phenotype, with subcutaneous fat loss affecting the arms, legs and gluteal region, but sparing his face, neck and visceral fat stores. He also had severe type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia, with recurrent pancreatitis; however he had no clinically apparent neurological manifestations. The mutations were absent from the genomes of 1063 healthy individuals. Conclusion Thus, very rare CAV1 frameshift mutations appear to be associated with atypical lipodystrophy and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:18237401

  19. Mindfulness Integrative Model (MIM: cultivating positive states of mind towards oneself and the others through mindfulness and self-compassion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal

    Full Text Available There are more and more studies showing the effectiveness of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI in well-being. However, there are few studies that explore the mechanisms underlying this effect. The aim of this study is to present and validate the Integrative Model of Mindfulness (MIM. MIM main hypothesis is that mindfulness practice leads to an increment in mindfulness trait, which leads to an increase of selfcompassion, and these in turn, lead to increase positive mental states towards others and oneself. A MBI intensive three-week with non-randomized controlled group was designed. Participants (N = 87 were differentiated by meditation experience as well. The results show large effect sizes regarding the effect of MBI on mindfulness trait, self-compassion and positive mental states to oneself and to others. The data support the MIM, indicating that the practice of mindfulness meditation leads in a sequentially way to the cultivation of mindfulness and self-compassion, which subsequently appears to lead to the development of positive mental states towards others and oneself.

  20. Effects of methylation at position 2 of cation ring on rotational dynamics of imidazolium-based ionic liquids investigated by NMR spectroscopy: [C4mim]Br vs [C4C1mim]Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takatsugu; Imanari, Mamoru; Seki, Hiroko; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2011-04-14

    We investigated the rotational dynamics of two imidazolium-based ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)mim]Br) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)C(1)mim]Br), to reveal the effects of methylation at position 2 of the imidazolium ring (C(2) methylation). The rotational correlation time (τ(local)) for each carbon in the cations is derived from the spin-lattice relaxation time of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. The τ(local) results obtained here provide three principle insights into the rotational dynamics of ionic liquids. First, all τ(local) values for [C(4)C(1)mim]Br are greater than those for [C(4)mim]Br owing to a viscosity increase due to C(2) methylation. Second, the rate of change in τ(local) on C(2) methylation differs among the carbons in the cation, which indicates that each carbon has a different microviscosity. Third, the τ(local) increase in the (13)C at the root of the butyl group on C(2) methylation is very small compared to both intuitive prediction and the results from quantum chemical calculations. This indicates that the motion of the butyl group root in [C(4)C(1)mim]Br is not significantly inhibited by the methyl group at the position 2 of the imidazolium ring. The finding provides conclusive information on the origin of the increases in the melting point on C(2) methylation. Hunt previously found through calculation that decreases in entropy are caused by two factors, namely, reductions in the rotational mobility of the butyl group and in the number of stable anion interaction sites with C(2) methylation, resulting in an increase in melting point and viscosity. Our finding experimentally illustrates that the origin of the increases in melting point is not the inhibition of butyl group motion and that the reduction in stable anion interaction sites plays a major role in the increases. Additionally, it is suggested that the viscosity increase on C(2) methylation can be interpreted in the same manner.

  1. Towards low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs with solution-processed high-k dielectric and interface engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaorong Su

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although impressive progress has been made in improving the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs, the high operation voltage resulting from the low gate capacitance density of traditional SiO2 remains a severe limitation that hinders OTFTs'development in practical applications. In this regard, developing new materials with high-k characteristics at low cost is of great scientific and technological importance in the area of both academia and industry. Here, we introduce a simple solution-based technique to fabricate high-k metal oxide dielectric system (ATO at low-temperature, which can be used effectively to realize low-voltage operation of OTFTs. On the other hand, it is well known that the properties of the dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interfaces are crucial in controlling the electrical properties of OTFTs. By optimizing the above two interfaces with octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM and properly modified low-cost Cu, obviously improved device performance is attained in our low-voltage OTFTs. Further more, organic electronic devices on flexible substrates have attracted much attention due to their low-cost, rollability, large-area processability, and so on. Basing on the above results, outstanding electrical performance is achieved in flexible devices. Our studies demonstrate an effective way to realize low-voltage, high-performance OTFTs at low-cost.

  2. Bilayer Polymer Metacomposites Containing Negative Permittivity Layer for New High-k Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Zhicheng; Mao, Fan; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-18

    Polymer matrix high-k composites are of considerable interest in various electronic devices, such as capacitors, antennas, actuators, etc. However, how to enhance the permittivity without elevating the loss remains a challenge for us. Here we present a novel design of bilayer high-k metacomposites consisting of two stacked single layers with positive permittivity and negative permittivity. Interestingly, the bilayer system shows an obvious permittivity boost effect with a permittivity improved by a 40-fold increase compared with the polymer matrix, while maintaining a loss tangent as low as 0.06. Further calculation results indicate that the permittivity of the bilayer composites could be enhanced by 4000-fold or even a greater increase as compared with the polymer matrix via balancing the dielectric properties of single layers. Insights into how the thickness ratios and dielectric properties of single layers interfere with the dielectric performances of bilayer composites were discussed. This study provides a new route for the design of high-k materials, and it will have great significance on the development of dielectric materials. Hopefully, multilayer high-k metacomposites with fascinating dielectric performances could be achieved via balancing the dielectric properties of single layers.

  3. Potential toxicity of ionic liquid ([C12mim]BF4) on the growth and biochemical characteristics of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Li, Da; Wang, Ling; Hu, Xiao-Li; Cheng, Jie; Gao, Kun

    2017-05-15

    Recently, some researchers have pointed out that the threats of ionic liquids (ILs) to aquatic environment cannot be ignored. Thus, this study investigated the potential toxicity of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C 12 mim]BF 4 ) on a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum at population, biochemical and physiological levels using 96h growth tests with a batch-culture system. Results showed that [C 12 mim]BF 4 was very stable in aquatic environment during 96h of exposure. The growth of P. tricornutum was significantly inhibited by [C 12 mim]BF 4 with 24, 48, 72 and 96h EC 50 values of 0.63, 0.61, 0.68 and 0.72mgL -1 , respectively. Although there were no significant differences between the controls and treatments with 0.1 and 0.5mgL -1 [C 12 mim]BF 4 , the effective quantum yields (Φ PSII ) of the diatom in 1, 2.5, 5 and 10mgL -1 [C 12 mim]BF 4 treatments were 61.48, 17.04, 2.96 and 0.74% of that in the controls at 96h of exposure, respectively. Chl a content of the diatom was decreased by 34.86, 47.79, 49.81, 59.21, 79.82 and 86.98% compared with that of the controls at 96h of exposure in 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10mgL -1 [C 12 mim]BF 4 treatments, respectively. Relative to the controls, soluble sugar content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities of the diatom increased with increasing [C 12 mim]BF 4 concentrations at 96h of exposure, and reached their maxima (1.46μg10 6 cell -1 , 7.48FU10 7 cell -1 , 3.35nmol10 8 cell -1 , 33.41 and 7.23Umg -1 proteins, respectively) in 5mgL -1 [C 12 mim]BF 4 treatments. While the maximum soluble protein content (1.56μg10 6 cell -1 ) of the diatom was obtained in 0.5mgL -1 [C 12 mim]BF 4 treatments, and then decreased with increasing [C 12 mim]BF 4 concentrations from 0.5 to 10mgL -1 . These findings provide strong evidence for the potential toxicity of ILs to marine diatoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Low-voltage Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) with Solution-processed High-k Dielectric cum Interface Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yaorong

    Although impressive progress has been made in improving the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), the high operation voltage resulting from the low gate areal capacitance of traditional SiO 2 remains a severe limitation that hinders OTFTs' development in practical applications. In this regard, developing new materials with high- k characteristics at low cost is of great scientific and technological importance in the area of both academia and industry. In this thesis, we first describe a simple solution-based method to fabricate a high-k bilayer Al2Oy/TiOx (ATO) dielectric system at low temperature. Then the dielectric properties of the ATO are characterized and discussed in detail. Furthermore, by employing the high-k ATO as gate dielectric, low-voltage copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based OTFTs are successfully developed. Interestingly, the obtained low-voltage CuPc TFT exhibits outstanding electrical performance, which is even higher than the device fabricated on traditional low-k SiO2. The above results seem to be contradictory to the reported results due to the fact that high-k usually shows adverse effect on the device performance. This abnormal phenomenon is then studied in detail. Characterization on the initial growth shows that the CuPc molecules assemble in a "rod-like" nano crystal with interconnected network on ATO, which probably promotes the charge carrier transport, whereas, they form isolated small islands with amorphous structure on SiO2. In addition, a better metal/organic contact is observed on ATO, which benefits the charge carrier injection. Our studies suggest that the low-temperature, solution-processed high-k ATO is a promising candidate for fabrication of high-performance, low-voltage OTFTs. Furthermore, it is well known that the properties of the dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interfaces are crucial in controlling the electrical properties of OTFTs. Hence, investigation the effects of interfaces

  5. High-K isomers in transactinide nuclei close to N = 162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prassa, V., E-mail: vprassa@phy.hr; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Lu, Bing-Nan [Institut fur Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Ackermann, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Transactinide nuclei around neutron number N = 162 display axially deformed equilibrium shapes, as shown in our previous analysis [1] of constrained mean-field energy surfaces and collective excitation spectra. In the present study we are particularly interested in the occurrence of high-K isomers in the axially deformed isotopes of Rf (Z = 104), Sg (Z = 106), Hs (Z = 108), and Ds (Z = 110), with neutron number N = 160 − 166 and the effect of the N=162 closure on the structure and distribution of two-quasiparticle (2qp) states. The evolution of high-K isomers is analysed in a self-consistent axially-symmetric relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation using the blocking approximation with time-reversal symmetry breaking.

  6. Reaching state-of-the art requirements for MIM capacitors with a single-layer anodic Al2O3 dielectric and imprinted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, Emmanouel; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.

    2017-07-01

    Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors with a high capacitance density and low non-linearity coefficient using a single-layer dielectric of barrier-type anodic alumina (Al2O3) and an imprinted bottom Al electrode are presented. Imprinting of the bottom electrode aimed at increasing the capacitor effective surface area by creating a three-dimensional MIM capacitor architecture. The bottom Al electrode was only partly nanopatterned so as to ensure low series resistance of the MIM capacitor. With a 3 nm thick anodic Al2O3 dielectric, the capacitor with the imprinted electrode showed a 280% increase in capacitance density compared to the flat electrode capacitor, reaching a value of 20.5 fF/μm2. On the other hand, with a 30 nm thick anodic Al2O3 layer, the capacitance density was 7.9 fF/μm2 and the non-linearity coefficient was as low as 196 ppm/V2. These values are very close to reaching all requirements of the last International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors for MIM capacitors [ITRS, http://www.itrs2.net/2013-itrs.html for ITRS Roadmap (2013)], and they are achieved by a single-layer dielectric instead of the complicated dielectric stacks of the literature. The obtained results constitute a real progress compared to previously reported results by our group for MIM capacitors using imprinted electrodes.

  7. High-k Dielectric Passivation for GaN Diode with a Field Plate Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michitaka Yoshino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical structured Gallium nitride (GaN p-n junction diodes with improved breakdown properties have been demonstrated using high-k dielectric passivation underneath the field plate. Simulation results at a reverse voltage of 1 kV showed that the maximum electric field near the mesa-etched p-n junction edges covered with film of dielectric constant k = 10 was reduced to 2.0 MV/cm from 3.0 MV/cm (SiO2 (k = 3.9. The diodes were fabricated using the high-k mixed oxide of SiO2 and CeO2 with k = 12.3. I–V characteristics of the diode with a field plate showed a breakdown voltage above 2 kV with an increased avalanche resistance. This means that the electric field reduces at the periphery of the mesa-etched p-n junction and is uniformly formed across the whole p-n junction. It is clear that high-k dielectric film passivation and filed plate termination are essential techniques for GaN power devices.

  8. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, John E.

    2014-01-01

    -dielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high- k waves...... and explore the range of parameteres for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for materials with hyperbolic dispersion. The approach is applicable to a large variety of structures, such as continuous or structured microwave, terahertz, and optical metamaterials.......We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wave-vector (high- k ) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in subwavelength periodic multilayer structures. Describing the elementary excitation in the unit cell...

  9. Safety and efficacy of MIM D3 ophthalmic solutions in a randomized placebo controlled Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerovitch K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Karen Meerovitch,1 Gail Torkildsen,2 John Lonsdale,3 Heidi Goldfarb,4 Teresa Lama,1 Garth Cumberlidge,1 George W Ousler III5 1Mimetogen Pharmaceuticals Inc, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Andover Eye Associates, Andover, MA, USA; 3Central Maine Eye Care, Lewiston, ME, USA; 4SDC, Tempe, AZ, USA; 5Ora Inc, Andover, MA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ophthalmic MIM-D3, a tyrosine kinase TrkA receptor agonist, in patients with dry eye. Design: A prospective, two-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study. Methods: A total of 150 dry eye patients were randomized 1:1:1 to study medication (1% MIM-D3, 5% MIM-D3, or placebo and dosed twice daily (BID for 28 days. Key eligibility criteria included exacerbation in corneal staining and ocular discomfort in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAESM on two visits, separated by 1 week of BID dosing with artificial tears. Safety and efficacy were evaluated at baseline, throughout treatment, and for 2 weeks post-treatment. The pre-specified primary outcome measures were fluorescein corneal staining post-CAE at day 28 and diary worst symptom scores over 28 days. Secondary outcomes included the pre-, post-, and the change from pre- to post-CAE fluorescein and lissamine green staining in both corneal and conjunctival regions, as well as individual diary symptoms. Results: The prespecified primary endpoints were not met. Compared with placebo, fluorescein corneal staining at day 28 was significantly improved (P < 0.05 in the 1% MIM-D3 group for the assessment of change from pre-CAE to post-CAE. In addition, following CAE exposure, patients in the 1% MIM-D3 group showed significant improvements versus placebo (P < 0.05 in inferior fluorescein and lissamine green staining after 14 and 28 days. Compared with placebo, patients in the 5% MIM-D3 group reported significantly lower daily diary scores for ocular dryness (P < 0.05. In a subgroup defined by higher symptom scores during

  10. Hole mobility modulation of solution-processed nickel oxide thin-film transistor based on high-k dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ao; Liu, Guoxia, E-mail: gxliu@qdu.edu.cn, E-mail: fukaishan@yahoo.com; Zhu, Huihui; Shan, Fukai, E-mail: gxliu@qdu.edu.cn, E-mail: fukaishan@yahoo.com [College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Lab of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Shin, Byoungchul [Electronic Ceramics Center, DongEui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo [Department of Materials Science/CENIMAT-I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-06-06

    Solution-processed p-type oxide semiconductors have recently attracted increasing interests for the applications in low-cost optoelectronic devices and low-power consumption complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. In this work, p-type nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) thin films were prepared using low-temperature solution process and integrated as the channel layer in thin-film transistors (TFTs). The electrical properties of NiO{sub x} TFTs, together with the characteristics of NiO{sub x} thin films, were systematically investigated as a function of annealing temperature. By introducing aqueous high-k aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gate dielectric, the electrical performance of NiO{sub x} TFT was improved significantly compared with those based on SiO{sub 2} dielectric. Particularly, the hole mobility was found to be 60 times enhancement, quantitatively from 0.07 to 4.4 cm{sup 2}/V s, which is mainly beneficial from the high areal capacitance of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric and high-quality NiO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. This simple solution-based method for producing p-type oxide TFTs is promising for next-generation oxide-based electronic applications.

  11. Flexible semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric with high-k/metal gate devices

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2013-01-07

    Can we build a flexible and transparent truly high performance computer? High-k/metal gate stack based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor devices are monolithically fabricated on industry\\'s most widely used low-cost bulk single-crystalline silicon (100) wafers and then released as continuous, mechanically flexible, optically semi-transparent and high thermal budget compatible silicon fabric with devices. This is the first ever demonstration with this set of materials which allows full degree of freedom to fabricate nanoelectronics devices using state-of-the-art CMOS compatible processes and then to utilize them in an unprecedented way for wide deployment over nearly any kind of shape and architecture surfaces. Electrical characterization shows uncompromising performance of post release devices. Mechanical characterization shows extra-ordinary flexibility (minimum bending radius of 1 cm) making this generic process attractive to extend the horizon of flexible electronics for truly high performance computers. Schematic and photograph of flexible high-k/metal gate MOSCAPs showing high flexibility and C-V plot showing uncompromised performance. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Characterization of High-k Nanolayers by Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Müller

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate characterization of nanolayered systems is an essential topic for today’s developments in many fields of material research. Thin high-k layers and gate stacks are technologically required for the design of current and future electronic devices and can be deposited, e.g., by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. However, the metrological challenges to characterize such systems demand further development of analytical techniques. Reference-free Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence (GIXRF based on synchrotron radiation can significantly contribute to the characterization of such nanolayered systems. GIXRF takes advantage of the incident angle dependence of XRF, in particular below the substrate’s critical angle where changes in the X-ray Standing Wave field (XSW intensity influence the angular intensity profile. The reliable modeling of the XSW in conjunction with the radiometrically calibrated instrumentation at the PTB allows for reference-free, fundamental parameter-based quantitative analysis. This approach is very well suited for the characterization of nanoscaled materials, especially when no reference samples with sufficient quality are available. The capabilities of this method are demonstrated by means of two systems for transistor gate stacks, i.e., Al2O3 high-k layers grown on Si or Si/SiO2 and Sc2O3 layers on InGaAs/InP substrates.

  13. Analysis of high-k spacer on symmetric underlap DG-MOSFET with Gate Stack architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rahul; Chakraborty, Shramana; Dasgupta, Arpan; Dutta, Arka; Kundu, Atanu; Sarkar, Chandan K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper shows the systematic study of underlap double gate (U-DG) NMOSFETs with Gate Stack (GS) under the influence of high-k spacers. In highly scaled devices, underlap is used at the Source and Drain side so as to reduce the short channel effects (SCE's), however, it significantly reduces the on current due to the increased channel resistance. To overcome these drawbacks, the use of high-k spacers is projected as one of the remedies. In this paper, the analog performance of the devices is studied on the basis of parameters like transconductance (gm), transconductance generation factor (gm/Id) and intrinsic gain (gmro). The RF performance is analyzed on the merits of intrinsic capacitance (Cgd, Cgs), resistance (Rgd, Rgs), transport delay (τm), inductance (Lsd), cutoff frequency (fT), and the maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax). The circuit performance of the devices are studied by implementing the device as the driver MOSFET in a Single Stage Common Source Amplifier. The Gain Bandwidth Product (GBW) has been analyzed from the frequency response of the circuit.

  14. Investigation of high-temperature charge transport mechanism in Al-Gd2O3-Al-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiq, M. F.; Mahmood, Khalid; Aen, Faiza; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Khan, Muhammad Azhar

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the charge conduction mechanism at high temperature in Al-Gd2O3 (MIM) structure has been investigated by performing temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements in the temperature range 280-390 K. MIM structure is realized by electron beam evaporation system where thin films of Gd2O3 (40, 60 and 80 nm) and Al metal on both sides of dielectric film were deposited on glass substrate. The possibility of different transport mechanisms has been testified by plotting various graphs. The nonlinear behavior of Ln V versus Ln I and V 1/2 versus Ln V/ I graphs ruled out the possibility of space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) and Poole-Frenkel mechanism in Al-Gd2O3-Al MIM structure. The straight lines Ln I- V 1/2 graphs at various temperatures confirmed that Schottky emission is the dominant transport mechanism in Al-Gd2O3-Al structure. The calculated values of field barrier lowering coefficient at different measurement temperatures were in good agreement with the theoretical prediction confirming conduction is via Schottky emission. The field-dependent Ln( I/ T 2) versus 1000/ T plots were obeyed a linear relationship according to Schottky emission theory. Furthermore, the dielectric thickness dependence room-temperature current-voltage characteristics of Al-Gd2O3-Al MIM structure were showed strong dependence of current on dielectric film thickness according to Schottky emission theory of conduction current.

  15. Development of a transient response technique for heterogeneous catalysis in liquid phase, Part 2: Applying membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) for detection of dissolved gasses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radivojevic, D.; Ruitenbeek, M.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2008-01-01

    A home-made analyzer for dissolved gasses in water, based on membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), was successfully applied for the first time as an in-line method for detection of gases dissolved in an aqueous stream, at the exit of a catalytic reactor in a transient experiment. The technique

  16. Optical rectification through an Al 2 O 3 based MIM passive rectenna at 28.3 THz

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav

    2017-11-21

    Harevesting energy from waste heat which fluctuates between, approximately, 250 K and 1500 K, i.e., peaking at 2–11 μm, could be a game changer in terms of tapping on to renewable energy sources. However, research in this area has remained elusive due to numerous challenges. We consider waste heat to be an electromagnetic (EM) wave in the mid infrared (IR) frequency range, which can be captured through a resonant antenna and rectified into useful DC through a diode, an arrangement typically known as a rectenna. A bowtie antenna has been optimized for IR field capture and enhancement through EM simulations. At the overlap of the bowtie arms, a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode has been realized that can operate at such a high frequency (28.3 THz or 10.6 μm). The choice of a low permittivity insulator (Al2O3) helps metigate the RC time constant and the diode\\'s cutoff frequency, whereas the two different work function metals, Au and Ti, facilitate diode operation through tunneling at no applied bias. A custom optical characterization setup employing a 10.6 μm CO2 laser has been used to assess the IR capture and rectification ability of the rectenna device. A polarization dependent voltage output which is well above the noise level and well matched with our calculations, confirms the successful rectenna operation. According to authors\\' best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of rectification at 28.3 THz through a MIM diode based rectenna at zero applied bias.

  17. Dielectric relaxation and ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy of [C6mim]+[Tf2N]−/acetonitrile mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Peter W; Bartels, Nils; Stoppa, Alexander; Buchner, Richard; Lenzer, Thomas; Oum, Kawon

    2012-03-14

    Mixtures of the ionic liquid (IL) [C(6)mim](+)[Tf(2)N](-) and acetonitrile have been investigated by a combination of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and ultrafast transient absorption techniques using the molecular probe 12'-apo-β-carotenoic-12'-acid (12'CA). Steady-state absorption spectra of the 12'CA molecule have also been recorded. The position of the probe's S(0)→ S(2) absorption maximum correlates linearly with the polarizability of the mixture, suggesting that the bulk composition is a good approximation to the local composition. The lifetime τ(1) of the S(1)/ICT state of 12'CA varies rather smoothly with composition between the value for pure acetonitrile (42 ps) and neat [C(6)mim](+)[Tf(2)N](-) (94 ps). At low IL contents there appears to be an influence of discrete ion pairs. Employing static dielectric constants from the DRS experiments, one finds that the lifetime of the probe in the IL mixtures is shorter than that in pure organic solvents with the same polarity parameter. This suggests an increased stabilization of the S(1)/ICT state in IL-containing mixtures, most likely due to IL-specific Coulombic interactions between the cation and the negative end of the probe's dipole. An ultrafast solvation component is observed which is ca. 0.5 ps in pure acetonitrile, and approaches the value for the pure IL (2.0 ps) already around x(IL) = 0.3. This is interpreted in terms of an efficient perturbation of the cooperative solvation response of acetonitrile by the presence of small amounts of IL and possibly also the viscosity increase when adding IL. This view is also supported by the increase of the average longitudinal relaxation time of acetonitrile upon addition of small IL amounts extracted from the DRS experiments.

  18. Engineering the Propagation of High-k Bulk Plasmonic Waves in Multilayer Hyperbolic Metamaterials by Multiscale Structuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sipe, John E.

    layers. These high-k waves can have anomalously short wavelength, which underlies the concept of far-field subwavelength imaging (hyperlensing) in HMMs. In this work, we show that propagation of these high-k bulk plasmons can be controlled by modulating, or superstructuring, the filling fraction of metal...... in a subwavelength metal-dielectric stack on a longer, wavelength scale. The basic superstructure geometry is a hybrid multiscale HMM where the modulation itself is periodic, forming a photonic band gap (PBG) for the high-k waves according to the same principles as in conventional photonic crystals. As a result...

  19. Projected shell model analysis of multi-quasiparticle high-K isomers in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Xian Rong; Sun Yang; Long Gui Lu

    2002-01-01

    Multi-quasiparticle high-K states in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf are studied in the framework of the projected shell model. The calculation reproduces well the observed ground-state band as well as most of the two- and four-quasiparticle rotational bands. Some as yet unobserved high-K isomeric states in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf are predicted. Possible reasons for the existing discrepancies between calculation and experiment are discussed. It is suggested that the projected shell model may be a useful method for studying multi-quasiparticle high-K isomers and the K-mixing phenomenon in heavy deformed nuclei

  20. Multi-parameter sensing using high-k oxide of barium strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck, Christina; Poghossian, Arshak; Baecker, Matthias; Schoening, Michael J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), FH Aachen, 52428, Juelich (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52525, Juelich (Germany); Reisert, Steffen; Kramer, Friederike [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), FH Aachen, 52428, Juelich (Germany); Begoyan, Vardges K.; Buniatyan, Vahe V. [Department of Microelectronics and Biomedical Devices, State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2015-06-15

    High-k perovskite oxide of barium strontium titanate (BST) represents a very attractive multi-functional transducer material for the development of (bio-)chemical sensors. In this work, a Si-based sensor chip containing Pt interdigitated electrodes covered with a thin BST layer (485 nm) has been developed for multi-parameter chemical sensing. The chip has been applied for the contactless measurement of the electrolyte conductivity, the detection of adsorbed charged macromolecules (positively charged polyelectrolytes of polyethylenimine) and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) vapor. The experimental results of functional testing of individual sensors are presented. The mechanism of the BST sensitivity to charged polyelectrolytes and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} vapor has been proposed and discussed. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Characterization of high-k dielectrics using MeV elastic scattering of He ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoller, C.J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Dentoni Litta, E. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of ICT, Isafjordsgatan 22, SE 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Primetzhofer, D., E-mail: daniel.primetzhofer@physics.uu.se [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-03-15

    We present a systematic comparison of two distinct ion-beam based methods for composition analysis of nanometer oxide films: ion-beam channeling and elastic scattering using nuclear resonances, both at MeV energies. Thin films of the technologically highly relevant high-k dielectrics HfO{sub 2} and HfAlO are characterized in the present study, with the additional aim of obtaining a better quantification of the Al content for the latter system. We show that both employed ion scattering methods enable a quantitative determination of the oxygen concentrations with typical uncertainties of about 5–10% in the oxygen fraction. The influence of various kinds of systematic inaccuracies in the evaluation procedure are discussed.

  2. Two methods of tuning threshold voltage of bulk FinFETs with replacement high-k metal-gate stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Zhu, Huilong; Zhang, Yanbo; Xu, Qiuxia; Zhang, Yongkui; Qin, Changliang; Zhang, Qingzhu; Yin, Huaxiang; Xu, Hao; Chen, Shuai; Luo, Jun; Li, Chunlong; Zhao, Chao; Ye, Tianchun

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we propose two threshold voltage (VTH) tuning methods for bulk FinFETs with replacement high-k metal gate. The first method is to perform a vertical implantation into fin structure after dummy gate removal, self-aligned forming halo & punch through stop pocket (halo & PTSP) doping profile. The second method is to execute P+/BF2+ ion implantations into the single common work function (WF) layer in N-/P-FinFETs, respectively. These two methods have been investigated by TCAD simulations and MOS-capacitor experiments respectively, and then integrated into FinFET fabrication successfully. Experimental results show that the halo & PTSP doping profile can reduce VTH roll off and total variation. With P+/BF2+ doped WF layer, the VTH-sat shift -0.43 V/+1.26 V for N-FinFETs and -0.75 V/+0.11 V for P-FinFETs, respectively, with gate length of 500 nm. The proposed two methods are simple and effective for FinFET VTH tuning, and have potential for future application of massive production.

  3. The fabrication and the reliability of poly-Si MOSFETs using ultra-thin high-K/metal-gate stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. H.; Chen, K.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Poly-Si MOSFETs using a gate stack composed of ultra-thin HfSiOx and TiN are shown, and they are compatible with a monolithic three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-ICs) process with the highest thermal budget of 700 °C. The poly-Si MOSFETs were studied for fabrication process temperatures with parasitic resistance, effective gate length, and grain boundary trap density. The short-channel effect with VT (threshold voltage), subthreshold swing (SS), and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) was also compared at 650 °C and 700 °C. For stress reliability of both hot carrier and PBTI, the short-channel devices showed more stability in VT than the long-channel devices due to less grain boundary scattering. This study promotes the ultra-thin high-K/metal gate poly-Si MOSFET as a candidate for future monolithic 3D-ICs and silicon-on-glass (SOG) applications.

  4. Gate-first integration of tunable work function metal gates of different thicknesses into high-k metal gates CMOS FinFETs for multi- VTh engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-03-01

    Gate-first integration of tunable work function metal gates of different thicknesses (320 nm) into high-k/metal gates CMOS FinFETs was demonstrated to achieve multiple threshold voltages (VTh) for 32-nm technology and beyond logic, memory, input/output, and system-on-a-chip applications. The fabricated devices showed excellent short-channel effect immunity (drain-induced barrier lowering ∼ 40 mV/V), nearly symmetric VTh, low T inv(∼ 1.4 nm), and high Ion(∼780μAμm) for N/PMOS without any intentional strain enhancement. © 2006 IEEE.

  5. The Meaning of High K2O Volcanism In the U.S. Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putirka, K. D.; Busby, C.

    2010-12-01

    K2O contents provide a highly effective discriminant between volcanic rocks erupted in the Cascades and Basin-and Range-provinces, with Cascades volcanics having lower K2O contents at a given SiO2. To differentiate these suites, we use a K-index, where K-index = K2Oobserved - 0.12[SiO2] + 5.1 (oxides in wt. %). In the Sierra Nevada, regional K2O contents are not controlled by wall-rock assimilation. In addition, none are candidates for K-metasomatism, and none are likely to be derived by partial melting of a K-metasomatized source. As to the latter issue, even volcanic rocks with the highest K2O in the Sierra Nevada have K2O/Na2O 5, and as high as 30-40 (Brooks and Snee (1996). Also, Sierra-wide K2O variations are not connected to indices of subduction-related mantle enrichments (such as La/Nb, Ba/Nb or Sr/P2O5), and so K2O is unconnected to regional variations in source composition. K2O contents are instead controlled by the degree of partial melting (F) in the mantle source and fractional crystallization. Putirka and Busby (2007) show that maximum K2O in the Sierra increases with increasing crust thickness, and this relationship also holds across the U.S. the Cordillera (at 39oN latitude). This relationship implies that low F magmas more easily transit thick, low-density upper crust (Putirka and Busby, 2007), which is a consequence of the fact that low F melts are enriched not just in K2O, but also in H2O, which greatly lowers magma density (Ochs and Lange, 1999). This model can explain the contrast in Cascade and Basin-and-Range K2O contents: the modern Cascades are built on the thinner crust of accreted terranes, while typical Basin-and-Range volcanics are erupted on older, and thicker, cratonized crust. Mean crust density, however, cannot be the only explanation of high K2O. In the central Sierra Nevada, the Colorado River Extensional Corridor, and at the Lunar Crater/Nevada Test site area of NV, eruptions of high K2O magmas (K-index>1.65) coincide in time and

  6. Silicon nanowires with high-k hafnium oxide dielectrics for sensitive detection of small nucleic acid oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorvel, Brian R; Reddy, Bobby; Go, Jonghyun; Duarte Guevara, Carlos; Salm, Eric; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bashir, Rashid

    2012-07-24

    Nanobiosensors based on silicon nanowire field effect transistors offer advantages of low cost, label-free detection, and potential for massive parallelization. As a result, these sensors have often been suggested as an attractive option for applications in point-of-care (POC) medical diagnostics. Unfortunately, a number of performance issues, such as gate leakage and current instability due to fluid contact, have prevented widespread adoption of the technology for routine use. High-k dielectrics, such as hafnium oxide (HfO(2)), have the known ability to address these challenges by passivating the exposed surfaces against destabilizing concerns of ion transport. With these fundamental stability issues addressed, a promising target for POC diagnostics and SiNWFETs has been small oligonucleotides, more specifically, microRNA (miRNA). MicroRNAs are small RNA oligonucleotides which bind to mRNAs, causing translational repression of proteins, gene silencing, and expressions are typically altered in several forms of cancer. In this paper, we describe a process for fabricating stable HfO(2) dielectric-based silicon nanowires for biosensing applications. Here we demonstrate sensing of single-stranded DNA analogues to their microRNA cousins using miR-10b and miR-21 as templates, both known to be upregulated in breast cancer. We characterize the effect of surface functionalization on device performance using the miR-10b DNA analogue as the target sequence and different molecular weight poly-l-lysine as the functionalization layer. By optimizing the surface functionalization and fabrication protocol, we were able to achieve <100 fM detection levels of the miR-10b DNA analogue, with a theoretical limit of detection of 1 fM. Moreover, the noncomplementary DNA target strand, based on miR-21, showed very little response, indicating a highly sensitive and highly selective biosensing platform.

  7. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of MIM Diodes and Frequency Selective Thermal Emitters for Solar Energy Harvesting and Detection Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saumya

    Energy harvesting using rectennas for infrared radiation continues to be a challenge due to the lack of fast switching diodes capable of rectification at THz frequencies. Metal insulator metal diodes which may be used at 30 THz must show adequate nonlinearity for small signal rectification such as 30 mV. In a rectenna assembly, the voltage signal received as an output from a single nanoantenna can be as small as ~30microV. Thus, only a hybrid array of nanoantennas can be sufficient to provide a signal in the ~30mV range for the diode to be able to rectify around 30THz. A metal-insulator-metal diode with highly nonlinear I-V characteristics is required in order for such small signal rectification to be possible. Such diode fabrication was found to be faced with two major fabrication challenges. The first one being the lack of a precisely controlled deposition process to allow a pinhole free insulator deposition less than 3nm in thickness. Another major challenge is the deposition of a top metal contact on the underlying insulating thin film. As a part of this research study, most of the MIM diodes were fabricated using Langmuir Blodgett monolayers deposited on a thin Ni film that was sputter coated on a silicon wafer. UV induced polymerization of the Langmuir Blodgett thin film was used to allow intermolecular crosslinking. A metal top contact was sputtered onto the underlying Langmuir Blodgett film assembly. In addition to material characterization of all the individual films using IR, UV-VIS spectroscopy, electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, the I-V characteristics, resistance, current density, rectification ratio and responsivity with respect to the bias voltage were also measured for the electrical characterization of these MIM diodes. Further improvement in the diode rectification ratio and responsivity was obtained with Langmuir Blodgett films grown by the use of horizontally oriented organic molecules, due to a smaller tunneling distance that

  8. Full Polymer Dielectric Elastomeric Actuators (DEA Functionalised with Carbon Nanotubes and High-K Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo Köckritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA are special devices which have a simple working and construction principle and outstanding actuation properties. The DEAs consist of a combination of different materials for the dielectric and electrode layers. The combination of these layers causes incompatibilities in their interconnections. Dramatic differences in the mechanical properties and bad adhesion of the layers are the principal causes for the reduction of the actuation displacement and strong reduction of lifetime. Common DEAs achieve actuation displacements of 2% and a durability of some million cycles. The following investigations represent a new approach to solving the problems of common systems. The investigated DEA consists of only one basic raw polymer, which was modified according to the required demands of each layer. The basic raw polymer was modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes or high-k ceramics, for example, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. The development of the full polymer DEA comprised the development of materials and technologies to realise a reproducible layer composition. It was proven that the full polymer actuator worked according to the theoretical rules. The investigated system achieved actuation displacements above 20% regarding thickness, outstanding interconnections at each layer without any failures, and durability above 3 million cycles without any indication of an impending malfunction.

  9. High-k Scattering and FIReTIP Diagnostic Upgrades for NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert; Scott, Evan; Domier, Calvin; Muscatello, Christopher; Riemenschneider, Paul; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Luhmann, Neville; Ren, Yang; Kaita, Robert

    2015-11-01

    A major upgrade to the High-k Scattering system is underway on NSTX-U, which is being transformed from a primarily toroidal detection geometry (for kr measurements) to a poloidal detection geometry (for kθ measurements) in which a probe beam is launched from Bay G and collected on Bay L. Combined with an increase in probing frequency to 693 GHz, the poloidal wavenumber sensitivity has been extended from kθ = 7 cm-1 up to 40 cm-1. The system will be installed and commissioned in 2016 with an initial 4-channel receiver, with plans to eventually upgrade to an 8x2 configuration, which can probe the plasma from the core out to the edge of the pedestal region. The Far Infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system is being upgraded with field programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics to support real time feedback density control, and will be installed on Bay G this fall. Design and implementation details regarding both diagnostics will be presented. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54518 and DE-AC02-09CH1146.

  10. Psychometrics and life history strategy: the structure and validity of the High K Strategy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven

    2014-03-22

    In this paper, we critically review the conceptualization and implementation of psychological measures of life history strategy associated with Differential K theory. The High K Strategy Scale (HKSS: Giosan, 2006) was distributed to a large British sample (n = 809) with the aim of assessing its factor structure and construct validity in relation to theoretically relevant life history variables: age of puberty, age of first sexual encounter, and number of sexual partners. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the HKSS in its current form did not show an adequate statistical fit to the data. Modifications to improve fit indicated four correlated factors (personal capital, environmental stability, environmental security, and social capital). Later puberty in women was positively associated with measures of the environment and personal capital. Among men, contrary to Differential K predictions but in line with female mate preferences, earlier sexual debut and more sexual partners were positively associated with more favorable environments and higher personal and social capital. We raise concerns about the use of psychometric indicators of lifestyle and personality as proxies for life history strategy when they have not been validated against objective measures derived from contemporary life history theory and when their status as causes, mediators, or correlates has not been investigated.

  11. Psychometrics and Life History Strategy: The Structure and Validity of the High K Strategy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T. Copping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we critically review the conceptualization and implementation of psychological measures of life history strategy associated with Differential K theory. The High K Strategy Scale (HKSS: Giosan, 2006 was distributed to a large British sample (n = 809 with the aim of assessing its factor structure and construct validity in relation to theoretically relevant life history variables: age of puberty, age of first sexual encounter, and number of sexual partners. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the HKSS in its current form did not show an adequate statistical fit to the data. Modifications to improve fit indicated four correlated factors (personal capital, environmental stability, environmental security, and social capital. Later puberty in women was positively associated with measures of the environment and personal capital. Among men, contrary to Differential K predictions but in line with female mate preferences, earlier sexual debut and more sexual partners were positively associated with more favorable environments and higher personal and social capital. We raise concerns about the use of psychometric indicators of lifestyle and personality as proxies for life history strategy when they have not been validated against objective measures derived from contemporary life history theory and when their status as causes, mediators, or correlates has not been investigated.

  12. Backside versus frontside advanced chemical analysis of high-k/metal gate stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Saidi, B. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Veillerot, M. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Caubet, P. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Fabbri, J-M. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Piallat, F. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Gassilloud, R. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Schamm-Chardon, S. [CEMES-CNRS et Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The backside approach is a promising solution for advanced chemical characterization of future MOSFETs. • Frontside ToF-SIMS and Auger depth profiles are affected by cumulative mixing effects and thus not relevant for analyzing ultra-thin layers. • Higher in-depth resolution is possible in the backside approach for Auger and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. • Backside depth profiling allows revealing ultra-thin layers and elemental in-depth redistribution inside high-k/metal gate stacks. • Backside XPS allows preserving the full metal gate, thus enabling the analysis of real technological samples. - Abstract: Downscaling of transistors beyond the 14 nm technological node requires the implementation of new architectures and materials. Advanced characterization methods are needed to gain information about the chemical composition of buried layers and interfaces. An effective approach based on backside analysis is presented here. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger depth profiling and time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry are combined to investigate inter-diffusion phenomena. To highlight improvements related to the backside method, backside and frontside analyses are compared. Critical information regarding nitrogen, oxygen and aluminium redistribution inside the gate stacks is obtained only in the backside configuration.

  13. Interface Study on Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using High-k Gate Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using different high-k gate dielectric materials such as silicon nitride (Si3N4 and aluminum oxide (Al2O3 at low temperature process (<300°C and compared them with low temperature silicon dioxide (SiO2. The IGZO device with high-k gate dielectric material will expect to get high gate capacitance density to induce large amount of channel carrier and generate the higher drive current. In addition, for the integrating process of integrating IGZO device, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the process. The chemical reaction of the high-k/IGZO interface due to heat formation in high-k/IGZO materials results in reliability issue. We also used the voltage stress for testing the reliability for the device with different high-k gate dielectric materials and explained the interface effect by charge band diagram.

  14. Metal-insulator-metal diodes with sub-nanometre surface roughness for energy-harvesting applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, A.A.

    2017-07-27

    For ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting, the available power levels are quite low, and it is highly desirable that the rectifying diodes do not consume any power at all. Contrary to semiconducting diodes, a tunnelling diode – also known as a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode – can provide zero-bias rectification, provided the two metals have different work functions. This could result in a complete passive rectenna system. Despite great potential, MIM diodes have not been investigated much in the GHz-frequency regime due to challenging nano-fabrication requirements. In this work, we investigate zero-bias MIM diodes for RF energy-harvesting applications. We studied the surface roughness issue for the bottom metal of the MIM diode for various deposition techniques such as sputtering, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation for crystalline metals as well as for an amorphous alloy, namely ZrCuAlNi. A surface roughness of sub-1nm has been achieved for both the crystalline metals as well as the amorphous alloy, which is vital for the reliable operation of the MIM diode. An MIM diode comprising of a Ti-ZnO-Pt combination yields a zero-bias responsivity of 0.25V−1 and a dynamic resistance of 1200Ω. Complete RF characterisation has been performed by integrating the MIM diode with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The input impedance varies from 100Ω to 50Ω in the frequency range of between 2GHz and 10GHz, which can be easily matched to typical antenna impedances in this frequency range. Finally, a rectified DC voltage of 4.7mV is obtained for an incoming RF power of 0.4W at zero bias. These preliminary results of zero-bias rectification indicate that complete, passive rectennas (a rectifier and antenna combination) are feasible with further optimisation of MIM devices.

  15. Ca dependence of Na influx during treatment of rabbit aorta with NE and high K solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaronson, P.I.; Jones, A.W. (St. George' s Hospital Medical School, London (England) Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Cellular influx of {sup 24}Na was measured in isolated rabbit aorta during stimulation with 10 {mu}M norepinephrine (NE) or depolarization with 80 mM K solution, using a pulse-labeling, cold-wash technique. NE caused a two- to threefold increase in Na influx; a smaller but significant increase was also observed in depolarized tissues. Basal and Ne-induced fluxes at 1 min were significantly increased by a 20-min preincubation in a Ca-free solution containing 2 mM EGTA; elevation of (Mg) in this solution reduced these effects. The high K-induced influx was prevented by a combination of low Ca (30 {mu}m) and elevated Mg (10 mM). The Ca agonist, BAY-K 8644, increased {sup 24}Na influx. The Ca antagonist, diltiazem, inhibited the depolarization-stimulated {sup 24}Na influx in a concentration-dependent manner, but was less effective in blocking the response to NE. Extension of the preincubation in NE plus Ca-free medium from 30 s to 15 min decreased the influx response and contraction. After exposure to NE in Ca-free solution, {sup 24}Na influx remained elevated 10 min after washing out NE in the continued absence of Ca. A second exposure to NE at that time did not increase influx. The authors propose that a component of {sup 24}Na influx during excitation depends directly on a rise in intracellular (Ca). The role of an indirect effect of (Ca) on metabolic H{sup +} production with subsequent stimulation of the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange may also be a factor.

  16. Not only resisting, but also advancing: from the boycott of Minha Senhora de Mim to its canonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bárbara Pedrosa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will analyze how Minha Senhora de Mim (1971, by Maria Teresa Horta, confronted the dictatorship that was its zeitgeist, starting from the way she used canonical literature and literary traditional to challenge a specific status quo, bringing a new model of relationships between sexes to literature, contrasting with the politics Estado Novo was imposing, that were constitutionally safeguarded, claiming to women the right both to sexual pleasure and to a place in society that was not limited to being adjunctive. The way literary traditional was challenged will get some attention, since it is done through the subversion of the content of medieval cantigas de amigo. In a second part, we will analyze not only the context of the literary work creation, but also the consequent action of PIDE. Finally, we will analyze the role of the political policy as far as the boycott of this book and the literary career of the author are concerned, trying to understand if it was successful, as well as the role this work plays in the Portuguese literary canon.

  17. Investigation of high-temperature charge transport mechanism in Al-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiq, M.F.; Aen, Faiza [Bahauddin Zakariya University, Department of Physics, Multan (Pakistan); Mahmood, Khalid [Government College University Faisalabad, Department of Physics, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Chemistry, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Physics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, the charge conduction mechanism at high temperature in Al-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (MIM) structure has been investigated by performing temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements in the temperature range 280-390 K. MIM structure is realized by electron beam evaporation system where thin films of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (40, 60 and 80 nm) and Al metal on both sides of dielectric film were deposited on glass substrate. The possibility of different transport mechanisms has been testified by plotting various graphs. The nonlinear behavior of LnV versus LnI and V{sup 1/2} versus LnV/I graphs ruled out the possibility of space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) and Poole-Frenkel mechanism in Al-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al MIM structure. The straight lines LnI-V{sup 1/2} graphs at various temperatures confirmed that Schottky emission is the dominant transport mechanism in Al-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al structure. The calculated values of field barrier lowering coefficient at different measurement temperatures were in good agreement with the theoretical prediction confirming conduction is via Schottky emission. The field-dependent Ln(I/T{sup 2}) versus 1000/T plots were obeyed a linear relationship according to Schottky emission theory. Furthermore, the dielectric thickness dependence room-temperature current-voltage characteristics of Al-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al MIM structure were showed strong dependence of current on dielectric film thickness according to Schottky emission theory of conduction current. (orig.)

  18. Experimental Determination of Major Element Diffusivity in Natural High-K Calc-alkaline Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, D.; Behrens, H.; Vetere, F. P.; Petrelli, M.; Zezza, A.; Morgavi, D.; Perugini, D.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical diffusion is of major importance in several magmatic processes and, as a time dependent process, can be used as a timescale indicator. In particular, the study of diffusive exchange in magma mixing events leading to explosive volcanic eruptions has the potential shed light on timescales involved in such processes. To achieve this, a basic knowledge of diffusion rates in different natural silicate melts with a variety of conditions is mandatory. We use a set of diffusion couple experiments to quantify the influence of dissolved water content in the interdiffusion of major elements between two natural high-K calc-alkaline end-members: a shoshonite and a rhyolite from Vulcano island (Aeolian archipelago, Italy). Experiments are run using AuPd alloy capsules at 1200 °C and pressures of 0.5, 1 and 3 kbar, with variable added water content (`nominally dry', 1wt. % and 2 wt.% H2O), and finished by a rapid quench in order to avoid crystal formation. Run products are analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy and electron microprobe, and final diffusion coefficients are obtained from the evaluation of composition-distance profiles by a modified Boltzmann-Matano analysis. Among measured major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K), dissolved H2O content in the melt has the highest influence in diffusivity in our experimental setup: a difference of up to 1.4 orders of magnitude is observed between 0.3 and 2 wt. % H2O bearing glasses. In the investigated range, enhancement of diffusion is higher in the lower water contents and slightly diminishes to 2 wt. %. Compositional gradients result in a 0.4 to 0.8 log units increase of diffusivity in the mafic terms relative to the silicic ones. Si and Ti are the slowest diffusing components. Al is also a slow diffusing component and displays uphill diffusion. The diffusivities of the other elements follow similar behavior, suggesting a strong influence of crossed diffusion and coupling.

  19. SU-E-J-89: Comparative Analysis of MIM and Velocity’s Image Deformation Algorithm Using Simulated KV-CBCT Images for Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, K; Narayanasamy, G; Obediat, M; Stanley, D; Stathakis, S; Kirby, N [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Kim, H [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) is used routinely in the clinic without a formalized quality assurance (QA) process. Using simulated deformations to digitally deform images in a known way and comparing to DIR algorithm predictions is a powerful technique for DIR QA. This technique must also simulate realistic image noise and artifacts, especially between modalities. This study developed an algorithm to create simulated daily kV cone-beam computed-tomography (CBCT) images from CT images for DIR QA between these modalities. Methods: A Catphan and physical head-and-neck phantom, with known deformations, were used. CT and kV-CBCT images of the Catphan were utilized to characterize the changes in Hounsfield units, noise, and image cupping that occur between these imaging modalities. The algorithm then imprinted these changes onto a CT image of the deformed head-and-neck phantom, thereby creating a simulated-CBCT image. CT and kV-CBCT images of the undeformed and deformed head-and-neck phantom were also acquired. The Velocity and MIM DIR algorithms were applied between the undeformed CT image and each of the deformed CT, CBCT, and simulated-CBCT images to obtain predicted deformations. The error between the known and predicted deformations was used as a metric to evaluate the quality of the simulated-CBCT image. Ideally, the simulated-CBCT image registration would produce the same accuracy as the deformed CBCT image registration. Results: For Velocity, the mean error was 1.4 mm for the CT-CT registration, 1.7 mm for the CT-CBCT registration, and 1.4 mm for the CT-simulated-CBCT registration. These same numbers were 1.5, 4.5, and 5.9 mm, respectively, for MIM. Conclusion: All cases produced similar accuracy for Velocity. MIM produced similar values of accuracy for CT-CT registration, but was not as accurate for CT-CBCT registrations. The MIM simulated-CBCT registration followed this same trend, but overestimated MIM DIR errors relative to the CT

  20. Simulated electron affinity tuning in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Kissan; Yavuz, Mustafa; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2017-05-01

    Metal-insulator-metal diodes for rectification applications must exhibit high asymmetry, nonlinearity, and responsivity. Traditional methods of improving these figures of merit have consisted of increasing insulator thickness, adding multiple insulator layers, and utilizing a variety of metal contact combinations. However, these methods have come with the price of increasing the diode resistance and ultimately limiting the operating frequency to well below the terahertz regime. In this work, an Airy Function Transfer Matrix simulation method was used to observe the effect of tuning the electron affinity of the insulator as a technique to decrease the diode resistance. It was shown that a small increase in electron affinity can result in a resistance decrease in upwards of five orders of magnitude, corresponding to an increase in operating frequency on the same order. Electron affinity tuning has a minimal effect on the diode figures of merit, where asymmetry improves or remains unaffected and slight decreases in nonlinearity and responsivity are likely to be greatly outweighed by the improved operating frequency of the diode.

  1. Probing/Manipulating the Interfacial Atomic Bonding between High k Dielectrics and InGaAs for Ultimate CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    10.1039/C4CE00734D 2014 3. “III-V Compound Semiconductor Transistors – From Planar to Nanowire Structures”, H. Riel, L.-E. Wernersson, M. Hong, J...extract interface state densities at atomic-layer-deposited high-k dielectric/III-V heterostructures ”, Y. T. Fanchiang, Y. K. Su, K. S. Chen, Y. C

  2. Study of 6T SRAM cell using High-K gate dielectric based junctionless silicon nanotube FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, Shubham; Nandi, Ashutosh

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 6 T SRAM cell using high-K gate dielectric based junctionless silicon nanotube FET (JLSiNTFET). It is observed that the use of high-K gate dielectric enhances the delay performance of the JLSiNTFET based 6 T SRAM cell. Read access time (RAT) and write access time (WAT) improves by ∼18% and ∼20% when TiO2 is used as gate dielectric instead of SiO2. The hold, read, and write SNMs (static noise margin) of the 6 T SRAM cell also improves marginally by the use of high-K gate dielectric. Furthermore, it is also observed that the improvement in hold SNM (HSNM), read SNM (RSNM), and write SNM (WSNM) can be boosted by using higher interfacial layer thickness (TI). However, the improvement in read access times (RAT) & write access time (WAT) degrades at higher TI. Thus, high-K gate dielectrics with high interfacial layer thickness are more suitable for JLSiNT-FET based 6 T SRAM cell.

  3. Simulation of Double-Gate Silicon Tunnel FETs with a High-k Gate Dielectric

    OpenAIRE

    Boucart, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The down-scaling of conventional MOSFETs has led to an impending power crisis, in which static power consumption is becoming too high. In order to improve the energy-efficiency of electronic circuits, small swing switches are interesting candidates to replace or complement the MOSFETs used today. Tunnel FETs, which are gated p-i-n diodes whose on-current arises from band-to-band tunneling, are attractive new devices for low-power applications due to t...

  4. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM): An Onsite Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) for Chronically High Stress Work Environments to Increase Resiliency and Work Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Maryanna; Steinberg, Beth; Duchemin, Anne-Marie

    2015-07-01

    A pragmatic mindfulness intervention to benefit personnel working in chronically high-stress environments, delivered onsite during the workday, is timely and valuable to employee and employer alike. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM) is a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) offered as a modified, less time intensive method (compared to Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), delivered onsite, during work, and intends to enable busy working adults to experience the benefits of mindfulness. It teaches mindful awareness principles, rehearses mindfulness as a group, emphasizes the use of gentle yoga stretches, and utilizes relaxing music in the background of both the group sessions and individual mindfulness practice. MIM is delivered in a group format, for 1 hr/week/8 weeks. CDs and a DVD are provided to facilitate individual practice. The yoga movement is emphasized in the protocol to facilitate a quieting of the mind. The music is included for participants to associate the relaxed state experienced in the group session with their individual practice. To determine the intervention feasibility/efficacy we conducted a randomized wait-list control group in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). ICUs represent a high-stress work environment where personnel experience chronic exposure to catastrophic situations as they care for seriously injured/ill patients. Despite high levels of work-related stress, few interventions have been developed and delivered onsite for such environments. The intervention is delivered on site in the ICU, during work hours, with participants receiving time release to attend sessions. The intervention is well received with 97% retention rate. Work engagement and resiliency increase significantly in the intervention group, compared to the wait-list control group, while participant respiration rates decrease significantly pre-post in 6/8 of the weekly sessions. Participants value institutional support, relaxing music, and the instructor as pivotal to program success

  5. Exploring Possibilities for Transforming Established Subscription-based Scientific Journals into Open Access Journals. Present Situation, Transformation Criteria, and Exemplary Implementation within Trans-O-MIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Kuballa, Stefanie; Schulze, Mareike; Böhm, Claudia; Gefeller, Olaf; Haaf, Jan; Henning, Peter; Mielke, Corinna; Niggemann, Florian; Schürg, Andrea; Bergemann, Dieter

    2016-12-07

    Based on today's information and communication technologies the open access paradigm has become an important approach for adequately communicating new scientific knowledge. Summarizing the present situation for journal transformation. Presenting criteria for adequate transformation as well as a specific approach for it. Describing our exemplary implementation of such a journal transformation. Studying the respective literature as well as discussing this topic in various discussion groups and meetings (primarily of editors and publishers, but also of authors and readers), with long term experience as editors and /or publishers of scientific publications as prerequisite. There is a clear will, particularly of political and funding organizations, towards open access publishing. In spite of this, there is still a large amount of scientific knowledge, being communicated through subscription-based journals. For successfully transforming such journals into open access, sixteen criteria for a goal-oriented, stepwise, sustainable, and fair transformation are suggested. The Tandem Model as transformation approach is introduced. Our exemplary implementation is done in the Trans-O-MIM project. It is exploring strategies, models and evaluation metrics for journal transformation. As instance the journal Methods of Information in Medicine will apply the Tandem Model from 2017 onwards. Within Trans-O-MIM we will reach at least nine of the sixteen criteria for adequate transformation. It was positive to implement Trans-O-MIM as international research project. After first steps for transforming Methods have successfully been made, challenges will remain, among others, in identifying appropriate incentives for open access publishing in order to support its transformation.

  6. Inelastic and Reactive Scattering Dynamics of Hyperthermal Oxygen Atoms on Ionic Liquid Surfaces: [emim][NTf2] and [C12mim][NTf2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bohan; Zhang, Jianming; Minton, Timothy K.; McKendrick, Kenneth G.; Slattery, John M.; Yockel, Scott; Schatz, George C.

    2011-05-01

    Collisions of hyperthermal oxygen atoms, with an average translational energy of 520 kJ mol-1, on continuously refreshed ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([emim][NTf2]) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([C12mim][NTf2]), were studied with the use of a beam-surface scattering technique. Time-of-flight and angular distributions of inelastically scattered O and reactively scattered OH and H2O were collected for various angles of incidence with the use of a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. For both O and OH, two distinct scattering processes were identified, which can be empirically categorized as thermal and non-thermal. Non-thermal scattering is more probable for both O and OH products. The observation of OH confirms that at least some reactive sites, presumably alkyl groups, must be exposed at the surface. The ionic liquid with the longer alkyl chain, [C12mim][NTf2], is substantially more reactive than the liquid with the shorter alkyl chain, [emim][NTf2], and proportionately much more so than would be predicted simply from stoichiometry based on the number of abstractable hydrogen atoms. Molecular dynamics models of these surfaces shed light on this change in reactivity. The scattering behavior of O is distinctly different from that of OH. However, no such differences between inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics have been seen in previous work on pure hydrocarbon liquids, in particular the benchmark, partially branched hydrocarbon, squalane (C30H62). The comparison between inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics indicates that inelastic scattering from the ionic liquid surfaces takes place predominantly at non-reactive sites that are effectively stiffer than the reactive alkyl chains, with a higher proportion of collisions sampling such sites for [emim][NTf2] than for [C12mim][NTf2].

  7. A new method of dielectric characterization in the microwave range for high-k ferroelectric thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Nadaud, Kevin; Gundel, Hartmut,; Borderon, Caroline; Gillard, Raphaël; Fourn, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we propose a new method of dielectric characterization of high-k thin films based on the measurement of coplanar capacitor inserts between two coplanar waveguide transmission lines. The measurement geometry is deposed on the thin film which is elaborate on an insulating substrate. The thin film permittivity is extracted with the help of a mathematical model describing the capacitance between two conductor plates deposed on a 2-layers substrate. A simple c...

  8. Integration of atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on GaSb via hydrogen plasma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Ruppalt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter we report the efficacy of a hydrogen plasma pretreatment for integrating atomic layer deposited (ALD high-k dielectric stacks with device-quality p-type GaSb(001 epitaxial layers. Molecular beam eptiaxy-grown GaSb surfaces were subjected to a 30 minute H2/Ar plasma treatment and subsequently removed to air. High-k HfO2 and Al2O3/HfO2 bilayer insulating films were then deposited via ALD and samples were processed into standard metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitors. The quality of the semiconductor/dielectric interface was probed by current-voltage and variable-frequency admittance measurements. Measurement results indicate that the H2-plamsa pretreatment leads to a low density of interface states nearly independent of the deposited dielectric material, suggesting that pre-deposition H2-plasma exposure, coupled with ALD of high-k dielectrics, may provide an effective means for achieving high-quality GaSb MOS structures for advanced Sb-based digital and analog electronics.

  9. Los mecanismos miméticos de reproducción de la violencia vistos a través de los narco-corridos

    OpenAIRE

    Corona Cadena, Rubén Ignacio; ITESO

    2010-01-01

    El siguiente artículo intenta mostrar los dinamismos de rivalidad que han surgido entre el Estado Mexicano y las bandas de narcotraficantes. A partir de la teoría mimética de René Girard, podemos afirmar que hay una dinámica de igualamiento que se ha ido dando progresivamente. La fuerte escalada de violencia en la guerra contra el narco se explica a partir de esta dinámica. Este artículo pretende analizar el origen y el desarrollo del igualamiento entre el Estado y el narco, a partir del punt...

  10. Electropolymerized Pyrrole-Based Conductive Polymeric Ionic Liquids and Their Application for Solid-Phase Microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasurendra, Amila M; Zhang, Cheng; Young, Joshua A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga; Anderson, Jared L; Kirchhoff, Jon R

    2017-07-26

    Pyrrole was covalently bonded to 1-methyl and 1-benzylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) via an N-substituted alkyl linkage to prepare electropolymerizable IL monomers with excellent thermal stability. The methylimidazolium IL, [pyrrole-C6MIm]+, was then electropolymerized on macro- and microelectrode materials to form conductive polymeric IL (CPIL)-modified surfaces. Electrochemical characterization of a 1.6 mm diameter Pt disk electrode modified with poly[pyrrole-C6MIm]+ demonstrated a selective uptake for an anionic redox probe while rejecting a cationic redox probe. Furthermore, electropolymerization of [pyrrole-C6MIm]+ doped with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on 125 μm platinum wires produced 42 μm thick poly[pyrrole-C6MIm]+/SWNT films compared to 17 μm in the absence of SWNT and 5 μm for the previously reported poly[thiophene-C6MIm]+ coatings. The poly[pyrrole-C6MIm]+/SWNT films were prepared with reproducible thicknesses as well as thermal properties sufficient for high-temperature applications, such as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatographic analysis. The utilization of the CPIL sorbent materials in SPME experiments provided excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivity toward organic aromatic analytes. The CPIL sorbent coatings also yielded outstanding fiber-to-fiber reproducibility on the basis of extraction efficiencies and improved response for a range of analytes relative to commercial 100 μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers when normalized for differences in film thickness. Poly[pyrrole-C6MIm]+ CPIL coatings doped with SWNT are therefore promising new sorbent materials for SPME analyses.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Comparative Process Capabilities of Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding for Precision Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study on the process capabilities of the two branches of the powder injection molding (PIM) process—metal injection molding (MIM) and ceramic injection molding (CIM), for high-end precision applications. The state-of-the-art literature does...... and discussion presented in the paper will be useful for thorough understanding of the MIM and CIM processes and to select the right material and process for the right application or even to combine metal and ceramic materials by molding to produce metal–ceramic hybrid components....

  12. Direct transitions from high-K isomers to low-K bands -- {gamma} softness or coriolis coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Narimatsu, Kanako; Ohtsubo, Shin-Ichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Recent measurements of direct transitions from high-K isomers to low-K bands reveal severe break-down of the K-selection rule and pose the problem of how to understand the mechanism of such K-violation. The authors recent systematic calculations by using a simple {gamma}-tunneling model reproduced many of the observed hindrances, indicating the importance of the {gamma} softness. However, there are some data which cannot be explained in terms of the {gamma}-degree of freedom. In this talk, the authors also discuss the results of conventional Coriolis coupling calculations, which is considered to be another important mechanism.

  13. Determination and modelling of osmotic coefficients and vapour pressures of binary systems 1- and 2-propanol with C{sub n}MimNTf{sub 2} ionic liquids (n = 2, 3, and 4) at T = 323.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvar, Noelia [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Associate Laboratory, LSRE/LCM, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, Porto 4200-465 (Portugal); Gomez, Elena; Dominguez, Angeles [Advanced Separation Processes Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Macedo, Eugenia A., E-mail: eamacedo@fe.up.pt [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Associate Laboratory, LSRE/LCM, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, Porto 4200-465 (Portugal)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Osmotic coefficients of 1- and 2-propanol with C{sub n}MimNTf{sub 2} (n = 2, 3, and 4) are determined. > Experimental data were correlated with extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. > Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. > Effect of the anion is studied comparing these results with literature. - Abstract: The osmotic and activity coefficients and vapour pressures of binary mixtures containing 1-propanol, or 2-propanol and imidazolium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as anion (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C{sub 2}MimNTf{sub 2}, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C{sub 3}MimNTf{sub 2}, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C{sub 4}MimNTf{sub 2}) were determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapour pressure osmometry technique. The experimental osmotic coefficients were correlated using the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer and the MNRTL model, obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.033 and 0.064, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the mixtures studied were calculated from the parameters of the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer. Besides the effect of the alkyl-chain of the cation, the effect of the anion can be assessed comparing the experimental results with those previously obtained for imidazolium ionic liquids with sulphate anions.

  14. Engineering the propagation of high-k bulk plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials by multiscale structuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sipe, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of large-wavevector bulk plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) with two levels of structuring is theoretically studied. It is shown that when the parameters of a subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayer (substructure) are modulated (superstructured) on a larger......, wavelength scale, the propagation of bulk plasmon polaritons in the resulting multiscale HMM is subject to photonic band gap phenomena. A great degree of control over such plasmons can be exerted by varying the superstructure geometry. As an example, Bragg reflection and Fabry-Pérot resonances...... to be a promising platform for using high-k bulk plasmonic waves as a new kind of information carriers, which can be used in far-field subwavelength imaging and plasmonic communication....

  15. Investigation of Dependence between Time-zero and Time-dependent Variability in High-k NMOS Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Mohammad Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Bias Temperature Instability (BTI) is a major reliability concern in CMOS technology, especially with High dielectric constant (High-\\k{appa}/HK) metal gate (MG) transistors. In addition, the time independent process induced variation has also increased because of the aggressive scaling down of devices. As a result, the faster devices at the lower threshold voltage distribution tail experience higher stress, leading to additional skewness in the BTI degradation. Since time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and stress-induced leakage current (SILC) in NMOS devices are correlated to BTI, it is necessary to investigate the effect of time zero variability on all these effects simultaneously. To that effect, we propose a simulation framework to model and analyze the impact of time-zero variability (in particular, random dopant fluctuations) on different aging effects. For small area devices (~1000 nm2) in 30nm technology, we observe significant effect of Random Dopant Fluctuation (RDF) on BTI induced variabili...

  16. A comparative study of metal and ceramic injection moulding for precision applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    process presents a dilemma for choosing between MIM and CIMas both the material classes can offer specific advantages and the process steps are identical. So a comparative study about the process capabilities between CIM and MIM will be useful for thorough understanding of the processes and to select......Powder injection moulding (PIM) process is an attractive process as it combines the possibilities of net-shape and large-scale production with wide range of material varieties. This article presents a comparative study of two branches of PIM processes with the focus on precision application...

  17. Net K+ secretion in the thick ascending limb of mice on a low-Na, high-K diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bangchen; Wen, Donghai; Li, Huaqing; Wang-France, Jun; Sansom, Steven C

    2017-10-01

    Because of its cardio-protective effects, a low-Na, high-K diet (LNaHK) is often warranted in conjunction with diuretics to treat hypertensive patients. However, it is necessary to understand the renal handling of such diets in order to choose the best diuretic. Wild-type (WT) or Renal Outer Medullary K channel (ROMK) knockout mice (KO) were given a regular (CTRL), LNaHK, or high-K diet (HK) for 4-7 days. On LNaHK, mice treated with either IP furosemide for 12 hrs, or given furosemide in drinking water for 7 days, exhibited decreased K clearance. We used free-flow micropuncture to measure the [K+] in the early distal tubule (EDT [K+]) before and after furosemide treatment. Furosemide increased the EDT [K+] in WT on CTRL but decreased that in WT on LNaHK. Furosemide did not affect the EDT [K+] of KO on LNaHK or WT on HK. Furosemide-sensitive Na+ excretion was significantly greater in mice on LNaHK than those on CTRL or HK. Patch clamp analysis of split-open TALs revealed that 70-pS ROMK exhibited a higher open probability (Po) but similar density in mice on LNaHK, compared with CTRL. No difference was found in the density or Po of the 30 pS K channels between the two groups. These results indicate mice on LNaHK exhibited furosemide-sensitive net K+ secretion in the TAL that is dependent on increased NKCC2 activity and mediated by ROMK. We conclude that furosemide is a K-sparing diuretic by decreasing the TAL net K+ secretion in subjects on LNaHK. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrical properties of nano-resistors made from the Zr-doped HfO2 high-k dielectric film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumao; Kuo, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Electrical properties of nano-sized resistors made from the breakdown of the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor composed of the amorphous high-k gate dielectric have been investigated under different stress voltages and temperatures. The effective resistance of nano-resistors in the device was estimated from the I–V curve in the high voltage range. It decreased with the increase of the number of resistors. The resistance showed complicated temperature dependence, i.e. it neither behaves like a conductor nor a semiconductor. In the low voltage operation range, the charge transfer was controlled by the Schottky barrier at the nano-resistor/Si interface. The barrier height decreased with the increase of stress voltage, which was probably caused by the change of the nano-resistor composition. Separately, it was observed that the barrier height was dependent on the temperature, which was probably due to the dynamic nano-resistor formation process and the inhomogeneous barrier height distribution. The unique electrical characteristics of this new type of nano-resistors are important for many electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  19. GaN-Based High-k Praseodymium Oxide Gate MISFETs with P2S5/(NH42SX + UV Interface Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the praseodymium-oxide- (Pr2O3- passivated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs with high dielectric constant in which the AlGaN Schottky layers are treated with P2S5/(NH42SX + ultraviolet (UV illumination. An electron-beam evaporated Pr2O3 insulator is used instead of traditional plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PECVD, in order to prevent plasma-induced damage to the AlGaN. In this work, the HEMTs are pretreated with P2S5/(NH42SX solution and UV illumination before the gate insulator (Pr2O3 is deposited. Since stable sulfur that is bound to the Ga species can be obtained easily and surface oxygen atoms are reduced by the P2S5/(NH42SX pretreatment, the lowest leakage current is observed in MIS-HEMT. Additionally, a low flicker noise and a low surface roughness (0.38 nm are also obtained using this novel process, which demonstrates its ability to reduce the surface states. Low gate leakage current Pr2O3 and high-k AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs, with P2S5/(NH42SX + UV illumination treatment, are suited to low-noise applications, because of the electron-beam-evaporated insulator and the new chemical pretreatment.

  20. Comprehensive capacitance-voltage analysis including quantum effects for high-k interfaces on germanium and other alternative channel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sarkar R. M.

    High mobility alternative channel materials to silicon are critical to the continued scaling of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. However, before they can be incorporated into advanced devices, some major issues need to be solved. The high mobility materials suffer from lower allowable thermal budgets compared to Si (before desorption and defect formation becomes an issue) and the absence of a good quality native oxide has further increased the interest in the use of high-k dielectrics. However, the high interface state density and high electric fields at these semiconductor/high-k interfaces can significantly impact the capacitance-voltage (C-V) profile, and current C-V modeling software cannot account for these effects. This in turn affects the parameters extracted from the C-V data of the high mobility semiconductor/high-k interface, which are crucial to fully understand the interface properties and expedite process development. To address this issue, we developed a model which takes into account quantum corrections which can be applied to a number of these alternative channel materials including SixGe1-x, Ge, InGaAs, and GaAs. The C-V simulation using this QM correction model is orders of magnitude faster compared to a full band Schrodinger-Poisson solver. The simulated C-V is directly benchmarked to a self consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solution for each bulk semiconductor material, and from the benchmarking process the QM correction parameters are extracted. The full program, C-V Alternative Channel Extraction (CV ACE), incorporates a quantum mechanical correction model, along with the interface state density model, and can extract device parameters such as equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), doping density and flat band voltage (Vfb) as well as the interface state density profile using multiple measurements performed at different frequencies and temperatures, simultaneously. The program was used to analyze experimentally measured C-V profiles and the

  1. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji, E-mail: hosoi@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogawa, Shingo [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Toray Research Center Inc., 3-3-7 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-8567 (Japan); Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-06-08

    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlO{sub x} and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO{sub 2}/AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlO{sub x} interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  2. Capacitance–voltage analysis of electrical properties for WSe2 field effect transistors with high-k encapsulation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho Kyun; You, Min Youl; Jin, Jun-Eon; Choi, Miri; Cho, Jiung; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2018-02-01

    Doping effects in devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials have been widely studied. However, detailed analysis and the mechanism of the doping effect caused by encapsulation layers has not been sufficiently explored. In this work, we present experimental studies on the n-doping effect in WSe2 field effect transistors (FETs) with a high-k encapsulation layer (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition. In addition, we demonstrate the mechanism and origin of the doping effect. After encapsulation of the Al2O3 layer, the threshold voltage of the WSe2 FET negatively shifted with the increase of the on-current. The capacitance–voltage measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) structure proved the presence of the positive fixed charges within the Al2O3 layer. The flat-band voltage of the MIS structure of Au/Al2O3/SiO2/Si was shifted toward the negative direction on account of the positive fixed charges in the Al2O3 layer. Our results clearly revealed that the fixed charges in the Al2O3 encapsulation layer modulated the Fermi energy level via the field effect. Moreover, these results possibly provide fundamental ideas and guidelines to design 2D materials FETs with high-performance and reliability.

  3. Solution-processed polymer-sorted semiconducting carbon nanotube network transistors with low-k /high-k bilayer polymer dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Noh, Yong-Young

    2017-09-01

    Solution-processed semiconducting carbon nanotube transistors with a high mobility and an ON/OFF ratio are the most promising for use in flexible electronics. In this paper, we report low-k/high-k bilayer polymer dielectrics for solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (s-SWNT) field-effect transistors (s-SWNT-FETs) with efficient charge transport and operation at low voltage. Thin low-k polystyrene (10 nm) is used for the first contact insulator with a channel in order to passivate the dipolar disorder induced by high-k insulators. The second gate insulator for low voltage operation is cyanoethyl pullulan (CEP), which is an environmentally friendly high-k insulator based on cellulose. Moreover, poly[(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) is chosen as a single layer dielectric for comparison. A reasonably low operational voltage (insulator is of critical importance for efficient charge transport.

  4. Physical origin investigation of the flatband voltage roll off for metal-oxide-semiconductor device with high-k/metal gate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Han; Xiaolei, Wang; Wenwu, Wang

    2015-09-01

    The physical origin of the flatband voltage (VFB) roll off for a metal-oxide-semiconductor device with high-k/metal gate structure is studied from the viewpoint of energy band alignment at the high-k/Si interface because the thickness of SiO2 interlayer is thin enough to be ignored. The VFB roll off phenomenon is assigned to associate with the direct electron transfer between high-k and Si substrate. Quantitatively calculated simulation results based on this model are given considering different conditions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404093, 50932001) and the Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Weifang University (No. 014BS02).

  5. Simulation design of high reverse blocking high-K/low-K compound passivation AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diode with gated edge termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyuan; Du, Jiangfeng; Xin, Qi; Li, Ruonan; Yu, Qi

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel high-K/low-K compound passivation AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode (CPG-SBD) is proposed to improve the off-state characteristics of AlGaN/GaN schottky barrier diode with gated edge termination (GET-SBD) by adding low-K blocks in to the high-K passivation layer. The reverse leakage current of CPG-SBD can be reduced to 1.6 nA/mm by reducing the thickness of high-K dielectric under GET region to 5 nm, while the forward voltage and on-state resistance keep 1 V and 3.8 Ω mm, respectively. Breakdown voltage of CPG-SBDs can be improved by inducing discontinuity of the electric field at the high-K/low-K interface. The breakdown voltage of the optimized CPG-SBD with 4 blocks of low-K can reach 1084 V with anode to cathode distance of 5 μm yielding a high FOM of 5.9 GW/cm2. From the C-V simulation results, CPG-SBDs induce no parasitic capacitance by comparison of the GET-SBDs.

  6. A threshold-voltage model for small-scaled GaAs nMOSFET with stacked high-k gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaowen, Liu; Jingping, Xu; Lu, Liu; Hanhan, Lu; Yuan, Huang

    2016-02-01

    A threshold-voltage model for a stacked high-k gate dielectric GaAs MOSFET is established by solving a two-dimensional Poisson's equation in channel and considering the short-channel, DIBL and quantum effects. The simulated results are in good agreement with the Silvaco TCAD data, confirming the correctness and validity of the model. Using the model, impacts of structural and physical parameters of the stack high-k gate dielectric on the threshold-voltage shift and the temperature characteristics of the threshold voltage are investigated. The results show that the stacked gate dielectric structure can effectively suppress the fringing-field and DIBL effects and improve the threshold and temperature characteristics, and on the other hand, the influence of temperature on the threshold voltage is overestimated if the quantum effect is ignored. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176100).

  7. Pentacene based thin film transistors with high-k dielectric Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, R.; Saikia, D. [J B College, Jorhat, Assam (India). Dept. of Physics. Thin Film Lab.; Saikia, Puja; Saikia, P.K.; Baishya, B., E-mail: puja.saik@gmail.co [Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam (India)

    2010-09-15

    We have investigated the pentacene based Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) with high-k dielectric Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Use of high dielectric constant (high-k) gate insulator Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} reduces the threshold voltage and sub threshold swing of the OTFTs. The calculated threshold voltage -2.2V and sub-threshold swing 1V/decade, current ON-OFF ratio is 1.7 X 10{sup 4} and mobility is 0.13cm{sup 2}/V.s. Pentacene film is deposited on Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface using two step deposition method. Deposited pentacene film is found poly crystalline in nature. (author)

  8. Absorption of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane and nitrogen by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(n)mim, n = 2,4,6) tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquids (eFAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almantariotis, D; Stevanovic, S; Fandiño, O; Pensado, A S; Padua, A A H; Coxam, J-Y; Costa Gomes, M F

    2012-07-05

    We measured the densities of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(n)mim, n = 2,4,6) tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquids (eFAP) as a function of temperature and pressure and their viscosities as a function of temperature. These ionic liquids are less viscous than those based in the same cations but with other anions such as bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The ionic liquids studied are only partially miscible with water, their solubility increasing with the size of the alkyl side-chain of the cation and with temperature (from x(H(2)O) = 0.20 ± 0.03 for [C(4)mim][eFAP] at 303.10 K to x(H(2)O) = 0.49 ± 0.07 for [C(6)mim][eFAP] at 315.10 K). The solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in the three ionic liquids was measured as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities of the order of 3 × 10(-2) at 303 K. The solubility of these gases does not increase linearly with the size of the alkyl-side chain of the cation. The solubilities of ethane and nitrogen are much lower than those of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (mole fractions 60% and 90% lower, respectively). The higher solubility of CO(2) and N(2)O can be explained by more favorable interactions between the solutes and the polar region of the ionic liquids as shown by the enthalpies of solvation determined experimentally and by the calculation of the site-site solute-solvent radial distribution functions using molecular simulation.

  9. Structural and electrical characteristics of high-k/metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors fabricated on flexible, semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2013-02-12

    In pursuit of flexible computers with high performance devices, we demonstrate a generic process to fabricate 10 000 metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-k/metal gate stacks on widely used, inexpensive bulk silicon (100) wafers and then using a combination of iso-/anisotropic etching to release the top portion of the silicon with the already fabricated devices as a mechanically flexible (bending curvature of 133 m−1), optically semi-transparent silicon fabric (1.5 cm × 3 cm × 25 μm). The electrical characteristics show 3.7 nm effective oxide thickness, −0.2 V flat band voltage, and no hysteresis from the fabricated MOSCAPs.

  10. Extremely scaled high-k/In₀.₅₃Ga₀.₄₇As gate stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    Highly scaled gate dielectric stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities are required for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with III-V semiconductor channels. Here, we show that a novel pre-deposition technique, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium, allows for HfO₂ and ZrO₂ gate stacks with extremely high accumulation capacitance densities of more than 5 μF/cm₂ at 1 MHz, low leakage current, low frequency dispersion, and low midgap interface trap densities (10¹²cm⁻²eV⁻¹range). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the interface contains TiO₂ and small quantities of In₂O₃, but no detectable Ga- or As-oxides, or As-As bonding. The results allow for insights into the microscopic mechanisms that control leakage and frequency dispersion in high-k/III-V gate stacks.

  11. Remote N2 plasma treatment to deposit ultrathin high-k dielectric as tunneling contact layer for single-layer MoS2 MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qingkai; Zhang, Zhaofu; Hua, Mengyuan; Wei, Jin; Lei, Jiacheng; Chen, Kevin J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote N2 plasma treatment is explored as a surface functionalization technique to deposit ultrathin high-k dielectric on single-layer MoS2. The ultrathin dielectric is used as a tunneling contact layer, which also serves as an interfacial layer below the gate region for fabricating top-gate MoS2 metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The fabricated devices exhibited small hysteresis and mobility as high as 14 cm2·V‑1·s‑1. The contact resistance was significantly reduced, which resulted in the increase of drain current from 20 to 56 µA/µm. The contact resistance reduction can be attributed to the alleviated metal–MoS2 interface reaction and the preserved conductivity of MoS2 below the source/drain metal contact.

  12. Flexible, Low-Power Thin-Film Transistors Made of Vapor-Phase Synthesized High-k, Ultrathin Polymer Gate Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junhwan; Joo, Munkyu; Seong, Hyejeong; Pak, Kwanyong; Park, Hongkeun; Park, Chan Woo; Im, Sung Gap

    2017-06-21

    A series of high-k, ultrathin copolymer gate dielectrics were synthesized from 2-cyanoethyl acrylate (CEA) and di(ethylene glycol) divinyl ether (DEGDVE) monomers by a free radical polymerization via a one-step, vapor-phase, initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) method. The chemical composition of the copolymers was systematically optimized by tuning the input ratio of the vaporized CEA and DEGDVE monomers to achieve a high dielectric constant (k) as well as excellent dielectric strength. Interestingly, DEGDVE was nonhomopolymerizable but it was able to form a copolymer with other kinds of monomers. Utilizing this interesting property of the DEGDVE cross-linker, the dielectric constant of the copolymer film could be maximized with minimum incorporation of the cross-linker moiety. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of a cyanide-containing polymer in the vapor phase, where a high-purity polymer film with a maximized dielectric constant was achieved. The dielectric film with the optimized composition showed a dielectric constant greater than 6 and extremely low leakage current densities (thin-film transistors (OTFTs) and oxide TFTs were fabricated, which showed hysteresis-free transfer characteristics with an operating voltage of less than 3 V. Furthermore, the flexible OTFTs retained their low gate leakage current and ideal TFT characteristics even under 2% applied tensile strain, which makes them some of the most flexible OTFTs reported to date. We believe that these ultrathin, high-k organic dielectric films with excellent mechanical flexibility will play a crucial role in future soft electronics.

  13. Comparative study of the breakdown transients of thin Al2O3 and HfO2 films in MIM structures and their connection with the thermal properties of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, S.; Aguirre, F.; Miranda, E.; Lombardo, S.; Palumbo, F.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the breakdown transients of A l 2 O 3 - and HfO2-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) stacks with the same oxide thickness and identical metal electrodes were compared. Their connection with the thermal properties of the materials was investigated using alternative experimental setups. The differences and similarities between these transients in the fast and progressive breakdown regimes were assessed. According to the obtained results, A l 2 O 3 exhibits longer breakdown transients than HfO2 and requires a higher voltage to initiate a very fast current runaway across the dielectric film. This distinctive behavior is ascribed to the higher thermal conductivity of A l 2 O 3 . Overall results link the breakdown process to the thermal properties of the oxides under test rather than to dissipation effects occurring at the metal electrodes.

  14. Study on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of wheat seedlings under [C₄mim][OAc] (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate) with Cd²⁺ stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhonglin; Feng, Yingying; Wang, Yan; Li, Yue; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Sunan; Guan, Wei

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the joint effect of 0.5 mmol·L(-1) Cd(2+) and various concentrations (50-400 mg·L(-1)) of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([C4min][OAc]) on the growth and photosynthetic performance of wheat seedlings in hydroponic culture was investigated. Seedlings grown in presence of Cd(2+) and [C4min][OAc] showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in growth (shoot and root lengths and dry weights) and photosynthetic performance (photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and chlorophyll a but not chlorophyll b) compared to seedlings grown in the presence of Cd(2+) but without [C4min][OAc]. However, this only happened under the lower range of [C4min][OAc] concentrations (50-200 mg·L(-1)). In addition, significant reduction in the level of Cd(2+) was also observed in the leaf tissue of wheat seedlings grown in the presence of 0.5 mmol·L(-1) Cd(2+) and 100 mg·L(-1) [C4min][OAc]. Overall, Cd(2+) exerted a stronger inhibition than [C4min][OAc] on the growth and photosynthetic performance of wheat seedlings. However, when both Cd(2+) and [C4min][OAc] were present in the culture, the toxicity of Cd(2+) could be mitigated by lower concentrations of [C4mim][OAc]. This phenomenon could be due to [C4mim][OAc] forming metal complexes with Cd(2+), thus reducing the toxicity of Cd(2+).

  15. Multilayer tungsten-alumina-based broadband light absorbers for high-temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirumamilla, Manohar; Roberts, Alexander; Ding, Fei

    2016-01-01

    for the fabricated MIM resonator. Excellent thermal stability of the absorber is demonstrated at high operating temperatures (800 °C). The experimental broadband absorption spectra show good agreement with simulations. The resonator with 12 nm top tungsten and 100 nm alumina spacer film shows absorbance above 95...... the potential for a wide range of applications, including the use in commonly used infrared bands or absorbers for (solar) thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion, where high absorbance and simultaneously low (thermal) re-radiation is of paramount importance.......Efficient broadband absorption of visible and near-infrared light by low quality-factor metal-insulator-metal (MIM) resonators using refractory materials is reported. Omnidirectional absorption of incident light for broad angles of incidence and polarization insensitivity are observed...

  16. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  17. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Carlos A; Lima, Evandro F; Nardi, Lauro V S; Liz, Joaquim D; Waichel, Breno L

    2006-09-01

    The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  18. Transmission Enhancement of High-$k$ Waves through Metal-InGaAsP Multilayers Calculated via Scattering Matrix Method with Semi-Classical Optical Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, Joseph S T; Shahin, Shiva; Kanté, Boubacar; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state transmission of high-momentum (high-$k$) electromagnetic waves through metal-semiconductor multilayer systems with loss and gain in the near-infrared (NIR). Using a semi-classical optical gain model in conjunction with the scattering matrix method (SMM), we study indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP) quantum wells as the active semiconductor, in combination with the metals, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and silver (Ag). Under moderate external pumping levels, we find that NIR transmission through Ag/InGaAsP systems may be enhanced by several orders of magnitude relative to the unpumped case, over a large angular and frequency bandwidth. Conversely, transmission enhancement through AZO/InGaAsP systems is orders of magnitude smaller, and has a strong frequency dependence. We discuss the relative importance of Purcell enhancement on our results and validate analytical calculations based on the SMM with numerical finite-difference time domain simulations.

  19. Effects of Gate Stack Structural and Process Defectivity on High-k Dielectric Dependence of NBTI Reliability in 32 nm Technology Node PMOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hussin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simulation study on negative bias temperature instability (NBTI induced hole trapping in E′ center defects, which leads to depassivation of interface trap precursor in different geometrical structures of high-k PMOSFET gate stacks using the two-stage NBTI model. The resulting degradation is characterized based on the time evolution of the interface and hole trap densities, as well as the resulting threshold voltage shift. By varying the physical thicknesses of the interface silicon dioxide (SiO2 and hafnium oxide (HfO2 layers, we investigate how the variation in thickness affects hole trapping/detrapping at different stress temperatures. The results suggest that the degradations are highly dependent on the physical gate stack parameters for a given stress voltage and temperature. The degradation is more pronounced by 5% when the thicknesses of HfO2 are increased but is reduced by 11% when the SiO2 interface layer thickness is increased during lower stress voltage. However, at higher stress voltage, greater degradation is observed for a thicker SiO2 interface layer. In addition, the existence of different stress temperatures at which the degradation behavior differs implies that the hole trapping/detrapping event is thermally activated.

  20. High-performance III-V MOSFET with nano-stacked high-k gate dielectric and 3D fin-shaped structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Hung; Liao, Wen-Shiang; Yang, Hsin-Chia; Wang, Shea-Jue; Liaw, Yue-Gie; Wang, Hao; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Mu-Chun

    2012-08-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) fin-shaped field-effect transistor structure based on III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) fabrication has been demonstrated using a submicron GaAs fin as the high-mobility channel. The fin-shaped channel has a thickness-to-width ratio (TFin/WFin) equal to 1. The nano-stacked high-k Al2O3 dielectric was adopted as a gate insulator in forming a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure to suppress gate leakage. The 3D III-V MOSFET exhibits outstanding gate controllability and shows a high Ion/Ioff ratio > 105 and a low subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. Compared to a conventional Schottky gate metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor or planar III-V MOSFETs, the III-V MOSFET in this work exhibits a significant performance improvement and is promising for future development of high-performance n-channel devices based on III-V materials.

  1. Influence of Design and Process Parameters of 32-nm Advanced-Process High- k p-MOSFETs on Negative-Bias Temperature Instability and Study of Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimin, A. F. Muhammad; Radzi, A. A. Mohd; Sazali, N. A. F.; Hatta, S. F. Wan Muhamad; Soin, N.; Hussin, H.

    2017-10-01

    Negative-bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become a prominent factor limiting scaling of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. This work presents a comprehensive simulation study on the effects of critical design parameters of 32-nm advanced-process high- k p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on NBTI. The NBTI mechanism and defects were explored for various geometric and process design parameters over a wide range of values. The NBTI simulation method applied in this work follows the on-the-fly method to capture the mechanisms of fast and slow traps. This work illustrates the dependence of the threshold voltage ( V th) degradation on the stress oxide field and stress temperature as well as investigation of the Arrhenius plot for the devices. The temperature insensitivity during short stress time of 1 ms indicates absence of generated defects and presence of preexisting defects. It is also observed that significant defects are generated in the gate stack subsequent to NBTI. The slope obtained from the V th degradation analysis at 1 ks and 375°C shows that changing the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness affects the V th degradation by 96.16% more than changing the HfO2 thickness and by 80.67% more than changing the metal gate thickness. It is also found that the NBTI effect depends on process design considerations, specifically the boron concentration in the highly doped drain, the metal gate work function, and the halo doping concentration; it was observed that higher boron dose and high metal work function may lead to higher V th degradation. However, the halo doping concentration in the advanced 32-nm structure has an insignificant effect on NBTI.

  2. Trap state passivation improved hot-carrier instability by zirconium-doping in hafnium oxide in a nanoscale n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistors with high-k/metal gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hsi-Wen; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chien-Yu [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Ye, Yi-Han [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-25

    This work investigates the effect on hot carrier degradation (HCD) of doping zirconium into the hafnium oxide high-k layer in the nanoscale high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. Previous n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistor studies demonstrated that zirconium-doped hafnium oxide reduces charge trapping and improves positive bias temperature instability. In this work, a clear reduction in HCD is observed with zirconium-doped hafnium oxide because channel hot electron (CHE) trapping in pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. However, this reduced HCD became ineffective at ultra-low temperature, since CHE traps in the deeper bulk defects at ultra-low temperature, while zirconium-doping only passivates shallow bulk defects.

  3. Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    Economic incentives have spurred numerous applications of genetically engineered organisms in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. These successes, involving a variety of methods of genetic manipulation, have dispelled early fears that genetic engineering could not be handled safely, even in the laboratory. Consequently, the potential for applications in the wider environment without physical containment is being considered for agriculture, mining, pollution control, and pest control. These proposed applications range from modest extensions of current plant breeding techniques for new disease-resistant species to radical combinations of organisms (for example, nitrogen-fixing corn plants). These applications raise concerns about potential ecological impacts (see chapter 5), largely because of adverse experiences with both deliberate and inadvertent introductions of nonindigenous species.

  4. Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based high-K dielectric thin films from solution processed at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frunză, Raluca C., E-mail: raluca.frunza@ijs.si [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kmet, Brigita [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jankovec, Marko; Topič, Marko [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Malič, Barbara [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} (Ta:Al:Si = 8:1:1 atomic ratio) and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were processed from solutions. • The XRD-amorphous films, heated at or below 400 °C, are smooth (RMS < 0.5 nm). • The dielectric permittivity of the single- and mixed-oxide films heated at 400 °C is 27 and 22, respectively. • The current–voltage characteristics of the mixed-oxide films reveal the Poole–Frenkel behaviour. - Abstract: Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based thin films were prepared by chemical solution deposition at temperatures not exceeding 400 °C. The aim of the work was to investigate the properties of high-K dielectric films of the ternary composition Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} with the Ta:Al:Si = 8:1:1 atomic ratio. Pure Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} samples were also prepared. All thin films were amorphous, and had smooth and flat surfaces with the average roughness of below 0.5 nm. The mixed oxide samples heated between 300 °C and 400 °C showed little difference in the dielectric permittivity with the values ranging from about 19 to 22. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film heated at 400 °C exhibited the highest permittivity of about 27. The current–voltage measurements revealed considerably improved characteristics of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} samples within the investigated heating temperature range, with a significant overall decrease of the leakage currents in contrast to that of the pure Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Method for Simultaneous Extraction and Hydrolysis for Determination of Flavonol Glycosides in Ginkgo Foliage Using Brönsted Acidic Ionic-Liquid [HO3S(CH24mim]HSO4 Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brönsted acidic ionic-liquid [HO3S(CH24mim] HSO4, a novel dual catalyst–solvent, has been successfully applied in simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction and hydrolysis for the determination of flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo foliage. The parameters, namely the [HO3S(CH24mim]HSO4 concentration, microwave-irradiation power, microwave-irradiation time, and solid–liquid ratio, were optimized. The optimum conditions were: an amount of 1.5 M [HO3S(CH24mim]HSO4, a microwave-irradiation power of 120 W, an irradiation time of 15 min, and a solid–liquid ratio of 1:30 g/mL. Compared with traditional methods the proposed approach demonstrates higher efficiency in a shorter operating time, and is an efficient, rapid, and simple sample preparation method.

  6. Physical and electrical properties of induced high-k ZrHfO crystallization with ZrN cap by high power impulse magnetron sputtering for metal-gate metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jung-Ruey; Juan, Pi-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Guo-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Metal-gate TiN/ZrN/ZrHfO/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures have been fabricated in this work. The physical and electrical properties were characterized. The crystallization of high-k ZrHfO thin-film is induced by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) during the deposition of ZrN capping layer. The binding energies and depth profiles were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that Zr and Hf out-diffusion from high-k dielectric in samples with HIPIMS is lesser than those in samples with the conventional DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS). The dielectric constant which strongly relates to the tetragonal phase becomes higher and the flatband voltage shift shows smaller by using the HIPIMS method than by the conventional DCMS. The cation and anion vacancies have been investigated by the defect reaction model.

  7. Radiological and Nuclear Detection Material Science: Novel Rare-Earth Semiconductors for Solid-State Neutron Detectors and Thin High-k Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    advanced materials, furthers our basic collective understanding in solid state neutron detector materials. The new materials directions have great promise...Lanthanum Amido Precursors”, Materials Chemistry and Physics 104 (2007) 220-224 10. Ihor Ketsman, Ya. B. Losovyj, A. Sokolov, Jinke Tang, Zhenjun Wang, M...and P.A. Dowben, “Surface charging of n-type Gd2O3 and HfO2 thin films”, Rare-Earth Doping of Advanced Materials for Photonic Applications, edited by

  8. Decorating TiO2Nanowires with BaTiO3Nanoparticles: A New Approach Leading to Substantially Enhanced Energy Storage Capability of High-k Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da; Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Yanhui; Jiang, Pingkai; Huang, Xingyi

    2018-01-31

    The urgent demand of high energy density and high power density devices has triggered significant interest in high dielectric constant (high-k) flexible nanocomposites comprising dielectric polymer and high-k inorganic nanofiller. However, the large electrical mismatch between polymer and nanofiller usually leads to earlier electric failure of the nanocomposites, resulting in an undesirable decrease of electrical energy storage capability. A few studies show that the introduction of moderate-k shell onto a high-k nanofiller surface can decrease the dielectric constant mismatch, and thus, the corresponding nanocomposites can withstand high electric field. Unfortunately, the low apparent dielectric enhancement of the nanocomposites and high electrical conductivity mismatch between matrix and nanofiller still result in low energy density and low efficiency. In this study, it is demonstrated that encapsulating moderate-k nanofiller with high-k but low electrical conductivity shell is effective to significantly enhance the energy storage capability of dielectric polymer nanocomposites. Specifically, using BaTiO 3 nanoparticles encapsulated TiO 2 (BaTiO 3 @TiO 2 ) core-shell nanowires as filler, the corresponding poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropylene) nanocomposites exhibit superior energy storage capability in comparison with the nanocomposites filled by either BaTiO 3 or TiO 2 nanowires. The nanocomposite film with 5 wt % BaTiO 3 @TiO 2 nanowires possesses an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 9.95 J cm -3 at 500 MV m -1 , much higher than that of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) (3.56 J cm -3 at 600 MV m -1 ). This new strategy and corresponding results presented here provide new insights into the design of dielectric polymer nanocomposites with high electrical energy storage capability.

  9. Description of multi-quasiparticle bands by the tilted axis cranking model 21.60.-n; High K rotational bands; Tilted axis cranking; Multi-quasiparticle configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Frauendorf, S

    2000-01-01

    The selfconsistent cranking approach is extended to the case of rotation about an axis which is tilted with respect to the principal axes of the deformed potential (Tilted Axis Cranking). Expressions for the energies and the intra bands electro-magnetic transition probabilities are given. The mean field solutions are interpreted in terms of quantal rotational states. The construction of the quasiparticle configurations and the elimination of spurious states is discussed. The application of the theory to high spin data is demonstrated by analyzing the multi-quasiparticle bands in the nuclides with N=102,103 and Z=71,72,73.

  10. QUANDO FOGEM DE MIM NA ESCOLA…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Madureira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A Displasia Craniofrontonasal (CFND é uma doença rara ligada ao X, caracterizada por malformações cra- niofaciais graves, paradoxalmente associada a fenótipos mais exuberantes no sexo feminino. Caso Clínico: sexo feminino, pais jovens não consanguí- neos e sem antecedentes familiares relevantes, orientada para a consulta de Pediatria por malformações craniofaciais. Apre- sentava craniossinostose coronal com assimetria craniofacial e braquiturricefalia, fronte alta, larga e proeminente, hipertelorismo acentuado, ponta nasal bífida e baixa implantação dos pavilhões auriculares. Evidência de clinodactilia do 5º dedo e háluces lar- gos. O estudo genético identificou uma mutação frameshift no gene EFBN1 no cromossoma X, confirmando o diagnóstico de CFND. O estudo genético dos pais foi normal (mutação de novo. Foi orientada para a consulta de Genética Médica e de Cirurgia Plástica (rinoplastia e várias cirurgias de correção de hipertelorismo. O desenvolvimento psicomotor foi adequado e após ingresso no 1º ciclo verificaram-se dificuldades na adaptação escolar e relação com os pares, com aproveitamento satisfató- rio. A avaliação psicológica revelou baixa autoestima, ansiedade face à exposição social e dificuldade em lidar com a frustração. Atualmente apresenta dismorfias faciais com correção parcial, escoliose ligeira e miopia/astigmatismo, mantendo seguimento multidisciplinar. Comentários: Os autores pretendem alertar para a existência desta síndrome genética, assim como realçar a necessida- de de uma abordagem multidisciplinar destes casos. A par do tratamento cirúrgico, é fundamental o aconselhamento genético e o acompanhamento psicológico destas doentes, pela baixa autoestima e pelo risco de exclusão social associados a esta síndrome.

  11. NEMS-based MIM plasmonics tunable filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirallah, Kareem; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2016-03-01

    Designing a miniaturized and efficient optical filter which can be actively tuned is a modern engineering challenge. This paper propose a design of a device with a nano scale size for active tuning the resonance frequency of a metal-insulator-metal plasmonics optical filter. The design is based on controlling the relative position between two stubs in metal-Insulator-metal plasmonics waveguide using NEMS technology. The mechanical design parameter is chosen carefully to be compatible with modern fabrication technology and a reasonable fabrication process of the device is proposed. The analysis of the mechanical and optical design is done and shows a promising performance. For the chosen mechanical design parameters, the optical resonance wavelength can be tuned from 1.45μm to 1.65μm using 7VDC actuation voltage.

  12. Physical understanding of different drain-induced-barrier-lowering variations in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors induced by charge trapping under normal and reverse channel hot carrier stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weichun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Wenwu; Zhao, Lichuan; Xu, Hao; Ren, Shangqing; Tang, Bo; Tang, Zhaoyun; Xu, Yefeng; Xu, Jing; Yan, Jiang; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Dapeng; Ye, Tianchun

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) variations in High-k/Metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor under the normal and reverse channel hot carrier (CHC) stress are studied. It is found that DIBL decreases under normal CHC stress mode while increases under reverse CHC mode. The different DIBL variation under normal and reverse CHC stresses is proposed to be attributed to stress-induced charge trapping by cold carriers from the channel rather than hot carriers from the pinch off region, which can be explained by energy band bending theory.

  13. Investigation of trap properties in high-k/metal gate p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with aluminum ion implantation using random telegraph noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shoou-Jinn, E-mail: changsj@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Fang, Yean-Kuen; Huang, Po-Chin [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chien-Ming; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cheng, Osbert [Central R and D Division, United Microelectronics Corporation, Ltd., Tainan Science-Based Industrial Park, Tainan 74145, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chung-Yi; Wu, San-Lein [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Road, Niaosong, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-11

    In this study, the impact of aluminum ion implantation (Al I/I) on random telegraph noise (RTN) in high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (pMOSFETs) was investigated. The trap parameters of HK/MG pMOSFETs with Al I/I, such as trap energy level, capture time and emission time, activation energies for capture and emission, and trap location in the gate dielectric, were determined. The configuration coordinate diagram was also established. It was observed that the implanted Al could fill defects and form a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and thus increase the tunneling barrier height for holes. It was also observed that the trap position in the Al I/I samples was lower due to the Al I/I-induced dipole at the HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  14. Generation of Palaeoproterozoic tonalites and associated high-K granites in southwestern Tanzania by partial melting of underplated mafic crust in an intracontinental setting: Constraints from geochemical and isotopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manya, Shukrani; Maboko, Makenya A. H.

    2016-09-01

    The southwestern part of the 2.0-1.8 Ga Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran Belt in the Njombe area of SW Tanzania is intruded by two types of synchronous granitic rocks with different chemical and petrological characteristics. The first type consists of hornblende-rich tonalites that have major element compositions similar to those of Archaean TTG but differ significantly in their trace element composition. The tonalites are spatially and closely associated with felsic, high-K, I-type granites, some of which are gneissic and/or aplitic. U-Pb zircon geochronology shows that the emplacement of tonalites at 1887 ± 11 Ma was largely contemporaneous with emplacement of high-K granitic gneisses at 1877 ± 15 Ma and aplitic granites at 1857 ± 19 Ma. The data also reveal the presence of Archaean crust of 2648 ± 25 Ma in the zircon cores of some samples in the otherwise Palaeoproterozoic terrane. The tonalites are characterized by MgO contents of 1.60-4.11 wt.% at a SiO2 range of 58.1-67.9 wt.%, the Mg# of 34-55, lower Sr contents (220-462 ppm) and less fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 3.55-12.9) compared to Archaean TTG (Sr > 500 ppm, La/YbCN > 20). These features, coupled with the εNd (1887 Ma) values of + 0.37 to - 0.66 as well as the associated mafic enclaves are suggestive of derivation of the tonalites by low pressure (below the garnet stability) partial melting of a mantle-derived mafic underplate that was subsequently contaminated with small amounts of pre-existing igneous crustal rocks. The evolved nature of the high-K granites (MgO = 0.20-1.30 wt.%, SiO2 = 65.5-73.9 wt.%, Mg# = 25-42, εNd = - 3.20 to - 4.75) coupled with old TDM ages which are 200-1000 Ma older than their emplacement age requires a higher degree of assimilation of older crustal material by the magma derived from partial melting of the underplated mafic crust which was subsequently followed by crystal fractionation involving plagioclase, pyroxene and amphibole. The close spatial and temporal

  15. Enhanced ultraviolet electroluminescence and spectral narrowing from ZnO quantum dots/GaN heterojunction diodes by using high-k HfO{sub 2} electron blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Xiaoming; Long, Hao; Wang, Haoning; Chen, Zhao; Wan, Jiawei; Liu, Yuping; Fang, Guojia, E-mail: gjfang@whu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li, Songzhan [Key Lab of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Feng, Yamin [Department of Physics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Ouyang, Yifang [College of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China)

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrated the capability of realizing enhanced ZnO-related UV emissions by using the low-cost and solution-processable ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with the help of a high-k HfO{sub 2} electron blocking layer (EBL) for the ZnO QDs/p-GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Full-width at half maximum of the LED devices was greatly decreased from ∼110 to ∼54 nm, and recombinations related to nonradiative centers were significantly suppressed with inserting HfO{sub 2} EBL. The electroluminescence of the ZnO QDs/HfO{sub 2}/p-GaN LEDs demonstrated an interesting spectral narrowing effect with increasing HfO{sub 2} thickness. The Gaussian fitting revealed that the great enhancement of the Zn{sub i}-related emission at ∼414 nm whereas the deep suppression of the interfacial recombination at ∼477 nm should be the main reason for the spectral narrowing effect.

  16. High-k 3D-barium titanate foam/phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone)/cyanate ester composites with frequency-stable dielectric properties and extremely low dielectric loss under reduced concentration of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Longhui; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Liang, Guozheng; Gu, Aijuan

    2018-01-01

    Higher dielectric constant, lower dielectric loss and better frequency stability have been the developing trends for high dielectric constant (high-k) materials. Herein, new composites have been developed through building unique structure by using hyperbranched polysiloxane modified 3D-barium titanate foam (BTF) (BTF@HSi) as the functional fillers and phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone) (cPES)/cyanate ester (CE) blend as the resin matrix. For BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composite with 34.1 vol% BTF, its dielectric constant at 100 Hz is as high as 162 and dielectric loss is only 0.007; moreover, the dielectric properties of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites exhibit excellent frequency stability. To reveal the mechanism behind these attractive performances of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites, three kinds of composites (BTF/CE, BTF/cPES/CE, BTF@HSi/CE) were prepared, their structure and integrated performances were intensively investigated and compared with those of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites. Results show that the surface modification of BTF is good for preparing composites with improved thermal stability; while introducing flexible cPES to CE is beneficial to fabricate composites with good quality through effectively blocking cracks caused by the stress concentration, and then endowing the composites with good dielectric properties at reduced concentration of ceramics.

  17. HfO2 high-k solid-state incandescent devices: performance improvement using a Ti-embedded layer and observation of conductive paths as light-emitting sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Can; Zhao, Jinyan; Wu, Shengli; Dai, Liyan; Niu, Gang

    2017-08-18

    Solid-state incandescent light-emission devices (SSI-LEDs) with a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure are promising candidates for future broadband light-emission devices. In this work, the electrical and light-emission features of SSI-LEDs based on HfO2 high-k thin films with or without the Ti-embedded layer on p-type silicon wafers have been studied. It turns out that the Ti-embedded layer can effectively reduce the turn-on voltage, thus improving the fluorescence efficiency of SSI-LEDs. The combination of scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and conductive AFM results unambiguously clarifies that conductive filaments, which are formed due to local thermal excitation during the forming process, are accompanied by the formation of pits on the HfO2 surface and are responsible for the light emission. This work develops an effective approach to improving the luminescence performance of SSI-LEDs and experimentally explains the light-emitting mechanism of such devices, which is of great importance to eventually realizng broadband light-emitting devices with low power consumption.

  18. Memory and negative-resistance effects in a strained metal-gate high-k n-type field-effect-transistor from 375 K down to 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-D, E. A.; Vega-G, V. H.; García-R, P. J.; Huerta-G, O. V.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce an experimental alternative way of looking into the charging and discharging mechanism inside a high-k stacked oxide of a metal-gate strained n-type Field-Effect-Transistor (nFET). This alternative way reproduces a memory and negative resistance effect by biasing the nFET device in a non-conventional way. This is achieved by forward-biasing the drain-bulk junction and by setting the gate electrode in a high-impedance mode. The produced negative resistance effect (NRE) has a controllable peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) that goes from about 3.0 up to a value of 5.5 at room temperature. The PVCR increases up to 8.35 at T = 225 K and reduces to 2.84 at T = 375 K in a linear trend. The memory effect is observed when the drain-bulk junction voltage is swept from low to high values and back from high to low values. From low to high forward drain-bulk bias the NRE shows up and vanishes when coming back from high to low forward drain-bulk bias. The NRE and memory effects are attributed to a coupled-gate oxide charging/discharging mechanism with an induced bipolar transistor action in the channel of the FET.

  19. Synthesis of novel functional liquid and its application as a modifier in SBR/silica composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel functional ionic liquid (IL, 1-methylimidazolium methacrylate (MimMa, was synthesized for modifying styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/silica composites. MimMa was found to be readily polymerized via the initiated radical mechanism and could be analogously grafted onto rubber chains during vulcanization. Substantial hydrogen bonding between polymerized MimMa (poly(MimMa and silica can facilitate the silica dispersion and improve the SBR/silica interfacial bonding. Filler networking, curing behavior, silica dispersion and mechanical performance of the modified SBR/silica composites were studied. With a low concentration of MimMa, remarkable improvements in the interfacial interactions and mechanical properties were achieved which was attributed to the improved silica dispersion and strengthened interfacial bonding induced by MimMa. A modified interphase structure was accordingly proposed and related to the mechanical performance of the modified SBR/silica composites.

  20. The need for application-based adaptation of deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Ueda, Utako; Pouliot, Jean

    2013-01-01

    anatomical contours, the rectum is delineated on both the fixed and moving images. A Dice similarity coefficient is then calculated between the contour on the fixed image and that transferred, via the calculated deformation, from the moving to the fixed image. The phantom possesses sufficient soft-tissue heterogeneity to act as a proxy for patient data. Large discrepancies appear between the algorithms and the measured ground-truth deformation. VEL yields the smallest mean spatial error and a Dice coefficient of 0.90. MIM produces the lowest MAD value and the highest Dice coefficient of 0.96, but creates the largest spatial errors. Increasing the MIM smoothness factor above the default value improves the overall spatial accuracy, but the factor associated with the lowest mean error decreases the Dice coefficient to 0.85. Different applications of DIR require disparate balances between image similarity and regularization. A DIR algorithm that is optimized only for its ability to transfer anatomical contours will yield large deformation errors in homogeneous regions, which is problematic for dose mapping. For this reason, these algorithms must be tested for their overall spatial accuracy. The developed phantom is an objective tool for this purpose.

  1. The need for application-based adaptation of deformable image registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Ueda, Utako; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    accurately transfer anatomical contours, the rectum is delineated on both the fixed and moving images. A Dice similarity coefficient is then calculated between the contour on the fixed image and that transferred, via the calculated deformation, from the moving to the fixed image. Results: The phantom possesses sufficient soft-tissue heterogeneity to act as a proxy for patient data. Large discrepancies appear between the algorithms and the measured ground-truth deformation. VEL yields the smallest mean spatial error and a Dice coefficient of 0.90. MIM produces the lowest MAD value and the highest Dice coefficient of 0.96, but creates the largest spatial errors. Increasing the MIM smoothness factor above the default value improves the overall spatial accuracy, but the factor associated with the lowest mean error decreases the Dice coefficient to 0.85. Conclusions: Different applications of DIR require disparate balances between image similarity and regularization. A DIR algorithm that is optimized only for its ability to transfer anatomical contours will yield large deformation errors in homogeneous regions, which is problematic for dose mapping. For this reason, these algorithms must be tested for their overall spatial accuracy. The developed phantom is an objective tool for this purpose.

  2. Optical slot antenna and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonsang; Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Park, Q.-Han

    2017-02-01

    We present an optical slot antenna and its application. By measuring transmission spectra and far-field radiation pattern of metallic slots with nanometer scale, we show that a metallic nanoslot has the properties of an antenna, which are resonance, polarization, and bidirectional far-field radiation pattern, and can be regarded as a magnetic dipole in optical region. Additionally, we also make the unidirectional radiation by adapting the geometry of RF Yagi-Uda antenna and applying slot antenna. By the aid of phase analysis based on 3-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation, we can increase the front-to-back ratio of an optical slot Yagi-Uda antenna up to about 5. As the application of a slot antenna, we integrate a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide with a slot antenna. A surface plasmon waveguide mode propagating in MIM structure is well-coupled to a slot antenna and radiates into free-space in form of dipole radiation. By adding an auxiliary structure that has the role of reflector as like a slot Yagi-Uda antenna, the direction of radiation from a slot antenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be controlled efficiently. Besides the possibility of integration with a waveguide, we expect that a slot antenna can be applied to active devices such as light emitting diodes or lasers for the future.

  3. Fabrication of low-cost beta-type Ti-Mn alloys for biomedical applications by metal injection molding process and their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Pedro Fernandes; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Liu, Huihong; Cho, Ken; Nakai, Masaaki; Itoh, Yoshinori; Narushima, Takayuki; Ikeda, Masahiko

    2016-06-01

    Titanium and its alloys are suitable for biomedical applications owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Beta-type Ti-Mn alloys (8-17 mass% Mn) were fabricated by metal injection molding (MIM) as a potential low cost material for use in biomedical applications. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the alloys were evaluated. For up to 13 mass% Mn, the tensile strength (1162-938MPa) and hardness (308-294HV) of the MIM fabricated alloys are comparable to those of Ti-Mn alloys fabricated by cold crucible levitation melting. Ti-9Mn exhibits the best balance of ultimate tensile strength (1046MPa) and elongation (4.7%) among the tested alloys, and has a Young's modulus of 89GPa. The observed low elongation of the alloys is attributed to the combined effects of high oxygen content, with the presence of interconnected pores and titanium carbides, the formation of which is due to carbon pickup during the debinding process. The elongation and tensile strength of the alloys decrease with increasing Mn content. The Ti-Mn alloys show good compressive properties, with Ti-17Mn showing a compressive 0.2% proof stress of 1034MPa, and a compressive strain of 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A literatura infanto-juvenil como “suporte” na formação didática de professores de língua materna: uma reflexão teórico-metodológica a partir do texto de Elias José, em Uma escola assim, eu quero pra mim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo é chamar a atenção dos docentes que trabalham na formação de professores delíngua materna, notadamente nos cursos de pedagogia e letras, para a função didática da literatura infantojuvenil.Em Uma escola assim, eu quero pra mim, publicada em 1997. Elias José, formado em letras epedagogia, aborda problemas e soluções de caráter sociolinguístico que podem ocorrer no contexto da salade aula. Ele conta a trajetória escolar de um menino que falava diferente por ser da zona rural e que, graçasa uma professora cheia de criatividade e intuição pedagógica, consegue transformar o inferno em que elevivia na escola, inicialmente, com uma professora bastante repressora e cheia de preconceito, numverdadeiro paraíso em que estudar era algo prazeroso, lúdico e transformador.

  5. New applications of the good old wavelength-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In routine geological and environmental analyses, the WD-XRF performs better than other simpler instrumental or wet techniques. WD-XRF is continuously improved, by applying new multilayer interference mirrors (MIM) for detection and quantification of very light elements. Bad spectral resolution of MIM noted earlier is ...

  6. High Operating Temperature, Radiation-Hard MIM Thermophotovoltaic Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spire Corporation is developing a key component for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power technology for deep space missions. We are developing InGaAs monolithically...

  7. The Extent of Denitrification in Long Island Groundwater using MIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Hanson, G. N.; Kroeger, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    Long Island drinking water is provided by a sole source aquifer with nitrate levels in some North Shore communities approaching or exceeding the drinking water standard of 10 mgL-1. Previous workers, using mass balance approaches, suggested that the primary source of nitrogen is sewage effluent and observed a 50% deficit of nitrate in Long Island’s groundwater system. We analyzed dissolved N2/Ar ratios in groundwater from wells to determine if groundwater denitrification is the cause of the nitrogen deficit at two locations where septic tanks are used for sewage treatment and the effluent leaches to the groundwater; a suburban community on the north shore of Long Island (Northport, NY) and parkland on a barrier island at the south shore of Long Island (Watch Hill, Fire Island National Seashore). In Northport we found 0 to 20 % of the nitrate in groundwater denitrified with excess N-NO3- concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5 mgL-1. These samples had concentrations high in dissolved oxygen (DO), 6 to 11 mgL-1, and low in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 0.4 to 2.8 mgL-1. At Watch Hill nitrogen is primarily retained as ammonium or dissolved organic nitrogen. Where nitrate is formed, we found up to 99% denitrification. Excess N-NO3- ranged from 0 to 8 mgL-1 with concentrations low in DO, 0.3 to 3.4 mgL-1, and high in DOC, 5.3 to 18.4 mgL-1. The vadose zone in the Northport area has an average thickness of 10-100 feet whereas at Watch Hill it is 1 - 2 feet thick. We hypothesize that the vadose zone thickness affects the extent of denitrification by controlling the amount of DOC and DO that reaches the groundwater. A thick vadose zone allows for more extensive interaction of infiltrating sewage effluent with atmospheric oxygen in the vadose zone which oxidizes DOC. In Northport groundwater has high DO, low DOC and essentially no denitrification leaving 2 to 11 mgL-1 N-NO3- remaining. At the Watch Hill site a thin vadose zone below the sewage leach field provides anaerobic conditions under which DOC is recharged with the sewage to the groundwater. Under these conditions any nitrate in the groundwater is denitrified and the groundwater has less than 0.01 mgL-1 nitrate remaining.

  8. High Operating Temperature, Radiation-Hard MIM Thermophotovoltaic Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spire Corporation proposes to investigate InGaAs thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells optimized for high temperature operation (~150C) and radiation hardness against the...

  9. Rheological assessment of titanium MIM feedstocks [Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of minimising the cost over the total production chain. Powder metallurgy technologies play a crucial role within this, as the output of the existing and potential primary metal production methods is in the form of sponge or powder. By using PM costly resmelting...

  10. Physics of nanoplatforms and their applications in nanomanufacturing and nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Evin

    semiconductor electronics applications. We also demonstrated that nanoporous oxide coatings can be utilized as noneroding sustained drug release platforms for up to weeks of elution. The release kinetics was explained in two main regions: burst and sustained release. The sustained release kinetics for nanoporous coatings was characterized as an activated surface density dependent desorption model in form of df/dt = alphafexp(--beta f2/kBT). Nanoporous inorganic coatings were proved to be well suited to provide improved efficacy and integration of implants in a variety of therapeutic situations like drug eluting stents or antibiotic coated hip replacements. The second type of nanoplatform we investigated is magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic properties differ in nanoscale due to the increasing role of the surface spins as the particle size is decreased, leading very interesting phenomenon like superparamagnetism. We studied magnetic properties of nanoparticles, namely superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Magnetic properties of SPION was studied through superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetization as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements. We showed that SPION can be successfully encapsulated inside micelle and liposome structures to create versatile theranostic nanoplatforms for enhanced drug delivery and monitoring of cancer treatment. The ability to incorporate SPION cargo renders these nanoplatforms to be highly susceptible to guidance by external magnetic fields, as well as making them exceptional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, enabling visualization of their distribution in vivo. The efficacy of using magnetic immuno-micelles (MIM) and magnetic cationic liposomes (MCL) for magnetic targeting and as MRI contrast agents was investigated using in vitro NMR and in-vivo MRI studies. For micelle study, human breast carcinoma cells were incubated with specific anti-body attached MIM. NMR measurements

  11. Surge en mi otra mujer: significados del consumo de alcohol en mujeres mexicanas Surge em mim outra mulher: significados do consumo de álcool em mulheres mexicanas Another woman comes up in me: Meanings of alcohol consumption in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Cortaza Ramírez

    2008-12-01

    ócio-culturais (o mim que às da própria pessoa (o Eu, que o álcool incentivava a expressão de seu "eu", e que descobriam a existência de "outra pessoa" dentro de si, que normalmente não se manifestava.This descriptive study with a qualitative approach is aimed to try to understand the meanings that Mexican women attribute to alcohol consumption. The methodological reference framework was the case study, from the theoretical perspective of Symbolic Interactionism. Ten women participated in this study. Data was recollected through semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and categorized, based on the analysis of the content analysis. The study revealed that alcohol makes the women become another person the one they really wanted to be> This is mainly the reason why they continued drinking on a regular basis, at increasing levels. In the context of Symbolic Interactionism, we observed that these women's self was restricted by the daily demands, consolidating a Self that responds more to the sociocultural expectatives (me than to their own (I expectations. They discovered that alcohol stimulated the expression of their selves , unleashing another person inside them, which normally does not manifest itself

  12. Investigation of capacitance characteristics in metal/high-k ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-21

    Aug 21, 2017 ... surface of a wafer (silicon wafer) is a key parameter to ensure the same electrical characteristics from one component to another. This curve shows the evolution of the C−V curve for dif- ferent substrate dopings. The portions of the C−V curve that depend only on the doping of the substrate correspond to the.

  13. Design and fabrication of metal-insulator-metal diode for high frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Ibrahim; Ram, Manoj K.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes play significant role in high speed electronics where high frequency rectification is needed. Quantum based tunneling mechanism helps MIM diodes to rectify at high frequency signals. Rectenna, antenna coupled MIM diodes are becoming popular due to their potential use as IR detectors and energy harvesters. Because of small active area, MIM diodes could easily be incorporated into integrated circuits (IC's). The objective of the work is to design and develop MIM diodes for high frequency rectification. In this work, thin insulating layer of ZnO was fabricated using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique which facilitates ultrathin thin, uniform and pinhole free fabrication of insulating layer. The ZnO layer was synthesized from organic precursor of zinc acetate layer. The optimization in the LB technique of fabrication process led to fabricate MIM diodes with high non-linearity and sensitivity. Moreover, the top and bottom electrodes as well as active area of the diodes were patterned using UV-tunneling conduction mechanism. The highest sensitivity of the diode was measured around 37 (A/W), and the rectification ratio was found around 36 under low applied bias at +/-100 mV.

  14. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the MIM strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV,were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/sq cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  15. Sr and Nd isotopic signature of the high-K calc-alkaline magmatism of the central Ribeira belt: the Sao Pedro Granite in Lumiar, RJ; Assinatura isotopica de Sr e Nd do magmatismo calcio-alcalino de alto-K na Faixa Ribeira central: o exemplo do Granito Sao Pedro em Lumiar, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Julio Cezar; Medeiros, Silvia Regina de; Chaves, Eduardo Amorim, E-mail: julio@geologia.ufrj.br, E-mail: silvia@geologia.ufrj.br, E-mail: edupc2@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    In the central-northern Ribeira belt there are many granitic to granodioritic bodies showing varied shape and size, characterizing a late- to post-collisional Ca-alkaline, cordilleran I-type province. The Sao Pedro Granite occurs in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State as small post-collisional bodies. It presents isotropic fabric, equigranular to seriate inequigranular texture, as well as local concentration of allanite, which gives discrete composition and texture variation to the rock. The granite has a high-K calcalkaline to alkali-calcic character and weakly peraluminous nature. Despite its short geochemical variation, high Ba, Zr and Th contents besides low concentrations of MgO and CaO are noticeable. High REE contents are associated with fractionated REE patterns showing strong negative Eu anomalies. A crustal origin for the granite can be assumed by its very negative and positive .Nd and .Sr values, respectively, as well as by 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios ranging from 0,718 to 0,740. TDM ages point to paleoproterozoic source, which agrees with geological time of intensive crust generation. (author)

  16. Radiation Driven Wind Solutions and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curé, M.

    2016-11-01

    The standard modified-CAK equation of motion is a non-linear differential equation that possesses many singular points and therefore many solutions. Apart from the standard solution, we have found three other physical solutions: i) when the rotational velocity is higher than 3/4 of the critical rotational speed; ii) when there is a high ionization change throughout the wind; and iii) when the k line force parameter is very high (k is the fraction of the total stellar flux which would be blocked in the photosphere if all lines were optically thick). We also show some applications of these solutions, e.g., the wind of a B[e] supergiant, the oblate wind of a Be star, and the winds of BA supergiants. Furthermore, we calculate synthetic spectra with FASTWIND, where we have used our new hydrodynamical solutions as input to the code.

  17. Ab initio study of ceria films for resistive switching memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdos, Mehreen; Hussain, Fayyaz; Imran, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Rana, A. M.; Arshad Javid, M.; Majid, Abdul; Arif Khalil, R. M.; Ullah, Hafeez

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the charge distribution/relocation activities in relation to resistive switching (RS) memory behavior in the metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure of Zr/CeO2/Pt hybrid layers. The Zr layer is truly expected to act not only as an oxygen ion extraction layer but also as an ion barrier by forming a ZrO2 interfacial layer. Such behavior of the Zr not only introduces a high concentration of oxygen vacancies to the active CeO2 layer but also enhances the resistance change capability. Such Zr contributions have been explored by determining the work function, charge distribution and electronic properties with the help of density functional theory (DFT) based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In doped CeO2, the dopant (Zr) plays a significant role in the formation of defect states, such as oxygen vacancies, which are necessary for generating conducting filaments. The total density of state (DOS) analyses reveal that the existence of impurity states in the hybrid system considerably upgrade the performance of charge transfer/accumulation, consequently leading to enhanced RS behavior, as noticed in our earlier experimental results on Zr/CeO2/Pt devices. Hence it can be concluded that the present DFT studies can be implemented on CeO2-based RRAM devices, which have skyscraping potential for future nonvolatile memory (NVM) applications.

  18. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  19. Evaluation of the Capability of Ionic Liquid-Amino Acid Aqueous Systems for the Formation of Aqueous Biphasic Systems and Their Applications in Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshadi, Sajjad; Sadeghi, Rahmat

    2017-03-30

    To obtain further experimental evidence for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the soluting-out effect phenomena in ternary systems composed of an ionic liquid (IL), amino acid, and water, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibrium behavior of aqueous solutions of several ILs were carried out in the presence of a range of amino acids. Water activities for binary and ternary aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C 4 mim]Cl, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C 6 mim]Cl, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [C 4 mim][CF 3 SO 3 ], l-Ser, Gly, Ala, and l-Pro were measured using both vapor pressure osmometry and isopiestic methods. All of the ternary IL + amino acid + water systems show negative deviations from semi-ideal behavior and therefore soluting-out effects have been observed in these systems. In the case of the [C 4 mim][CF 3 SO 3 ] + amino acids aqueous systems, the IL is soluted-out by the amino acids and the soluting-out effect appears by aqueous biphasic system formation. For these systems, the phase diagram and partition coefficient of caffeine were measured at 298.15 K. However, for the [C 4 mim]Cl and [C 6 mim]Cl containing systems, the amino acids are soluted-out by the ILs and the soluting-out effect appears by precipitation of the amino acids from the solution, and the solubilities of the amino acids in the aqueous solutions decrease in the presence of [C 4 mim]Cl and [C 6 mim]Cl.

  20. Numerical studies on a plasmonic temperature nanosensor based on a metal-insulator-metal ring resonator structure for optical integrated circuit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-mahmod, Md. Jubayer; Hyder, Rakib; Islam, Md Zahurul

    2017-07-01

    A nanosensor, based on a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic ring resonator, is proposed for potential on-chip temperature sensing and its performance is evaluated numerically. The sensor components can be fabricated by using planar processes on a silicon substrate, making its manufacturing compatible to planar electronic fabrication technology. The sensor, constructed using silver as the metal rings and a thermo-optic liquid ethanol film between the metal layers, is capable of sensing temperature with outstanding optical sensitivity, as high as -0.53 nm/°C. The resonance wavelength is found to be highly sensitive to the refractive index of the liquid dielectric film. The resonance peak can be tuned according to the requirement of intended application by changing the radii of the ring resonator geometries in the design phase. The compact size, planar and silicon-based design, and very high resolutions- these characteristics are expected to make this sensor technology a preferred choice for lab-on-a-chip applications, as compared to other contemporary sensors.

  1. LCA Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    in policy formulation, implementation and evaluation, present different purposes of LCA application in industry at both product and corporate levels, and discuss challenges for LCA applications in small- and medium-sized enterprises. Our synthesis demonstrates the importance of LCA as a tool to quantify......The chapter gives examples of applications of LCA by the central societal actors in government, industry and citizens, and discusses major motivations and challenges for the use of LCA to support science-based decision-making from their respective perspectives. We highlight applications of LCA...

  2. Preparation of photonic-magnetic responsive molecularly imprinted microspheres and their application to fast and selective extraction of 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hailong; Luo, Mei; Xiong, Hua; Yu, Ningxiang; Ning, Fangjian; Fan, Jieping; Zeng, Zheling; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-04-15

    Photonic-magnetic responsive molecularly imprinted microspheres (PM-MIMs) were prepared by seed polymerization, through suitable functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles for further coating with photoresponsive functional monomer and imprinted layers, and then were successfully applied to the fast and selective extraction of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) from real samples. The PM-MIMs possessed a sandwich micro-spherical structure containing Fe3O4 core, SiO2 middle layer, and MIPs shell with thickness of 25 nm. The PM-MIMs displayed excellent photoresponsive properties and could be rapidly separated from solutions under an external magnet. The PM-MIMs had specific affinity towards 17β-E2 with high adsorption capacity (Qmax=0.84 mg g(-1)) and fast binding kinetics (Kd=26.08 mg L(-1)). The PM-MIMs proved to be an ideal photoswitch with the ability of reversible uptake and release of 17β-E2 upon alternate 365 and 440 nm irradiation: 45.0% of 17β-E2 released from the PM-MIMs upon 365 nm irradiation, and 94.0% of the released 17β-E2 was rebound to the PM-MIMs at 440 nm. Accordingly, the PM-MIMs were applied for fast separation and extraction of 17β-E2 followed by HPLC-UV determination, presenting the low limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) of 0.18 and 0.62 μmol L(-1), respectively. The high recoveries for spiked milk powder and drinking water samples were in the range of 97.5-113.0% with relative standard deviations less than 4.4%. This study reasonably combined photonic response, magnetic separation and surface imprinting, which endowed the PM-MIMs with significant advantages of high adsorption capacity and fast binding kinetics, convenient separation and recycled use, and simple rapid eco-benign adsorption/elution processes for template molecules. Thus, the PM-MIMs based method may be a simple, rapid, convenient, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly way for simultaneous separation, enrichment and detection of trace 17β-E2 in

  3. LCA Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The chapter gives examples of applications of LCA by the central societal actors in government, industry and citizens, and discusses major motivations and challenges for the use of LCA to support science-based decision-making from their respective perspectives. We highlight applications of LCA in...

  4. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C.

    2014-12-19

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  5. New applications of the good old wavelength-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or wet techniques. WD-XRF is continuously improved, by applying new multilayer interference mirrors (MIM) for detection and quantification of very light elements. ..... RNA or on differences in proteins and here the XRF is much useless, the smart use of ... mixtures such as paints [32], vegetable oils [33] and similar systems.

  6. Plasmonic Devices for Near and Far-Field Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-11-30

    Plasmonics is an important branch of nanophotonics and is the study of the interaction of electromagnetic fields with the free electrons in a metal at metallic/dielectric interfaces or in small metallic nanostructures. The electric component of an exciting electromagnetic field can induce collective electron oscillations known as surface plasmons. Such oscillations lead to the localization of the fields that can be at sub-wavelength scale and to its significant enhancement relative to the excitation fields. These two characteristics of localization and enhancement are the main components that allow for the guiding and manipulation of light beyond the diffraction limit. This thesis focuses on developing plasmonic devices for near and far-field applications. In the first part of the thesis, we demonstrate the detection of single point mutation in peptides from multicomponent mixtures for early breast cancer detection using selfsimilar chain (SCC) plasmonic devices that show high field enhancement and localization. In the second part of this work, we investigate the anomalous reflection of light for TM polarization for normal and oblique incidence in the visible regime. We propose gradient phase gap surface plasmon (GSP) metasurfaces that exhibit high conversion efficiency (up to ∼97% of total reflected light) to the anomalous reflection angle for blue, green and red wavelengths at normal and oblique incidence. In the third part of the thesis, we present a theoretical approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the near-field intensity at a plasmonic dimer gap (hot spot) through coupling the electric localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance of a silver hemispherical dimer with the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. In the fourth part of this work, we demonstrate numerically bright color pixels that are highly polarized and broadly tuned using periodic arrays of metal nanosphere dimers on a glass substrate. In the fifth and final part of the

  7. Technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Leavitt, W.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of NASA Technology Utilization programs for the period of 1 December 1971 through 31 May 1972 is presented. An abbreviated description of the overall Technology Utilization Applications Program is provided as a background for the specific applications examples. Subjects discussed are in the broad headings of: (1) cancer, (2) cardiovascular disease, (2) medical instrumentation, (4) urinary system disorders, (5) rehabilitation medicine, (6) air and water pollution, (7) housing and urban construction, (8) fire safety, (9) law enforcement and criminalistics, (10) transportation, and (11) mine safety.

  8. Electronic structure theory: Applications and geometrical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coh, Sinisa

    This thesis contains several applications of the first-principles electronic-structure theory with special emphasis in parts of the thesis on the geometrical aspects of the theory. We start by reviewing the basics of the first-principles electronic-structure methods which are then used throughout the thesis. The first application of these methods is on the analysis of the stability and lattice dynamics of alpha- and beta-cristobalite phases of SiO2. We also map the complete low-energy landscape connecting these two structures and give implications on the phase transition in this compound. Next we study a family of Pbnm perovskites that are promising candidates for silicon-compatible high-K dielectrics. We calculate their structure and dielectric response, and compare with experimental results where available. The third application of these methods is to the large isosymmetric reorientation of oxygen octahedra rotation axes in epitaxially strained perovskites. We explain the origin of the peculiar energy landscape topology as a function of epitaxial strain. In the part of the thesis devoted to the geometrical aspects of electronic structure theory, we begin by extending the concept of electronic polarization to a Chern insulators. These insulators are characterized by a non-zero off-diagonal sigma_xy conductivity tensor component, quantized in units of e 2/h. Finally we discuss another geometrical quantity, the Chern-Simons orbital magnetoelectric coupling. We present a first-principles based calculation of this quantity in several compounds, and motivated by recent developments in the theory of topological insulators, we speculate about the existence of "large-theta materials," in which this kind of coupling could be unusually large.

  9. Application format

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. BENGALURU. Application for the Position of Copy Editor on Contract Basis. 1. Name in full (in block letters). 2. Parent's / Spouse Name. 3. a) Date of Birth : DATE. MONTH. YEAR b) Age in completed years. 4. (i) Address for correspondence. (in BLOCK LETTERS). Telephone No.: Office :.

  10. Application format

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Passport Size. Photograph. INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. BENGALURU. Application for the Position of Copy Editor. 1. Name in full (in block letters). 2. Parent's / Spouse Name. 3. a) Date of Birth : DATE. MONTH. YEAR b) Age in completed years. 4. (i) Address for correspondence. (in BLOCK LETTERS). Telephone No ...

  11. Application note :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  12. Metallurgical characterization of orthodontic brackets produced by Metal Injection Molding (MIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinelis, Spiros; Annousaki, Olga; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bonding base surface morphology, alloy type, microstructure, and hardness of four types of orthodontic brackets produced by Metal Injection Molding technology (Discovery, Extremo, Freedom, and Topic). The bonding base morphology of the brackets was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Brackets from each manufacturer were embedded in epoxy resin, and after metallographic grinding, polishing and coating were analyzed by x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) microanalysis to assess their elemental composition. Then, the brackets were subjected to metallographic etching to reveal their metallurgical structure. The same specimen surfaces were repolished and used for Vickers microhardness measurements. The results were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. The findings of SEM observations showed a great variability in the base morphology design among the brackets tested. The x-ray EDS analysis demonstrated that each bracket was manufactured from different ferrous or Co-based alloys. Metallographic analysis showed the presence of a large grain size for the Discovery, Freedom, and Topic brackets and a much finer grain size for the Extremo bracket. Vickers hardness showed great variations among the brackets (Topic: 287 +/- 16, Freedom: 248 +/- 13, Discovery: 214 +/- 12, and Extremo: 154 +/- 9). The results of this study showed that there are significant differences in the base morphology, composition, microstructure, and microhardness among the brackets tested, which may anticipate significant clinical implications.

  13. Switching Resistivo en dispositivos MIM con dieléctricos de alta permitividad

    OpenAIRE

    Gandiaga Calero, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo comienza con una exposición sobre cómo debido a la búsqueda de componentes electrónicos cada vez más pequeños surge en el panorama científico actual la necesidad de dieléctricos de alta permitividad que actúen como sustitutos del Si02 en los transistores MOSFET, componentes básicos de la electrónica moderna. A continuación se incluye un resumen general sobre los diferentes tipos de memorias que se utilizan actualmente o se presentan como candidatos para un futuro pró...

  14. Gene localisation for Sutherland-Haan syndrome (SHS:MIM 309470)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedeon, A.; Mulley, J.; Haan, E.

    1996-07-12

    The syndrome of X-linked mental retardation (borderline/mild/moderate in affected men), short stature, microcephaly, brachycephaly, small testes and spastic diplegia was characterized and tentatively mapped to the pericentromeric region from a single family. The lod score of 1.61 at recombination fraction 0.13 for the marker DXYS1 (Xq21.3) was increased to 2.10 by inclusion of a boy tentatively assessed as affected. The few informative RFLP markers available at that time all showed recombination; thus, a regional localization could not be determined. No other families with this disorder have been reported. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Design of signal router employing optical switching in MIM plasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lokendra; Bedi, Amna; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-02-01

    The all optical routing is novel approach for establishment of transparent information flow in optical networks. The diffraction limit of light is major factor which backseats the photonic components and mitigated by integrated all optical components. In this paper, an all-optical signal router with two optical inputs using nonlinear plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed. The nonlinearity in MZI structure is achieved by using nonlinear Kerr-material, which is also responsible for switching of optical signal across two output ports. The study of proposed device is carried out using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method and verified using MATLAB.

  16. Los peregrinos urbanos en Qoyllurit’i y el juego mimético de miniaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid B. Stensrud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de los peregrinos de la ciudad de Cusco que participan en el juego de miniaturas en el santuario de Qoyllurit’i. Partiendo de una descripción del contexto socioeconómico urbano y de la ontología andina, este trabajo se propone explorar cómo podemos entender el juego, el significado de las miniaturas, y la importancia del peregrinaje en el contexto urbano contemporáneo. Una fuerte motivación para ir a Qoyllurit’i consiste en dar poder a los deseos en la vida y asegurar prosperidad económica para el futuro a través de relaciones recíprocas con lugares y objetos. En estas relaciones, valores como el respeto y la fe son importantes. Utilizando los conceptos analíticos de virtualidad y mímesis, analizo el juego como una forma de comunicación fundamentada en una ontología en la cual no se distingue entre naturaleza-cultura, materia-espíritu, significante-significado. Además, se muestra que las prácticas religiosas indígenas son procesos culturales y materiales que son recreados constantemente en relaciones continuas y recíprocas entre lo rural y lo urbano. El artículo se basa en dos años y dos meses de trabajo de campo etnográfico (2001-2002, 2006-2007, 2008 en un pueblo joven de la ciudad de Cusco y en tres peregrinajes a Qoyllurit’i (2002, 2007, 2008.

  17. A comparative study of charge trapping in HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based multilayered metal/high-k/oxide/Si structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spassov, D., E-mail: d_spassov@abv.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Skeparovski, A. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Paskaleva, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Novkovski, N. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    The electrical properties of multilayered HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors were investigated in order to evaluate the possibility of their application in charge-trapping non-volatile memory devices. The stacks were deposited by reactive radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on Si substrates with thermal SiO{sub 2} with a thickness ranging from 2 to 5 nm. Both types of stacks show negative initial oxide charge and its density is higher for HfO{sub 2}-based structures. Memory window up to 6V at sweeping voltage range of ± 16V was obtained for HfO{sub 2}-based stacks. The hysteresis in these structures is mainly due to a trapping of electrons injected from the Si substrate. The charge-trapping properties of ZrO{sub 2}-based samples are compromised by the high leakage currents and the dielectric breakdown. The conduction through the capacitors at low applied voltages results from hopping of thermally excited electrons from one isolated state to another. The energy depth of the traps participating in the hopping conduction was determined as ~ 0.7 eV for the HfO{sub 2}-based layers and ~ 0.6 eV for ZrO{sub 2}-based ones, originating from negatively charged oxygen vacancies. At high electric fields, the current voltage characteristics were interpreted in terms of space charge limited currents, Fowler–Nordheim tunneling, Schottky emission, and Poole–Frenkel mechanism. The charge retention characteristics do not depend on the thickness of the tunnel SiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Sputtered HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} charge-trapping layers were studied. • HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stacks show memory window up to 6 V and good retention times. • Negatively charged oxygen vacancies were identified as main defects in the stacks. • Electrical breakdown compromise the charge-trapping properties

  18. Photography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Goodman, James A.; Purkis, Samuel J.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Photographic imaging is the oldest form of remote sensing used in coral reef studies. This chapter briefly explores the history of photography from the 1850s to the present, and delves into its application for coral reef research. The investigation focuses on both photographs collected from low-altitude fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, and those collected from space by astronauts. Different types of classification and analysis techniques are discussed, and several case studies are presented as examples of the broad use of photographs as a tool in coral reef research.

  19. Determination Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristiane Pinto Mesquita Pardal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at discussing techniques for administering one implementation issue that often arises in the application of particle filters: sample impoverishment. Dealing with such problem can significantly improve the performance of particle filters and can make the difference between success and failure. Sample impoverishment occurs because of the reduction in the number of truly distinct sample values. A simple solution can be to increase the number of particles, which can quickly lead to unreasonable computational demands, which only delays the inevitable sample impoverishment. There are more intelligent ways of dealing with this problem, such as roughening and prior editing, procedures to be discussed herein. The nonlinear particle filter is based on the bootstrap filter for implementing recursive Bayesian filters. The application consists of determining the orbit of an artificial satellite using real data from the GPS receivers. The standard differential equations describing the orbital motion and the GPS measurements equations are adapted for the nonlinear particle filter, so that the bootstrap algorithm is also used for estimating the orbital state. The evaluation will be done through convergence speed and computational implementation complexity, comparing the bootstrap algorithm results obtained for each technique that deals with sample impoverishment.

  20. Reflectors and resonators for high-k bulk Bloch plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We propose proof-of-concept designs of Bragg reflectors and Fabry-Pe´rot resonators for large wave vector waves (Bloch bulk plasmon polaritons) in multilayer metal-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials. The designs are based on hybrid multilayers having both subwavelength and wavelength......-scale structuring. This multiscale approach is shown to be a promising platform for using bulk plasmonic waves in complex multilayer metamaterials as a new kind of information carriers....

  1. Compact K-band bandpass filter on high- k LiNbO 3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Sung; Liu, Hsing-Chung; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Chiu, Hsien-Chin

    2007-06-01

    A novel miniaturized microstrip-line filter with a pair of meandering resonators on lithium niobate LiNbO 3 substrate with a high dielectric constant is proposed. A stepped-impedance structure is integrated into this new filter simultaneously to reduce dimensions and suppress the spurious responses. A substrate with a high dielectric constant is also effective in reducing the filter size because it has a high coupling efficiency. The cross-coupling effect can be achieved in this designed filter. A copper (Cu) interconnection was also used in this investigation to improve further the quality factor and the insertion loss of this filter. The filter has two transmission zeros one on each side of the passband. The experimental results in the K-band verify the design.

  2. Interface characterization of atomic layer deposited high-k on non-polar GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ye; Zeng, Ke; Singisetti, Uttam

    2017-10-01

    The interface properties between dielectrics and semiconductors are crucial for electronic devices. In this work, we report the electrical characterization of the interface properties between atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 on non-polar a-plane ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) and m-plane ( 1 1 ¯ 00 ) GaN grown by hybrid vapor phase epitaxy. A metal oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) structure was used to evaluate the interface properties. The impact of annealing on the interface properties was also investigated. The border trap in the oxide, characterized by the capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis loop, was low. The interface state density (Dit), extracted using the ac conductance method, is in the range of 0.5 × 1012/cm2 eV to 7.5 × 1011/cm2 eV within an energy range from 0.2 eV to 0.5 eV below the conduction band minimum. The m-plane GaN MOSCAPs exhibited better interface properties than the a-plane GaN MOSCAPs after annealing. Without annealing, Al2O3 dielectrics had higher border trap density and interface state density compared to HfO2 dielectrics. However, the annealing had different impacts on Al2O3 dielectrics as compared to HfO2. Our results showed that the annealing degraded the quality of the interface in HfO2, but it improved the quality of the interface in Al2O3 devices. The annealing also reduced the positive trapped oxide charge, resulting in a shift of C-V curves towards the positive bias region.

  3. Advanced Composite High-k Gate Stack for Mixed Anion Arsenide-Antimonide Quantum Well Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    and interface defect scattering5 dominate. Shubnikov-de Haas ( SdH ) oscillations (Fig. 8a) are observed at low temperature (2- 15K) and high magnetic...the amplitude of SdH oscillations, which is lower than 0.05m0 reported for InAs QW due to quantization and band non-parabolicity6. FFT of SdH ...ρ 0 1/B [T-1] 2K 4K 6K 10K 15K Δ(1/B) = 0.024 T -1 m*=.043m0 (b) Fig. 8 (a) Shubnikov-de Haas ( SdH ) oscillations in the sheet resistance

  4. Pentacene-Based Thin Film Transistor with Inkjet-Printed Nanocomposite High-K Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Te Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocomposite gate insulating film of a pentacene-based thin film transistor was deposited by inkjet printing. In this study, utilizing the pearl miller to crumble the agglomerations and the dispersant to well stabilize the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles in the polymer matrix of the ink increases the dose concentration for pico-jetting, which could be as the gate dielectric film made by inkjet printing without the photography process. Finally, we realized top contact pentacene-TFTs and successfully accomplished the purpose of directly patternability and increase the performance of the device based on the nanocomposite by inkjet printing. These devices exhibited p-channel TFT characteristics with a high field-effect mobility (a saturation mobility of ̃0.58 cm2 V−1 s−1, a large current ratio (>103 and a low operation voltage (<6 V. Furthermore, we accorded the deposited mechanisms which caused the interface difference between of inkjet printing and spin coating. And we used XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy to help us analyze the transfer characteristics of pentacene films and the performance of OTFTs.

  5. Voluminous Occurrence of High-K Dacites and Related Granites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the in vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of DNBH and its ruthenium complexes. All the synthesized compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus at a conc of 100-25 mg/ml and Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, ...

  6. Electronic structure of layered ferroelectric high-k titanate La2Ti2O7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structure of binary titanate La2Ti2O7 has been studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Spectral features of valence band and all constituent element core levels have been considered. The Auger parameters of titanium and oxygen in La2Ti2O7 are determined as alpha(Ti) = 872...

  7. Magnetic dipole moments of High-K isomeric states in Hf isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Walters, W; Nishimura, K; Bingham, C R

    2007-01-01

    It is proposed to make precision measurements of the magnetic moments of 5 multi-quasi-particle K-isomers in Hf nuclei by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Oriented Nuclei (NMR/ON) technique using the NICOLE on-line nuclear orientation facility and exploiting the unique HfF$_{3}$ beams recently available at ISOLDE. Results will be used to extract single-particle and collective g-factors of the isomeric states and their excitations and to shed new light on their structure.

  8. A Review of Nanoscale Channel and Gate Engineered FINFETs for VLSI Mixed Signal Applications Using Zirconium-di-Oxide Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Nirmal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, most of the research and development efforts in the area of CMOS and IC’s are oriented towards reducing the power and increasing the gain of the circuits. While focusing the attention on low power and high gain in the device, the materials of the device also been taken into consideration. In the present technology, Computationally intensive devices with low power dissipation and high gain are becoming a critical application domain. Several factors have contributed to this paradigm shift. The primary driving factor being the increase in scale of integration, the chip has to accommodate smaller and faster transistors than their predecessors. During the last decade semiconductor technology has been led by conventional scaling. Scaling, has been aimed towards higher speed, lower power and higher density of the semiconductor devices. However, as scaling approached its physical limits, it has become more difficult and challenging for fabrication industry. Therefore, tremendous research has been carried out to investigate the alternatives, and this led to the introduction of new Nano materials and concepts to overcome the difficulties in the device fabrications. In order to reduce the leakage current and parasitic capacitance in devices, gate oxide high-k dielectric materials are explored. Among the different high-k materials available the nano size Zirconium dioxide material is suggested as an alternate gate oxide material for devices due to its thermal stability and small grain size of material. To meet the requirements of ITRS roadmap 2012, the Multi gate devices are considered to be one of the most promising technologies for the future microelectronics industry due to its excellent immunity to short channel effects and high value of On current. The double gate or multi gate devices provide a better scalability option due to its excellent immunity to short-channel effects. Here the different high-k materials are replaced in different

  9. TYPOLOGIES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu; Dragoş Palaghiţă3

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  10. Metal-Insulator-Metal Diode Process Development for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    tunnel diodes will be developed to provide half-wave rectification as part of a “ rectenna ” energy harvesting system, which includes a radiation...system to confirm a non-linear, asymmetric response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS MIM diode, rectenna , energy harvesting, rectifier 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...ammunition, and armor. The purpose of this research is to develop components for a “ rectenna ” system that would allow electronics to scavenge and

  11. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  12. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental : applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) : research program applications and road weather ap...

  13. Design and simulation of metal-insulator-metal nanoresonators for color filter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saswatee

    2014-10-01

    Traditionally, liquid crystal display (LCD) systems employ color filters that are fabricated using organic dye and pigment based colorants. As a result, conventional color filters can lower the system performance by removing substantial amount of incident light through absorption. Also, the transmission bandwidth can be unacceptably large. Furthermore, there is a need to combine functions of multiple optical elements on one, facilitating miniaturization and compactness. Metal-insulator- metal (MIM) nanoresonators that can combine the functions of color filtering and polarizing can provide a useful solution to some of these issues. An MIM nanoresonator structure is proposed for use as color filters. However, the proposed structure uses high refractive index, inorganic materials in the insulator layer. Also, the bandwidth of transmission is not narrow enough to generate saturated color. Here, we simulated some MIM nanoresonator structures that might be realized using relatively low refractive index, polymeric materials and can function as polarizing, color filters in transmission mode. These structures might also yield narrower bandwidths of transmission. The simulations are carried out using a monochromatic version of RC-FDTD. This algorithm uses the 1st order Drude model to evaluate the convolution operation needed to make FDTD stable for metals for which the real part of permittivity is negative. Unlike the conventional RC-FDTD [3], the Drude parameters are computed at each wavelength of the incident light using the corresponding handbook value of permittivity. Hence, this version of RC-FDTD allows us to use the handbook permittivity values at all wavelengths of operation.

  14. Planar Metal-Insulator-Metal Diodes Based on the Nb/Nb2O5/X Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    performance of various planar metal–insulator–metal (MIM) tunneling diodes, which are being investigated for use in rectenna devices for energy...which are being investigated for use in rectenna devices for energy harvesting applications. Six cathode materials (M2): Nb, Ag, Cu, Ni, Au, and Pt...insulator–metal (MIM) tunneling diodes, which are being investigated for use in rectenna devices for energy harvesting applications. Six cathode

  15. Electronic Structure and Charge-Trapping Characteristics of the Al2O3-TiAlO-SiO2 Gate Stack for Nonvolatile Memory Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Zhang, Yang; Tang, Zhenjie; Shao, Zhengjie; Zhou, Guofu; Qin, Minghui; Zeng, Min; Wu, Sujuan; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Jinwei; Lu, Xubing; Liu, Junming

    2017-12-01

    In this work, high-k composite TiAlO film has been investigated as charge-trapping material for nonvolatile memory applications. The annealing formed Al2O3-TiAlO-SiO2 dielectric stack demonstrates significant memory effects and excellent reliability properties. The memory device exhibits a large memory window of ~2.6 V under ±8 V sweeping voltage, and it shows only ~14% charge loss after more than 10 years' retention, indicating excellent charge retention properties. The electronic structures of the Al2O3-TiAlO-SiO2 have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, and it reveals that the quantum well and the defect traps in TiAlO film can provide a >1.8 eV deep barrier for charge confinement in the TiAlO layer. The mixing between Al2O3 and TiO2 can increase the defects related to the under-coordinated Ti3+ atoms, thereby enhancing the charge-trapping efficiency of the device. Our work implies that high-k TiAlO composite film is promising for applications in future nonvolatile charge-trapping memories.

  16. Electronic Structure and Charge-Trapping Characteristics of the Al2O3-TiAlO-SiO2 Gate Stack for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Zhang, Yang; Tang, Zhenjie; Shao, Zhengjie; Zhou, Guofu; Qin, Minghui; Zeng, Min; Wu, Sujuan; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Jinwei; Lu, Xubing; Liu, Junming

    2017-04-01

    In this work, high- k composite TiAlO film has been investigated as charge-trapping material for nonvolatile memory applications. The annealing formed Al2O3-TiAlO-SiO2 dielectric stack demonstrates significant memory effects and excellent reliability properties. The memory device exhibits a large memory window of 2.6 V under ±8 V sweeping voltage, and it shows only 14% charge loss after more than 10 years' retention, indicating excellent charge retention properties. The electronic structures of the Al2O3-TiAlO-SiO2 have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, and it reveals that the quantum well and the defect traps in TiAlO film can provide a >1.8 eV deep barrier for charge confinement in the TiAlO layer. The mixing between Al2O3 and TiO2 can increase the defects related to the under-coordinated Ti3+ atoms, thereby enhancing the charge-trapping efficiency of the device. Our work implies that high- k TiAlO composite film is promising for applications in future nonvolatile charge-trapping memories.

  17. Sight Application Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-17

    The scale and complexity of scientific applications makes it very difficult to optimize, debug and extend them to support new capabilities. We have developed a tool that supports developers’ efforts to understand the logical flow of their applications and interactions between application components and hardware in a way that scales with application complexity and parallelism.

  18. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3 Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Günter, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this third volume a series of applications on photorefractive nonlinear optics and optical data storage are presented. This and the other two volumes on photorefractive effects, materials and applications have been prepared mainly for researchers in the field, but also for physics, engineering and materials science students. Several chapters contain sufficient introductory material for those not so familiar with the topic to obtain a thorough understanding of the photorefractive effect. We hope that researchers active in the field will find these books to be a very valuable reference source. The other two volumes are: Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1: Basic Effects Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2: Materials

  19. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbasli, M. Cengiz; Okyay, Ali K.

    2010-08-01

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement and high integration density are key features that make metal-insulator-metal waveguides (MIM) utilizing plasmonic modes attractive for applications in on-chip optical signal processing. Size-mismatch between two fundamental components (micron-size fibers and a few hundred nanometers wide waveguides) demands compact coupling methods for implementation of large scale on-chip optoelectronic device integration. Existing solutions use waveguide tapering, which requires more than 4λ-long taper distances. We demonstrate that nanoantennas can be integrated with MIM for enhancing coupling into MIM plasmonic modes. Two-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulations of antennawaveguide structures for TE and TM incident plane waves ranging from λ = 1300 to 1600 nm were done. The same MIM (100-nm-wide Ag/100-nm-wide SiO2/100-nm-wide Ag) was used for each case, while antenna dimensions were systematically varied. For nanoantennas disconnected from the MIM; field is strongly confined inside MIM-antenna gap region due to Fabry-Perot resonances. Major fraction of incident energy was not transferred into plasmonic modes. When the nanoantennas are connected to the MIM, stronger coupling is observed and E-field intensity at outer end of core is enhanced more than 70 times.

  20. Wapice News Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Söylemez, Ilke

    2017-01-01

    Since the mobile phones started to have an increasingly significant role in daily life, the mobile application development also started to be an important area in the software industry. The problem for mobile application developers is to develop a mobile application which supports all the devices and platforms on the market. This issue created a need for cross platform mobile applications. The cross platform mobile development refers to the development of mobile applications that could be use...

  1. Validation of Internet Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lalani, Nisar

    2006-01-01

    Today, testing applications for Internet (web sites and other applications) is being verified using proprietary test solutions. An application is developed and another application is developed to test the first one. Test Competence Centre at Ericsson AB has expertise on testing telecom applications using TTCN-2 and TTCN-3 notations. These notations have lot of potential and are being used for testing in various areas. So far, not much work has been done on using TTCN notations for testing Int...

  2. Tribological and mechanical performance evaluation of metal prosthesis components manufactured via metal injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, Virginia; Juszczyk, Mateusz; Sandrini, Enrico; Bolelli, Giovanni; Bonferroni, Benedetta; Lusvarghi, Luca; Cigada, Alberto; Manfredini, Tiziano; De Nardo, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of total joint replacements, in particular for the knee joint, has a growing impact on the healthcare system costs. New cost-saving manufacturing technologies are being explored nowadays. Metal injection molding (MIM) has already demonstrated its suitability for the production of CoCrMo alloy tibial trays, with a significant reduction in production costs, by holding both corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. In this work, mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated on tibial trays obtained via MIM and conventional investment casting. Surface hardness and wear properties were evaluated through Vickers hardness, scratch and pin on disk tests. The MIM and cast finished tibial trays were then subjected to a fatigue test campaign in order to obtain their fatigue load limit at 5 millions cycles following ISO 14879-1 directions. CoCrMo cast alloy exhibited 514 HV hardness compared to 335 HV of MIM alloy, furthermore it developed narrower scratches with a higher tendency towards microploughing than microcutting, in comparison to MIM CoCrMo. The observed fatigue limits were (1,766 ± 52) N for cast tibial trays and (1,625 ± 44) N for MIM ones. Fracture morphologies pointed out to a more brittle behavior of MIM microstructure. These aspects were attributed to the absence of a fine toughening and surface hardening carbide dispersion in MIM grains. Nevertheless, MIM tibial trays exhibited a fatigue limit far beyond the 900 N of maximum load prescribed by ISO and ASTM standards for the clinical application of these devices.

  3. Equation of state modelling of systems with ionic liquids: Literature review and application with the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Filipa Meireles; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Rodriguez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    and their interactions with other components is still needed. In this work, we made a review of literature studies on modelling systems with ionic liquids using equation of state models. Furthermore, we applied the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state to describe the phase behaviour of two ionic liquids, 1....... The results for VLE proved to be very good in the range of pressures studied when using one temperature-independent binary interaction parameter, with percentage deviations in pressure between 8 and 13% for [C2mim][NTf2] and around 12% for [C4mim][NTf2]. For the LLE of ionic liquids with water a temperature......-independent binary interaction parameter was also used, but the results do not describe the experimental data as well as with the VLE, with percentage deviations ranging from 4 to 100%. However, for some of the sets of pure component parameters a good description of the experimental data is obtained and work...

  4. Criteria for Social Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzenbeck, Claus; Tzagarakis, Manolis

    2007-01-01

    Social networks are becoming increasingly important for a wide number of applications. This is in particular true in the context of the Web 2.0 movement where a number of Web-based applications emerged - termed social networking applications or services - that allow the articulation of social...... relationships between individuals thus creating social networks. Although Web 2.0 applications are a popular and characteristic class of such applications they are not the only representatives that permit such functionality. Applications in the Personal Information Management domain exhibit similar...... to represent a community.  In this paper we outline a framework for analyzing applications that permit the construction of social networks. Our main focus is on the abstractions and mechanisms that a number of applications provide to facilitate the building of such networks....

  5. EPA Geospatial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed many applications that allow users to explore and interact with geospatial data. This page highlights some of the flagship geospatial web applications but these represent only a fraction of the total.

  6. Applicant Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers developed 3 surveys that asks applicants to assess their satisfaction with the application process on a 1-10 point scale, with 10...

  7. Nanoplasmonics advanced device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, James W M

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on control and manipulation of plasmons at nanometer dimensions, nanoplasmonics combines the strength of electronics and photonics, and is predicted to replace existing integrated circuits and photonic devices. It is one of the fastest growing fields of science, with applications in telecommunication, consumer electronics, data storage, medical diagnostics, and energy.Nanoplasmonics: Advanced Device Applications provides a scientific and technological background of a particular nanoplasmonic application and outlines the progress and challenges of the application. It reviews the latest

  8. Biomedical Applications of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, He; Zhang, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structure and exceptional phyiscal and chemical properties that lead to many potential applications. Among various applications, biomedical applications of graphene have attracted ever-increasing interests over the last three years. In this review, we present an overview of current advances in applications of graphene in biomedicine with focus on drug delivery, cancer therapy and biological imaging, together with a brief discussion on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field. PMID:22448195

  9. Commercial applications of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, K.; Moskowitz, R.

    1990-04-01

    Ferrofluids have been in the commercial arena for over two decades. In this paper, the most advanced, successful commercial applications of ferrofluids are discussed. These applications center around the tribological characteristics of ferrofluids, e.g., sealing, damping and hydrodynamic bearings. Also, an account of some lesser known applications is presented.

  10. SIMS applications workshop. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The first ANSTO/AINSE SIMS Workshop drew together a mixture of Surface Analysis experts and Surface Analysis users with the concept that SIMS analysis has to be enfolded within the spectrum of surface analysis techniques and that the user should select the technique most applicable to the problem. With this concept in mind the program was structured as sessions on SIMS Facilities; Applications to Mineral Surfaces; Applications to Biological Systems, Applications to Surfaces as Semi- conductors, Catalysts and Surface Coatings; and Applications to Ceramics

  11. Simple and commercial readily-available approach for the direct use of ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction prior to gas chromatography determination of chlorobenzenes in real water samples as model analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisvert, Alberto; Román, Iván P; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio

    2009-02-27

    A simple and commercial readily-available approach that enables the direct use of ionic liquid (IL)-based single-drop microextraction (SDME) prior to gas chromatography (GC) is presented. The approach is based on thermal desorption (TD) of the analytes from the IL droplet to the GC system, by using a robust and commercially-available thermodesorption system. For this purpose, a two-glass-tube concentrically disposed system was designed. The inner tube is a laboratory-cut Pyrex tube (20mm length) that houses the ionic liquid droplet from the SDME process, and the outer tube is a commercially-available TD glass tube (187 mm length) commonly employed for stir-bar sorptive extractions (SBSE). In this way, the proposed device prevents IL from entering the GC system, as this could dirty the inlet or even block the column. The determination of 10 chlorobenzenes in water samples by GC coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) detection has been chosen as model analytical application, showing the feasibility of the proposed approach. The SDME process consists of a 5 microL droplet of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6MIM][PF6]) suspended in the headspace (HS) of a 10 mL stirred sample. After extracting for 37 min at room temperature, the IL droplet is directly placed into the small inner tube, which is placed into the TD tube. The whole device is placed inside the TD unit, where desorption of the analytes is performed at 240 degrees C for 5 min with a helium flow rate of 100 mL min(-1). The analytical figures of merit of the proposed IL-(HS)-SDME-TD-GC-MS approach are very suitable for the determination of chlorobenzenes at ultratrace levels, with relative standard deviation values ranging between 2% and 17%, and limits of detection ranging between 1 and 4 ng L(-1), showing the potential offered by the IL-based SDME process with GC.

  12. A mobile information management system used in textile enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.-R.; Yu, W.-D.

    2008-02-01

    The mobile information management system (MIMS) for textile enterprises is based on Microsoft Visual Studios. NET2003 Server, Microsoft SQL Server 2000, C++ language and wireless application protocol (WAP) and wireless markup language (WML) technology. The portable MIMS is composed of three-layer structures, i.e. showing layer; operating layer; and data visiting layer corresponding to the port-link module; processing module; and database module. By using the MIMS, not only the information exchanges become more convenient and easier, but also the compatible between the giant information capacity and a micro-cell phone and functional expansion nature in operating and designing can be realized by means of build-in units. The development of MIMS is suitable for the utilization in textile enterprises.

  13. A mobile information management system used in textile enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C-R; Yu, W-D [College of Textiles, Donghua University, 1882 west Yan-an Road, Shanghai 200051 (China)], E-mail: wdyu@dhu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    The mobile information management system (MIMS) for textile enterprises is based on Microsoft Visual Studios. NET2003 Server, Microsoft SQL Server 2000, C{sup ++} language and wireless application protocol (WAP) and wireless markup language (WML) technology. The portable MIMS is composed of three-layer structures, i.e. showing layer; operating layer; and data visiting layer corresponding to the port-link module; processing module; and database module. By using the MIMS, not only the information exchanges become more convenient and easier, but also the compatible between the giant information capacity and a micro-cell phone and functional expansion nature in operating and designing can be realized by means of build-in units. The development of MIMS is suitable for the utilization in textile enterprises.

  14. Graphene for Multi-purpose Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2015-12-01

    (used for water purification in self-sustained mode) to demonstrate its effectiveness as a sustainable low-cost mechanically robust transparent material. [Published in ACS Nano 2013, in Energy Technology 2014 as a Cover Article and in Nature Publishing Group Asia Materials 2014] (6) Extensive study to stabilize graphene surface and to use the phenomena for development of a sensor which can monitor the quality of water. [presented in MRS Fall Meeting 2013 and in MRS Fall Meeting 2014] (7) By using graphene as an expose transistor architecture with ultra-scale high-k dielectric, to develop a series of sensor for glucose monitoring. Sensitivity, selectivity, response rate and refresh time has been studied and optimized. [pending review in Nature Scientific Reports 2015] (8) From the lessons learnt during the development of glucose monitoring sensor cell, a sophisticated low-cost ultra-low power mobile graphene based non-invasive sensor has been assembled and clinically trialed in collaboration with King Faisal Hospitals in Jeddah and in Makkah. [pending review in Science 2015] As a future direction, this thesis also discusses potential of graphene growth on electrochemically deposited metallic seed layers and consequential usage in stretchable and transparent graphene antenna development for fully flexible only graphene based integrated electronic system integration.

  15. Scintigraphic imaging of focal hypoxic tissue: development and clinical applications of 123I-IAZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard I. Wiebe

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Affected tissues in a number of diseases, including cancer, stroke, cardiac infarction and diabetes, develop focal tissue hypoxia during their progression. The presence of hypoxic tissue may make the disease refractory to therapy, as in the case of solid tumor therapy using low LET ionizing radiation. In other pathologies, the detection of viable but hypoxic tissues may serve as a prodromal indicator of developing disease (e.g. diabetes,or as a prognostic indicator for management of the disease (e.g. stroke. Over the past two decades, a number of hypoxia radioimaging agents have been developed and tested clinically. Of these, 18F-Fmiso and 123I-IAZA are the most widely used radiotracers for PET and SPECT/planar imaging, respectively. IAZA and Fmiso are a 2-nitroimidazoles that chemically bind to subcellular components of viable hypoxic tissues. They sensitize hypoxic tumour to the killing effects of ionizing radiation via mechanisms that mimic the radiosensitizing effects of oxygen, and are therefore called oxygen mimetics. The oxygen mimetic effect is attributable in large part to the covalent binding of reductively-activated nitroimidazole intermediates to critical cellular macromolecules. Nitroimidazoles labelled with gamma-emitting radionuclides (e.g. 18F-Fmiso and 123I-IAZA have been used as scintigraphic markers of tumour hypoxia, based on the need to identify radioresistant hypoxic tumour cells as part of the radiotherapy planning process. Broader interest in non-invasive, imaging-based identification of focal hypoxia in a number of diseases has extended hypoxia studies to include peripheral vascular disease associated with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, myocardial ischaemia, brain trauma and oxidative stress. In this review, the current status of hypoxia-selective studies with 123I-IAZA , an experimental diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, is reviewed with respect to its pre-clinical development and clinical applications.Os tecidos

  16. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  17. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  18. Applications of Photocatalytic Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gamage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the superior ability of photocatalysis to inactivate a wide range of harmful microorganisms, it is being examined as a viable alternative to traditional disinfection methods such as chlorination, which can produce harmful byproducts. Photocatalysis is a versatile and effective process that can be adapted for use in many applications for disinfection in both air and water matrices. Additionally, photocatalytic surfaces are being developed and tested for use in the context of “self-disinfecting” materials. Studies on the photocatalytic technique for disinfection demonstrate this process to have potential for widespread applications in indoor air and environmental health, biological, and medical applications, laboratory and hospital applications, pharmaceutical and food industry, plant protection applications, wastewater and effluents treatment, and drinking water disinfection. Studies on photocatalytic disinfection using a variety of techniques and test organisms are reviewed, with an emphasis on the end-use application of developed technologies and methods.

  19. Technical applications of aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-08-18

    Aerogel materials posses such a wide variety of exceptional properties that a striking number of applications have developed for them. Many of the commercial applications of aerogels such as catalysts, thermal insulation, windows, and particle detectors are still under development and new application as have been publicized since the ISA4 Conference in 1994: e.g.; supercapacitors, insulation for heat storage in automobiles, electrodes for capacitive deionization, etc. More applications are evolving as the scientific and engineering community becomes familiar with the unusual and exceptional physical properties of aerogels, there are also scientific and technical application, as well. This paper discusses a variety of applications under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for which several types of aerogels are formed in custom sizes and shapes. Particular discussions will focus on the uses of aerogels for physics experiments which rely on the exceptional, sometimes unique, properties of aerogels.

  20. APPLICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS IN JAVANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Qomariana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents applicative constructions found in Javanese spoken in Malang, East Java. It shows that applicative constructions in Malang are marked by suffixes attached to verbs. Suffix –i is used with location and recipient, while suffix –na is used with benefactive and instrumental. This agrees with applicative in Javanese spoken in Semarang with suffix –i and -ake respectively.

  1. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  2. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  3. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  4. Assignment Tracking Android Application

    OpenAIRE

    Akanni, Feranmi Timothy

    2016-01-01

    One of the common ways of checking that knowledge is impacted into students at every level of education is by giving various tasks to students and part of the responsibilities of the teacher is to give assignments to students and check the solution provided by the students. Increase in technology development involves a number of mobile applications that are being developed and released on a daily basis, out of which Android operating application is one of the dominant mobile application. T...

  5. Refrigeration systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 2nd edition offers a comprehensive treatise that addresses real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of refrigeration technology. New and unique analysis techniques (including exergy as a potential tool), models, correlations, procedures and applications are covered, and recent developments in the field are included - many of which are taken from the author's own research activities in this area. The book also includes so

  6. Applications of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aims to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. "Applications of Combinatorial Optimization" is presenting a certain number among the most common and well-known applications of Combinatorial Optimization.

  7. Hardening Azure applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurav, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Learn what it takes to build large scale, mission critical applications -hardened applications- on the Azure cloud platform. This 208 page book covers the techniques and engineering principles that every architect and developer needs to know to harden their Azure/.NET applications to ensure maximum reliability and high availability when deployed at scale. While the techniques are implemented in .NET and optimized for Azure, the principles here will also be valuable for users of other cloud-based development platforms. Applications come in a variety of forms, from simple apps that can be bui

  8. Mongoose for application development

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This book is a mini tutorial full of code examples and strategies to give you plenty of options when building your own applications with MongoDB.This book is ideal for people who want to develop applications on the Node.js stack quickly and efficiently. Prior knowledge of the stack is not essential as the book briefly covers the installation of the core components and builds all aspects of the example application. The focus of the book is on what Mongoose adds to you applications, so experienced Node.js developers will also benefit.

  9. Application Technology Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To conduct fundamental and developmental research on new and improved application technologies to protect floricultural, nursery, landscape, turf, horticultural, and...

  10. Application Coherency Manager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes an Application Coherency Manager that implements and manages the interdependencies of simulation, data, and platform information. It will...

  11. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  12. Expert Oracle application express

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express brings you groundbreaking insights into developing with Oracle's enterprise-level, rapid-development tool from some of the best practitioners in the field today. Oracle Application Express (APEX) is an entirely web-based development framework that is built into every edition of Oracle Database. The framework rests upon Oracle's powerful PL/SQL language, enabling power users and developers to rapidly develop applications that easily scale to hundreds, even thousands of concurrent users. The 13 authors of Expert Oracle Application Express build their careers aro

  13. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  14. El historiador y la Novela: De la complicidad mimética a la mediación textual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Montilla V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the need for a shift in the historian's traditional outlook on literature, according to which the latter is a provider of «useful knowledge and information.» This point of view is based on the conception of the literary work—the novel, in particular— as a faithful representación of reality. Nevertheless, a critique of this mimetic ability of the novel is perceived as early as the mid-nineteenth century. The article explores how several canonical nineteenth-century authors began to question the mimetic capacity of the novel. It also discusses later developments in literary theory concomitant with Modernism's break with realism. Beginning with the Avant-garde, the novel demanded a different kind of reader, one able to perceive and interrógate those unresolved textual processes and problems that the novel itself evidences and therefore demand from the historian an opening to new forms of reading.

  15. Este livro/foi escrito/ por mim Adília Lopes: uma vida deforma a poesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Evangelista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The works of portuguese poet Adília Lopes, in her bio-graphy, appears as a demonstration of one life in the deleuzean meaning that through language distorts the discursive structures of power in our contemporaneity. In her, the issue of biopolitics, brought by Foucault, arises as thematic of her texts, but is also in the poem´s textual tension itself. Life is brought to poetry to the point of deformity. It is the intensity of a life itself that contaminates the poem and places poetry as institution into question.

  16. Isomorfismo mimético em estratégia: uma ferramenta para investigação.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Prado Gimenez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito do artigo é ilustrar como uma ferramenta de análise de posicionamento estratégico, baseada na Psicologia dos Construtos Pessoais, pode auxiliar na identificação de isomorfismo estratégico, contribuindo para maior integração entre as abordagens institucionalista e cognitiva da estratégia. O artigo contribui, também, na constituição de instrumentos de pesquisa que possam ser usados em estudos sobre formação de estratégia, tanto sob a abordagem institucionalista quanto sob a cognitiva. Uma amostra, por conveniência, de quatorze dirigentes de pequenas empresas que estavam participando de um programa de educação continuada para executivos forneceu dados sobre suas empresas e sobre a concorrência com base em um formulário de coleta de dados construído em estudos anteriores. Os dados coletados ilustram a possibilidade de uso da ferramenta, demonstrando a utilização e a operacionalização da grade de repertório, que parece ser adequada para evidenciar a existência de processos isomórficos no nível estratégico entre organizações. A principal contribuição do artigo reside na apresentação de uma forma sistematizada de coleta de dados sobre percepções da concorrência permitindo uma menor interferência da subjetividade do pesquisador na identificação de processos isomórficos em nível estratégico.

  17. APLYSIE : un circuit neuro-mimétique : réalisation et intégration sur tranche

    OpenAIRE

    Hurat, Philippe

    1989-01-01

    Un algorithme récurrent de la phase de reconnaissance d'un réseau mono couches de Hopfield a été implante. Le problème lie à l'interconnexion complète des neurones a été implantée sur une architecture systolique 2d ou chaque processeur représente une interaction neurone/neurone. Un circuit intégré de 16 neurones, soit 256 synapses, a été réalisé en technologie CMOS. Un tel circuit permet d'effectuer plus d'un demi milliard d'opérations synaptiques par seconde

  18. IbM PENGEMBANGAN KEPROFESIAN BERKELANJUTAN (PKB GURU-GURU MIM WILAYAH NGAWEN DAN KLATEN UTARA BERBASIS KURIKULUM 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Etika Rahmawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The society service has aimed at accompanying the teachers on understanding and conducting the program of sustainable professionalism development (PKB based on curriculum 2013. When the society service program has finished conducted, it is expected to acquire the four goals as follow: (1 the emergence of a professional teacher group and acquire the teaching competence by implementing the active learning strategy with scientific approach based on curriculum 2013; (2 the learning devices based on curriculum 2013; (3 the research proposal is classroom action research; and (4 the scientific publication article. The method applied in the society service program was conducted with the same model as the PLPG program conducted but the program implementation was simpler or could be called as mini PLPG. The program activity was beginned by deepening of material activity which related to the concept of PKB and the concept of curriculum 2013. The concept of PKB emphasized on three points that should be developed by the teachers, they were the self development, scientific publication, and innovative work. The concept of curriculum 2013 has priority on the changing understanding of the paradigm and the basic concept of curriculum structure, the prominent were about the core and the basic competences. After the deepening materials which conducted in the first phase has finished, the activity then continued by the workshop of the learning devices which emphasized on the concept of scientific approach, the active learning, and the authentic assessment which followed by peer teaching activity. The worshop activity of learning devices was conducted by facilitating the teachers in arranging the learning scenario based on the materials determined. The peer teaching activity was conducted by divide the participants into some groups to conduct the teaching practice by turns and apply the scientific approach. The third phase was the arranging the academic writing, and it has the priority on the arranging of classroom action research (PTK. The teachers were assigned to propose the classroom action research title based on the problem emerged on their classroom. After the teachers have determined the title, the society service team divisible the job to accompany the teachers in arranging the classroom action research. The strategy used in conducting the third phase, the society servicec team acted as the consultant. By the strategies applied, it is expected that the teachers would be more directed in writing and arranging the classroom action research in order to produce the quality academic writing.

  19. Demonstration of 6DOF Arc-mim/mm Control in the FCT Using Proba-3 Metrology and Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Implement in FCT avionics and attitude control architecture and software that enables order of magnitude increase in control capability for next-generation formation...

  20. Nanomaterials in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in nano materials have lead to applications in many areas from automotive to electronics and medicine. Nano composites are a popular group of nano materials. Nanocomposites in medical applications provide novel solutions to common problems. Materials for implants, biosensors and drug del...

  1. Applications of Solubility Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  2. Progressive Web applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Progressive Web Applications are native-like applications running inside of a browser context. In my presentation I would like describe their characteristics, benchmarks and building process using a quick and simple case study example with focus on Service Workers api.

  3. Advertising on mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevsky, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the new method of mobile advertising. Advertising in mobile applications - a subspecies of mobile marketing, where advertising is distributed using mobile phones and smartphones. Ad placement is going on inside of applications and games for smartphones. It has a high potential due to the large number of mobile phone users (over 6.5 billion in 2013).

  4. Application Security Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

  5. MEET ISOLDE - Medical applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Meet ISOLDE - Medical applications. For most physics experiments, the applications and impact that science research has on people’s lives is years in the future. But at ISOLDE the work being done with medical researchers is making a difference today.

  6. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...

  7. GPU computing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    See, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a collection of state of the art research on GPU Computing and Application. The major part of this book is selected from the work presented at the 2013 Symposium on GPU Computing and Applications held in Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Oct 9, 2013). Three major domains of GPU application are covered in the book including (1) Engineering design and simulation; (2) Biomedical Sciences; and (3) Interactive & Digital Media. The book also addresses the fundamental issues in GPU computing with a focus on big data processing. Researchers and developers in GPU Computing and Applications will benefit from this book. Training professionals and educators can also benefit from this book to learn the possible application of GPU technology in various areas.

  8. Mobile Learning Applications Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While mobile learning (m-learning applications have proven their value in educational activities, there is a need to measure their reliability, accessibility and further more their trustworthiness. Mobile devices are far more vulnerable then classic computers and present inconvenient interfaces due to their size, hardware limitations and their mobile connectivity. Mobile learning applications should be audited to determine if they should be trusted or not, while multimedia contents like automatic speech recognition (ASR can improve their accessibility. This article will start with a brief introduction on m-learning applications, then it will present the audit process for m-learning applications, it will iterate their specific security threats, it will define the ASR process, and it will elaborate how ASR can enhance accessibility of these types of applications.

  9. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  10. Geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Walter J

    2006-01-01

    Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...

  11. Inverter Circuits Using ZnO Nanoparticle Based Thin-Film Transistors for Flexible Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Vidor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative systems exploring the flexibility and the transparency of modern semiconducting materials are being widely researched by the scientific community and by several companies. For a low-cost production and large surface area applications, thin-film transistors (TFTs are the key elements driving the system currents. In order to maintain a cost efficient integration process, solution based materials are used as they show an outstanding tradeoff between cost and system complexity. In this paper, we discuss the integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs using a high-k resin as gate dielectric. The performance in dependence on the transistor structure has been investigated, and inverted staggered setups depict an improved performance over the coplanar device increasing both the field-effect mobility and the ION/IOFF ratio. Aiming at the evaluation of the TFT characteristics for digital circuit applications, inverter circuits using a load TFT in the pull-up network and an active TFT in the pull-down network were integrated. The inverters show reasonable switching characteristics and V/V gains. Conjointly, the influence of the geometry ratio and the supply voltage on the devices have been analyzed. Moreover, as all integration steps are suitable to polymeric templates, the fabrication process is fully compatible to flexible substrates.

  12. Ionic liquids as porogens in the microwave-assisted synthesis of methacrylate monoliths for chromatographic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singco, Brenda; Lin, Chen-Lan; Cheng, Yi-Jie; Shih, Yung-Han [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology, CYCU (Chung Yuan Christian University), 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsi-Ya, E-mail: hyhuang@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology, CYCU (Chung Yuan Christian University), 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient and cleaner monoliths preparation utilizing ionic liquids in conjunction with microwave Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These ionic liquids with varied cation alkyl chain and anion type successfully tuned the morphology of different alkyl methacrylates Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small molecules and peptide digests separated well in these monoliths. - Abstract: Several imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with varying cation alkyl chain length (C{sub 4}-C{sub 10}) and anion type (tetrafluoroborate ([BF{sub 4}]{sup -}), hexafluorophosphate ([PF{sub 6}]{sup -}) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Tf{sub 2}N]{sup -})) were used as reaction media in the microwave polymerization of methacrylate-based stationary phases. Scanning electron micrographs and backpressures of poly(butyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) monoliths synthesized in the presence of these ionic liquids demonstrated that porosity and permeability decreased when cation alkyl chain length and anion hydrophobicity were increased. Performance of these monoliths was assessed for their ability to separate parabens by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Intra-batch precision (n = 3 columns) for retention time and peak area ranged was 0.80-1.13% and 3.71-4.58%, respectively. In addition, a good repeatability of RSD{sub Retentiontime} = <0.30% and {approx}1.0%, RSD{sub Peakarea} = <1.30% and <4.3%, and RSD{sub Efficiency} = <0.6% and <11.5% for intra-day and inter-day, respectively exemplify monolith performance reliability for poly(BMA-EDMA) fabricated using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C{sub 6}mim][BF{sub 4}]) porogen. This monolith was also tested for its potential in nanoLC to separate protein digests in gradient mode. ILs as porogens also fabricated different alkyl methacrylate (AMA) (C4-C18) monoliths. Furthermore, employing binary IL porogen mixture such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

  13. 40 CFR 194.15 - certification application(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    ... 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT 12 1996-07-01 1996-07-01 false certification application(s). 194.15 Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Re-certification Applications Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re-certification application(s...

  14. An improved pseudotargeted metabolomics approach using multiple ion monitoring with time-staggered ion lists based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Wang, Ruibing; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo, E-mail: jbwan@umac.mo

    2016-07-13

    Pseudotargeted metabolomics is a novel strategy integrating the advantages of both untargeted and targeted methods. The conventional pseudotargeted metabolomics required two MS instruments, i.e., ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time- of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) and UHPLC/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QQQ-MS), which makes method transformation inevitable. Furthermore, the picking of ion pairs from thousands of candidates and the swapping of the data between two instruments are the most labor-intensive steps, which greatly limit its application in metabolomic analysis. In the present study, we proposed an improved pseudotargeted metabolomics method that could be achieved on an UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument operated in the multiple ion monitoring (MIM) mode with time-staggered ion lists (tsMIM). Full scan-based untargeted analysis was applied to extract the target ions. After peak alignment and ion fusion, a stepwise ion picking procedure was used to generate the ion lists for subsequent single MIM and tsMIM. The UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted approach exhibited better repeatability and a wider linear range than the UHPLC/Q-TOF MS-based untargeted metabolomics method. Compared to the single MIM mode, the tsMIM significantly increased the coverage of the metabolites detected. The newly developed method was successfully applied to discover plasma biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, which indicated its practicability and great potential in future metabolomics studies. - Highlights: • An UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted metabolomics was proposed. • Compared to full scan, the improved method exhibits better repeatability and a wider linear range. • The proposed method could achieve pseudotargeted analysis on one UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument. • The developed method was successfully used to discover biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury.

  15. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  16. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  17. Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    and the development of a short-path evaporator. The oil shale processing problem illustrates the interplay amongst particle flows in rotating drums, heat and mass transfer between solid and gas phases. The industrial application considers the dynamics of an Alberta-Taciuk processor, commonly used in shale oil and oil......Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers...

  18. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  19. Android Applications Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of smartphones worldwide is growing very fast and also the malicious attacks have increased. The mobile security applications development keeps the pace with this trend. The paper presents the vulnerabilities of mobile applications. The Android applications and devices are analyzed through the security perspective. The usage of restricted API is also presented. The paper also focuses on how users can prevent these malicious attacks and propose some prevention measures, including the architecture of a mobile security system for Android devices.

  20. Professional Tizen application development

    CERN Document Server

    Jaygarl, HoJun; Kim, YoonSoo; Choi, Eunyoung; Bradwick, Kevin; Lansdell

    2014-01-01

    Create powerful, marketable applications with Tizen for the smartphone and beyond  Tizen is the only platform designed for multiple device categories that is HTML5-centric and entirely open source. Written by experts in the field, this comprehensive guide includes chapters on both web and native application development, covering subjects such as location and social features, advanced UIs, animations, sensors and multimedia. This book is a comprehensive resource for learning how to develop Tizen web and native applications that are polished, bug-free and ready to sell on a range of smart dev

  1. Professional mobile application development

    CERN Document Server

    McWherter, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Create applications for all major smartphone platforms Creating applications for the myriad versions and varieties of mobile phone platforms on the market can be daunting to even the most seasoned developer. This authoritative guide is written in such as way that it takes your existing skills and experience and uses that background as a solid foundation for developing applications that cross over between platforms, thereby freeing you from having to learn a new platform from scratch each time. Concise explanations walk you through the tools and patterns for developing for all the mobile platfo

  2. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  3. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  4. Professional Cocoa Application Security

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Graham J

    2010-01-01

    The first comprehensive security resource for Mac and iPhone developers. The Mac platform is legendary for security, but consequently, Apple developers have little appropriate security information available to help them assure that their applications are equally secure. This Wrox guide provides the first comprehensive go-to resource for Apple developers on the available frameworks and features that support secure application development.: While Macs are noted for security, developers still need to design applications for the Mac and the iPhone with security in mind; this guide offers the first

  5. Beginning Android Application Development

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng

    2011-01-01

    Create must-have applications for the latest Android OSThe Android OS is a popular and flexible platform for many of today's most in-demand mobile devices. This full-color guide offers you a hands-on introduction to creating Android applications for the latest mobile devices. Veteran author Wei Meng Lee accompanies each lesson with real-world examples to drive home the content he covers. Beginning with an overview of core Android features and tools, he moves at a steady pace while teaching everything you need to know to successfully develop your own Android applications.Explains what an activi

  6. Lift application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Gilberto T

    2013-01-01

    Lift Application Development Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create secure web applications using this amazing framework.The book first teaches you basic topics such as starting a new application and gradually moves on to teach you advanced topics to achieve a certain task. Then, it explains every step in detail so that you can build your knowledge about how things work.This book is for developers who have at least some basic knowledge about Scala and who are looking for a functional, secure, and modern web framework. Prior experience with HTML and JavaScript

  7. Wind energy applications guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  8. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  9. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  10. Food Applications and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  11. Thermodynamics foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gyftopoulos, Elias P

    2005-01-01

    Designed by two MIT professors, this authoritative text discusses basic concepts and applications in detail, emphasizing generality, definitions, and logical consistency. More than 300 solved problems cover realistic energy systems and processes.

  12. Pedagogical Applications of Telematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloove, George

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the primary educational applications of telematics, defined as a fusion of information and communications technologies. Electronic mail, teleconferencing, electronic bulletin boards, and databanks are described and their uses by teachers and students are noted. (KRN)

  13. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  14. Herbicide application records

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains records of pesticide applications on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2006.

  15. Applications of Orlicz spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, MM

    2002-01-01

    Presents previously unpublished material on the fundumental pronciples and properties of Orlicz sequence and function spaces. Examines the sample path behavior of stochastic processes. Provides practical applications in statistics and probability.

  16. Industrial applications of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, W J; Stoessel, P R; Wohlleben, W; Hafner, A

    2015-08-21

    Research efforts in the past two decades have resulted in thousands of potential application areas for nanoparticles - which materials have become industrially relevant? Where are sustainable applications of nanoparticles replacing traditional processing and materials? This tutorial review starts with a brief analysis on what makes nanoparticles attractive to chemical product design. The article highlights established industrial applications of nanoparticles and then moves to rapidly emerging applications in the chemical industry and discusses future research directions. Contributions from large companies, academia and high-tech start-ups are used to elucidate where academic nanoparticle research has revolutionized industry practice. A nanomaterial-focused analysis discusses new trends, such as particles with an identity, and the influence of modern instrument advances in the development of novel industrial products.

  17. Special functions & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, N N

    1972-01-01

    Famous Russian work discusses the application of cylinder functions and spherical harmonics; gamma function; probability integral and related functions; Airy functions; hyper-geometric functions; more. Translated by Richard Silverman.

  18. Designing Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the eLearning......-based applications aim to leave some of their features at the design stage in the form of variables which are dependent on several criteria. The resolution of the variables is called adaptation and can be seen from two perspectives: adaptation by humans to the changed requirements of stakeholders and dynamic system...... adaptation to the changed parameters of environments, user or context. Adaptation can be seen as an orthogonal concern or viewpoint in a design process. In this paper I will discuss design abstractions which are employed in current design methods for web applications. I will exemplify the use...

  19. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review, with 19 references, is given on challenges and possible opportunities for the development of biosensors for environmental monitoring applications. The high cost and slow turnaround times typically associated with the measurement of regulated pollutants clearly indicates...

  20. Wordpress web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who want to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Prior knowledge of basic web development and design is assumed.

  1. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  2. Condom application - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100109.htm Condom application - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  3. Telemetry Applications Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    modulation cps Cycles per second CRC Cyclical redundancy check Telemetry Applications Handbook, RCC 119-06, May 2006 xviii -D- D/A, DAC Digital...code for recording GHz Gigahertz GPS Global Positioning System G/T Gain/noise temperature Telemetry Applications Handbook, RCC 119-06, May 2006 xix...amplitude, and impedance match to subsequent stages in the circuitry of the system. Most signal conditioners consist of resistors, capacitors , and

  4. Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Mohan M.; Gilmore, John F.

    1986-03-01

    Intelligence evolves out of matter, so said the Sankhya philosophers of ancient India. The discipline of artificial intelligence (Al), which was established some 30 years ago, has confirmed the validity of the above assertion. Recently, a number of AI applications have been successfully demonstrated, generating a great deal of excitement and interest in scientific and technical circles. In this special issue of Optical Engineering a representative set of applications that incorporate Al principles is presented.

  5. Mathematical statistics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wackerly, Dennis D; Scheaffer, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    In their bestselling MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS WITH APPLICATIONS, premiere authors Dennis Wackerly, William Mendenhall, and Richard L. Scheaffer present a solid foundation in statistical theory while conveying the relevance and importance of the theory in solving practical problems in the real world. The authors' use of practical applications and excellent exercises helps you discover the nature of statistics and understand its essential role in scientific research.

  6. Spectroradiometric Instruments And Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard A.; Miller, Kenneth A.; Bulpitt, Thomas H.

    1983-10-01

    This paper discusses spectroradiometric instruments and applications. Multiple-detector spectroradiometers and single-detector scanning spectroradiometers are described, with particular emphasis on current state-of-the-art integrated systems. Applications discussed include: color measurement (colorimetry); photometry and colorimetry of cathode-ray-tubes , light-emitting-diodes and other displays; photometry and colorimetry of light sources and flash lamps; and colorimetry of reflective and transmissive materials. Future trends are also discussed.

  7. Industrial Robot Label Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kukasch, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with a project carried out for developing and setting up a robot label applicator system. The requirement was that RFID tracking labels can be applied on flexible positions, without manual effort and rearrangement, via programming. The purpose of the robot label applicator system is to increase the efficiency in production sites, where the RFID label position can change, depending on product or other reasons. New label positions should be programmed easily with a human-m...

  8. Formal groups and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of the theory of formal groups and its numerous applications in several areas of mathematics. The seven chapters of the book present basics and main results of the theory, as well as very important applications in algebraic topology, number theory, and algebraic geometry. Each chapter ends with several pages of historical and bibliographic summary. One prerequisite for reading the book is an introductory graduate algebra course, including certain familiarity with category theory.

  9. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  10. Applications for alliform carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Mochalin, Vadym; McDonough, IV, John Kenneth; Simon, Patrice; Taberna, Pierre Louis

    2017-02-21

    This invention relates to novel applications for alliform carbon, useful in conductors and energy storage devices, including electrical double layer capacitor devices and articles incorporating such conductors and devices. Said alliform carbon particles are in the range of 2 to about 20 percent by weight, relative to the weight of the entire electrode. Said novel applications include supercapacitors and associated electrode devices, batteries, bandages and wound healing, and thin-film devices, including display devices.

  11. Applications of immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyapradha Duraiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC is an important application of monoclonal as well as polyclonal antibodies to determine the tissue distribution of an antigen of interest in health and disease. IHC is widely used for diagnosis of cancers; specific tumor antigens are expressed de novo or up-regulated in certain cancers. This article deals with the various applications of IHC in diagnosis of diseases, with IHC playing an important role in diagnostic and research laboratories.

  12. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  13. Applications of Genetic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Toma, Laura

    1996-01-01

    In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc.......In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc....

  14. Industrial enzyme applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ole; Borchert, Torben Vedel; Fuglsang, Claus Crone

    2002-08-01

    The effective catalytic properties of enzymes have already promoted their introduction into several industrial products and processes. Recent developments in biotechnology, particularly in areas such as protein engineering and directed evolution, have provided important tools for the efficient development of new enzymes. This has resulted in the development of enzymes with improved properties for established technical applications and in the production of new enzymes tailor-made for entirely new areas of application where enzymes have not previously been used.

  15. Technology Applications Team: Applications of aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Applications Team activities over the past quarter are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many individuals to the RTI Technology Applications Team program. The time and effort contributed by managers, engineers, and scientists throughout NASA were essential to program success. Most important to the program has been a productive working relationship with the NASA Field Center Technology Utilization (TU) Offices. The RTI Team continues to strive for improved effectiveness as a resource to these offices. Industry managers, technical staff, medical researchers, and clinicians have been cooperative and open in their participation. The RTI Team looks forward to continuing expansion of its interaction with U.S. industry to facilitate the transfer of aerospace technology to the private sector.

  16. Web application user interface technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pohja, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    The World Wide Web has expanded from a huge information storage repository into a worldwide application platform. Web applications have several benefits compared to desktop applications. An application can be used anywhere from any system and device, which means that only one version is needed, they do not need to be installed and developers can modify running applications. Despite all the benefits of the Web, web applications are suffering because they are developed using the same technologi...

  17. Quality attributes for mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite

    2016-01-01

    A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...

  18. Artificial DNA : methods and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khudyakov, Yury E; Fields, Howard A

    2002-01-01

    ... applications of synthetic oligonucleotideso Covers applications for synthetic DNA in various fields and industrieso Includes historical aspects, comprehensive review, trend analysis, and future developments...

  19. Retirement Applicant Satisfaction Survey Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset contains information about the Retirement Applicant Survey (RAS). The survey measured satisfaction results with the retirement application process. The...

  20. Influence of preparing process on total-dose radiation response of high-k Hf-based gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Zhaorui [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Cheng Xinhong [University of Wenzhou, Xueyuan Road, Wenzhou 325000 (China)], E-mail: xh_cheng@wzu.edu.cn; Zhang Enxia; Xing Yumei; Yu Yuehui; Zhang Zhengxuan; Wang Xi [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen Dashen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    The purpose of this paper is to report some total-dose radiation response experimental results of Hf-based dielectric films including HfON film prepared by ion beam enhanced deposition method (IBAD) and HfO{sub 2} film by ultra high vacuum electron beam evaporation system (UV-EBE). MIS structures with HfON and HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics were irradiated by10 keV X-rays with the dose from 0 to1 x 10{sup 6} rad (Si). Electrical measurement results showed that trap charge density and interface trap charge density of HfON dielectric films are much smaller than HfO{sub 2} dielectric films, and the flatband and midgap voltage shifts in HfON films are also smaller than that in HfO{sub 2} film. AFM and XRD results show that HfON films are smooth and thermal stability even under 800 deg. C high temperature annealing.

  1. Influence of nitrogen element on total-dose radiation response of high-k Hf-based dielectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Zhaorui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)]. E-mail: szr@mail.sim.ac.cn; Cheng Xinhong [Department of Physics, University of Wenzhou, Xueyuan Road, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Zhang Enxia [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xing Yumei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen Qinwo [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Yu Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang Zhengxuan [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang Xi [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen Dashen [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to report some total-dose radiation response experimental results of HfON dielectric films compared with HfO{sub 2} dielectric films, then discuss the influence of the added nitrogen element on total-dose radiation tolerance of HfON and HfO{sub 2} dielectric films. Results of electrical measurements showed that the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the HfON and HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics was 19.67 nm and 8.15 nm, respectively. The MIS structures with HfON and HfO{sub 2} dielectric films were irradiated with 10 keV X-rays. The flatband voltage shifts of HfON MIS structures are much smaller than HfO{sub 2} MIS structures under different total-dose from 0 to 3 x 10{sup 4} Gy(Si)

  2. A simulation-based proposed high-k heterostructure AlGaAs/Si junctionless n-type tunnel FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmukund Rahi, Shiromani; Ghosh, Bahniman; Asthana, Pranav

    2014-11-01

    We propose a heterostructure junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (HJL-TFET) using AlGaAs/Si. In the proposed HJL-TFET, low band gap silicon is used in the source side and higher band gap AlGaAs in the drain side. The whole AlGaAs/Si region is heavily doped n-type. The proposed HJL-TFET uses two isolated gates (named gate, gate1) with two different work functions (gate = 4.2 eV, gate1 = 5.2 eV respectively). The 2-D nature of HJL-TFET current flow is studied. The proposed structure is simulated in Silvaco with different gate dielectric materials. This structure exhibits a high on current in the range of 1.4 × 10-6 A/μm, the off current remains as low as 9.1 × 10-14 A/μm. So ION/IOFF ratio of ≃ 108 is achieved. Point subthreshold swing has also been reduced to a value of ≃ 41 mV/decade for TiO2 gate material.

  3. Comparative study of CNT, silicon nanowire and fullerene embedded multilayer high-k gate dielectric MOS memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Amretashis; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Requejo, Felix G, E-mail: amretashis@gmail.com [INIFTA, Departmento de Quimica and Departmento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC/67-1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-10-12

    Here, we present a comparative theoretical study on stacked (multilayer) gate dielectric MOS memory devices, having a metallic/semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT), silicon nanowire (Si NW) and fullerene (C60) embedded nitride layer acting as a floating gate. Two types of devices, one with HfO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} stack (stack-1) and the other with La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} stack (stack-2) as the tunnel oxide were compared. We evaluated the effective barrier height, the dielectric constant and the effective electron mobility in the composite gate dielectric with the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. Thereafter applying the WKB approximation, we simulated the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunnelling/writing current and the direct tunnelling/leakage current in these devices. We evaluated the I-V characteristics, the charge decay and also the impact of CNT/Si NW aspect ratio and the volume fraction on the effective barrier height and the write voltage, respectively. We also simulated the write time, retention time and the erase time of these MOS devices. Based on the simulation results, it was concluded that the metallic CNT embedded stack-1 device offered the best performance in terms of higher F-N tunnelling current, lower direct tunnelling current and lesser write voltage and write time compared with the other devices. In case of direct tunnelling leakage and retention time it was found that the met CNT embedded stack-2 device showed better characteristics. For erasing, however, the C60 embedded stack-1 device showed the smallest erase time. When compared with earlier reports, it was seen that CNT, C60 and Si NW embedded devices all performed better than nanocrystalline Si embedded MOS non-volatile memories.

  4. Comparative study of CNT, silicon nanowire and fullerene embedded multilayer high-k gate dielectric MOS memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Amretashis; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar; Requejo, Felix G.

    2011-10-01

    Here, we present a comparative theoretical study on stacked (multilayer) gate dielectric MOS memory devices, having a metallic/semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT), silicon nanowire (Si NW) and fullerene (C60) embedded nitride layer acting as a floating gate. Two types of devices, one with HfO2-SiO2 stack (stack-1) and the other with La2O3-SiO2 stack (stack-2) as the tunnel oxide were compared. We evaluated the effective barrier height, the dielectric constant and the effective electron mobility in the composite gate dielectric with the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. Thereafter applying the WKB approximation, we simulated the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunnelling/writing current and the direct tunnelling/leakage current in these devices. We evaluated the I-V characteristics, the charge decay and also the impact of CNT/Si NW aspect ratio and the volume fraction on the effective barrier height and the write voltage, respectively. We also simulated the write time, retention time and the erase time of these MOS devices. Based on the simulation results, it was concluded that the metallic CNT embedded stack-1 device offered the best performance in terms of higher F-N tunnelling current, lower direct tunnelling current and lesser write voltage and write time compared with the other devices. In case of direct tunnelling leakage and retention time it was found that the met CNT embedded stack-2 device showed better characteristics. For erasing, however, the C60 embedded stack-1 device showed the smallest erase time. When compared with earlier reports, it was seen that CNT, C60 and Si NW embedded devices all performed better than nanocrystalline Si embedded MOS non-volatile memories.

  5. Applications of Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Emmanuel C

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different purposes for which the cell microencapsulation technology can be used. These include immunoisolation of non-autologous cells used for cell therapy; immobilization of cells for localized (targeted) delivery of therapeutic products to ablate, repair, or regenerate tissue; simultaneous delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in cell therapy; spatial compartmentalization of cells in complex tissue engineering; expansion of cells in culture; and production of different probiotics and metabolites for industrial applications. For each of these applications, specific examples are provided to illustrate how the microencapsulation technology can be utilized to achieve the purpose. However, successful use of the cell microencapsulation technology for whatever purpose will ultimately depend upon careful consideration for the choice of the encapsulating polymers, the method of fabrication (cross-linking) of the microbeads, which affects the permselectivity, the biocompatibility and the mechanical strength of the microbeads as well as environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, osmotic pressure, and storage solutions.The various applications discussed in this chapter are illustrated in the different chapters of this book and where appropriate relevant images of the microencapsulation products are provided. It is hoped that this outline of the different applications of cell microencapsulation would provide a good platform for tissue engineers, scientists, and clinicians to design novel tissue constructs and products for therapeutic and industrial applications.

  6. Batteries for terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulin, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

  7. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  8. APTASENSORS FOR BIOSECURITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N; Tarasow, T; Tok, J

    2007-01-03

    Nucleic acid aptamers have found steadily increased utility and application steadily over the last decade. In particular, aptamers have been touted as a valuable complement to and in some cases replacement for antibodies due to their structural and functional robustness as well as their ease in generation and synthesis. They are thus attractive for biosecurity applications, e.g. pathogen detection, and are especially well suited since their in vitro generation process does not require infection of any host systems. Herein we provide a brief overview of the aptamers generated against biopathogens over the last few years. In addition, a few recently described detection platforms using aptamers (aptasensors) and potentially suitable for biosecurity applications will be discussed.

  9. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  10. Practical applications of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawn from the second edition of the best-selling Phosphor Handbook, Practical Applications of Phosphors outlines methods for the production of various phosphors and discusses a broad spectrum of applications. Beginning with methods for synthesis and related technologies, the book sets the stage by classifying and then explaining practical phosphors according to usage. It describes the operating principle and structure of phosphor devices and the phosphor characteristics required for a given device, then covers the manufacturing processes and characteristics of phosphors. The book discusses research and development currently under way on phosphors with potential for practical usage and touches briefly on phosphors that have played a historical role, but are no longer of practical use. It provides a comprehensive treatment of applications including lamps and cathode-ray tubes, x-ray and ionizing radiation, and for vacuum fluorescent and field emission displays and covers inorganic and organic electroluminescen...

  11. Recent applications of THERMUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, S.; Hauer, M.

    2011-12-01

    Some of the most recent applications of the statistical-thermal model package, THERMUS, are reviewed. These applications focus on fluctuation and correlation observables in an ideal particle and anti-particle gas in limited momentum space segments, as well as in a hadron resonance gas. In the case of the latter, a Monte Carlo event generator, utilising THERMUS functionality and assuming thermal production of hadrons, is discussed. The system under consideration is sampled grand canonically in the Boltzmann approximation. A re-weighting scheme is then introduced to account for conservation of charges (baryon number, strangeness, electric charge) and energy and momentum, effectively allowing for extrapolation of grand canonical results to the micro canonical limit. The approach utilised in this and other applications suggests improvements to existing THERMUS calculations.

  12. Recent applications of THERMUS

    CERN Document Server

    Wheaton, S

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most recent applications of the statistical-thermal model package, THERMUS, are reviewed. These applications focus on fluctuation and correlation observables in an ideal particle and anti-particle gas in limited momentum space segments, as well as in a hadron resonance gas. In the case of the latter, a Monte Carlo event generator, utilising THERMUS functionality and assuming thermal production of hadrons, is discussed. The system under consideration is sampled grand canonically in the Boltzmann approximation. A re-weighting scheme is then introduced to account for conservation of charges (baryon number, strangeness, electric charge) and energy and momentum, effectively allowing for extrapolation of grand canonical results to the micro canonical limit. The approach utilised in this and other applications suggests improvements to existing THERMUS calculations.

  13. Lie algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...

  14. Applications Of Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lloyd

    1985-08-01

    Over the past several years, considerable progress has been made in the art and science of hologram recording and in the application of this technique to a variety of problems. Commercial display holography at long last appears to be securing a firm footing with the recent success of embossed holography and impressive sales activity in large-scale reflection and rainbow holograms, particularly in Europe and Japan. Technical, scientific, and industrial applications in special optical systems and in metrology have been holography's mainstay for several years, however. This side of holography often does not have the glamour of the display hologram, but the value of holography in a great variety of technical applications is widely recognized, and innovative techniques are being developed at a significant rate.

  15. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  16. Discrete mathematics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koshy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...

  17. Optical application of electrowetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mei; Peng, Runling; Chen, Jiabi

    2017-02-01

    Since electrowetting has been proposed, researchers began to apply eletrowetting into different fields, such as lab-on-chip systems, display technologies, printings and optics etc. This paper mainly introduced structure, theory and application of optical devices based on electrowetting. The optical devices include liquid optical prism, liquid optical lens and display. The paper introduced their principle, specific application and many advantages in optical applications. When they are applied to optical system, production and experiment, they can reduce mechanical moving parts, simplify the structure, operate easily, decrease manufacturing cost and energy consumption, improve working efficiency, and so on. We learn and research them in detail that will contribute to research and develop optical eletrowetting in the future.

  18. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  19. Plasmonics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume summarizes recent theoretical developments in plasmonics and its applications in physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, and medicine. It focuses on recent advances in several major areas of plasmonics including plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies, light scattering, many-body effects, nonlinear optics, and ultrafast dynamics. The theoretical and computational methods used in these investigations include electromagnetic calculations, density functional theory calculations, and nonequilibrium electron dynamics calculations. The book presents a comprehensive overview of these methods as well as their applications to various current problems of interest.

  20. Modular Mobile Application Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also reports on the findings of two rounds of usability testing and the plans for future development of the app.

  1. Laravel application development blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Kiliçdagi, Arda

    2013-01-01

    Follow along as we work together to build 10 different applications using Laravel 4. Since each chapter is devoted to the design of a different application, there is no need to read the book in any particular order. Instead, you can pick and choose the blueprints that are of most interest to you and dive right in.This book is for intermediate to advanced level PHP programmers who want to master Laravel. It's assumed that you will have some experience with PHP already. This book is also for those who are already using a different PHP framework and are looking for better solutions.

  2. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  3. Optimization : insights and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkhuis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This self-contained textbook is an informal introduction to optimization through the use of numerous illustrations and applications. The focus is on analytically solving optimization problems with a finite number of continuous variables. In addition, the authors provide introductions to classical and modern numerical methods of optimization and to dynamic optimization. The book's overarching point is that most problems may be solved by the direct application of the theorems of Fermat, Lagrange, and Weierstrass. The authors show how the intuition for each of the theoretical results can be s

  4. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  5. Nanoelectronic device applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, James E

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world.These include: Nanoscale advance

  6. Medical applications of microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Jan; Lapes, M.

    2004-04-01

    Medical applications of microwaves (i.e. a possibility to use microwave energy and/or microwave technique and technology for therapeutical purposes) are a quite new and a very rapidly developing field. Microwave thermotherapy is being used in medicine for the cancer treatment and treatment of some other diseases since early eighties. In this contribution we would like to offer general overview of present activities in the Czech Republic, i.e. clinical applications and results, technical aspects of thermo therapeutic equipment and last but not least, prospective diagnostics based on microwave principals ant technology and instrumentation.

  7. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  8. Diffusion formalism and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2013-01-01

    Within a unifying framework, Diffusion: Formalism and Applications covers both classical and quantum domains, along with numerous applications. The author explores the more than two centuries-old history of diffusion, expertly weaving together a variety of topics from physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology. The book examines the two distinct paradigms of diffusion-physical and stochastic-introduced by Fourier and Laplace and later unified by Einstein in his groundbreaking work on Brownian motion. The author describes the role of diffusion in probability theory and stochastic calculus and

  9. Tunable laser applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2008-01-01

    Introduction F. J. Duarte Spectroscopic Applications of Tunable Optical Parametric Oscillators B. J. Orr, R. T. White, and Y. He Solid-State Dye Lasers Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre Tunable Lasers Based on Dye-Doped Polymer Gain Media Incorporating Homogeneous Distributions of Functional Nanoparticles F. J. Duarte and R. O. James Broadly Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers F. J. Duarte Tunable Fiber Lasers T. M. Shay and F. J. Duarte Fiber Laser Overview and Medical Applications

  10. Graphs Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a pedagogical and comprehensive introduction to graph theory and its applications. It contains all the standard basic material and develops significant topics and applications, such as: colorings and the timetabling problem, matchings and the optimal assignment problem, and Hamiltonian cycles and the traveling salesman problem, to name but a few. Exercises at various levels are given at the end of each chapter, and a final chapter presents a few general problems with hints for solutions, thus providing the reader with the opportunity to test and refine their knowledge on the

  11. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  12. Developing Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Building applications for the Internet is a complex and fast-moving field which utilizes a variety of continually evolving technologies. Whether your perspective is from the client or server side, there are many languages to master - X(HTML), JavaScript, PHP, XML and CSS to name but a few. These languages have to work together cleanly, logically and in harmony with the systems they run on, and be compatible with any browsers with which they interact. Developing Web Applications presents script writing and good programming practice but also allows students to see how the individual technologi

  13. Engineering Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, Sven; Daniel, Florian; Dolog, Peter

    Nowadays, Web applications are almost omnipresent. The Web has become a platform not only for information delivery, but also for eCommerce systems, social networks, mobile services, and distributed learning environments. Engineering Web applications involves many intrinsic challenges due...... to their distributed nature, content orientation, and the requirement to make them available to a wide spectrum of users who are unknown in advance. The authors discuss these challenges in the context of well-established engineering processes, covering the whole product lifecycle from requirements engineering through...

  14. Galois connections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Erné, M; Wismath, S

    2004-01-01

    This book presents the main ideas of General Galois Theory as a generalization of Classical Galois Theory It sketches the development of Galois connections through the last three centuries Examples of Galois connections as powerful tools in Category Theory and Universal Algebra are given Applications of Galois connections in Linguistic and Data Analysis are presented

  15. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  16. Mobile Agents Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  17. Membrane contactor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a membrane contactor the membrane separation is completely integrated with an extraction or absorption operation in order to exploit the benefits of both technologies fully. Membrane contactor applications that have been developed can be found in both water and gas treatment. Several recently

  18. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  19. Medical applications of colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Matijevic, Egon

    2008-01-01

    The first book of its type on the medical and biomedical applications of colloids, although there are some related titles on different topicsDiscusses the effects of uniform particles in drug formulations and releaseEvaluates particle transport and deposition in the human body.

  20. Magnetism Materials and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Trémolet de Lacheisserie, Étienne; Schlenker, Michel

    2005-01-01

    This book treats permanent magnet (hard) materials, magnetically soft materials for low-frequency applications and for high-frequency electronics, magnetostrictive materials, superconductors, magnetic-thin films and multilayers, and ferrofluids. Chapters are dedicated to magnetic recording, the role of magnetism in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and instrumentation for magnetic measurements.   

  1. Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Segerink, L.I.; Segerink, Loes Irene; Unknown, [Unknown

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the

  2. Business Applications of WAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  3. Clinical Application of Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammell, H. L.; Orr, William

    The scalar electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most important and commonly used clinical tools in medicine. A detailed description of the recordings of cardiac electrical activity made by the ECG is presented, and the vast numbers of uses made with the data provided by this diagnostic tool are cited. Clinical applications of the ECG are listed.…

  4. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  5. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  6. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  7. VCSEL Applications and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Samson; Goorjian, Peter; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Li, Jian-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) simulation and its applications. Details are given on the optical interconnection in information technology of VCSEL, the formulation of the simulation, its numeric algorithm, and the computational results.

  8. Photo management applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.A.; Fonseca, P.M.F.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes basic technology developed for higher-level photo management applications. Based on the visual comparison of photos, distance measures are defined to yield a numerical value indicating how similar (or dissimilar) photos or groups of photos are. This enables a series of

  9. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  10. Knotoids, Braidoids and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Gügümcü

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to the theory of braidoids. Braidoids are geometric objects analogous to classical braids, forming a counterpart theory to the theory of knotoids. We introduce these objects and their topological equivalences, and we conclude with a potential application to the study of proteins.

  11. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  12. Process intensification : Industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter presents process intensification technologies used in industrial applications, for increasing the eco-efficiency of the chemical equipment with the benefit of lower capital costs, substantial energy saving, reduced footprint, and safety by design. The key topics cover compact heat

  13. Microwave synthesis of noncentrosymmetric BaTiO3 truncated nanocubes for charge storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, V; Pramana, Stevin S; White, T J; Chen, L; Chukka, Rami; Ramanujan, R V

    2010-11-01

    Truncated nanocubes of barium titanate (BT) were synthesized using a rapid, facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. Stoichiometric composition of pellets of nanocube BT powders was prepared by two-stage microwave process. Characterization by powder XRD, Rietveld refinement, SEM, TEM, and dielectric and polarization measurements was performed. X-ray diffraction revealed a polymorphic transformation from cubic Pm3̅m to tetragonal P4mm after 15 min of microwave irradiation, arising from titanium displacement along the c-axis. Secondary electron images were examined for nanocube BT synthesis and annealed at different timings. Transmission electron microscopy showed a narrow particle size distribution with an average size of 70 ± 9 nm. The remanence and saturation polarization were 15.5 ± 1.6 and 19.3 ± 1.2 μC/cm(2), respectively. A charge storage density of 925 ± 47 nF/cm(2) was obtained; Pt/BT/Pt multilayer ceramic capacitor stack had an average leakage current density of 5.78 ± 0.46 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at ±2 V. The significance of this study shows an inexpensive and facile processing platform for synthesis of high-k dielectric for charge storage applications.

  14. Effect of insulator layer in graphene plasmonic metamaterials for infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Shimatani, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Graphene is an atomically thin carbon layer with a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice structure and has rich optoelectronic properties well suited to a wide range of applications. Graphene is considered to be a promising material for photodetectors because it exhibits excellent properties such as broadband absorption covering at least the ultraviolet to terahertz frequencies. However, the low optical absorption of graphene, at ca. 2.3%, still remains an important problem. Plasmonic metamaterial structures are good candidates to address this challenge. Metal-insulator-metal-based plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MIM-PMAs) are highly suitable for the introduction and application of graphene. MIM-PMAs have a multilayer structure that includes plasmonic micropatches, an insulator, and a metal reflector layer. MIM-PMAs exhibit wavelength-selective absorption according to the micropatch size. Our previous research has demonstrated that the optical absorption of graphene is enhanced only by the main plasmonic resonance mode, and the plasmonic resonance modes in MIM-MPAs are strongly influenced by the insulator material. Therefore, the insulator layer plays an important role in graphene-coated MIM-PMAs. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the insulator layer in graphene-covered MIM-PMAs. The graphene was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition and transferred onto MIM-PMAs with different insulator thicknesses. Reflectance measurements demonstrated that varying the insulator thickness had a significant effect on the absorbance of graphene and resulted in modulation of the absorption wavelength. These results indicate that the plasmonic resonance localized at graphene near the plasmonic micropatches is modulated by the waveguide mode in the insulator layer. We believe that the present study will lead to significant improvements in graphene-based infrared detectors.

  15. Remifentanil: applications in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Mineto; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    Remifentanil is a synthetic opioid derivative that was introduced into clinical practice in the United States in 1996. The unique modification of its chemical structure to include a methyl-ester ring allows its hydrolysis by non-specific plasma and tissue esterases. This molecular configuration results in its rapid metabolism thereby providing a rapid onset, easy titration by continuous infusion, and a short context-sensitive half-life with rapid elimination. These principles are stable and consistent across all age groups regardless of the infusion characteristics. Owing to these pharmacokinetic characteristics, it is an effective agent in the neonatal population allowing the provision of intense analgesia and anesthesia with a rapid recovery profile in various clinical scenarios. Here, we review the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in neonates, discuss its clinical applications including intraoperative administration for anesthetic care, unique applications for procedural sedation including endotracheal intubation, and its potential use for sedation in the Intensive Care Unit setting during mechanical ventilation.

  16. Biophotonics concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce senior-level and postgraduate students to the principles and applications of biophotonics. It also will serve well as a working reference to practicing physicians, clinicians, biomedical researchers, and biomedical engineers dealing with photonics-based tools and instruments. The book topics include the fundamentals of optics and photonics, the optical properties of biological tissues, various types of light-tissue interactions, microscopy for visualizing tissue components, spectroscopy for optically analyzing the properties of healthy and diseased tissue, and optical biomedical imaging. The tools and techniques described in the book include laser and LED optical sources, photodetectors, optical fibers, bioluminescent probes for labeling cells, optical-based biosensors, nanophotonics, surface plasmon resonance, and lab-on-a-chip technologies. Among the applications are optical coherence tomography (OCT), flow cytometery, photodynamic therapy (PDT), low-level light therapy (L...

  17. Metagraphs and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The graph is a critical and useful concept in designing many information processing systems. Systems such as transaction processing systems, decision support systems, and workflow systems are all helped immensely by a graphical structure. Simple graphs and digraphs allow for the construction of a variety of system design tools that provide a convenient and appealing format for illustrating information infrastructures, while allowing any subsequent analyses to be performed by the user. However, the metagraph, a new graphical structure that is developed in this book, goes beyond the representational and provides Information Systems with a robust, analytical modeling graphic tool. METAGRAPHS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS is a presentation of metagraph theory and its applications that begins by defining a metagraph and its uses. They are more complex than a simple graph structure, but they allow for representation and analysis of more complex systems. The material contained in this book is presented in two parts. The fi...

  18. Quality Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2013-01-01

    Quality control is a constant priority in electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, and nuclear engineering – as well as in the vast domain of electronics, from home appliances to computers and telecommunications. Quality Control Applications provides guidance and valuable insight into quality control policies; their methods, their implementation, constant observation and associated technical audits. What has previously been a mostly mathematical topic is translated here for engineers concerned with the practical implementation of quality control. Once the fundamentals of quality control are established, Quality Control Applications goes on to develop this knowledge and explain how to apply it in the most effective way. Techniques are described and supported using relevant, real-life, case studies to provide detail and clarity for those without a mathematical background. Among the many practical examples, two case studies dramatize the importance of quality assurance: A shot-by-shot analysis of the errors made ...

  19. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  20. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  1. Superconductivity fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    This is the second English edition of what has become one of the definitive works on superconductivity in German -- currently in its sixth edition. Comprehensive and easy to understand, this introductory text is written especially with the non-specialist in mind. The authors, both long-term experts in this field, present the fundamental considerations without the need for extensive mathematics, describing the various phenomena connected with the superconducting state, with liberal insertion of experimental facts and examples for modern applications. While all fields of superconducting phenomena are dealt with in detail, this new edition pays particular attention to the groundbreaking discovery of magnesium diboride and the current developments in this field. In addition, a new chapter provides an overview of the elements, alloys and compounds where superconductivity has been observed in experiments, together with their major characteristics. The chapter on technical applications has been considerably expanded...

  2. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  3. Quantum mechanics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beard, David B

    2014-01-01

    This introductory text emphasizes Feynman's development of path integrals and its application to wave theory for particles. Suitable for undergraduate and graduate students of physics, the well-written, clear, and rigorous text was written by two of the nation's leading authorities on quantum physics. A solid foundation in quantum mechanics and atomic physics is assumed. Early chapters provide background in the mathematical treatment and particular properties of ordinary wave motion that also apply to particle motion. The close relation of quantum theory to physical optics is stressed. Subsequent sections emphasize the physical consequences of a wave theory of material properties, and they offer extensive applications in atomic physics, nuclear physics, solid state physics, and diatomic molecules. Four helpful Appendixes supplement the text.

  4. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  5. Laravel application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Matula, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.A short and precise guide to get you started with EaselJS , helping you to create some cool applications and games.EaselJS greatly simplifies application development in HTML5 Canvas using a syntax and an architecture very similar to the ActionScript 3.0 language. As a result, Flash / Flex developers will immediately feel at home but it's very easy to learn even if you've never opened Flash in your life. The book targets Web designers, animators,

  6. Nattokinase: production and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Fatemeh; Negahdaripour, Manica; Berenjian, Aydin; Behfar, Abdolazim; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Irajie, Cambyz; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-11-01

    Nattokinase (NK, also known as subtilisin NAT) (EC 3.4.21.62) is one of the most considerable extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis natto. The main interest about this enzyme is due to its direct fibrinolytic activity. Being stable enough in the gastrointestinal tract makes this enzyme a useful agent for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Thus, NK is regarded as a valuable dietary supplement or nutraceutical. Proven safety and ease of mass production are other advantages of this enzyme. In addition to these valuable advantages, there are other applications attributed to NK including treatment of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and vitreoretinal disorders. This review tends to bring a brief description about this valuable enzyme and summarizes the various biotechnological approaches used in its production, recovery, and purification. Some of the most important applications of NK, as well as its future prospects, are also discussed.

  7. Multifractals theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harte, David

    2001-01-01

    Although multifractals are rooted in probability, much of the related literature comes from the physics and mathematics arena. Multifractals: Theory and Applications pulls together ideas from both these areas using a language that makes them accessible and useful to statistical scientists. It provides a framework, in particular, for the evaluation of statistical properties of estimates of the Renyi fractal dimensions.The first section provides introductory material and different definitions of a multifractal measure. The author then examines some of the various constructions for describing multifractal measures. Building from the theory of large deviations, he focuses on constructions based on lattice coverings, covering by point-centered spheres, and cascades processes. The final section presents estimators of Renyi dimensions of integer order two and greater and discusses their properties. It also explores various applications of dimension estimation and provides a detailed case study of spatial point patte...

  8. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  9. Nanotechnology applications in osteodistraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Singleton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most current strategies for bone regeneration have relatively satisfactory results. However, there are drawbacks and limitations associated with their use and availability, and even controversial reports about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The induction of new bone formation through distraction osteogenesis (DO is widespread clinical application in the treatment of bone defects, limb deformities, and fracture nonunions. However, a lengthy period of external fixation is usually needed to allow the new bone to consolidate, and complications such as refracture at the distraction gap often occur. Although various biomaterials have been used as injectable delivery systems in DO models, little has been reported on the use of nanobiomaterials as carrier materials for the sustained release of growth factors in bone regeneration. One area of focus in nanotechnology is the delivery of osteogenic factors in an attempt to modulate the formation of bone. This review article seeks to demonstrate the potential of nanobiomaterials to improve biological applications pertinent to osteodistraction.

  10. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs. With the gr......Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs...... suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used...

  11. Information Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan; International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011 will be held on October 21-24, 2011, in Chongqing, China. It is organized by Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Nanyang Technological University, the University of Michigan, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, and sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The objective of IEA 2011 is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of information engineering and intelligence applications, which mainly includes computer science and engineering, informatics, communications and control, electrical engineering, information computing, business intelligence and management. IEA 2011 will provide a forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges, social and economic issues, and to present and disc...

  12. Advanced Welding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  13. Nanotechnology and cancer applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gökdeniz, Mehmet; Akbaba, Muhsin; Nazlıcan, Ersin

    2018-01-01

    Applicationsof nanotechnology in various disciplines of medicine particularly cancer careare becoming increasingly popular so much so that the process of replacingtraditional health‑care by nanomedicine had already begun. Nanomedicine focuseson the formulations of imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic agents, which can becarried by biocompatible nanoparticles, for the purpose of cancer/ diseasemanagement.Common nanomaterials and devices applicable in cancer medicine are liposomes,polymeric‑mice...

  14. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  15. Personal Network (PN) Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Skouby, K.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  16. Personal network (PN) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  17. Android application security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, Pragati

    2013-01-01

    Android Application Security Essentials is packed with examples, screenshots, illustrations, and real world use cases to secure your apps the right way.If you are looking for guidance and detailed instructions on how to secure app data, then this book is for you. Developers, architects, managers, and technologists who wish to enhance their knowledge of Android security will find this book interesting. Some prior knowledge of development on the Android stack is desirable but not required.

  18. Biomaterials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reza Rezaie, Hamid; Öchsner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This short book presents an overview of different types of biomaterial such as bio ceramics, bio polymers, metals and bio composites, while especially focusing on nano biomaterials and their applications in different tissues. It provides a compact introduction to nano materials for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and implants, while also reviewing essential trends in the biomaterial field over the last few decades and the latest developments.

  19. Optimization algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Choose the Correct Solution Method for Your Optimization ProblemOptimization: Algorithms and Applications presents a variety of solution techniques for optimization problems, emphasizing concepts rather than rigorous mathematical details and proofs. The book covers both gradient and stochastic methods as solution techniques for unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It discusses the conjugate gradient method, Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm, Powell method, penalty function, augmented Lagrange multiplier method, sequential quadratic programming, method of feasible direc

  20. Graph theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasudev, C

    2006-01-01

    Salient Features Over 1500 problems are used to illustrate concepts, related to different topics, and introduce applications. Over 1000 exercises in the text with many different types of questions posed. Precise mathematical language is used without excessive formalism and abstraction. Care has been taken to balance the mix of notation and words in mathematical statements. Problem sets are stated clearly and unambiguously, and all are carefully graded for various levels of difficulty. This text has been carefully designed for flexible use.

  1. Applications of membrane computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; Păun, Gheorghe

    2006-01-01

    Membrane computing is a branch of natural computing which investigates computing models abstracted from the structure and functioning of living cells and from their interactions in tissues or higher-order biological structures. The models considered, called membrane systems (P systems), are parallel, distributed computing models, processing multisets of symbols in cell-like compartmental architectures. In many applications membrane systems have considerable advantages - among these are their inherently discrete nature, parallelism, transparency, scalability and nondeterminism. In dedicated cha

  2. ARM for Platform Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  3. [Cardiac CT: new applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti-Rossi, D; Baron, N; Allouch, P; Convers, R; Gibault-Genty, G; Aubert, S

    2014-11-01

    Since the introduction of the 64-generation scanners, the accuracy and robustness of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease has progressed. The main advantage of cardiac CT is the exclusion of coronary artery disease by its excellent negative predictive value. Currently, cardiac CT applications extend thanks to innovations both in terms of technological development systems scanner or stents implanted, that the evolution of surgical procedures such as TAVI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Iontophoresis: principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Krueger

    Full Text Available Introduction Iontophoresis is a noninvasive technique used to increase transdermal penetration of substances through the skin layer (epidermis, dermis and hypodermis in a controlled manner. Technological advance in recent decades have provided reduced cost of equipment needed for implementation, which allowed for the expansion of this technique. Objective The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art on iontophoresis, ranging from the atomic characteristics of the ion formation to the current applications of the technique. Methods Were researched papers from databases: IOP publishing, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, Springer, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar and books with keywords iontophoresis, ions, topical applications between 1967 and 2010. Results Were selected (number of papers and database 1 IOP Publishing, 1 from ScienceDirect, Central, 1 from Springer, 2 from PubMed, 11 from IEEE Xplore, 35 from Google Scholar, and 15 books, totaling 66 references and websites with nationally marketed electrotherapy products. Conclusion Iontophoresis is suitable for applications such as acetic acid (calcific tendinitis and myositis ossificans, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate (control of musculoskeletal spasms, dexamethasone (inflammation, lidocaine (inflammation of soft tissues, zinc oxide (rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used in cosmetic applications with devices attached to the skin and for eye treatment aimed at specific tissues of the eye, providing a treatment option for various eye diseases, reducing the complications secondary to traditional methods of treatment. The advantages are the significant increase in the release and control of therapeutic agents, including drugs with high molecular weight. The disadvantages of iontophoresis are the complexity of the drug release system and prolonged exposure of the skin to an electrical current.

  5. Dental Applications of Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Bhat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermography is a technique which utilizes imaging and visual evaluation of the thermal changes. The amount of blood circulation varies at different layers of the skin and hence, there is a change in temperature accordingly. This is the basis behind the principle of thermography. This technique is utilized in diagnostics. In this review article, we have made an attempt to highlight the applications of thermography in dentistry. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 84-96

  6. Homomorphic encryption and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental concepts of homomorphic encryption. From these foundations, applications are developed in the fields of private information retrieval, private searching on streaming data, privacy-preserving data mining, electronic voting and cloud computing. The content is presented in an instructional and practical style, with concrete examples to enhance the reader's understanding. This volume achieves a balance between the theoretical and the practical components of modern information security. Readers will learn key principles of homomorphic encryption as well as their

  7. Neural network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Mary L.; Desai, Utpal; Roppel, T.A.; White, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    A design procedure is suggested for neural networks which accommodates the inclusion of such knowledge-based systems techniques as fuzzy logic and pairwise comparisons. The use of these procedures in the design of applications combines qualitative and quantitative factors with empirical data to yield a model with justifiable design and parameter selection procedures. The procedure is especially relevant to areas of back-propagation neural network design which are highly responsive to the use of precisely recorded expert knowledge.

  8. Bayesian theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dellaportas, Petros; Polson, Nicholas G; Stephens, David A

    2013-01-01

    The development of hierarchical models and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques forms one of the most profound advances in Bayesian analysis since the 1970s and provides the basis for advances in virtually all areas of applied and theoretical Bayesian statistics. This volume guides the reader along a statistical journey that begins with the basic structure of Bayesian theory, and then provides details on most of the past and present advances in this field. The book has a unique format. There is an explanatory chapter devoted to each conceptual advance followed by journal-style chapters that provide applications or further advances on the concept. Thus, the volume is both a textbook and a compendium of papers covering a vast range of topics. It is appropriate for a well-informed novice interested in understanding the basic approach, methods and recent applications. Because of its advanced chapters and recent work, it is also appropriate for a more mature reader interested in recent applications and devel...

  9. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  10. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. IMS applications analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  12. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  13. [The applicability of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-León, I

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate aim of the critical reading of medical literature is to use the scientific advances in clinical practice or for innovation. This requires an evaluation of the applicability of the results of the studies that have been published, which begins with a clear understanding of these results. When the studies do not provide sufficient guarantees of rigor in design and analysis, the conditions necessary for the applicability of the results are not met; however, the fact that the results are reliable is not enough to make it worth trying to use their conclusions. This article explains how carrying out studies in experimental or artificial conditions often moves them away from the real conditions in which they claim to apply their conclusions. To evaluate this applicability, the article proposes evaluating a set of items that will enable the reader to determine the likelihood that the benefits and risks reported in the studies will yield the least uncertainty in the clinical arena where they aim to be applied. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  15. Applications of nuclear physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  16. Comparing Web Applications with Desktop Applications: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, many desktop applications have been ported to the world wide web in order to reduce (multiplatform) development, distribution and maintenance costs. However, there is little data concerning the usability of web applications, and the impact of their usability on the total cost of developing and using such applications. In this paper we present a comparison of web and desktop applications from the usability point of view. The comparison is based on an empirical study that inves...

  17. Applicant Perspectives on the Otolaryngology Residency Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-09

    20/applicant - 2014 Chrostophen and Levine- 45/applicant Background • 2016 Application- Program-specific paragraph requirement • But the...Before and After the Paragraph Requirement 50 45 40 35 o’ ~o .. J 111 L... Ill l:J 15 c - 0 a. ~ 20 tOC II Unte11ded D Actual ង 21-30

  18. Laser Ablation for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichi

    Medical applications of laser are measurement, laser surgery, in-situ monitoring, and processing of medical devices. In this paper, author briefly reviews the trends of medical applications, describes some new applications, and then discuss about the future trends and problems of medical applications. At present, the domestic market of laser equipment for medical applications is nearly 1/10 of that for industrial applications, which has registered significant growth continuously. Laser surgery as a minimum invasive surgery under arthroscope is expected to decrease the pain of patients. Precise processing such as cutting and welding is suitable for manufacturing medical devices. Pulsed laser deposition has been successfully applied to the thin film coating. The corneal refractive surgery by ArF excimer laser has been widely accepted for its highly safe operation. Laser ablation for retinal implant in the visual prosthesis is one of the promising applications of laser ablation in medicine. New applications with femtosecond laser are expected in the near future.

  19. Android application development with Maven

    CERN Document Server

    Papapetrou, Patroklos

    2015-01-01

    Android Application Development with Maven is intended for Android developers or devops engineers who want to use Maven to effectively develop quality Android applications. It would be helpful, but not necessary, if you have some previous experience with Maven.

  20. Finite mathematics models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Features step-by-step examples based on actual data and connects fundamental mathematical modeling skills and decision making concepts to everyday applicability Featuring key linear programming, matrix, and probability concepts, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications emphasizes cross-disciplinary applications that relate mathematics to everyday life. The book provides a unique combination of practical mathematical applications to illustrate the wide use of mathematics in fields ranging from business, economics, finance, management, operations research, and the life and social sciences.

  1. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  2. Biomedical applications of nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J M; Gwak, J W; Kamarajan, P; Fenno, J C; Rickard, A H; Kapila, Y L

    2016-06-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by a group of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to Lactococcus and Streptococcus species. Nisin is classified as a Type A (I) lantibiotic that is synthesized from mRNA and the translated peptide contains several unusual amino acids due to post-translational modifications. Over the past few decades, nisin has been used widely as a food biopreservative. Since then, many natural and genetically modified variants of nisin have been identified and studied for their unique antimicrobial properties. Nisin is FDA approved and generally regarded as a safe peptide with recognized potential for clinical use. Over the past two decades the application of nisin has been extended to biomedical fields. Studies have reported that nisin can prevent the growth of drug-resistant bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococci and Clostridium difficile. Nisin has now been shown to have antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative disease-associated pathogens. Nisin has been reported to have anti-biofilm properties and can work synergistically in combination with conventional therapeutic drugs. In addition, like host-defence peptides, nisin may activate the adaptive immune response and have an immunomodulatory role. Increasing evidence indicates that nisin can influence the growth of tumours and exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Collectively, the application of nisin has advanced beyond its role as a food biopreservative. Thus, this review will describe and compare studies on nisin and provide insight into its future biomedical applications. © 2015 The Authors. published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Medical Professionals and Smartphone Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunagiri, Varun; Parimala, M; Ragumani, P; Anbalagan, Kothai

    2017-06-01

    Ever since the advent of Smartphones, Smartphone applications (SAs) are revolutionizing the contemporary medicine. Smartphone application which was created in view of swift communications among the general public has now intruded the medical fraternity. But the ethics for using these applications to transfer patients' medical records through SA is bewildering among the medical professionals (MPs).

  4. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  5. Optimization Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, H Ronald

    2011-01-01

    A thorough and highly accessible resource for analysts in a broad range of social sciences. Optimization: Foundations and Applications presents a series of approaches to the challenges faced by analysts who must find the best way to accomplish particular objectives, usually with the added complication of constraints on the available choices. Award-winning educator Ronald E. Miller provides detailed coverage of both classical, calculus-based approaches and newer, computer-based iterative methods. Dr. Miller lays a solid foundation for both linear and nonlinear models and quickly moves on to dis

  6. Shopify application development

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is an easy-to follow manual that will guide you through the entire process of application development with Shopify, beginning with the installation and configuration of your local development environment for your app to the deployment of the app to Heroku. If you are a web developer or a designer who wants to extend Shopify stores by building apps, then this book is for you. A basic understanding of programming concepts and some familiarity with Shopify is all that is required to get started with Shopify app development.

  7. Mesotherapy: cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Jill; Botts, Kayla; Rine, Lesley; Kato, Danielle; Pollock, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Mesotherapy, which has been compared to the anti-wrinkle injection Botox, has only recently become popular in the United States for providing body contouring and spot weight loss. Most adverse reactions associated with mesotherapy are mild and transient, and supporters of the procedure consider it a safer alternative to liposuction. Mainly owing to the absence of safety and efficacy data pertaining to mesotherapy, liposuction is currently the only method for fat removal that is endorsed by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons . Although mesotherapy has been used as a treatment for pain syndromes, arthritis, and many other disorders, this article focuses on its cosmetic applications.

  8. Nonextensive entropy interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    A great variety of complex phenomena in many scientific fields exhibit power-law behavior, reflecting a hierarchical or fractal structure. Many of these phenomena seem to be susceptible to description using approaches drawn from thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, particularly approaches involving the maximization of entropy and of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics and standard laws in a natural way. The book addresses the interdisciplinary applications of these ideas, and also on various phenomena that could possibly be quantitatively describable in terms of these ideas.

  9. Rich Internet Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Farré López, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    El propósito principal de este proyecto es estudiar el origen y funcionamiento de las Rich Internet Applicacions (RIA), que son un nuevo tipo de aplicaciones mucho más óptimas e impactantes que las tradicionales aplicaciones Web. Para llevarlo a cabo primero se ha definido el concepto de aplicación Web y se han expuesto las limitaciones que tienen. El siguiente paso ha sido definir el concepto de Rich Internet Applications y se han listado los objetivos por los que han sido ...

  10. Heroku cloud application development

    CERN Document Server

    Hanjura, Anubhav

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, hands-on guide that clearly explains the various components of the Heroku platform and provides step-by-step guidance as well as numerous examples on how to build and troubleshoot robust and scalable production-ready web applications on the Heroku platform.This book is intended for those who want to learn Heroku the right way. Perhaps you are new to Heroku or are someone who has heard about Heroku but have not built anything significant with it. You should have knowledge or familiarity with cloud computing and basic knowledge of database and network deployment.

  11. Android Studio application development

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, Belén Cruz

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide, which will show you how to create Android applications using the new Google official IDE, Android Studio.If you are a developer who wants to learn the key features of Android Studio, and learn how to create their first app, this book is ideal for you! Developers interested in this book should be familiar with the object- oriented programming paradigm, and the Java programming language. It is also recommended that you understand the main characteristics of the Android mobile system.

  12. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given.

  13. Model theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Belegradek, OV

    1999-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers on model theory and its applications. The longest paper, "Model Theory of Unitriangular Groups" by O. V. Belegradek, forms a subtle general theory behind Mal‴tsev's famous correspondence between rings and groups. This is the first published paper on the topic. Given the present model-theoretic interest in algebraic groups, Belegradek's work is of particular interest to logicians and algebraists. The rest of the collection consists of papers on various questions of model theory, mainly on stability theory. Contributors are leading Russian researchers in the

  14. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  15. Web Application Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As modern browsers become more powerful with rich features, building full-blown web applications in JavaScript is not only feasible, but increasingly popular. Based on trends on HTTP Archive, deployed JavaScript code size has grown 45% over the course of the year. MVC offers architectural benefits over standard JavaScript — it helps you write better organized, and therefore more maintainable code. This pattern has been used and extensively tested over multiple languages and generations of programmers. It's no coincidence that many of the most popular web programming frameworks also encapsulate MVC principles: Django, Ruby on Rails, CakePHP, Struts, or Laravell.

  16. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise......Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...

  17. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  18. Product Licenses Database Application

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkovikj, Petar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to organize and centralize the data about software tools available to CERN employees, as well as provide a system that would simplify the license management process by providing information about the available licenses and their expiry dates. The project development process is consisted of two steps: modeling the products (software tools), product licenses, legal agreements and other data related to these entities in a relational database and developing the front-end user interface so that the user can interact with the database. The result is an ASP.NET MVC web application with interactive views for displaying and managing the data in the underlying database.

  19. Application testing with Capybara

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Start performing integration testing with Capybara immediately. This book will get you up and running quickly and assumes no knowledge or experience of the technology.This book is for developers and testers who have had some exposure to Ruby but who want to know how to test their applications using Capybara and its compatible drivers, such as Selenium-Webdriver and Rack-Test. The examples are deliberately kept simple and example HTML mark-up is always included so that you can copy the examples to practice and experiment on your own machine.

  20. Microsystems for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Palán

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in microsystems technologies make them suitable for the space research and development due to their low volume, low mass, low power consumption, leading to reduced mission cost. The most interesting approach is using standard technologies with additional post-processing steps to realize sensors and actuators together with signal processing circuits. This paper summarises some aspects and difficulties of the space environment. The radiation effects in space are described and damage on CMOS structures are explained. Design methodologies for hardening microsystems and MOS based circuits against these effects are presented. Some examples of microsystems examples for space applications fabricated by researches world-wide are given.

  1. Prospective bonding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

    1981-07-01

    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  2. Cold regions isotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)

  3. Games, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, L C

    2011-01-01

    Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition

  4. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  5. Application software profiles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    This article presented information on new software applications designed to facilitate petroleum exploration, drilling and production activities. Computer modelling and analysis enables oil and gas producers to characterize reservoirs, estimate reserves forecast production, plan operations and manage assets. Seven Calgary-based organizations were highlighted along with their sophisticated software tools, the applications and the new features available in each product. The geoSCOUT version 7.7 by GeoLOGIC Systems Ltd. integrates public and proprietary data on wells, well logs, reserves, pipelines, production, ownership and seismic location data. The Value Navigator and AFE Navigator by Energy Navigator provides control over reserves, production and cash flow forecasting. FAST Harmony, FAST Evolution, FAST CBM, FAST FieldNotes, Fast Piper, FAST RTA, FAST VirtuWell and FAST WellTest by Fekete Associates Inc. provide reserve evaluations for reservoir engineering projects and production data analysis. The esi.manage software program by 3esi improves business results for upstream oil and gas companies through enhanced decision making and workforce effectiveness. WELLFLO, PIPEFLO, FORGAS, OLGA, Drillbench, and MEPO wellbore solutions by Neotec provide unique platforms for flow simulation to optimize oil and gas production systems. Petrel, ECLIPSE, Avocet, PipeSim and Merak software tools by Schlumberger Information Solutions are petroleum systems modelling tools for geologic mapping, visualization modelling and reservoir engineering. StudioSL by Streamsim Technologies Inc. is a modelling tool for optimizing flood management. figs.

  6. Microneedles and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Vishal; Banga, Ajay K

    2011-05-01

    Microneedle mediated microporation has proved its potential to enhance the delivery of therapeutic drug molecules through skin over the last one decade. Several patents have been granted and cutting edge research is going on particularly for the delivery of biopharmaceuticals (macromolecules like protein or peptides). The technology involves use of micron sized needles made of diverse materials to form microchannels into the stratum corneum (or deeper), outermost barrier layer of the skin. These microchannels are deep enough to facilitate efficient drug delivery through disrupted stratum corneum but short enough to avoid bleeding or pain. So far, the microneedle technology has been explored for drug and vaccine delivery through transcutaneous route. However, the miniaturized nature of these microneedles and anticipated minimal invasiveness has led the scientists to explore and patent its possible use for several other applications.The use of this technology in combination with other enhancement techniques has also gained recent attention. This review article focuses on the latest developments in the field of microneedles as described in patent and research literature. Comprehensive review of several topics including device design/fabrication, formulation development, safety/regulatory issues, therapeutic applications and major challenges in the commercialization of microneedles as medical devices has been presented here.

  7. Environmental applications for biosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Catherine N. [Department Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard W., Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)]. E-mail: mulligan@civil.concordia.ca

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties. - More information is needed to be able to predict and model the behaviour of biosurfactants.

  8. Medicinal applications of fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Rania; Vallant, Rainer M; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Szabo, Zoltan; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2007-01-01

    Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of science since their discovery in 1985. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising information. It is inferred that size, hydrophobicity, three-dimensionality and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization make them a potential therapeutic agent. The study of biological applications has attracted increasing attention despite the low solubility of carbon spheres in physiological media. The fullerene family, and especially C60, has appealing photo, electrochemical and physical properties, which can be exploited in various medical fields. Fullerene is able to fit inside the hydrophobic cavity of HIV proteases, inhibiting the access of substrates to the catalytic site of enzyme. It can be used as radical scavenger and antioxidant. At the same time, if exposed to light, fullerene can produce singlet oxygen in high quantum yields. This action, together with direct electron transfer from excited state of fullerene and DNA bases, can be used to cleave DNA. In addition, fullerenes have been used as a carrier for gene and drug delivery systems. Also they are used for serum protein profiling as MELDI material for biomarker discovery. In this review we report the aspects of medicinal applications of fullerenes. PMID:18203430

  9. Medicinal applications of fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Rania; Vallant, Rainer M; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Szabo, Zoltan; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2007-01-01

    Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of science since their discovery in 1985. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising information. It is inferred that size, hydrophobicity, three-dimensionality and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization make them a potential therapeutic agent. The study of biological applications has attracted increasing attention despite the low solubility of carbon spheres in physiological media. The fullerene family, and especially C60, has appealing photo, electrochemical and physical properties, which can be exploited in various medical fields. Fullerene is able to fit inside the hydrophobic cavity of HIV proteases, inhibiting the access of substrates to the catalytic site of enzyme. It can be used as radical scavenger and antioxidant. At the same time, if exposed to light, fullerene can produce singlet oxygen in high quantum yields. This action, together with direct electron transfer from excited state of fullerene and DNA bases, can be used to cleave DNA. In addition, fullerenes have been used as a carrier for gene and drug delivery systems. Also they are used for serum protein profiling as MELDI material for biomarker discovery. In this review we report the aspects of medicinal applications of fullerenes.

  10. Metagenomics and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Rafati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteria are a group of microorganisms which in contrast to their diversity in nature, only very few of them can be grown and isolated in the current standard laboratories. Metagenomics as a new field of research, during the last decade has worked on clarification of the genomes of the non-cultured microbes and researchers around the world with serious study of this group of bacteria, looking for new compounds such as new antibiotics, anti-cancer agents, new enzymes and biomolecules. Methods: This article is reviews study which with study of Texts and Internet and handy browsing of key words from reliable scientific resources and sites amongst: Google Scholar, Pub med, Science direct, Sid and Scopus in the years 2000 to 2013 were collected and studied. Results: The data collection instrument in the study includes all printed metagenomics related texts. Although, nowadays metagenomics is used to screen samples but now as a perfect technique beside the medium application and other traditional techniques will have better position. The highest usage of metagenomics is in clinical cases where with conventional techniques can't be discovered microbial reasons. So for tests and analyze information need to skilled scientists. Conclusion: This paper focuses on some of the latest achievements of Metagenomics and its application in new drugs, detection of enzymes, potential of biotechnology and environment.

  11. Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes

    CERN Document Server

    Zehoo, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes provides an example-based approach to learning Application Express - the ground-breaking, rapid application development platform included with every Oracle Database license. The recipes format is ideal for the quick-study who just wants a good example or two to kick start their thinking and get pointed in the right direction. The recipes cover the gamut of Application Express development. Author and Application Express expert Edmund Zehoo shows how to create data entry screens, visualize data in the form of reports and charts, implement validation and back-

  12. Ultrabroadband spectroscopy for security applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Sunniva; Berge, Luc; Skupin, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrabroadband spectroscopy is a promising novel approach to overcome two major hurdles which have so far limited the application of THz spectroscopy for security applications: the increased bandwidth enables to record several characteristic spectroscopic features and the technique allows for rem...... evaluation of the technique for defense and civil security applications.......Ultrabroadband spectroscopy is a promising novel approach to overcome two major hurdles which have so far limited the application of THz spectroscopy for security applications: the increased bandwidth enables to record several characteristic spectroscopic features and the technique allows...

  13. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  14. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  15. Comparing Web Applications with Desktop Applications: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, many desktop applications have been ported to the world wide web in order to reduce (multiplatform) development, distribution and maintenance costs. However, there is little data concerning the usability of web applications, and the impact of their usability on the total cost...... of developing and using such applications. In this paper we present a comparison of web and desktop applications from the usability point of view. The comparison is based on an empirical study that investigates the performance of a group of users on two calendaring applications: Yahoo!Calendar and Microsoft...... Calendar. The study shows that in the case of web applications the performance of the users is significantly reduced, mainly because of the restricted interaction mechanisms provided by current web browsers....

  16. Increased Productivity for Emerging Grid Applications the Application Support System

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Andrew; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Moscicki, Jakub; Lamanna, Massimo; Muraru, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Recently a growing number of various applications have been quickly and successfully enabled on the Grid by the CERN Grid application support team. This allowed the applications to achieve and publish large-scale results in a short time which otherwise would not be possible. We present the general infrastructure, support procedures and tools that have been developed. We discuss the general patterns observed in supporting new applications and porting them to the EGEE environment. The CERN Grid application support team has been working with the following real-life applications: medical and particle physics simulation (Geant4, Garfield), satellite imaging and geographic information for humanitarian relief operations (UNOSAT), telecommunications (ITU), theoretical physics (Lattice QCD, Feynman-loop evaluation), Bio-informatics (Avian Flu Data Challenge), commercial imaging processing and classification (Imense Ltd.) and physics experiments (ATLAS, LHCb, HARP). Using the EGEE Grid we created a standard infrastruct...

  17. Best matching theory & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...

  18. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  19. Web Platform Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsworth, Ashley [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States); Kurtz, Jim [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States); Brun de Pontet, Stephanie [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Sunvestment Energy Group (previously called Sunvestment Group) was established to create a web application that brings together site hosts, those who will obtain the energy from the solar array, with project developers and funders, including affinity investors. Sunvestment Energy Group (SEG) uses a community-based model that engages with investors who have some affinity with the site host organization. In addition to a financial return, these investors receive non-financial value from their investments and are therefore willing to offer lower cost capital. This enables the site host to enjoy more savings from solar through these less expensive Community Power Purchase Agreements (CPPAs). The purpose of this award was to develop an online platform to bring site hosts and investors together virtually.

  20. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  1. Information science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings volume provides a snapshot of the latest issues encountered in technical convergence and convergences of security technology.  It explores how information science is core to most current research, industrial and commercial activities and consists of contributions covering topics including Ubiquitous Computing, Networks and Information Systems, Multimedia and Visualization, Middleware and Operating Systems, Security and Privacy, Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence, Software Engineering, and Web Technology.   The proceedings introduce the most recent information technology and ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, illustrated through case studies, and reviews converging existing security techniques.  Through this volume, readers will gain an understanding of the current state-of-the-art in information strategies and technologies of convergence security. The intended readership are researchers in academia, industry, and other research institutes focusing on ...

  2. THz and Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sizov, Fedir; Detectors, Sources and Associated Electronics for THz Applications

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited papers from highly experienced researchers in THz technology and security applications. THz detection of explosives represents one of the most appealing technologies to have recently emerged in dealing with terrorist attacks encountered by civil security and military forces throughout the world. Discussed are the most advanced technologies and developments, the various points of operational strength and weaknesses as well as are suggestions and predictions the best technological solutions to  overcome current operational limits.  The current status of various levels of cooling in THz detectors, sources and associated electronics are also addressed. The goal was to provide a clear view on the current technologies available and the required advances needed in order to achieve more efficient systems. This goal was outlined in part by establishing the baseline of current uncertainty estimations in physics-based modelling and the identification of key areas which require additi...

  3. Laser applications in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Leonard J.

    1985-09-01

    The "false start" of the laser in neurosurgery should not be misconstrued as a denial of the inherent advantages of precision and gentleness in dealing with neural tissue. Rather, early investigators were frustrated by unrealistic expectations, cumbersome equipment, and a general ignorance of microtechnique. By the early 70s, microneurosurgery was well established, surgical laser equipment for free hand and microlinked application had been developed, and a more realistic view of the limitations of the laser had been established. Consequently, the late 70s really heralded the renaissance of the laser in neurosurgery. Since then, there has been an overwhelming acceptance of the tool in a variety of clinical situations, broadly categorized in five groups. 1)|Perhaps the most generally accepted area is in the removal of extra-axial tumors of the brain and spinal cord. These tumors, benign by histology but treacherous by location, do not present until a significant amount of neurological compensation has already occurred. The application of additional trauma to the neural tissue, whether by further tumor growth or surgical manipulation, frequently results in irreversible damage. Here, the ability of the laser to vaporize tissue, in a fairly hemostatic fashion, without mechanical or thermal damage to sensitive surrounding tissues, is essential. 2)|The ability to incise delicate neural tissue with minimal spread of thermal destruction to adjacent functioning tissue makes the laser the ideal instrument when tumors deep under the surface are encountered in the brain or spinal cord. Thus, the second group of applications is in the transgression of normal neural structures to arrive at deeper pathological tissue. 3)|The third area of benefit for the laser in neurosurgery has been in the performance of neuroablative procedures, calling for deliberate destruction of functioning neural tissue in a controlled fashion. Again, the precision and shape confinement of the destructive

  4. Laser Applications in Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    A laser is a collimated single wavelength of light which delivers a concentrated source of energy. Soon after different types of lasers were invented, investigators began to examine the effects of different wavelengths of laser energy on oral tissues, routine dental procedures and experimental applications. Orthodontists, along with other specialist in different fields of dentistry, can now benefit from several different advantages that lasers provide during the treatment process, from the beginning of the treatment, when separators are placed, to the time of resin residues removal from the tooth surface at the end of orthodontic treatment. This article outlines some of the most common usages of laser beam in orthodontics and also provides a comparison between laser and other conventional method that were the standard of care prior to the advent of laser in this field. PMID:25606324

  5. Stochastic calculus and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    Completely revised and greatly expanded, the new edition of this text takes readers who have been exposed to only basic courses in analysis through the modern general theory of random processes and stochastic integrals as used by systems theorists, electronic engineers and, more recently, those working in quantitative and mathematical finance. Building upon the original release of this title, this text will be of great interest to research mathematicians and graduate students working in those fields, as well as quants in the finance industry. New features of this edition include: End of chapter exercises; New chapters on basic measure theory and Backward SDEs; Reworked proofs, examples and explanatory material; Increased focus on motivating the mathematics; Extensive topical index. "Such a self-contained and complete exposition of stochastic calculus and applications fills an existing gap in the literature. The book can be recommended for first-year graduate studies. It will be useful for all who intend to wo...

  6. Bilevel Programming and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V. Kalashnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A great amount of new applied problems in the area of energy networks has recently arisen that can be efficiently solved only as mixed-integer bilevel programs. Among them are the natural gas cash-out problem, the deregulated electricity market equilibrium problem, biofuel problems, a problem of designing coupled energy carrier networks, and so forth, if we mention only part of such applications. Bilevel models to describe migration processes are also in the list of the most popular new themes of bilevel programming, as well as allocation, information protection, and cybersecurity problems. This survey provides a comprehensive review of some of the above-mentioned new areas including both theoretical and applied results.

  7. Battlefield applications of anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Tomas; Rophael, David; Recchia, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    The work presented within examines the performance of mechanical and electronic anemometers in battlefield applications. The goals of the study were to determine the utility of a local anemometer in quasi-combat engagements for direct fire weapon systems, to observe the limitations of each type of anemometer, and to determine which measurement method results in the most accurate ballistic correction. These goals are accomplished by combining a ballistic trajectory model, a turbulent wind field model, a sensor response model, and a fire control model into a single larger scale simulation that utilizes a Monte Carlo approach. The results of this effort showed that utilizing either a mechanical anemometer or an electronic anemometer with a relatively long averaging window produced the most accurate ballistic wind correction.

  8. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  9. Security in Computer Applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Computer security has been an increasing concern for IT professionals for a number of years, yet despite all the efforts, computer systems and networks remain highly vulnerable to attacks of different kinds. Design flaws and security bugs in the underlying software are among the main reasons for this. This lecture addresses the following question: how to create secure software? The lecture starts with a definition of computer security and an explanation of why it is so difficult to achieve. It then introduces the main security principles (like least-privilege, or defense-in-depth) and discusses security in different phases of the software development cycle. The emphasis is put on the implementation part: most common pitfalls and security bugs are listed, followed by advice on best practice for security development. The last part of the lecture covers some miscellaneous issues like the use of cryptography, rules for networking applications, and social engineering threats. This lecture was first given on Thursd...

  10. Nanotechnology Applications for Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and the antiglaucoma treatments currently available suffer from various complications. Nanotechnology-based treatments show a great deal of promise in overcoming these complications and form the basis for next-generation glaucoma treatment strategies, with the help of applications such as controlled release, targeted delivery, increased bioavailability, diffusion limitations, and biocompatibility. Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine in the efficiency of antiglaucoma medications, nanofabrication systems such as microelectromechanical systems that remove the limitations of nanodevices, and tissue regeneration vesicles for developing glaucoma treatments not based on intraocular pressure. With the use of these advanced technologies, the prevention of glaucoma-induced blindness will be possible in the near future. Herein, we reviewed the recent advances in nanotechnology-based treatment strategies for glaucoma.

  11. Tensors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Nazrul

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: The book is written is in easy-to-read style with corresponding examples. The main aim of this book is to precisely explain the fundamentals of Tensors and their applications to Mechanics, Elasticity, Theory of Relativity, Electromagnetic, Riemannian Geometry and many other disciplines of science and engineering, in a lucid manner. The text has been explained section wise, every concept has been narrated in the form of definition, examples and questions related to the concept taught. The overall package of the book is highly useful and interesting for the people associated with the field. Contents: Preliminaries Tensor Algebra Metric Tensor and Riemannian Metric Christoffel`s Symbols and Covariant Differentiation Riemann-Christoffel Tensor The e-Systems and the Generalized Krönecker Deltas Geometry Analytical Mechanics Curvature of a Curve, Geodesic Parallelism of Vectors Ricci`s Coefficients of Rotation and Congruence Hyper Surfaces

  12. Piezoresistor design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to piezoresistive MEMS sensor design. Piezoresistors transduce mechanical loads into electrical signals via a resistance change, and comprise a substantial portion of the commercial MEMS sensors market. Applications of piezoresistors include strain gauges, accelerometers, pressure sensors, force sensors, chemical sensors and resonators. This book also: ·         Demonstrates how the latest piezoresistor models and optimization techniques can be integrated for high performance piezoresistor design ·         Covers in detail piezoresistor sensitivity and noise models, signal conditioning, fabrication processes, low-power design and numerical optimization techniques ·         Provides an up-to-date discussion of alternative piezoresistive materials and MEMS transduction techniques ·         Explores in detail the tradeoffs in size, performance and complexity between piezoresistive sensing and popular alternatives (capacitive, piezoelectric an...

  13. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  14. Analytical applications of dithizone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, H.M.N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The organic reagent best known under its common name dithizone was introduced into analytical practice by Hellmuth Fischer just over 50 years ago. By virtue of its thiol group, it can form formally unchanged chelate complexes with a small group of metals (notably, Co, Ni, Zn, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, and Bi) and organometallic ions (such as R/sub 2/Tl/sup +/, R/sub 3/Su/sup +/, R/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/, RHg/sup +/) and since, like the reagent itself, these are intensely colored and very sparingly soluble in water though soluble in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and other water-immiscible organic solvents, dithizone lends itself to liquid-liquid extraction procedures and the spectrophotometric determination of trace metals at around the microgram level. With the increasing popularity of atomic abosption spectrophotometry, this technique has tended to supplant spectrophotometry as the preferred finish in quantitative trace-metal determinations, but many other physical procedures are in current use. The ability to preconcentrate certain metals by liquid-liquid extraction of their dithizonates plays an increasing role in environmental analysis, and chromatographic techniques now extend from thin layer chromatography to the use of columns for specific separations. The present review summarizes the basic analytical applications of dithizone that have become well established in the past half-century but highlights the more recent developments through a detailed review of papers published during the last 10 years. Particular attention is paid to the applications of dithizone in preconcentration and separation techniques, in electroanalytical procedures, in substoichiometry and in the design of liquid-membrane ion-selective electrodes. 4 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Mobile applications in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ann Chang; Endly, Dawnielle C; Henley, Jill; Amir, Mahsa; Sampson, Blake P; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2013-11-01

    With advancements in mobile technology, cellular phone-based mobile applications (apps) may be used in the practice and delivery of dermatologic care. To identify and categorize the variety of current mobile apps available in dermatology for patients and providers. Dermatology-related search terms were queried in the online app stores of the most commonly used mobile platforms developed by Apple, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, and Windows. Applications were assigned to categories based on description. Popularity, price, and reviews were recorded and target audiences were determined through websites offering online mobile apps. Number, type, and price of mobile apps in dermatology. A total of 229 dermatology-related apps were identified in the following categories: general dermatology reference (61 [26.6%]), self-surveillance/diagnosis (41 [17.9%]), disease guide (39 [17.0%]), educational aid (20 [8.7%]), sunscreen/UV recommendation (19 [8.3%]), calculator (12 [5.2%]), teledermatology (8 [3.5%]), conference (6 [2.6%]), journal (6 [2.6%]), photograph storage/sharing (5 [2.2%]), dermoscopy (2 [0.9%]), pathology (2 [0.9%]), and other (8 [3.5%]). The most reviewed apps included Ultraviolet ~ UV Index (355 reviews), VisualDx (306), SPF (128), iSore (61), and SpotMole (50). There were 209 unique apps, with 17 apps existing on more than 1 operating system. More than half of the apps were offered free of charge (117 [51.1%]). Paid apps (112 [48.9%]) ranged from $0.99 to $139.99 (median, $2.99). Target audiences included patient (117 [51.1%]), health care provider (94 [41.0%]), and both (18 [7.9%]). The widespread variety and popularity of mobile apps demonstrate a great potential to expand the practice and delivery of dermatologic care.

  16. IMS Application Developer's Handbook Creating and Deploying Innovative IMS Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noldus, Rogier; Mulligan, Catherine; Fikouras, Ioannis; Ryde, Anders; Stille, Mats

    2011-01-01

    IMS Application Developer Handbook will give a hands-on view of exactly what needs to be done by IMS application developers to write an application and take it "live" on an operator's network. It will offer practical guidance on building innovative applications using the features and capabilities of the IMS network, show how the rapidly changing development environment is impacting on the business models employed in the industry and how existing network solutions can be moved towards IMS. The book will also elaborate on how IMS applies basic VoIP principles and techniques to realise a true mul

  17. Mathematical modeling with multidisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2013-01-01

    Features mathematical modeling techniques and real-world processes with applications in diverse fields Mathematical Modeling with Multidisciplinary Applications details the interdisciplinary nature of mathematical modeling and numerical algorithms. The book combines a variety of applications from diverse fields to illustrate how the methods can be used to model physical processes, design new products, find solutions to challenging problems, and increase competitiveness in international markets. Written by leading scholars and international experts in the field, the

  18. Conceptual Integration using Wrapped Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, Christian; Österle, Hubert; Hotaka, Ryosuke

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how object-oriented concepts can be used throughout system development for integration purposes. Based on the distinction of physical and conceptual integration the concept of object wrapping is discussed for the integration of non-object-oriented systems. By regarding applications as high-level objects, i.e. wrapped applications, integration is achieved by modelling so-called integration relationships between these wrapped applications. While in conceptual integration re...

  19. PSO-Ensemble Demo Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the PSO-Ensemble project (FU2101) a demo application has been created. The application use ECMWF ensemble forecasts. Two instances of the application are running; one for Nysted Offshore and one for the total production (except Horns Rev) in the Eltra area. The output is a...... is available via two password-protected web-pages hosted at IMM and is used daily by Elsam and E2....

  20. HUMAN INTERACTION WITH MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Zamfiroiu; Emanuel Herteliu; Bogdan Vintila

    2012-01-01

    Computing - human interaction is a very important paradigm because informatics applications are created to be used by people via human interaction. Nowadays mobile applications are more used so is necessarily to talk about mobile - human interaction. In this paper types of mobile devices are presented. Citizen oriented character of mobile application and his utility are described. Different means of interactions with mobile devices are analyzed and in the end of the paper direction of mobile ...