Sample records for high-k mega dykes

  1. Sm/Nd isotopic data for the Santana do Ipanema high-K mega dykes as evidence for Brasiliano decompression melting at the Pernambuco-Alagoas (PE-AL) Massif, Borborema province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, A.F. da; Guimaraes, I.P.; Luna, E.B.A.; Valadares, D.S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia


    This work deals with the Sm-Nd signatures of some mega dykes located close to the Northern limit of the batholith in the Santana do Ipanema plutonic complex (SIC), which comprises 6 intrusive suites. Their composition ranges from syenites to quartz syenites. They are mesocratic to leucocratic, usually equigranular but sometimes porphyritic. Their accessory mineralogy is comprised of sphene, opaque, amphibole, {+-} pyroxene, apatite, zircon, biotite, allanite and epidote. The main minerals are microcline, plagioclase and quartz. The SIC rocks are metaluminous and intermediate to acid, with Si O{sub 2} ranging from 55,6 wt% to 66.4 wt% and Ba ranging from 3889 ppm to 10253 pp,. The K{sub 2} O/Na{sub 2} O ratio ranges widely as well, from 0,59 to 2.07, making these rocks a quite heterogeneous suite. The diagram shows two patterns, one with troughs at Nb, Zr and Ti, while the other one shows troughs at Nb, Hf and Eu. The Zr data available show a wide range, from 133 ppm to 314 ppm, suggesting this suite was the result of different degrees of partial melting of a same enriched LIL protolith. Five isotope Sm-Nd data has been obtained for these rocks, yielding epsilon Nd (0.60 Ga) values which ranges from -9.3 to -3.6, and Tdm which ranges from 2.34 Ga to 1.26 Ga. The isotope data agree with the heterogeneous character showed by the trace elements 3 refs.

  2. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas R Behera


    Full Text Available A 14-month-old male child presented with recurrent generalized seizures, spastic hemiplegia, microcephaly and had developmental delay in motor and speech domains. CT of the brain revealed characteristic features diagnostic of infantile type of cerebral hemiatrophy or Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome.

  3. Geochemical characteristics of Mesoproterozoic metabasite dykes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study suggests that magma generated in a destructive plate setting fed the Mesoproterozoic mafic dykes of the CGT. 1. Introduction. Dykes signify crustal extension and are important indicators of crustal stabilization events, supercon- tinental assembly and dispersal. Crust–mantle in- teraction plays a significant role in ...

  4. The history of safety factors for Dutch regional dykes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Gast, T.; Vardon, P.J.; Jommi, C.; Hicks, M.A.


    Regular dyke assessment is part of reducing the risk of flooding in the Netherlands. 18 000 km of dykes are assessed at regular intervals, of which 14 000 km are classified as regional dykes and their main aim is to defend polders from inundating. The methods of assessing regional dykes are strongly

  5. The History of Safety Factors for Dutch Regional Dykes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Gast, T.; Vardon, P.J.; Jommi, C.; Hicks, M.A.


    Regular dyke assessment is part of reducing the risk of flooding in the Netherlands. 18 000 km of dykes are assessed at regular intervals, of which 14 000 km are classified as regional dykes and their main aim is to defend polders from inundating. The methods of assessing regional dykes are strongly

  6. Mafic dykes of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica. An analysis of the emplacement mechanism of tholeiitic dyke swarms and of the role of dyke emplacement during crustal extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, J.D.


    Mafic dyke swarms are common in Proterozoic continental crustal terrains. Although it is generally recognized that parallel mafic dyke swarms are formed in extensional tectonic settings and that they accommodate in the order of 10% of extensional strain, the tectonics and geodynamics of dyke

  7. Mega cisterna magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Y.; Yamakawa, K.; Tsujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Nawata, H. (Ebara Metropolitan Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))


    Computerized tomography (CT) has made it possible to discover various uncommon intracranial structures and to elucidate the morbidity of these pathophysiological conditions. The mega cisterna magna is an example of such a structure being widely known, but the incidence and morbidity being uncertain. Since the mega cisterna magna has shown no special symptoms and signs and does not require any surgical treatment, it was not necessary to diagnose it property before the establishment of routine examination by CT. From April 1979 to June 1980; a total of 2089 patients were examined by CT; of these, 9 cases (0.43%) of mega cisterna magna were identified. The symptoms and signs of those 9 patients were headache, vertigo, nausea, right hemiparesis, convulsive seizure, hyperventilation syndrome, and tremor. One patient was examined for head injury. A plain craniogram revealed a thinness of the occipital bone in 2 cases. The sizes of the mega cisterna magna appearing on CT were from 1.0 x 1.5 cm to 3.5 x 4.0 cm at the level of +40 -60 mm from the plane of the 0/sup 0/ OM line. The craniotomy was performed on one patient who was suspected of having arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa.

  8. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the dykes indicate that they preserved time-integrated LREE enrichment. In view of the chemical signatures of OIB source, the mafic dykes could as well be related to continental rifting, around. 1.3 Ga, which may have been initiated by intra-plate volcanism. 1. Introduction. Mafic dyke swarms are common in most Archaean.

  9. Vegetation dynamics and erosion resistance of sea dyke grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, J.T.C.M.


    In the Netherlands, in addition to the width and height of the dyke body itself, renewed measures for reconstruction and maintenance of dykes have stressed the importance to the safeguarding of the dyke, of the grass cover's protection of the clay-layer against

  10. Dyke Davidoff Masson Syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Sumeet S, Jadhav Aravinash L, Garkal Shailendra M, Tewari Suresh C


    Full Text Available Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS is characterized by seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia and mental retardation. The characteristic radiologic features are cerebral hemiatrophy with homolateral hypertrophy of the skull and sinuses. We report a case of DDMS in an 18years old girl who presented with a history of generalized tonic – clonic seizures, hemiparesis and hemiatrophy of right side.

  11. Aircushion Supported Mega-Floaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kessel, J.L.F.


    The increase of the global population and expanding coastal mega-cities will necessitate an innovative pursuit of the utilization of the ocean space in which mega-floaters will play an important role in the future. These types of structures are very large floating artificial islands that can be used

  12. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of newer dolerite dyke ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The newer dolerite dykes around Keonjhar within the Singbhum Granite occur in NE–SW, NW–SE and NNE–SSW trends. The mafic dykes of the present study exhibit several mineralogical changes like clouding of plagioclase feldspars, bastitisation of orthopyroxene, and development of fibrous amphibole.

  13. New paleomagnetic results on 2367 Ma Dharwar giant dyke swarm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Ramesh Babu


    Feb 14, 2018 ... 2012). This direction is considered as primary magnetization of 2082 Ma radiating dyke swarm of. EDC (Kumar et al. 2015). Hence, we infer here that the source for component (B) is possibly the recently reported 2080 Ma spectacular radiating dyke swarm, which radiates beneath the Cudda- pah basin with ...

  14. Temporal geoelectric behaviour of dyke aquifers in northern Deccan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertical electrical resistivity soundings (VES) were carried out over four major dykes of Nandurbar district in the northern Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of Maharashtra to investigate the subsurface geological conditions, with an aim of identifying zones with groundwater resource potential. Dykes can act as pathways or ...

  15. Magnetic Investigations On The Okavango Giant Dyke Swarm (n Botswana) (United States)

    Tshoso, G.; Dyment, J.; Aubourg, C.; Le Gall, B.; Tiercelin, J. J.; Féraud, G.; Bertrand, H.; Jourdan, F.; Kampunzu, H.

    The Okavango Giant Dyke Swarm is one of the largest mafic dyke complex world- wide. It extends as a 1500 x 100 km intrusive system across the Karoo igneous province of E. Namibia, N. Botswana and W. Zimbabwe. It is marked by prominent magnetic anomalies on the many aeromagnetic surveys acquired by mining compa- nies. Beyond the analysis of these data, ground truth evidence has been collected along a 100 km continuous section nearly perpendicular to the dyke swarm on the Shashe River, which present excellent exposures of dykes and basement host-rocks. Samples have been cored on 15 dykes for paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analy- ses. The paleomagnetic poles determined from most of the dykes is consistent with a Karoo age on the Apparent Polar Wander path for Africa and confirm the radio- metric results obtained by Ar-Ar dating technique. A very different pole is obtained for one basement dyke dated at 880 Ma. Magnetic susceptibility and natural rema- nent magnetization have been compiled and used to constrain forward modeling of the aeromagnetic anomalies. The direction of magmatic flow within individual dykes is investigated through the analysis of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy.

  16. Dyke intrusion into a pre-existing joint network: The Aiguablava lamprophyre dyke swarm (Catalan Coastal Ranges) (United States)

    Martínez-Poza, A. I.; Druguet, E.; Castaño, L. M.; Carreras, J.


    A structural analysis has been performed in the Upper Permian lamprophyric dyke swarm of Aiguablava (Costa Brava, NE Iberia). Emplacement of sub-vertical dykes is related to the presence of a widespread joint network, mostly developed during the cooling and decompression of the late Variscan leucogranitic host rocks. The joint pattern consists on multiple sub-vertical joint sets among which two orthogonal sets at ≈ N23° and ≈ N113° are predominant. A sub-horizontal set is also prominent. The sub-vertical dykes have a mean N100°-N125° trend, which corresponds to the trend of one of the main joint sets. However, dyke segmentation is noticeable at the Dm- to cm-scale, and this is inferred to be related to dyke propagation and emplacement along the variably oriented pre-existing joints. A mean robust sub-horizontal NNE-SSW net dilation direction was measured from matching dyke jogs, markers in the host rock and analysis of maximum dyke thicknesses, and this is in line with the minimum principal stress axis (3) derived from a three-dimensional paleostress analysis from dyke orientations. The inferred maximum principal stress axis (1) is sub-vertical, indicating that dykes intruded under conditions of tectonic extension. Furthermore, a Mohr construction allowed calculation of the stress ratio φ = 0.29 (close to a prolate stress ellipsoid) and a driving pressure ratio R‧ = 0.27, which corresponds to a magmatic pressure almost equal to the intermediate principal stress axis, σ2. It is inferred that many of the pre-existing joint sets were exploited by the magma, the WNW-ESE joint set (normal to σ3) being the most favorable for dyke emplacement. The present study highlights the structural control of a pre-existing fracture network on emplacement of the Aiguablava lamprophyres in the upper crust during late Permian NNE-SSW brittle extension.

  17. Tunneling in high-K isomeric decays

    CERN Document Server

    Shizuma, T; Shimizu, Y R


    We have systematically investigated highly-K-forbidden transitions observed in the Hf, W and Os region, using the gamma-tunneling model in which low-K and high-k states interact through a process of quantum tunneling. The measured hindrance factors are compared with the values calculated using the gamma-tunneling model. Isotope dependences of gamma-tunneling probabilities particularly for neutron-rich nuclei and the relation to stimulated decays of isomers are discussed. (author)

  18. An isotope trace element study of the East Greenland Tertiary dyke swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Karen; Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole


    Dykes of the East Greenland Tertiary dyke swarm can be divided into pre- and syn-break-up tholeiitic dykes, and post-break-up transitional dykes. Of the pre- and syn-break-up dykes, the most abundant group (Tholeiitic Series; TS) has major element compositions similar to the main part of the East......Nd. The post-break-up Transitional Series (TRANS) dykes are isotopically distinct from Iceland and MORB, and are interpreted as the products of contamination of Iceland plume melts with continental crust. Comparison of the Nd–Sr–Pb isotopic and trace element compositions of dykes from different segments...

  19. Seismic reflection imaging of thin, kimberlite dykes and sills: exploration and deposit characterization of the Snap Lake dyke, Canada (United States)

    Hammer, Philip T. C.; Clowes, Ron M.; Ramachandran, Kumar


    Seismic reflection techniques are, for the first time, used to image a thin, diamondiferous, kimberlite dyke from subcrop to depths greater than 1300 m. Exploration for vertical kimberlite pipes generally utilizes potential field techniques that often fail to reveal subhorizontal or shallow-dipping intrusions. In contrast, seismic reflection methods are well suited for imaging targets with this geometry. Therefore, in order to evaluate seismic reflection as a tool for subhorizontal kimberlite dyke/sill exploration and mine planning, a feasibility study and subsequent seismic survey were undertaken on the diamondiferous Snap Lake dyke (Northwest Territories, Canada). A substantial drilling program has mapped the dyke as a gently dipping sheet that averages 2-3 m in thickness. The detailed structural and composition data available at Snap Lake provides a unique opportunity to test reflection techniques on a well-sampled deposit. The feasibility study involved measuring P-velocities and densities of cores drilled from the kimberlite and host rocks. These data were used to model reflection amplitudes, evaluate resolution limitations, and determine the acquisition parameters for the reflection survey. Two 2-D lines were acquired that provide comparative datasets for different sources (explosive and vibroseis) and ground types (land and lake ice). In addition, the exploration-scale survey incorporated high fold (40-260 nominal) and long offsets (3260 m). The explosive-source profile recorded on land yielded a superb image of the dyke from depths of 60 m to more than 1300 m over a lateral distance of 5700 m. The seismic image correlates well with adjacent drill hole data and adds considerable detail to the topography of the kimberlite sheet determined by drilling. The vibroseis source also imaged the dyke, but only when sources and geophones were on land; the dyke was not imaged beneath the ice due to reverberation and attenuation effects. The frequency response and

  20. The Daskop Granophyre Dyke: Inhomogeneous clast distribution and chemistry (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Huber, Matthew S.; Somers, Andrew; Bateman, Stuart


    The Vredefort Granophyre is present in the central basement of the Vredefort impact structure as a set of dykes up to 9 km long and up to 65 m wide and is considered to be the remnant of the impact melt sheet (e.g. French et al. 1989; French and Nielsen 1990). The dykes intruded into the floor of the structure's core during the crater modification and settling stages (e.g. Therriault et al. 1996). Granophyre is typically considered a well-homogenized and uniform melt (e.g., Nel 1927; Gibson and Reimold 2008). This study presents new insights into the chemical variety and inhomogeneous clast distribution of the Vredefort granophyre. The Granophyre dyke on the farm Daskop is located in the core of the impact structure and hosted by granitic gneiss of the Archean basement. The clast distribution was mapped in the eastern half of the dyke. Additionally, non-destructive geochemical methods (handheld µXRF and LIBS systems) were used to obtain chemical analysis of the dyke along strike. The map of clast distribution in the granophyre dyke reveals an inhomogeneous content of clasts, with a consistently higher concentration of clasts along the southern contact. This distribution suggests that either 1) the dyke orientation is non-vertical, allowing gravitational settling to affect the distribution of the clasts after the dyke intruded; or 2) that clasts were preferentially entrained along the southern margin of the dyke. Clast frequency also differs along strike. Many elongated clasts are oriented parallel to the dyke walls, indicating flow. We have also documented linear structures resembling flow channels. These structures are strictly parallel to the dyke walls and have a finer texture than the host granophyre. These may represent differentiation of the melt during crystallization. Chemical inhomogeneity of granophyre dyke has also been documented along strike. Such chemical variation may reflect local differences in the relative amounts of target rocks incorporated

  1. High Resolution Analysis of Dyke Tips and Segments, Using Drones (United States)

    Dering, G.; Micklethwaite, S.; Cruden, A. R.


    We analyse outstanding exposures of dykes from both coastal (Western Australia) and high altitude glacier-polished (Sierra Nevada, California) outcrops, representing intrusion at shallow upper-crustal and mid-crustal conditions respectively. We covered 10,000 m^2 of outcrop area sampling the ground at a scale of 3-5 mm per pixel. Using Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry from ground-based and UAV photographs lacking GPS camera positions (>500 images per study), we generated and calibrated a 3D geometry of dense point clouds by selectively using 25-30 ground control points measured by high precision GPS (40-90 mm error). Ground control points used in the photogrammetric model building process typically yielded a root mean square error (RMSE) of 5 cm. Half the ground control points were withheld from the model building process and when they were compared against the model they yielded RMSE values only 6-10% higher than the points used for georeferencing, suggesting good internal consistency of the dataset and accuracy relative to the reference frame, at least for the purposes of this study. The structural orientations of the dykes and associated fractures were then extracted digitally using the iterative Random Sample Consensus method (RANSAC) and least-squares plane fitting. Furthermore, fracture intensity relative to dykes was measured along a series of scanlines and the running average and variance calculated. All results were compared against field measurements. Results show fracture intensity increases toward the dykes in the shallow crustal examples (West Australia) but no such fractures exist around the mid-crustal (Californian) dykes. Despite this there is a remarkable uniformity of geometry, and by implication process, between the two dyke sets. In order to extract full value from the big visual data now available to us, the near-future requires dedicated research into software solutions for expert-driven, semi-automatic mapping of geology and structure.

  2. Geochemistry and petrology of mafic Proterozoic and Permian dykes on Bornholm, Denmark:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Pedersen, Lise E.; Højsteeen, Birte


    More than 250 dykes cut the mid Proterozoic basement gneisses and granites of Bornholm. Most trend between NNW and NNE, whereas a few trend NE and NW. Field, geochemical and petrological evidence suggest that the dyke intrusions occurred as four distinct events at around 1326 Ma (Kelseaa dyke...

  3. REE investigation of the Motru Dyke System components from the Danubian basements (South Carpathians, Romania) (United States)

    Campeanu, Mara; Balica, Constantin; Balintoni, Ioan; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Cadar, Oana


    new geochemical data, we consider that MDS was generated from a mixed mantle and crustal source, and emplaced in a post-collisional tectonic setting during the final stages of the Variscan orogeny. Acknowledgements: study supported by PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0100 Grant, UEFIS-CDI and Core Program - ANCS PN References: [1] Féménias, O., Berza, T., Tatu, M., Diot, H., Demaiffe, D., 2008. Nature and signifiance of a Cambro-Ordovician high-K, calc-alkaline sub-volcanic suite: the late- to post-orogenic Motru Dyke Swarm (Southern Carpathians, Romania), Int. J. Earth Sci. [2] Câmpeanu, M., Balica, C., Balintoni, I.C., 2014. Geochronology and emplacement conditions of Motru Dyke System (South Carpathians, Romania), Bul. Shk. Gjeol.2014- Special Issue, Vol 1/2014, Proceedings of XX CBGA Congress, Tirana, Albania, p.198. [3] Câmpeanu, M., Balica, C., Balintoni, I.C., Tanaselia, C., 2015. Motru Dyke Swarm (South Carpathians, Romania): Emplacement age and geotectonic setting (0) Goldschmidt Abstracts, 2015-459.

  4. Volatiles in High-K Lunar Basalts (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Messenger, Scott R.; Nguyen, Ann; Boyce, Jeremy


    Chlorine is an unusual isotopic system, being essentially unfractionated ((delta)Cl-37 approximately 0 per mille ) between bulk terrestrial samples and chondritic meteorites and yet showing large variations in lunar (approximately -4 to +81 per mille), martian, and vestan (HED) samples. Among lunar samples, the volatile-bearing mineral apatite (Ca5(PO4)3[F,Cl,OH]) has been studied for volatiles in K-, REE-, and P (KREEP), very high potassium (VHK), low-Ti and high-Ti basalts, as well as samples from the lunar highlands. These studies revealed a positive correlation between in-situ (delta)Cl-37 measurements and bulk incompatible trace elements (ITEs) and ratios. Such trends were interpreted to originate from Cl isotopic fractionation during the degassing of metal chlorides during or shortly after the differentiation of the Moon via a magma ocean. In this study, we investigate the volatile inventories of a group of samples for which new-era volatile data have yet to be reported - the high-K (greater than 2000 ppm bulk K2O), high-Ti, trace element-rich mare basalts. We used isotope imaging on the Cameca NanoSIMS 50L at JSC to obtain the Cl isotopic composition [((Cl-37/(35)Clsample/C-37l/(35)Clstandard)-1)×1000, to get a value in per thousand (per mille)] which ranges from approximately -2.7 +/- 2 per mille to +16.1 +/- 2 per mille (2sigma), as well as volatile abundances (F & Cl) of apatite in samples 10017, 10024 & 10049. Simply following prior models, as lunar rocks with high bulk-rock abundances of ITEs we might expect the high-K, high-Ti basalts to contain apatite characterized by heavily fractionated (delta)Cl-37 values, i.e., Cl obtained from mixing between unfractionated mantle Cl (approximately 0 per mille) and the urKREEP reservoir (possibly fractionated to greater than +25 per mille.). However, the data obtained for the studied samples do not conform to either the early degassing or mixing models. Existing petrogentic models for the origin of the high-K

  5. Interaction between felsic granitoids and basic dykes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Geothermal Reserh. 161 (3) 247–260. Jayananda M, Gireesh R, Sekhamo K-U and Miyazaki T 2014 Coeval felsic and mafic magmas in neoarchean calcalkaline magmatic arcs, Dharwar craton, southern India: Field and petrographic evidence from mafic to hybrid magmatic enclaves and synplutonic mafic dykes; J. Geol.

  6. Mineral Associations In The Boussouma Post Birimian Mafic Dyke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature of the magma during crystallization using coexistent augite and orthopyroxene geothermometry, is estimated between 1000 and 1150°C and it progressively decreased to about 600 to 800°C, during the late crystallization stages as revealed by biotite thermometry. The post magmatic evolution of the dyke is ...

  7. Mineralogical and chemical character-istics of newer Dolerite Dyke ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mafic dykes of the present study exhibit several mineralogical changes like clouding of plagioclase feldspars, bastitisation of orthopyroxene, and development of fibrous amphibole (tremolite–actinolite) from clinopyroxene, which are all considered products of hydrothermal alterations. This alteration involves addition ...

  8. 2367 Ma Dharwar giant dyke swarm, Dharwar craton, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Late Cretaceous dyke as products of the Marion hotspot at the Madagascar-India break. 337 up event: evidence from 40Ar–39Ar geochronology and geochemistry Geophys. Res. 338. Lett, 28 (2001) pp. 2715–2718. 339. Kumar A, Hamilton M A, Halls H, 2012 A Palaeoproterozoic giant radiating dykeswarm in. 340.

  9. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Pan-African thermal event could be related to reactivation of major shear zones and represented by leuco-granite vein along minor shear bands. And 740 Ma cooling age may indicate the low grade metamorphic imprints, noted in some of the dykes. Although no intrusion age could be determined from the present ...

  10. High-K Strategy Scale: A Measure of the High-K Independent Criterion of Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Giosan


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at testing whether factors documented in the literature as being indicators of a high-K reproductive strategy have effects on fitness in extant humans. A 26-item High-K Strategy Scale comprising these factors was developed and tested on 250 respondents. Items tapping into health and attractiveness, upward mobility, social capital and risks consideration, were included in the scale. As expected, the scale showed a significant correlation with perceived offspring quality and a weak, but significant association with actual number of children. The scale had a high reliability coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha = .92. Expected correlations were found between the scale and number of medical diagnoses, education, perceived social support, and number of previous marriages, strengthening the scale's construct validity. Implications of the results are discussed.

  11. Assessment of geotechnical issues associated with the PGS reservoir dyke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besaw, David; Donnely, C.; Ghiabi, Hani; Doyle, Warren [Hatch, (Canada); Diallo, Alain [Ontario Power Generation, (Canada)


    The PGS reservoir has had several issues with seepage and seepage-related phenomena since its construction in 1953. In 1958, a major sinkhole on the upstream side of the near chaining 6+00 was found. Ontario Hydro decided to draw down the reservoir, repair the sinkhole area immediately and undertake a major grouting program. This paper presented a study of geotechnical issues associated with the PGS reservoir dyke. This study was launched to investigate the potential remedial solutions to maintain the long term safety of the dyke and to determine the ways to expand the energy generating capability of the facility. In this paper, the recent Hatch findings on the geology, construction history, hydrogeological setting and seepage evaluation were presented. Next, the assessment of future measures for seepage control and energy enhancement opportunities were discussed.

  12. The Dyke Dilemma - A Cost-Benefit Analysis from Vietnam


    Thang Nam Do


    Wetlands provide rich environments for wildlife as well as agriculture. This frequently results in a conflict between wetland conservation and agricultural development. This, in turn, means that research into the interplay between development decision making, agricultural productivity and ecological sustainability in wetlands is crucial. This study from Vietnam has looked into just such a situation. It investigates the impact of proposed changes to the dyke system of the country's Mekong Delt...

  13. Five Predatory Mega-Journals: A Review


    Beall, Jeffrey


    Mega-journals such as PLOS One are an emerging and successful model of scholarly Open Access publishing. Unfortunately, some new, questionable journals have appeared that are copying the megajournal model. This review covers the five predatory mega-journals British Journal of Science, International Journal of Current Research, International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology (IJSAT), International Journal of Sciences (IJSciences), and World Journal of Science and Technology. Each of t...

  14. Economic Multipliers and Mega-Event Analysis


    Victor Matheson


    Critics of economic impact studies that purport to show that mega-events such as the Olympics bring large benefits to the communities “lucky” enough to host them frequently cite the use of inappropriate multipliers as a primary reason why these impact studies overstate the true economic gains to the hosts of these events. This brief paper shows in a numerical example how mega-events may lead to inflated multipliers and exaggerated claims of economic benefits.

  15. Dyke Monitorin by the Means of Persistent Scattering Interferometry at the Coast of Northern Germany (United States)

    Seidel, M.; Marzahn, P.; Ludwig, R.


    40 percent of the world's population are presently living in coastal areas or along the main rivers. Taking into account that the vulnerability of these areas is increasing due to sea-level rise and coastal hazards such as storm surges or extreme rainfall events accompanied with floods, the importance of safety structures such as dykes is increasing as well. Hence, a spatial distributed dyke monitoring should be part of a sustainable adaptation strategy. Due to increasing amount of SAR-data from various satellites with high spatial and temporal coverage, the means of SAR-interferometry could be an essential tool to ensure this kind of required monitoring. Given this prospect, Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) will be a very suitable monitoring technique for dyke structures to identify dyke movement with the accuracy of few millimetres. This procedure focuses on pixels that show a stable scattering behaviour in a sequence of multiple SAR-scenes. In opposition to ground-measurements, the spatial coverage of this technique provides comparable results for different parts of the dyke; furthermore weak segments with particular high movements could be identified in advance. This could prevent future dyke crevasses and help to reduce risks in high-populated areas. This paper attempts to describe the potential of the PSI technique for a spatial distributed dyke monitoring at the coast in northern Germany. 21 ERS-2 scenes and 16 Envisat ASAR scenes were analysed. Those Scenes cover an area of a sea shore dyke including a flood regulation barrage and results point out the potential for this technique to monitor dyke structures. Even though the observed dyke doesn't show any significant deformation rates, the two datasets show the same signal for the whole dyke.

  16. The rise of the mega-region


    Florida, Richard; Gulden, Tim; Mellander, Charlotta


    This paper develops new data on mega-regions. It takes issue with theories of globalization which argue that global economic activity is being more widely decentralized--'the world is flat'. We use a global dataset of night-time light emissions to produce an objectively consistent set of mega-regions for the globe. We draw on high-resolution population data to estimate the population of each of these regions. We then process the light data in combination with national gross domestic product (...

  17. The Aiguablava dyke swarm: emplacement and paleostress in a fractured basement (United States)

    Martínez-Poza, Ana Isabel; Druguet, Elena; Castaño, Lina Marcela; Carreras, Jordi


    A structural analysis has been performed in the Upper Permian lamprophyric dyke swarm of Aiguablava (NE Spain). Dyke emplacement is related to the presence of a widespread joint network, likely developed during the cooling and decompression of the late Variscan granitic host rocks. In order to characterize the patterns of both the joint system and the dyke swarm, a trend frequency analysis has been performed using the circular scanlines method (Mauldon et al., 2001). The sub-vertical joint pattern consists on two major orthogonal sets at ≈N23°, ≈N113° and secondary sets at ≈N0° and ≈N90°, among others. These four fracture sets are interpreted as previous to the lamprophyre intrusion event, because they are either exploited or cross-cut by the lamprophyres. The subvertical dykes have a mean N113° trend, which corresponds to the trend of one of the main joint sets. Despite this overall orientation of dykes, segmentation is a noticeable feature at the Dm- to cm-scale, and this is probably related to the localized dyke intrusion into the other pre-existing secondary joint sets. Dyke opening directions has been measured from matching dyke jogs or markers in the host rock, with a mean orientation of 021/04. A three-dimensional paleostress analysis has been carried out from dyke orientations, applying the Mohr circle construction of Jolly and Sanderson (1997), and the parameters R' (driving pressure ratio, R'= 0.156) and φ (stress ratio, φ = 0.45) were calculated. From this analysis, we have obtained a sub-vertical maximum (σ1) and a NNE-SSW minimum (σ3) stress axes, consistent with the sub-horizontal mean trend of dyke opening measured in the field. It is inferred that many of the pre-existing joint sets were exploited by magmatic dykes, being the ≈N113° joint set (normal to σ3) the most favourable for dyke emplacement. At that time, magmatic pressure related to dyke intrusion, Pm, was lower than the intermediate principal stress axis, σ2 . Our

  18. Managing mega event strategy : The case of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.


    Using mega event to increase competitiveness and position cities on the world stage has been an important strategy for many Dutch cities in the post industrial era. However, how mega event works in the practice and to what extent these mega events stimulate urban transformation process of the host

  19. Rift magmatism on the Eurasia basin margin: U–Pb baddeleyite ages of alkaline dyke swarms in North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórarinsson, Sigurjón B.; Söderlund, Ulf; Døssing, Arne


    indicate that north–south and east–west dykes are coeval. The north–south dykes reflect initial east–west rifting that led to break-up along the Gakkel Ridge and formation of the Eurasia Basin. The east–west dykes reflect local variations in the stress field associated with reactivated Palaeozoic faults...

  20. Indian manpower for mega nuclear project

    CERN Multimedia


    "India is supplying critical scientific manpower and high-tech components needed for building a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - an accelerator used in particle physics research - a mega scientific project of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) worth billions of dollars" (1/2 page).

  1. Unemployment, Entrepreneurial Education and Mega Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals acquire education for two broad fundamental reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have being identified as ...

  2. Mega-supramolecules for safer, cleaner fuel (United States)

    Kornfield, Julie

    Guided by the statistical mechanics of ring-chain equilibrium, we designed and synthesized polymers that self-assemble into ``mega-supramolecules'' (>=5,000 kg/mol) at low concentration (total polymer concentration--if, and only if , the backbones are long (>400 kg/mol) and end-association strength is optimal (16-18kT). Hydrocarbon liquid fuels are the world's dominant power source (34% of global energy consumption). Transportation relies heavily on such liquids, presenting the risk of explosive post-impact fires. The collapse of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 inspired us to revisit polymers for mist control to mitigate post-impact fuel explosions. Rheological and both light and neutron scattering measurements of long end-functional polymers having polycyclooctadiene backbones and acid or amine end groups verify formation of mega-supramolecules. Post-impact flame propagations experiments show that mega-supramolecules control misting. Turbulent flow measurements show that mega-supramolecules reduce drag like ultra-long covalent polymers. With individual building blocks short enough to avoid hydrodynamic chain scission (400Mega-supramolecules had no adverse effect on power output, fuel efficiency or emissions in diesel engines. In fact, they gave a 12% reduction in diesel soot. Thus, long end-associative polymers may open the way to fuel additives that reduce pollution and improve transportation safety and security.

  3. Temperate and boreal forest mega-fires: characteristics and challenges (United States)

    Stephens, Scott L.; Burrows, Neil; Buyantuyev, Alexander; Gray, Robert W.; Keane, Robert E.; Kubian, Rick; Liu, Shirong; Seijo, Francisco; Shu, Lifu; Tolhurst, Kevin G.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.


    Mega-fires are often defined according to their size and intensity but are more accurately described by their socioeconomic impacts. Three factors – climate change, fire exclusion, and antecedent disturbance, collectively referred to as the “mega-fire triangle” – likely contribute to today's mega-fires. Some characteristics of mega-fires may emulate historical fire regimes and can therefore sustain healthy fire-prone ecosystems, but other attributes decrease ecosystem resiliency. A good example of a program that seeks to mitigate mega-fires is located in Western Australia, where prescribed burning reduces wildfire intensity while conserving ecosystems. Crown-fire-adapted ecosystems are likely at higher risk of frequent mega-fires as a result of climate change, as compared with other ecosystems once subject to frequent less severe fires. Fire and forest managers should recognize that mega-fires will be a part of future wildland fire regimes and should develop strategies to reduce their undesired impacts.

  4. Proterozoic Geomagnetic Field Geometry from Mafic Dyke Swarms (United States)

    Panzik, J. E.; Evans, D. A.


    Pre-Mesozoic continental reconstructions and paleoclimatic inferences from paleomagnetism rely critically upon the assumption of a time-averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field. We have been testing the GAD assumption empirically, by compiling paleomagnetic remanence directional variations among coeval volcanic rock suites distributed over large areas of the Earth's surface. We compute virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) from site-mean remanence data using either a pure GAD model, or alternative models with varying amounts of zonal quadrupole or octupole fields. Rastering through quadrupole vs. octupole space, we produce contour plots of precision/dispersion for the mean of VGPs in each computation. Using the 0-5 Ma volcanics global database as a test, our method shows results consistent with the compilations of Schneider & Kent (1990, Rev. Geophys. 28, 71-96) and McElhinny et al. (1996, JGR 101, 25007-25027), notably reproducing the reversal asymmetry in a significant (order 3%) quadrupolar contribution. Performing the same test on ancient mafic dyke swarms, the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province (ca. 0.18 Ga) and the central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) (0.20 Ga) datasets are consistent with a range of models, including both GAD and independent estimates of non-GAD contributions derived from global tectonic reconstructions (Torsvik & Van der Voo, 2002, GJI 151, 771-794). The method is limited by paleolongitudinal restriction of ancient LIPs, for similarly restrictive sub-sampling of the 0-5 Ma volcanic data can generate results that differ dramatically from the global mean (e.g., the far-sided offset of VGPs relative to the spin axis). Analysis of pre-Pangean datasets is limited by the uncertainty of tectonic reconstructions, but within solely the intact North American (Laurentian) craton, the Franklin (ca. 0.72), Mackenzie (ca. 1.27) and Matachewan (2.45 Ga) dyke swarms are used as Pre-Mesozoic targets that have large areal coverage. None of the

  5. Smart optimization for mega construction projects using artificial intelligence


    Aziz, Remon Fayek; Hafez, Sherif Mohamed; Abuel-Magd, Yasser Ragab


    During practicing the planning process, scheduling and controlling mega construction projects, there are varieties of procedures and methods that should be taken into consideration during project life cycle. Accordingly, it is important to consider the different modes that may be selected for an activity in the scheduling, for controlling mega construction projects. Critical Path Method “CPM” is useful for scheduling, controlling and improving mega construction projects; hence this paper pres...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Kallistov


    Full Text Available We present the results of geological, petro‐geochemical and mineralogical studies of synplutonic intrusive formations in the Chelyabinsk granitoid massif, South Urals. Numerous synplutonic intrusions in the study area are in early phases, composed of quartz diorites and granodiorites of the Late Devonian – Early Carboniferous. Such intru‐ sions are represented by a bimodal series of rocks from gabbro‐diorite to plagioleic granite. Both the mafic and salic members of the series form separate independent dykes and, jointly, compose the dyke bodies of complex structures. With respect to the relationships with host rocks, two types of the studied dykes are distinguished: (1 ‘classical’ synplutonic dykes with monolithic bodies that are split along strike by the enclosing granodiorite into separate frag‐ ments; and (2 ‘post‐granite’ dykes that clearly break through the host quartz diorites and granodiorites that are older that the dykes, but show similar isotope ages: the U‐Pb‐Shrimp ages of zircon in the samples taken from the dyke and the host quartz diorite are 362±4 и 358±5 Ma, respectively. The first group includes the dyke of melanocratic diorite, the second – granitoid dykes and dykes of gabbro‐diorites and diorites. The intrusion of acid rocks preceded the basites and was completed after their formation. As a result of the nearly simultaneous intrusion of both, the dykes of complex structures were formed. The material compositions of mafic rocks in these two groups are significantly dif‐ ferent. The ‘post‐granite’ dioritoids are moderately alkaline. Melanodiorite in the synplutonic dyke belongs to normal alkaline rocks. It has a very high content of MgO (12.5 mass % and is sharply enriched with chromium (~700 ppm vs. 100–350 ppm in the ‘post‐granite’ dykes. It is thus closer to sanukitoids. The acid ‘post‐granite’ dykes vary in compo‐ sition from plagoleic granite and adamellite to

  7. The forgotten first career of Doctor Henry Van Dyke Carter. (United States)

    Hiatt, J R; Hiatt, N


    While Henry Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, first published in 1858, is distinguished by superb illustrations, its original illustrator is remembered for an entirely different set of accomplishments, notably significant contributions to tropical medicine. Literature review. Dr. Henry Van Dyke Carter, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology and subsequently Dean of the Grant Medical College in Bombay, India, was a skillful researcher and keen clinician who made significant contributions to tropical medicine, including the discovery of Spirillum minus, the spirochetal organism that causes relapsing fever. For his discoveries he was honored by both the British Medical Association and the English government. Before his departure for India in 1858, however, he and Henry Gray worked at St. George's Hospital Medical School and collaborated on the first edition of the text that is still the "Bible" of anatomy to many medical students. His drawings have appeared in every subsequent edition, up to the present day. During his first career as a medical illustrator, Carter was responsible for the drawings that have helped generations of physicians to master the intricacies of human anatomy.

  8. Investigation of capacitance characteristics in metal/high-k ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. C − V characteristic; high-k dielectric; interface state density; MIS structure; nanotechnology; TCAD simulation. Abstract. Capacitance vs. voltage ( C − V ) curves at AC high frequency of a metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) capacitorare investigated in this paper. Bi-dimensional simulations with Silvaco TCAD ...

  9. Has dyke development in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta shifted flood hazard downstream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. K. Triet


    Full Text Available In the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta (VMD the areas with three rice crops per year have been expanded rapidly during the last 15 years. Paddy-rice cultivation during the flood season has been made possible by implementing high-dyke flood defenses and flood control structures. However, there are widespread claims that the high-dyke system has increased water levels in downstream areas. Our study aims at resolving this issue by attributing observed changes in flood characteristics to high-dyke construction and other possible causes. Maximum water levels and duration above the flood alarm level are analysed for gradual trends and step changes at different discharge gauges. Strong and robust increasing trends of peak water levels and duration downstream of the high-dyke areas are found with a step change in 2000/2001, i.e. immediately after the disastrous flood which initiated the high-dyke development. These changes are in contrast to the negative trends detected at stations upstream of the high-dyke areas. This spatially different behaviour of changes in flood characteristics seems to support the public claims. To separate the impact of the high-dyke development from the impact of the other drivers – i.e. changes in the flood hydrograph entering the Mekong Delta, and changes in the tidal dynamics – hydraulic model simulations of the two recent large flood events in 2000 and 2011 are performed. The hydraulic model is run for a set of scenarios whereas the different drivers are interchanged. The simulations reveal that for the central VMD an increase of 9–13 cm in flood peak and 15 days in duration can be attributed to high-dyke development. However, for this area the tidal dynamics have an even larger effect in the range of 19–32 cm. However, the relative contributions of the three drivers of change vary in space across the delta. In summary, our study confirms the claims that the high-dyke development has raised the flood

  10. Has dyke development in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta shifted flood hazard downstream? (United States)

    Van Khanh Triet, Nguyen; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko


    In the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta (VMD) the areas with three rice crops per year have been expanded rapidly during the last 15 years. Paddy-rice cultivation during the flood season has been made possible by implementing high-dyke flood defenses and flood control structures. However, there are widespread claims that the high-dyke system has increased water levels in downstream areas. Our study aims at resolving this issue by attributing observed changes in flood characteristics to high-dyke construction and other possible causes. Maximum water levels and duration above the flood alarm level are analysed for gradual trends and step changes at different discharge gauges. Strong and robust increasing trends of peak water levels and duration downstream of the high-dyke areas are found with a step change in 2000/2001, i.e. immediately after the disastrous flood which initiated the high-dyke development. These changes are in contrast to the negative trends detected at stations upstream of the high-dyke areas. This spatially different behaviour of changes in flood characteristics seems to support the public claims. To separate the impact of the high-dyke development from the impact of the other drivers - i.e. changes in the flood hydrograph entering the Mekong Delta, and changes in the tidal dynamics - hydraulic model simulations of the two recent large flood events in 2000 and 2011 are performed. The hydraulic model is run for a set of scenarios whereas the different drivers are interchanged. The simulations reveal that for the central VMD an increase of 9-13 cm in flood peak and 15 days in duration can be attributed to high-dyke development. However, for this area the tidal dynamics have an even larger effect in the range of 19-32 cm. However, the relative contributions of the three drivers of change vary in space across the delta. In summary, our study confirms the claims that the high-dyke development has raised the flood hazard downstream. However, it is not

  11. Timing Relation Between Radial and Concentric Offset Dykes at Sudbury, Ontario: A Case Study of the Foy and Hess Offset Dykes (United States)

    Pilles, E. A.; Osinski, G. R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Smith, D.; Bailey, J.


    The Offset Dykes at Sudbury are host to some of the largest Ni-Cu-PGE deposits in the world. This research focuses on understanding better their origin, the timing of emplacement, and how the different phases relate to one another.

  12. Sedimentary dykes in the Oskarshamn-Vaestervik area. A study of the mechanism of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeshoff, Kennert [BBK AB, Solna (Sweden); Cosgrove, John [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Engineering


    This study of the sedimentary dykes from the Oskarshamn-Vaestervik area, near Aespoe and surrounding region, is aimed at understanding the mechanism of their formation. In particular it is important to establish whether or not they formed by the injection of high pressure fluidized sediments and if so what the likely effect of any future over pressured sediments will be on the stability of the fracture network in the basement rocks at Aespoe. This report is made up of a review of the literature on sedimentary dykes, a discussion of the various mechanical models for hydraulic fracturing and a description of the field and laboratory study carried out on the sedimentary dykes. The literature review indicates a remarkable consensus on the mode of formation of these structures based on their fabric (particularly layering generated in part by variation in clast size) and the composition of the infilling material. Two modes of origin have been recognised. These are the passive infilling of dykes where the dyke material has entered an open fracture under the influence of gravity, and active, i.e. forceful injection of a fluidized sediment under high pressure into a pre-existing fracture or into a fracture generated by the high pressure fluid. The discussion of the theory of fluid induced fracturing leads to the recognition of three systems which are the two end members and an intermediate form of a complete spectrum of materials ranging from unconsolidated and incohesive sediments, through cemented but porous rocks to crystalline rocks with no intrinsic porosity and whose only porosity relates to that imparted by the fracture network that the rock contains. The theory best suited to analyses this latter system is one based on fracture mechanics and is known as the theory of external hydraulic fracturing. From the point of view of the sedimentary dykes in the study area around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, where the dykes occur in the fractured granitic basement, this is

  13. Seismic imaging of a Permian-Carboniferous dyke swarm offshore southern Norway (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas; Magee, Craig; Jackson, Christopher; Bell, Rebecca


    Dyke swarms play a fundamental role in continental rifting and breakup. Numerous studies from a range of Earth Science disciplines have demonstrated that extension, in places such as East Africa, can be driven by dyke intrusion. The lack of suitable field outcrops and the typically low-resolution of geophysical imaging techniques however, mean that the 3D structure of dyke-dominated extensional zones remains poorly constrained. Over recent decades, the widespread availability of high-quality 3D seismic reflection data has revolutionized our understanding of magma plumbing systems and the role that magmatism plays in rifting. However, while seismic reflection data is able to resolve sub-horizontal magmatic structures, such as sills, it is often unable to resolve sub-vertical structures, such as dykes. In this study we use borehole-constrained, closely-spaced 2D seismic reflection data from offshore southern Norway to examine a dense swarm of dykes that have been imaged on seismic reflection data following post-emplacement rotation. The swarm has a WSW-ENE orientation and covers a c. 2000 km2 area along the northern margin of the Farsund Basin, a half-graben bound to the south by the N-dipping Fjerritslev Fault System. Within the seismic data dykes are interpreted as prominent high-angle reflections that cross-cut, but do not offset, Permian-Carboniferous strata. The density of these reflections decreases away from the centre of the swarm. Stratigraphically, these high angle reflections cross-cut Permian-Carboniferous strata and are truncated at the base Upper Permian unconformity, constraining the timing of their emplacement as to during the Permian-Carboniferous. We correlate this dyke swarm along-strike to the east to the Permian-Carboniferous Skagerrak-centred Large Igneous Province (LIP), and to the west to the Midland Valley dyke suite, onshore UK, both of which are dated to around 300 Ma. The resultant dyke swarm forms a system over 800 km long and, in our

  14. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo. (United States)

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  15. Global mega forces: Implications for the future of natural resources (United States)

    George H. Kubik


    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of leading global mega forces and their importance to the future of natural resource decisionmaking, policy development, and operation. Global mega forces are defined as a combination of major trends, preferences, and probabilities that come together to produce the potential for future high-impact outcomes. These...

  16. A Perspective on the Lexicographic Value of Mega Newspaper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    Value of Mega Newspaper. Corpora — The Case of Afrikaans in South Africa. D.J. Prinsloo, Department of African Languages, University of Pretoria,. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa ( Abstract: The aim of this article is to assess the potential use of a mega newspaper corpus, the. Media24 archive ...

  17. Petrology and geochronology of a Neoproterozoic dyke swarm from Marbat, South Oman (United States)

    Worthing, M. A.


    A suite of NW-SE trending tholeiitic dykes in the Marbat area of south Oman was emplaced into calc-alkaline gneisses and intrusives during the Neoproterozoic. A three point Sm/Nd isochron from the most primitive sample and an Rb/Sr whole rock isochron together with geological evidence, suggest an intrusion age of about 700 Ma. The dykes form a co-genetic suite ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite. The most primitive rock has an Mg # of 67.48, a Ni content of 268 ppm and Cr of 571 ppm. All rocks in the suite are quartz normative. Initial 143Nd/ 144Nd and 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratios suggest some interaction between the magmas and the continental crust during ascent. Magmatic evolution was controlled by AFC processes involving fractionation of hornblende, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and magnetite. Trace element variation diagrams show negative spikes for Rb, Ta, Nb, Sr and Ti. Nb depletion results in high Th/Nb (0.9) and La/Nb ratios (3.8). Comparison of the Marbat dykes with Neoproterozoic dykes from SW Egypt, Sinai, volcanic rocks from the Andean active continental margin and the Basin and Range Province, a low-Nb dykes suite from New South Wales, Australia and a suite from the Congo shows considerable compositional overlap. These comparisons suggests that the dykes were formed by melting of subduction modified lithospheric mantle and mobilised by crustal extension. The ubiquity of dykes in the ANS showing similar signatures suggests that such modified mantle is regionally developed and results from enrichment is a supra-subduction setting during the Neoproterozoic accretionary phase of the ANS. The mantle shows compositional similarities to lithospheric mantle underlying the western USA. The calc-alkaline geochemistry of the basement gneisses and intrusive suite into which the Marbat were intruded suggest analogy with the Al-Bayda island arc terrane in Yemen. Fracture pattern analysis from Marbat suggests that intrusion of the major swarm may be related to

  18. Rethinking monogamy's nature: From the truth of non/monogamy to a dyke ethics of "antimonogamy". (United States)

    Willey, Angela


    Following Lynne Huffer's work on queer feminism, this abridged essay centers the figure of the lesbian in order to develop a dyke ethics that engenders nuanced thinking about both monogamy and embodiment. The essay reads Alison Bechdel's comic strip, Dykes to Watch Out For, to elaborate a "dyke ethics of anti-monogamy." Grounded in notions of friendship, community, and social justice, this ethics decenters the sexual dyad in a way that polyamory does not. It also insists upon a theoretical and ethical disposition of respect for the simultaneously political and embodied nature of desire. In so doing, it offers first a way of re-thinking the story of monogamy's nature as a naturecultural tale about mononormative desire and further places that desire in a field of relationality that renders its significance as a feature of humanness and an object of scientific inquiry strange.

  19. Alternative high-k dielectrics for semiconductor applications


    Van Elshocht, S.; Adelmann, C.; Clima, S.; Pourtois, G.; Conard, T.; Delabie, A.; Franquet, A.; Lehnen, P.; Meersschaut, J.; Menou, N.; Popovici, M.; Richard, O.; Schram, T.; Wang, X. P.; HARDY, An


    Although the next generation high-k gate dielectrics has been defined for the 45 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology node, threshold voltage control and equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling remain concerns for future devices. Therefore, the authors explored the effect of incorporating dysprosium in the gate stack. Results suggest that improved EOT-leakage scaling is possible by adding Dy to the interfacial SiO2 layer in a 1:1 ratio or by adding 10% Dy to bulk HfO2. The d...

  20. Energy analysis for sustainable mega-cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phdungsilp, Aumnad


    Cities throughout Asia have experienced unprecedented development over the past decades. In many cases this has contributed to their rapid and uncontrolled growth, which has resulted in a multiplicity of problems, including rapid population increase, enhanced environmental pollution, collapsing traffic systems, dysfunctional waste management, and rapid increases in the consumption of energy, water and other resources. The significant energy use in cities is not very well perceived in Asian countries. Although a number of studies into energy consumption across various sectors have been conducted, most are from the national point of view. Energy demand analysis is not considered important at the level of the city. The thesis is focused on the dynamics of energy utilization in Asian mega-cities, and ultimately aims at providing strategies for maximizing the use of renewable energy in large urban systems. The study aims at providing an in-depth understanding of the complex dynamics of energy utilization in urban mega-centers. An initial general analysis is complemented by a detailed study of the current situation and future outlook for the city of Bangkok, Thailand. An integrated approach applied to the study includes identification of the parameters that affect the utilization of energy in mega-cities and a detailed analysis of energy flows and their various subsystems, including commercial, industrial, residential and that of transportation. The study investigates and evaluates the energy models most commonly used for analyzing and simulating energy utilization. Its purpose is to provide a user-friendly tool suitable for decision-makers in developing an energy model for large cities. In addition, a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process has been developed to assess whether or not the energy systems meet the sustainability criteria. A metabolic approach has been employed to analyze the energy flow and utilization in selected Asian mega-cities, including Bangkok

  1. Mega electrorheological phenomena in graphene nanogels

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, Purbarun; Pattamatta, Arvind; Das, Sarit K


    Unprecedentedly massive electrorheology has been reported for dilute graphene nanoflakes based ER fluids that have been engineered as novel, readily synthesizable polymeric gels. Polyethylene glycol based graphene gels have been synthesized and very high ER response, 25,000 percent enhancement in viscosity under influence of electric field, has been observed for low concentration systems 2 wt. percent. The gels overcome several drawbacks innate to ER fluids. The gels exhibit long term stability, high graphene packing ratio which ensures very high ER response and the microstructure of the gels ensure that fibrillation of the graphene nanoflakes under field is undisturbed by thermal fluctuations, further leading to mega ER. The gels exhibit large yield stress handling caliber with yield stress observed as high as 13 kPa at 2 wt. perc. graphene. Detailed investigations on the effects of graphene concentration, electric field strength, imposed shear resistance and transients of electric field actuation on the ER ...

  2. Effect of volcanic dykes on coastal groundwater flow and saltwater intrusion: A field-scale multiphysics approach and parameter evaluation (United States)

    Comte, J.-C.; Wilson, C.; Ofterdinger, U.; González-Quirós, A.


    Volcanic dykes are common discrete heterogeneities in aquifers; however, there is a lack of field examples of, and methodologies for, comprehensive in situ characterization of their properties with respect to groundwater flow and solute transport. We have applied an integrated multiphysics approach to quantify the effect of dolerite dykes on saltwater intrusion in a coastal sandstone aquifer. The approach involved ground geophysical imaging (passive magnetics and electrical resistivity tomography), well hydraulic testing, and tidal propagation analysis, which provided constraints on the geometry of the dyke network, the subsurface saltwater distribution, and the sandstone hydrodynamic properties and connectivity. A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater model coupled with a resistivity model was further calibrated using groundwater and geophysical observations. A good agreement of model simulations with tide-induced head fluctuations, geophysically derived pore water salinities, and measured apparent resistivities was obtained when dykes' hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and effective porosity are respectively about 3, 1, and 1 orders of magnitude lower than the host aquifer. The presence of the dykes results in barrier-like alterations of groundwater flow and saltwater intrusion. Preferential flow paths occur parallel to observed dyke orientations. Freshwater inflows from upland recharge areas concentrate on the land-facing side of the dykes and saltwater penetration is higher on their sea-facing side. This has major implications for managing groundwater resources in dyke-intruded aquifers, including in coastal and island regions and provides wider insights on preferential pathways of groundwater flow and transport in highly heterogeneous aquifer systems.

  3. Groundwater sustainability in Asian Mega city (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.


    Population increased in many Asian coastal cities, and increased demand of groundwater as water resources caused many subsurface environments. Subsurface environmental problems such as land subsidence due to excessive pumping, groundwater contamination and subsurface thermal anomaly, have occurred repeatedly in Asian mega cities with a time lag depending on the development stage of urbanization. This study focus on four subjects; urban, water, heat, and material in subsurface environment, and intensive field observations and data collections had been made in the basins including Tokyo, Osaka, Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Seoul, and Taipei. The new methods for evaluating the changes in groundwater storage by gravimeter measurements in situ and Satellite GRACE, and residence time evaluation by 85Kr and CFCs, have been developed in this study. The combined effects of heat island and global warming from subsurface temperature in Asian mega cities evaluated the magnitude and timing of the urbanization which were preserved in subsurface thermal environment. The effects of law/institution on change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water, have been also investigated. The groundwater is “private water”, on the other hand, the surface water is “public water”. Regulation of groundwater pumping due to serious land subsidence did not work without alternative water resources, and the price of water is another major factor for the change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water. Land use/cover changes at three ages (1940’s, 1970’s and 2000’s) have been analyzed based on GIS with 0.5 km grid at seven targeted cities. The development of integrated indicators based on GIS for understanding the relationship between human activities and subsurface environment have been made in this study. Finally, we address the sustainable use of groundwater and subsurface environments for better future development and human well-being.

  4. Petrogenesis of peralkaline granite dykes of the Straumsvola complex, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Harris, Chris; Dreyer, Tanya; le Roux, Petrus


    Peralkaline syenite and granite dykes cut the Straumsvola nepheline syenite pluton in Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The average peralkalinity index (PI = molecular Al/[Na + K]) of the dykes is 1.20 ( n = 29) and manifests itself in the presence of the Zr silicates eudialyte, dalyite and vlasovite, and the Na-Ti silicate, narsarsukite. The dykes appear to have intruded during slow cooling of the nepheline syenite pluton, and the petrogenetic relationship of the dykes and the pluton cannot be related to closed-system processes at low pressure, given the thermal divide that exists between silica-undersaturated and oversaturated magmas. Major and trace element variations in the dykes are consistent with a combination of fractional crystallization of parental peralkaline magma of quartz trachyte composition, and internal mineral segregation prior to final solidification. The distribution of accessory minerals is consistent with late-stage crystallization of isolated melt pockets. The dykes give an Rb-Sr isochron age of 171 ± 4.4 Ma, with variable initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.7075 ± 0.0032), and have an average ɛ Nd of - 12.0. Quartz phenocrysts have δ18O values of 8.4-9.2‰, which are generally in O-isotope equilibrium with bulk rock. Differences in the δ18O values of quartz and aegirine (average Δquartz-aegirine = 3.5‰) suggest aegirine formation temperatures around 500 °C, lower than expected for a felsic magma, but consistent with poikilitic aegirine that indicates subsolidus growth. The negative ɛ Nd (values averaging 8.6‰ (assuming Δquartz-magma = 0.6‰) are inconsistent with a magma produced by closed-system fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma. By contrast, the nepheline syenite magma had mantle-like δ18O values and much less negative ɛ Nd (average - 3.1, n = 3). The country rock has similar δ18O values to the granite dykes (average 8.0‰, n = 108); this means that models for the petrogenesis of the granites by

  5. An AMS study of magma transport and emplacement mechanisms in mafic dykes from the Etendeka Province, Namibia (United States)

    Wiegand, Miriam; Trumbull, Robert B.; Kontny, Agnes; Greiling, Reinhard O.


    The Henties Bay Outjo dyke swarm (HOD) in NW Namibia is part of the early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province. The dykes are dominantly doleritic, compositionally equivalent to the erupted lava series and thus the HOD provides a look at the feeder systems of a flood basalt province. The subvertical dykes mostly strike NE-SW and minor NW-SE, parallel or perpendicular to the Damara Belt in which they intruded. We present a magnetic fabric study using the anisotropies of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) with the aim to derive magma flow directions and better constrain emplacement mechanisms within the dyke swarm. Magnetic susceptibility and its anisotropy in the dykes is mainly controlled by distribution anisotropy of titanomagnetite that mimics the flow-oriented silicate fabric. The anisotropy is low in most samples, supporting a magmatic origin. In 66 of 110 investigated samples the AMS fabric is ;normal;, with the κmax axis (inferred flow orientation) within the dyke plane. Most samples yielded vertical to subvertical flow orientations regardless of location near or distant from the former rifted margin. The ;anomalous; magnetic fabrics, where κmax is inclined to the dyke plane, are attributed to two mechanisms. One is the single-domain effect of titanomagnetite, which was found by unequal orientations of AMS and AARM fabrics. The other case anomalous fabric is rotation of the AMS axes by shear within the magma, producing symmetric imbrication of AMS fabric on opposite dyke walls; or more commonly, asymmetric magnetic fabrics, which we relate to tectonic shear at the dyke walls during emplacement. Field support for syn-emplacement shear is given by dyke segmentation geometries including locally curved segment tips, en-echelon arrangements and left/right-stepping displacements. Regionally, syn-emplacement shear is consistent with the observed reactivation during Gondwana breakup of

  6. Best Practices from WisDOT Mega and ARRA Projects (United States)


    Since 2004 WisDOT has developed a number of new techniques, methods, processes and procedures for management of two new : types of transportation projects: Mega projects and projects funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of ...

  7. Mechanical Design of the NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H,; Smith, D. R.; Ellis, R.; Labik, G.; Priniski, C.


    The NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic measures small-scale density fluctuations by the heterodyne detection of waves scattered from a millimeter wave probe beam at 280 GHz and {lambda}=1.07 mm. To enable this measurement, major alterations were made to the NSTX vacuum vessel and Neutral Beam armor. Close collaboration between the PPPL physics and engineering staff resulted in a flexible system with steerable launch and detection optics that can position the scattering volume either near the magnetic axis ({rho} {approx} .1) or near the edge ({rho} {approx} .8). 150 feet of carefully aligned corrugated waveguide was installed for injection of the probe beam and collection of the scattered signal in to the detection electronics.

  8. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of proterozoic mafic dykes in north Kerala, southwestern Indian Shield - Preliminary results (United States)

    Radhakrishna, T.; Gopakumar, K.; Murali, A. V.; Mitchell, J. G.


    Mafic dyke intrusions occur in three distinct orientations ( NNW-SSE and NW-SE and NE-SW) in north Kerala regions, the southwestern part of the Indian Shield. Dating of two NNW-SSE trending dykes by K-Ar method has yielded Middle Proterozoic ages (ca. 1660 Ma and ca. 1420 Ma respectively). Our initial geochemical results on these dyke rocks (0.65-0.15 wt pct K2O, 0.37-0.38 wt pct P2O5, 3.30-1.00 wt pct TiO2, 11-1 p.p.m. Rb, 250-90 p.p.m. Sr, 230-40 p.p.m. Ba, 160-40 p.p.m. Zr, and 30-10 x chondrite rare earth elemental abundances) indicate a transitional character between abyssal and plateau tholeiites. Petrogenetic modelling suggests that the dyke compositions have been derived by different degrees of partial melting of a heterogenous source mantle. The mantle sources with accessory amphibole and/or garnet, variably enriched in LREE and LIL elements, are compatible with the observed geochemical data.

  9. Petrology of the prehistoric lavas and dyke of the Barren Island ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 113; Issue 4 ... After a period of peri-calderic hydromagmatic activity, whose deposits presently mantle inner and outer caldera walls, a new phase of intracalderic Vulcanian activities took ... A prominent dyke in the SE inner side of the caldera wall was recognized.

  10. Building phylogenetic trees from molecular data with MEGA. (United States)

    Hall, Barry G


    Phylogenetic analysis is sometimes regarded as being an intimidating, complex process that requires expertise and years of experience. In fact, it is a fairly straightforward process that can be learned quickly and applied effectively. This Protocol describes the several steps required to produce a phylogenetic tree from molecular data for novices. In the example illustrated here, the program MEGA is used to implement all those steps, thereby eliminating the need to learn several programs, and to deal with multiple file formats from one step to another (Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. 28:2731-2739). The first step, identification of a set of homologous sequences and downloading those sequences, is implemented by MEGA's own browser built on top of the Google Chrome toolkit. For the second step, alignment of those sequences, MEGA offers two different algorithms: ClustalW and MUSCLE. For the third step, construction of a phylogenetic tree from the aligned sequences, MEGA offers many different methods. Here we illustrate the maximum likelihood method, beginning with MEGA's Models feature, which permits selecting the most suitable substitution model. Finally, MEGA provides a powerful and flexible interface for the final step, actually drawing the tree for publication. Here a step-by-step protocol is presented in sufficient detail to allow a novice to start with a sequence of interest and to build a publication-quality tree illustrating the evolution of an appropriate set of homologs of that sequence. MEGA is available for use on PCs and Macs from

  11. Geophysical characteristics of Aswa shear, Nagasongola discontinuity and ring dyke complex in Uganda (United States)

    Ruotoistenmäki, Tapio


    During the years 2008-2012, the geology of most of Uganda was studied within the framework of the Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources Project (SMMRP). During the project, comprehensive airborne magnetic and radiometric surveys were flown over the entire country and geological, petrophysical, geochemical sampling, geological field studies and detailed geophysical field profiles were undertaken in selected sub-areas. This report concentrates on the geophysical properties of three major geophysical structures in the area considered during the project: the Pan-African (0.6-0.7 Ga) Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola discontinuity (suture), and the 1.36 Ga Uganda-Tanzania semi-circular ‘ring dyke' complex. The geophysical profiles across the Aswa shear indicate that the fault zone dips steeply, at about 60° to NE. The structure represents a magnetic, gravimetric (density), radiometric and topographic discontinuity, all diminishing from SW to NE across the zone. The zone is also characterized by complex radiometric anomalies. A schematic reconstruction of the evolution of the Aswa shear zone on the magnetic map suggests a nearly 60 km sinistral horizontal component of displacement along the zone. The Nakasongola zone is another distinct magnetic, gravimetric and radiometric discontinuity, interpreted to represent a collision (suture) zone, where the northern, low-magnetic block has been thrust over the southern, denser and more magnetic block. Modeling of gravity and magnetic data are consistent with a geometry in which the southern, magnetic and high-density block dips gently to great depth beneath the northern block. Bedrock exposures in both the Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola zone areas indicate a very protracted and complex history of tectonic processes commencing in the Archaean-Paleoproterozoic era and culminating in Pan-African orogenies. Both, the Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola discontinuity are cut by continuous younger dykes that show no signs of

  12. Petrogenesis and tectonic association of rift-related basic Panjal dykes from the northern Indian plate, North-Western Pakistan: evidence of high-Ti basalts analogous to dykes from Tibet (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Andersen, Jens; Arif, Mohammad


    Rift related magmatism during Permian time in the northern margin of Indian plate is represented by basic dykes in several Himalayan terranes including north western Pakistan. The field relations, mineralogy and whole rock geochemistry of these basic dykes reveal significant textural, mineralogical and chemical variation between two major types (a) dolerite and (b) amphibolite. Intra-plate tectonic settings for both rock types have been interpreted on the basis of low Zr/Nb ratios (tectonic restoration of Gondwana indicate the coeval origin for both dykes from distinct mantle source during continental rifting related to formation of the Neotethys Ocean.

  13. Top, GigaZ, MegaW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Weiglein, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    We review the physics potential of top mass measurements and the GigaZ/MegaW options of the International Linear Collider (ILC) for probing New Physics models and especially the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We demonstrate that the anticipated experimental accuracies at the ILC for the top-quark mass, mt, the W boson mass, M{sub W}, and the effective leptonic weak mixing angle, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff}, will provide a high sensitivity to quantum effects of New Physics. In particular, a new and more precise measurement of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff}, for which the experimental central value is currently obtained from an average where the most precise single measurements differ by more than three standard deviations, could lead to a situation where both the Standard Model and the MSSM in its most general form are ruled out. Alternatively, the precision measurements may resolve virtual effects of SUSY particles even in scenarios where the SUSY particles are so heavy that they escape direct detection at the LHC and the first phase of the ILC. (orig.)

  14. Modeling of leakage currents in high-k dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegert, Gunther Christian


    Leakage currents are one of the major bottlenecks impeding the downscaling efforts of the semiconductor industry. Two core devices of integrated circuits, the transistor and, especially, the DRAM storage capacitor, suffer from the increasing loss currents. In this perspective a fundamental understanding of the physical origin of these leakage currents is highly desirable. However, the complexity of the involved transport phenomena so far has prevented the development of microscopic models. Instead, the analysis of transport through the ultra-thin layers of high-permittivity (high-k) dielectrics, which are employed as insulating layers, was carried out at an empirical level using simple compact models. Unfortunately, these offer only limited insight into the physics involved on the microscale. In this context the present work was initialized in order to establish a framework of microscopic physical models that allow a fundamental description of the transport processes relevant in high-k thin films. A simulation tool that makes use of kinetic Monte Carlo techniques was developed for this purpose embedding the above models in an environment that allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the electronic transport in such films. Existing continuum approaches, which tend to conceal the important physics behind phenomenological fitting parameters, were replaced by three-dimensional transport simulations at the level of single charge carriers. Spatially localized phenomena, such as percolation of charge carriers across pointlike defects, being subject to structural relaxation processes, or electrode roughness effects, could be investigated in this simulation scheme. Stepwise a self-consistent, closed transport model for the TiN/ZrO{sub 2} material system, which is of outmost importance for the semiconductor industry, was developed. Based on this model viable strategies for the optimization of TiN/ZrO{sub 2}/TiN capacitor structures were suggested and problem areas

  15. The dolerite dyke swarm of Mongo, Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa): Geological setting, petrography and geochemistry


    Nkouandou Oumarou Faarouk; Bardintzeff Jacques-Marie; Mahamat Oumar; Fagny Mefire Aminatou; Ganwa Alembert Alexandre


    Dolerite dykes are widespread in the Mongo area within the granitic Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa). Dykes are several hundred metres to several kilometres long, a metre to decametre thick, and vertical, crosscutting the Pan-African granitic basement rocks. They are controlled by major Pan-African NNE-SSW, NE-SW and ENE-WSW faults. Rocks constituting the dykes exhibit typical doleritic textures (i.e. intergranular, ophitic or subophitic). They are mainly composed of phenocrysts, microcrys...

  16. MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. (United States)

    Tamura, Koichiro; Dudley, Joel; Nei, Masatoshi; Kumar, Sudhir


    We announce the release of the fourth version of MEGA software, which expands on the existing facilities for editing DNA sequence data from autosequencers, mining Web-databases, performing automatic and manual sequence alignment, analyzing sequence alignments to estimate evolutionary distances, inferring phylogenetic trees, and testing evolutionary hypotheses. Version 4 includes a unique facility to generate captions, written in figure legend format, in order to provide natural language descriptions of the models and methods used in the analyses. This facility aims to promote a better understanding of the underlying assumptions used in analyses, and of the results generated. Another new feature is the Maximum Composite Likelihood (MCL) method for estimating evolutionary distances between all pairs of sequences simultaneously, with and without incorporating rate variation among sites and substitution pattern heterogeneities among lineages. This MCL method also can be used to estimate transition/transversion bias and nucleotide substitution pattern without knowledge of the phylogenetic tree. This new version is a native 32-bit Windows application with multi-threading and multi-user supports, and it is also available to run in a Linux desktop environment (via the Wine compatibility layer) and on Intel-based Macintosh computers under the Parallels program. The current version of MEGA is available free of charge at (


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Mu


    Full Text Available This paper uses the intercity migration flows to examine relations between Chinese cities, identify the important mega-city regions and measure each region's polycentricity from an interaction perspective. Data set contains the long-term residential migration trajectories of three million Sina weibo users across 345 cities. Cities with close connectivity deployed around one or several mega cities are identified as mega-city regions. Features of the mega-city regions are characterized by the strength of migration flows, density of connections, and regional migration patterns. The results show that the disparities exist in different mega-city regions; most mega-city regions are lack of polycentricity.

  18. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrișan


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  19. Evolution of the scholarly mega-journal, 2006-2017. (United States)

    Björk, Bo-Christer


    Mega-journals are a new kind of scholarly journal made possible by electronic publishing. They are open access (OA) and funded by charges, which authors pay for the publishing services. What distinguishes mega-journals from other OA journals is, in particular, a peer review focusing only on scientific trustworthiness. The journals can easily publish thousands of articles per year and there is no need to filter articles due to restricted slots in the publishing schedule. This study updates some earlier longitudinal studies of the evolution of mega-journals and their publication volumes. After very rapid growth in 2010-2013, the increase in overall article volumes has slowed down. Mega-journals are also increasingly dependent for sustained growth on Chinese authors, who now contribute 25% of all articles in such journals. There has also been an internal shift in market shares. PLOS ONE, which totally dominated mega-journal publishing in the early years, currently publishes around one-third of all articles. Scientific Reports has grown rapidly since 2014 and is now the biggest journal.

  20. Plagioclase crystal size distribution in some tholeiitic mafic dykes in Cabo Frio-Buzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (United States)

    Ngonge, E. Donald; Archanjo, C. J.; Hollanda, M. H. B. M.


    Crystal size distribution (CSD) has been constrained in plagioclase in two mafic dykes of the Conchas Beach and one at the Lagoinha Beach in the Cabo Frio-Buzios NE-trending dyke swarm. At contact with the metamorphic basement the texture is fine-grained and microporphyritic and intergranular at the center of the larger dykes. Samples were collected at the margins and at the center of the dykes. The plagioclase average characteristic size (C) varies from 0.07 to 0.13 mm at the margins of the narrow dykes and from 0.09 to 0.20 mm at the margins of the larger dyke. At the center of the Lagoinha and Conchas dykes C varies from 0.19 ± 0.02 mm and 0.60 ± 0.07 mm respectively. The CSDs at the dyke margins are concave-up. At the center of the larger Conchas dyke (8.2 m), the CSD is log-linear, consistent with simple steady-state crystallization pattern. From the mineralogy the plagioclase phenocrysts have a high An content (bytownite-labradorite) than the groundmass grains (labradorite-andesine). At the margins olivine is richer in Fo than at the center, and respectively, pyroxene is richer in Ca. These results indicate that the chilled margin is more mafic than the center suggesting a normal chemical evolution in a cooling magma that ascended upward from depths by Newtonian to pseudoplastic flow. The concave-up CSDs probably depict heterogeneous crystallization rates possibly induced by depressurization during the magma ascent followed by rapid cooling. The log-linear CSD pattern at the center of the Conchas dyke (8.2 m width) is attributed to a higher residence time of the magma which favors the processes of chemical diffusion and textural re-equilibration. From the calculated cooling rates the larger Conchas dyke (8.2 m in width) would be completely crystallized (at ~ 900 °C) in about 2 years.

  1. Radial patterns of bitumen dykes around Quaternary volcanoes, provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, Argentina (United States)

    Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leith, Leslie; Loseth, Helge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Leanza, Hector A.; Zanella, Alain


    Where the Neuquén Basin of Argentina abuts the Andes, hundreds of veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) are visible at the surface. Many of these veins became mines, especially in the last century. By consensus, the bitumen has resulted from maturation of organic-rich shales, especially the Vaca Muerta Fm of Late Jurassic age, but also the Agrio Fm of Early Cretaceous age. To account for their maturation, recent authors have invoked regional subsidence, whereas early geologists invoked magmatic activity. During 12 field seasons (since 1998), we have tracked down the bitumen localities, mapped the veins and host rocks, sampled them, studied their compositions, and dated some of them. In the provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, the bitumen veins are mostly sub-vertical dykes. They tend to be straight and continuous, crosscutting regional structures and strata of all ages, from Jurassic to Palaeocene. Most of the localities lie within 70 km of Tromen volcano, although four are along the Rio Colorado fault zone and another two are at the base of Auca Mahuida volcano. On both volcanic edifices, lavas are of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age. Although regionally many of the bitumen dykes tend to track the current direction of maximum horizontal tectonic stress (ENE), others do not. However, most of the dykes radiate outward from the volcanoes, especially Tromen. Thicknesses of dykes tend to be greatest close to Tromen and where the host rocks are the most resistant to fracturing. Many of the dykes occur in the exhumed hanging walls of deep thrusts, especially at the foot of Tromen. Here the bitumen is in places of high grade (impsonite), whereas further out it tends to be of medium grade (grahamite). A few bitumen dykes contain fragments of Vaca Muerta shale, so that we infer forceful expulsion of source rock. At Curacó Mine, some shale fragments contain bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and these contain some bitumen, which is

  2. Controls on sill and dyke-sill hybrid geometry and propagation in the crust: The role of fracture toughness (United States)

    Kavanagh, J. L.; Rogers, B. D.; Boutelier, D.; Cruden, A. R.


    Analogue experiments using gelatine were carried out to investigate the role of the mechanical properties of rock layers and their bonded interfaces on the formation and propagation of magma-filled fractures in the crust. Water was injected at controlled flux through the base of a clear-Perspex tank into superposed and variably bonded layers of solidified gelatine. Experimental dykes and sills were formed, as well as dyke-sill hybrid structures where the ascending dyke crosses the interface between layers but also intrudes it to form a sill. Stress evolution in the gelatine was visualised using polarised light as the intrusions grew, and its evolving strain was measured using digital image correlation (DIC). During the formation of dyke-sill hybrids there are notable decreases in stress and strain near the dyke as sills form, which is attributed to a pressure decrease within the intrusive network. Additional fluid is extracted from the open dykes to help grow the sills, causing the dyke protrusion in the overlying layer to be almost completely drained. Scaling laws and the geometry of the propagating sill suggest sill growth into the interface was toughness-dominated rather than viscosity-dominated. We define KIc* as the fracture toughness of the interface between layers relative to the lower gelatine layer KIcInt / KIcG. Our results show that KIc* influences the type of intrusion formed (dyke, sill or hybrid), and the magnitude of KIcInt impacted the growth rate of the sills. KIcInt was determined during setup of the experiment by controlling the temperature of the upper layer Tm when it was poured into place, with Tm intermediate hybrid structures.

  3. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India


    Randive Kirtikumar; Hurai Vratislav


    Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xen...

  4. Integrated geophysical approach in assessing karst presence and sinkhole hazard along flood-protection dykes of the Loire River, Orléans, France (United States)

    Samyn, Kévin; Mathieu, Francis; Bitri, Adnand; Nachbaur, Aude; Closset, Luc


    Non-invasive geophysical methods are often used for detecting near-surface defects and monitoring seepage in river dykes or dams. Between 2006 and 2011, a series of geophysical experiments were conducted to detect karst features below the dykes of the Loire River, Orléans, France. Multi-channel analysis of seismic surface waves (MASW) was used to obtain the shear wave velocity (Vs) profile of the subsurface below the dykes. As an effective approach for investigating the structure of the dykes, multi-channel resistivity surveys were also used to evaluate the electrical properties of material inside and under the dykes. This study discusses the exploration strategy and results for several sections of the dyke system. Based on the experimental data, Vs contours are used to geometrically and qualitatively describe the subsurface under the dykes and identify areas of mechanical weakness corresponding to karst features, while resistivity contours allow the distinguishing of interactions between karsts and the dykes through the identification of areas of flowing material to the depth. Known and unknown anomalies are identified. A practical approach that combines seismic and electric resistivity results is proposed to assess karst presence and sinkhole hazard along the investigated dykes using a susceptibility index. As a validation method, areas of strong karst susceptibility index along the dykes are compared to known collapse event (sinkholes, breaches, dolines) locations, available in databases.

  5. Toulouse dykes: reducing failure hazard combining structural reinforcement works and organization measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatier Jérémy


    Temporary mitigation measures have already been included in the flood management plan, and consist in preventive evacuation of exposed population for flood levels lower than the 1875 reference flood level, as long as the reinforcement works are not completed. Several additional mitigation measures have been proposed such as: structural reinforcement of a few dykes section, a vegetation management plan, and improvement measures of the flood management plan and the need to continue regular training emergency exercises.

  6. Structure of mega-hemocyanin reveals protein origami in snails. (United States)

    Gatsogiannis, Christos; Hofnagel, Oliver; Markl, Jürgen; Raunser, Stefan


    Mega-hemocyanin is a 13.5 MDa oxygen transporter found in the hemolymph of some snails. Similar to typical gastropod hemocyanins, it is composed of 400 kDa building blocks but has additional 550 kDa subunits. Together, they form a large, completely filled cylinder. The structural basis for this highly complex protein packing is not known so far. Here, we report the electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of mega-hemocyanin complexes from two different snail species. The structures reveal that mega-hemocyanin is composed of flexible building blocks that differ in their conformation, but not in their primary structure. Like a protein origami, these flexible blocks are optimally packed, implementing different local symmetries and pseudosymmetries. A comparison between the two structures suggests a surprisingly simple evolutionary mechanism leading to these large oxygen transporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding and using technological affordances: a commentary on Conole and Dyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Boyle


    Full Text Available The paper by Conole and Dyke sets the context by pointing to a number of problems that inhibit the widespread, effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT to support learning. They argue that this situation highlights the need to explore a theoretical basis for the use of ICT to support learning. The central argument of the paper is that the notion of affordances can make a significant contribution to this endeavour. The paper aims to articulate the potential impact of these affordances primarily through the development of a taxonomy. It draws on social constructivist theory to help understand and articulate the impact of these affordances. The concept of affordances is potentially both rich and provocative. Conole and Dyke provide a refreshing and diverse look at the theoretical basis for the use of ICT to support learning. We have structured our commentary around six questions that are provided by Conole and Dyke in their Discussion section. Whilst examining these questions we highlight various issues raised by the paper, which we believe, need further consideration and clarification.

  8. Mesozoic dykes and sills from Uruguay: Sr - Nd isotope and trace element geochemistry (United States)

    Muzio, Rossana; Peel, Elena; Porta, Natalia; Scaglia, Fernando


    The Mesozoic mafic intrusions in Uruguay comprise dykes and sills grouped as the Cuaró Formation. They are mainly distributed along the southern portion of the Paraná basin, and they are considered part of the Paraná Magmatic Province. They crop out as typically grey moderately altered dykes and sills, characterized by glomero-porphyritic textures, with clusters of plagioclase and occasional clinopyroxene, set in a fine-grained groundmass composed by labradorite, augite and titaniferous magnetite. We present new lithogeochemical results particularly regarding Sr - Nd isotopes to discuss petrogenetic processes. All samples have high 87Sr/86Sr (0.71160-0.70781) and low 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512274-0.512585), with epsilon Nd(0) between -4.37 and -7.1. TDM model ages, calculated for 130 Ma, are composed of approximately 1.41-1.61 Ga, except for one dyke with 1.29 Ga. The isotopic data allow their classification as derived from the Gramado magma-type. Trace element geochemistry and isotopic data indicate that the primary magma would be a product of an enriched mantle source with a strong crustal signature, probably due to inherited subduction components and/or assimilation processes.

  9. Events and mega events: leisure and business in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Paiva


    Full Text Available The promotion of events and mega events mobilizes at the same time, in a concatenated way or not, leisure and business practices, which are captured by the tourism industry as a stimulus for the reproduction of capitalism, by the amount of other activities which raise (primary, secondary and tertiary , placing the architecture and the city as protagonists in contemporary urban development. In this sense, the article analyzes the articulation of events and mega events to the provision of architecture and urban infrastructure, as well as the construction of the tourist image of the places, motivated by leisure and business activities. The methodological procedures have theoretical and exploratory character and have multidisciplinary intentions. This will be discussed, in a historical perspective, the concepts of leisure and business activities that raise as moving or traveling; next it will be delimited similarities and differences between tourism events and business tourism, entering after the analysis of the distinctions between events and mega events, highlighting the complexity and the role of mega-events as a major symptom of globalization; finally it will be presented the spatial scale developments in architecture and the city in the realization of (mega events, as well as its impact on the city's image. As a synthesis, it is important to notice that spatial developments business tourism, events and mega events are manifested in various scales and with different levels of complexity, revealing the strengths and / or weaknesses of the places. The urban planning, architecture and urbanism are important objects of knowledge and spatial intervention to ensure infrastructure and urban and architectural structures appropriate for events, which should be sensitive to the demands of tourists and host communities.

  10. South African mega-events and their impact on tourism


    Karly Spronk; Johan Fourie


    The 2010 FIFA World Cup, one of the largest mega-sport events, has stirred renewed interest in the benefits that a host country can derive from these events. While most predict a large increase in the number of tourist arrivals, the recent international literature suggest that ex ante studies are often too optimistic. South Africa has played host to numerous mega-events since 1994. Using a time-series auto-regressive model, we identify increases in tourism numbers for most of these events, co...

  11. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Age Comparison Between the South Carolina Dykes and Morocco Lava Flows (United States)

    Youbi, N.; Nomade, S.; Breutel, E.; Knight, K.


    Believed to be the largest volcanic province on Earth at more than 6000 km long and 2000 km wide, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) stretches from Eastern Canada to Brazil and from Western Spain to the Ivory Coast. Due to the massive erosion and subsequent in filling of these areas since the 200 Ma rifting event, dikes and sills constitute the majority of the exposed CAMP volcanics. However, well preserved lava flows have been found in the Triassic basins of the Northeastern United States and Morocco. Despite numerous 40Ar/39Ar dating attempts, very few of the exposed CAMP volcanics have been successfully dated due to a variety of factors including; excess argon and alteration. Especially no age is available in the well-mapped but structurally complex South and North Carolina dykes swarm as well as only few scattered ages in the Moroccan Trias-Liassic basins. Our goal is to better constrain the emplacement timing of the dykes swarm but also to compare age of both intrusive and effusive rocks from the same magmatic event but separated from more than 1000 km, 200 Mys ago. Several questions continue to surround the CAMP volcanic province including its cause and emplacement mechanism. Toward that end we have collected and dated dyke samples from the Carolinas and flows in Morocco, 1000 km away and across the rift. We anticipate that a comparison of these dates will enable us to understand more about the timing between the emplacement of the flows and dykes. We have collected in South Carolina and High Atlas in Morocco 7 and 9 hand samples respectively. Specimens from South Carolina correspond to the three distinct dykes' direction NE-SW, NW-SE and NS. In Morocco, samples were collected in four sections (100 to 300 m thick) located in the High Atlas between Marrakech and Ouarzazate. From each hand sample two different transparent plagioclase fractions, 250-180 and 180 to 100 microns, were separated. We have performed step heating experiments at the Berkeley

  12. Late Cretaceous dacitic dykes swarm from Central Iran, a trace for amphibolite melting in a subduction zone (United States)

    Nosouhian, N.; Torabi, G.; Arai, S.


    Late Cretaceous Bayazeh dyke swarm is situated in the western part of the Central-East Iranian Microcontinent (CEIM). These dykes with a dominant northeast-southwest trend occur in the Eastern margin of the Yazd block. They cross cut the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The length of the Bayazeh dykes occasionally reaches up to the 2 km. Rock forming minerals of these dykes are plagioclase (andesine and oligoclase), amphibole (magnesio-hastingsitic hornblende, magnesio-hornblende and tschermakitic hornblende), quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase), zircon and apatite. Secondary minerals are chlorite (pycnochlorite), albite, magnetite and calcite. The main textures are porphyritic, glomeroporphyritic and poikilitic. The felsic character of the Bayazeh dacitic dykes is shown by their high SiO2 (62.70 to 64.60 wt %) and low [Fe2O3* + MgO + MnO + TiO2] (average 4.64 wt %) contents. These dykes represent the peraluminous to metaluminous nature and their Na2O and K2O values are 5.20-7.14 and 1.51-2.59 wt %, respectively, which reveal their sodic chemistry. The trace element characteristics are the LREE enrichment relative to HREE, [La/Yb]CN = 13.27-22.99, and slightly negative or positive Eu anomaly. These geochemical characteristics associated with low Nb/La (0.16-0.25), Yb/Nd (0.04-0.05) and high Zr/Sm (37.60-58.25) ratios indicate that the melting of a metamorphosed subducted oceanic crust is occurred where the residual mineral assemblage is dominated by garnet amphibolite. The chemical compositions of the Bayazeh dykes resemble those of slab-derived tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) series. They were formed by subduction of Mesozoic Neo-Tethys -related Nain and Ashin oceanic crusts.

  13. Paleomagnetism and geochronological studies on a 450 km long 2216 Ma dyke from the Dharwar craton, southern India (United States)

    Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.; Kumar, Anil; Srinivas Sarma, D.


    Paleomagnetic and geochronological studies were carried out on a ∼ 450 km long (from 17 sites) N-S striking Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm exposed along a natural crustal cross section of about 10 km (increasing from North to South) in the Dharwar Craton, to study the characteristics of paleomagnetism and geochronology in vertical dimension. U-Pb/Pb-Pb dating on baddeleyite gives a crystallisation age of 2216.0 ± 0.9 Ma for long dyke AKLD. Paleomagnetic data from this well dated ∼ 2216 Ma dyke swarm in Dharwar Craton are of excellent quality. High coercivity and high blocking temperature components are carried by single domain magnetite and show dual polarity remanence directions. Combined normal and reverse polarity remanences on AKLD and other N-S dykes define the most reliable paleomagnetic pole for ∼ 2216 Ma at latitude 36°S and longitude 312°E (A95 = 7°). Though paleomagnetic data is unavailable on other N-S dykes below the Cuddapah basin, high precision geochronology suggest that they are of similar age within errors. Though there is a variation in the crustal depth of Dharwar craton from north to south, consistent Pb-Pb/U-Pb baddeleyite geochronology and paleomagnetic studies along the AKLD established its continuity and preservation along its entire strike length. The virtual geomagnetic poles of these sites confirm a stable remanence and are almost identical to the previously reported paleomagnetic pole and also supported by positive reversal test. Positive paleomagnetic reversal test on these dykes signify that the remanent magnetization is primary and formed during initial cooling of the intrusions. Updated apparent polar wander path of Dharwar craton indicates relatively low drift rate during 2.21-2.08 Ga interval. Magnetogranulometry and SEM studies show that remanent magnetization in this dyke was carried by single domain magnetite residing within silicate minerals.

  14. A Perspective on the Lexicographic Value of Mega Newspaper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to assess the potential use of a mega newspaper corpus, the Media24 archive, in the absence of large balanced and representative corpora, for the compilation of major general dictionaries for Afrikaans. Firstly, an evaluation of Media24 against the lemmalists of both a major single-volume and a ...

  15. Dyke-sill relationships in Karoo dolerites as indicators of propagation and emplacement processes of mafic magmas in the shallow crust (United States)

    Coetzee, A.; Kisters, A. F. M.


    This paper describes the spatial and temporal relationships between Karoo-age (ca. 180 Ma) dolerite dykes and a regional-scale saucer-sill complex from the Secunda (coal mine) Complex in the northeastern parts of the Karoo Basin of South Africa. Unlike parallel dyke swarms of regional extensional settings, mafic dykes commonly show curved geometries and highly variable orientations, short strike extents and complex cross-cutting and intersecting relationships. Importantly, the dyke networks originate from the upper contacts of the first-order dolerite sill-saucer structure and are not the feeders of the saucer complex. Cross-cutting relationships indicate the largely contemporaneous formation of dykes and the inner sill and inclined sheets of the underlying saucer. Systematic dykes form a distinct boxwork-type pattern of two high-angle, interconnected dyke sets. The formation and orientation of this dyke set is interpreted to be related to the stretching of roof strata above elongated magma lobes that facilitated the propagation of the inner sill, similar to the ;cracked lid; model described for large saucer complexes in Antarctica. Dyke patterns generally reflect the saucer emplacement process and the associated deformation of wall rocks rather than far-field regional stresses.

  16. The mega-event syndrome: why so much goes wrong in mega-event planning and what to do about It


    Müller, Martin


    Problem, research strategy, and findings: Mega-events such as the Olympic Games and the Football World Cup have become complex and transformative under- takings over the last 30 years, with costs often exceeding USD $10 billion. These events are currently planned and governed in ways that produce adverse effects for cities, regions, and residents. This study identifies a mega-event syndrome, a group of symptoms that occur together and afflict mega-event planning, including overpromising benef...

  17. Smart optimization for mega construction projects using artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz


    Full Text Available During practicing the planning process, scheduling and controlling mega construction projects, there are varieties of procedures and methods that should be taken into consideration during project life cycle. Accordingly, it is important to consider the different modes that may be selected for an activity in the scheduling, for controlling mega construction projects. Critical Path Method “CPM” is useful for scheduling, controlling and improving mega construction projects; hence this paper presents the development of a model which incorporates the basic concepts of Critical Path Method “CPM” with a multi-objective Genetic Algorithm “GA” simultaneously. The main objective of this model is to suggest a practical support for compound horizontally and vertically mega construction planners who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration and its cost with maximizing its quality simultaneously. Proposed software is named Smart Critical Path Method System, “SCPMS” which uses features of Critical Path Method “CPM” and multi-objective Genetic Algorithms “GAs”. The main inputs and outputs of the proposed software are demonstrated and outlined; also the main subroutines and the inference wizards are detailed. The application of this research is focused on planning and scheduling mega construction projects that hold a good promise to: (1 Increase resource use efficiency; (2 Reduce construction total time; (3 Minimize construction total cost; and (4 Measure and improve construction total quality. In addition, the verification and validation of the proposed software are tested using a real case study.

  18. Complicated and messy politics of inclusion: Michfest and the Boston Dyke March. (United States)

    Trigilio, Jo


    To illustrate the challenge of political organizing that grapples with identity politics and inclusion, I focus on two women-centered annual events with very different politics of inclusion: the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival and the Boston Dyke March. (1) arguments made by marginalized people for inclusion into established oppressed identity groups must be constructed with due care to avoid further marginalizing yet other liminal identities; (2) protesting/boycotting other oppressed groups for the purpose of achieving inclusion is often a problematic strategy; (3) the most effective strategy for honoring all people is to support organizations committed to the ideal of inclusion.

  19. New U-Pb ages from dykes cross-cutting the Demirci metamorphics, NW Turkey: Implications for multiple orogenic events (United States)

    Sen, Fatih; Koral, Hayrettin; Peytcheva, Irena


    A high-grade metamorphic sequence in the Sünnice Mountains, Bolu, NW Turkey, is represented by migmatitic quartzo-feldspathic gneisses in amphibolite facies called the Demirci metamorphics/paragneisses, and a sequence of low-grade meta-volcanics containing meta-andesites with minor meta-rhyolites and meta-sedimentary rocks called the Yellice meta-volcanics. They are intruded by the Dirgine granite with an age of Upper Ediacaran (576-565 Ma) and are considered a part of the İstanbul-Zonguldak Tectonic Unit. The Demirci paragneisses are also intruded by a number of dykes in various directions, traditionally considered without radiometric dating to have been emplaced in a single magmatic phase in the Eocene related to post-collision regime of the Anatolide-Tauride platform. Mafic-intermediate-felsic dykes cross-cutting the Demirci paragneisses have been investigated in maps of 1/1000 scale, and their U-Pb zircon age, major-trace element and kinematic data have been obtained. The mafics dykes cross-cutting the Yellice meta-volcanics, equivalents of those in the Demirci paragneisses, occur in N400-500E orientations and have calc-alkaline basalt compositions with a subduction signature. The intermediate dykes occur in N650W, N800W orientations and have calc-alkaline basaltic andesite to andesitic compositions with a subduction signature. Some felsics occur in N150W and N800E orientations and have calc-alkaline dacitic compositions with a collisional tectonic setting. Other calc-alkaline granitic dykes occur in N750E orientation and calc-alkaline granitic compositions with a subduction signature. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of zircons yield ages from 485.7±3.6 Ma (i.e. Cambro-Ordovician) for N800E trending dacite dykes; 443.0±5.4 Ma (i.e. Ordovician-Silurian) for N150W trending dacite dykes; 301.0±1.6 Ma (i.e. Upper Pennsylvanian-Carboniferous) for N650W trending basaltic andesite dykes; 268.2±2.4 Ma (i.e. Guadalupian-Permian) for N40-500E trending basalt dykes; 262.9±3

  20. Magma storage and evolution in the Henties Bay-Outjo dyke swarm, Namibia -feeder systems of the Etendeka lavas (United States)

    Keiding, J. K.; Frei, O.; Renno, A.; Veksler, I. V.; Trumbull, R. B.


    At the roots of continental flood basalts in the Paraná-Etendeka province are mafic dyke swarms that cover areas of several hundred kilometers. Studies of these dykes have focused mainly on the age, paleomagnetic properties and geochemistry, but less on pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions of emplacement. However, the P and T conditions under which dyke magmas are stored are crucial for models of magma plumbing systems in flood basalt provinces. The erupted lavas are typically far from primitive compositions and generally show evidence for strong crustal assimilation in addition to magma fractionation. Unknown is where this magma modification took place in the crust. This is the kind of information that dyke studies can provide. The Henties Bay Outjo dyke swarm (HOD) in NW Namibia is the subject of this study. This is inarguably the best exposed of major dyke swarms associated with South Atlantic rifting and breakup and its geochemical diversity is well documented but aspects relating to the magma dynamics in the dyke swarm have not been studied before. Our approach is to use geochemical data from selected dykes to assess the differentiation and assimilation history of the magmas, and combine that with petrologic constraints on the temperature-pressure conditions of crystallization derived from mineral-melt equilibria. We have determined P-T estimates from olivine-melt and clinopyroxene-melt equilibria using analysis of phenocrysts by electron microprobe and applying the thermodynamic relations from Putirka (2008), who considered the standard error to be 1.7 kbar and 30°C. The calculations reflect only mineral-melt (proxied by whole-rock) compositions that are consistent with equilibrium. Crystallization temperatures range from 1040°C to 1350°C with a mean (n=58) of 1170 °C. These T-variations are not random, the high-temperature results come from a specific region of dyke emplacement but the reason for this is not yet clear. Olivine-melt temperatures

  1. Onset of seafloor spreading in the Iapetus Ocean at 608 Ma: precise age of the Sarek Dyke Swarm, northern Swedish Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Olaf


    The Sarek Dyke Swarm (SDS) crops out in the Sarektjåkkå Nappe (SN) of the Seve-Kalak Superterrane in the northern Swedish Caledonides. The SN has two main components: (1) a 4–5 km thick succession of rift-related sedimentary rocks, which is intruded by (2) a suite of tholeiitic dykes (the SDS) co...

  2. Familial aplasia cutis congenita associated with mega-cisterna magna. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Park, Tae Sung; Choi, Yong-Sung; Cho, Eun-Hae


    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC; MIM 107600) is a congenital skin disorder that manifests as localized absence of skin. Here we report a case of familial ACC and mega-cisterna magna. A female neonate was born with skin defects on the scalp. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated retrocerebellar space widening suggesting mega-cisterna magna. Her father also had a skin defect on the scalp at birth, and brain computed tomography of the father showed a cystic lesion over the right occipital lobe, similar to the patient's brain imaging. Karyotype 46,XX, t(6;18)(q23.2;q11.2) was identified on G-banded karyotype analysis of the patient and her father, after which whole exome sequencing was carried out, but this was thought to be a coincidental finding. This indicates that ACC may be associated with brain anomaly, although it is very rare. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Parole, Sintagmatik, dan Paradigmatik Motif Batik Mega Mendung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi - Nababan


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Discussing traditional batik is related a lot to the organization system of fine arts element ac- companying it, either the pattern of the motif or the technique of the making. In this case, the motif of Mega Mendung Cirebon certainly has patterns and rules which are traditionally different from the other motifs in other areas. Through  semiotics analysis especially with Saussure and Pierce concept, it can be traced that batik with Cirebon motif, in this case Mega Mendung motif, has parole and langue system, as unique fine arts language in batik, and structure of visual syntagmatic and paradigmatic. In the context of batik motif as fine arts language, it is surely related to sign system as symbol and icon.       Keywords: visual semiotic, Cirebon’s batik.

  4. Pesticides in soil and sediment of a dyke-protected area of the Red River Delta, Vietnam (United States)

    Braun, Gianna; Bläsing, Melanie; Kruse, Jens; Amelung, Wulf; Renaud, Fabrice; Sebesvari, Zita


    Coastal regions are densely populated but at the same time represent important agricultural areas for food production of the growing world population. To sustain high agricultural yields, in monocultures such as permanent rice systems, pesticides are used in high quantity and frequency. While earlier studies monitored the fate of pesticides in paddy rice systems, the overall fate of these compounds is altered nowadays due to the construction of dykes, which are needed in many delta regions to protect them from high tides, storm surges and salt water intrusion such as in the Red River Delta. The dyke system regulates the discharge and water exchange inside the diked area including irrigation channels for the paddy rice production. Local authorities observed increasing pollution towards the sea (highest pollution close to the dykes) and hypothesized that the dyke system would prevent water exchange and thus lead to an accumulation of pollutants within the diked area. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dykes on pesticide pollution patterns in coastal delta regions of the Red River Delta. The study was conducted in the district Giao Thuy of the Red River Delta, Vietnam. This area is surrounded by a sea and river dyke; both have several inlet and outlet gates to control the water level in the irrigation channels. We determined the pesticide pollution pattern in a diked agricultural area, as well as along salinity gradients in and outside the diked areas. Samples were taken from rice fields and sediments from irrigation channels inside the diked area as well from saline aquaculture fields located outside the dyke. Pesticide analysis was conducted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), followed up by the clean-up process described by Laabs et al. (2007) and analyses using gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector (MSD). Preliminary results suggest that out of the 26 analysed compounds chlorpyrifos, propiconazole and

  5. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Pallister, John S.


    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.; McCausland, W.A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Lu, Z.; Zahran, H.M.; El, Hadidy S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I.C.F.; Lundgren, P.R.; White, R.A.; Moufti, M.R.H.


    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.

  7. Open-Access Mega-Journals: A Bibliometric Profile. (United States)

    Wakeling, Simon; Willett, Peter; Creaser, Claire; Fry, Jenny; Pinfield, Stephen; Spezi, Valérie


    In this paper we present the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of eleven open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs are a relatively recent phenomenon, and have been characterised as having four key characteristics: large size; broad disciplinary scope; a Gold-OA business model; and a peer-review policy that seeks to determine only the scientific soundness of the research rather than evaluate the novelty or significance of the work. Our investigation focuses on four key modes of analysis: journal outputs (the number of articles published and changes in output over time); OAMJ author characteristics (nationalities and institutional affiliations); subject areas (the disciplinary scope of OAMJs, and variations in sub-disciplinary output); and citation profiles (the citation distributions of each OAMJ, and the impact of citing journals). We found that while the total output of the eleven mega-journals grew by 14.9% between 2014 and 2015, this growth is largely attributable to the increased output of Scientific Reports and Medicine. We also found substantial variation in the geographical distribution of authors. Several journals have a relatively high proportion of Chinese authors, and we suggest this may be linked to these journals' high Journal Impact Factors (JIFs). The mega-journals were also found to vary in subject scope, with several journals publishing disproportionately high numbers of articles in certain sub-disciplines. Our citation analsysis offers support for Björk & Catani's suggestion that OAMJs's citation distributions can be similar to those of traditional journals, while noting considerable variation in citation rates across the eleven titles. We conclude that while the OAMJ term is useful as a means of grouping journals which share a set of key characteristics, there is no such thing as a "typical" mega-journal, and we suggest several areas for additional research that might help us better understand the current and future role of OAMJs in

  8. The Church Mountain Sturzstrom (Mega-Landslide), Glacier, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.R.; Easterbrook, D.J. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    Detailed investigation of an ancient sturzstrom or mega-landslide near Glacier, Washington has revealed it areal extent, approximate volume, age, geomorphology, source area, and possible causes. Stratigraphic and lithologic investigations indicate Church Mountain as the source area; therefore, this mega-landslide has been named the Church Mountain Sturzstrom (CMS). The CMS deposit is approximately 9 km in length, averages about 1 km in width, and has an estimated volume of 3 [times] 10[sup 8] m[sup 3]. Characteristics of the morphology and stratigraphy of the CMS deposit are suggestive of a sturzstrom origin, and may be indicative of sturzstrom elsewhere in the world. The overall stratigraphy of the deposit mimics the stratigraphy of the source area. The deposit is very compact, poorly sorted, matrix supported, and composed of highly angular clasts. Over steepening of the mountain due to glacial erosion may have contributed to the cause of failure, although the age of the CMS is at least 7,000 years younger than deglaciation. Four trees were C[sup 14] dated, yielding ages of about 2,700 B.P. for the CMS. Several other mega-landslides have been identified within 5--30 km of the CMS. The close proximity of these mega-landslides to the CMS suggests the possibility that they may have been triggered by an earthquake, although the ages of the other slides are currently unknown. The age of the CMS correlates approximately with age ranges of co-seismic events occurring along the west coast of Washington, further suggesting the possibility of an earthquake triggering mechanism.

  9. From Ephemeral Planning to Permanent Urbanism: An Urban Planning Theory of Mega-Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kassens-Noor


    Full Text Available Mega-events like the Olympic Games are powerful forces that shape cities. In the wake of mega-events, a variety of positive and negative legacies have remained in host cities. In order to bring some theoretical clarity to debates about legacy creation, I introduce the concepts of the mega-event utopia, dystopia and heterotopia. A mega-event utopia is ideal and imaginary urbanism embracing abstract concepts about economies, socio-political systems, spaces, and societies in the host during events. The mega-event utopia (in contrast to other utopian visions other stakeholders may hold is dictated by the desires of the mega-event owners irrespective of the realities in the event host. In short, a mega-event utopia is the perfect event host from the owner’s perspective. Mega-event utopias are suggested as a theoretical model for the systematic transformation of their host cities. As large-scale events progress as ever more powerful transformers into this century, mega-event dystopias have emerged as negatives of these idealistic utopias. As hybrid post-event landscapes, mega-event heterotopias manifest the temporary mega-event utopia as legacy imprints into the long-term realities in hosting cities. Using the Olympic utopia as an example of a mega-event utopia, I theorize utopian visions around four urban traits: economy, image, infrastructure and society. Through the concept of the mega-event legacy utopia, I also provide some insight toward the operationalization of the four urban traits for a city’s economic development, local place marketing, urban development, and public participation.

  10. When is a Tsunami a Mega-Tsunami? (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.; Goto, K.


    The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami is commonly called a mega-tsunami, and this attribute has also been linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. However, since this term was first coined in the early 1990's there have been very few attempts to define it. As such it has been applied in a rather arbitrary fashion to a number of tsunami characteristics, such as wave height or amplitude at both the source and at distant locations, run-up height, geographical extent and impact. The first use of the term is related to a tsunami generated by a large bolide impact and indeed it seems entirely appropriate that the term should be used for such rare events on geological timescales. However, probably as a result of media-driven hyperbole, scientists have used this term at least twice in the last decade, which is hardly a significant portion of the geological timescale. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that these recent unexpectedly large events do not fall in the category of mega-tsunami but into a category of exceptional events within historical experience and local perspective. The use of the term mega-tsunami over the past 14 years is discussed and a definition is provided that marks the relative uniqueness of these events and a new term, appropriately Japanese in origin, namely that of souteigai-tsunami, is proposed. Examples of these tsunamis will be provided.

  11. Optimizing MicroMegas Design for Experiments in Nuclear Clustering (United States)

    Levano, Joseph


    An Active Target Time Projection chamber is a detector which uses a gaseous target to simultaneously track charged particles from nuclear reactions and are important for radioactive beam experiments. MicroMegas are an important part of this detector because they give us the position data needed to track these particles. Charged particles create free electrons from ionization of the gas and these electrons are drifted towards the Micromegas, where they are turned into an electronic signal that is read by the front-end electronics. The arrangement of the copper strips on the MicroMegas are key to experiments because it is closely related to the resolution of our measurements. We need to test these prototypes in our ND Cube Active Target Chamber in order to see which design is most effective. Using Altium Designer, I have begun designing a prototype MicroMegas with concentric rings of pads centered around a cluster of hexagonal pads. This design allows us to maximize resolution by maximizing the number of pads for the surface area of the board, and, by using 8 octet pads to create a ring, we increase the amount of pads in each circle. I will present the results of our first design and the outlook for future studies and designs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. B. Garay


    Full Text Available This paper describes the state of the art of a simplified model for integration of services in mega events. The project context, which was financed by the National Research Council – CNPq, is divided into six major areas or functional groups: Urban Mobility, Tourism, Airports, Security, Energy and Telecommunications. The proposal is described in layers, as an infrastructure model of integration and services evaluation, describing its main layers and interaction processes. The proposal described in this paper is restricted to the telecommunication subproject, however, in the modeling of the scenario for the study case, it was necessary to considerate requirements and variables that are common to all subprojects. In the specification process of these requirements, we noticed important processes that interact with some sectors in the city of São Paulo, however, in the mean time, we noticed some failures regarding the integration and collaboration performed by administrators elements of stadiums as main focus in the mega event and part of our case study. Currently, the proposal is in its first version as open software for the evaluation of the services quality and the mega event infrastructure through the use of performance indicators.

  13. Aspectos da miocardite em chagásicos crônicos com "megas" e sem "megas" com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida


    Full Text Available O estudo microscópico de 20 corações de chagásicos com "megas" e de outros 20 sem "megas" com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC revelou que tanto a Jibrose quanto o exsudato inflamatório no miocárdio são discretos nos casos de "megas" e geralmente acentuados nos casos de ICC. Considerando-se que nos "megas" a ICC, a hipertrofia do miocárdio e a lesão vorticilar são fenômenos raros, nossos achados (atuais e anteriores sugerem que estes estejam relacionados principalmente com a agressão inflamatória ao miocárdio ventricular, uma vez que a desnervação é, geralmente, mais acentuada nos casos de "megas" que nos de ICC.

  14. Tratamento cirúrgico do megaesôfago recidivado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Braga de Aquino

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico em uma série de pacientes submetidos ao tratamento prévio para megaesôfago que evoluíram com recidiva de sintomas. MÉTODO: Analisou-se os resultados das diversas técnicas operatórias realizadas em 47 pacientes pelo Serviços de Cirurgia Geral e Torácica do HMCP-PUC-Campinas. A morbidade pós-cirúrgica, mortalidade, o alívio ou nova recidiva de sintomas e o tempo de seguimento foram os principais indicadores. Dividiu-se a série em três grupos, de acordo com o grau da afecção: Incipiente (nove casos, Não-avançado (18 casos e avançado (20 casos. As técnicas operatórias utilizadas foram: à cardiomiectomia com fundoplicatura anterior, esofagocardioplastia à Tahl, esofagocardioplastia à Serra-Dória, Esofagectomia Subtotal e Mucosectomia com conservação da túnica muscular esofágica. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se índices de resolutividade satisfatórios com a técnica de cardiomiectomia com fundoplicatura para o megaesôfago Incipiente, com baixa morbidade. Nos megaesôfago não-avançado, as cardiopatias, em especial a esofagocardioplastia à Serra-Dória mostram se mais adequadas. A terapêutica do megaesôfago avançado apresentou as maiores taxas de morbidade e demonstrou superioridade das técnicas mais agressivas em relação às técnicas conservadoras, em especial a mucosectomia com preservação da túnica muscular, sendo esta a técnica com menor morbidade dentro do grupo avançado. CONCLUSÃO: A difícil padronização do tratamento cirúrgico do megaesôfago recidivado deve-se às inúmeras técnicas disponíveis, às habilidades pessoais dos cirurgiões e atenta para a criação de protocolos terapêuticos.

  15. High performance trench MOS barrier Schottky diode with high-k gate oxide (United States)

    Zhai, Dong-Yuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Cai, Yin-Fei; Shi, Yi; Zheng, You-Liao


    A novel trench MOS barrier Schottky diode (TMBS) device with a high-k material introduced into the gate insulator is reported, which is named high-k TMBS. By simulation with Medici, it is found that the high-k TMBS can have 19.8% lower leakage current while maintaining the same breakdown voltage and forward turn-on voltage compared with the conventional regular trench TMBS. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00607), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61106089 and 61376097), and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LR14F040001).

  16. Between Discourse and Reality: The Un-Sustainability of Mega-Event Planning


    Christopher Gaffney


    The zero-sum nature of mega-event hosting encourages cities to escalate investment with an eye towards convincing event rights holders that a positive outcome will result. The discursive frameworks of “legacy” and “sustainability”, the global competition to attract events and the compressed event horizon make for mega-event preparation regimes that may seriously compromise long-term urban planning agendas in mega-event hosts. By examining the sustainable urban planning literature, the discurs...

  17. Geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Kekem dyke swarm (Western Cameroon): Insights into Paleozoic-Mesozoic magmatism and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Tchaptchet, Depesquidoux Tchato; Wambo, Nicole Armelle Simeni; Kouamo, Noël Aimé Keutchafo; Tchouankoué, Jean-Pierre; Cucciniello, Ciro


    The broadly N70°-90°E-trending dykes swarm at Kekem cut across the Paleoproterozoic-to-Achean terranes of West Cameroon remobilized during the Pan-African orogeny. They are picrite basalts and basalts with tholeiitic/transitional affinity, as shown by mineralogical and geochemical data, with variable major and trace element contents, MgO ranges from 7.3 to 12.4 wt.%, Cr from 190 to 411 ppm, Ni from 15 to 234 ppm. All the dykes are light REE enriched with LaN/YbN values of 5.3-8.1, suggesting a co-magmatic origin. They originated from a 2.8% partial melting of a spinel-mantle source with no or little crustal input. The geochemical features of Kekem dykes are similar to those of Paleozoic and Mesozoic dykes recorded in North and Central Africa, suggesting multiple reactivations of pre-existing fractures that resulted in the fragmentation of western Gondwana and the opening of Central and South Atlantic Oceans.

  18. The role of the dyke in recreational activities along the Wadden Sea area in vicinity of Delfzijl (Groningen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarah Christiane Mokrusch; Fabio Bühlmann; Birgit Steinkellner; Fanny Brommer; Sina Walter; Aylin Gürkaya; Lilly Ihl


    This research addresses the question on how Delfzijl can take advantage of the dykes referred to recreational activities within the next five years. In order to investigate this problem statement, the elaboration was started with the definition of research questions and secondary research. Here,

  19. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome: case report of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly and hypoplastic left middle cerebral artery


    Piro, Ettore; Piccione, Maria; Marrone, Gianluca; Giuffr?, Mario; Corsello, Giovanni


    Prenatal ultrasonographic detection of unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly arises suspicion of pathological condition related to cerebrospinal fluid flow obstruction or cerebral parenchimal pathology. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a rare condition characterized by cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, skull and facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiparesis, cognitive impairment and seizures. Congenital and acquired types are recognized and have been described, mainly in late childhood...

  20. Mafic dyke swarms of the Bastar Craton, central India: geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotopes and tectonic implications (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Yi; Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Raghvan Hari, Kosiyathu; Viswakarma, Neeraj


    The Archean Bastar Craton of central India which is demarcated by Godivari rift in the west, Mahanadi rift in the east, Narmada-Son rift in the north and the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt in the south was intruded by several generations of mafic dyke swarms during the Precambrian, with most of the dykes NW-SE to WNW-ESE trending. The dyke swarms can be subdivided into three main groups: the Meso-Neoarchean sub-alkaline mafic dykes (BD1), Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic boninite-norite dykes (BN) and Paleoproterozoic sub-alkaline mafic dykes (BD2). In the present work, an attempt has been made to constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the dykes in the Bhanupratapur area of central Bastar Craton. Petrographically, the dykes are metabasites / metadolerites that experienced hydrothermal alteration, as most of the samples are moderately to highly altered. Primary minerals were replaced but still retain the original igneous texture (ophitic). The least-altered samples contain orthopyroxene, plagioclase, secondary amphibole, secondary quartz and some euhedral Fe-Ti oxides. The dykes can be classified into two groups according to major element data. Petrographically, the two groups cannot be clearly distinguished. Group 1 is sub-alkaline basalt (SiO2 = 51 wt%) with low magnesium (MgO = 4.6 to 7.2 wt%), low Mg-number (Mg# ≤ 53) and higher titanium (TiO2 ≥ 0.83 wt%). Group 2 is sub-alkaline basaltic andesite and has boninitic characteristics with higher silica (SiO2 = 51 to 56 wt%), higher magnesium (MgO = 5.9 to 19.1 wt%), higher Mg-number (Mg# = 50 to 79) and lower titanium (TiO2 ≤ 0.8 wt%). The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Group 1 show variability in the light rare earth elements (La/SmN = 1.2 to 2.4). Group 2 exhibit light rare earth element enrichment (La/YbN = 2.2 to 10.4). The Sm-Nd isochron age of Group 1 is approximately 1.9 Ga, with the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7029 to 0.7058 and ɛNd(t) values range from-0.9 to +1.8. Group 1

  1. Is a Successful High-K Fitness Strategy Associated with Better Mental Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Giosan


    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between a high-K fitness strategy and mental health. These associations were tested on a sample of 1400 disaster workers who had exposure to a singular traumatic event and who underwent psychological evaluations. The results showed that high-K was an important negative predictor of psychopathology, accounting for significant variance in PTSD, general psychopathology, functional disability, anger, and sleep disturbances. Implications of the results are discussed.

  2. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome-like picture in a case of Takayasu arteritis: an enigma (United States)

    Roy, Krishnendu; Talukdar, Arunansu; Ray, Sayantan; Pal, Partha


    Authors describe the case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with fever, tonic–clonic seizures, unequal arm blood pressures and pulselessness in the left upper limb. On examination, there was a systolic bruit over umbilical region, a pansystolic murmur of mitral regurgitation was found. Neurological examination was normal except for an asymmetry in brain hemicircumference one side compared with the other. She has borderline intelligence (IQ 70) according to Wechsler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain revealed atrophic of left cerebral hemisphere with mildly ventricular dilatation, prominent paranasal and mastoid air cells, suggestive of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS). Conventional angiography showed narrowed left internal carotid artery. There was also stenosed brachial artery, absent left renal artery with narrowed infrarenal abdominal aorta. The patient was put on antihypertensive drugs. We hypothesise that Takayasu arteritis and related vascular occlusion is the cause of her acquired cerebral changes. PMID:22967682

  3. Palaeointensity determinations on rocks from the Achaean- Paleoproterozoic dykes from the Karelian craton (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Valera; Shcherbakova, Valentina; Lubnina, Natalia; Zhidkov, Grigory; Tsel'movich, Vladimir


    The Karelian craton was a fragment of either an earlier late Archean supercontinent, sometimes referred to as Kenorland. Now the craton is a large Archean composite granite-greenstone terrane in the eastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield bounded by Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian orogen in the south-west and by Lapland-Kola orogen in the north-east and Belomorian province in the east-north-east. Mafic dykes, volcanic rocks, sills, and layered intrusions with ages of ca. 2.51-2.45 Ga and ca. 2.06-1.95 Ga are widespread and well-studied in the Karelian Craton. Paleointensity (Banc) results obtained on the Shala dike (age of 2504 Ma by U-Pb, ID TIMS) tracked near vl. Shala and on the Deda island are discussed here. Eighteen block samples of gabbronotires were collected in two sites in the Shala quarry. Stepwise thermal demagnetization (≤ 20 steps, up to 600 C) and stepwise AF demagnetization were done. To monitor possible mineralogical changes during thermal cleaning, magnetic susceptibility was measured after each heating step. Intensive rock magnetic investigations and thermal palaeointensity experiments using the Thellier-Coe (with check-points) and Wilson procedures were carried out. Electronic microscopy study of two samples was made too. For the exception of a viscous component some specimens from the contact zone of the gabbronorite dyke with thin dolerite dyke show two distinct components. The first E-NE intermediate-down direction component was separated at fields up to 50-60 mT and unblocking temperatures up to 520-540 C. The other S-SE low-down direction component is separated at fields from 60 to 100 mT and unblocking temperatures from 540 to 590-600 C. Based on the positive contact tests for the gabbronorite dyke, the S-SE shallow inclination remanence (I = -5.7 degrees) is interpreted to be of primary origin. Reliable palaeointensity determinations Banc fitting a set of selection criteria were determined on 13 samples from 2 sites carrying

  4. On precisely modelling surface deformation due to interacting magma chambers and dykes (United States)

    Pascal, Karen; Neuberg, Jurgen; Rivalta, Eleonora


    Combined data sets of InSAR and GPS allow us to observe surface deformation in volcanic settings. However, at the vast majority of volcanoes, a detailed 3-D structure that could guide the modelling of deformation sources is not available, due to the lack of tomography studies, for example. Therefore, volcano ground deformation due to magma movement in the subsurface is commonly modelled using simple point (Mogi) or dislocation (Okada) sources, embedded in a homogeneous, isotropic and elastic half-space. When data sets are too complex to be explained by a single deformation source, the magmatic system is often represented by a combination of these sources and their displacements fields are simply summed. By doing so, the assumption of homogeneity in the half-space is violated and the resulting interaction between sources is neglected. We have quantified the errors of such a simplification and investigated the limits in which the combination of analytical sources is justified. We have calculated the vertical and horizontal displacements for analytical models with adjacent deformation sources and have tested them against the solutions of corresponding 3-D finite element models, which account for the interaction between sources. We have tested various double-source configurations with either two spherical sources representing magma chambers, or a magma chamber and an adjacent dyke, modelled by a rectangular tensile dislocation or pressurized crack. For a tensile Okada source (representing an opening dyke) aligned or superposed to a Mogi source (magma chamber), we find the discrepancies with the numerical models to be insignificant (translates into surprisingly large errors when inverting deformation data for source parameters such as depth and volume change. Beyond 8 radii however, we demonstrate that the summation of analytical sources represents adjacent magma chambers correctly.

  5. How to make mega-cities energy efficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoshitaka


    Tokyo is a Megalopolis with 40 million+ population. It has an energy efficient profile due to its uniqueness as extensive mass rail transit networks, high density and compact urban formation, compact space oriented life style. The other feature is extensive use of electric heat pumps (EHP), which entails low carbon city profile. Further possibility is prepared with water thermal energy utilization, which is widely available also through EHP particularly in Tokyo central districts, which could make Tokyo one of the lowest carbon cities in the world. Emerging mega-cities are expected to learn from Tokyo's success and not from western conventional models.

  6. 1.99 Ga mafic dykes of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland: An upper age limit for the Palaeoproterozoic Loch Maree Group (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Prave, Tony; Spencer, Christopher


    Mafic dyke swarms are often used as geochronological markers, as they are widespread and emplaced over short timespans. The ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke swarm is one such example that has played a key role in understanding the complex tectonic and metamorphic history of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland (LGC), part of the North Atlantic Craton (NAC). The LGC consists of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic terranes that experienced polyphase deformation prior to their assembly at ca. 1.8 Ga. Zircons separated from a doleritic dyke from the Gairloch terrane have yielded a concordant U-Th-Pb age (1,989 +4.3 / -0.99 Ma) using the ID-TIMS method. The doleritic dyke is emplaced in Lewisian gneiss that experienced both granulite and amphibolite-facies metamorphism. Partial recrystallisation and amphibolitisation of the dyke demonstrate that it pre-dates the most recent (Laxfordian) amphibolite-facies metamorphic event. The age obtained from the dyke overlaps the U-Pb age of a previously dated olivine gabbro dyke from the Assynt terrane (1,992 Ma). These combined ages provide strong corroborating evidence for a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm event, distinct from the older ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke event known from elsewhere in the LGC. The existence of a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm provides an upper age limit for the Loch Maree Group (LMG), a Palaeoproterozoic succession of metasediment and metavolcanic rocks that overlie the LGC and which are not cross-cut by the Scourie dykes. This study proposes that a period of crustal extension took place in the region at ca. 2.0 Ga. Later, subduction may have resulted in the accretion of the LMG and the adjacent Ard Gneiss, which has previously been regarded as a magmatic arc. The ca. 1.9 Ga age of the earliest stage of the Laxfordian metamorphic event, which affected the LMG, could therefore mark the onset of collision. This sequence of events can be correlated with other coeval areas of the NAC, including the Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt of

  7. Mega-Analysis of School Psychology Blueprint for Training and Practice Domains (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Kanive, Rebecca; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Parker, David C.


    Meta-analytic research is an effective method for synthesizing existing research and for informing practice and policy. Hattie (2009) suggested that meta-analytic procedures could be employed to existing meta-analyses to create a mega-analysis. The current mega-analysis examined a sample of 47 meta-analyses according to the "School…

  8. Local meanings of a sport mega-event's legacies : Stories from a South African urban neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, Maikel; van den Bergh, Marjolein; van Eekeren, Frank


    Studies on sport mega-events and their legacies often seem only loosely connected to local experiences. Stories on sport mega-event legacy appear as a setting-the-scene or function as a reference to illustrate specific types of legacy. However, stories themselves are never the primary focus in these

  9. Mega-events in India, Brazil, and South Africa: Lessons for safer cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 13, 2016 ... Hosting global events is a popular strategy for boosting city profiles and spurring economic development. But these mega-events produce winners and losers, as infrastructure projects and private sector development compete for space in established neighbourhoods. Most research on mega-events has ...

  10. Mega sport event legacies and the 2010 FIFA World Cup | Swart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both developing and developed countries are attracted to hosting mega sport events. The FIFA World Cup is regarded as a prestigious event and for the first time in its history Africa hosted the 2010 tournament in South Africa. There are considerable debates pertaining to the capability of developing countries to host mega ...

  11. High-K isomers as probes of octupole collectivity in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, P.M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Minkov, N. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The influence of the octupole deformation on the structure of high-K isomeric states in the region of heavy even-even actinide nuclei is studied through a reflection asymmetric deformed shell model (DSM). Two-quasiparticle states with high-K values are constructed by taking into account the pairing effect through a DSM + BCS procedure with constant pairing interaction. The behaviour of two-quasiparticle energies and magnetic dipole moments of K{sup {pi}=}6{sup +}, 6{sup -} and 8{sup -} configurations, applicable to mass numbers in the range A=234-252, was examined over a wide range of quadrupole and octupole deformations. A pronounced sensitivity of the magnetic moments to the octupole deformation is found. The result suggests a possibly important role for high-K isomers in determining the degree of octupole deformation in heavy actinide nuclei.

  12. Diffusion controlled corona growth in mafic dykes from Southern Granulite Terrain, India and their petrological implications (United States)

    Banerjee, Ayoti; Banerjee, Meenakshi; Dutta, Upama; Sengupta, Pulak; Bhui, Uttam K.; Rajagopal, Anand; Mukhopadhyay, Dhruba


    Diffusion controlled corona growth in mafic dykes from Southern Granulite Terrain, India and their petrological implications Metamorphosed garnetiferous mafic dykes from Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) are found intruding the high grade Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic felsic orthogneiss and their retrogressed equivalent. They contain phenocrysts of clinopyroxene (Cpx) and plagioclase (Pl) that preserve ophitic, subophitic and intergranular textures. The clinopyroxene contains closely spaced cleavage-parallel exsolution lamellae of orthopyroxene (Opx) and tiny rods of Fe-Ti oxides. Orthopyroxene is also found around clinopyroxene as granular exsolution. Large grains of Fe-Ti oxides occur within the interstitial space. Garnet (Grt) and quartz (Qtz) form at the contact of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The product minerals are found as symplectite and/or corona rimming the reactants. In the corona, quartz always occurs near clinopyroxene whereas garnet forms close to the plagioclase. The proportions of garnet and quartz in symplectite are fairly constant and range from 75:25 to 70:30 (vol %). Similar coronitic texture is exhibited by amphibole (Amp) and quartz. Thin amphibole+quartz corona forms between plagioclase and clinopyroxene where amphibole occurs near plagioclase and quartz near clinopyroxene, though the rock is dominated by garnet over amphibole in the corona. Corona of garnet/amphibole is also found on Fe-Ti oxides at the contact of plagioclase and the products show TiO2 enrichement when they occur near Fe-Ti oxides. Formation of hydrous amphibole from anhydrous minerals necessitates the system to be open to H2O. Additionally, balanced chemical reactions for Pl+Cpx=Grt+Qtz and Pl+Cpx=Amp+Qtz require Fe+2 incorporation to explain the observed volume proportion of the product minerals. Formation of garnet/amphibole near plagioclase and quartz near clinopyroxene indicate restricted mobility of Al and Si within the reaction domain. Preferential enrichment of TiO2

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging depiction of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis: Report of two cases. (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjana; Joshi, Sandeep; Mittal, Amit; Luthra, Ishita; Mittal, Puneet; Verma, Vibha


    Acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, also known as hemispheric atrophy, is characterized by loss of volume of one cerebral hemisphere from an insult in early life. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to dysfunction/atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere which is secondary to contralateral supratentorial insult. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis.

  14. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm in the structure of the Middle Paleozoic Vilyui rift system (Siberian Craton) (United States)

    Kiselev, A. I.; Konstantinov, K. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Ivanov, A. V.


    The formation of the Vilyui rift system in the eastern Siberian Craton was finished with breakdown of the continent and formation of its eastern margin. A characteristic feature of this rift system is the radial distribution of dyke swarms of basic rocks. This peculiarity allows us to relate it to the breaking processes above the mantle plume, the center of which was located in the region overlain in the modern structure by the foreland of the Verkhoyan folded-thrust belt. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm is the southern part of a large area of Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism in the eastern Siberian Craton. The OIB-like geochemical characteristics of dolerite allow us to suggest that the melting substrate for Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism was represented by a relatively homogeneous, mid-depleted mantle of the plume with geochemical parameters similar to those of OIB.

  15. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Upper Triassic appinite dykes in the East Kunlun orogenic belt, northern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ma, Chang-Qian; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lian-Xun; Zhao, Shao-Qing; Yan, Rong; Sun, Yang; Xiong, Fu-Hao


    This paper presents geochronological, mineralogical, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for recently identified Upper Triassic appinite dyke swarms in the East Kunlun orogenic belt (EKOB), northern Tibetan Plateau. Zircon U-Pb isotopic analyses using SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS techniques yield 206Pb/238U ages of 226.1 ± 1.9 Ma and 226.4 ± 3.5 Ma, which can be interpreted as the crystallization ages of the appinite dykes. All the samples are characterized by high Al2O3 contents, enrichments in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and strong depletions in Nb, Ta, Ti and P. These characteristics are comparable to those of subduction-related calc-alkaline high-Al basalts. Delayed plagioclase nucleation caused by relatively high-pressure conditions and high H2O contents is the most likely interpretation of the high Al contents. The geochemical and isotopic variations suggest that the appinite dykes were derived from partial melting of a mixed mantle source consisting of enriched lithospheric mantle and MORB-type asthenospheric mantle and had experienced some degree of crustal contamination during migration through continental crust. The appinite dykes are associated with previously documented, contemporaneous high-Ba-Sr and/or high-Sr/Y granites (225-223 Ma) derived from thickened mafic lower crust. These rocks provide important constraints on the compositional variations in the orogenic lithospheric mantle during the Late Triassic and provide evidence of a post-collisional environment associated with lithospheric delamination or slab break-off.

  16. Permeability of sheeted dykes beneath oceanic ridges: Strain experiments coupled with 3D numerical modeling of the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus


    Coelho,Gabriel; Branquet, Yannick; Sizaret, Stanislas; Arbaret, Laurent; Champallier, Rémi; Rozenbaum, Olivier


    International audience; Permeability laboratory measurements under in-situ pressures, temperature and strain have been performed on three different diabase alteration facies (metadiabase, chloritized diabase, epidosite) from the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus. This aims to study the relations between hydrodynamics, deformation and hydrothermal reaction in the sheeted dyke complex beneath oceanic ridges. The use of water as pore fluid in these experiments favors hydrothermal fluid-rock interactions...

  17. Basaltic dykes of the Eastern Belt of Peninsular Malaysia: The effects of the difference in crustal thickness of Sibumasu and Indochina (United States)

    Ghani, Azman A.; Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin


    Basaltic dykes of Peninsular Malaysia are confined to the Eastern Belt (Indochina/East Malaya block) as compared with the Western Belt (Sibumasu Block). The dyke intruded through a crustal fracture formed by stress developed from the evolution of two offshore basins (Malay and Penyu basins) east of Peninsular Malaysia. The Ar-Ar dating from the present study combined with the previous geochronological data indicate that the ages of dykes range from 79 ± 2 Ma to 179 ± 2 Ma. Thus it is difficult to correlate the dykes with the closure of Tethys during Permo-Triassic time because of the younger age of the dykes. The majority of the dykes exposed in the Eastern Belt may have been attributed to the difference of crustal thickness between the Eastern and Western belt of Peninsular Malaysia. A thicker Western Belt crust (13 km more than both Eastern and Central belts) is difficult to rupture with normal plate tectonic stress and therefore serves to contain the rise of a mantle derived melt. The chemistry indicates the basalts are olivine to quartz normative and are of the continental within-plate category.

  18. Quasi 2D hydrodynamic modelling of the flooded hinterland due to dyke breaching on the Elbe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang


    Full Text Available In flood modeling, many 1D and 2D combination and 2D models are used to simulate diversion of water from rivers through dyke breaches into the hinterland for extreme flood events. However, these models are too demanding in data requirements and computational resources which is an important consideration when uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques is used to complement the modeling exercise. The goal of this paper is to show the development of a quasi-2D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1D but the discretisation of the computational units are in 2D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in the hinterland due to dyke breaching without a large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. A 2D representation of the flow and velocity fields is required to model sediment and micro-pollutant transport. The model DYNHYD (1D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations. The model was extended to incorporate the quasi-2D approach and a Monte-Carlo Analysis was used to conduct a flood sensitivity analysis to determine the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions to the resulting water flow. An extreme flood event on the Elbe River, Germany, with a possible dyke breach area was used as a test case. The results show a good similarity with those obtained from another 1D/2D modeling study.

  19. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard (United States)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko


    Flooding in the Mekong Delta is an annual phenomenon causing inundation of large parts of the delta. This flooding is vital for the geomorphological stability of the delta, but is also the backbone of the highly productive agro-economy. However, extraordinary high floods are on the other hand a major hazard for the millions of people living in the delta. Therefore large scale developments of hydraulic structures took place in the Vietnamese part of the delta in the last decades. Particularly in the areas prone to deep and long lasting inundations many flood protection structures, mainly dykes, were built. These structures enable a blocking of inundation in large parts of these areas and by this the cropping of a third crop per year during the flood season. However, these structures are frequently blamed for increasing water levels in the areas downstream. Thus this study aimed at the investigation and attribution of changes in flood hazard in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) due to high-dyke construction in deep flood prone areas, mainly in An Giang and Dong Thap provinces. This analysis started with the estimation of monotonic trends at key gauging stations in the delta: Kratie at the apex of the Mekong delta; Tan Chau and Chau Doc in the VMD just upstream of the areas with high-dyke construction; and Can Tho and My Thuan, located downstream of the high-dyke areas. The tests were undertaken assuming different magnitudes of errors in the data using historical records from 1978 - 2015, using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimation. The obtained trends were thus tested for robustness against data errors. In order to obtain a better understanding of trends in the flood dynamics, the tests are performed on both flood peak and flood duration. In addition, the Pettitt test was applied to identify step changes in the water level data at 4 gauge stations located in the VMD. After the trend analysis, the impacts of high-dyke development were quantified with the

  20. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome: case report of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly and hypoplastic left middle cerebral artery. (United States)

    Piro, Ettore; Piccione, Maria; Marrone, Gianluca; Giuffrè, Mario; Corsello, Giovanni


    Prenatal ultrasonographic detection of unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly arises suspicion of pathological condition related to cerebrospinal fluid flow obstruction or cerebral parenchimal pathology. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a rare condition characterized by cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, skull and facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiparesis, cognitive impairment and seizures. Congenital and acquired types are recognized and have been described, mainly in late childhood, adolescence and adult ages. We describe a female infant with prenatal diagnosis of unilateral left ventriculomegaly in which early brain MRI and contrast enhanced-MRI angiography, showed cerebral left hemiatrophy associated with reduced caliber of the left middle cerebral artery revealing the characteristic findings of the Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. Prenatal imaging, cerebral vascular anomaly responsible for the cerebral hemiatrophy and the early clinical evolution have never been described before in such a young child and complete the acquired clinical descriptions in older children. Differential diagnosis, genetic investigations, neurophysiologic assessments, short term clinical and developmental follow up are described. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome must be ruled out in differential diagnosis of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly. Early clinical assessment, differential diagnosis and cerebral imaging including cerebral MRI angiography allow the clinicians to diagnose also in early infancy this rare condition.

  1. The dolerite dyke swarm of Mongo, Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa): Geological setting, petrography and geochemistry (United States)

    Nkouandou, Oumarou Faarouk; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Mahamat, Oumar; Fagny Mefire, Aminatou; Ganwa, Alembert Alexandre


    Dolerite dykes are widespread in the Mongo area within the granitic Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa). Dykes are several hundred metres to several kilometres long, a metre to decametre thick, and vertical, crosscutting the Pan-African granitic basement rocks. They are controlled by major Pan-African NNE-SSW, NE-SW and ENE-WSW faults. Rocks constituting the dykes exhibit typical doleritic textures (i.e. intergranular, ophitic or subophitic). They are mainly composed of phenocrysts, microcrysts and microlites of clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, alkali feldspar and Fe-Ti oxides. Mongo dolerites are classified into two groups: Group 1 of basalt and trachybasalt and Group 2 of basaltic trachyandesite, which follow a trend with continental tholeiite affinities, and are differentiated through fractional crystallization. Trace element enrichment and REE contents show the high melting degree at shallow depths of enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle, whose composition is intermediate between OIB and MORB, contaminated by small amounts of sediment during older subduction. Mongo dolerites are interpreted as imprints of either the final stage of stabilization of ancient continental crust, or the initiation of tectonic activity related to Pan-African mobile belts.

  2. The dolerite dyke swarm of Mongo, Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa: Geological setting, petrography and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkouandou Oumarou Faarouk


    Full Text Available Dolerite dykes are widespread in the Mongo area within the granitic Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa. Dykes are several hundred metres to several kilometres long, a metre to decametre thick, and vertical, crosscutting the Pan-African granitic basement rocks. They are controlled by major Pan-African NNE-SSW, NE-SW and ENE-WSW faults. Rocks constituting the dykes exhibit typical doleritic textures (i.e. intergranular, ophitic or subophitic. They are mainly composed of phenocrysts, microcrysts and microlites of clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, alkali feldspar and Fe-Ti oxides. Mongo dolerites are classified into two groups: Group 1 of basalt and trachybasalt and Group 2 of basaltic trachyandesite, which follow a trend with continental tholeiite affinities, and are differentiated through fractional crystallization. Trace element enrichment and REE contents show the high melting degree at shallow depths of enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle, whose composition is intermediate between OIB and MORB, contaminated by small amounts of sediment during older subduction. Mongo dolerites are interpreted as imprints of either the final stage of stabilization of ancient continental crust, or the initiation of tectonic activity related to Pan-African mobile belts.

  3. Bilayer Polymer Metacomposites Containing Negative Permittivity Layer for New High-k Materials. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Zhicheng; Mao, Fan; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Xin


    Polymer matrix high-k composites are of considerable interest in various electronic devices, such as capacitors, antennas, actuators, etc. However, how to enhance the permittivity without elevating the loss remains a challenge for us. Here we present a novel design of bilayer high-k metacomposites consisting of two stacked single layers with positive permittivity and negative permittivity. Interestingly, the bilayer system shows an obvious permittivity boost effect with a permittivity improved by a 40-fold increase compared with the polymer matrix, while maintaining a loss tangent as low as 0.06. Further calculation results indicate that the permittivity of the bilayer composites could be enhanced by 4000-fold or even a greater increase as compared with the polymer matrix via balancing the dielectric properties of single layers. Insights into how the thickness ratios and dielectric properties of single layers interfere with the dielectric performances of bilayer composites were discussed. This study provides a new route for the design of high-k materials, and it will have great significance on the development of dielectric materials. Hopefully, multilayer high-k metacomposites with fascinating dielectric performances could be achieved via balancing the dielectric properties of single layers.

  4. Mega numbers, lobbying and providing care for individuals with autism. (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P


    Lobbying is a competitive effort directed to reaching legislators who are attempting to balance the demands of individuals, organized groups, political parties, and the complex economic realities of our times. Unfortunately, the use of all-inclusive "mega numbers" (whether it is the millions of individuals with disabilities or the billions of dollars for needed services) is difficult for any person to place in proper perspective. As a result, the estimated 1.5 million children and adults with autism spectrum disorders and their families in the United States become just "numbers" - not actual people. The need is to somehow personalize these numbers if we are to bring increased attention to these individuals with special needs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and private research foundation data are used to illustrate an approach to better personalize the information for individual politicians and health practitioners.

  5. Arduino Mega 2560 Microcontroller Built 3-Phase Seven Level Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVANKUMAR Shriram Mehtre


    Full Text Available n this paper, the implementation of 3-phase seven level cascaded H-bridge inverter is discussed with Arduino microcontroller and harmonic analysis is performed using Fourier series. The multilevel inverters (MLI give several benefits as reduced switching voltage stresses and the capability to operate in higher level voltage applications. A new and simple architecture Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller is employed to produce the control signals for the seven level cascaded H-bridge MLI switches. The computer simulation is carried out in PSIM environment and prototype experimental model is developed with TLP 250 driver ICs and power MOSFET switches to validate the simulation results. The THDs present in different voltage level inverters are mathematically analysed using Fourier series.

  6. SiO and CH3OH mega-masers in NGC 1068. (United States)

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Jiangshui; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Li, Di; Fang, Min; Shi, Yong


    Maser is an acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; in astronomy mega-masers are masers in galaxies that are ≥ 10(6) times more luminous than typical galactic maser sources. Observational studies of mega-masers can help us to understand their origins and characteristics. More importantly, mega-masers can be used as diagnostic tracers to probe the physical properties of their parent galaxies. Since the late 1970s, only three types of molecules have been found to form mega-masers: H2O, OH and H2CO. Here we report the detection of both SiO and CH3OH mega-masers near the centre of Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 at millimetre wavelengths, obtained using the IRAM 30-m telescope. We argue that the SiO mega-maser originated from the nuclear disk and the CH3OH mega-maser originated from shock fronts. High-resolution observations in the future will enable us to investigate AGN feedback and determine the masses of central supermassive black holes in such galaxies.

  7. Three Paleoproterozoic A-type granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, East Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Huhma


    Full Text Available Mafic and felsic intrusive rocks aged 2.5–2.4 Ga have been observed over a large area in eastern and northern Finland, as well as in adjacent northwestern Russia. We describe three granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, Finland, that belong to this bimodal magmatic event. All these three granites show clear A2-type chemical affinities with high Y/Nb, HREE, Fe/Mg, Ga and Nb. Two of the intrusions, Rasinkylä and Pussisvaara, were dated at 2425±3 and 2427±3 Ma, respectively, using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry utilizing the chemical abrasion method (CA-TIMS. CA-TIMS ages are supported by single-grain age determinations obtained by using Laser Ablation Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-MC-ICPMS. New data on the previously described Rasimäki granite from southern Kainuu is presented, including an age of 2389±5 Ma obtained with LA-MC-ICPMS. The variable magnetite content of the granites is proposed to reflect the differences in the oxidation state of the source, which in our interpretation is the local Archean lower crust. Partial melting and the emplacement of the granites occurred in an extensional environment. Heat for the partial melting was provided by mafic magmas under and intraplating the extended crust.

  8. Acute myeloblastic leukemia-associated Marfan syndrome and Davidoff-Dyke-Masson syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Faik Öner


    Full Text Available We present herein a 23-year-old man with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML associated with Davidoff-Dyke-Masson syndrome (DDMS and Marfan syndrome (MS. The diagnosis of DDMS was based on findings including left facial asymmetry, left hemiparesis, mental retardation, right cerebral hemiatrophy, dilatation of the ipsilateral lateral ventricle and calvarial thickening. The diagnosis of MS was based on clinical findings including tall stature, myopia, retinitis pigmentosa, blue scleras, scoliosis, pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly and low ratio of upper/lower body segment. The patient developed hepatosplenomegaly, gingival hypertrophy and pancytopenia. Peripheral blood film and bone marrow examination showed that most of nucleated cells were blasts; immunophenotype of those cells showed CD11+, CD13+, CD14+, CD33+ and HLA-DR+. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of AML (FAB-M5. After induction chemotherapy, remission was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the third report of AML in MS syndrome, while AML associated with DDMS and MS has not been previously reported in the literature.

  9. Urban Agglomeration and Extension in Northern Coast of West Java: A Transformation into Mega Region (United States)

    Octifanny, Y.; Hudalah, D.


    In the past decade, at least three neighbouring metropolitan areas in the northwestern part of the island have been merging with each other: Jakarta Metropolitan Area (Jabodetabek), Bandung Metropolitan Area (Bandung Raya), and Cirebon Metropolitan Area (Ciayumajakuning). It is expected to be the first island-based mega-conurbation. This paper explores the potential emergence of mega region as a ground study, where mega region can be used for economic, logistic, transportation development. Authors use scoring analysis from economic and demographic indicators. The outcomes found a new and larger formation of city-region in the northern coast road networks (Pantura) - specifically western part of Java Island.

  10. Investigating fusion plasma instabilities in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak using mega electron volt proton emissions (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R. V., E-mail:; Boeglin, W. U.; Angulo, A.; Avila, P.; Leon, O.; Lopez, C. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8 ST, CP204, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Darrow, D. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, James Forrestal Campus, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Cecconello, M.; Klimek, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 20 (Sweden); Allan, S. Y.; Akers, R. J.; Keeling, D. L.; McClements, K. G.; Scannell, R.; Conway, N. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Turnyanskiy, M. [ITER Physics Department, EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Jones, O. M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Michael, C. A. [Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)


    The proton detector (PD) measures 3 MeV proton yield distributions from deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions within the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The PD’s compact four-channel system of collimated and individually oriented silicon detectors probes different regions of the plasma, detecting protons (with gyro radii large enough to be unconfined) leaving the plasma on curved trajectories during neutral beam injection. From first PD data obtained during plasma operation in 2013, proton production rates (up to several hundred kHz and 1 ms time resolution) during sawtooth events were compared to the corresponding MAST neutron camera data. Fitted proton emission profiles in the poloidal plane demonstrate the capabilities of this new system.

  11. Preliminary Geochemical Data for the Diabase Dykes from the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Belt, Central Anatolia (United States)

    Balcı, Uǧur; Sayıt, Kaan


    The Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Belt preserves oceanic and continental fragments originated from the closure of the northern branch of Neotethys. In the Bogazkale area (Central Anatolia), the pieces of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere exist in a chaotic manner, forming an ophiolitic mélange. Within the mélange, diabase dykes occur, which are found to cut various types of oceanic lithospheric rocks, including pillow basalts, gabbros and serpentinized ultramafics. We here present the preliminary geochemical results obtained from the diabase dykes and put some constraints on their petrogenesis. The investigated diabase dykes are chiefly composed of plagioclase and a mafic phase, which is clinopyroxene and/or hornblende. A detailed examination reveals two petrographic types on the basis of predominating mafic mineral phase, namely clinopyroxene-dominated Type 1, and hornblende-dominated Type 2. Ophitic to sub-ophitic textures, where lath-shaped plagioclase crystals are enclosed by clinopyroxene, can be observed in almost all Type 1 dykes. In Type 2 samples, altered mafic phases can be seen enclosed within plagioclase crystals, forming poikilitic texture. Polysynthetic twinning is common in plagioclase. Hornblende occasionally displays simple twinning. Both types appear to have been variably affected by low-grade hydrothermal alteration as reflected by the presence of secondary mineral phases, such as chlorite, epidote, prehnite, and actinolite. The whole-rock geochemistry appear to be consistent with the petrographical grouping, revealing distinct immobile trace element systematics for the two types. Both types have basaltic composition with sub-alkaline characteristics (Nb/Y=0.2-0.3 for Type 1; Nb/Y=0.02-0.08 for Type 2). The relatively low MgO contents of the dykes suggest that they do not represent primary magmas, but evolved through fractionation of mafic phases. In the N-MORB normalized diagrams, Type 2 diabases exhibit marked negative Nb anomalies, with HFSE

  12. Mineral chemistry of monazite-(Nd, xenotime-(Y, apatite, fluorite and zircon hosting in lamprophyre dyke in Abu Rusheid area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ali


    Full Text Available The studied mineralized lamprophyre dyke in Abu Rusheid area is trending NNW-SSE, and occurs withinAbu Rusheid mineralized shear zone, measuring 0.2 - 1.0 m in width and 0.5 - 1.0 km in length. It was emplacedparallel with the Abu Rusheid shear zone. The dyke is mainly composed of plagioclases, amphiboles, mica (musco-vite and biotite, relics of pyroxenes with K-feldspars and quartz derived from surrounding country rocks asphenocrysts embedded in fine-grained groundmass. The lamprophyre dyke hosts REE-minerals monazite-(Nd,xenotime-(Y, and REE-bearing minerals apatite, fluorite, zircon-(Hf, rutile with inclusions of xenotime and ironoxides. The emplacement of lamprophyre dyke caused heating in the mineralized shear zone of Abu Rusheid area.The lamprophyre dyke was subsequently affected by hydrothermal alterations (e.g. chlorite-carbonate, muscovitization,fluoritization.The REE were remobilized from the mineralized shear zones by hydrothermal solutionsand re-precipitatedas REE-minerals xenotime-(Y and monazite-(Nd around flourapatite, fluorite, zircon andrutile. The solid solutions between monazite-(Nd and xenotime-(Y were formed as a product precipitation fromhydrothermal solutions. Also, the apatite mineral in the lamprophyre dyke was subjected to the heating duringthe emplacement, which lead to its alteration and breakdown with concominant precipitation of xenotime-(Yand monazite-(Nd. The chemistry of monazite-(Nd and xenotime-(Y obtained by scanning electron microscopy(SEM, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, showed that these minerals are enriched in U and Th. Themonazite-(Nd associated with fluorapatite in the studied dyke is poor in Th (0.02 ≤ Th ≤ 0.81 wt%, but usuallyrich in U (0.92 ≤ U ≤ 2.91 wt%, which indicates that monazite formed as a result of flourapatite metasomatism.

  13. High-K isomers in transactinide nuclei close to N = 162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prassa, V., E-mail:; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Lu, Bing-Nan [Institut fur Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Ackermann, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)


    Transactinide nuclei around neutron number N = 162 display axially deformed equilibrium shapes, as shown in our previous analysis [1] of constrained mean-field energy surfaces and collective excitation spectra. In the present study we are particularly interested in the occurrence of high-K isomers in the axially deformed isotopes of Rf (Z = 104), Sg (Z = 106), Hs (Z = 108), and Ds (Z = 110), with neutron number N = 160 − 166 and the effect of the N=162 closure on the structure and distribution of two-quasiparticle (2qp) states. The evolution of high-K isomers is analysed in a self-consistent axially-symmetric relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation using the blocking approximation with time-reversal symmetry breaking.

  14. A Facile N-Mercaptoethoxyglycinamide (MEGA) Linker Approach to Peptide Thioesterification and Cyclization. (United States)

    Shelton, Patrick M M; Weller, Caroline E; Chatterjee, Champak


    The C-terminal electrophilic activation of peptides by α-thioesterification requires strongly acidic conditions or complex chemical manipulations, which ultimately limit functional group compatibility and broad utility. Herein, we report a readily accessible N-mercaptoethoxyglycinamide (MEGA) solid-phase linker for the facile synthesis of latent peptide α-thioesters. Incubating peptide-MEGA sequences with 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid at mildly acidic pH yielded α-thioesters that were directly used in NCL without purification. The MEGA linker yielded robust access to thioesters ranging in length from 4 to 35 amino acids, and greatly simplified the synthesis of cyclic peptides. Finally, the high utility of MEGA was demonstrated by the one-pot synthesis of a functional analog of the Sunflower Trypsin Inhibitor 1.

  15. Sunflower mega-environments in Serbia revealed by GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor


    Full Text Available Sunflower mega-environment analysis was conducted for the grain yield data of 20 hybrids and 19 test locations during 2006, and 20 hybrids and 16 test locations during 2007. Combined data included 15 hybrids and 9 test locations common for both years and it was analyzed as balanced experiment. The analysis of variance components showed that hybrid by location interaction explained 2.74, 5.8, and 3.72 times more variation than hybrid, for grain yield, for 2006, 2007, combined data, respectively, and indicated potential mega-environment existence. Our results showed the existence of two mega-environments in Serbia sunflower growing region: (1 Kula Vitovnica, Aleksa Šantić, Sombor and (2 Rimski Šančevi, Kikinda. It has been concluded that if we want promising sunflower hybrids to be optimally used, they should be cropped differently for the two determined mega-environments.

  16. Can Chinese Cities Achieve Higher Technical Efficiency after Hosting Mega Events?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun Kwok Lei


      This study applies the stochastic frontier approach to estimate the technical efficiency of a group of Chinese cities which have hosted mega events such as the Olympic Games and Asian Games, etc. since 2000s...

  17. Enhanced Mission-Enabling Ultra-High Power Solar Array (Mega-ROSA EX) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mega-ROSA-EX is an enhanced, higher stiffness, higher sun-pointing accuracy, higher strength, higher specific power and even larger overall power / deployed size /...

  18. Have the “mega-journals” reached the limits to growth? (United States)


    A “mega-journal” is a new type of scientific journal that publishes freely accessible articles, which have been peer reviewed for scientific trustworthiness, but leaves it to the readers to decide which articles are of interest and importance to them. In the wake of the phenomenal success of PLOS ONE, several other publishers have recently started mega-journals. This article presents the evolution of mega-journals since 2010 in terms of article publication rates. The fastest growth seems to have ebbed out at around 35,000 annual articles for the 14 journals combined. Acceptance rates are in the range of 50–70%, and speed of publication is around 3–5 months. Common features in mega-journals are alternative impact metrics, easy reusability of figures and data, post-publication discussions and portable reviews from other journals. PMID:26038735

  19. Have the “mega-journals” reached the limits to growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Björk


    Full Text Available A “mega-journal” is a new type of scientific journal that publishes freely accessible articles, which have been peer reviewed for scientific trustworthiness, but leaves it to the readers to decide which articles are of interest and importance to them. In the wake of the phenomenal success of PLOS ONE, several other publishers have recently started mega-journals. This article presents the evolution of mega-journals since 2010 in terms of article publication rates. The fastest growth seems to have ebbed out at around 35,000 annual articles for the 14 journals combined. Acceptance rates are in the range of 50–70%, and speed of publication is around 3–5 months. Common features in mega-journals are alternative impact metrics, easy reusability of figures and data, post-publication discussions and portable reviews from other journals.

  20. Mega-ton water Cherenkov detectors for particle and astro-particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Univ. of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)


    Physics potential of mega-ton-class water Cherenkov detectors is discussed. Especially, emphasis is made on the non-accelerator physics topics, including atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos and proton decays.

  1. Recent Mega-Thrust Tsunamigenic Earthquakes and PTHA (United States)

    Lorito, S.


    The occurrence of several mega-thrust tsunamigenic earthquakes in the last decade, including but not limited to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, the 2010 Maule, and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, has been a dramatic reminder of the limitations in our capability of assessing earthquake and tsunami hazard and risk. However, the increasingly high-quality geophysical observational networks allowed the retrieval of most accurate than ever models of the rupture process of mega-thrust earthquakes, thus paving the way for future improved hazard assessments. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) methodology, in particular, is less mature than its seismic counterpart, PSHA. Worldwide recent research efforts of the tsunami science community allowed to start filling this gap, and to define some best practices that are being progressively employed in PTHA for different regions and coasts at threat. In the first part of my talk, I will briefly review some rupture models of recent mega-thrust earthquakes, and highlight some of their surprising features that likely result in bigger error bars associated to PTHA results. More specifically, recent events of unexpected size at a given location, and with unexpected rupture process features, posed first-order open questions which prevent the definition of an heterogeneous rupture probability along a subduction zone, despite of several recent promising results on the subduction zone seismic cycle. In the second part of the talk, I will dig a bit more into a specific ongoing effort for improving PTHA methods, in particular as regards epistemic and aleatory uncertainties determination, and the computational PTHA feasibility when considering the full assumed source variability. Only logic trees are usually explicated in PTHA studies, accounting for different possible assumptions on the source zone properties and behavior. The selection of the earthquakes to be actually modelled is then in general made on a qualitative basis or remains implicit

  2. Flood risk control of dams and dykes in middle reach of Huaihe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-kun MA


    Full Text Available Three stochastic mathematical models for calculation of the reservoir flood regulation process, river course flood release, and flood risk rate under flood control were established based on the theory of stochastic differential equations and features of flood control systems in the middle reach of the Huaihe River from Xixian to the Bengbu floodgate, comprehensively considering uncertain factors of hydrology, hydraulics, and engineering control. They were used to calculate the flood risk rate with flood regulation of five key reservoirs, including the Meishan, Xianghongdian, Nianyushan, Mozitan, and Foziling reservoirs in the middle reach of the Huaihe River under different flood frequencies, the flood risk rate with river course flood release under design and check floods for the trunk of the Huaihe River in conjunction with relevant flood storage areas, and the flood risk rate with operation of the Linhuaigang Project under design and check floods. The calculated results show that (1 the five reservoirs can withstand design floods, but the Xianghongdian and Foziling reservoirs will suffer overtopping accidents under check floods; (2 considering the service of flood storage areas under the design flood conditions of the Huaihe River, the mean flood risk rate with flood regulation of dykes and dams from Xixian to the Bengbu floodgate is about 0.2, and the trunk of the Huaihe River can generally withstand design floods; and (3 under a check flood with the flood return period of 1 000 years, the risk rate of overtopping accidents of the Linhuaigang Project is not larger than 0.15, indicating that it has a high flood regulation capacity. Through regulation and application of the flood control system of the Linhuigang Project, the Huaihe River Basin can withstand large floods, and the safety of the protected area can be ensured.

  3. High-k Dielectric Passivation for GaN Diode with a Field Plate Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michitaka Yoshino


    Full Text Available Vertical structured Gallium nitride (GaN p-n junction diodes with improved breakdown properties have been demonstrated using high-k dielectric passivation underneath the field plate. Simulation results at a reverse voltage of 1 kV showed that the maximum electric field near the mesa-etched p-n junction edges covered with film of dielectric constant k = 10 was reduced to 2.0 MV/cm from 3.0 MV/cm (SiO2 (k = 3.9. The diodes were fabricated using the high-k mixed oxide of SiO2 and CeO2 with k = 12.3. I–V characteristics of the diode with a field plate showed a breakdown voltage above 2 kV with an increased avalanche resistance. This means that the electric field reduces at the periphery of the mesa-etched p-n junction and is uniformly formed across the whole p-n junction. It is clear that high-k dielectric film passivation and filed plate termination are essential techniques for GaN power devices.

  4. Mega-event effects on the housing market: Evidence from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games


    Bao, Xiaohui; Wang, M.


    Mega-event regeneration involves extensive government funds and public participation; thus, this study emphasises the importance of verifying if these financial and human investments can be justified by the net effects of mega-event regeneration. Accordingly, the contingent valuation method is used to establish a framework to quantify the welfare effects of event regeneration from the economic, social and environmental perspectives. We proposed a theoretical framework that enables the ranking...

  5. High-k dielectrics as bioelectronic interface for field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borstlap, D.


    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) are employed as bioelectronic sensors for the cell-transistor coupling and for the detection of DNA sequences. For these applications, thermally grown SiO{sub 2} films are used as standard gate dielectric. In the first part of this dissertation, the suitability of high-k dielectrics was studied to increase the gate capacitance and hence the signal-to-noise ratio of bioelectronic ISFETs: Upon culturing primary rat neurons on the corresponding high-k dielectrics, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, yttria stabilised zirkonia (YSZ), DyScO{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, LaAlO{sub 3}, GdScO{sub 3} and LaScO{sub 3} proved to be biocompatible substrates. Comprehensive electrical and electrochemical current-voltage measurements and capacitance-voltage measurements were performed for the determination of the dielectric properties of the high-k dielectrics. In the second part of the dissertation, standard SiO{sub 2} ISFETs with lower input capacitance and high-k dielectric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, YSZ und DyScO{sub 3} ISFETs were comprehensively characterised and compared with each other regarding their signal-to-noise ratio, their ion sensitivity and their drift behaviour. The ion sensitivity measurements showed that the YSZ ISFETs were considerably more sensitive to K{sup +} and Na{sup +} ions than the SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} und DyScO{sub 3} ISFETs. In the final third part of the dissertation, bioelectronic experiments were performed with the high-k ISFETs. The shape of the signals, which were measured from HL-1 cells with YSZ ISFETs, differed considerably from the corresponding measurements with SiO{sub 2} and DyScO{sub 3} ISFETs: After the onset of the K{sup +} current, the action potentials measured with YSZ ISFETs showed a strong drift in the direction opposite to the K{sup +} current signal. First coupling experiments between HEK 293 cells, which were transfected with a K{sup +} ion channel, and YSZ ISFETs affirmed the assumption from the HL-1

  6. The Ediacaran volcanic rocks and associated mafic dykes of the Ouarzazate Group (Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Clinopyroxene composition, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes constraints from the Ouzellarh-Siroua salient (Tifnoute valley) (United States)

    Belkacim, Said; Gasquet, Dominique; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Arai, Shoji; Gahlan, Hisham A.; Ahmed, Hassan; Ishida, Yoshito; Ikenne, Moha


    Belonging to the huge Ouarzazate volcanic Group that covered the whole Anti-Atlas during the late Ediacaran (580-545 Ma), the Tifnoute valley volcanic formations are mainly pyroclastic and show a large composition, from trachybasalt to rhyolite and are crosscut by dolerite dykes. The Tifnoute valley volcanic rocks are located within a rigid salient of the Anti-Atlas that gives them special extreme characteristics. Due to the heavy greenschist alteration that affects this volcanic group, we focused the more immobile elements, but as REE can also be affected, we used the composition of unaltered clinopyroxene crystals to determine the nature of these volcanic rocks. The clinopyroxene is an augite diopside in the basalt, an augite in the andesite and an augite-salite in the dolerite. Petrography of the Tifnoute mafic volcanic rocks and clinopyroxene compositions indicate the presence of two magmatic series: (i) older high-K calc-alkaline (alkali-calcic) andesite and basalt characterized by the early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides and of the late fractionation of plagioclase, the modal proportion of the latter increasing from the basalt to the andesite and (ii) younger alkalic dolerite dykes. With clinopyroxene trace element compositions obtained using laser ablation ICP-MS, we calculated the composition of the melts in equilibrium with the pyroxenes. The volcanic rocks of the Tifnoute Valley have positive εNd570 (+1.7 to +5.0), low Sri (ages ranging from 0.80 to 1.14 Ga, indicating a mostly depleted Neoproterozoic source with limited involvement of the Eburnian lithosphere for the Tifnoute magmas. This depleted source is the young lithospheric mantle for the alkali-calcic series and the asthenosphere for the younger alkalic series. The Tifnoute Valley volcanic rocks emplaced in a Pan-African transtensive post-collisional environment that evolved towards the major rifting event that will give rise to the Rheic ocean, in a similar way to what occurred just after the

  7. Deep sea mega-geomorphology: Progress and problems (United States)

    Bryan, W. B.


    Historically, marine geologists have always worked with mega-scale morphology. This is a consequence both of the scale of the ocean basins and of the low resolution of the observational remote sensing tools available until very recently. In fact, studies of deep sea morphology have suffered from a serious gap in observational scale. Traditional wide-beam echo sounding gave images on a scale of miles, while deep sea photography has been limited to scales of a few tens of meters. Recent development of modern narrow-beam echo sounding coupled with computer-controlled swath mapping systems, and development of high-resolution deep-towed side-scan sonar, are rapidly filling in the scale gap. These technologies also can resolve morphologic detail on a scale of a few meters or less. As has also been true in planetary imaging projects, the ability to observe phenomena over a range of scales has proved very effective in both defining processes and in placing them in proper context.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader


    Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carlos Morett Sánchez


    Full Text Available As a result of globalization, in developing countries, the imbalance between the regions has increased, since the population is, more and more, addressed towards large settlements, inhabited by millions of people, in very precarious conditions, together with the lack of the most essential municipal services; therefore, these places are cities just for their size. They are concentrations of human beings, the result of the backwardness of their countries, making it even more difficult to develop. Are Mega Aglomeraciones Humanas Urbanas (MAHU, the impact of the unequal regional development in poor countries (whose economy is concentrated in some areas, and the ruin of small farms, for which it is very difficult to compete with large food companies. As a result, huge masses of people, who are unable to survive in rural areas of poor countries, migrate to the cities. It is not a process of attraction of the city, but the expulsion of people from fields, farms and forests, which - as a last option - move to urban areas that offer few opportunities for formal and well paid employment.

  10. Modeling Rip Channel and Mega-Cusp Migration With XBeach (United States)

    Orzech, M.; Thornton, E.; Reniers, A.; Macmahan, J.; O'Reilly, B.


    The relationship between alongshore rip channel migration and sediment transport is investigated using XBeach, a recently developed 2DH coastal erosion model. XBeach solves the nonlinear shallow water equations and accounts for the effects of breaking waves, wind, turbulent dispersion, and nonlinear bottom friction. It is similar to the more widely used Delft3D but focuses on morphological change to the beach and dune and includes the action of swash on a moving shoreline. Numerics have been simplified to increase model speed and ensure stability in shallow water. XBeach is first validated by recreating a three-year time series of alongshore rip migration patterns measured with video at Fort Ord, near Monterey, CA. The model is initialized with wave spectral data at 15m depth, provided by the Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP). Flow fields and transport patterns are then examined in detail over a single rip channel and mega-cusp to better understand the small scale processes associated with migration, and a range of simulations are conducted to quantify the effects on migration rates of varying wave height, incident angle, or tidal elevation. Results are presented from a four-month period of carefully monitored, accelerated shoreline erosion at the Fort Ord site, which followed the removal of a longstanding riprap barrier that had created a sand dune peninsula extending to the water's edge. Model-predicted erosion rates along the 300m stretch of shoreline are compared with dune retreat measurements for the period.

  11. MicroRNAs: The Mega Regulators in Eukaryotic Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Ahmed Baloch


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, small, noncoding RNAs of 18-25 nucleotide (nt in length that negatively regulate their complementary messenger RNAs (mRNAs at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level in many eukaryotic organisms. By affecting the gene regulation, miRNAs are likely to be concerned with most biological processes. Majority of the miRNA genes are found in intergenic regions or in anti-sense orientation to genes and have their own miRNA gene promoter and regulatory units. In contrast to their name and size, the miRNAs perform mega functions in eukaryotic organisms. They perform important functions in plants and animals during growth, organogenesis, transgene suppression, signaling pathway, environmental stresses, disease development and defense against the invading viruses. miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved from species to species within the same kingdom. However, there is a controversy among scientists about their conservation from animals to plants. Their conserved nature becomes an important logical tool for homologous discovery of miRNAs in other species. This review is aimed at describing some basic concepts regarding biogenesis and functions of miRNAs.

  12. Ultramafic lavas and pyroxene-spinifex high-Mg basaltic dykes from the Othris ophiolite complex, Greece (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria; Asimow, Paul


    This study aims to constrain the physico-chemical conditions and processes associated with the origin of ultramafic lavas of the Agrilia formation and high-Mg basaltic dykes in the Pournari area within the Othris ophiolite complex, a supra-subduction zone ophiolite of Mesozoic age (Paraskevopoulos & Economou, 1986; Barth et al., 2008). Hand-sample-scale spinifex texture is lacking from the ultramafic lavas and, despite whole-rock MgO contents greater than 31 wt.%, we infer an upper bound of 17 wt.% MgO for the erupted liquid, and thus identify these lavas as picrites containing accumulated olivine. We use textural and compositional criteria to divide the crystals within the Agrilia lavas between pre-eruptive and post-eruptive growth phases. The high-Mg basaltic dyke margins display a distinctive thin-section-scale micro-spinifex texture of skeletal and plumose Al- and Fe-rich clinopyroxene surrounded by large crystals of orthopyroxene. Normally zoned clinopyroxene in the Agrilia lavas and clinopyroxene of various textures (skeletal, needle- and dendritic-like) and sizes in the Pournari dykes display anomalous enrichment in Al2O3 and FeO* with decreasing MgO that require rapid, disequilibrium growth. Quantitative characteristics of the micro-spinifex pyroxene textures (Elements and related metals are Pd/Ir=11.5-13.0, Cu/Pd=6000-7210, Ti/Pd=22.78-31.97×103 for Agrilia lavas and Pd/Ir=4.5-14.0, Cu/Pd=3140-5550, Ti/Pd=4.66-17.32×103 for Pournari dykes; all are very close to those reported for typical komatiites (Barnes et al., 1988). Despite the absence of true komatiite lavas, a number of geochemical features of the Othris suite, including the PGE contents and ratios and the micro-spinifex, disequilibrium cpx growth, are similar to Mesozoic and Archaean komatiites. References Barnes et al., 1988. Journal of Petrology 29, 305-331. Barth et al., 2008. Lithos, 100(1), 234-254. Faure et al., 2006. Journal of Petrology 47, 1591- 1610. Paraskevopoulos, G., Economou, M

  13. Mineral Chemistry of Silicate Phases From the Summit Creek Stock, Southeastern British Columbia: Evidence for Associated "Xenolith" Origin and Dyke Emplacement (United States)

    Morrison, C. A.; Owen, J. P.


    The Summit Creek stock is a Mid-Cretaceous aged granitic intrusion that is located within the Cordilleran Omineca belt in the southeastern corner of British Columbia. Included within the stock are numerous xenoliths of intermediate composition that range in size from 5cm to 2m, as well as a prominent 1m-wide mafic dyke. According to the QAP diagram, the stock is classified as a muscovite-biotite monzogranite, with a typical sample containing 35% quartz, 25% plagioclase, 30% K-feldspar, 7% biotite, 2% muscovite, and 1% accessory phases. Minor accessory phases identified in this study include pyrite, molybdenite, apatite, magnetite, ilmenite, monazite, and zircon. Samples collected from the stock proper are predominantly equigranular; however the xenoliths are porphyritic and contain phenocrysts of both quartz and plagioclase, as well as glomerophyric aggregates of biotite. New investigation into the mineral chemistry of the stock, xenoliths, and dyke indicates that the xenoliths have a strong geochemical similarity to the main body of the stock. Plagioclase feldspar compositions from the xenolith overlap with those from the stock, and REE abundances in the stock and the xenoliths are indistinguishable (LREE 100x chondrite; HREE 10x chondrite). In thin section, the boundary between the xenoliths and the stock is very irregular, and protruding grains of plagioclase and biotite can be found piercing into both the granitic host, as well as into the xenolith itself. This evidence suggests that these inclusions are better termed autoliths rather than xenoliths, as it appears that they are derivatives of the same parent magma as the main stock. The mafic dyke differs in both mineralogy and geochemistry from the stock, and is characterized by low SiO2 content (48.98 wt.%), high REE abundances (30-40x chondrite), presence of rare euhedral hornblende, and greater variation in mineral chemistry. Samples from the dyke contain plagioclase with cores ranging from bytownite to

  14. Syn-convergence extension in the southern Lhasa terrane: Evidence from late Cretaceous adakitic granodiorite and coeval gabbroic-dioritic dykes (United States)

    Ma, Xuxuan; Xu, Zhiqin; Meert, Joseph G.


    Late Cretaceous (∼100-80 Ma) magmatism in the Gangdese magmatic belt plays a pivotal role in understanding the evolutionary history and tectonic regime of the southern Lhasa terrane. The geodynamic process for the formation of the early Late Cretaceous magmatism has long been an issue of hot debates. Here, petrology, geochronology and geochemistry of early Late Cretaceous granodiorite and coeval gabbroic-dioritic dykes in the Caina region, southern Lhasa, were investigated in an effort to ascertain their petrogenesis, age of intrusion, magma mixing and tectonic setting. Zircon U-Pb dating of granodiorite yields 206Pb/238U ages of 85.8 ± 1.7 and 86.4 ± 1.1 Ma, whilst that of the E-W trending dykes yields ages of 82.7 ± 2.6 and 83.5 ± 3.5 Ma. Within error, the crystallization ages of the dykes and the granodiorite are indistinguishable. Field observations and mineralogical microstructures are suggestive of a magma mixing process during the formation of the dykes and the granodiorite. The granodiorite exhibits geochemical features that are in agreement with those of subduction-related high-SiO2 adakites. The granodiorite and dykes have relatively constant εNd(t) values of +2.2 to +4.9 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7045-0.7047). These similar characteristics are herein interpreted as an evolutionary series from the dykes to granodiorite, consistent with magma mixing process. Ti-in-zircon thermometer and Al-in-hornblende barometer indicate that the granodiorite and the dioritic dyke crystallized at temperatures of ca. 750 and 800 °C, depths of ca. 6-10 and 5-9 km, respectively. Taking into account the synchronous magmatic rocks in the Gangdese Belt and the coeval rifted basin within the Lhasa terrane, the granodiorite and dykes reveal an early Late Cretaceous syn-convergence extensional regime in the southern Lhasa terrane, triggered by slab rollback of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere.

  15. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randive Kirtikumar


    Full Text Available Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  16. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Randive, Kirtikumar; Hurai, Vratislav


    Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  17. Flexible semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric with high-k/metal gate devices

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto


    Can we build a flexible and transparent truly high performance computer? High-k/metal gate stack based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor devices are monolithically fabricated on industry\\'s most widely used low-cost bulk single-crystalline silicon (100) wafers and then released as continuous, mechanically flexible, optically semi-transparent and high thermal budget compatible silicon fabric with devices. This is the first ever demonstration with this set of materials which allows full degree of freedom to fabricate nanoelectronics devices using state-of-the-art CMOS compatible processes and then to utilize them in an unprecedented way for wide deployment over nearly any kind of shape and architecture surfaces. Electrical characterization shows uncompromising performance of post release devices. Mechanical characterization shows extra-ordinary flexibility (minimum bending radius of 1 cm) making this generic process attractive to extend the horizon of flexible electronics for truly high performance computers. Schematic and photograph of flexible high-k/metal gate MOSCAPs showing high flexibility and C-V plot showing uncompromised performance. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Characterization of High-k Nanolayers by Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Müller


    Full Text Available The accurate characterization of nanolayered systems is an essential topic for today’s developments in many fields of material research. Thin high-k layers and gate stacks are technologically required for the design of current and future electronic devices and can be deposited, e.g., by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. However, the metrological challenges to characterize such systems demand further development of analytical techniques. Reference-free Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence (GIXRF based on synchrotron radiation can significantly contribute to the characterization of such nanolayered systems. GIXRF takes advantage of the incident angle dependence of XRF, in particular below the substrate’s critical angle where changes in the X-ray Standing Wave field (XSW intensity influence the angular intensity profile. The reliable modeling of the XSW in conjunction with the radiometrically calibrated instrumentation at the PTB allows for reference-free, fundamental parameter-based quantitative analysis. This approach is very well suited for the characterization of nanoscaled materials, especially when no reference samples with sufficient quality are available. The capabilities of this method are demonstrated by means of two systems for transistor gate stacks, i.e., Al2O3 high-k layers grown on Si or Si/SiO2 and Sc2O3 layers on InGaAs/InP substrates.

  19. Analysis of high-k spacer on symmetric underlap DG-MOSFET with Gate Stack architecture (United States)

    Das, Rahul; Chakraborty, Shramana; Dasgupta, Arpan; Dutta, Arka; Kundu, Atanu; Sarkar, Chandan K.


    This paper shows the systematic study of underlap double gate (U-DG) NMOSFETs with Gate Stack (GS) under the influence of high-k spacers. In highly scaled devices, underlap is used at the Source and Drain side so as to reduce the short channel effects (SCE's), however, it significantly reduces the on current due to the increased channel resistance. To overcome these drawbacks, the use of high-k spacers is projected as one of the remedies. In this paper, the analog performance of the devices is studied on the basis of parameters like transconductance (gm), transconductance generation factor (gm/Id) and intrinsic gain (gmro). The RF performance is analyzed on the merits of intrinsic capacitance (Cgd, Cgs), resistance (Rgd, Rgs), transport delay (τm), inductance (Lsd), cutoff frequency (fT), and the maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax). The circuit performance of the devices are studied by implementing the device as the driver MOSFET in a Single Stage Common Source Amplifier. The Gain Bandwidth Product (GBW) has been analyzed from the frequency response of the circuit.

  20. A New Occurrence of Alkaline Magmatism on the Kola Peninsula: An Agpaitic Dyke in the Kandalaksha Region. (United States)

    Akimenko, Mariya; Kogarko, Lia; Sorokhtina, Natalia; Kononkova, Natalia; Mamontov, Vladimir


    A new occurrence of alkaline dyke magmatism was discovered in 2010 during the geological works performed by the Murmansk Geological Prospecting Expedition in the "Mokhnatye Roga" area located 55 km to the southeast of the Kovdor massif (67°15' N, 31°30' E). The "Mokhnatye Roga" area is located in the Ensk segment of the northwestern part of the Belomorian mobile belt. We performed a complete petrological and geochemical description of the sections in Holes 19 and 24, which reveal one of the largest dykes in the area. The dyke, with a length of ≈4 km and a width of ≈160 m, has an eastern orientation with steep dipping (60°-90°) to the north. The thickness of Quaternary deposits ranges from 0.8 to 4.0 m; alkaline rocks occur in the range of 4.0-93.9 m being followed by host amphibole-biotite gneiss with interbeds of plagioamphibolite (AR2 mt) along the section. Among the major minerals of the dyke are the minerals of the lamprophyllite group (20-25 vol %), aegirine-augite (10-15 vol %), enigmatite (10-15 vol %), nepheline (10-15 vol %), orthoclase (15-20 vol %), alkaline amphibole (5-10 vol %), and astrophyllite (up to 5 vol %). The minor minerals are represented by shcherbakovite, sodalite, natrolite, barite, Mn carbonate, ilmenite, rutile, sphalerite, and goethite. The texture of the rock is porphyric: the groundmass is composed of finegranular nepheline and orthoclase, which are observed as individual large euhedral crystals as well. In addition, large phenocrysts are represented by the minerals of the lamprophyllite, enigmatite, pyroxene, and alkaline amphibole groups. Based on the generally accepted classifications [1], the studied agpaitic rock may be related to nepheline syenite; according to the mineral and chemical compositions, it is close to syenite of the Niva massif [2] located 35 km to the northeast from the "Mokhnatye Roga" area. Agpaitic syenite of the "Mokhnatye Roga" area is extremely enriched in dispersed and rare lithophile elements. The

  1. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods (United States)

    Tamura, Koichiro; Peterson, Daniel; Peterson, Nicholas; Stecher, Glen; Nei, Masatoshi; Kumar, Sudhir


    Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from PMID:21546353

  2. MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets. (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Stecher, Glen; Tamura, Koichiro


    We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from free of charge. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Engineering the Propagation of High-k Bulk Plasmonic Waves in Multilayer Hyperbolic Metamaterials by Multiscale Structuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sipe, John E.

    layers. These high-k waves can have anomalously short wavelength, which underlies the concept of far-field subwavelength imaging (hyperlensing) in HMMs. In this work, we show that propagation of these high-k bulk plasmons can be controlled by modulating, or superstructuring, the filling fraction of metal...... in a subwavelength metal-dielectric stack on a longer, wavelength scale. The basic superstructure geometry is a hybrid multiscale HMM where the modulation itself is periodic, forming a photonic band gap (PBG) for the high-k waves according to the same principles as in conventional photonic crystals. As a result...

  4. Projected shell model analysis of multi-quasiparticle high-K isomers in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Xian Rong; Sun Yang; Long Gui Lu


    Multi-quasiparticle high-K states in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf are studied in the framework of the projected shell model. The calculation reproduces well the observed ground-state band as well as most of the two- and four-quasiparticle rotational bands. Some as yet unobserved high-K isomeric states in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf are predicted. Possible reasons for the existing discrepancies between calculation and experiment are discussed. It is suggested that the projected shell model may be a useful method for studying multi-quasiparticle high-K isomers and the K-mixing phenomenon in heavy deformed nuclei

  5. MegaSquirt-moottoriohjaimen asennus ja säätö


    Kujala, Petri


    Työssä on tavoitteena pyrkiä selvittämään laitteiston soveltuvuutta opetus- käyttöön käymällä läpi MegaSquirt rakennussarjaa, sen toimintaa, asennusta ja säätöä. Laitteiston asennuksesta tehdään selkeä ohjeistus, jossa korvataan henkilöauton bensiinimoottorin kaasutin MegaSquirt laitteistolla. Monista eri osa-alueista koostuvasta MegaSquirt laitteistosta on selkeää potentiaalia opetuskäyttöön. Osa-alueiden eri variaatioista on mahdollista koota oppilaiden mielenkiintoa herättäviä opi...

  6. Sporting legacies of sports mega-events: a review of the available literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Lange de Souza


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a literature review about sport legacies of sports mega-events. We used the following key-words and their equivalents in Portuguese:  “sport mega-events”, “legacy”, “sport legacy”. We present the main empirical academic studies available, dedicating especial attention to “London 2012”. We also synthetize recommendations for the development of positive sport legacies to future host cities/countries. We conclude that the nature of research on this theme is extremely complex and that there isn´t enough scientific evidence showing a correlation between the realization of mega-events and the involvement of people with sports and physical activity.

  7. Multi-parameter sensing using high-k oxide of barium strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck, Christina; Poghossian, Arshak; Baecker, Matthias; Schoening, Michael J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), FH Aachen, 52428, Juelich (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52525, Juelich (Germany); Reisert, Steffen; Kramer, Friederike [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), FH Aachen, 52428, Juelich (Germany); Begoyan, Vardges K.; Buniatyan, Vahe V. [Department of Microelectronics and Biomedical Devices, State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009, Yerevan (Armenia)


    High-k perovskite oxide of barium strontium titanate (BST) represents a very attractive multi-functional transducer material for the development of (bio-)chemical sensors. In this work, a Si-based sensor chip containing Pt interdigitated electrodes covered with a thin BST layer (485 nm) has been developed for multi-parameter chemical sensing. The chip has been applied for the contactless measurement of the electrolyte conductivity, the detection of adsorbed charged macromolecules (positively charged polyelectrolytes of polyethylenimine) and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) vapor. The experimental results of functional testing of individual sensors are presented. The mechanism of the BST sensitivity to charged polyelectrolytes and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} vapor has been proposed and discussed. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Characterization of high-k dielectrics using MeV elastic scattering of He ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoller, C.J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Dentoni Litta, E. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of ICT, Isafjordsgatan 22, SE 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Primetzhofer, D., E-mail: [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)


    We present a systematic comparison of two distinct ion-beam based methods for composition analysis of nanometer oxide films: ion-beam channeling and elastic scattering using nuclear resonances, both at MeV energies. Thin films of the technologically highly relevant high-k dielectrics HfO{sub 2} and HfAlO are characterized in the present study, with the additional aim of obtaining a better quantification of the Al content for the latter system. We show that both employed ion scattering methods enable a quantitative determination of the oxygen concentrations with typical uncertainties of about 5–10% in the oxygen fraction. The influence of various kinds of systematic inaccuracies in the evaluation procedure are discussed.

  9. Shear viscosity of shocked metals at mega-bar pressures (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Sheng


    Viscosity of metals at high pressures and temperatures has been one of the most concerned problems in weapon physics and geophysics, e.g., the shear viscosity coefficients of substances in earth's mantle and earth's core at mega-bar pressures are needed for understanding the core mantle convection in deep earth. But the experimental data is very scarce because the conventional measurement methods can hardly be applied to such compression conditions [1]. In this talk, the principle of small-disturbance perturbation method [2] is re-investigated based on both the analytic solution and the numerical solution of the two-dimentional shock flow of sinusoidal distubance on front. In numerical solution, the real viscosity, which governs the flow behind the shock front and the perturbation damping feature, and the artificial viscosity, whick controls the numerical oscillation, separately treated. The relation between the viscosity of flow and the damping features of perturbation amplitude is quantitatively established for the loading situations of Sakharov's [3] and a flyer-impact situation with a finite disturbance. The later is the theoretical basis to develop a new experimental method, called the flyer-impact small-disturbance method [4]. In the flyer-impact small-disturbance method, the two-stage light-gas gun is used to launch a metal flyer. When the flyer directly impacts on the wedge-shaped sample with a sinusoidal surface, a two-dimensional shock flow of sinusoidal distubance on its front is generated. The amplitude of disturbance and its dependance with propagation distance is measured by use of an electric pin-array probe or a fibre-array probe. Correspondingly, the solution of the flow is given by numerically solving the hydrodynamic equations by the finite difference technique to find out the quantative correlations among the amplitude decay, the initial distribution of flow, the amplitude of initial disturbance, the shear viscosity of the flow, and the material

  10. Cyclone Driven Sediment Loads in a Tropical Mega-River. (United States)

    Darby, Stephen; Leyland, Julian; Hackney, Christopher; Heasley, Eleanore; Kummu, Matti; Lauri, Hannu; Parsons, Daniel; Nicholas, Andrew; Aalto, Rolf; Best, Jim


    Understanding the links between environmental change and sediment transport in the mega-rivers that dominate the flux of terrestrial sediment to their deltas and oceans remains a major challenge. Many large river systems display significant seasonality in flow regime, which is affected to a greater or lesser degree by the influence of large tropical storms, which act to increase their variability and thus drive uncertainty in predicting the impacts associated with changes in future flow regimes. Here we demonstrate the significance of tropical storms in driving sediment flux from one of the world's largest rivers, the Mekong, to its delta. Data was collected at Kratie, Cambodia; this being the site of the Mekong's final reliable flow gauging station before the Mekong delta. Suspended sediment fluxes were estimated by calibrating acoustic backscatter returns from an acoustic Doppler current profiler to observed suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) across a monsoon cycle. The retrieved SSCs were combined with flow velocity estimates to recover the sediment flux. These estimates of flux were then used to build sediment rating curves to predict suspended flux as a function of flow discharge. A hydrological model, VMod, was then used to estimate daily discharge values for the same historical period, but for a scenario in which the effects of tropical storms on the flow regime are isolated. This was achieved by forcing the hydrological model with daily precipitation values that account for precipitation anomalies associated with observed tropical storms. The difference in cumulative sediment transport estimated by combining the two flow discharge scenarios with the constructed sediment rating curves allowed the contribution of tropical storms to the Lower Mekong's suspended sediment transport regime to be isolated. It was found that sediment loads in the Mekong River attenuate downstream from approximately 120 MT in Laos and Thailand to ~80-90 MT in the alluvial

  11. Integration of geotechnical and geophysical techniques for the characterization of a small earth-filled canal dyke and the localization of water leakage (United States)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Lacroix, Pascal; Oxarango, Laurent; Goutaland, David; Monnot, Guy; Fargier, Yannick


    This paper investigates the combined use of extensive geotechnical, hydrogeological and geophysical techniques to assess a small earth dyke with a permanent hydraulic head, namely a canal embankment. The experimental site was chosen because of known issues regarding internal erosion and piping phenomena. Two leakages were visually located following the emptying of the canal prior to remediation works. The results showed a good agreement between the geophysical imaging techniques (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, P- and SH-waves Tomography) and the geotechnical data to detect the depth to the bedrock and its lateral variations. It appeared that surface waves might not be fully adapted for dyke investigation because of the particular geometry of the studied dyke, non-respectful of the 1D assumption, and which induced depth and velocity discrepancies retrieved from Rayleigh and Love waves inversion. The use of these classical prospecting techniques however did not allow to directly locate the two leakages within the studied earth dyke. The analysis of ambient vibration time series with a modified beam-forming algorithm allowed to localize the most energetic water flow prior to remediation works. It was not possible to detect the leakage after remediation works, suggesting that they efficiently contributed to significantly reduce the water flow. The second leakage was not detected probably because of a non-turbulent water flow, generating few energetic vibrations.

  12. The Brave New (American) World of International in Investment Law: Substantive Investment Protection Standards in Mega-Regionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.; Bray, H.L.


    Mega-Regionals are transforming and shaping the future of international investment law, concerning both the settlement of investment disputes and the substantive disciplines governing investor-state relations. Focusing on the latter, the present article shows how Mega-Regionals depart from the so

  13. The Brave New (American) World of International Investment Law: Substantive Investment Protection Standards in Mega-Regionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.; Bray, H.L.; Rensmann, T.


    Mega-regionals are transforming and shaping the future of international investment law, concerning both the settlement of investment disputes and the substantive disciplines governing investor–state relations. Focusing on the latter, the present chapter shows how mega-regionals depart from the so

  14. 78 FR 4143 - Mega Energy of New England, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mega Energy of New England, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Mega Energy of New England, LLC's application for market-based...

  15. Analisis Pengaruh Kompetensi Individu dan Motivasi terhadap Kinerja Karyawan PT. Beta Setia Mega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septiyani Septiyani


    Full Text Available This study has three objectives, first to determine the influence of individual competencies to employee performance, second to determine the influence of motivation on employee performance, and third to determine the influence of individual competencies and motivation on employee performance in PT. Setia Mega Beta. Typeof research used is associative research using SPSS 16 as analytical technique. The data were collected by survey through distribution of questionnaires to employees of PT. Setia Mega Beta. The results showed that individual competencies do not partially affect employee performance, motivation partially affects employeeperformance. In addition, individual competencies and motivation simultaneously affect employee performance.

  16. Marco Estructural de Gestión Ambiental MEGA: Resumen del informe final


    Perú. Consejo Nacional del Ambiente


    Contiene: 1. Contexto teórico-práctico para la gestión ambiental. 2. Marco Estructural de Gestión Ambiental (MEGA). 3. Funcionamiento de los niveles del Marco Estructural de Gestión Ambiental (MEGA): ámbitos nacional y regional-municipal. La biblioteca posee la versión impresa, con código: 351.8232-M26 Presenta los aspectos conceptuales y de funcionamiento concreto del Marco Estructural de Gestión Ambiental en los ámbitos nacional, regional y municipal. 36 p. Biblioteca Ambiental...

  17. Mega sporting events: A poisoned chalice or a new dawn for low- and middle-income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Tomlinson


    Full Text Available Mega sporting events in South Africa, which has the largest number of HIV-positive people in the world, and India, with 1.8 million deaths of children under 5 each year and 52 million stunted children, raise questions about the effective and, as importantly, the moral imperative of spending billions of dollars to host a sporting event. From a health perspective, selling alcohol and debt tarnishes further the notion of any intangible benefits of mega events to low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Evaluation of Synthesis & Processing Routes for the High K- Boron Nitride Nano Tubes (BNNTS) for Thermal Management Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of processing the High Thermal Conductivity Boron Nitride Nano Tubes (High-K BNNTs) that...

  19. Mineral chemistry of clinopyroxene and feld spars in the Neoproterozoic alkaline dykes of the Bangalore district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkonen, H.T.


    Full Text Available The unmetamorphosed Neoproterozoic dykes of the continental intraplate alkaline magmatism studied in Southern Karnataka consist of analcime-tinguaites, tinguaites, bostonites and solvsbergites. The analcime-tinguaites, tinguaites and bostonites display pyroxene trends typical of alkaline rocks; the cores of the phenocrysts containing more diopside whereas the rims contain more hedenbergite and aegirine and the groundmass clinopyroxenes have the highest aegirine contents. The pyroxene trends of the rocks are similar, indicating that the melts they formed from had similar fugacities of oxygen and/or similar peralkalinities. The absence of reverse zoning indicates that the melts were not intermixed. The K-feldspar is either K-rich and Na-poor sanidine or orthoclase and is zoned with respect to sodium and sometimes also barium. The plagioclase is almost pure albite.

  20. The Meaning of High K2O Volcanism In the U.S. Cordillera (United States)

    Putirka, K. D.; Busby, C.


    K2O contents provide a highly effective discriminant between volcanic rocks erupted in the Cascades and Basin-and Range-provinces, with Cascades volcanics having lower K2O contents at a given SiO2. To differentiate these suites, we use a K-index, where K-index = K2Oobserved - 0.12[SiO2] + 5.1 (oxides in wt. %). In the Sierra Nevada, regional K2O contents are not controlled by wall-rock assimilation. In addition, none are candidates for K-metasomatism, and none are likely to be derived by partial melting of a K-metasomatized source. As to the latter issue, even volcanic rocks with the highest K2O in the Sierra Nevada have K2O/Na2O 5, and as high as 30-40 (Brooks and Snee (1996). Also, Sierra-wide K2O variations are not connected to indices of subduction-related mantle enrichments (such as La/Nb, Ba/Nb or Sr/P2O5), and so K2O is unconnected to regional variations in source composition. K2O contents are instead controlled by the degree of partial melting (F) in the mantle source and fractional crystallization. Putirka and Busby (2007) show that maximum K2O in the Sierra increases with increasing crust thickness, and this relationship also holds across the U.S. the Cordillera (at 39oN latitude). This relationship implies that low F magmas more easily transit thick, low-density upper crust (Putirka and Busby, 2007), which is a consequence of the fact that low F melts are enriched not just in K2O, but also in H2O, which greatly lowers magma density (Ochs and Lange, 1999). This model can explain the contrast in Cascade and Basin-and-Range K2O contents: the modern Cascades are built on the thinner crust of accreted terranes, while typical Basin-and-Range volcanics are erupted on older, and thicker, cratonized crust. Mean crust density, however, cannot be the only explanation of high K2O. In the central Sierra Nevada, the Colorado River Extensional Corridor, and at the Lunar Crater/Nevada Test site area of NV, eruptions of high K2O magmas (K-index>1.65) coincide in time and

  1. What favors the occurrence of subduction mega-earthquakes? (United States)

    Brizzi, Silvia; Funiciello, Francesca; Corbi, Fabio; Sandri, Laura; van Zelst, Iris; Heuret, Arnauld; Piromallo, Claudia; van Dinther, Ylona


    Most of mega-earthquakes (MEqs; Mw > 8.5) occur at shallow depths along the subduction thrust fault (STF). The contribution of each subduction zone to the globally released seismic moment is not homogenous, as well as the maximum recorded magnitude MMax. Highlighting the ingredients likely responsible for MEqs nucleation has great implications for hazard assessment. In this work, we investigate the conditions favoring the occurrence of MEqs with a multi-disciplinary approach based on: i) multivariate statistics, ii) analogue- and iii) numerical modelling. Previous works have investigated the potential dependence between STF seismicity and various subduction zone parameters using simple regression models. Correlations are generally weak due to the limited instrumental seismic record and multi-parameter influence, which make the forecasting of the potential MMax rather difficult. To unravel the multi-parameter influence, we perform a multivariate statistical study (i.e., Pattern Recognition, PR) of the global database on convergent margins (Heuret et al., 2011), which includes seismological, geometrical, kinematic and physical parameters of 62 subduction segments. PR is based on the classification of objects (i.e., subduction segments) belonging to different classes through the identification of possible repetitive patterns. Tests have been performed using different MMax datasets and combination of inputs to indirectly test the stability of the identified patterns. Results show that the trench-parallel width of the subducting slab (Wtrench) and the sediment thickness at the trench (Tsed) are the most recurring parameters for MEqs occurrence. These features are mostly consistent, independently of the MMax dataset and combination of inputs used for the analysis. MEqs thus seem to be promoted for high Wtrench and Tsed, as their combination may potentially favor extreme (i.e., in the order of thousands of km) trench-parallel rupture propagation. To tackle the

  2. Unemployment, Entrepreneurial Education and Mega Universities: Challenges to Expanding Access in Education in Nigeria University (United States)

    Undie, John Atewhoble; Okafor, Victor


    In fundamental economics, individuals acquired education for two broad reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have been identified as panaceas. This paper…

  3. Social and economic impacts of mega-events in India, Brazil and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)



    Dec 9, 2016 ... consultation with the private sector, with little or no accountability to citizens, although such decisions had major implications in terms of the diversion of public spending priorities from more urgent social needs such as housing, healthcare and education. Keywords evictions, legacy, livelihoods, mega-events ...

  4. Explaining governance in five mega-city regions: rethinking the role of hierarchy and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, D.; de Vries, J.


    With the fundamental rescaling of socio-economic relationships, the mega-city region (MCR) has emerged as an important geographical space for governance. At the same time it is highly fragmented institutionally, making it difficult to overcome collective action problems such as providing regional

  5. Mega-events and 'bottom-up' development: beyond window dressing?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These parallel movements highlight two longstanding development logics – a neoliberal emphasis on growth, mega-projects and aggregate benefits that are supposed to 'trickle-down' to poorer people, and a reformist preoccupation with poverty alleviation, equity and inclusion. Critics have long argued that the former logic ...

  6. A Strategic E-Marketing Framework For Sport Mega-Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul S. Radikonyana; Ernie Heath; Felicité Fairer-Wessels Fairer-Wessels; J.J. Prinsloo; Theuns G. Pelser


      This article reports on a study that was conducted which aims to understand the optimal usage of e-marketing in sport mega-events with reference to the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup, which was held in South Africa...

  7. Sport, tourism and mega-event impacts on host cities: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport, tourism and mega-event impacts on host cities: A case study of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in Port Elizabeth. ... The study recommends the maximisation of the marketing momentum garnered through the hosting of the event in order to inform and remind relevant stakeholders of the potential of the region, before focus ...

  8. Mega-event strategy as a tool of urban transformation : Sydney's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Spaans, M.


    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth and put the host city on the world agenda. Thus far, the research addressing what

  9. The bidding paradox : how economists and politicians might agree on the attractiveness of mega sports events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Marcel; de Nooij, Michiel

    The ambition to host mega sports events is (or can be) perfectly justifiable with various arguments. The most persistently used argument is the supposed financial or direct economic gain for the host economy, of which the compelling body of evidence is discouraging. This implies that the

  10. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    distribution and caribou in a realistic but manipulable “virtual world” of an IBM it is possible to examine the plausible effects of different environmental impacts on the population dynamics of caribou in West Greenland. The simulations will include introduction of mega-industry, roads, and transmission lines...

  11. Sports Mega-Events: Reflections About the Legacies of Uefa Euro Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe Soares Romano


    Full Text Available This essay conducted a literature review of the legacy of sports mega-events, emphasizing the UEFA European Championship. In order to review the academic literature about the subject, we used the following keywords: legacies; sports mega-events and its legacies; UEFA European Championship; and their corresponding terms in Spanish and Portuguese. It was also reviewed some important research basis: Annals; BVS; DOAJ; EBSCO; REDALYC; Periódicos CAPES; PubMed; Scielo; Scopus; Science Direct; and, Scholar Google. The results were analyzed by categories. Regarding the sport mega-event Eurocopa, it was found that the tourism legacies, the economics impacts and the social aspect have been discussed more often, as well as projections and predictions of events that will occur later. It was also concluded that most of the articles shows an absence of discussion about the negative impacts of sports mega-events. It is therefore recommended to use standard methods with comparisons of results and longitudinal studies to better understand the impacts and the use of legacy.

  12. Mega Events and Urban Conflicts in Valencia, Spain: Contesting the New Urban Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Romero Renau


    Full Text Available The local and regional administrations of Valencia, Spain, have been working to position the city, which is the country's third largest in terms of population, as an international destination for luxury tourism through sports mega-events. Valencia's new image as a “mega-events city” has been criticized by citizens and urban-based movements on social and environmental grounds, resulting in various urban conflicts. The aim of this paper is to examine the causes and dynamics of these conflicts in order to understand the discourse and rationales behind the criticism. This will also include an examination of the ways in which these conflicts were managed by the local administration, especially in the months leading up to and during the events, when the city was receiving worldwide media coverage. Researching local print media, we focused on urban conflicts that took place in Valencia between 1995 and 2010. We also looked at the performance of urban-based movements and the administration as conflicting actors. One of the main findings was the strong consensual authoritarianism manifested by the administration and mega-event organizers when making decisions and managing urban conflicts related to mega-events.

  13. A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Daly, Mark J.; Ripke, Stephan; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Wray, Naomi R.; Neale, Benjamin; Levinson, Douglas F.; Breen, Gerome; Byrne, Enda M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Rietschel, Marcella; Hoogendijk, Witte; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hamilton, Steven P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Ripke, Stephan; Weissman, Myrna M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Breuer, Rene; Cichon, Sven; Degenhardt, Franziska; Frank, Josef; Gross, Magdalena; Herms, Stefan; Hoefels, Susanne; Maier, Wolfgang; Mattheisen, Manuel; Noeethen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.; Steffens, Michael; Treutlein, Jens; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco J.; Hoogendijk, Witte; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jung-Ying, Tzeng; Lin, Dan-Yu; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda P.; Smit, Johannes H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zitman, Frans G.; Coryell, William H.; Knowles, James A.; Lawson, William B.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Holsboer, Florian; Muglia, Pierandrea; Tozzi, Federica; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; MacIntyre, Donald J.; McIntosh, Andrew; McLean, Alan; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Penninx, Brenda P.; Ripke, Stephan; Smit, Johannes H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zitman, Frans G.; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Holsboer, Florian; Lucae, Susanne; Binder, Elisabeth; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Ripke, Stephan; Czamara, Darina; Kohli, Martin A.; Ising, Marcus; Uhr, Manfred; Bettecken, Thomas; Barnes, Michael R.; Breen, Gerome; Craig, Ian W.; Farmer, Anne E.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; McGuffin, Peter; Muglia, Pierandrea; Byrne, Enda; Gordon, Scott D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hickie, Ian B.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Wray, Naomi R.; Hamilton, Steven P.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Slager, Susan L.; Oskarsson, Hoegni; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Steinberg, Stacy; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Guipponi, Michel; Lewis, Glyn; O'Donovan, Michael; Tansey, Katherine E.; Uher, Rudolf; Coryell, William H.; Knowles, James A.; Lawson, William B.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Castro, Victor M.; Churchill, Susanne E.; Fava, Maurizio; Gainer, Vivian S.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Goryachev, Sergey; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Kohane, Isaac S.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Perlis, Roy H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Weilburg, Jeffrey B.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Preisig, Martin; Grabe, Hans J.; Nauck, Matthias; Schulz, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; Voelzke, Henry; Landen, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik; Pedersen, Nancy; Viktorin, Alexander

    Prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have met with limited success. We sought to increase statistical power to detect disease loci by conducting a GWAS mega-analysis for MDD. In the MDD discovery phase, we analyzed more than 1.2 million autosomal and X

  14. Matching deprivation mapping to urban governance in three Indian mega-cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.S.A.; Pfeffer, K.; Sridharan, N.; Nainan, N.


    Recent discussions of poverty recognize its multi-dimensional character, focusing on multiple sources of deprivation that poor households experience. However, for urban planners and politicians to implement intervention programs effectively in mega-cities, knowledge on sources and spatial patterns

  15. The evolution of the atlantic mega-undation : Causing the American continental drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    Mega-undations are the largest class of deformations of the earth's surface, with diameters of many thousands of kilometers. They result from deepseated mass-circuits, probably in the inner mantle. Though their potential amplitude may be in the order of 100 km, their actual height is not more than

  16. The bidding paradox: why rational politicians still want to bid for mega sports events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; van den Berg, M.R.


    This paper discusses reasons why politicians still favor hosting mega events despite the discouraging evidence regarding their financial benefits: (1) early political enthusiasm, (2) tying side-projects to the bid to raise political support, (3) biased reading of history, (4) the winners curse, (5)

  17. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha


    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  18. Full Polymer Dielectric Elastomeric Actuators (DEA Functionalised with Carbon Nanotubes and High-K Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo Köckritz


    Full Text Available Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA are special devices which have a simple working and construction principle and outstanding actuation properties. The DEAs consist of a combination of different materials for the dielectric and electrode layers. The combination of these layers causes incompatibilities in their interconnections. Dramatic differences in the mechanical properties and bad adhesion of the layers are the principal causes for the reduction of the actuation displacement and strong reduction of lifetime. Common DEAs achieve actuation displacements of 2% and a durability of some million cycles. The following investigations represent a new approach to solving the problems of common systems. The investigated DEA consists of only one basic raw polymer, which was modified according to the required demands of each layer. The basic raw polymer was modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes or high-k ceramics, for example, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. The development of the full polymer DEA comprised the development of materials and technologies to realise a reproducible layer composition. It was proven that the full polymer actuator worked according to the theoretical rules. The investigated system achieved actuation displacements above 20% regarding thickness, outstanding interconnections at each layer without any failures, and durability above 3 million cycles without any indication of an impending malfunction.

  19. High-k Scattering and FIReTIP Diagnostic Upgrades for NSTX-U (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert; Scott, Evan; Domier, Calvin; Muscatello, Christopher; Riemenschneider, Paul; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Luhmann, Neville; Ren, Yang; Kaita, Robert


    A major upgrade to the High-k Scattering system is underway on NSTX-U, which is being transformed from a primarily toroidal detection geometry (for kr measurements) to a poloidal detection geometry (for kθ measurements) in which a probe beam is launched from Bay G and collected on Bay L. Combined with an increase in probing frequency to 693 GHz, the poloidal wavenumber sensitivity has been extended from kθ = 7 cm-1 up to 40 cm-1. The system will be installed and commissioned in 2016 with an initial 4-channel receiver, with plans to eventually upgrade to an 8x2 configuration, which can probe the plasma from the core out to the edge of the pedestal region. The Far Infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system is being upgraded with field programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics to support real time feedback density control, and will be installed on Bay G this fall. Design and implementation details regarding both diagnostics will be presented. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54518 and DE-AC02-09CH1146.

  20. Psychometrics and life history strategy: the structure and validity of the High K Strategy Scale. (United States)

    Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven


    In this paper, we critically review the conceptualization and implementation of psychological measures of life history strategy associated with Differential K theory. The High K Strategy Scale (HKSS: Giosan, 2006) was distributed to a large British sample (n = 809) with the aim of assessing its factor structure and construct validity in relation to theoretically relevant life history variables: age of puberty, age of first sexual encounter, and number of sexual partners. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the HKSS in its current form did not show an adequate statistical fit to the data. Modifications to improve fit indicated four correlated factors (personal capital, environmental stability, environmental security, and social capital). Later puberty in women was positively associated with measures of the environment and personal capital. Among men, contrary to Differential K predictions but in line with female mate preferences, earlier sexual debut and more sexual partners were positively associated with more favorable environments and higher personal and social capital. We raise concerns about the use of psychometric indicators of lifestyle and personality as proxies for life history strategy when they have not been validated against objective measures derived from contemporary life history theory and when their status as causes, mediators, or correlates has not been investigated.

  1. Psychometrics and Life History Strategy: The Structure and Validity of the High K Strategy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T. Copping


    Full Text Available In this paper, we critically review the conceptualization and implementation of psychological measures of life history strategy associated with Differential K theory. The High K Strategy Scale (HKSS: Giosan, 2006 was distributed to a large British sample (n = 809 with the aim of assessing its factor structure and construct validity in relation to theoretically relevant life history variables: age of puberty, age of first sexual encounter, and number of sexual partners. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the HKSS in its current form did not show an adequate statistical fit to the data. Modifications to improve fit indicated four correlated factors (personal capital, environmental stability, environmental security, and social capital. Later puberty in women was positively associated with measures of the environment and personal capital. Among men, contrary to Differential K predictions but in line with female mate preferences, earlier sexual debut and more sexual partners were positively associated with more favorable environments and higher personal and social capital. We raise concerns about the use of psychometric indicators of lifestyle and personality as proxies for life history strategy when they have not been validated against objective measures derived from contemporary life history theory and when their status as causes, mediators, or correlates has not been investigated.

  2. Backside versus frontside advanced chemical analysis of high-k/metal gate stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Saidi, B. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Veillerot, M. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Caubet, P. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Fabbri, J-M. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Piallat, F. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Gassilloud, R. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Schamm-Chardon, S. [CEMES-CNRS et Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)


    Highlights: • The backside approach is a promising solution for advanced chemical characterization of future MOSFETs. • Frontside ToF-SIMS and Auger depth profiles are affected by cumulative mixing effects and thus not relevant for analyzing ultra-thin layers. • Higher in-depth resolution is possible in the backside approach for Auger and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. • Backside depth profiling allows revealing ultra-thin layers and elemental in-depth redistribution inside high-k/metal gate stacks. • Backside XPS allows preserving the full metal gate, thus enabling the analysis of real technological samples. - Abstract: Downscaling of transistors beyond the 14 nm technological node requires the implementation of new architectures and materials. Advanced characterization methods are needed to gain information about the chemical composition of buried layers and interfaces. An effective approach based on backside analysis is presented here. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger depth profiling and time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry are combined to investigate inter-diffusion phenomena. To highlight improvements related to the backside method, backside and frontside analyses are compared. Critical information regarding nitrogen, oxygen and aluminium redistribution inside the gate stacks is obtained only in the backside configuration.

  3. Caractérisation géochimique des dykes basiques du massif de les Saras (Mayombe Congolais, Afrique Centrale): conséquences géodynamiquesGeochemical characterizations of basic dykes of the Saras massif (Congolese Mayombe Belt, Central Africa): geodynamic implications (United States)

    Boni, J. Mpemba; Vellutini, P. J.


    The Saras granodioritic massif is one of the Eburnean intrusive plutons of the Mayombe Belt. (South-West Congo, Central Africa) It is crosscut by a system of basic dykes, of diversified composition. Petrographic data and a comparative geochemical study, using incompatible trace elements, shows a tholeiitic transitional affinity, and allow us to suggest that these dykes are continental basaltic suites, from extensive areas. This basic magmatism, scattered in the whole Congo Craton, marks a widespread extensional episode in relation with the formation of subsidence basins or true aulacogens, at about 970 Ma (Pan African).

  4. Non-climatic signal in ice core records: lessons from Antarctic mega-dunes (United States)

    Ekaykin, A.; Eberlein, L.; Lipenkov, V.; Popov, S.; Scheinert, M.; Schröder, L.; Turkeev, A.


    We present the results of glaciological investigations in the mega-dune area located 30 km to the east from Vostok Station (central East Antarctica) implemented during the 58th, 59th and 60th Russian Antarctic Expedition (January 2013-January 2015). Snow accumulation rate and isotope content (δD, δ18O and δ17O) were measured along the 2 km profile across the mega-dune ridge accompanied by precise GPS altitude measurements and GPR survey. It is shown that the spatial variability of snow accumulation and isotope content covaries with the surface slope. The accumulation rate regularly changes by one order of magnitude within the distance Vostok Station, which suggests no additional wind-driven snow sublimation in the mega-dunes compared to the surrounding plateau. The snow isotopic composition is in negative correlation with the snow accumulation. Analyzing dxs/δD and 17O-excess/δD slopes, we conclude that the spatial variability of the snow isotopic composition in the mega-dune area could be explained by post-depositional snow modifications. Using the GPR data, we estimated the apparent dune drift velocity (4.6 ± 1.1 m yr-1). The full cycle of the dune drift is thus about 410 years. Since the spatial anomalies of snow accumulation and isotopic composition are supposed to drift with the dune, an ice core drilled in the mega-dune area would exhibit the non-climatic 410 year cycle of these two parameters. We simulated a vertical profile of snow isotopic composition with such a non-climatic variability, using the data on the dune size and velocity. This artificial profile is then compared with the real vertical profile of snow isotopic composition obtained from a core drilled in the mega-dune area. We note that the two profiles are very similar. The obtained results are discussed in terms of interpretation of data obtained from ice cores drilled beyond the mega-dune areas.

  5. Meta, mega e retroanálises correlacionais: comparando dados primários em Psicologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Reszka Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Na tentativa de promover a transformação de informações em conhecimento, este artigo compara as meta-análises com duas de suas variantes, as mega-análises e as retroanálises, técnicas desenvolvidas para a síntese e a equiparação de resultados pouco precisos ou contraditórios. Enquanto as meta-análises referem-se à síntese dos resultados de diferentes pesquisas primárias, as mega-análises referem-se à síntese dos dados coletados por pesquisas primárias e as retroanálises à recriação e posterior síntese desses mesmos dados. Por meio de uma simulação, o Estudo 1 pareia o viés médio de meta, mega e retroanálises em função de nove diferentes configurações que variam conforme a quantidade de estudos empregados e do tamanho da amostra individual de cada um desses estudos, nas modalidades de dados completos, leve e severa ausência de dados. No Estudo 2, os mesmos dados utilizados na simulação de ausência severa foram empregados para testar a precisão de mega e retroanálises quando se realiza a imputação de dados. Os resultados apontam para uma leve superioridade geral das mega-análises, diferença essa que diminui, até desaparecer, em situações ideais.

  6. Interface Study on Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using High-k Gate Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin


    Full Text Available We investigated amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using different high-k gate dielectric materials such as silicon nitride (Si3N4 and aluminum oxide (Al2O3 at low temperature process (<300°C and compared them with low temperature silicon dioxide (SiO2. The IGZO device with high-k gate dielectric material will expect to get high gate capacitance density to induce large amount of channel carrier and generate the higher drive current. In addition, for the integrating process of integrating IGZO device, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the process. The chemical reaction of the high-k/IGZO interface due to heat formation in high-k/IGZO materials results in reliability issue. We also used the voltage stress for testing the reliability for the device with different high-k gate dielectric materials and explained the interface effect by charge band diagram.

  7. The analysis on characteristic of pre-stressed reticulated mega-structure with grid sub-structure (United States)

    Wu, Chunye; Yin, Zhixiang


    The author brings a new structure named pre-stressed mega grid structure which can be applied to super large span architectural structure through combining the advantages of mega grid structure and beam string structure. This new structure has many advantages, such as, light weight, strong rigidity and large span. This article has secondly developed ANSYS software with APDL language for modeling establishment and solving integration, and also edited related programs. Referring to the contractive analysis of dynamic characteristics, static characteristics of pre-stressed mega grid structure and mega grid structure; and by adopting time history method to analyze the seismic response of pre-stressed mega grid structure. One may get the conclusions of strengths in deflection characteristics and mechanical characteristics of pre-stressed mega grid structure. Through analyzing the dynamic characteristics, static characteristics and seismic response of pre-stressed mega grid structure which is across 280m by the method of changing original pre-stress, loss ratio of main structure and the number of grids. It may get conclusions of range of evaluation of all above parameters.

  8. Timing, mantle source and origin of mafic dykes within the gravity anomaly belt of the Taihang-Da Hinggan gravity lineament, central North China Craton (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Feng, Guangying; Xu, Mengjing; Coulson, Ian M.; Guo, Xiaolei; Guo, Zhuang; Peng, Hao; Feng, Qiang


    Six mafic dyke swarms crop out in Hebei Province within the Taihang-Da Hinggan gravity lineament magmatic belt, China, and were sampled. Here, we present new zircon laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry U-Pb age, whole rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data for the six areas where these mafic dykes occur. The mafic (dolerite) dykes formed between 131.6 ± 1.6 and 121.6 ± 1.1 Ma, and are enriched in the light rare earth elements (LREE), some of the large ion lithophile elements (LILE; e.g., Rb, Ba, and Sr) and Pb, and are depleted in Th, U, Nb and Ta; some samples are also depleted in Eu. The dykes have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7055-0.7057), negative εNd (t) values (-12.5 to -11.9), relatively constant Pb isotopic ratios ((206Pb/204Pb)i = 16.45-16.51, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.44-15.51, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 36.49-36.53), negative εHf (t) values (-18.2 to -15.1), and old Nd (TNdDM2; 2.17-2.47 Ga) and Hf (THfDM2; 2.28-2.33 Ga) model ages. These geochronological, geochemical, and isotopic data indicate that the dykes were derived from magmas generated by low to moderate degree partial melting (1.0%-10%) of an EM1-like garnet lherzolite mantle source; these magmas fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and hornblende prior to emplacement, and assimilated minimal amounts of crustal material. Several possible models have previously been proposed to explain the origin of Mesozoic magmatism in this region. However, here we propose a foundering model for these studied mafic dykes, involving the foundering of eclogite from thickened lower crust due to the collision between the Siberian Craton and the North China Craon.

  9. Petrology, geochronology and emplacement model of the giant 1.37 Ga arcuate Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm on the margin of a large igneous province in eastern Africa (United States)

    Mäkitie, Hannu; Data, Gabriel; Isabirye, Edward; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Huhma, Hannu; Klausen, Martin B.; Pakkanen, Lassi; Virransalo, Petri


    A comprehensive description of the petrography, geochemical composition, Sm-Nd data and intrinsic field relationships of a giant arcuate Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarm in SW Uganda is presented for the first time. The swarm is ∼100 km wide and mainly hosted in the Palaeoproterozoic Rwenzori Belt between the Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole Belt and the Archaean Uganda Block. The dykes trend NW-SE across Uganda, but can be correlated across Lake Victoria to another set of arcuate aeromagnetic anomalies that continue southwards into Tanzania, resulting in a remarkably large semi-circular swarm with an outer diameter of ∼500 km. We propose that this unique giant dyke structure be named the Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm (LVDS). The dykes are tholeiites with Mg numbers between 0.69 and 0.44, and with inherited marked negative Nb and P anomalies in spider diagrams. Two dykes provide Sm-Nd mineral ages of 1368 ± 41 Ma and 1374 ± 42 Ma, with initial εNd values of -2.3 and -3.2, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ∼0.706-0.709. Geotectonic discrimination diagrams for the swarm exhibit more arc type than within-plate tectonic signatures, but this is in accordance with systematic enrichments in LREE, U and Th in the dolerites, more likely due to the involvement of the continental lithosphere during their petrogenesis. The LVDS is coeval with a regional ∼1375 Ma bimodal magmatic event across nearby Burundi, Rwanda and NW Tanzania, which can collectively be viewed as a large igneous province (LIP). It also indicates that the nearby Karagwe-Ankole Belt sequences - bracketed between 1.78 and 1.37 Ga and assumed by some to have been deposited within intracratonic basins - were capped by flood basalts that have subsequently been removed by erosion. Different geochemical signatures (e.g. LaN/SmN) suggest that most of the arcuate swarm was derived from an enriched SCLM, whereas related intrusions in the centre of this semi-circular segment have more or less enriched asthenospheric mantle

  10. Ca dependence of Na influx during treatment of rabbit aorta with NE and high K solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaronson, P.I.; Jones, A.W. (St. George' s Hospital Medical School, London (England) Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))


    Cellular influx of {sup 24}Na was measured in isolated rabbit aorta during stimulation with 10 {mu}M norepinephrine (NE) or depolarization with 80 mM K solution, using a pulse-labeling, cold-wash technique. NE caused a two- to threefold increase in Na influx; a smaller but significant increase was also observed in depolarized tissues. Basal and Ne-induced fluxes at 1 min were significantly increased by a 20-min preincubation in a Ca-free solution containing 2 mM EGTA; elevation of (Mg) in this solution reduced these effects. The high K-induced influx was prevented by a combination of low Ca (30 {mu}m) and elevated Mg (10 mM). The Ca agonist, BAY-K 8644, increased {sup 24}Na influx. The Ca antagonist, diltiazem, inhibited the depolarization-stimulated {sup 24}Na influx in a concentration-dependent manner, but was less effective in blocking the response to NE. Extension of the preincubation in NE plus Ca-free medium from 30 s to 15 min decreased the influx response and contraction. After exposure to NE in Ca-free solution, {sup 24}Na influx remained elevated 10 min after washing out NE in the continued absence of Ca. A second exposure to NE at that time did not increase influx. The authors propose that a component of {sup 24}Na influx during excitation depends directly on a rise in intracellular (Ca). The role of an indirect effect of (Ca) on metabolic H{sup +} production with subsequent stimulation of the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange may also be a factor.

  11. Mega starbirth cluster is biggest, brightest and hottest ever seen (United States)


    -European Coordinating Facility in Germany, and a team of international co-authors report the discovery in the 20 October 2003 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The mega-cluster of stars appears as a puzzling red arc behind a distant galaxy cluster 5400 million light-years away in the northern constellation of Lynx. The arc is the stretched and magnified image of a mysterious celestial object about 12 000 million light-years away (at a redshift of 3.36), far beyond the cluster of galaxies. This means that the remote source existed when the Universe was less than 2000 million years old. Fosbury and colleagues first tried to identify the arc by analysing the light from the object, but the team was not able to recognise the pattern of colours in the spectral signature of the remote object. While looking for matches with the colour spectrum, Fosbury realised that the light was related to that of the nearby Orion Nebula, a star-forming region in our own Milky Way. However where the Orion Nebula is powered by only four hot and bright blue stars, the Lynx Arc must contain around a million such stars! Furthermore, the spectrum shows that the stars in the Lynx Arc are more than twice as hot as the Orion Nebula's central stars, with surface temperatures up to 80 000°C. Though there are much bigger and brighter star-forming regions than the Orion Nebula in our local Universe, none are as bright as the Lynx Arc, nor do they contain such large numbers of hot stars. Even the most massive, normal nearby stars are no hotter than around 40 000°C. However, stars forming from the original, pristine gas in the early Universe can be more massive and consequently much hotter - perhaps up to 120 000°C. The earliest stars may have been as much as several hundred solar masses, but the chemical make-up of the Universe today prevents stars from forming beyond about 100 solar masses. Such 'primordial' super-hot stars are thought to be the first luminous objects to condense after the Big Bang cooled

  12. La estrategia comunicacional en el sector mega-minero : Un estudio del caso La Alumbrera en Argentina


    Godfrid, Julieta


    En los últimos años se produjo en la Argentina una rápida expansión de la mega-minería a cielo abierto, lo que vino acompañado de un creciente aumento de la conflictividad socioambiental que cuestiona en profundidad las consecuencias de la actividad extractiva. En este contexto, las múltiples críticas a la mega-minería deslegitimaron profundamente la imagen del sector y de las empresas que llevan adelante este tipo de actividad. A partir de allí, las corporaciones mega-mineras se vieron frent...

  13. Petrological and geochemical constraints on the origin of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc, NE Turkey (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge; Baser, Rasim; Uysal, Ibrahim; Sen, Cüneyt; Karsli, Orhan; Kandemir, Raif


    Geological, petrographical and geochemical data of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc (EBMA), NE Turkey, provide new insights into the nature of the metasomatizing agents in subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the region during the late Mesozoic-early Tertiary. Mafic dykes from the Çaykara and Hayrat (Trabzon), and also Ikizdere (Rize) areas from the northern margin of the EBMA consist of basalts, dolerites, lamprophyres (basic member) and lesser basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (evolved member). All dykes have no deformation and metamorphism. The outcrops of these dykes vary, with thickness from 0.2 to 10 m. and visible length from 3 to 20 m. In general, the mafic dykes dip steeply and cut directly across the Kaçkar Pluton, and show NW- and NE-trending, roughly parallel to the orientations of the EBMA main faults. Most of the dyke samples display subaphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (up to 10%), clinopyroxene (5-20%), amphibole (5-15%), and some contain variable amount of biotite (5-20%), lesser quartz (1-2%), and minor euhedral zircon, apatite and Fe-Ti oxides. The basic members of the mafic dykes have SiO2 of 44.1-51.9%, MgO of 4.5-12.1%, and TiO2 >mostly 0.8% (up to 2.3%) with K2O+Na2O of 1.3-6.6% with mostly subalkaline character. They are relatively high in mg-number (0.45-0.73) and transition metals (V=171-376 ppm, Co=22-45 ppm, Ni=3-148 ppm, and Sc=21-49 ppm). The evolved members of the dykes exhibit relatively higher SiO2 (57.1-60.2%) and K2O+Na2O (5.6-9.0%), and lower MgO (2.2-5.9%) and TiO2 (0.5-0.8%) contents than those from the basic dykes. Also, these samples have slightly low mg-number (0.41-0.65) and transition metals (V=99-172 ppm, Co=9-22 ppm, Ni=1-43 ppm, and Sc=9-20 ppm). In the Harker diagrams, all samples of the mafic dykes form a continuous array, and exhibit similar geochemical characteristics. In general, SiO2 inversely correlates with MgO, Fe

  14. Composition and age of tertiary sills and dykes, Jameson Land Basin, East Greenland: relation to regional flood volcanism (United States)

    Hald, N.; Tegner, C.


    The Paleozoic-Mesozoic Jameson Land Basin (East Greenland) is intruded by a sill complex and by a swarm of ESE trending dykes. Together with dykes of the inner Scoresby Sund fjord, they form a regional Early Tertiary intrusive complex located ˜ 200-400 km inland of the East Greenland rifted continental margin. Most of the intrusive rocks in the Jameson Land Basin are geochemically coherent and consist of evolved plagioclase-augite-olivine saturated, uncontaminated high-Ti basalt with 48.5-50.2 wt.% SiO 2, 2.2-3.2 wt.% TiO 2, 5.1-7.4 wt.% MgO, 9-17 ppm Nb and La/Yb N = 2.8-3.6. Minor tholeiitic rock types are: (a) low-Ti basalt (˜ 49.7 wt.% SiO 2, ˜ 1.7 wt.% TiO 2, ˜ 6.8 wt.% MgO, ˜ 2.6 ppm Nb and La/Yb N = ˜0.5) akin to oceanic basalts; (b) very-high-Ti basalt (˜ 48.6 wt.% SiO 2, ˜ 4.1 wt.% TiO 2, ˜ 5.1 wt.% MgO and ˜ 21 ppm Nb); and (c) plagioclase ultraphyric basalt. The tholeiitic dolerites are cut by alkali basalt (43.7-47.3 wt.% SiO 2, 4.1-5.1 wt.% TiO 2, 4.9-6.2 wt.% MgO, 29-46 ppm Nb and La/Yb N = 16-17) sills and dykes. Modelling of high-field-strength and rare-earth elements indicate that the high-Ti basalts formed from ˜ 6-10% melting of approximately equal proportions of garnet-and spinel-bearing mantle of slightly depleted composition beneath thick continental lithosphere. Conversely, dolerite intrusions and flood basalts of similar compositional kindred from adjacent but more rift-proximal occurrences in Northeast Greenland formed from shallower melting of dominantly spinel-bearing mantle beneath extended and thinned continental lithosphere. These variations in lithospheric thickness suggest the continent-ocean transition of the East Greenland rifted volcanic margin is sharp and narrow. 40Ar- 39Ar dating and paleomagnetism show that the high-Ti dolerites were emplaced at ˜53-52 Ma (most likely during C23r) and hence surprisingly postdate the main flood volcanism by ˜ 2-5 Ma and the inception of seafloor spreading between Greenland and

  15. The carbonatite-marble dykes of Abyan Province, Yemen Republic: the mixing of mantle and crustal carbonate materials revealed by isotope and trace element analysis (United States)

    Le Bas, M. J.; Ba-Bttat, M. A. O.; Taylor, R. N.; Milton, J. A.; Windley, B. F.; Evins, P. M.


    Dykes of carbonate rocks, that cut gneisses in the Lowder-Mudiah area of southern Yemen, consist of dolomite and/or calcite with or without apatite, barite and monazite. Petrographic observations, mineralogical, XRF and ICP-MS analyses reveal that some of the carbonate rocks are derived from sedimentary protoliths, whereas others are magmatic calcio- and magnesio-carbonatites some of which are mineralized with barite-monazite. The interbanded occurrence and apparent contemporary emplacement of these different rock types within individual dykes, backed by Sr Nd isotope evidence, are interpreted to show that intrusion of mantle-derived carbonatite magma was accompanied by mobilization of crustal marbles. That took place some 840 Ma ago but the REE-mineralization is dated at ca. 400 Ma.

  16. Evolving seismogenic plate boundary megathrust and mega-splay faults in subduction zone (Invited) (United States)

    Kimura, G.; Hamahashi, M.; Fukuchi, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kameda, J.; Kitamura, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Kawasaki, R.


    Understanding the fault mechanism and its relationship to the sesimo-tsunamigenesis is a key of the scientific targets of subduction zone and therefore NantroSEIZE project of IODP and future new drilling project of International Ocean Discovery Program keeps focusing on that. Mega-splay fault branched from plate boundary megathrust in subduction zone is located around the border between outer and inner wedges and is considered to cause great earthquake and tsunami such as 1960 Alaska earthquake, 1944 and 1946 Nankai-Tonankai earthquakes, and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes. Seismic reflection studies for the mega-splay fault in 2D and 3D in the Nankai forearc present the reflector with negative or positive polarities with various amplitudes and suggest complicated petrophysical properties and condition of the fault and its surroundings. The Nankai mega-splay fault at a depth of ~5km is going to be drilled and cored by NantroSEIZE experiments and is expected for great progress of understanding of the fault mechanics. Before drilling the really targeted seismogenic fault, we are conducting many exercises of geophysical and geological observations. The core-log-seismic integrated exercise for the exhumed mega-splay fault by drilling was operated for the Nobeoka thrust in the Shimanto Belt, Kyushu, Japan. The Nobeoka thrust was once buried in the depth >~10km and suffered maximum temperature >~300 dgree C. As the core recovery is ~99%, perfect correlation between the core and logging data is possible. Thickness of the fault zone is >200 m with a ~50 cm thick central fault core dividing the phyllitic hanging wall and the footwall of broken-melange like cataclasite. A-few-meter-thick discrete damage zones with fault cores are recognized by difference in physical properties and visual deformation textures at several horizons in the fault zone. Host rocks for those damaged zones are completely lithified cataclasites with abundant mineral veins, which record the older and deeper

  17. Experimental Determination of Major Element Diffusivity in Natural High-K Calc-alkaline Melts (United States)

    González-García, D.; Behrens, H.; Vetere, F. P.; Petrelli, M.; Zezza, A.; Morgavi, D.; Perugini, D.


    Chemical diffusion is of major importance in several magmatic processes and, as a time dependent process, can be used as a timescale indicator. In particular, the study of diffusive exchange in magma mixing events leading to explosive volcanic eruptions has the potential shed light on timescales involved in such processes. To achieve this, a basic knowledge of diffusion rates in different natural silicate melts with a variety of conditions is mandatory. We use a set of diffusion couple experiments to quantify the influence of dissolved water content in the interdiffusion of major elements between two natural high-K calc-alkaline end-members: a shoshonite and a rhyolite from Vulcano island (Aeolian archipelago, Italy). Experiments are run using AuPd alloy capsules at 1200 °C and pressures of 0.5, 1 and 3 kbar, with variable added water content (`nominally dry', 1wt. % and 2 wt.% H2O), and finished by a rapid quench in order to avoid crystal formation. Run products are analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy and electron microprobe, and final diffusion coefficients are obtained from the evaluation of composition-distance profiles by a modified Boltzmann-Matano analysis. Among measured major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K), dissolved H2O content in the melt has the highest influence in diffusivity in our experimental setup: a difference of up to 1.4 orders of magnitude is observed between 0.3 and 2 wt. % H2O bearing glasses. In the investigated range, enhancement of diffusion is higher in the lower water contents and slightly diminishes to 2 wt. %. Compositional gradients result in a 0.4 to 0.8 log units increase of diffusivity in the mafic terms relative to the silicic ones. Si and Ti are the slowest diffusing components. Al is also a slow diffusing component and displays uphill diffusion. The diffusivities of the other elements follow similar behavior, suggesting a strong influence of crossed diffusion and coupling.

  18. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic extension in southwestern Fujian Province, South China: Geochemical, geochronological and Hf isotopic constraints from basic-intermediate dykes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Wang


    Full Text Available The tectonic evolution of SE China block since late Paleozoic remains debated. Here we present a new set of zircon U-Pb geochronological, Lu-Hf isotopic data and whole-rock geochemistry for two stages of basic-intermediate dykes from the southwestern Fujian. The samples were collected from the NE-trending (mainly diabases and NW-trending (mainly diabasic diorites dykes and yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 315 and 141 Ma, with εHf (t values of −8.90 to 7.49 and −23.39 to −7.15 (corresponding to TDM2 values of 850 to 1890 Ma and 737 to 2670 Ma, respectively. Geochemically these rocks are characterized by low TiO2 (0.91–1.73 wt.% and MgO (3.04–7.96 wt.%, and high Al2O3 (12.5–16.60 wt.% and K2O (0.60–3.63 wt.%. Further they are enriched in LREEs and LILEs (Rb, Ba, Th and K, but depleted in HFSEs (Nb, Ta and Zr. The tectonic discrimination analysis revealed that the dykes were formed in an intraplate extensional environment. However, the NW trending dykes show crust-mantle mixed composition, which indicate an extensional tectonic setting with evidence for crustal contamination. The SE China block experienced two main stages of extensional tectonics from late Carboniferous to early Cretaceous. The tectonic evolution of the SE China block from late Devonian to Cretaceous is also evaluated.

  19. Mapping and characterization from aeromagnetic data of the Foum Zguid dolerite Dyke (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) a member of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) (United States)

    Bouiflane, Mustapha; Manar, Ahmed; Medina, Fida; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim


    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Anti- Atlas, Morocco covering the main areas traversed by the Great CAMP Foum Zguid dyke (FZD). This ;doleritic; dyke belongs to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), a Large Igneous Province which is associated with the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangaea and the initial stages of rifting of the Central Atlantic Ocean. It also coincides in time with the mass extinction of the Triassic - Jurassic boundary. Based on the study of geological maps and Google Earth satellite images, it appears that the FZD is poorly exposed and, often covered by Quaternary deposits. This work proposes aeromagnetic modelling and interpretation of the FZD in order to better constrain its structural extent. The data have allowed (i) mapping of the dyke over great distances, under the Quaternary deposits and through areas where it was poorly characterized on the geological map; (ii) identifying major tectonic lineaments interpreted as faults; (iii) recognizing magnetic anomalies related to mafic intrusive bodies; and (iv) informing about regional structural context.

  20. Dyke complex of the East Pacific Rise exposed in the walls of Hess Deep and the structure of the upper oceanic crust (United States)

    Francheteau, J.; Armijo, R.; Cheminee, J. L.; Hekinian, R.; Lonsdale, P.; Blum, N.


    Detailed observations have been made of the extrusive and intrusive units of the uppermost crust emplaced at the axis of the East Pacific Rise during dives conducted with the submersible Nautile on the walls of Hess Deep. At four widely separated locations, the same sequence was found: an upper, thin (100-200 m) unit of extrusives (pillow lavas) underlain by a mixed zone of variable thickness (50-500 m, averaging 200 m) where extrusives are found and intrusives and massive subhorizontal layers which may represent sills. The mixed zone itself is underlain by a sheeted dyke unit, that may be up to 1200 m thick, where dykes are subvertical (i.e. untilted) and parallel to the East Pacific Rise fabric. This sequence may be a general feature of medium to fast-spreading crust because it is similar to that observed in Hole 504B of the Costa Rica Rift and is consistent with images of the upper oceanic crust derived from seismic experiments on the axis of the East Pacific Rise. Dyke thickness is a good measure of the depth to the roof of the axial magma chamber. The observed sections provide much needed "ground-truth" for East Pacific Rise crust. The thickness of the lava sequence and the overall thickness of Layer 2 (at most 1400 m) appear to have been overestimated in previous studies of the oceanic crust.

  1. New constraints on the geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics of Bas-Drâa mafic dykes, Anti-Atlas of Morocco (United States)

    El Bahat, Abdelhakim; Ikenne, Moha; Cousens, Brian; Söderlund, Ulf; Ernst, Richard; Klausen, Martin B.; Youbi, Nasrrddine


    The Precambrian inliers of the Anti-Atlas belt across the southern part of Morocco contain numerous mafic dyke and sill swarms, which are thought to represent the erosional remnants of Proterozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). As part of an extended research campaign to date and characterize these LIPs, two amphiboles from one dyke within the Bas-Drâa inlier (western Anti-Atlas) yielded consistent 40Ar-39Ar ages of 611 Ma ± 1.3; i.e., evidence of magmatic activity during the Ediacaran (635-542 Ma). Furthermore, Nd isotope ratios and model ages identifies four groups of dykes within the Bas-Drâa inlier, all of which were derived from a previously enriched mantle reservoir with very low 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.51065-0.51170) and corresponding εNd(t) values (-16.44 to -2.45). Such low Nd-ratios arguably reflect either a contribution of crustal components, such as the Paleoproterozoïc schisto-granitic basement, or metasomatic modification of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle.

  2. Populations of Rice Grain Bug,Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis, (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Weed-free Paddy Field, Weedy Paddy Field and Paddy Dykes. (United States)

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Nasruddin, Andi; Agus, Nurariaty


    Research on the populations of rice grain bug Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis Dallas (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in paddy field ecosystems was performed with the aim to determine the populations of rice grain bug in weed-free paddy field, weedy paddy field, and paddy dykes. Experiment was carried out in the village of Paccellekang in the district of Patallasang of Gowa Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Observations were performed during the milky grain stage (85 days after planting), the mature grain stage (105 days after planting), and one day after harvest (115 days after transplanting). Results showed that 85 days after the transplanting, the populations of rice grain bug was significantly higher in the weedy paddy field compared to weed-free field and paddy dykes with total numbers of 1.75, 3.53, and 0.31 insects per 2 hills, respectively. Similarly, 105 days after the transplanting, 2.53, 5.53, and 0.11 insects per hill, respectively. However, one day after the harvest (115 days after transplanting) the number of insects in weed-free field decreased, while in the dykes increased, and the weedy plot still had the highest number of insects per 2 hills. Our results suggested that weeds played an important role in regulating the bug population by providing alternative shelter and foods for the insect.

  3. The INFN MicroMegas Module-0 Prototype for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Del Gaudio, Michela; The ATLAS collaboration


    Large size resistive Micro Mesh gaseous structure (MicroMegas) detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments, for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiments at CERN. Indeed during the next long shutdown (2019-2020) the Innermost Endcap Muon Station will be replaced by the New Small Wheels (NSW), comprising 2 x 8 layers of sTGC and MicroMegas chambers. The MicroMegas, as high-rate capable detectors, are adequate to work with HL-HLC condition of luminosity (7x1034 cm2 s-1) and high hit rate of the Innermost Endcap Muon Station (up to 15 kHz/cm2). In April 2016, the INFN (Italy) has completed the Module-0 SM1: the first full size prototype of a NSW MicroMegas chamber. The construction and results of module performance done at H8 CERN test beam are presented.

  4. La estrategia comunicacional en el sector mega-minero. Un estudio del caso La Alumbrera en Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julieta Godfrid


    ..., las corporaciones mega-mineras se vieron frente a la necesidad de construir una nueva estrategia comunicacional integral que les permitiera mejorar su imagen y construir consenso en torno a la actividad...

  5. MegaFlex Scale-Up Cost & Risk Reduction for >50kW Future Power Demands Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the MegaFlex solar array is scaled for power demands greater than 50kW over the next 20 years and deployed load requirements remain high or increase, advanced...

  6. Probing/Manipulating the Interfacial Atomic Bonding between High k Dielectrics and InGaAs for Ultimate CMOS (United States)


    10.1039/C4CE00734D 2014 3. “III-V Compound Semiconductor Transistors – From Planar to Nanowire Structures”, H. Riel, L.-E. Wernersson, M. Hong, J...extract interface state densities at atomic-layer-deposited high-k dielectric/III-V heterostructures ”, Y. T. Fanchiang, Y. K. Su, K. S. Chen, Y. C

  7. Study of 6T SRAM cell using High-K gate dielectric based junctionless silicon nanotube FET (United States)

    Tayal, Shubham; Nandi, Ashutosh


    This paper investigates the performance of 6 T SRAM cell using high-K gate dielectric based junctionless silicon nanotube FET (JLSiNTFET). It is observed that the use of high-K gate dielectric enhances the delay performance of the JLSiNTFET based 6 T SRAM cell. Read access time (RAT) and write access time (WAT) improves by ∼18% and ∼20% when TiO2 is used as gate dielectric instead of SiO2. The hold, read, and write SNMs (static noise margin) of the 6 T SRAM cell also improves marginally by the use of high-K gate dielectric. Furthermore, it is also observed that the improvement in hold SNM (HSNM), read SNM (RSNM), and write SNM (WSNM) can be boosted by using higher interfacial layer thickness (TI). However, the improvement in read access times (RAT) & write access time (WAT) degrades at higher TI. Thus, high-K gate dielectrics with high interfacial layer thickness are more suitable for JLSiNT-FET based 6 T SRAM cell.

  8. Implementation of nanoscale circuits using dual metal gate engineered nanowire MOSFET with high-k dielectrics for low power applications (United States)

    Charles Pravin, J.; Nirmal, D.; Prajoon, P.; Ajayan, J.


    This work covers the impact of dual metal gate engineered Junctionless MOSFET with various high-k dielectric in Nanoscale circuits for low power applications. Due to gate engineering in junctionless MOSFET, graded potential is obtained and results in higher electron velocity of about 31% for HfO2 than SiO2 in the channel region, which in turn improves the carrier transport efficiency. The simulation is done using sentaurus TCAD, ON current, OFF current, ION/IOFF ratio, DIBL, gain, transconductance and transconductance generation factor parameters are analysed. When using HfO2, DIBL shows a reduction of 61.5% over SiO2. The transconductance and transconductance generation factor shows an improvement of 44% and 35% respectively. The gain and output resistance also shows considerable improvement with high-k dielectrics. Using this device, inverter circuit is implemented with different high-k dielectric material and delay have been decreased by 4% with HfO2 when compared to SiO2. In addition, a significant reduction in power dissipation of the inverter circuit is obtained with high-k dielectric Dual Metal Surround Gate Junctionless Transistor than SiO2 based device. From the analysis, it is found that HfO2 will be a better alternative for the future nanoscale device.

  9. Mega-rings Surrounding Timber Mountain Nested Calderas, Geophysical Anomalies: Rethinking Structure and Volcanism Near Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (United States)

    Tynan, M. C.; Smith, K. D.; Savino, J. M.; Vogt, T. J.


    Observed regional mega-rings define a zone ˜80-100 km in diameter centered on Timber Mountain (TM). The mega-rings encompass known smaller rhyolitic nested Miocene calderas ( ˜11-15 my, calderas cluster within the central area and on the outer margin of the interpreted larger mega-ring complex. The mega-ring interpretation is consistent with observations of regional physiography, tomographic images, seismicity patterns, and structural relationships. Mega-rings consist of arcuate faulted blocks with deformation (some remain active structures) patterns showing a genetic relationship to the TM volcanic system; they appear to be spatially associated and temporally correlated with Miocene volcanism and two geophysically identified crustal/upper mantle features. A 50+ km diameter pipe-like high velocity anomaly extends from crustal depth to over 200 km beneath TM (evidence for 400km depth to NE). The pipe is located between two ˜100 km sub-parallel N/S linear trends of small-magnitude earthquake activity, one extending through the central NV Test Site, and a second located near Beatty, NV. Neither the kinematics nor relational mechanism of 100km seismically active N/S linear zones, pipe, and mega-rings are understood. Interpreted mega-rings are: 1) Similar in size to larger terrestrial volcanic complexes (e.g., Yellowstone, Indonesia's Toba system); 2) Located in the region of structural transition from the Mohave block to the south, N/S Basin and Range features to the north, Walker Lane to the NW, and the Las Vegas Valley shear zone to the SE; 3) Associated with the two seismically active zones (similar to other caldera fault-bounded sags), the mantle high velocity feature, and possibly a regional bouguer gravity anomaly; 4) Nearly coincident with area hydrologic basins and sub-basins; 5) Similar to features described from terrestrial and planetary caldera-collapse studies, and as modeled in laboratory scaled investigations (ice melt, balloon/sand). Post Mid

  10. Mega-Events: The effect of the world’s biggest sporting events on local, regional, and national economies


    Victor Matheson


    This paper provides an overview of the economics of sports mega-events as well as a review of the existing literature in the field. The paper describes why boosters’ ex ante estimates of the economic impact of large sporting events tend to exaggerate the net economic benefits of these events and surveys the results of a large number of ex post studies of exploring the true impact of mega-events.

  11. Studies of MicroMegas Chamber for the New Small Wheel using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-kleingrothaus, Thorwald; The ATLAS collaboration


    Micromesh Gaseous (MicroMegas) Detectors will be implemented in the ATLAS detector in the framework of the New Small Wheel Upgrade during the long shut down II in 2019/20. These detectors are used for position measurement and have a high spatial resolution of 100$\\mu$m. In parallel to the ongoing constructions of the later modules, additional performance studies with small MicroMegas prototypes of a size of 10 $\\times$ 10 cm$^2$ are performed. The studies include a cosmic muon test stand in combination with a scalable readout system, such that the influences of variations in the pressure of the operation gas or changes in the humidity at the lower ppm level to the detector performance are investigated. These parameters will impact the later design of detector slow control system at the New Small Wheel in ATLAS.

  12. Technology and economic impacts of mega-sports events: A key issue? Exploratory insights from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaron Jean Jacques


    Full Text Available Mega-sport events such as Olympic Games or Football World Cup are always presented as providing the hosting nation and/or city with huge benefits. Supporters of such events quote economic, social and cultural impacts for the region as well as contributions to scientific and technological progress and innovation. obviously, they need to politically justify the impressive and growing financial investment required by organizing Olympic Games or World Cup. The article aims at looking at a quite abundant academic literature with the objectives of defining the various potential impacts and the methods used for their assessment. It concludes that there is no universal and scientifically valid model for evaluating the benefits of mega-sport events and that organizers should be very cautious when arguing in favor of deciding to host such events.

  13. Megaíleo chagásico: Descrição de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricéa Rychuv Santos


    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de megaíleo de natureza chagásica. O paciente, portador da Doença de Chagas, branco com 41 anos, apresentava história de 3 anos de episódios de eólicas abdominais, distensão e diarréia, que foram se tornando mais intensas e mais freqüentes. Fora das crises, apresentava-se assintomático. O diagnóstico de megaíleo foi estabelecido por meio do estudo radiológico contrastado do intestino delgado. O estudo histológico realizado em fragmento obtido à intervenção cirúrgica mostrou diminuição do número de células ganglionares dos plexos mientéricos.

  14. Exploring mega-corpora: Google Ngram Viewer and the Corpus of Historical American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Friginal


    Full Text Available The creation of internet-based mega-corpora such as the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA, the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA (Davies, 2011a and the Google Ngram Viewer (Cohen, 2010 signals a new phase in corpus-based research that provides both novice and expert researchers immediate access to a variety of online texts and time-coded data. This paper explores the applications of these corpora in the analysis of academic word lists, in particular, Coxhead’s (2000 Academic Word List (AWL. Coxhead (2011 has called for further research on the AWL with larger corpora, noting that learners’ use of academic vocabulary needs to address for the AWL to be useful in various contexts. Results show that words on the AWL are declining in overall frequency from 1990 to the present. Implications about the AWL and future directions in corpus-based research utilizing mega-corpora are discussed.

  15. The role of dyking and fault control in the rapid onset of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile. (United States)

    Wicks, Charles; de la Llera, Juan Carlos; Lara, Luis E; Lowenstern, Jacob


    Rhyolite is the most viscous of liquid magmas, so it was surprising that on 2 May 2008 at Chaitén Volcano, located in Chile's southern Andean volcanic zone, rhyolitic magma migrated from more than 5 km depth in less than 4 hours (ref. 1) and erupted explosively with only two days of detected precursory seismic activity. The last major rhyolite eruption before that at Chaitén was the largest volcanic eruption in the twentieth century, at Novarupta volcano, Alaska, in 1912. Because of the historically rare and explosive nature of rhyolite eruptions and because of the surprisingly short warning before the eruption of the Chaitén volcano, any information about the workings of the magmatic system at Chaitén, and rhyolitic systems in general, is important from both the scientific and hazard perspectives. Here we present surface deformation data related to the Chaitén eruption based on radar interferometry observations from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) DAICHI (ALOS) satellite. The data on this explosive rhyolite eruption indicate that the rapid ascent of rhyolite occurred through dyking and that melt segregation and magma storage were controlled by existing faults.

  16. Temporo-spatial analyses define epileptogenic and functional zones in a case of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. (United States)

    Hsin, Y L; Chuang, M F; Shen, T W; Harnod, T


    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a rare epilepsy syndrome that is characterized by cerebral hemiatrophy, homolateral skull hyperplasia, hyperpneumatization of the paranasal sinuses, seizures with or without mental retardation, and contralateral hemiparesis. We describe a case of DDMS in a 40-year-old female who had complex partial seizures with occasional secondary generalization since the age of 4 years. Her seizure frequency was 10-20 seizures/month even though she took four antiepileptic drugs. We applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI, and invasive electroencephalography (EEG) to define her epileptogenic and functional zones. Brain MRI showed prominent atrophy in the left frontal dorsal and lateral regions and mild atrophy of the left superior temporal gyrus and left parietal gyri. Interictal PET revealed decreased glucose metabolism in the atrophic regions. Functional MRI demonstrated that the inferior frontal and inferior parieto-occipital regions of the right hemisphere were activated by language testing. Invasive EEG revealed that the left lateral temporal lobe was the sole source of her seizures. Our results imply that the "metabolic border zone" rather than the atrophic region plays an important role in seizure activity, and that reorganization of functional zones occur after cerebral damage early in life. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable?


    Coakley, Jay; SOUZA,Doralice Lange de


    Sport mega-events (SMEs) involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries that host SMEs, and sho...

  18. Mega-Sporting Events in Developing Nations : Playing the Way to Prosperity?


    Victor A Matheson; Robert A. Baade


    Supporters of mega-sporting events such as the World Cup and Olympics claim that these events attract hoards of wealthy visitors and lead to lasting economic benefits for the host regions. For this reason, cities and countries compete vigorously for the right to stage these spectacles. Recently, developing countries have become increasingly vocal in demanding that they get the right to share in the economic benefits of these international games. China, for example, has been awarded the 2008 S...

  19. Patch definition in metapopulation analysis: a graph theory approach to solve the mega-patch problem. (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Siegel, David A; Raimondi, Peter T; Alberto, Filipe


    The manner in which patches are delineated in spatially realistic metapopulation models will influence the size, connectivity, and extinction and recolonization dynamics of those patches. Most commonly used patch-definition methods focus on identifying discrete, contiguous patches of habitat from a single temporal observation of species occurrence or from a model of habitat suitability. However, these approaches are not suitable for many metapopulation systems where entire patches may not be fully colonized at a given time. For these metapopulation systems, a single large patch of habitat may actually support multiple, interacting subpopulations. The interactions among these subpopulations will be ignored if the patch is treated as a single unit, a situation we term the "mega-patch problem." Mega-patches are characterized by variable intra-patch synchrony, artificially low inter-patch connectivity, and low extinction rates. One way to detect this problem is by using time series data to calculate demographic synchrony within mega-patches. We present a framework for identifying subpopulations in mega-patches using a combination of spatial autocorrelation and graph theory analyses. We apply our approach to southern California giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forests using a new, long-term (27 years), satellite-based data set of giant kelp canopy biomass. We define metapopulation patches using our method as well as several other commonly used patch delineation methodologies and examine the colonization and extinction dynamics of the metapopulation under each approach. We find that the relationships between patch characteristics such as area and connectivity and the demographic processes of colonizations and extinctions vary among the different patch-definition methods. Our spatial-analysis/graph-theoretic framework produces results that match theoretical expectations better than the other methods. This approach can be used to identify subpopulations in metapopulations

  20. Sport Mega Events and the Need for Critical Sociological Research: the Case of Euro 2012


    Woźniak, Wojciech


    Euro 2012 was the first Sport Mega Event held in Poland. It has been presented in public discourse in Poland as unprecedented opportunity for modernization and unquestionable success. However, looking at a multitude of data concerning the political, economic and social consequences of the event, allows putting these opinions into question. The paper discusses these topics using the numbers and information from various resources, considering also uncritical support of politic...

  1. The Panama canal expansion mega project : a case study and stakeholder´s analysis


    Guardia, Eugenia


    As globalization increases integration, a new playing field is emerging which is driving the need for operational efficiencies and alignment of complementary capabilities among countries to build sustainable models and integrated offerings. As demands increase, companies are turning to effective project management as means to control operations and countries are increasing the amount of mega projects to boost their competitiveness and global footprint. Given the scale, complexity, political n...

  2. [Mega-duodenum and constipation after surgery for congenital atresia of the jejunum]. (United States)

    Karstensen, John; Raahave, Dennis; Kirkegaard, Preben


    A 33 year-old female presented with constipation and a right-sided palpable abdominal mass, suspected to be the colon. The colonic transit time was prolonged, but the dilated organ was a mega duodenum that had developed after surgery for three jejunal atresies performed one day after birth. The colon was malrotated, being situated to the left of the columna. Renewed resection surgery was uneventful, and after such surgery the constipation receded and the colonic transit time returned to normal.

  3. Mega-Project Construction Management: The Corps of Engineers and Bechtel Group in Saudi Arabia (United States)


    had a large number of employees working in jobs at pay grades one to two levels above comparable positions in the US. Ultimately, it had to outplace its obligations. In the end, though, MED’s outplacement program was successful and it helped settle many I employees with valuable mega-project...benefits and displayed loyalty to its employees by working to outplace them into good jobs. As a result, MED attracted the employees they needed to do the

  4. Observations of the Prompt Optical Emission of GRB 160625B with Mini-MegaTORTORA (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Orekhova, N.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.


    Here we report our observations of bright optical flash coincident with Fermi GRB160625B using Mini-MegaTORTORA wide-field monitoring system. The prompt optical emission is correlated with gamma one and lags behind it for about 3 seconds, that suggests that optical and gamma emission are formed in different regions of the burst. The multiwavelength properties of this burst are very similar to ones of Naked-Eye Burst, GRB080319B, we detected earlier with TORTORA camera.

  5. Symmetry breaking in homo-oligomers: the curious case of mega-hemocyanin. (United States)

    Garcia Seisdedos, Hector; Steinberg, Avital; Levy, Emmanuel D


    Mega-hemocyanin is a 13.5 MDa oxygen transporter found in snails. It is built from three stacked rings involving ten subunits each. The cryo-EM structure of the complex presented by Gatsogiannis and colleagues in this issue of Structure revealed an unexpected breaking of 5-fold symmetry in the central ring and a nonequivalent packing of the subunits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Size Matters: The Contribution of Mega-Infauna to the Food ... (United States)

    Large-bodied, invertebrates are common to infaunal communities of NE Pacific estuaries (e.g., bivalves, polychaetes, burrowing shrimps), but their contribution to the ecological structure, function and ecosystem services of most estuaries has been poorly characterized because they are difficult to sample and quantify. In a study of Yaquina estuary (Oregon) food webs, particular effort was made to quantify intertidal and subtidal mega-infauna using suction-excavated 40-cm diameter corers in addition to conventional sampling of macro-infauna. Additionally, the abundance and biomass of all floral and other faunal guilds (except microbial and mammalian guilds) were directly quantified or estimated from published studies, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured for abundant species, and inverse analysis was used to generate models of carbon flow within food webs of the lower and upper reaches of Yaquina estuary. Benthic invertebrates dominated the biomass and respiration among faunal guilds in both estuarine reaches, whereas biomass and respiration of birds and fish were two orders-of-magnitude smaller. Mega-infauna, particularly intertidal burrowing shrimps and bivalves, constituted most of the benthic invertebrate biomass, respiration and secondary production in both reaches, although only a small fraction of the total infaunal abundance. Mega-infauna were dominant consumers of phytoplankton, major contributors of carbon to sediment organic matter, a

  7. Mafic sill/dykes intruding into late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene calciclastic units, NE-Turkey: Petrographical and geochemical features of latest magmatic activity before collision in the eastern Sakarya zone (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Oǧuz, Simge; Karsli, Orhan; Kandemir, Raif; Şen, Cüneyt; Uysal, İbrahim


    We present here new petrographical, mineralogical and whole-rock geochemical data for mafic sill/dykes intruding into late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene calciclastic units in the Düzköy (Trabzon) and Cankurtaran (Artvin) areas (NE Turkey) of the eastern Sakarya zone (ESZ) in order to decipher the latest magmatic activity in the final stage of subduction-related magmatism of the ESZ. U-Pb zircon dating for the mafic sill/dykes in the region yielded ages varying from 83.6 to 78.5Ma (i.e. Early Campanian). Mafic sill/dykes consist of mostly basalts and lesser basaltic-andesites with komatiitic basalts. Most of the dyke samples display aphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (mostly replaced by calcite), clinopyroxene (partly uralized), olivine (almost serpentinized), and amphibole (partly chloritized). Based on the MgO, Nb and Zr contents with Nb/Y ratio, the mafic dykes from Düzköy area are mainly classified as two subgroups (basalts and basaltic andesites) while those of Cankurtaran can be divided into three different groups (low- and high-Nb normal basalts and komatitic basalts). Düzköy basaltic dykes have higher MgO (3.8-7.8%) and lower Nb (3-4ppm) and Zr (53-62ppm) contents with Nb/Y ratio (˜0.2) than those of Düzköy basaltic-andesitic dykes (MgO: ˜1.8%, Nb: 6-15ppm, Zr: 106-145ppm, Nb/Y: 0.3-0.6). On the other hand, Cankurtaran mafic sill/dykes have relatively high MgO contents (˜4-20%). These sill/dykes with 15-20% of MgO and contents are called as komatiitic basalt which has relatively low K2O (contents with Nb/Y ratio (˜0.1-0.2). However, normal basalts from Cankurtaran have quite lower MgO contents (˜4-9%) than that of the komatiitic basalt. Also, they can be divided into two subgroups in terms of MgO (5.7-8.7% for group 1 and 4.0-4.4% for group 2), Nb (3-14ppm for group 1 and 19-21ppm for group 2), Zr (94-111ppm for group 1 and 125-140ppm for group 2) contents, and Nb/Y ratio (˜0.2-0.8 for group 1 and (˜1.0-1.2 for

  8. A socio-ecological adaptive approach to contaminated mega-site management: From 'control and correct' to 'coping with change' (United States)

    Schirmer, Mario; Lyon, Ken; Armstrong, James E.; Farrell, Katharine N.


    Mega-sites have a notable impact on surrounding ecological systems. At such sites there are substantial risks associated with complex socio-ecological interactions that are hard to characterize, let alone model and predict. While the urge to control and clean-up mega-sites (control and correct) is understandable, rather than setting a goal of cleaning up such sites, we suggest a more realistic response strategy is to address these massive and persistent sources of contamination by acknowledging their position as new features of the socio-ecological landscapes within which they are located. As it seems nearly impossible to clean up such sites, we argue for consideration of a 'coping with change' rather than a 'control and correct' approach. This strategy recognizes that the current management option for a mega-site, in light of its physical complexities and due to changing societal preferences, geochemical transformations, hydrogeology knowledge and remedial technology options may not remain optimal in future, and therefore needs to be continuously adapted, as community, ecology, technology and understanding change over time. This approach creates an opportunity to consider the relationship between a mega-site and its human and ecological environments in a different and more dynamic way. Our proposed approach relies on iterative adaptive management to incorporate mega-site management into the overall socio-ecological systems of the site's context. This approach effectively embeds mega-site management planning in a triple bottom line and environmental sustainability structure, rather than simply using single measures of success, such as contaminant-based guidelines. Recognizing that there is probably no best solution for managing a mega-site, we present a starting point for engaging constructively with this seemingly intractable issue. Therefore, we aim to initiate discussion about a new approach to mega-site management, in which the complexity of the problems posed

  9. Geochronologic and geochemical constraints of the petrogenesis of Permian mafic dykes in the Wuding area, SW China: Implications for Fe-Ti enrichment in mafic rocks in the ELIP (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Bai, Zhong-Jie; Yang, Yi-Jin


    Mafic dykes are widely distributed and well preserved in the Wuding area, SW China. The dykes are composed of fine-grained diabases, which are further subdivided into two groups (Group I and Group II). The rocks from Group I have relatively higher MgO (4.95-6.16 wt%) and lower TiO2 (2.26-2.78 wt%) contents than those from the Group II rocks (MgO = 4.04-4.58 wt%; TiO2 = 4.09-4.55 wt%). Two baddeleyite ages of 264 ± 3 Ma and 256 ± 5 Ma from the Wuding dykes suggest that the ages of these dykes are similar to the plutonic bodies and the associated volcanic rocks of the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP). The compositions and isotopic signatures of the dykes are also similar to those of the ELIP volcanic rocks, indicating derivation from the same magmatic event at 260 Ma. The primary melts of the Wuding dykes were originated by partial melting of a long-term depleted OIB-like mantle source. The Group I dykes were mainly formed by wallrock assimilation and fractional crystallization processes. The magmas parental to the Group II rocks were much more evolved than the magma parental to the Group I rocks and probably produced by wallrock assimilation and fractional crystallization of the parent magma of the Group I rocks. The increasing enrichment of Fe and Ti from the Group I to the Group II rocks were attributed to a fractional crystallization process which may be an epitome of enrichment of Fe and Ti in the Fe-Ti rich mafic intrusions of the ELIP.

  10. Structural and optical properties of germanium nanostructures on Si(100 and embedded in high-k oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Samit


    Full Text Available Abstract The structural and optical properties of Ge quantum dots (QDs grown on Si(001 for mid-infrared photodetector and Ge nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices for floating gate memory devices are presented. The infrared photoluminescence (PL signal from Ge islands has been studied at a low temperature. The temperature- and bias-dependent photocurrent spectra of a capped Si/SiGe/Si(001 QDs infrared photodetector device are presented. The properties of Ge nanocrystals of different size and density embedded in high-k matrices grown using radio frequency magnetron sputtering have been studied. Transmission electron micrographs have revealed the formation of isolated spherical Ge nanocrystals in high-k oxide matrix of sizes ranging from 4 to 18 nm. Embedded nanocrystals in high band gap oxides have been found to act as discrete trapping sites for exchanging charge carriers with the conduction channel by direct tunneling that is desired for applications in floating gate memory devices.

  11. A new method of dielectric characterization in the microwave range for high-k ferroelectric thin films


    Nadaud, Kevin; Gundel, Hartmut,; Borderon, Caroline; Gillard, Raphaël; Fourn, Erwan


    International audience; In this paper we propose a new method of dielectric characterization of high-k thin films based on the measurement of coplanar capacitor inserts between two coplanar waveguide transmission lines. The measurement geometry is deposed on the thin film which is elaborate on an insulating substrate. The thin film permittivity is extracted with the help of a mathematical model describing the capacitance between two conductor plates deposed on a 2-layers substrate. A simple c...

  12. A Review on Resistive Switching in High-k Dielectrics: A Nanoscale Point of View Using Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lanza


    Full Text Available Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM structures have raised as the most promising configuration for next generation information storage, leading to great performance and fabrication-friendly Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAM. In these cells, the memory concept is no more based on the charge storage, but on tuning the electrical resistance of the insulating layer by applying electrical stresses to reach a high resistive state (HRS or “0” and a low resistive state (LRS or “1”, which makes the memory point. Some high-k dielectrics show this unusual property and in the last years high-k based RRAM have been extensively analyzed, especially at the device level. However, as resistance switching (in the most promising cells is a local phenomenon that takes place in areas of ~100 nm2, the use of characterization tools with high lateral spatial resolution is necessary. In this paper the status of resistive switching in high-k materials is reviewed from a nanoscale point of view by means of conductive atomic force microscope analyses.

  13. Integration of atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on GaSb via hydrogen plasma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Ruppalt


    Full Text Available In this letter we report the efficacy of a hydrogen plasma pretreatment for integrating atomic layer deposited (ALD high-k dielectric stacks with device-quality p-type GaSb(001 epitaxial layers. Molecular beam eptiaxy-grown GaSb surfaces were subjected to a 30 minute H2/Ar plasma treatment and subsequently removed to air. High-k HfO2 and Al2O3/HfO2 bilayer insulating films were then deposited via ALD and samples were processed into standard metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitors. The quality of the semiconductor/dielectric interface was probed by current-voltage and variable-frequency admittance measurements. Measurement results indicate that the H2-plamsa pretreatment leads to a low density of interface states nearly independent of the deposited dielectric material, suggesting that pre-deposition H2-plasma exposure, coupled with ALD of high-k dielectrics, may provide an effective means for achieving high-quality GaSb MOS structures for advanced Sb-based digital and analog electronics.

  14. Investigation of 6T SRAM memory circuit using high-k dielectrics based nano scale junctionless transistor (United States)

    Charles Pravin, J.; Nirmal, D.; Prajoon, P.; Mohan Kumar, N.; Ajayan, J.


    In this paper the Dual Metal Surround Gate Junctionless Transistor (DMSGJLT) has been implemented with various high-k dielectric. The leakage current in the device is analysed in detail by obtaining the band structure for different high-k dielectric material. It is noticed that with increasing dielectric constant the device provides more resistance for the direct tunnelling of electron in off state. The gate oxide capacitance also shows 0.1 μF improvement with Hafnium Oxide (HfO2) than Silicon Oxide (SiO2). This paved the way for a better memory application when high-k dielectric is used. The Six Transistor (6T) Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) circuit implemented shows 41.4% improvement in read noise margin for HfO2 than SiO2. It also shows 37.49% improvement in write noise margin and 30.16% improvement in hold noise margin for HfO2 than SiO2.

  15. Electrical resistivity tomography investigations along the planned dykes of the HPP Brežice water accumulation basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Rajh


    Full Text Available Geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT along planned dykes of the HPP Brežice water accumulation basin. The ERT profile is 7.3 km long and is located on the right riverbank of the Sava River on the Kr{ko-Brežice field (E Slovenia. A purpose of the investigations was to determine a boundary between semipermeable Miocene and permeable Plio-Quaternary (Pl-Q and Quaternary (Q sediments for the proper design of the jet grouting sealing curtain, which will prevent lateral outflow of water from the accumulation basin. In this paper we present processing of the section between 5100 and 6100 m of the profile line. In this section the measurement template was set to 25 depth levels, because a significant increase in a thickness of the Pl-Q sediments was expected. Modelling of the measured apparent electrical resistivity data was carried out with RES2DINV and RESIX 2DI inversion software. Different inversion parameters were used to create 15 geoelectrical models for each program, which were then compared and evaluated based on borehole data and on previous geological investigations of the area. With the final geoelectrical models it was possible to successfully determine areas of three expected stratigraphic members and limit an electrical resistivity range for each one of them. The boundary is well defined between Q and Pl-Q and also between Q and Miocene sediments with sharp contrast in electrical resistivity between them. A boundary between Pl-Q and Miocene sediments was not that obvious, but it was possible to determine its shape by the use of different inversion parameters. We propose a simplified geological cross section based on the interpreted geoelectrical models and borehole data.

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of alkaline basic dykes from the northern Indian plate: signs of more than one episode of rifting and associated magmatism (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Andersen, Jens; Arif, Mohammad


    Rift related magmatism during Permian time in the northern margin of Indian plate, north-west Pakistan is shown by the occurrence of roughly linear array of alkaline rocks in the region. The constituent rocks include alkali granites, granodiorites, nepheline syenites, carbonatites and dykes of basic composition. The field relations, mineralogy and whole rock geochemistry of these basic dykes has been investigated. Significant textural and mineralogical distinctions have divided the basic dykes into a) dolerite and b) epidote amphibolites, cross cutting other alkaline rocks and pre-Permian rocks in the region. Clinopyroxene having augitic composition is a major mineral in dolerite, however, it is completely absent in epidote amphibolites. Amphiboles in dolerites are brown coloured having pargasitic composition while it is green to light green in colour having the composition of magnesio-hornblende in epidote amphibolites. Compositionally different types of olivine are present in dolerites while it is absent in epidote amphibolites. Intra-plate tectonic settings for both the rock types has been interpreted by Hf-Ta-Th and FeO-MgO-Al2O3 discrimination plots. Lower Zr/Nb ratio (lherzolite mantle. However, the degrees of partial melting from mantle is different i.e. epidote amphibolite show smaller degree (crystallization. Compositional zoning in plagioclase and clinopyroxene and variation in olivine composition indicates the role of fractional crystallization in dolerites. Lower Nb/La ratio of dolerite than epidote amphibolites show the involvement of crustal rocks in dolerite during its ascent. Similar interpretation of more than one episodes of magmatism associated with rifting has also been made by geochemical studies of carbonatites in the region.

  17. La estrategia comunicacional en el sector mega-minero. Un estudio del caso La Alumbrera en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Godfrid


    Full Text Available En los últimos años se produjo en la Argentina una rápida expansión de la mega-minería a cielo abierto, lo que vino acompañado de un creciente aumento de la conflictividad socio-ambiental que cuestiona en profundidad las consecuencias de la actividad extractiva. En este contexto, las múltiples críticas a la mega-minería deslegitimaron profundamente la imagen del sector y de las empresas que llevan adelante este tipo de actividad. A partir de allí, las corporaciones mega-mineras se vieron frente a la necesidad de construir una nueva estrategia comunicacional integral que les permitiera mejorar su imagen y construir consenso en torno a la actividad. El presente trabajo indaga en torno a las nuevas estrategias comunicacionales del sector mega-minero que se llevan a cabo bajo el paradigma de la Responsabilidad Social Empresaria y el “marketing experiencial”. Para ello se trabaja a partir del estudio de caso del emprendimiento mega-minero más antiguo del país, la empresa La Alumbrera (Provincia de Catamarca.

  18. The Brave New (American World of International Investment Law: Substantive Investment Protection Standards in Mega-Regionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schill Stephan W.


    Full Text Available Mega-Regionals are transforming and shaping the future of international investment law, concerning both the settlement of investment disputes and the substantive disciplines governing investor-state relations. Focusing on the latter, the present article shows how Mega-Regionals depart from the so far dominant European model of investment protection by going beyond crudely worded post-establishment protections for foreign investment. Instead, Mega-Regionals pursue the twin policy goals of investment liberalization through greater market access commitments and strengthening state control by ensuring host governments sufficient space to regulate in the public interest. In light of these policy goals, and considering the deeper reasons for structural changes to the investment rules in Mega-Regionals, the article argues that the models and conceptual foundations of Mega-Regionals build on prototypes first developed in the context of U.S. and NAFTA investment practices. This suggests that the future of international investment law will be shaped to a considerable extent against the background of U.S. experiences, rather than be forged anew by the mechanics of international diplomacy and negotiation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Ferry Wibowo


    Full Text Available Generally, the purpose of this research are: 1 To determine the analytical description of the television advertisement, price and purchase decision of Lux soap (Survey on visitors of Mega Bekasi Hypermall, 2 To determine the effect of television advertisement on purchase decision of Lux soap, 3 To determine the effect of price on purchase decision of Lux soap, 4 To determine the effect of the television advertisement, price and purchase decision of Lux soap (Survey on Visitors of Mega Bekasi Hypermall. The analysis which has been applied in this study is multiple linear regression analysis. The study has been conducted with a continence sampling technique of 110 consumers who visited Mega Bekasi Hypermall, while the technique of data collection was done by distributing questionnaires which were processed by SPSS 19. According to the research that the t test result on the variable of television advertisement is 2,965 with a significant value of 0.004,which means that the television advertisement has a significant influence on purchase decision. Furthermore, the t test result on the price variable is 3,678 with significant value of 0.000, which means that the price has a significant effect on purchase decision. Whereas, the F test result of two variables television advertisement and price is 9,087 with a significance value of 0,000. Those figures describes that the television advertisement and price simultaneously have significant influence on a purchase decision. In addition, the F test R2 value that is resulted from the research is 0.145 or 14.5%. This value describes the television advertisement and price influence on purchase decision as 14.5%.

  20. Urban adaptation to mega-drought: Anticipatory water modeling, policy, and planning in Phoenix (United States)

    Gober, P.; Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Chow, W.


    There is increasing interest in using the results of water models for long-term planning and policy analysis. Achieving this goal requires more effective integration of human dimensions into water modeling and a paradigm shift in the way models are developed and used. A user-defined focus argues in favor of models that are designed to foster public debate and engagement about the difficult trade-offs that are inevitable in managing complex water systems. These models also emphasize decision making under uncertainty and anticipatory planning, and are developed through a collaborative and iterative process. This paper demonstrates the use of anticipatory modeling for long-term drought planning in Phoenix, one of the largest and fastest growing urban areas in the southwestern USA. WaterSim 5, an anticipatory water policy and planning model, was used to explore groundwater sustainability outcomes for mega-drought conditions across a range of policies, including population growth management, water conservation, water banking, direct reuse of RO reclaimed water, and water augmentation. Results revealed that business-as-usual population growth, per capita use trends, and management strategies may not be sustainable over the long term, even without mega-drought conditions as years of available groundwater supply decline over the simulation period from 2000 to 2060. Adding mega-drought increases the decline in aquifer levels and increases the variability in flows and uncertainty about future groundwater supplies. Simulations that combine drought management policies can return the region to sustainable. Results demonstrate the value of long-term planning and policy analysis for anticipating and adapting to environmental change.

  1. The Economic Effects of the Mega Sport Events on Tourism in the BRICS Countries Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Pop


    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, events tourism witnessed an impressive development in a series of countries due to the increase of the spare time and of the people’s income, to the cheaper and more diversified world transport, especially the air transport and due to the emergence of new destinations. Emergent countries, such as China and Russia, recorded not only an increase in the number of tourists but also in the revenues from tourism activities. One of the reasons is the opening of these countries frontiers in order to reaffirm their power on international level (Golubchikov, 2016. Besides the relaxation, business and religious tourism, the sport tourism becomes more and more important. It also comprises the tourism for mega sport events, such as the Summer and Winter Olympics or the World Championships in different sports. For the organising countries, there is a real challenge to ensure the investments for the infrastructure, although it supports their economic development, being used after the sport events conclusion. Considering the available data from the World Bank and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, the authors make a quantitative investigation regarding the impact of the mega sport events on the tourism phenomenon in the BRICS countries. The article also researches a small and specific group of countries (BRICS, considering a niche tourism phenomenon. The article aims to emphasize the role of the mega sport events in the BRICS countries, directly connected with their capacity to economically support the organization of these events and also with the desire to internationally promote their national values.

  2. Integrated elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic studies of Mesozoic mafic dykes from the eastern North China Craton: implications for the dramatic transformation of lithospheric mantle (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Santosh, M.; Feng, Guangying; Coulson, Ian M.; Xu, Mengjing; Guo, Zhuang; Guo, Xiaolei; Peng, Hao; Feng, Qiang


    Evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC) from its Precambrian cratonic architecture until Paleozoic, and the transformation to an oceanic realm during Mesozoic, with implications on the destruction of cratonic root have attracted global attention. Here we present geochemical and isotopic data on a suite of newly identified Mesozoic mafic dyke swarms from the Longwangmiao, Weijiazhuang, Mengjiazhuang, Jiayou, Huangmi, and Xiahonghe areas (Qianhuai Block) along the eastern NCC with an attempt to gain further insights on the lithospheric evolution of the region. The Longwangmiao dykes are alkaline with LILE (Ba and K)- and LREE-enrichment ((La/Yb) N > 4.3) and EM1-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic signature ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.6, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.8, ε Hf (t) 3.7), and display similar EM1-like isotopic features ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 2.4) and EM1-like isotopic features((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 3.7) and EM1-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic features ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd(t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 9.3) and EM1-like isotopic composition ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.705; ε Nd (t) 16.9, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.5, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) Hf isotopic signature ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.705; ε Nd (t) 16.9, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.5, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) < -8.6). Our data from the various mafic dyke suites suggest that the magmas were derived from EM1-like lithospheric mantle, corresponding to lithospheric mantle modified by the previously foundered lower crust beneath the eastern NCC. Our results suggest contrasting lithospheric evolution from Triassic (212 Ma) to Cretaceous (123 Ma) beneath the NCC. These mafic dykes mark an important phase of lithospheric thinning in the eastern North China Craton.

  3. Integrated methodologies for the 3d survey and the structural monitoring of industrial archaeology: the case of the Casalecchio di Reno Dyke, Italy (United States)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Girelli, Valentina A.; Vittuari, Luca; Zanutta, Antonio


    The concept of "Industrial Archaeology" was introduced in the 1950s in England in order to consider the branch of Archaeology that, in integration with engineering, architecture and economics, studies the industrial past, with the purpose of document, protect and exploite the industrial-cultural heritage. The systematic study of this kind of structures and artefacts need a wide range approach, that starts from the investigation about the object historic fonts until its complete qualitative and quantitative description, also considering the characteristics of the surrounding territory. This task often needs the integration of different survey techniques for data capturing and processing, in order to perform the 3D modeling and to analize the structural deformations of manufactured articles. The paper presents the surveying and monitoring activities on the important structure of the Casalecchio di Reno dyke, near Bologna. The first historic notes on the dyke are very old; they are dated back to the I millenium A. D. and report the news of a wooden barrage of the Reno canal. The construction of the actual structure is in the period 1360-1367 and suffered during the centuries numerous interventions and restores. The surveying activities on the dyke were realized in 2005-2006 and 2009 and involved different techniques (classical topography, high precision geometric levelling, range-based method by terrestrial laser scanning, digital photogrammetry, thermal imagery) integrated together in a unique local reference system, in order to study the stability and the movements of the structure in a established period of time and to realize a 3D model. Together with detail surveys on the single parts of the structure, an analysis at a larger territorial scale was performed by aerial photogrammetry, either using current imagery and historical data. The topographic measurements with traditional differential techniques have achieved a very high level precision and the realized

  4. submitter Upgrade of the TAMU MDM-focal plane detector with MicroMegas technology

    CERN Document Server

    Spiridon, A; Roeder, B T; Saastamoinen, A; Chyzh, R; Dag, M; Tribble, R E; Trache, L; Pascovici, G; De Oliveira, R


    A gridded ionization chamber used as a focal plane detector at the back of the TAMU-MDM spectrometer was modified to use MicroMegas technology for the purpose of improving energy resolution and particle identification. The upgraded system was tested in experimental conditions with several heavy-ion beams at 12 MeV/u and found to achieve resolutions between 3.2% and 4.8%. This is a significant improvement over the previous performance of 10–15% obtained using the existing, conventional ionization chambers.

  5. Development of a hardened imaging system for the Laser MegaJoule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau A.


    Full Text Available The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ facility will host inertial confinement fusion experiments in order to achieve ignition by imploding a Deuterium-Tritium microballoon. In this context an X-ray imager is necessary to diagnose the core size and shape of the DT-target in the 10–100 keV band in complement of neutron imaging system. Such a diagnostic will be composed of two parts: an X-ray optical system and a detection assembly. Each element will be affected by the harsh environment created by fusion reactions.

  6. Leveraging the World Cup: Mega Sporting Events, Human Rights Risk, and Worker Welfare Reform in Qatar


    Sarath Ganji


    Qatar will realize its decades-long drive to host a mega sporting event when, in 2022, the opening ceremony of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup commences. By that time, the Qatari government will have invested at least $200 billion in real estate and development projects, employing anywhere between 500,000 and 1.5 million foreign workers to do so. The scale of these preparations is staggering — and not necessarily positive. Between 2010 and 2013, more tha...

  7. Narrow linewidth picosecond UV pulsed laser with mega-watt peak power. (United States)

    Huang, Chunning; Deibele, Craig; Liu, Yun


    We demonstrate a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) burst mode laser system that generates 66 ps/402.5 MHz pulses with mega-watt peak power at 355 nm. The seed laser consists of a single frequency fiber laser (linewidth laser is operating in a 5-μs/10-Hz macropulse mode. The laser output has a transform-limited spectrum with a very narrow linewidth of individual longitudinal modes. The immediate application of the laser system is the laser-assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

  8. Megalencephaly, mega corpus callosum, and complete lack of motor development: delineation of a rare syndrome. (United States)

    Hengst, Meike; Tücke, Jens; Zerres, Klaus; Blaum, Marcus; Häusler, Martin


    Unlike atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC), callosal hypertrophy is a rare neuroimaging finding with only few reported patients. The "megalencephaly, mega CC, and complete lack of motor development" syndrome is morphologically characterized by generalized megalencephaly, a thickened CC, and extensive polymicrogyria causing a pachygyric appearance. We report on the fifth patient showing this rare syndrome, a 3-year-old girl displaying the typical neuroimaging features. Clinically she showed a severely impaired motor, mental, and speech development with marked muscular hypotonia but no dysmorphic facial signs. She also retained the ability to move by rolling sidewards so that complete lack of motor development may not be a consistent feature.

  9. Precambrian mega lineaments across the Indian sub-continent - Preliminary evidence from offshore magnetic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; SuneetaRani, P.; Anuradha, A.

    stream_size 20639 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Curr_Sci_90_578.pdf.txt stream_source_info Curr_Sci_90_578.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 RESEARCH... I n dian Peninsula and through RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS CUR RENT SCIENCE, VOL. 90, NO. 4, 25 FEBRUARY 2006 579 the eastern cont i nental margin up to a water depth more than 3000 m. These mega lineaments may be ac t ing as a crustal...

  10. A study of the decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma} by the MEGA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, G.E.; Amann, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ahmed, M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)] [and others


    The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the lepton-flavor number non-conserving rare decay {mu} {yields} {ital e}{gamma}. Data- taking is complete, with 450 million events on tape taken over approximately 10{sup 7} seconds. A small portion of the data sample has been processed through the complete event reconstruction codes to search for the {mu} {yields} {ital e}{gamma} process. No evidence for the {mu} {yields} {ital e}{gamma} decay is observed at a sensitivity of {approximately}7 x 10{sup -11} (90% confidence).

  11. Malaysian Mega Science Framework: The Need for Social Impact and Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zainal A.


    Full Text Available This review focuses on issues surrounding wastewater management as part of the National Sustainable Development (2013-2050 under the Malaysian Mega Science Framework. In line with the national priority area of water security, this review will highlight the technical reports compiled by the Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM on the challenges of water resource development and wastewater management and treatment. The discussion will dwell on the social impact of pollution in water and wastewater and mitigation plans that need to be put in place to ensure sustainable national development and making water as a National Key Economic Area (NKEA.

  12. Massive photometry of low-altitude artificial satellites on Mini-Mega-TORTORA (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Katkova, E.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Davydov, E.; Ivanov, E.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.


    The nine-channel Mini-Mega-TORTORA (MMT-9) optical wide-field monitoring system with high temporal resolution system is in operation since June 2014. The system has 0.1 s temporal resolution and effective detection limit around 10 mag (calibrated to V filter) for fast-moving objects on this timescale. In addition to its primary scientific operation, the system detects 200-500 tracks of satellites every night, both on low-altitude and high ellipticity orbits. Using these data we created and support the public database of photometric characteristics for these satellites, available online.

  13. World Cup Cities Project: movement by the sport legacy of sporting mega events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pojar Paiva


    Full Text Available The achievement of sporting mega events is configured as an exceptional opportunity for the promotion of sports in the host cities. For this positive legacy to happen it must be previously planned, executed and monitored. This study aimed to present the national structure of the World Cup Cities Project and analyse the results obtained in six host cities of the FIFA World Cup 2014. The results showed that the social and sports legacy was not planned by public managers and there are no systems of control and evaluation of sport in any of the host cities, until the realization of the project World Cup Cities.

  14. Status and Perspectives of the Mini-MegaTORTORA Wide-field Monitoring System with High Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Karpov


    Full Text Available Here we briefly summarize our long-term experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. The general hardware requirements for these systems are discussed, along with algorithms for real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, the MegaTORTORA multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan we have been building at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able, within fractions of a second, to reconfigure itself to follow-up mode, which has better sensitivity and simultaneously provides multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients.

  15. Associação entre megaesôfago e carcinoma de esôfago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Rocha


    Full Text Available Analisa-se, em material de necropsias, a ocorrência de carcinoma esofágico em não-chagásicos e em chagásicos com e sem megaesôfago. Observou-se um aumento altamente significativo da freqüência do carcinoma de esôfago associado ao megaesôfago, em relação aos controles e aos chagásicos sem megaesôfago. A associação entre carcinoma esofágico e infecção chagásica não foi estatisticamente significativa.

  16. Direct transitions from high-K isomers to low-K bands -- {gamma} softness or coriolis coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Narimatsu, Kanako; Ohtsubo, Shin-Ichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others


    Recent measurements of direct transitions from high-K isomers to low-K bands reveal severe break-down of the K-selection rule and pose the problem of how to understand the mechanism of such K-violation. The authors recent systematic calculations by using a simple {gamma}-tunneling model reproduced many of the observed hindrances, indicating the importance of the {gamma} softness. However, there are some data which cannot be explained in terms of the {gamma}-degree of freedom. In this talk, the authors also discuss the results of conventional Coriolis coupling calculations, which is considered to be another important mechanism.

  17. Volcanoes as elastic inclusions: Their effects on the propagation of dykes, volcanic fissures, and volcanic zones in Iceland (United States)

    Andrew, Ruth E. B.; Gudmundsson, Agust


    Mechanically, many volcanoes may be regarded as elastic inclusions, either softer (with a lower Young's modulus) or stiffer (with a higher Young's modulus) than the host-rock matrix. For example, many central volcanoes (stratovolcanoes, composite volcanoes) are composed of rocks that are softer than the crustal segments that host them. This is particularly clear in Iceland where central volcanoes are mostly made of soft rocks such as rhyolite, pyroclastics, hyaloclastites, and sediments whereas the host rock is primarily stiff basaltic lava flows. Most active central volcanoes also contain fluid magma chambers, and many have collapse calderas. Fluid magma chambers are best modelled as cavities (in three dimensions) or holes (in two dimensions), entire calderas as holes, and the ring faults themselves, which commonly include soft materials such as breccias, as soft inclusions. Many hyaloclastite (basaltic breccias) mountains partly buried in the basaltic lava pile also function as soft inclusions. Modelling volcanoes as soft inclusions or holes, we present three main numerical results. The first, using the hole model, shows the mechanical interaction between all the active central volcanoes in Iceland and, in particular, those forming the two main clusters at the north and south end of the East Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The strong indication of mechanical interaction through shared dykes and faults in the northern cluster of the EVZ is supported by observations. The second model, using a soft inclusion, shows that the Torfajökull central volcano, which contains the largest active caldera in Iceland, suppresses the spreading-generated tensile stress in its surroundings. We propose that this partly explains why the proper rift zone northeast of Torfajökull has not managed to propagate through the volcano. Apparently, Torfajökull tends to slow down the rate of southwest propagation of the rift-zone part of the EVZ. The third model, again using a soft inclusion, indicates

  18. SWRO-PRO System in “Mega-ton Water System” for Energy Reduction and Low Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Kurihara


    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis (RO membranes have been widely applied in seawater desalination (SWRO and wastewater reclamation as the main desalination technology since 2000. SWRO plants face challenges to reduce energy consumption and brine disposal to lessen marine pollution. To tackle these challenges, a SWRO-PRO (Pressure Retarded Osmosis System was proposed in the “Mega-ton Water System” project under the Japanese national project of the “Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology” (FIRST Program. To reduce the energy consumption of the main SWRO plant, an innovative low-pressure SWRO membrane and a next generation energy recovery device (ERD were developed by the “Mega-ton Water System” project. In addition to this research and development, a new membrane process has been proposed and confirmed as a low-pressure multi-stage SWRO (LMS. A brine conversion two-stage SWRO system was invented 20 years ago, and has been in operation for over 15 years. Application of the SWRO membrane process to actual commercial plants was an important research theme. The low-pressure multi-stage SWRO System (LMS was an innovative method of introducing a low-pressure membrane and the membrane element in the pressure vessel was designed to avoid heavy fouling of lead elements. As a result of these developments at mega-ton scale SWRO plants, a 20% energy reduction was possible in the SWRO system of the “Mega-ton Water System”. In the development of the PRO process, a PRO hollow fiber membrane module with a maximum 13.3 w/m2 of membrane power density using a 10-inch module was established at a prototype PRO plant. Thus, a 30% energy reduction was possible using the SWRO-PRO System in the “Mega-ton Water System” at mega-ton scale SWRO plants. The brine disposal problem was also solved by this system.

  19. Mega wildfire in the World Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO), Torres del Paine National Park, Patagonia - Chile 2012: Work experience in extreme behavior conditions in the context of global warming (United States)

    René Cifuentes Medina


    Mega wildfires are critical, high-impact events that cause severe environmental, economic and social damage, resulting, in turn, in high-cost suppression operations and the need for mutual support, phased use of resources and the coordinated efforts of civilian government agencies, the armed forces, private companies and the international community. The mega forest...

  20. The nation branding opportunities provided by a sport mega-event: South Africa and the 2010 FIFA World Cup


    Knott, B.; Fyall, A.; Jones, Ian


    Over the past decade there has been a growing awareness of the significant impact that hosting sport mega-events can have on a nation[U+05F3]s brand. This paper discusses the context of nation branding and the role of sport mega-events in generating a nation branding legacy. A nation brand is not owned or controlled by a single organisation, but rather jointly developed and delivered by a network of public and private sector organisations. The examination of both event and brand stakeholder p...

  1. Real Time Position Detection by Using GPS+GSM+GPRS and Arduino Mega Based Telit GL865


    Baki Koyuncu; ZeynepÖzdemir


    A web application on a mobile platform is developed by using GPS, GSMand GPRSon an Arduino Mega board to determine the object positions in real time.The system receives the GPS position data and sends it to a distant server through a GSM channel by using GPRS and an Arduino Mega board. Position data is displayed on a Google map on the server or a mobile cell phone. U BloxLea is deployed as the GPS device, Telit GL865 is used as the combined GSM and GPRS devices. GPS data is received every 1 s...

  2. Otomatisasi Monitoring pH pada Produksi Biogas dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (LCPKS) Dengan Mikrokontroler Arduino Mega 2560




    The purpose of this research is to obtain monitoring system and pH data recording system based on microcontroller Arduino Mega 2560 and to obtain a Human Machine Interface (HMI) that is suitable for monitoring the pH from the process of conversing POME into biogas on a laboratory scale using Arduino and LabVIEW software. This study is consisted of two stages, which is: the hardware design and software design. At the hardware design, microcontroller Arduino Mega 2560 is conne...



    Irigoyen-Baldenegro, José


    La competitividad garantiza pertinencia y sustentabilidad a una organización,debiéndose fundamentar en una planeación estratégicatipo mega que garantice el logro de su misión y visión; donde los indicadores constituyen los signos vitales, precisos y válidos sobre el desempeño,identificados en tres niveles de planeación tendiente a definir y lograr el éxito organizacional: Mega (Estratégico), Macro (Táctico) y Micro (Operacional); partiendo de analizar la contribución social y valor agregado, ...

  4. A Case with Mega Cisterna Magna Renal and Ear Anomalies: Is This a New Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çapan Konca


    Full Text Available Background. Extrarenal pathologies may be associated with renal position and fusion anomalies. According to the literature, our patient is the first horseshoe kidney case that had mega cisterna magna, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. Case Report. A 9-year-old boy admitted because of the myoclonic jerks. He had a dysmorphic face, low-set and cup-shaped ears, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. The patient’s laboratory findings were normal except for a mild leucocytosis and hypochromic microcytic anemia. His cerebrospinal fluid was cytologically and biochemically normal. Cranial MRI revealed 1.5 cm diametered mega cisterna magna in the retrocerebellar region. Although there were no significant epileptical discharges in the electroencephalography, there were slow wave discharges arising from the anterior regions of both hemispheres. Because he had stomachache, abdominal ultrasonography was performed, and horseshoe kidney was determined. Abdominal CT did not reveal any abnormalities except the horseshoe kidney. There were not any cardiac pathologies in echocardiography. He had normal 46XY karyotype and there were no repeated chromosomal derangements, but we could not evaluate for molecular and submicroscopic somatic changes. He was treated with valproic acid and myoclonic jerks did not repeat. Conclusion. We suggest that the presence of these novel findings may represent a newly recognized, separate syndrome.

  5. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones (United States)

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana


    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ari Setyo Nugroho


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between psychological capital with work engagement employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang. Psychological capital is an individual’s positive psychological state of development and is characterized by self- efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. Then, work engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. This study used proportional sampling technique. The subjects were all employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang which have staff levels (N=73. The research instrument was psychological capital scales with 28 items (α = 0.953 and work engagement scales with 29 items (α = 0.938. The results by simple regression analysis obtained rxy = 0.716, with p value = 0.000 (p <0.05. The results indicated that there was a positive correlation between psychological capital and work engagement. The higher psychological capital was higher work engagement. Coefficient of determination by 51,3, it meaning that psychological capital effectively contributed for 51,3 % of work engagement. The remaining 48,7 % determined by other factors that are not revealed in this study, for example: job resources and job demands. Keywords: Psychological capital, work engagement, employee

  7. MEGA -- A search for {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischke, R.E.; MEGA Collaboration


    The MEGA experiment is a search for the decay {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma}. Even though there is no fundamental reason to expect lepton number to be a conserved quantity, processes such as {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma} have not been observed. (The present upper limit for the branching ratio for {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma} is 4.9 x 10{sup {minus}11}.) The minimal standard model of electroweak interactions, which is enormously successful, builds in lepton number conservation. However, the decay {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma} is expected in many extensions to the standard model, in particular in supersymmetry models. The experimental signature for {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma} from decays at rest is the observation of a positron and photon, each of 52.8 MeV , that are back-to-back, in time coincidence, and originate from a common spatial point. The MEGA detector consists of two spectrometers designed to measure the kinematic characteristics of positrons and photons to search for events with this signature. The primary difficulty in the analysis of these data has been the development of reconstruction algorithms that balance efficiency and resolution. Also, many calibrations and corrections are needed to get optimum resolutions. Most surviving candidate events are accidentals. Results of analysis are given.

  8. Massive sedimentation of fine sediment with organic matter and enhanced benthic-pelagic coupling by an artificial dyke in semi-enclosed Chonsu Bay, Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Kee Hyun; Shim, JungHee; Han, Jeong Hee; Choi, Yang Ho; Khang, Bhum-Joo


    To assess the impact of an artificial dyke in Chonsu Bay (CBD) on the organic carbon (C(org)) cycle, we measured excess (210)Pb activities, C(org) and nitrogen content in sediment cores. The C(org) oxidation rates (C(ox)) on the surface sediment and benthic nutrient fluxes were also quantified with an in situ benthic chamber. The higher excess (210)Pb inventory, C(org) and nitrogen in cores near the CBD indicated lateral transport and local, massive deposition of particulate matter due to tidal circulation altered by artificial dyke construction. The C(ox) in sediment near the CBD was about twice as high as that out of the bay, suggesting the importance of benthic remineralization of organic matter. The benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate were four to six times higher than those outside the bay, corresponding to 141% and 131% respectively, of the requirements for primary production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of rare-earths and other trace elements in neo proterozoic-neo paleozoic dykes from Ceara state, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Rafael Martins dos; Figueiredo, Ana M.G., E-mail: rafael.anjos@usp.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator Nuclear de Pesquisas. Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons; Cardoso, Gustavo Luan; Marques, Leila S., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas


    Trace elements such as rare earths, U, Th, Ta, Ba and Hf can be very useful in petrogenetic studies of igneous and metamorphic rocks, giving information about the origin and evolution of magmas. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is an accurate and precise for trace element analysis in geological samples, and provides the information required for this kind of studies. In this study, rare earths and incompatible trace elements were determined by INAA in the geological reference materials GS-N and BE-N, to quality control, and for the investigation of acid dykes of neo proterozoic-neo paleozoic ages, which outcrop in the Medio Coreau and Ceara Central domains from the Borborema Province (Ceara State). The powdered samples (particle sizes less than 100 mesh), crushed by using a mechanical agate mortar grinder, were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated and preliminary results of dyke samples are presented. (author)

  10. Variations in the chemical composition of lamprophyllite-group minerals and the crystal structure of fluorine-rich barytolamprophyllite from new peralkaline dyke (United States)

    Akimenko, M. I.; Aksenov, S. M.; Sorokhtina, N. V.; Kogarko, L. N.; Kononkova, N. N.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.


    The variations in the chemical composition of lamprophyllite-group minerals from a peralkaline dyke of the Mokhnatye Roga area (Kandalaksha region, Kola Peninsula), which are crystallized during the entire period of dyke formation and form several generations, have been investigated. The early generations differ in a steadily high fluorine content, while the later ones exhibit reduced amount of fluorine, impurity elements, and sodium, with a simultaneous increase in the potassium content. The crystal structure of fluorine- rich barytolamprophyllite (potentially a new representative of the lamprophyllite group, differing by the predominance of fluorine in the anion X site) has been analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This mineral is found to have a monoclinic unit cell with the following parameters: a = 19.5219(8) Å, b = 7.0915(2) Å, c = 5.3925(2) Å, β = 96.628(3)°, and sp. gr. C2/ m. The structure is refined to R = 5.73% in the anisotropic approximation of the atomic displacement parameters using 3668 I > 2σ( I). The idealized formula ( Z = 2) is (Ba,Sr)2[Na(Na,Fe)2(Ti,Mg)F2][Ti2(Si2O7)2O2].

  11. Extraction and dielectric properties of curcuminoid films grown on Si substrate for high-k dielectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakhel, A.A.; Jasim, Khalil E. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 15503 (Bahrain); Henari, F.Z., E-mail: [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 15503 (Bahrain)


    Highlights: • The unknown insulating properties of curcuminoid extract are systematically studied. • Optical study gives a bandgap of 3.15 eV and a refractive index of 1.92 at 505 nm. • Turmeric is a high-k environmental friendly material for use in microelectronics. • Curcuminoid extract can be used as insulator of MIS devices with ε{sup ′}{sub ∞}≈54.2. -- Abstract: Curcuminoids were extracted from turmeric powder and evaporated in vacuum to prepare thin films on p-Si and glass substrates for dielectric and optical investigations. The optical absorption spectrum of the prepared amorphous film was not identical to that of the molecular one, which was identified by a strong wide absorption band in between ∼220 and 540 nm. The onset energy of the optical absorption of the film was calculated by using Hamberg et al. method. The dielectric properties of this material were systematically studied for future eco friendly applications in metal–insulator–semiconductor MIS field of applications. The complex dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range of 1–1000 kHz and was analysed in-terms of dielectric impedance Z{sup *}(ω) and modulus M{sup *}(ω). Generally, the curcuminoid complex can be considered as a high-k material and can be used in the environmental friendly production of microelectronic devices.

  12. Application of an empirical saturation rule to TGLF to unify low-k and high-k turbulence dominated regimes (United States)

    Jian, Xiang; Chan, Vincent S.; Chen, Jiale; Li, Zeyu; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Zhuang, Ge; the CFETR Physics team


    We propose a phenomenological turbulence saturation model and apply it to the TGLF turbulence transport model (Staebler et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 055909), which captures the physics of interaction between low-k and high-k turbulence consistent with the multi-scale gyro-kinetic simulation result reported by Howard (2016 Nucl. Fusion. 23 056109). The new model, TGLF-Vx is tested with three discharges from DIII-D and EAST tokamak, which cover both low-k and high-k turbulence dominated regimes. It is found that the profile match can be substantially improved over previous models when evolving T e, T i and n e simultaneously. Good agreement for all three discharges is obtained with one fixed parameter in the model when taking experimental uncertainties into consideration. Lastly, TGLF-Vx is applied to explore the sensitivity of the predicted CFETR steady-state performance to different transport models. Our result shows that a scenario using only RF auxiliary heating could be significantly affected.

  13. Towards low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs with solution-processed high-k dielectric and interface engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaorong Su


    Full Text Available Although impressive progress has been made in improving the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs, the high operation voltage resulting from the low gate capacitance density of traditional SiO2 remains a severe limitation that hinders OTFTs'development in practical applications. In this regard, developing new materials with high-k characteristics at low cost is of great scientific and technological importance in the area of both academia and industry. Here, we introduce a simple solution-based technique to fabricate high-k metal oxide dielectric system (ATO at low-temperature, which can be used effectively to realize low-voltage operation of OTFTs. On the other hand, it is well known that the properties of the dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interfaces are crucial in controlling the electrical properties of OTFTs. By optimizing the above two interfaces with octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM and properly modified low-cost Cu, obviously improved device performance is attained in our low-voltage OTFTs. Further more, organic electronic devices on flexible substrates have attracted much attention due to their low-cost, rollability, large-area processability, and so on. Basing on the above results, outstanding electrical performance is achieved in flexible devices. Our studies demonstrate an effective way to realize low-voltage, high-performance OTFTs at low-cost.

  14. Megacity Indicator System for Disaster Risk Management in Istanbul (MegaIST) (United States)

    Yahya Menteşe, Emin; Kılıç, Osman; Baş, Mahmut; Khazai, Bijan; Ergün Konukcu, Betul; Emre Basmacı, Ahmet


    Decision makers need tools to understand the priorities and to set up benchmarks and track progress in their disaster risk reduction activities, so that they can justify their decisions and investments. In this regard, Megacity Indicator System for Disaster Risk Management (MegaIST), is developed in order to be used in disaster risk management studies, for decision makers and managers to establish right strategies and proper risk reduction actions, enhance resource management and investment decisions, set priorities, monitor progress in DRM and validate decisions taken with the aim of helping disaster oriented urban redevelopment, inform investors about risk profile of the city and providing a basis for dissemination and sharing of risk components with related stakeholders; by Directorate of Earthquake and Ground Research of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM). MegaIST achieves these goals by analyzing the earthquake risk in three separate but complementary sub-categories consisting of "urban seismic risk, coping capacity and disaster risk management index" in an integrated way. MegaIST model fosters its analyses by presenting the outputs in a simple and user friendly format benefiting from GIS technology that ensures the adoptability of the model's use. Urban seismic risk analysis includes two components, namely; Physical Risk and Social Vulnerability Analysis. Physical risk analysis is based on the possible physical losses (such as building damage, casualties etc.) due to an earthquake while social vulnerability is considered as a factor that increases the results of the physical losses in correlation with the level of education, health, economic status and disaster awareness/preparedness of society. Coping capacity analysis is carried out with the aim of understanding the readiness of the Municipality to respond and recover from a disaster in Istanbul can be defined both in terms of the Municipality's operational capacities - the capacity of the

  15. Low-voltage Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) with Solution-processed High-k Dielectric cum Interface Engineering (United States)

    Su, Yaorong

    Although impressive progress has been made in improving the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), the high operation voltage resulting from the low gate areal capacitance of traditional SiO 2 remains a severe limitation that hinders OTFTs' development in practical applications. In this regard, developing new materials with high- k characteristics at low cost is of great scientific and technological importance in the area of both academia and industry. In this thesis, we first describe a simple solution-based method to fabricate a high-k bilayer Al2Oy/TiOx (ATO) dielectric system at low temperature. Then the dielectric properties of the ATO are characterized and discussed in detail. Furthermore, by employing the high-k ATO as gate dielectric, low-voltage copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based OTFTs are successfully developed. Interestingly, the obtained low-voltage CuPc TFT exhibits outstanding electrical performance, which is even higher than the device fabricated on traditional low-k SiO2. The above results seem to be contradictory to the reported results due to the fact that high-k usually shows adverse effect on the device performance. This abnormal phenomenon is then studied in detail. Characterization on the initial growth shows that the CuPc molecules assemble in a "rod-like" nano crystal with interconnected network on ATO, which probably promotes the charge carrier transport, whereas, they form isolated small islands with amorphous structure on SiO2. In addition, a better metal/organic contact is observed on ATO, which benefits the charge carrier injection. Our studies suggest that the low-temperature, solution-processed high-k ATO is a promising candidate for fabrication of high-performance, low-voltage OTFTs. Furthermore, it is well known that the properties of the dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interfaces are crucial in controlling the electrical properties of OTFTs. Hence, investigation the effects of interfaces

  16. Research on Trypanosoma cruzi and Analysis of Inflammatory Infiltrate in Esophagus and Colon from Chronic Chagasic Patients with and without Mega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliângela de Castro Côbo


    Full Text Available To compare parasitism and inflammatory process in esophagus and colon from chronic chagasic patients, immunohistochemistry was carried out to research for T. cruzi and to evaluate the inflammatory infiltrate in the muscular and myenteric plexus in 39 esophagi (20 with and 19 without megaesophagus and 50 colons (25 with and 25 without megacolon. The frequency of T. cruzi in megaesophagus was 20%, and in megacolon it was 4%. No amastigotes were found in organs without mega; considering the total of esophagi (with and without mega, the frequency of T. cruzi would be 10% and 2% in the colon. Myositis and ganglionitis were more frequent and intense in organs with mega compared to those without mega, and in esophagus compared to colon. Qualitatively, inflammatory infiltration in esophagus and colon, with or without mega, was similar, consisting predominantly of T lymphocytes (CD3+, scarce macrophages (CD68+, and rare B lymphocytes (CD20+.

  17. MEGA Node: an implementation of a coarse-grain totally reconfigurable parallel machine (United States)

    Blum, M. B.; Burrer, Caroline


    The MEGA Node is a loosely coupled highly parallel computer based on transputers. One of its main characteristics is its ability to change the topology of the network using an electronic switch. It covers a range from 128 to 1024 " worker processors" delivering from 550 to 4400 Mflops peak performance. To achieve these performances a hierarchical structure has been adopted. This highly parallel machine is issued from the Esprit I P1085 " Supernode" project. The software has to support a wide spectrum of users going from those who wish to obtain maximum performance from the machine to those who wish to use it as a general purpose multi-user parallel machine. This paper describes the different ways to use the MEGA Node and the software environments provided to satisfy all kind of users. The Helios environment is a good example to explain how an operating system can control this machine particularly the networking management and the fundamental problem of mapping. The MEGA Node has already been used for a wide range of applications like signal/image processing (high and low level) image synthesis scientific and engineering numbercrunching neural network simulation and logic simulation. Only a few of them are discussed in this paper: medical image analysis and vision and ray tracing. 1 Esprit I P1085 project The work done under the Esprit I P1085 project [1] partially funded by CEC was related the development and applications of a low cost high performance multiprocessor machine. The project involved Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE prime contractor) Inmos Thorn-Emi CRL University of Southampton University of Liverpool Aptor University of Grenoble(Imag) and Telmat Informatique. The objectives of the project were to develop a highly parallel architecture based on transputers and associated system software and applications. To achieve this Inmos developed the T800 transputer starting from the T414 and the consortium defined the whole machine architecture

  18. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia (United States)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van


    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  19. In-situ Analysis of Diamonds and Their Mineral Inclusions From the Lynx Kimberlite Dyke Complex, Central Quebec (United States)

    van Rythoven, A.; McCandless, T. E.; Schulze, D. J.; Bellis, A.; Taylor, L. A.; Liu, Y.


    Twenty diamonds from the 522 Ma Lynx kimberlite dyke complex were selected from 442 stones in the 1.47- 3.45mm (+3 to +11 DTC) sieve class on the basis of visible inclusions. The 442 diamonds are part of a larger population of 6598 stones produced from 34 t and 494 t bulk samples taken in 2005 and 2007, respectively. The twenty diamonds all have octahedral primary growth forms. Three macles occur, as does one example of two intergrown octahedra connected along their {111} faces. Two samples are coarse intergrowths of octahedra. Most of the diamonds display a significant degree of resorption and range from octahedra with rounded corners and edges to tetrahexahedroida. Shield and serrate laminae, and hillocks are the most common resorption-related surface features. Nineteen of the samples have light brown to brown colouration. After their external morphology was examined, the diamonds were cut and polished along a single plane to expose included mineral grains for compositional analysis and to image internal structure. Cathodoluminescence imaging reveals deformation lamellae in the majority of the diamonds. A subset of these stones show deformation lamellae truncated by growth/resorption zones and in some cases intersection of planes of different orientation. Oscillatory planar growth patterns are the most common. However, examples of simple homogeneous, complex planar, and complex undulating growth zones occur. Inclusions, particularly olivine, typically occur in core/early growth regions of the diamonds. Of the twenty diamonds, sixteen have primary inclusions. The inclusion suite is largely peridotitic. Seventeen forsteritic olivine inclusions occur in ten diamonds and have molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)= 0.916-0.933. Seven Cr-diopside inclusions occur in one diamond (2.2-2.3 wt. % Cr2O3). Four Cr-pyropes (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.28-0.41) occur in three diamonds. Two enstatite inclusions (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.938-0.94) occur in two diamonds. One heterogeneous inclusion of monosulfide solid

  20. Navigating mega projects through complexity and uncertainty: strategic and adaptive capacity in planning and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giezen, M.


    Over the last few decades, there has been an increasing interest in mega projects from both policy makers and academics. Of particular concern to both has been the seemingly structural time and cost overruns associated with these projects. In response a tendency, especially of policy makers, has

  1. Keeping it simple? A case study into the advantages and disadvantages of reducing complexity in mega project planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giezen, M.


    There are many articles discussing time and cost overruns in mega projects. This research, however, looks at a case that was successful in managing these aspects: a metro extension in the Rotterdam Region in the Netherlands. The literature identifies several causes for overruns and the question thus

  2. Student Engagement and Completion in Precalculus Precalculus Mega Section: Efficiently Assisting Student Engagement and Completion with Communications and Information Technology (United States)

    Brusi, Rima; Portnoy, Arturo; Toro, Nilsa


    The Precalculus Mega Section project was developed with the main purpose of improving the overall performance of the student body in Precalculus, an important gatekeeper course that affects student engagement and completion, with typical drop/failure rates of over 50 percent. Strategies such as integration of technology and additional practice…

  3. Responsiveness to a Prospective Student E-Mail Inquiry by Community Colleges in the Nine Mega-States (United States)

    Shadinger, David A.


    This quantitative study investigated e-mail responsiveness by community colleges in the nine mega-states to an inquiry from a prospective student. Noel-Levitz (2006b) reported that prospective students want to receive an e-mail with information about an institution prior to applying for admission. Specifically, high school juniors and seniors want…

  4. Can interpreting sediment toxicity tests a mega sites benefit from novel approaches to normalization to address batching of tests? (United States)

    Sediment toxicity tests are a key tool used in Ecological Risk Assessments for contaminated sediment sites. Interpreting test results and defining toxicity is often a challenge. This is particularly true at mega sites where the testing regime is large, and by necessity performed ...

  5. Sustainable innovation in intensive animal husbandry; policy and public protests towards a mega-farm in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Hinssen, J.P.P.


    In this paper the planning and implementation of a specific mega-farm in the Netherlands is discussed, the so called ‘New Mixed Business’ (NMB). The central question is: how did communication, contestation and controversies play a role in the implementation of this innovative concept for sustainable

  6. Engineering the propagation of high-k bulk plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials by multiscale structuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sipe, J. E.


    Propagation of large-wavevector bulk plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) with two levels of structuring is theoretically studied. It is shown that when the parameters of a subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayer (substructure) are modulated (superstructured) on a larger......, wavelength scale, the propagation of bulk plasmon polaritons in the resulting multiscale HMM is subject to photonic band gap phenomena. A great degree of control over such plasmons can be exerted by varying the superstructure geometry. As an example, Bragg reflection and Fabry-Pérot resonances...... to be a promising platform for using high-k bulk plasmonic waves as a new kind of information carriers, which can be used in far-field subwavelength imaging and plasmonic communication....

  7. Investigation of Dependence between Time-zero and Time-dependent Variability in High-k NMOS Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Mohammad Khaled


    Bias Temperature Instability (BTI) is a major reliability concern in CMOS technology, especially with High dielectric constant (High-\\k{appa}/HK) metal gate (MG) transistors. In addition, the time independent process induced variation has also increased because of the aggressive scaling down of devices. As a result, the faster devices at the lower threshold voltage distribution tail experience higher stress, leading to additional skewness in the BTI degradation. Since time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and stress-induced leakage current (SILC) in NMOS devices are correlated to BTI, it is necessary to investigate the effect of time zero variability on all these effects simultaneously. To that effect, we propose a simulation framework to model and analyze the impact of time-zero variability (in particular, random dopant fluctuations) on different aging effects. For small area devices (~1000 nm2) in 30nm technology, we observe significant effect of Random Dopant Fluctuation (RDF) on BTI induced variabili...

  8. Net K+ secretion in the thick ascending limb of mice on a low-Na, high-K diet. (United States)

    Wang, Bangchen; Wen, Donghai; Li, Huaqing; Wang-France, Jun; Sansom, Steven C


    Because of its cardio-protective effects, a low-Na, high-K diet (LNaHK) is often warranted in conjunction with diuretics to treat hypertensive patients. However, it is necessary to understand the renal handling of such diets in order to choose the best diuretic. Wild-type (WT) or Renal Outer Medullary K channel (ROMK) knockout mice (KO) were given a regular (CTRL), LNaHK, or high-K diet (HK) for 4-7 days. On LNaHK, mice treated with either IP furosemide for 12 hrs, or given furosemide in drinking water for 7 days, exhibited decreased K clearance. We used free-flow micropuncture to measure the [K+] in the early distal tubule (EDT [K+]) before and after furosemide treatment. Furosemide increased the EDT [K+] in WT on CTRL but decreased that in WT on LNaHK. Furosemide did not affect the EDT [K+] of KO on LNaHK or WT on HK. Furosemide-sensitive Na+ excretion was significantly greater in mice on LNaHK than those on CTRL or HK. Patch clamp analysis of split-open TALs revealed that 70-pS ROMK exhibited a higher open probability (Po) but similar density in mice on LNaHK, compared with CTRL. No difference was found in the density or Po of the 30 pS K channels between the two groups. These results indicate mice on LNaHK exhibited furosemide-sensitive net K+ secretion in the TAL that is dependent on increased NKCC2 activity and mediated by ROMK. We conclude that furosemide is a K-sparing diuretic by decreasing the TAL net K+ secretion in subjects on LNaHK. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MegaGTA: a sensitive and accurate metagenomic gene-targeted assembler using iterative de Bruijn graphs. (United States)

    Li, Dinghua; Huang, Yukun; Leung, Chi-Ming; Luo, Ruibang; Ting, Hing-Fung; Lam, Tak-Wah


    The recent release of the gene-targeted metagenomics assembler Xander has demonstrated that using the trained Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to guide the traversal of de Bruijn graph gives obvious advantage over other assembly methods. Xander, as a pilot study, indeed has a lot of room for improvement. Apart from its slow speed, Xander uses only 1 k-mer size for graph construction and whatever choice of k will compromise either sensitivity or accuracy. Xander uses a Bloom-filter representation of de Bruijn graph to achieve a lower memory footprint. Bloom filters bring in false positives, and it is not clear how this would impact the quality of assembly. Xander does not keep track of the multiplicity of k-mers, which would have been an effective way to differentiate between erroneous k-mers and correct k-mers. In this paper, we present a new gene-targeted assembler MegaGTA, which attempts to improve Xander in different aspects. Quality-wise, it utilizes iterative de Bruijn graphs to take full advantage of multiple k-mer sizes to make the best of both sensitivity and accuracy. Computation-wise, it employs succinct de Bruijn graphs (SdBG) to achieve low memory footprint and high speed (the latter is benefited from a highly efficient parallel algorithm for constructing SdBG). Unlike Bloom filters, an SdBG is an exact representation of a de Bruijn graph. It enables MegaGTA to avoid false-positive contigs and to easily incorporate the multiplicity of k-mers for building better HMM model. We have compared MegaGTA and Xander on an HMP-defined mock metagenomic dataset, and showed that MegaGTA excelled in both sensitivity and accuracy. On a large rhizosphere soil metagenomic sample (327Gbp), MegaGTA produced 9.7-19.3% more contigs than Xander, and these contigs were assigned to 10-25% more gene references. In our experiments, MegaGTA, depending on the number of k-mers used, is two to ten times faster than Xander. MegaGTA improves on the algorithm of Xander and achieves higher

  10. The Batagay permafrost mega thaw slump: an environmental archive of the Late Pleistocene continental climate (United States)

    Ashastina, Kseniia; Kienast, Frank; Römermann, Christine; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Diekmann, Bernhard; Schirrmeister, Lutz


    Palaeoenvironmental data preserved in permafrost contribute in our understanding of climate changes and their influence on the biocenoses during the Late Quaternary. Here we present cryolithological and palaeoecological results of studies carried out on a newly described permafrost exposure near Batagay about 50 km from Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic, Russia, the town with the most continental climate recorded in the northern hemisphere. According to Günther et al. (2015), this unique exposure is the biggest mega thaw slump measured so far with the dimensions 800 m wide and 73 m deep. Only sparse data on the exposure are so far published in few articles (Novgorodov et al., 2013; Kunitsky et al., 2013; Ashastina et al., in press; Murton et al., 2016). The site is situated inWest Beringia, the Late Quaternary landmasscovered by tundra steppe and inhabited by diverse mega herbivores. We analyzed sedimentological data, plant macro- and micro-fossils together with insect remains in order to reconstruct the changes in the biome. The temporal frame for the accumulation of the sequence is provided by radiocarbon and optical stimulated luminescence dating, according to which the formation of the sequence started in the late Middle Quaternary. The features of permafrost accumulation and sedimentation give us an opportunity to propose the landscape changes responding to the climatic pulses of Pleistocene at this particular place. The shifts in vegetation from taiga to steppe associations are in a line with stadial and intersadial events. We propose a scheme of permafrost state and vegetation changes and merge it with climate variation during Late Quaternary. Ashastina, K., Schirrmeister, L., Fuchs, M., Kienast, F.: Pleistocene climate characteristics in the most continental part of the northern hemisphere: insights from cryolithological features of the Batagay mega thaw slump in the Siberian Yana Highlands. Climate of the Past, in press. doi: 10.5194/cp-2016-84. Günther, F

  11. High Rise Building: The Mega Sculpture Made Of Steel, Concrete and Glass (United States)

    Stefańska, Alicja; Załuski, Daniel


    High rise building has transformed from providing not only the expansion of floor space but functioning as mega sculpture in the city. The shift away from economic efficiency driven need is only expected to grow in the future. Based on literature studies; after analysing planning documents and case studies, it was examined whether the presumption that gaining the maximum amount of usable area is the only driving factor; or if the need for the creation of an image for the city provided a supplementary reason. The results showed that forming high rise buildings as three-dimensional sculptures is influenced not only by aesthetics, but also marketing. Visual distinction in the city skyline is economically beneficial for investors gaining not only functionality but art, enriching the cultural landscape. Organizing architectural competitions, public debates and following the latest art trends is therefore possible due to large budgets of such projects.

  12. Local Perception of Drought Impacts in a Changing Climate: The Mega-Drought in Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Aldunce


    Full Text Available Droughts are a recurrent and complex natural hazard whose frequency and magnitude are expected to increase with climate change. Despite the advances in responding and adapting to droughts (with the development of new policies, for example, droughts continue to cause serious impacts and suffering. Developing well-targeted public policies requires further research on adaptation. Specifically, understanding the public perception of drought can help to identify drivers of and barriers to adaptation and options. This research seeks to understand the public perception of drought in central Chile in order to inform adaptation-related policies and decision-making processes. This study focused on the Mega-drought, which was a protracted dry spell afflicting central Chile since 2010.

  13. Megaesôfago idiopático: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo de Alexandre


    Full Text Available Introdução: O megaesôfago é uma patologia na qual a função de peristaltismo do esôfago é comprometida devido a destruição de plexos nervosos. Sendo caracterizado por dilatação e aumento do órgão, ausência de peristaltismo, presença de contrações ternárias e o não relaxamento total ou parcial do esfíncter inferior esofágico; Objetivos: relatar caso de megaesôfago idiopático em jovem de 11 anos, como um diagnóstico diferencial para perda de peso extrema e vômitos constantes; Metodologia: revisão de dados obtidos e analisados do prontuário médico e pesquisa bibliográfica; Relato de caso: C.J.A, 11 anos, natural e procedente de Sorocaba, chegou a hebiatria com vômitos há um ano a esclarecer. Os vômitos eram pós alimentares, não ocorrendo em todas as refeições, e acompanhado de dor retroesternal, epigástrica e ânsia após alimentação. Foi encaminhado com a hipótese diagnóstica inicial de transtorno alimentar - anorexia nervosa - porém não apresentava a distorção da imagem corporal típica deste transtorno, sendo assim, foram indicados outros exames subsidiários para melhor investigação diagnóstica. O ultrassom abdominal mostrou estreitamento de esôfago inferior com refluxo gastroesofágico secundário e o raio-x contrastado de esôfago- estômago demonstrou estenose de cárdia com cárdia intransponível levando a megaesôfago idiopático. Com esses resultados ficou aguardando cirurgia com aumento na frequência dos vômitos pre-cirurgia e tomando domperidona, durante dois anos até cirurgia de esofagoplastia videolaparoscópica no hospital de Botucatu. O paciente evoluiu bem sem intercorrências pós cirúrgicas, recuperando o peso ideal e atingindo seu canal alvo de altura; Conclusões: O megaesôfago idiopático ainda é uma patologia pouco relatada apesar de ser um diagnóstico diferencial de doenças de alta prevalência na atualidade.

  14. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail:; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)


    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  15. Analysis and fit of stellar spectra using a mega-database of CMFGEN models (United States)

    Fierro-Santillán, Celia; Zsargó, Janos; Klapp, Jaime; Díaz-Azuara, Santiago Alfredo; Arrieta, Anabel; Arias, Lorena


    We present a tool for analysis and fit of stellar spectra using a mega database of 15,000 atmosphere models for OB stars. We have developed software tools, which allow us to find the model that best fits to an observed spectrum, comparing equivalent widths and line ratios in the observed spectrum with all models of the database. We use the Hα, Hβ, Hγ, and Hδ lines as criterion of stellar gravity and ratios of He II λ4541/He I λ4471, He II λ4200/(He I+He II λ4026), He II λ4541/He I λ4387, and He II λ4200/He I λ4144 as criterion of T eff.

  16. Mega-city and great earthquake distributions: the search of basic links. (United States)

    Levin, Boris; Sasorova, Elena; Domanski, Andrej


    The ever-increasing population density in large metropolitan cities near major active faults (e.g. Tokyo, Lisbon, San-Francisco, et al.) and recent catastrophic earthquakes in Japan, Indonesia and Haiti (loss of life more 500000), highlight the need for searching of causal relationships between distributions of earthquake epicenters and mega-cities at the Earth [1]. The latitudinal distribution of mega-cities calculated with using Internet data base, discovers a curious peculiarity: the density of large city numbers, related to 10-degree latitude interval, demonstrates two maximums in middle latitudes (±30-40°) on both sides of the equator. These maximums are separated by clean local minimum near equator, and such objects (mega-cities) are practically absent in the high latitudes. In the last two decades, it was shown [2, 3, 4] that a seismic activity of the Earth is described by the similar bimodal latitudinal distribution. The similarity between bimodal distributions for geophysical phenomena and mega-city locations attracts common attention. The peak values in the both distributions (near ±35°) correspond to location of well-known "critical latitudes" at the planet. These latitudes were determined [5], as the lines of intersection of a sphere and a spheroid of equal volume (±35°15'52″). Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of the Earth rotation instability leads to small pulsations of the geoid. In the critical latitudes, the geoid radius-vector is equal to the radius of sphere. The zones of near critical latitudes are characterized by high density of faults in the Earth crust and manifestation of some geological peculiarities (hot spot distribution, large ore deposit distribution, et al.). The active faults existence has led to an emanation of depth fluids, which created the good

  17. Meteor observations with Mini-Mega-TORTORA wide-field monitoring system (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Orekhova, N.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.


    Here we report on the results of meteor observations with 9-channel Mini-Mega-TORTORA (MMT-9) optical monitoring system with the wide field and high temporal resolution. During the first 1.5 years of operation more than 90 thousands of meteors have been detected, at a rate of 300-350 per night, with durations from 0.1 to 2.5 seconds and angular velocities up to 38 degrees per second. The faintest detected meteors have peak brightnesses about 10 mag, while the majority have them ranging from 4 to 8 mag. Some of the meteors have been observed in BVR filters simultaneously. Color variations along the trail for them have been determined. The parameters of the detected meteors have been published online. The database also includes data from 10 thousands of meteors detected by our previous FAVOR camera during 2006-2009.

  18. Sustainability of mega water diversion projects: Experience and lessons from China. (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Chaoran; Liu, Yi; Olsson, Gustaf; Wang, Chunyan


    Water availability and water demand are not evenly distributed in time and space. Many mega water diversion projects have been launched to alleviate water shortages in China. This paper analyzes the temporal and spatial features of 59 mega water diversion projects in China using statistical analysis. The relationship between nine major basins is measured using a network analysis method, and the associated economic, environmental and social impacts are explored using an impact analysis method. The study finds the development of water diversion has experienced four stages in China, from a starting period through to a period of high-speed development. Both the length of water diversion channels and the amount of transferred water have increased significantly in the past 50years. As of 2015, over 100billionm3 of water was transferred in China through 16,000km in channels. These projects reached over half of China's provinces. The Yangtze River Basin is now the largest source of transferred water. Through inter-basin water diversion, China gains the opportunity to increase Gross Domestic Product by 4%. However, the construction costs exceed 150 billion US dollars, larger than in any other country. The average cost per unit of transferred water has increased with time and scale but decreased from western to eastern China. Furthermore, annual total energy consumption for pumping exceeded 50billionkilowatt-hours and the related greenhouse gas emissions are estimated to be 48milliontons. It is worth noting that ecological problems caused by water diversion affect the Han River and Yellow River Basins. Over 500 thousand people have been relocated away from their homes due to water diversion. To improve the sustainability of water diversion, four kinds of innovative measures have been provided for decision makers: national diversion guidelines, integrated water basin management, economic incentives and ex-post evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterizing Mega-Earthquake Related Tsunami on Subduction Zones without Large Historical Events (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Lee, R.; Astill, S.; Farahani, R.; Wilson, P. S.; Mohammed, F.


    Due to recent large tsunami events (e.g., Chile 2010 and Japan 2011), the insurance industry is very aware of the importance of managing its exposure to tsunami risk. There are currently few tools available to help establish policies for managing and pricing tsunami risk globally. As a starting point and to help address this issue, Risk Management Solutions Inc. (RMS) is developing a global suite of tsunami inundation footprints. This dataset will include both representations of historical events as well as a series of M9 scenarios on subductions zones that have not historical generated mega earthquakes. The latter set is included to address concerns about the completeness of the historical record for mega earthquakes. This concern stems from the fact that the Tohoku Japan earthquake was considerably larger than had been observed in the historical record. Characterizing the source and rupture pattern for the subduction zones without historical events is a poorly constrained process. In many case, the subduction zones can be segmented based on changes in the characteristics of the subducting slab or major ridge systems. For this project, the unit sources from the NOAA propagation database are utilized to leverage the basin wide modeling included in this dataset. The length of the rupture is characterized based on subduction zone segmentation and the slip per unit source can be determined based on the event magnitude (i.e., M9) and moment balancing. As these events have not occurred historically, there is little to constrain the slip distribution. Sensitivity tests on the potential rupture pattern have been undertaken comparing uniform slip to higher shallow slip and tapered slip models. Subduction zones examined include the Makran Trench, the Lesser Antilles and the Hikurangi Trench. The ultimate goal is to create a series of tsunami footprints to help insurers understand their exposures at risk to tsunami inundation around the world.

  20. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Benchimol

    Full Text Available Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  1. Comprehensive capacitance-voltage analysis including quantum effects for high-k interfaces on germanium and other alternative channel materials (United States)

    Anwar, Sarkar R. M.

    High mobility alternative channel materials to silicon are critical to the continued scaling of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. However, before they can be incorporated into advanced devices, some major issues need to be solved. The high mobility materials suffer from lower allowable thermal budgets compared to Si (before desorption and defect formation becomes an issue) and the absence of a good quality native oxide has further increased the interest in the use of high-k dielectrics. However, the high interface state density and high electric fields at these semiconductor/high-k interfaces can significantly impact the capacitance-voltage (C-V) profile, and current C-V modeling software cannot account for these effects. This in turn affects the parameters extracted from the C-V data of the high mobility semiconductor/high-k interface, which are crucial to fully understand the interface properties and expedite process development. To address this issue, we developed a model which takes into account quantum corrections which can be applied to a number of these alternative channel materials including SixGe1-x, Ge, InGaAs, and GaAs. The C-V simulation using this QM correction model is orders of magnitude faster compared to a full band Schrodinger-Poisson solver. The simulated C-V is directly benchmarked to a self consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solution for each bulk semiconductor material, and from the benchmarking process the QM correction parameters are extracted. The full program, C-V Alternative Channel Extraction (CV ACE), incorporates a quantum mechanical correction model, along with the interface state density model, and can extract device parameters such as equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), doping density and flat band voltage (Vfb) as well as the interface state density profile using multiple measurements performed at different frequencies and temperatures, simultaneously. The program was used to analyze experimentally measured C-V profiles and the

  2. Hole mobility modulation of solution-processed nickel oxide thin-film transistor based on high-k dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ao; Liu, Guoxia, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zhu, Huihui; Shan, Fukai, E-mail:, E-mail: [College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Lab of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Shin, Byoungchul [Electronic Ceramics Center, DongEui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo [Department of Materials Science/CENIMAT-I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)


    Solution-processed p-type oxide semiconductors have recently attracted increasing interests for the applications in low-cost optoelectronic devices and low-power consumption complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. In this work, p-type nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) thin films were prepared using low-temperature solution process and integrated as the channel layer in thin-film transistors (TFTs). The electrical properties of NiO{sub x} TFTs, together with the characteristics of NiO{sub x} thin films, were systematically investigated as a function of annealing temperature. By introducing aqueous high-k aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gate dielectric, the electrical performance of NiO{sub x} TFT was improved significantly compared with those based on SiO{sub 2} dielectric. Particularly, the hole mobility was found to be 60 times enhancement, quantitatively from 0.07 to 4.4 cm{sup 2}/V s, which is mainly beneficial from the high areal capacitance of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric and high-quality NiO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. This simple solution-based method for producing p-type oxide TFTs is promising for next-generation oxide-based electronic applications.

  3. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji, E-mail:; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogawa, Shingo [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Toray Research Center Inc., 3-3-7 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-8567 (Japan); Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)


    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlO{sub x} and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO{sub 2}/AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlO{sub x} interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  4. Two methods of tuning threshold voltage of bulk FinFETs with replacement high-k metal-gate stacks (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Zhu, Huilong; Zhang, Yanbo; Xu, Qiuxia; Zhang, Yongkui; Qin, Changliang; Zhang, Qingzhu; Yin, Huaxiang; Xu, Hao; Chen, Shuai; Luo, Jun; Li, Chunlong; Zhao, Chao; Ye, Tianchun


    In this work, we propose two threshold voltage (VTH) tuning methods for bulk FinFETs with replacement high-k metal gate. The first method is to perform a vertical implantation into fin structure after dummy gate removal, self-aligned forming halo & punch through stop pocket (halo & PTSP) doping profile. The second method is to execute P+/BF2+ ion implantations into the single common work function (WF) layer in N-/P-FinFETs, respectively. These two methods have been investigated by TCAD simulations and MOS-capacitor experiments respectively, and then integrated into FinFET fabrication successfully. Experimental results show that the halo & PTSP doping profile can reduce VTH roll off and total variation. With P+/BF2+ doped WF layer, the VTH-sat shift -0.43 V/+1.26 V for N-FinFETs and -0.75 V/+0.11 V for P-FinFETs, respectively, with gate length of 500 nm. The proposed two methods are simple and effective for FinFET VTH tuning, and have potential for future application of massive production.

  5. Capacitance–voltage analysis of electrical properties for WSe2 field effect transistors with high-k encapsulation layer (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho Kyun; You, Min Youl; Jin, Jun-Eon; Choi, Miri; Cho, Jiung; Kim, Gyu-Tae


    Doping effects in devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials have been widely studied. However, detailed analysis and the mechanism of the doping effect caused by encapsulation layers has not been sufficiently explored. In this work, we present experimental studies on the n-doping effect in WSe2 field effect transistors (FETs) with a high-k encapsulation layer (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition. In addition, we demonstrate the mechanism and origin of the doping effect. After encapsulation of the Al2O3 layer, the threshold voltage of the WSe2 FET negatively shifted with the increase of the on-current. The capacitance–voltage measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) structure proved the presence of the positive fixed charges within the Al2O3 layer. The flat-band voltage of the MIS structure of Au/Al2O3/SiO2/Si was shifted toward the negative direction on account of the positive fixed charges in the Al2O3 layer. Our results clearly revealed that the fixed charges in the Al2O3 encapsulation layer modulated the Fermi energy level via the field effect. Moreover, these results possibly provide fundamental ideas and guidelines to design 2D materials FETs with high-performance and reliability.

  6. The fabrication and the reliability of poly-Si MOSFETs using ultra-thin high-K/metal-gate stack (United States)

    Lee, M. H.; Chen, K.-J.


    Poly-Si MOSFETs using a gate stack composed of ultra-thin HfSiOx and TiN are shown, and they are compatible with a monolithic three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-ICs) process with the highest thermal budget of 700 °C. The poly-Si MOSFETs were studied for fabrication process temperatures with parasitic resistance, effective gate length, and grain boundary trap density. The short-channel effect with VT (threshold voltage), subthreshold swing (SS), and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) was also compared at 650 °C and 700 °C. For stress reliability of both hot carrier and PBTI, the short-channel devices showed more stability in VT than the long-channel devices due to less grain boundary scattering. This study promotes the ultra-thin high-K/metal gate poly-Si MOSFET as a candidate for future monolithic 3D-ICs and silicon-on-glass (SOG) applications.

  7. A multi-task convolutional neural network for mega-city analysis using very high resolution satellite imagery and geospatial data


    Zhang, Fan; Du, Bo; Zhang, Liangpei


    Mega-city analysis with very high resolution (VHR) satellite images has been drawing increasing interest in the fields of city planning and social investigation. It is known that accurate land-use, urban density, and population distribution information is the key to mega-city monitoring and environmental studies. Therefore, how to generate land-use, urban density, and population distribution maps at a fine scale using VHR satellite images has become a hot topic. Previous studies have focused ...

  8. 2006–2015 mega-drought in the western USA and its monitoring from space data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan


    Full Text Available During 2014 and early 2015, scientific and online publications strongly focused on the multi-year drought over the western USA, showing its dramatic consequences for the US economy, environment and society. Considering such an extraordinary drought, many questions related to its beginning, duration, dynamics, intensity, genesis, extent and frequency became unanswered and even became controversial. How different is this current event from the extraordinary US drought of the 1930s and other intensive droughts? Can this drought be classified as a mega-drought? This paper attempts to answer most of these questions, by applying National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA global operational satellite system estimating vegetation health. It has been shown that the latest western US drought began in 2006 and has continued for nine full years. Since vegetation stress still continues in the first few months of 2015 (when this paper is written coming into the 10th year, this drought was classified as a “mega-drought”. In 2006, when the drought began, vegetation was stressed in over 61% of the western USA. During 2012 and 2013 (time of the drought's intensification, this area increased to 71% and 67%, respectively. All 17 states of the western two-thirds of the USA were affected by this drought, especially South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Montana and Wyoming with up to 100% of the area affected by severe vegetation stress during 2012–2014. Compared to other catastrophic droughts of the past 100 years, the current drought during the worst year (2012, affected 71.3% of the western USA. This is comparable to the area affected by a catastrophic drought in 1934 (71.6% and much higher than the droughts in 1956 (49% and 1988 (31%. In terms of number of drought years, the other droughts in the western USA (1985–1986, 1988–1992, 1995–1996, and 2001–2003 were shorter and less intensive. Among western states, California was the most

  9. [Therapeutic mega-ureter primitive before one year of life, retrospective study of 20years]. (United States)

    Picart, B; Pons, M; Line, A; François, C; Poli Merol, M-L


    What is the proper way to manage complicated primary mega-ureter in infants under the age of one. This has already been discussed in the literature but the controversy remains. Evaluate the long-term results of the management of mega-ureter based support under the age of one. Single-center retrospective study from 1990 to 2010. All children under one year found were evaluated including clinical examination, ultrasound, scintigraphy and cystography. They were divided into two groups: group 1: children operated on before the age of one year, group 2 non-operated or operated children after the age of one year. We analyzed the long-term evolution of these children on the following criteria: reflux, pyelonephritis, changes in dilation, renal function, need for surgical revision or secondary surgery, and impact on bladder function. In total, 54 patients were included in group 1 and 56 patients in group 2. In a median follow-up of 12 years. A total of 101 boys and 9 girls (sex-ratio 11.22). There were 57 left MUP (52%), 22 right (20%) and 31 bilateral (28%). A total of 71% of antenatal diagnosis. No difference on the emergence of complications: 25 (group 1) versus 31 (group 2) OR=0.69; 95% (0.307; 1.574); P=0.44. No difference between secondary surgery and revision surgery: group 1=12, group 2=22, OR=0.45; 95% CI (0.17, 1.09); P=0.06. No difference for daytime incontinence: OR=1.04; 95% CI (0.14; 7.64); P=0.67. Seventy-six children (69%) were finally made, 12 children operated twice (10.9%) and 34 children (31%) never made. The main challenge of the MUP of management is the preservation of renal function. Sixty-nine percent of our children received surgery due to impaired renal function lower than 30% of urethral dilatation greater than 10mm associated with reflux or recurrent pyelonephritis. Clinical monitoring, regular ultrasound and isotopic testing are necessary and should be extended to adulthood. 5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Normalizing data from GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS implementations at 3 Tesla. (United States)

    Harris, Ashley D; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Rowland, Laura M; Mikkelsen, Mark; Barker, Peter B; Evans, C John; Edden, Richard A E


    Standardization of results is an important milestone in the maturation of any truly quantitative methodology. For instance, a lack of measurement agreement across imaging platforms limits multisite studies, between-study comparisons based on the literature, and inferences based on and the generalizability of results. In GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS, two key sources of differences between implementations are: differences in editing efficiency of GABA and the degree of co-editing of macromolecules (MM). In this work, GABA editing efficiency κ and MM-co-editing μ constants are determined for three widely used MEGA-PRESS implementations (on the most common MRI platforms; GE, Philips, and Siemens) by phantom experiments. Implementation-specific κ,μ-corrections were then applied to two in vivo datasets, one consisted of 8 subject scanned on the three platforms and the other one subject scanned eight times on each platform. Manufacturer-specific κ and μ values were determined as: κGE=0.436, κSiemens=0.366 and κPhilips=0.394 and μGE=0.83, μSiemens=0.625 and μPhilips=0.75. Applying the κ,μ-correction on the Cr-referenced data decreased the coefficient of variation (CV) of the data for both in vivo data sets (multisubjects: uncorrected CV=13%, κ,μ-corrected CV=5%, single subject: uncorrected CV=23%, κ,μ-corrected CV=13%) but had no significant effect on mean GABA levels. For the water-referenced results, CV increased in the multisubject data (uncorrected CV=6.7%, κ,μ-corrected CV=14%) while it decreased in the single subject data (uncorrected CV=24%, κ,μ-corrected CV=21%) and manufacturer was a significant source of variance in the κ,μ-corrected data. Applying a correction for editing efficiency and macromolecule contamination decreases the variance between different manufacturers for creatine-referenced data, but other sources of variance remain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Micelle size modulation and phase behavior in MEGA-10/Triton X-100 mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naous, M., E-mail:; Molina-Bolívar, J.A.; Ruiz, C. Carnero, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The size of micelles was studied as a function of the micellar composition, NaCl addition and temperature. • Cloud point can be modulated by changing both micellar composition and NaCl addition. • The energetic quantities at the cloud point were evaluated and discussed. - Abstract: This paper reports the effect of temperature and NaCl addition on micelle size and phase behavior in mixtures of N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-10) and p-tert-octyl-phenoxy polyethylene (9.5) ether (Triton X-100 or TX100). The size of mixed micelles, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was found to increase with temperature but to be less pronounced at higher proportions of MEGA-10 in the solution. The cloud point was found to increase with an initial increase in the percentage of sugar-based surfactant in the mixture. This phase separation was sensitive to the presence of NaCl in the micellar solution, which induced a cloud point depression, thereby suggesting that the presence of electrolyte produces a marked alteration of the hydration layer of micelles. A thermodynamic analysis was performed assuming the clouding phenomenon to be a liquid–liquid phase-separation process. The resulting ΔG{sub CP}{sup 0} values were positive for all solutions. The cloud point process was exothermic in nature for the mixed micellar system, as proven by the negative value of ΔH{sub CP}{sup 0}. The process was more exothermic as the proportion of sugar-based surfactant in the mixed micelle increased (with and without NaCl in the solution). Furthermore, the negative values of ΔS{sub CP}{sup 0} indicate that the association of micelles in the clouding phenomenon is entropically unfavorable. It was observed from the enthalpy–temperature plots that the change in heat capacity is negative, thus indicating the important role played by dehydration in this thermodynamic process. This study found that the enthalpy–entropy compensation relationship holds for this

  12. Aspectos raciais dos "megas" e da cardiopatia na doença de Chagas crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu José Miziara


    Full Text Available O estudo de 724 pacientes chagásicos crônicos mostrou que a insuficiência cardíaca congestiva é mais freqüente e de aparecimento mais precoce nos pacientes de raça negra do que nos brancos. A ocorrência de "megas" foi ligeiramente inferior nos chagásicos negros não sendo estatisticamente significativa a diferença observada. A maior freqüência de insuficiência cardíaca nos pretos parece estar relacionada a características biológicas do tecido conjuntivo que condicionam uma resposta fibrosante mais acentuada no miocârdio agredido pela Tripanossomose. Estas observações estariam de acordo com outros estudos sobre a doença de Chagas que admitem ser a denervação o fator mais importante para o aparecimento dos "megas" e a inflamação com fibrose miocârdica acentuada um elemento básico para explicar a insuficiência cardíaca.The study of 724 patients with chronic chagas's disease showed that the cardiac faiture is more frequent and appears earlier in negroes patients when compared to white patients. The occurrence of "megas" was slightly lover in the negroes but the difference was not statisticaiiy significant. The higher frequency of cardiac faiture in the negrões seems to be caused by biological characteristics of the conective tissue which respond to trypanossomiasis with a more severe degree of fibrosis. These findings agree with other reports on Chagas's disease in which it is admitted that the "megas" are chiefly the result of dennervation and cardiac faiture is principally caused by infiammation with myocardial fibrosis.

  13. Quality of life of residents living in a city hosting mega-sport events: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Pfitzner, Rebecca; Koenigstorfer, Joerg


    It remains unknown whether and when the hosting of mega-sport events increases quality of life of host city residents. The aim of this study is to assess the changes in quality of life of host city residents over the course of hosting a mega-sport event until three months after the event, depending on residents' perception of the atmosphere during the event. The study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in soccer. Participants were recruited from a Brazilian market research agency's panel and surveyed online. The WHOQOL-BREF was used to measure quality of life of residents of Rio de Janeiro (n = 281) in three waves in the context of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Perceived atmosphere at the event was measured via an established scale. Piecewise latent growth models were used to analyze individual changes in the four domains of quality of life per se and depending on perceived atmosphere. There was no change in quality of life with respect to physical, social, psychological, and environmental health for all participants during the course of the event. However, residents who perceived a positive atmosphere rated the social and environmental domains of quality of life more positively right after the end (vs. at the beginning) of the World Cup. This increase sustained until three months after the event. Physical health (particularly at high levels of perceived atmosphere) and psychological health decreased from right after the event until three months after. There was no positive effect of the hosting of the mega-sport event on the four quality of life domains of the panel members (who were residents of a city hosting a mega-sport event) per se. The individual changes in quality of life vary by perception of atmosphere and by domain of quality of life.

  14. Impacts of Mega-droughts on Water and Food Security in the Indo-Gangetic Plains: A Paleoclimate Scenario Analysis (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Pitois, G.; Ringler, C.; Wang, D.; Rosegrant, M. W.


    Spanning over Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) is the home of several hundred million people and the "bread basket" for much of South Asia. The flat terrain, fertile soils, and favorable climate of the IGP make it agriculturally productive. However prolonged droughts caused by consecutive monsoon failures can seriously affect crop production and social wellbeing, in particular for the eastern part of the plains where agriculture remains largely rain-fed. Severe droughts were observed in the IGP historically, and recent paleoclimate studies reveal that more severe and long-lasting "mega-droughts" had happened in the distant past. Agricultural losses from major droughts can dramatically affect food systems and increase the vulnerability of resource-poor people given the delicate balance between food supply and demand under growing natural resource scarcity. To estimate the potential impacts of "mega-droughts" on the water and food systems in the IGP, we develop worst-case drought scenarios through inverse modeling of tree-ring-based PDSI reconstruction that covers the period 1300-1899 (A.D.), and analyze these historic mega-drought scenarios using IFPRI's IMPACT global water and food projections model. The base year of the IMPACT model is parameterized using socioeconomic and engineering data that reflect today's water management and infrastructure, agricultural technologies, population, income, and market institutions. The base year simulation is validated against observations to ensure model fidelity. Anticipated changes of the above factors in the future out to 2050 are specified using demographic and economic growth projections and literature data. Model simulation results represent the consequences of mega-droughts in the IGP given technological and socioeconomic conditions of today and in the future. We also explore policy options for increasing the resilience of water and food systems in the IGP, through scenario

  15. Soil heating during the complete combustion of mega-logs and broadcast burning in central Oregon USA pumice soils (United States)

    Jane E. Smith; Ariel D. Cowan; Stephen A. Fitzgerald


    The environmental effect of extreme soil heating, such as occurs with the complete combustion of large downed wood during wildfires, is a post-fire management concern to forest managers. To address this knowledge gap, we stacked logs to create ‘mega-log’ burning conditions and compared the temperature, duration and penetration of the soil heat pulse in nine high...

  16. Preliminary results for the use of knee mega-endoprosthesis in the treatment of musculoskeletal complications of haemophilia. (United States)

    Sunnassee, Y; Wan, R; Shen, Y; Xu, J; Southern, E P; Zhang, W


    Complications of haemophilia in the knee region are rare and difficult to treat. Use of surgical treatments such as total knee arthroplasty cannot satisfactorily restore knee function in patients with these complications, which include massive haemophilic pseudotumour, fracture around the knee and haemarthrosis. To analyse the postoperative results of patients suffering from complications of haemophilia and treated with a knee mega-endoprosthesis, to discuss and compare this type of surgical management with other types of treatments used in similar cases. We retrospectively analyse the surgical results of patients who were treated with a knee mega-endoprosthesis for complications of haemophilia. Three severe haemophilic arthritic knees, of which two were combined with femoral condylar fractures, were treated in a one-stage surgery, and another two knees which presented with massive haemophilic pseudotumours and bony defects were treated in a two-stage operation. Mean age at time of surgery was 28.5 years old and mean follow-up time was 22.8 months; the mega-endoprosthesis surgery was successfully performed in four cases and the mean range of motion increased from 29.5° preoperatively to 96.75° postoperatively. The Knee society score function score value increased from 25 to 82.5. One knee was amputated because of uncontrollable recurrent haemorrhage. Roentgenograms did not show any signs of loosening of the prostheses. Use of Mega-endoprosthesis in the treatment of complications of haemophilia can offer patients suffering from massive pseudotumours with bone defect, severe contracture knee haemophilic arthritis and fractures around a haemophilic knee a viable treatment option. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Perfil de colesterol de ovos comerciais e ovos enriquecidos com ácidos graxos polinsaturados ômega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourthé K.


    Full Text Available Determinou-se quantitativamente, por cromatografia gasosa, o teor colesterol de ovos enriquecidos com ácidos graxos polinsaturados ômega-3 e de ovos comuns disponíveis no mercado de Belo Horizonte/MG. Foram analisadas duas marcas de ovos comuns e duas de ovos enriquecidos com cinco repetições por amostragem. Não houve diferença entre os níveis de colesterol para os tipos de ovos estudados.

  18. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?


    Müller, Martin


    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  19. Silicon nanowires with high-k hafnium oxide dielectrics for sensitive detection of small nucleic acid oligomers. (United States)

    Dorvel, Brian R; Reddy, Bobby; Go, Jonghyun; Duarte Guevara, Carlos; Salm, Eric; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bashir, Rashid


    Nanobiosensors based on silicon nanowire field effect transistors offer advantages of low cost, label-free detection, and potential for massive parallelization. As a result, these sensors have often been suggested as an attractive option for applications in point-of-care (POC) medical diagnostics. Unfortunately, a number of performance issues, such as gate leakage and current instability due to fluid contact, have prevented widespread adoption of the technology for routine use. High-k dielectrics, such as hafnium oxide (HfO(2)), have the known ability to address these challenges by passivating the exposed surfaces against destabilizing concerns of ion transport. With these fundamental stability issues addressed, a promising target for POC diagnostics and SiNWFETs has been small oligonucleotides, more specifically, microRNA (miRNA). MicroRNAs are small RNA oligonucleotides which bind to mRNAs, causing translational repression of proteins, gene silencing, and expressions are typically altered in several forms of cancer. In this paper, we describe a process for fabricating stable HfO(2) dielectric-based silicon nanowires for biosensing applications. Here we demonstrate sensing of single-stranded DNA analogues to their microRNA cousins using miR-10b and miR-21 as templates, both known to be upregulated in breast cancer. We characterize the effect of surface functionalization on device performance using the miR-10b DNA analogue as the target sequence and different molecular weight poly-l-lysine as the functionalization layer. By optimizing the surface functionalization and fabrication protocol, we were able to achieve <100 fM detection levels of the miR-10b DNA analogue, with a theoretical limit of detection of 1 fM. Moreover, the noncomplementary DNA target strand, based on miR-21, showed very little response, indicating a highly sensitive and highly selective biosensing platform.

  20. Evaluation of an animal product-free variant of MegaCell MEM as a storage medium for corneas destined for transplantation. (United States)

    Smith, Valerie A; Johnson, Terrell


    The traditional medium for storing corneas in European Eye Banks is Gibco's MEM (Eagle's) with Earle's salts and Hepes containing 2% fetal calf serum, glutamine and antimycotics. Although serum-free MegaCell MEM has been reported to be more suitable for this purpose, it contains components of animal origin that potentially pose health risks to corneal recipients. The possibility of removing or replacing these components has therefore been investigated. A MegaCell basal medium (DME) and a formulation of this (MegaCell DCS), which contains no components of animal origin, have been prepared. The viability of the endothelial, epithelial and stromal cells of corneas held in these media has been assessed, their stress levels monitored and water content determined. The endothelial cell count and morphology of corneas held in MegaCell DME and DCS for 30 days remained little changed. Their epithelial and stromal cells also retained their ability to proliferate in culture. Neither DME nor DCS prevented corneal swelling but the lack of endogenous MMP-2 activation indicated that the corneas were not subject to metabolic stress. MegaCell DCS is an animal product-free medium formulated for corneal storage. The quality of corneas held in this medium is similar to those held in MegaCell MEM. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Communicating mega-projects in the face of uncertainties: Israeli mass media treatment of the Dead Sea Water Canal. (United States)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Cohen-Blankshtain, Galit; Shuali, Yoav; Boykoff, Max


    Given the potential for uncertainties to influence mega-projects, this study examines how mega-projects are deliberated in the public arena. The paper traces the strategies used to promote the Dead Sea Water Canal. Findings show that the Dead Sea mega-project was encumbered by ample uncertainties. Treatment of uncertainties in early coverage was dominated by economics and raised primarily by politicians, while more contemporary media discourses have been dominated by ecological uncertainties voiced by environmental non-governmental organizations. This change in uncertainty type is explained by the changing nature of the project and by shifts in societal values over time. The study also reveals that 'uncertainty reduction' and to a lesser degree, 'project cancellation', are still the strategies most often used to address uncertainties. Statistical analysis indicates that although uncertainties and strategies are significantly correlated, there may be other intervening variables that affect this correlation. This research also therefore contributes to wider and ongoing considerations of uncertainty in the public arena through various media representational practices. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. MegaSNPHunter: a learning approach to detect disease predisposition SNPs and high level interactions in genome wide association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are highly hypothesized to affect an individual's susceptibility to complex diseases. Although many works have been done to identify and quantify the importance of multi-SNP interactions, few of them could handle the genome wide data due to the combinatorial explosive search space and the difficulty to statistically evaluate the high-order interactions given limited samples. Results Three comparative experiments are designed to evaluate the performance of MegaSNPHunter. The first experiment uses synthetic data generated on the basis of epistasis models. The second one uses a genome wide study on Parkinson disease (data acquired by using Illumina HumanHap300 SNP chips. The third one chooses the rheumatoid arthritis study from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC using Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set. MegaSNPHunter outperforms the best solution in this area and reports many potential interactions for the two real studies. Conclusion The experimental results on both synthetic data and two real data sets demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms the best solution that is currently available in handling large-scale SNP data both in terms of speed and in terms of detection of potential interactions that were not identified before. To our knowledge, MegaSNPHunter is the first approach that is capable of identifying the disease-associated SNP interactions from WTCCC studies and is promising for practical disease prognosis.

  3. Solution-processed polymer-sorted semiconducting carbon nanotube network transistors with low-k /high-k bilayer polymer dielectrics (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Noh, Yong-Young


    Solution-processed semiconducting carbon nanotube transistors with a high mobility and an ON/OFF ratio are the most promising for use in flexible electronics. In this paper, we report low-k/high-k bilayer polymer dielectrics for solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (s-SWNT) field-effect transistors (s-SWNT-FETs) with efficient charge transport and operation at low voltage. Thin low-k polystyrene (10 nm) is used for the first contact insulator with a channel in order to passivate the dipolar disorder induced by high-k insulators. The second gate insulator for low voltage operation is cyanoethyl pullulan (CEP), which is an environmentally friendly high-k insulator based on cellulose. Moreover, poly[(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) is chosen as a single layer dielectric for comparison. A reasonably low operational voltage (insulator is of critical importance for efficient charge transport.

  4. Physical origin investigation of the flatband voltage roll off for metal-oxide-semiconductor device with high-k/metal gate structure (United States)

    Kai, Han; Xiaolei, Wang; Wenwu, Wang


    The physical origin of the flatband voltage (VFB) roll off for a metal-oxide-semiconductor device with high-k/metal gate structure is studied from the viewpoint of energy band alignment at the high-k/Si interface because the thickness of SiO2 interlayer is thin enough to be ignored. The VFB roll off phenomenon is assigned to associate with the direct electron transfer between high-k and Si substrate. Quantitatively calculated simulation results based on this model are given considering different conditions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404093, 50932001) and the Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Weifang University (No. 014BS02).

  5. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier


    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman—Gnatusuchus pebasensis—bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  6. Microbiota do megaesôfago e carcinogênese Megaesophagus microbiota and carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Pajecki


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O risco de desenvolvimento de carcinoma esofágico em portadores de megaesôfago é 33 vezes superior ao da população em geral. Possível explicação para este fenômeno poderia estar relacionada à produção de compostos N-nitrosos na luz do órgão, a partir da transformação de nitratos da dieta em nitritos, mediada por bactérias em suspensão no líquido de estase e com o contato crônico destes carcinógenos com a mucosa esofágica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a microbiota esofágica em pacientes portadores de megaesôfago de etiologia chagásica, com especial atenção para a presença de bactérias com capacidade de redução de nitratos. CASUÍSTICA: Foram estudados prospectivamente 15 pacientes portadores de megaesôfago chagásico com idades variando de 28 a 73 anos, sendo 9 do sexo feminino e 6 do sexo masculino, que foram divididos em 3 grupos iguais de 5, de acordo com o grau de dilatação do esôfago, segundo a classificação de Rezende et al. (Grau I, Grau II e Grau III. MÉTODO: A coleta do líquido de estase para estudo microbiológico era realizada através de sonda de Levine nº 14, que era passada pela boca, por dentro de uma cânula de intubação orotraqueal nº 7,5, mantendo-se sua extremidade escondida, a fim de evitar sua contaminação. RESULTADOS: Foram obtidas 93,3% de culturas positivas com grande variedade de microrganismos e predomínio de aeróbios Gram-positivos e anaeróbios. As concentrações de microrganismos foram tanto maiores, quanto maior o grau de dilatação do esôfago. Entre os microrganismos encontrados, o Staphylococcus sp, Corynebacterium sp, Peptostreptococcus sp e a Veillonella sp foram aqueles identificados como tendo a capacidade de redução de nitratos a nitritos. CONCLUSÃO: No megaesôfago chagásico há bactérias na luz do órgão com capacidade de redução de nitratos da dieta, passo importante na produção de compostos N-nitrosos.BACKGROUND: The risk of development of

  7. Satellite remote sensing of fine particulate air pollutants over Indian mega cities (United States)

    Sreekanth, V.; Mahesh, B.; Niranjan, K.


    In the backdrop of the need for high spatio-temporal resolution data on PM2.5 mass concentrations for health and epidemiological studies over India, empirical relations between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and PM2.5 mass concentrations are established over five Indian mega cities. These relations are sought to predict the surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from high resolution columnar AOD datasets. Current study utilizes multi-city public domain PM2.5 data (from US Consulate and Embassy's air monitoring program) and MODIS AOD, spanning for almost four years. PM2.5 is found to be positively correlated with AOD. Station-wise linear regression analysis has shown spatially varying regression coefficients. Similar analysis has been repeated by eliminating data from the elevated aerosol prone seasons, which has improved the correlation coefficient. The impact of the day to day variability in the local meteorological conditions on the AOD-PM2.5 relationship has been explored by performing a multiple regression analysis. A cross-validation approach for the multiple regression analysis considering three years of data as training dataset and one-year data as validation dataset yielded an R value of ∼0.63. The study was concluded by discussing the factors which can improve the relationship.

  8. Field measurements on spatial variations in aeolian sediment availability at the Sand Motor mega nourishment (United States)

    Hoonhout, Bas; de Vries, Sierd


    Spatial variations in aeolian sediment transport were measured at the Sand Motor mega nourishment in The Netherlands during a six week field campaign in the fall of 2014. A consistent significant increase in sediment transport in downwind direction (positive gradient) was measured over the intertidal beach area, indicating that the intertidal beach is a primary source of aeolian sediment, despite the high soil moisture contents. A small positive increase in transport in downwind direction was measured over the dry beach, indicating that local aeolian sediment supply was hampered. A consistent decrease in sediment transport in downwind direction (negative gradient) was measured at the transition between intertidal and dry beach, indicating local deposition of sediment. The negative gradients coincide with the berm edge and the onset of a shell pavement. Therefore deposition might be promoted by morphological feedback between a berm and the wind and the entrapment of sediment in the beach armor layer. The local sediment deposits cause the sediment supply to the dunes to be continued even during high water, resulting in a phased process. The influence of the beach armor layer reduces during storm events as the armor layer itself is being mobilized.

  9. Future summer mega-heatwave and record-breaking temperatures in a warmer France climate (United States)

    Bador, Margot; Terray, Laurent; Boé, Julien; Somot, Samuel; Alias, Antoinette; Gibelin, Anne-Laure; Dubuisson, Brigitte


    This study focuses on future very hot summers associated with severe heatwaves and record-breaking temperatures in France. Daily temperature observations and a pair of historical and scenario (greenhouse gas radiative concentration pathway 8.5) simulations with the high-resolution (∼12.5 km) ALADIN regional climate model provide a robust framework to examine the spatial distribution of these extreme events and their 21st century evolution. Five regions are identified with an extreme event spatial clustering algorithm applied to observed temperatures. They are used to diagnose the 21st century heatwave spatial patterns. In the 2070s, we find a simulated mega-heatwave as severe as the 2003 observed heatwave relative to its contemporaneous climate. A 20-member initial condition ensemble is used to assess the sensitivity of this future heatwave to the internal variability in the regional climate model and to pre-existing land surface conditions. Even in a much warmer and drier climate in France, late spring dry land conditions may lead to a significant amplification of summer extreme temperatures and heatwave intensity through limitations in evapotranspiration. By 2100, the increase in summer temperature maxima exhibits a range from 6 °C to almost 13 °C in the five regions in France, relative to historical maxima. These projections are comparable with the estimates given by a large number of global climate models.

  10. Properties of GPS noise at Japan islands before and after Tohoku mega-earthquake. (United States)

    Lyubushin, Alexey; Yakovlev, Pavel


    The field of 3-components GPS signals is analyzed for the network of 1203 stations at the Japanese islands from January 30 up to March 26, 2011. This time interval includes just over 40 days of observation before the Tohoku mega-earthquake on March 11, 2011 (M = 9.0) and nearly 16 days of observation following this event. The signals from each station are three-component time series with time step 30 minutes. We study the statistical properties of the random fluctuations of GPS signals before and after the seismic catastrophe after transition to increments. The values of wavelet-based spectral index for GPS noise components for each station were estimated separately for pieces of records before and after seismic event. The maps of the noise spectral index are constructed as the values for grid size of 50 × 50 nodes covering the region under study, based on information from 10 stations closest to each node. These maps clearly extract the region of future seismic catastrophe by relatively high noise spectral index. The using of principal components method distinguished this spatial anomaly more explicitly. These results support the hypothesis that statistical properties of random fluctuations of geophysical fields carry important information about earthquake preparation.

  11. Collaboration and Crisis in Mega Projects: A Study in Cross Corporate Culture Conflict and its Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smits


    Full Text Available Projects typically involve multiple partners coming together to form a temporary project organization that manages project execution. Partners begin their relationship with soaring aspirations to collaborate but as they move through the project’s various phases and they experience friction, especially those related to cultural clashes, their noble aspirations succumb to creeping, if not full blown, crisis. This, in turn, creates lost relationality and compromised execution. Thus, the question: How can project partners manage the integration of differing corporate cultures and work processes to produce the most effective and efficient outcomes?  Using the mega project of the Panama Canal Expansion Program, the authors explore how a multicultural project organization moved from dysfunctional relationality to synergistic, self-reinforcing, collaboration. A “Collabyrinth” (Smits, 2013 model explores how participants learned to collaborate in a holding environment saturated with layers of complex cultural difference.  The Collabyrinth is composed of six comingling elements: (1 Conflicting Conditions, (2 Submarining, (3 Seeking Consent, (4 Storytelling, (5 Crafting Reciprocal Relations, (6 Synergizing. Certain aspects of crisis management are employed to explain intra-collabyrinth dynamics. Those aspects are: (1 Coming of the Forerunners, (2 Acuteness in the Now, (3 Resolution Seeking, and (4 Constructing Relationality. Specific examples of the collabyrinth journey are provided and recommendations are made to harness the positive power of cross-corporate culture collaboration.

  12. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands. (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier


    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. The signature of the 2011 Tohoku mega earthquake on the geomagnetic field measurements in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Takla


    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, a mega earthquake (EQ with magnitude (Mw 9.0 [The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake] occurred at a depth of about 24 km near the East coast of Honshu Island, Japan as a result of a thrust faulting on or near the subduction plate boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Geomagnetic data from MAGDAS and Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI networks have been analyzed to examine the signature of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on the geomagnetic field measurements in Japan. Results of data analysis indicate about 5 nT increase in the total geomagnetic field intensity in the vicinity of the epicenter of 2011Tohoku EQ compared with other reference stations. Moreover, the annual range of the Z-component daily variations tends to decrease near the epicenter before the occurrence of the Tohoku EQ. Concerning the ULF emissions; the Pc 3 amplitude ratio (ZPc3/HPc3 near the epicenter at the Onagawa [ONW] station showed a good correlation with other remote reference stations before the Tohoku EQ but it started to decrease with no correlation to other stations a few weeks before the 2011 Tohoku EQ. On the other hand, the Pc 3 amplitude ratio at ONW station showed a clear anti-correlation compared with reference stations after the 2011 Tohoku EQ.

  14. Deep-Sea Mega-Epibenthic Assemblages from the SW Portuguese Margin (NE Atlantic Subjected to Bottom-Trawling Fisheries

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    Sofia P. Ramalho


    Full Text Available Bottom-trawling fisheries are a common threat to the health of continental margins worldwide. Together with numerous environmental and biological processes, physical disturbance induced by trawlers can largely shape the benthic habitats and their associated assemblages. At the SW Portuguese Margin, crustacean bottom trawlers have exploited deep-sea habitats for a few decades, but its effects on the benthic biodiversity are practically unknown. During the spring-summer of 2013 and 2014, several Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV video transects were used to investigate mega-epibenthic abundance, composition, and diversity in soft-sediment areas subjected to varying trawling pressures off Sines and Setúbal (200–800 m. Differences in mega-epibenthic assemblages were linked with environmental changes (depth, grain size, primary productivity and trawling disturbance. The effect of trawling was assessed between segments with similar habitat characteristics, i.e., muddy-sand bottoms between 300 and 500 m. Areas subjected to intensive trawling pressure showed a generally flattened seabed, with abundant recent trawl marks (up to 3 scars.100 m−1, indicating that the seabed physical integrity was compromised. Significant negative correlations were detected between various mega-epibenthic diversity indices [S, H′, and ET(20] and trawling pressure (h.cell−1.y−1. Furthermore, the distinct mega-epibenthic assemblages and absence of several sessile erect morphospecies at both low and highly disturbed locations by trawling off Sines, namely all seapen morphospecies found in non-trawled areas, demonstrates the negative influence of trawling fisheries on the benthic component of the study area. Also, low dissimilarity between assemblages from the main fishing grounds and the adjacent low-disturbance locations, suggests that the potentially negative influence of trawling can extend beyond the targeted areas (e.g., by the plumes of re-suspended sediments. The

  15. Comportamento do peso do coração e do corpo em chagásicos crônicos com e sem "megas"

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    Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida


    Full Text Available O peso do coração é menor nos chagásicos com "megas" do que nos falecidos subitamente ou em I.C.C., sendo, porém, maior que nos controles. Já o peso corporal ésemelhante nos chagásicos falecidos subitamente e nos controles, havendo redução moderada no grupo com I.C.C., e rtiais acentuada nos chagásicos com "megas" (redução de 20% em relação aos controles. A relação percentual peso cardíaco/peso corporal é de 1,1% no grupo com I.C.C.; 0,71% no grupo de morte súbita; 0,77% no grupo com "megas"; 0,49% no grupo controle e 0,60% ne grupo de doenças caquetizantes. Com base nas médias dos pesos cardíacos e corporal dos grupos controle, de doenças caquetizantes e de megas, calculou-se que o emagrecimento ocorrido nos megas reduziria o peso cardíaco médio de apenas 6,8%.Heart weight is less in chagasic patients with "mega" syndromes than in those which have died suddenly or with congestive heart failure, it is, however, greater than in the Controls. Body weight is similar in chagasic patients who have died suddenly and in the Controls, there is a moderate body weight reduction in the group with congestive heart failure, and a more accentuated reduction in chagasic patients with "mega" syndromes (a reduction of 20% in comparíson with the Controls. The relationship between heart - weight and body - weight, expressed as a percentage is 1,1% in the group with congestive heart failure; 0,71% in the group which died suddenly; 0.77% in the group with "mega" syndromes, 0.49% in the Controls group and 0.60% in the group with cachexia producing diseases. On the basis of mean heart - weights and body - weights of the control group, group with cachexia producing diseases and group with "mega" syndromes it was calculated that the emaciation which occurred in those with "mega"syndromes could reduce mean heart - weight by at least 6.8%.

  16. Simulation design of high reverse blocking high-K/low-K compound passivation AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diode with gated edge termination (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyuan; Du, Jiangfeng; Xin, Qi; Li, Ruonan; Yu, Qi


    In this paper, a novel high-K/low-K compound passivation AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode (CPG-SBD) is proposed to improve the off-state characteristics of AlGaN/GaN schottky barrier diode with gated edge termination (GET-SBD) by adding low-K blocks in to the high-K passivation layer. The reverse leakage current of CPG-SBD can be reduced to 1.6 nA/mm by reducing the thickness of high-K dielectric under GET region to 5 nm, while the forward voltage and on-state resistance keep 1 V and 3.8 Ω mm, respectively. Breakdown voltage of CPG-SBDs can be improved by inducing discontinuity of the electric field at the high-K/low-K interface. The breakdown voltage of the optimized CPG-SBD with 4 blocks of low-K can reach 1084 V with anode to cathode distance of 5 μm yielding a high FOM of 5.9 GW/cm2. From the C-V simulation results, CPG-SBDs induce no parasitic capacitance by comparison of the GET-SBDs.

  17. Age and origin of fluorapatite-rich dyke from Baranec Mt. (Tatra Mts., Western Carpathians: a key to understanding of the post-orogenic processes and element mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawęda Aleksandra


    Full Text Available On the southeastern slope of the Baranec Mount in the Western Tatra Mountains (Slovakia an apatite-rich pegmatite-like segregation was found in the subvertical fault zone cutting metapelitic rocks. Two zones: felsic (F and mafic (M were found, differing in mineral assemblages and consequently in chemistry. Fluorapatite crystals yield a LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 328.6 ± 2.4 Ma. A temperature decrease from 634 °C to 454 °C at a pressure around 500 to 400 MPa with oxygen fugacity increasing during crystallization are the possible conditions for formation of the pegmatite-like segregation, while secondary alterations took place in the temperature range of 340 – 320 °C. The Sr-Nd isotope composition of both apatite and whole rock point toward a crustal origin of the dike in question, suggesting partial melting of (P, F, H2O-rich metasedimentary rocks during prolonged decompression of the Tatra Massif. The original partial melt (felsic component was mixed with an external (F, H2O-rich fluid, carrying Fe and Mg fluxed from more mafic metapelites and crystallizing as biotite and epidote in the mafic component of the dyke.

  18. Underwater Dendrochronology of the Sierra Nevada: Testing the Medieval Mega-Drought Hypothesis (United States)

    Biondi, F.; Kleppe, J. A.; Brothers, D.; Kent, G.


    As stated in the NAS STR Report, "regional and large-scale reconstructions of changes in other climatic variables, such as precipitation, over the last 2,000 years would provide a valuable complement to those made for temperature." In this context, we focus on the 'Medieval Mega-drought Hypothesis', which is based on radiocarbon dating of dead trees and stumps found underwater in Sierra Nevada lakes and streambeds, and states that century-long dry periods caused lakes to retreat and streams to dry up, with the most recent mega-droughts happening during medieval times. While several paleoclimatic records support this hypothesis, some do not, and the possibility exists that geomorphic processes, such as landslides caused by seismic events, were responsible for the presence of trees and stumps under current bodies of water. Given the relevance of this hypothesis, not only for sustainable water management but also for social stability and security, it is necessary to test it beyond reasonable doubt. One way to do so is by measuring the location, orientation, and time of origin of underwater trees, to determine if they were transported or grew in situ. For example, during 2005 wood samples were retrieved from submerged trees at Fallen Leaf Lake, California. The trees had been previously located and documented using an ROV that can obtain high resolution color video, and collect small surface samples using a gripper, down to a water depth of about 150 m. For tree-ring dating, a reference chronology from AD 543 to 2003 was developed using live and dead western juniper trees located near the lake. One underwater sample, i.e. a branch cross section that included 69 rings, was then dated to AD 1085-1153. This shows that it is feasible to obtain calendar dates and continuous ring-width series from underwater trees in the Sierra Nevada. Submerged trees in Fallen Leaf Lake were mapped in summer 2006 using an EdgeTech 4200 side-scan system capable of decimeter resolution. The 5

  19. Leveraging the World Cup: Mega Sporting Events, Human Rights Risk, and Worker Welfare Reform in Qatar

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    Sarath Ganji


    Full Text Available Qatar will realize its decades-long drive to host a mega sporting event when, in 2022, the opening ceremony of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup commences. By that time, the Qatari government will have invested at least $200 billion in real estate and development projects, employing anywhere between 500,000 and 1.5 million foreign workers to do so. The scale of these preparations is staggering — and not necessarily positive. Between 2010 and 2013, more than 1,200 labor migrants working in Qatar’s construction sector died, with another 4,000 deaths projected by the start of the event. Foreign workers are subject to conditions of forced labor, human trafficking, and indefinite detention. Advocacy groups cite deplorable living and working conditions, coupled with lax legal protections for workers, as the main culprits. Absent significant improvements in worker welfare, Qatar’s World Cup will be remembered as a human rights tragedy.This article examines whether it is possible for Qatar’s World Cup to forge a different legacy, as an agent of change on behalf of worker welfare reform. In examining the issue, the article takes a two-fold approach. First, it locates the policy problem of worker welfare abuses in the context of the migration life cycle. The migration life cycle represents the range of activities that mediate the relationship between an individual migrant and the labor migration system — from the time the migrant first considers working overseas to his employment abroad to his eventual return to the home country. An understanding of worker welfare abuses in Qatar does not begin or end with reports of migrant deaths. A much broader pattern of abuse exists that, if ignored, will undermine effective policy responses.Second, the article frames worker welfare as a matter that lies at the intersection of business and human rights. Mega events are large-scale, internationally recognized activities

  20. Megamodeling and Metamodel-Driven Engineering for Plastic User Interfaces: MEGA-UI (United States)

    Sottet, Jean-Sébastien; Calvary, Gaelle; Favre, Jean-Marie; Coutaz, Jöelle

    Models are not new in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Consider all the Model-Based Interface Design Environments (MB-IDE) that emerged in the 1990s for generating User Interfaces (UI) from more abstract descriptions. Unfortunately, the resulting poor usability killed the approach, burying the models in HCI for a long time until new requirements sprung, pushed by ubiquitous computing (e.g., the need for device independence). These requirements, bolstered by the large effort expended in Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) by the Software Engineering (SE) community, have brought the models back to life in HCI. This paper utilizes both the know-how in HCI and recent advances in MDE to address the challenge of engineering Plastic UIs, i.e., UIs capable of adapting to their context of use (User, Platform, Environment) while preserving usability. Although most of the work has concentrated on the functional aspect of adaptation so far, this chapter focuses on usability. The point is to acknowledge the strength of keeping trace of the UI’s design rationale at runtime so as to make it possible for the system to reason about its own design when the context of use changes. As design transformations link together different perspectives on the same UI (e.g., user’s tasks and workspaces for spatially grouping items together), the paper claims for embedding a graph that depicts a UI from different perspectives at runtime while explaining its design rationale. This meets the notion of Megamodel as promoted in MDE. The first Megamodel was used to make explicit the relations between the core concepts of MDE: System, Model, Metamodel, Mapping, and Transformation. When transposed to HCI, the Megamodel gives rise to the notion of Mega-UI that makes it possible for the user (designer and/or end-user) to browse and/or control the system from different levels of abstraction (e.g., user’s tasks, workspaces, interactors, code) and different levels of genericity (e.g., model, metamodel

  1. Monitoring and modelling to support wastewater system management in developing mega-cities. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; McIntyre, Neil; Díaz-Granados, Mario; Quijano, Juan Pablo; Maksimović, Čedo


    Urban drainage system models can be useful to assess and manage system performance and to plan its development. However, due to data and computational costs, sophisticated, high-resolution contemporary models of the sewer system may not be applicable. This constraint is particularly marked in developing country mega-cities where catchments can be large, data tend to be scarce, and there are many unknowns, for example regarding sources, losses and wrong connections. This paper presents work undertaken over the last 7 years to develop a suitable monitoring and modelling framework to support operation and development of the wastewater system of Bogotá (Colombia). Components of the framework covered here are: (a) the flow and water quality database, (b) a wastewater pollution load generator, and (c) a semi-distributed sewer network model, which aims at a complexity that matches the information available from the previous two components. Results from a catchment within Bogotá, area 150 km(2) and with 2.5 million inhabitants, show that the model outputs capture the scale and dynamics of the observed concentrations and loads at various points on the sewer system. However uncertainty is high because much of variability of observed dry weather flow profiles is apparently random. Against this variability, the effects of in-sewer processes were not identifiable except where backwaters caused particularly high retention times. Hence the work has resulted in an operational model with a scientifically justified, yet useful, level of complexity for Bogotá. More generally, the work demonstrates the value of monitoring and modelling programmes, including having modellers actively involved in monitoring specification and operations; and the insights into suitable level of model complexity that may be gained by uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing the intraplate origin of mega-earthquakes at subduction margins

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    Prosanta K. Khan


    Full Text Available The disastrous Mw 9.3 (seismic moment 1.0×1030 dyn/cm earthquake that struck northwest Sumatra on 26 December 2004 and triggered ∼30 m high tsunami has rejuvenated the quest for identifying the forcing behind subduction related earthquakes around the world. Studies reveal that the strongest part (elastic core of the oceanic lithosphere lie between 20 and 60 km depth beneath the upper (∼7 km thick crustal layer, and compressive stress of GPa order is required to fail the rock-layers within the core zone. Here we present evidences in favor of an intraplate origin of mega-earthquakes right within the strong core part (at the interface of semi-brittle and brittle zone, and propose an alternate model exploring the flexing zone of the descending lithosphere as the nodal area for major stress accumulation. We believe that at high confining pressure and elevated temperature, unidirectional cyclic compressive stress loading in the flexing zone results in an increase of material yield strength through strain hardening, which transforms the rheology of the layer from semi-brittle to near-brittle state. The increased compressive stress field coupled with upward migration of the neutral surface (of zero stress fields under non-coaxial deformation triggers shear crack. The growth of the shear crack is initially confined in the near-brittle domain, and propagates later through the more brittle crustal part of the descending oceanic lithosphere in the form of cataclastic failure.

  3. Particle acceleration during merging-compression plasma start-up in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (United States)

    McClements, K. G.; Allen, J. O.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Irvine, S. W. A.; Marshall, O.; Robb, D.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Vann, R. G. L.


    Magnetic reconnection occurred during merging-compression plasma start-up in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST), resulting in the prompt acceleration of substantial numbers of ions and electrons to highly suprathermal energies. Accelerated field-aligned ions (deuterons and protons) were detected using a neutral particle analyser at energies up to about 20 keV during merging in early MAST pulses, while nonthermal electrons have been detected indirectly in more recent pulses through microwave bursts. However no increase in soft x-ray emission was observed until later in the merging phase, by which time strong electron heating had been detected through Thomson scattering measurements. A test-particle code CUEBIT is used to model ion acceleration in the presence of an inductive toroidal electric field with a prescribed spatial profile and temporal evolution based on Hall-MHD simulations of the merging process. The simulations yield particle distributions with properties similar to those observed experimentally, including strong field alignment of the fast ions and the acceleration of protons to higher energies than deuterons. Particle-in-cell modelling of a plasma containing a dilute field-aligned suprathermal electron component suggests that at least some of the microwave bursts can be attributed to the anomalous Doppler instability driven by anisotropic fast electrons, which do not produce measurable enhancements in soft x-ray emission either because they are insufficiently energetic or because the nonthermal bremsstrahlung emissivity during this phase of the pulse is below the detection threshold. There is no evidence of runaway electron acceleration during merging, possibly due to the presence of three-dimensional field perturbations.

  4. Petrology, 40Ar/39Ar age, Sr-Nd isotope systematics, and geodynamic significance of an ultrapotassic (lamproitic) dyke with affinities to kamafugite from the easternmost margin of the Bastar Craton, India (United States)

    Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Atiullah; Burgess, R.; Nanda, Purnendu; Choudhary, A. K.; Sahoo, Samarendra; Lehmann, B.; Chahong, Ngazipmi


    We report the mineralogy, bulk-rock geochemistry, 40Ar/39Ar (whole-rock) age and radiogenic (Sr and Nd) isotope composition of an ultrapotassic dyke from Sakri (Nuapada lamproite field) located at the tectonic contact between the easternmost margin of the Bastar craton and Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, India. The Sakri dyke has a mineralogy which strongly resembles a lamproite sensu stricto (viz.,Ti-rich phlogopite, Na-poor diopside, Fe-rich sanidine, ulvospinel trend and Sr-rich apatite). However, its bulk-rock major element geochemical characteristics (viz., extreme silica-undersaturated nature) resemble sensu lato kamafugite from Toro Ankole, Uganda, East African Rift, and Alto Paranaiba Province, Brazil. The Sakri dyke also displays certain compositional peculiarities (viz., high degree of evolution of mica composition from phlogopite to biotite, elevated titanium and aluminum in clinopyroxene and significantly lower bulk Mg#) when compared to the ultrapotassic rocks from various Indian cratons. 40Ar/39Ar dating gave a plateau age of 1045 ± 9 Ma which is broadly similar to that of other Mesoproterozoic (i) lamproites from the Bastar and Bundelkhand cratons, and (ii) kimberlites from the Eastern Dharwar craton. Initial bulk-rock Sr (0.705865-0.709024) and Nd (0.511063-0.511154) isotopic ratios reveal involvement of an `enriched' source region with long-term incompatible element enrichment and a depleted mantle (TDM) Nd model age of 2.56 Ga straddling the Archaean-Proterozoic chronostratigraphic boundary. The bulk-rock incompatible trace element ratios (Ta/Yb, Th/Yb, Rb/Ba and Ce/Y) of the Sakri ultrapotassic dyke negate any significant influence of crustal contamination. Small-degree melting (1 to 1.5 %) of a mixed garnet-facies and spinel-facies phlogopite lherzolite can account for its observed REE concentrations. Whereas the emplacement of the Sakri ultrapotassic dyke is related to the amalgamation of the supercontinent of Rodinia, its overlapping geochemical

  5. Ácidos graxos poliinsaturados ômega-3 e ômega-6: importância e ocorrência em alimentos Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: importance and occurrence in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Antunes Martin


    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados abrangem as famílias de ácidos graxos ômega-3 e ômega-6. Os ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos araquidônico e docosaexaenóico, desempenham importantes funções no desenvolvimento e funcionamento do cérebro e da retina. Esse grupo de ácidos graxos não pode ser obtido pela síntese de novo, mas pode ser sintetizado a partir dos ácidos linoléico e alfa-linolênico presentes na dieta. Neste artigo são considerados os principais fatores que podem inibir a atividade das enzimas dessaturases envolvidas na síntese dos ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa. São apresentadas as recomendações da razão ômega-6/ômega-3 na dieta, propostas em diversos países, sendo verificada a convergência para o intervalo de 4 a 5:1. São relacionados alimentos que podem contribuir para aumentar a ingestão do ácido alfa-linolênico e dos ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa. A essencialidade dos ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa é muito dependente do metabolismo do indivíduo, sendo que a razão n-6/n-3 da dieta exerce grande influência nesse sentido.Polyunsaturated fatty acids include the classes of fatty acids designated as omega-3 and omega-6. Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as arachidonic and docosahexaenoic have important roles in the development and functioning of the brain and retina. This group of fatty acids cannot be synthesized by de novo pathway, but can be formed from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid present in diet. In this article, the main factors that can inhibit desaturase enzymes activity involved in the synthesis of MLC-PUFAs are considered. Recommendations of omega-6/omega-3 ratio in diet proposed in several countries are presented, showing a coverage range from 4 to 5:1. Foods that are sources of alpha-linolenic acid and Very-long-chain are listed. The essentiality of Very-long-chain is very dependent of individual metabolism, and omega-6/omega-3 dietary ratio

  6. The antioxidant effect of Green Tea Mega EGCG against electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum of rats. (United States)

    Ahmed, Nawal A; Radwan, Nasr M; Aboul Ezz, Heba S; Salama, Noha A


    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals and changing the antioxidant defense systems of tissues, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Green tea has recently attracted significant attention due to its health benefits in a variety of disorders, ranging from cancer to weight loss. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EMR (frequency 900 MHz modulated at 217 Hz, power density 0.02 mW/cm 2 , SAR 1.245 W/kg) on different oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and striatum of adult rats. This study also extends to evaluate the therapeutic effect of green tea mega EGCG on the previous parameters in animals exposed to EMR after and during EMR exposure. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: EMR-exposed animals, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of EMR exposure, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG during EMR exposure and control animals. EMR exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum as evident from the disturbances in oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Co-administration of green tea mega EGCG at the beginning of EMR exposure for 2 and 3 months had more beneficial effect against EMR-induced oxidative stress than oral administration of green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of exposure. This recommends the use of green tea before any stressor to attenuate the state of oxidative stress and stimulate the antioxidant mechanism of the brain.

  7. The impact of mega-catastrophes on insurers: an exposure-based analysis of the U.S. homeowners' insurance market. (United States)

    Hagendorff, Bjoern; Hagendorff, Jens; Keasey, Kevin


    Insurance is a key risk-sharing mechanism that protects citizens and governments from the losses caused by natural catastrophes. Given the increase in the frequency and intensity of natural catastrophes over recent years, this article analyzes the performance effects of mega-catastrophes for U.S. insurance firms using a measure of market expectations. Specifically, we analyze the share price losses of insurance firms in response to catastrophe events to ascertain whether mega-catastrophes significantly damage the performance of insurers and whether different types of mega-catastrophes have different impacts. The main message from our analysis is that the impact of mega-catastrophes on insurers has not been too damaging. While the exact impact of catastrophes depends on the nature of the event and the degree of competition within the relevant insurance market (less competition allows insurers to recoup catastrophe losses through adjustments to premiums), our overall results suggest that U.S. insurance firms can adequately manage the risks and costs of mega-catastrophes. From a public policy perspective, our results show that insurance provides a robust means of sharing catastrophe losses to help reduce the financial consequences of a catastrophe event. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Comportamento do peso do coração e do corpo em chagásicos crônicos com e sem "megas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida


    Full Text Available O peso do coração é menor nos chagásicos com "megas" do que nos falecidos subitamente ou em I.C.C., sendo, porém, maior que nos controles. Já o peso corporal ésemelhante nos chagásicos falecidos subitamente e nos controles, havendo redução moderada no grupo com I.C.C., e rtiais acentuada nos chagásicos com "megas" (redução de 20% em relação aos controles. A relação percentual peso cardíaco/peso corporal é de 1,1% no grupo com I.C.C.; 0,71% no grupo de morte súbita; 0,77% no grupo com "megas"; 0,49% no grupo controle e 0,60% ne grupo de doenças caquetizantes. Com base nas médias dos pesos cardíacos e corporal dos grupos controle, de doenças caquetizantes e de megas, calculou-se que o emagrecimento ocorrido nos megas reduziria o peso cardíaco médio de apenas 6,8%.

  9. Using Noddy Cartoon to Improve the Writing Skill of the First Year Students of SMK Terpadu Mega Rezky Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novalia Talasy


    Full Text Available This research is conducted to find out: (1 whether or not the use of Noddy cartoon is effective in improving the writing skill of the first year students of SMK Terpadu Mega Rezky Makassar and (2 the attitude of the first year students of SMK Terpadu Mega Rezky Makassar toward the use of Noddy cartoon in improving their writing skill. The research employs quasi-experimental method with two groups namely control and experimental groups. Each group consists of 30 students. The sample is chosen by applying cluster random sampling technique. The writer uses a test of writing and questionnaire in experimental group. The data obtained through the test is analyzed by using inferential statistic through SPSS version 22.0 program. The Likert-scale is used to analyze data of the student’s response to the questionnaire. In conducting the research, the writer applies Noddy cartoon episodes as the medium in improving the students’ writing skill. The result of this research shows that the use of Noddy cartoon is effective in improving the writing skill achievements of the first year students of SMK Terpadu Mega Rezky Makassar. It is indicated by the significant difference between the result of post-test in the experimental and control groups. The mean score of post-test in the experimental group is 76.77, which is higher than the mean score of post-test in the control group which is only 65.97. Furthermore, the data that are collected from the questionnaire show that the students have positive attitude towards the use of Noddy cartoon in learning writing, which is in scale of 83.20 or categorized as positive.

  10. Defining a quantitative framework for evaluation and optimisation of the environmental impacts of mega-event projects. (United States)

    Parkes, Olga; Lettieri, Paola; Bogle, I David L


    This paper presents a novel quantitative methodology for the evaluation and optimisation of the environmental impacts of the whole life cycle of a mega-event project: construction and staging the event and post-event site redevelopment and operation. Within the proposed framework, a mathematical model has been developed that takes into account greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from use of transportation fuel, energy, water and construction materials used at all stages of the mega-event project. The model is applied to a case study - the London Olympic Park. Three potential post-event site design scenarios of the Park have been developed: Business as Usual (BAU), Commercial World (CW) and High Rise High Density (HRHD). A quantitative summary of results demonstrates that the highest GHG emissions associated with the actual event are almost negligible compared to those associated with the legacy phase. The highest share of emissions in the legacy phase is attributed to embodied emissions from construction materials (almost 50% for the BAU and HRHD scenarios) and emissions resulting from the transportation of residents, visitors and employees to/from the site (almost 60% for the CW scenario). The BAU scenario is the one with the lowest GHG emissions compared to the other scenarios. The results also demonstrate how post-event site design scenarios can be optimised to minimise the GHG emissions. The overall outcomes illustrate how the proposed framework can be used to support decision making process for mega-event projects planning. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of sports mega-events on health and environmental rights in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Vilani, Rodrigo Machado; Machado, Carlos José Saldanha


    The aim of this study is to discuss the contradictions of the Olympic Games legacy for health and environment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Public policies for sports mega-events have been criticized for contributing to and deepening the city's historical socio-spatial inequalities. Based on document research and data analysis, the article focused on establishing a proposal for a sustainable city, as provided in Law 10,257/2001, the so-called City's Statute. The article concludes with remarks on Olympic urban planning, its market orientation, and failures to overcome public health and environmental sanitation problems that will persist as a legacy after 2016.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Cieplak


    Full Text Available The article shows a case study of Cloud Computing model combined with AT-Mega microcontrollers for educational purposes. The presented system takes advantage of many aspects of Internet of Things model, thus conjoining Cloud Management system with measurement-execution module based on Arduino platform. One benefit of this solution is a cost-effective way of showcasing machine and device integration with distinct cloud services. This article is based on practical experience with students' projects and an home alarm system with use of a Cloud Computing services will be described.

  13. Perfil de colesterol de ovos comerciais e ovos enriquecidos com ácidos graxos polinsaturados ômega-3


    Mourthé K.; Martins R.T.


    Determinou-se quantitativamente, por cromatografia gasosa, o teor colesterol de ovos enriquecidos com ácidos graxos polinsaturados ômega-3 e de ovos comuns disponíveis no mercado de Belo Horizonte/MG. Foram analisadas duas marcas de ovos comuns e duas de ovos enriquecidos com cinco repetições por amostragem. Não houve diferença entre os níveis de colesterol para os tipos de ovos estudados.Two kinds of table eggs, normal and omega-3 enriched, available in the commerce of Belo Horizonte, Brazil...

  14. Violência familiar: obesidade mórbida e função ômega


    Maria do Carmo Cintra de Almeida-Prado; Terezinha Féres-Carneiro


    Este estudo objetiva explorar aspectos psicológicos de obesos mórbidos e se baseia em treze casos atendidos em avaliação psicodiagnóstica. Para este trabalho, foram utilizadas suas histórias de vida, conforme relatadas por eles durante as entrevistas. O material coletado foi analisado a partir do referencial psicanalítico. Conclui-se que a obesidade mórbida é uma patologia dos estados-limite, que diz respeito ao ômega somático, em que há perturbações na continência psíquica e nos processos de...

  15. Festifavelisation: mega-events, slums and strategic city-staging – the example of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbrink, Malte


    Full Text Available Mega-events are increasingly often taking place in countries of the Global South. In the socio-spatially deeply fragmented host cities these spectacles encompass extremely transformative urban processes. This paper will consider the festivalisation of Rio de Janeiro in the preparatory phase of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics. It focuses on the urban policy in relation to how Rio deals with its favelas. The aim of the article is to critically assess current measures of ‘invisibilisation’, ‘pacification’, ‘beautification’ and ‘touristic staging’ of favelas against the backdrop of the upcoming events.

  16. A threshold-voltage model for small-scaled GaAs nMOSFET with stacked high-k gate dielectric (United States)

    Chaowen, Liu; Jingping, Xu; Lu, Liu; Hanhan, Lu; Yuan, Huang


    A threshold-voltage model for a stacked high-k gate dielectric GaAs MOSFET is established by solving a two-dimensional Poisson's equation in channel and considering the short-channel, DIBL and quantum effects. The simulated results are in good agreement with the Silvaco TCAD data, confirming the correctness and validity of the model. Using the model, impacts of structural and physical parameters of the stack high-k gate dielectric on the threshold-voltage shift and the temperature characteristics of the threshold voltage are investigated. The results show that the stacked gate dielectric structure can effectively suppress the fringing-field and DIBL effects and improve the threshold and temperature characteristics, and on the other hand, the influence of temperature on the threshold voltage is overestimated if the quantum effect is ignored. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176100).

  17. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, John E.


    -dielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high- k waves...... and explore the range of parameteres for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for materials with hyperbolic dispersion. The approach is applicable to a large variety of structures, such as continuous or structured microwave, terahertz, and optical metamaterials.......We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wave-vector (high- k ) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in subwavelength periodic multilayer structures. Describing the elementary excitation in the unit cell...

  18. Pentacene based thin film transistors with high-k dielectric Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, R.; Saikia, D. [J B College, Jorhat, Assam (India). Dept. of Physics. Thin Film Lab.; Saikia, Puja; Saikia, P.K.; Baishya, B., E-mail: [Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam (India)


    We have investigated the pentacene based Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) with high-k dielectric Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Use of high dielectric constant (high-k) gate insulator Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} reduces the threshold voltage and sub threshold swing of the OTFTs. The calculated threshold voltage -2.2V and sub-threshold swing 1V/decade, current ON-OFF ratio is 1.7 X 10{sup 4} and mobility is 0.13cm{sup 2}/V.s. Pentacene film is deposited on Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface using two step deposition method. Deposited pentacene film is found poly crystalline in nature. (author)

  19. The State of Ambient Air Quality of a Mega City in Southeast Asia (Karachi, Pakistan) (United States)

    Khwaja, H. A.; Hussain, M. M.; Naqvi, I.; Malik, A.; Siddiqui, S. A.; Khan, A.


    Outdoor air pollution is a serious public health problem. Studies indicate that in recent years exposure levels have increased considerably in some parts of the world, particularly in developing countries of Asia with large populations. Simultaneous measurements of PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants NO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , HONO, HNO3, HF, and HCl were carried out in the city of Karachi. This is the first systematic study of this kind carried out in a mega city of Pakistan. Mean concentration of PM2.5 was 186 µg/m3. Concentrations of NO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , HONO , HNO3, HF, and HCl varied from 8.6 - 194 ppb, 15.7 - 131 ppb, 7.9 - 60 ppb, 5.0 - 218 ppb, 0.05 - 6.6 ppb, 0.1 - 10.8 ppb, 0.1 - 2.8 ppb, and 0.3 - 568 ppb, respectively. Daily patterns were observed. The 24 h mean PM2.5 on weekdays was significantly higher than the weekend value, indicating that vehicular pollution is one of the important source of PM2.5. The diurnal variations of both NO and NO2 showed higher concentrations during morning and evening rush-hours and lower concentrations at night, indicating that vehicular traffic is the principal source of NOx . Peak HONO concentration of 6.6 ppb was observed in the morning hours. The highest SO2 , HNO3 , HF, and HCl values occurred during the daytime when general pollution levels, particularly those of suspended particulate matter, were also high. Concentrations of O3 are observed to increase during the daytime, consistent with its formation by photochemical reactions. The present findings are compared with similar measurements worldwide. Results have demonstrated that WHO air quality standard for PM2.5 (20 µg/m3) were exceeded by a factor of 5 - 13. Concentrations of NO2 , SO2 and O3 were found to be significantly higher than the WHO air quality guidelines. The reported high levels were attributed to vehicular traffic and industrial activity. It has been concluded that air pollution levels in Karachi are extremely high and can be considered an alarming indicator

  20. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a South Asian Mega City: A case study of Karachi (United States)

    Shahid, imran


    Pakistan is facing unabated air pollution as a major issue and its cities are more vulnerable as compared to urban centers in the developed world. During the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, transportation and other human activities. In year June 2015 heat wave in largest South Asian mega city Karachi more than 1500 people died in one week. Unfortunately no air quality monitoring system is operation in any city of Pakistan. There is a sharp increase in both the variety and quantity of air pollutants and their corresponding sources. In this study contributions of different sources to particulate matter concentration has estimated in urban area of Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were measured in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March - April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). Average concentrations of PM2.5 were 75μg/m3 and of PM10 437μg/m3. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and „siliceous dust" were the overall dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. 20 Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC+OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in 22 PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC+OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. Of secondary inorganic constituents (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity to PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to

  1. Earthquake forecasting test for Kanto district to reduce vulnerability of urban mega earthquake disasters (United States)

    Yokoi, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nanjo, K.; Hirata, N.


    Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is a global project on earthquake predictability research. The final goal of this project is to search for the intrinsic predictability of the earthquake rupture process through forecast testing experiments. The Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo joined CSEP and started the Japanese testing center called as CSEP-Japan. This testing center provides an open access to researchers contributing earthquake forecast models applied to Japan. Now more than 100 earthquake forecast models were submitted on the prospective experiment. The models are separated into 4 testing classes (1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years) and 3 testing regions covering an area of Japan including sea area, Japanese mainland and Kanto district. We evaluate the performance of the models in the official suite of tests defined by CSEP. The total number of experiments was implemented for approximately 300 rounds. These results provide new knowledge concerning statistical forecasting models. We started a study for constructing a 3-dimensional earthquake forecasting model for Kanto district in Japan based on CSEP experiments under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters. Because seismicity of the area ranges from shallower part to a depth of 80 km due to subducting Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate, we need to study effect of depth distribution. We will develop models for forecasting based on the results of 2-D modeling. We defined the 3D - forecasting area in the Kanto region with test classes of 1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years, and magnitudes from 4.0 to 9.0 as in CSEP-Japan. In the first step of the study, we will install RI10K model (Nanjo, 2011) and the HISTETAS models (Ogata, 2011) to know if those models have good performance as in the 3 months 2-D CSEP-Japan experiments in the Kanto region before the 2011 Tohoku event (Yokoi et al., in preparation). We use CSEP

  2. Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records (United States)

    Buckley, B. M.


    The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldês most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is

  3. Design of high breakdown voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with high-K/low-K compound dielectric structure for power electronics applications (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Zhenchao; Liu, Dong; Bai, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi


    In this work, a vertical GaN p-n diode with a high-K/low-K compound dielectric structure (GaN CD-VGD) is proposed and designed to achieve a record high breakdown voltage (BV) with a low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). By introducing compound dielectric structure, the electric field near the p-n junction interface is suppressed due to the effects of high-K passivation layer, and a new electric field peak is induced into the n-type drift region, because of a discontinuity of electrical field at the interface of high-K and low-K layer. Therefore the distribution of electric field in GaN p-n diode becomes more uniform and an enhancement of breakdown voltage can be achieved. Numerical simulations demonstrate that GaN CD-VGD with a BV of 10650 V and a Ron,sp of 14.3 mΩ cm2, resulting in a record high figure-of-merit of 8 GW/cm2.

  4. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Marie Bas-Hoogendam


    An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174 and healthy control (HC-participants (n = 213 using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA Consortium.

  5. Análisis general del mega-deslizamiento Ortiga-Potrerillos, Acosta, San José, Costa Rica

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    Madrigal Mora, Julio


    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece un acercamiento a los antecedentes y características del mega-deslizamiento Ortiga-Potrerillos, producido en el cantón de Acosta. Realiza una descripción general de la amenaza y la vulnerabilidad de la zona, desde un enfoque mayormente geológico. Identifica algunos de los problemas suscitados en el sitio del deslizamiento. Proporciona un análisis de la condición de la ruta 209, que une las comunidades Aserrí - Acosta y la cual se ve afectada por las condiciones del terreno. Por último, presenta unas observaciones finales a modo de conclusiones The article approaches the background and characteristics of the mega-landslide at Ortiga-Potrerillos, in Acosta. It provides a general description of the threat and vulnerability of the zone, mainly from a geological focus. It identifies some of the problems generated in the area due to the landslide. It provides an analysis in the condition of route 209, that unites the communities of Aserrí - Acosta and that is affected by the terrain conditions. Lastly, it presents final observations as conclusions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Neide Coriolano


    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza territorios solidarios de turismo comunitario en países de América Latina como un contrapunto al turismo convencional, de los mega emprendimientos transnacionales. Cambios en el modelo socioeconómico con movimientos de resistencia a la supuesta hegemonía de los países ricos, superposiciones de  megaempresas a la de pequeña escala, en relación al turismo global, convencional, dedicado a los mega emprendimientos vinculados con la especulación inmobiliaria. Verifica como países fortalecen territorios de economías solidarias, comunitarias. Como se crean sinergias, socialización de conocimientos en territorios como una forma de reducir las disparidades espaciales y las desigualdades sociales. Identifica experiencias con referencia de políticas de inclusión social, que promueven pequeñas ciudades, barrios, suburbios y comunidades, mitigan distancias entre ricos y pobres. Articulaciones entre aspectos políticos e institucionales para gestiones participativas y estrategias como cuestiones ambientales y de sostenibilidad socio-económica y desarrollo de comunidades que buscan soluciones económicas y sociales por el turismo, en América Latina.

  7. Aspectos raciais dos "megas" e da cardiopatia na doença de Chagas crônica

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    Lineu José Miziara


    Full Text Available O estudo de 724 pacientes chagásicos crônicos mostrou que a insuficiência cardíaca congestiva é mais freqüente e de aparecimento mais precoce nos pacientes de raça negra do que nos brancos. A ocorrência de "megas" foi ligeiramente inferior nos chagásicos negros não sendo estatisticamente significativa a diferença observada. A maior freqüência de insuficiência cardíaca nos pretos parece estar relacionada a características biológicas do tecido conjuntivo que condicionam uma resposta fibrosante mais acentuada no miocârdio agredido pela Tripanossomose. Estas observações estariam de acordo com outros estudos sobre a doença de Chagas que admitem ser a denervação o fator mais importante para o aparecimento dos "megas" e a inflamação com fibrose miocârdica acentuada um elemento básico para explicar a insuficiência cardíaca.

  8. Identification of mega-environments and rice genotypes for general and specific adaptation to saline and alkaline stresses in India. (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, S L; Sharma, P C; Sharma, D K; Ravikiran, K T; Singh, Y P; Mishra, V K; Burman, D; Maji, B; Mandal, S; Sarangi, S K; Gautam, R K; Singh, P K; Manohara, K K; Marandi, B C; Padmavathi, G; Vanve, P B; Patil, K D; Thirumeni, S; Verma, O P; Khan, A H; Tiwari, S; Geetha, S; Shakila, M; Gill, R; Yadav, V K; Roy, S K B; Prakash, M; Bonifacio, J; Ismail, Abdelbagi; Gregorio, G B; Singh, Rakesh Kumar


    In the present study, a total of 53 promising salt-tolerant genotypes were tested across 18 salt-affected diverse locations for three years. An attempt was made to identify ideal test locations and mega-environments using GGE biplot analysis. The CSSRI sodic environment was the most discriminating location in individual years as well as over the years and could be used to screen out unstable and salt-sensitive genotypes. Genotypes CSR36, CSR-2K-219, and CSR-2K-262 were found ideal across years. Overall, Genotypes CSR-2K-219, CSR-2K-262, and CSR-2K-242 were found superior and stable among all genotypes with higher mean yields. Different sets of genotypes emerged as winners in saline soils but not in sodic soils; however, Genotype CSR-2K-262 was the only genotype that was best under both saline and alkaline environments over the years. The lack of repeatable associations among locations and repeatable mega-environment groupings indicated the complexity of soil salinity. Hence, a multi-location and multi-year evaluation is indispensable for evaluating the test sites as well as identifying genotypes with consistently specific and wider adaptation to particular agro-climatic zones. The genotypes identified in the present study could be used for commercial cultivation across edaphically challenged areas for sustainable production.

  9. Tsunami simulations of mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough (Japan) based on stochastic rupture scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Goda, Katsuichiro


    In this study, earthquake rupture models for future mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai subduction zone are developed by incorporating the main characteristics of inverted source models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. These scenario ruptures also account for key features of the national tsunami source model for the Nankai–Tonankai earthquake by the Central Disaster Management Council of the Japanese Government. The source models capture a wide range of realistic slip distributions and kinematic rupture processes, reflecting the current best understanding of what may happen due to a future mega-earthquake in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough, and therefore are useful for conducting probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk analysis. A large suite of scenario rupture models is then used to investigate the variability of tsunami effects in coastal areas, such as offshore tsunami wave heights and onshore inundation depths, due to realistic variations in source characteristics. Such investigations are particularly valuable for tsunami hazard mapping and evacuation planning in municipalities along the Nankai–Tonankai coast.

  10. Does living in slums or non-slums influence women's nutritional status? Evidence from Indian mega-cities. (United States)

    Gaur, Kirti; Keshri, Kunal; Joe, William


    This article examines the intra-city distribution of women's nutritional status across eight Indian mega-cities with a specific focus on slum-non-slum divide. The analysis is based on the National Family Health Survey (2005-06) of India and highlights the dual burden of malnutrition among urban women. The results show that one in every two women in mega-cities is malnourished (either undernourished or overnourished), but a biased, analytical focus on citywide averages conceals the nature of the problem. Overnutrition among women is notably higher in non-slum areas whereas underweight persists as a key concern among slum dwellers. Cities located in the Central India (Nagpur and Indore) have the highest proportion of underweight women whereas the cities in South India (Chennai and Hyderabad) show a high prevalence of overweight women across both slum and non-slum areas. The intensity of income-related inequalities in underweight outcome is much greater for non-slum areas, whereas inequalities in overweight outcomes are higher among slums. Furthermore, regression analysis indicates that place of residence as such has no significant impact on women's nutritional status and that this elementary association is primarily a ramification mediated through other key socioeconomic correlates. Results suggest that, it would be rational to develop a comprehensive urban nutritional plan that focuses on dietary planning and behaviour change to address both type of malnutrition at the same time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Age, petrology and geochemistry of carbonate-dykes and related clinopyroxenite xenoliths from the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (Italy/Switzerland): evidence of Jurassic carbonatite formation by liquid immiscibility (United States)

    Galli, Andrea; Grassi, Daniele; Sartori, Gino


    In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ, Italy/Switzerland) the deepest portion of the continental crust is exposed. Its geological evolution has been largely controlled by both Permian underplating of mantle-derived basic magmas and Mesozoic alkaline intrusions into the high-grade basement of the Southern Alps. Widespread in the IVZ, up to 40 m thick, zircon-bearing carbonate-dykes occur. The dykes are mostly composed of calcite with subordinate clinopyroxene and amphibole, show sharp intrusive contacts to the host rocks and typically contain rounded or angular, up to 2 meter large phlogopite-amphibole-apatite-rutile-ilmenite ± garnet, corundum or spinel clinopyroxenite xenoliths. Carbonate-dykes shows an enrichment of LREE over HREE ((La/Yb)N = 14), with a Σ REE = 95-115 ppm and Y/Ho = 26-33. On the chondrite-normalized REE abundances diagram, no Eu anomaly is observed. Mantle-normalized pattern shows strong negative anomalies at Cs, Rb, K, Pb, P, Zr, Hf and Ti and positive Ba, Th, Sr, Nd anomalies, similarly to the "world average carbonatite" composition. Measured absolute trace element concentrations are lower than average carbonatites but significantly higher than limestones and similar to typical cumulate carbonatites. Grt-bearing clinopyroxenite enclave have a XMg of 0.50, K2O + Na2O of 1.01 and are rich in TiO2 (3.40 wt%) and P2O5 (0.93 wt%). Grt-free clinopyroxenites show higher XMg values of 0.61-0.73 and are alkali, TiO2 and P2O5 poorer (K2O + Na2O of 0.21-0.59 wt%, TiO2 of 1.16-2.72 wt% and P2O5 element diagram, the enclave display a nearly antithetic pattern in respect to the enclosing carbonates, with positive anomalies at Cs, Rb, U, Pb, Zr, Hf, Ti and negative anomalies at Ba, Th, Sr and Nd. Melt composition calculated from carbonate composition using partitioning coefficients between carbonatite and silicate melts reproduces the trace element patterns displayed by the pyroxenite xenoliths. This suggests that carbonate-dykes and enclosed clinopyroxenites

  12. Textural, mineralogical and stable isotope studies of hydrothermal alteration in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe and the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion, Minnesota, USA (United States)

    Li, C.; Ripley, E.M.; Oberthur, T.; Miller, J.D.; Joslin, G.D.


    Stratigraphic offsets in the peak concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) and base-metal sulfides in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke and the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion have, in part, been attributed to the interaction between magmatic PGE-bearing base-metal sulfide assemblages and hydrothermal fluids. In this paper, we provide mineralogical and textural evidence that indicates alteration of base-metal sulfides and mobilization of metals and S during hydrothermal alteration in both mineralized intrusions. Stable isotopic data suggest that the fluids involved in the alteration were of magmatic origin in the Great Dyke but that a meteoric water component was involved in the alteration of the Sonju Lake Intrusion. The strong spatial association of platinum-group minerals, principally Pt and Pd sulfides, arsenides, and tellurides, with base-metal sulfide assemblages in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke is consistent with residual enrichment of Pt and Pd during hydrothermal alteration. However, such an interpretation is more tenuous for the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion where important Pt and Pd arsenides and antimonides occur as inclusions within individual plagioclase crystals and within alteration assemblages that are free of base-metal sulfides. Our observations suggest that Pt and Pd tellurides, antimonides, and arsenides may form during both magmatic crystallization and subsolidus hydrothermal alteration. Experimental studies of magmatic crystallization and hydrothermal transport/deposition in systems involving arsenides, tellurides, antimonides, and base metal sulfides are needed to better understand the relative importance of magmatic and hydrothermal processes in controlling the distribution of PGE in mineralized layered intrusions of this type. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  13. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito


    Full Text Available Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM. The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of bioavailable iron (Fe into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia.

    Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (>30° N latitude over a 5-yr period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001–2005 (13–49 × 103 km2 yr−1 which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO (14–81 Tg CO y−1. Satellite observations of CO column from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. The model results for CO enhancements due to eastern Siberian fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These validation results suggest that the model using emission rates estimated in this work is able to describe the interannual changes in CO due to intense forest fires.

    Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources by anthropogenic pollutants (mainly sulfuric acid formed

  14. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean (United States)

    Ito, A.


    Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of bioavailable iron (Fe) into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (>30° N latitude) over a 5-yr period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001-2005 (13-49 × 103 km2 yr-1) which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) (14-81 Tg CO y-1). Satellite observations of CO column from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. The model results for CO enhancements due to eastern Siberian fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These validation results suggest that the model using emission rates estimated in this work is able to describe the interannual changes in CO due to intense forest fires. Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources by anthropogenic pollutants (mainly sulfuric acid formed from oxidation of SO2) and from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources

  15. The bidding paradox: why economists, consultants and politicians disagree on the economic effects of mega sports events but might agree on their attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.R.; de Nooij, M.


    The ambition to host mega sports events is (or can be) perfectly justifiable with various arguments. The most persistently used argument is the supposed financial or direct economic gain for the host economy, of which the compelling body of evidence is discouraging. This implies that the

  16. Semi-Automated Monitoring of a Mega-Scale Beach Nourishment Using High-Resolution TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebroek, Elena; Lindenbergh, R.C.; van Leijen, F.J.; de Schipper, M.A.; de Vries, S.; Hanssen, R.F.


    This paper presents a semi-automated approach to detecting coastal shoreline change with high spatial- and temporal-resolution using X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The method was applied at the Sand Motor, a “mega-scale” beach nourishment project in the Netherlands. Natural processes,

  17. Type of Violence, Age, and Gender Differences in the Effects of Family Violence on Children's Behavior Problems: A Mega-Analysis (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Baradaran, Laila P.; Abbott, Craig B.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva


    A mega-analytic study was designed to exploit the power of a large data set combining raw data from multiple studies (n=1870) to examine the effects of type of family violence, age, and gender on children's behavior problems assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Our findings confirmed that children who experienced multiple forms of…

  18. Levels of prolactin in relation to coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis Results of a large population-based case-control study (MEGA-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijver, Danka J. F.; Debeij, Jan; van Zaane, Bregje; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Smit, Jan W. A.; Büller, Harry R.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.


    The pituitary hormone prolactin is thought to influence coagulation. We aimed to study the relation between prolactin levels, coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis (VT). We used data from a large population based case-control study into aetiology of first VT (MEGA-study). Prolactin

  19. Levels of prolactin in relation to coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis. Results of a large population-based case-control study (MEGA-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijver, D.J.; Debeij, J.; Zaane, B. van; Dekkers, O.M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Buller, H.R.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Gerdes, V.E.; Cannegieter, S.C.


    The pituitary hormone prolactin is thought to influence coagulation. We aimed to study the relation between prolactin levels, coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis (VT). We used data from a large population based case-control study into aetiology of first VT (MEGA-study). Prolactin

  20. Interpreting mega-development projects as territorial traps: the case of irrigation schemes on the shores of Lake Chad (Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bertoncin


    Full Text Available From the colonial era up to the present, mega-irrigation projects for agriculture have played a key role in the production of state space in Sahelian Africa. Transferring a concept proposed by Agnew (1994 onto a different scale, it is possible to interpret these mega-projects as territorial traps. In fact, they set up boundaries (physical, relational, cognitive and operative that force evolutive trajectories of the areas involved along rigid pathways. In the aftermath of the systematic failure of the mega-projects, farmers are faced with constraints determined by the trap imposed, without having any of the promised benefits in terms of productive growth, i.e. income. In many situations, the farmers have identified a means of escape from these catastrophes by transgressing the boundaries imposed by the territorial traps and reintroducing parts of the infrastructure to a common use. The case study traces the crisis, and ultimately the failure, of the mega-irrigation projects constructed in the 1970s along the shores of Lake Chad in Nigeria.

  1. Controle da antracnose e qualidade de mangas (Mangifera indica L. cv. van dyke, após tratamento hidrotérmico e químico Anthracnose control and mango quality (Mangifera indica L. cv. van dyke after hydrothermal and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Carvalho Dias


    Full Text Available A antracnose causa severos danos à casca da manga. Por isso, há a necessidade de se fazer o tratamento fitossanitário pós-colheita dos frutos, utilizando a imersão em calda de fungicidas, a qual, associada ao tratamento hidrotérmico, tem resultado em melhores benefícios. Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se estudar o controle da antracnose e qualidade pós-colheita de mangas (Mangifera indica L., cv. Van Dyke, após tratamento hidrotérmico associado ao químico mediante as análises física, físico-químicas, químicas e fitopatológica. As mangas, provenientes de pomar comercial do município de Janaúba - MG, da safra 2000, foram colhidas em estádio de maturação comercial. Após seleção de acordo com a uniformidade de cor, tamanho e ausência de injúrias mecânicas e fisiológicas, as mesmas foram transportadas em caixas plásticas para a EPAMIG - CTNM - Nova Porteirinha - MG, Laboratório de Pós-colheita de frutos, onde as amostras foram submetidas ao tratamento hidrotérmico (55°C por 5minutos e banho frio em soluções contendo os fungicidas Thiabendazole (Tecto 400 mL/100 L, Prochloraz (Sportak 110 mL/100 L e Imazalil (Magnate 200 mL/100 L. Após secagem ao ar, os frutos foram acondicionados em bandejas plásticas e armazenados à temperatura ambiente (25±2°C e UR 70%, por um período de 12 dias e avaliados quanto às características intrínsecas de qualidade a cada 4 dias. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 8 tratamentos, 4 repetições e unidade experimental composta de 4 frutos. As variações de pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e açúcares solúveis totais não comprometeram as características organolépticas de mangas cv. Van Dyke armazenadas sob temperatura ambiente (25±2°C e UR 70% até os 8 dias de armazenamento. A associação do tratamento hidrotérmico com o químico foi eficiente no controle da antracnose dos frutos por até 12 dias de

  2. Gate-first integration of tunable work function metal gates of different thicknesses into high-k metal gates CMOS FinFETs for multi- VTh engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa


    Gate-first integration of tunable work function metal gates of different thicknesses (320 nm) into high-k/metal gates CMOS FinFETs was demonstrated to achieve multiple threshold voltages (VTh) for 32-nm technology and beyond logic, memory, input/output, and system-on-a-chip applications. The fabricated devices showed excellent short-channel effect immunity (drain-induced barrier lowering ∼ 40 mV/V), nearly symmetric VTh, low T inv(∼ 1.4 nm), and high Ion(∼780μAμm) for N/PMOS without any intentional strain enhancement. © 2006 IEEE.

  3. Detection of atomic and molecular mega-electron-volt projectiles using an x-ray charged coupled device camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, M.; Martinet, G.; Bouneau, S.; Genolini, B.; Grave, X.; Nguyen, K.; Le Gailliard, C.; Rosier, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Beroff, K.; Pino, T.; Feraud, G.; Friha, H. [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, INP-CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Villier, B. [Hamamatsu Photonics (France)


    We show that an x-ray charge coupled device (CCD) may be used as a particle detector for atomic and molecular mega-electron-volt (MeV) projectiles of around a few hundred keV per atomic mass unit. For atomic species, spectroscopic properties in kinetic energy measurements (i.e., linearity and energy resolution) are found to be close to those currently obtained with implanted or surface barrier silicon particle detectors. For molecular species, in order to increase the maximum kinetic energy detection limit, we propose to put a thin foil in front of the CCD. This foil breaks up the molecules into atoms and spreads the charges over many CCD pixels and therefore avoiding saturation effects. This opens new perspectives in high velocity molecular dissociation studies with accelerator facilities.

  4. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, M. Z., E-mail:; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; Li, R. K.; Dunning, M.; Zheng, Q.; Weathersby, S. P.; Reid, A. H.; Coffee, R.; Makasyuk, I.; Edstrom, S.; McCormick, D.; Jobe, K.; Hast, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Wang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Sokolowski-Tinten, K. [Faculty of Physics and Centre for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)


    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 μm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined. This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime.

  5. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie; van Steenbergen, Henk; Nienke Pannekoek, J.


    . An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174) and healthy control (HC)-participants (n = 213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach......Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in gray matter (GM......) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between brain structure and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multi-site imaging offers new opportunities to investigate SAD-related alterations in brain structure in larger samples...

  6. Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: the case of Ho Chi Minh City. (United States)

    ThiKimOanh, Le; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van Buuren, Joost Cl; van der Vorst, Jack Gaj; Rulkens, Wim H


    Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future given available infrastructure and cost factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Estudo das vias biliares extrahepáticas em pacientes portadores de "megas" chagásieos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Huggins


    Full Text Available Em 22 pacientes internados no Hospital das Clinicas da F. M. U. F. Pe e portadores de "megas" chagásicos. cuja etiologia foi comprovada através de pesquisas epidemiológicas, clínicas e laboratoriais, realizamos a colecisto-colangiografia intravenosa. Verificamos em 21 enfermos a vesícula e o colédoco com topografia, morfologia e dmãmica normais. Em apenas um doente encontramos a vesícula bastante aumentada de volume e o coledoco de calibre dilatado, sem imagem de cálculo no seu interior. O tempo de esvaziamento colédoco-duodeno muito prolongado, sugeriu alterações motoras.

  8. Mini-Mega-TORTORA wide-field monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution: first year of operation (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.


    Here we present the summary of first years of operation and the first results of a novel 9-channel wide-field optical monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution, Mini-Mega-TORTORA (MMT-9), which is in operation now at Special Astrophysical Observatory on Russian Caucasus. The system is able to observe the sky simultaneously in either wide (˜900 square degrees) or narrow (˜100 square degrees) fields of view, either in clear light or with any combination of color (Johnson-Cousins B, V or R) and polarimetric filters installed, with exposure times ranging from 0.1 s to hundreds of seconds. The real-time system data analysis pipeline performs automatic detection of rapid transient events, both near-Earth and extragalactic. The objects routinely detected by MMT include faint meteors and artificial satellites. The pipeline for a longer time scales variability analysis is still in development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available The Colombia/Ecuador subduction zone is a region where high seismic stress is presently accumulating. Statistical probability studies and GPS measurements of crustal deformation indicate that the region has an increased potential to generate in the near future a major or great tsunamigenic earthquake similar to the 1979 or 1906. Although most of the major earthquakes along this margin usually generate local tsunamis, the recurrence of a great mega-thrust, inter-plate earthquake, similar in magnitude and rupture to the 1906 event (Mw=8.8, rupture 600 km., can generate a tsunami with destructive near and far-field impacts. To understand the potential for such destructive tsunami generation in this region, the present study examines and evaluates: a the controlling inter-plate coupling mechanisms of the tectonic regime of the margin – including lithospheric structure deformation, sea-floor relief and the subduction or accretion of highly folded, hydrated sediments along the seismogenic zone of southern Colombia/North Ecuador; b the seismo-dynamics and role in tsunami generation as affected by the Carnegie Ridge’s oblique subduction beneath the South American continent; and c the seismotectonic extensional processes in the vicinity of the Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes Basin and how the northwestward movement of the North Andes block away from the South American continent along the Dolores Guayaquil mega-thrust and the resulting strain rotation may cause sudden detachment, décollement and deformation, with the potential for local tsunami generation that may affect the Gulf of Guayaquil and other coastal areas along southern Ecuador.

  10. Quota Restrictions on Land Use for Decelerating Urban Sprawl of Mega City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqian Zhang


    Full Text Available The mega cities of China are faced with great pressure from conflict between huge land demand for construction use and limited resources. To improve this situation, it is necessary to slow the increasing rate of built-up land and even reduce the existing built-up land by improving land use efficiency. Herein, land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration is proposed. Land quotas are important tools for the control of land use planning in China, but the current quotas are mainly in the form of increment, thus cannot support land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration. To address these issues, we developed a model named “current-plan-requirement response (CPRR”, to optimize the land quotas. With this model, we investigated the current status of land use, the process of land use planning, and the requirements of land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration in Shanghai. It was found that the current land quotas have provided somewhat inhabited conversion of arable land to built-up land, but scarcely any regulation of land use efficiency or protection of natural environment. Then, the land quotas were optimized and quota management recommendations were made. The optimized land quotas included four aspects of quotas: arable land protection, ecological conservation, scale constraint on built-up land and economical and intensive land use. These new land quotas could be used to guide reduction of built-up land and increase ecological land in China’s mega cities. It might also be beneficial for easing conflict between supply and demand of built-up land, for building an eco-friendly city land-use structure.

  11. Novel single-cell mega-size chambers for electrochemical etching of panorama position-sensitive polycarbonate ion image detectors (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi


    A novel development is made here by inventing panorama single-cell mega-size electrochemical etching (MS-ECE) chamber systems for processing panorama position-sensitive mega-size polycarbonate ion image detectors (MS-PCIDs) of potential for many neutron and ion detection applications in particular hydrogen ions or proton tracks and images detected for the first time in polycarbonates in this study. The MS-PCID is simply a large polycarbonate sheet of a desired size. The single-cell MS-ECE invented consists of two large equally sized transparent Plexiglas sheets as chamber walls holding a MS-PCID and the ECE chamber components tightly together. One wall has a large flat stainless steel electrode (dry cell) attached to it which is directly in contact with the MS-PCID and the other wall has a rod electrode with two holes to facilitate feeding and draining out the etching solution from the wet cell. A silicon rubber washer plays the role of the wet cell to hold the etchant and the electrical insulator to isolate the dry cell from the wet cell. A simple 50 Hz-HV home-made generator provides an adequate field strength through the two electrodes across the MS-ECE chamber. Two panorama single-cell MS-ECE chamber systems (circular and rectangular shapes) constructed were efficiently applied to processing the MS-PCIDs for 4π ion emission image detection of different gases in particular hydrogen ions or protons in a 3.5 kJ plasma focus device (PFD as uniquely observed by the unaided eyes). The panorama MS-PCID/MS-ECE image detection systems invented are novel with high potential for many applications in particular as applied to 4π panorama ion emission angular distribution image detection studies in PFD space, some results of which are presented and discussed.

  12. A New Community Health Center/Academic Medicine Partnership for Medicaid Cost Control, Powered by the Mega Teaching Health Center. (United States)

    Rieselbach, Richard E; Epperly, Ted; Friedman, Aaron; Keahey, David; McConnell, Eleanor; Nichols, Karen; Nycz, Greg; Roberts, Jeanette; Schmader, Kenneth; Shin, Peter; Shtasel, Derri


    Community health centers (CHCs), a principal source of primary care for over 24 million patients, provide high-quality affordable care for medically underserved and lower-income populations in urban and rural communities. The authors propose that CHCs can assume an important role in the quest for health care reform by serving substantially more Medicaid patients. Major expansion of CHCs, powered by mega teaching health centers (THCs) in partnership with regional academic medical centers (AMCs) or teaching hospitals, could increase Medicaid beneficiaries' access to cost-effective care. The authors propose that this CHC expansion could be instrumental in limiting the added cost of Medicaid expansion via the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or subsequent legislation. Nevertheless, expansion cannot succeed without developing this CHC-AMC partnership both (1) to fuel the currently deficient primary care provider workforce pipeline, which now greatly limits expansion of CHCs; and (2) to provide more CHC-affiliated community outreach sites to enhance access to care. The authors describe the current status of Medicaid and CHCs, plus the evolution and vulnerability of current THCs. They also explain multiple features of a mega THC demonstration project designed to test this new paradigm for Medicaid cost control. The authors contend that the demonstration's potential for success in controlling costs could provide help to preserve the viability of current and future expanded state Medicaid programs, despite a potential ultimate decrease in federal funding over time. Thus, the authors believe that the new AMC-CHC partnership paradigm they propose could potentially facilitate bipartisan support for repairing the ACA.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such

  13. The effects of herbivory by a mega- and mesoherbivore on tree recruitment in sand forest, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Georgette Lagendijk

    Full Text Available Herbivory by megaherbivores on woody vegetation in general is well documented; however studies focusing on the individual browsing effects of both mega- and mesoherbivore species on recruitment are scarce. We determined these effects for elephant Loxodonta africana and nyala Tragelaphus angasii in the critically endangered Sand Forest, which is restricted to east southern Africa, and is conserved mainly in small reserves with high herbivore densities. Replicated experimental treatments (400 m(2 in a single forest patch were used to exclude elephant, or both elephant and nyala. In each treatment, all woody individuals were identified to species and number of stems, diameter and height were recorded. Results of changes after two years are presented. Individual tree and stem densities had increased in absence of nyala and elephant. Seedling recruitment (based on height and diameter was inhibited by nyala, and by elephant and nyala in combination, thereby preventing recruitment into the sapling stage. Neither nyala or elephant significantly reduced sapling densities. Excluding both elephant and nyala in combination enhanced recruitment of woody species, as seedling densities increased, indicating that forest regeneration is impacted by both mega- and mesoherbivores. The Sand Forest tree community approached an inverse J-shaped curve, with the highest abundance in the smaller size classes. However, the larger characteristic tree species in particular, such as Newtonia hildebrandtii, were missing cohorts in the middle size classes. When setting management goals to conserve habitats of key importance, conservation management plans need to consider the total herbivore assemblage present and the resulting browsing effects on vegetation. Especially in Africa, where the broadest suite of megaherbivores still persists, and which is currently dealing with the 'elephant problem', the individual effects of different herbivore species on recruitment and

  14. Deep-sea seabed habitats: Do they support distinct mega-epifaunal communities that have different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic disturbance? (United States)

    Bowden, David A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Leduc, Daniel; Beaumont, Jennifer; Clark, Malcolm R.


    Growing economic interest in seabed resources in the deep-sea highlights the need for information about the spatial distribution and vulnerability to disturbance of benthic habitats and fauna. Categorisation of seabed habitats for management is often based on topographic features such as canyons and seamounts that can be distinguished using regional bathymetry ('mega-habitats'). This is practical but because such habitats are contiguous with others, there is potential for overlap in the communities associated with them. Because concepts of habitat and community vulnerability are based on the traits of individual taxa, the nature and extent of differences between communities have implications for strategies to manage the environmental effects of resource use. Using towed video camera transects, we surveyed mega-epifaunal communities of three topographically-defined habitats (canyon, seamount or knoll, and continental slope) and two physico-chemically defined meso-scale habitats (cold seep and hydrothermal vent) in two regions off New Zealand to assess whether each supports a distinct type of community. Cold seep and hydrothermal vent communities were strongly distinct from those in other habitats. Across the other habitats, however, distinctions between communities were often weak and were not consistent between regions. Dissimilarities among communities across all habitats were stronger and the density of filter-feeding taxa was higher in the Bay of Plenty than on the Hikurangi Margin, whereas densities of predatory and scavenging taxa were higher on the Hikurangi Margin. Substratum diversity at small spatial scales (management, (2) fine-scale survey of individual features is necessary to identify the locations, characteristics, and extents of ecologically important or vulnerable seabed communities, and (3) evaluation of habitat vulnerability to future events should be in the context of previous and current disturbances.

  15. Lead isotope constraints on the mantle sources involved in the genesis of Mesozoic high-Ti tholeiite dykes (Urubici type from the São Francisco Craton (Southern Espinhaço, Brazil

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    Leila Soares Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The first results of Pb isotope compositions of the high-Ti Mesozoic dykes of the Southern Espinhaço are presented. The results do not show large variations and are significantly more radiogenic than the Pb isotope compositions of the high-Ti tholeiites from the Paraná Continental Flood Basalts. The data combined with published geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope results rule out crustal contamination processes in the genesis of the dykes, requiring magma generation in metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle with the involvement of HIMU-type and carbonatite components. The magmas may have been also derived from a mantle source containing ~4 - 5% of pyroxenite and ~1% of carbonatite melts, agreeing with published Os isotope compositions of high-Ti rocks from the Paraná Continental Flood Basalts. These metasomatizing agents could be responsible for mantle source refertilization, as was also proposed in the literature to explain the characteristics of xenoliths of the Goiás Alkaline Province, which also occurs in the border of the São Francisco Craton. Additionally, to evaluate the risks of Pb contamination during sample preparation for analysis, several experimental tests were accomplished, which indicate the need of sawed surface removal and a careful washing of small-sized rock fragments before powdering, especially for rocks with [Pb] < 7 µg/g.

  16. Dopo il Grande Evento: politiche “utili” per la mobilità Beyond the Mega Events: “Useful” Policies for Urban Mobility

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    Andrea Ceudech


    Full Text Available Il contributo indaga i limiti delle politiche urbane e in particolare di quelle sulla mobilità attuate per i Grandi Eventi, evidenziando in molti casi la tendenza a privilegiare la realizzazione di infrastrutture, più che politiche sui servizi, la cui reale utilità è spesso messa in dubbio dalla pratica e i cui costi manutentivi divengono spesso nuovi carichi per la collettività. Sulla base di una breve rassegna delle politiche sulla mobilità maggiormente implementate nella preparazione e gestione dei Grandi Eventi, il contributo evidenzia in maniera critica punti di forza e punti di debolezza delle esperienze analizzate in riferimento sia alla gestione del grande evento, sia in riferimento alla loro reale utilità per la collettività dopo che il grande evento è terminato. Nell’ultima parte del contributo si evidenziano i principali requisiti che le politiche sulla mobilità devono possedere affinché apportino reali vantaggi alla città anche una volta che il Grande Evento è terminato.The paper analyses, through different examples, the limits of the urban mobility policies implemented for mega events, highlighting the tendency to privilege the infrastructure realization, more than policies on services, whose real usefulness is often put in doubt from the practice and whose maintenance often become a new cost for the community. On the base of a short review of the mobility policies mainly implemented in the preparation and management of the mega events, the paper highlights, from a critical point of view, the strengths and weaknesses of some experiences with reference to the real usefulness of urban mobility for the community beyond the mega event. The outcomes and the so-called “legacy” of the mega events for the cities are very different. Mega sport events, like the Olympic Games, have often involved only the realization of works for the event while events like the International Expositions have determined the acquisition of

  17. Structural and electrical characteristics of high-k/metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors fabricated on flexible, semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto


    In pursuit of flexible computers with high performance devices, we demonstrate a generic process to fabricate 10 000 metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-k/metal gate stacks on widely used, inexpensive bulk silicon (100) wafers and then using a combination of iso-/anisotropic etching to release the top portion of the silicon with the already fabricated devices as a mechanically flexible (bending curvature of 133 m−1), optically semi-transparent silicon fabric (1.5 cm × 3 cm × 25 μm). The electrical characteristics show 3.7 nm effective oxide thickness, −0.2 V flat band voltage, and no hysteresis from the fabricated MOSCAPs.

  18. Voltage and oxide thickness dependent tunneling current density and tunnel resistivity model: Application to high-k material HfO2 based MOS devices (United States)

    Maity, N. P.; Maity, Reshmi; Baishya, Srimanta


    In this paper presents a straightforward efficient investigation of tunneling current density for ultra thin oxide layer based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices to realization the gate current as a function of applied potential and oxide thickness. Solutions to the Schrödinger's wave equation are evolved for the different potential energy regions of the MOS device considering appropriate effective mass for each region. For finding approximate mathematical solutions to linear differential equations using spatially changeable coefficients the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation technique is considered. A p-substrate based n-channel MOS device has been analyzed consisting of SiO2 material as the oxide dielectric along with high-k material HfO2. The tunnel resistivity is correspondingly assessed employing this tunneling current density model. Synopsys Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool results are employed to validate the analytical model. Tremendous agreements among the results are observed.

  19. Extremely scaled high-k/In₀.₅₃Ga₀.₄₇As gate stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)


    Highly scaled gate dielectric stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities are required for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with III-V semiconductor channels. Here, we show that a novel pre-deposition technique, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium, allows for HfO₂ and ZrO₂ gate stacks with extremely high accumulation capacitance densities of more than 5 μF/cm₂ at 1 MHz, low leakage current, low frequency dispersion, and low midgap interface trap densities (10¹²cm⁻²eV⁻¹range). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the interface contains TiO₂ and small quantities of In₂O₃, but no detectable Ga- or As-oxides, or As-As bonding. The results allow for insights into the microscopic mechanisms that control leakage and frequency dispersion in high-k/III-V gate stacks.

  20. Remote N2 plasma treatment to deposit ultrathin high-k dielectric as tunneling contact layer for single-layer MoS2 MOSFET (United States)

    Qian, Qingkai; Zhang, Zhaofu; Hua, Mengyuan; Wei, Jin; Lei, Jiacheng; Chen, Kevin J.


    Remote N2 plasma treatment is explored as a surface functionalization technique to deposit ultrathin high-k dielectric on single-layer MoS2. The ultrathin dielectric is used as a tunneling contact layer, which also serves as an interfacial layer below the gate region for fabricating top-gate MoS2 metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The fabricated devices exhibited small hysteresis and mobility as high as 14 cm2·V‑1·s‑1. The contact resistance was significantly reduced, which resulted in the increase of drain current from 20 to 56 µA/µm. The contact resistance reduction can be attributed to the alleviated metal–MoS2 interface reaction and the preserved conductivity of MoS2 below the source/drain metal contact.

  1. Flexible, Low-Power Thin-Film Transistors Made of Vapor-Phase Synthesized High-k, Ultrathin Polymer Gate Dielectrics. (United States)

    Choi, Junhwan; Joo, Munkyu; Seong, Hyejeong; Pak, Kwanyong; Park, Hongkeun; Park, Chan Woo; Im, Sung Gap


    A series of high-k, ultrathin copolymer gate dielectrics were synthesized from 2-cyanoethyl acrylate (CEA) and di(ethylene glycol) divinyl ether (DEGDVE) monomers by a free radical polymerization via a one-step, vapor-phase, initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) method. The chemical composition of the copolymers was systematically optimized by tuning the input ratio of the vaporized CEA and DEGDVE monomers to achieve a high dielectric constant (k) as well as excellent dielectric strength. Interestingly, DEGDVE was nonhomopolymerizable but it was able to form a copolymer with other kinds of monomers. Utilizing this interesting property of the DEGDVE cross-linker, the dielectric constant of the copolymer film could be maximized with minimum incorporation of the cross-linker moiety. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of a cyanide-containing polymer in the vapor phase, where a high-purity polymer film with a maximized dielectric constant was achieved. The dielectric film with the optimized composition showed a dielectric constant greater than 6 and extremely low leakage current densities (thin-film transistors (OTFTs) and oxide TFTs were fabricated, which showed hysteresis-free transfer characteristics with an operating voltage of less than 3 V. Furthermore, the flexible OTFTs retained their low gate leakage current and ideal TFT characteristics even under 2% applied tensile strain, which makes them some of the most flexible OTFTs reported to date. We believe that these ultrathin, high-k organic dielectric films with excellent mechanical flexibility will play a crucial role in future soft electronics.

  2. Esofagectomia trans-hiatal no tratamento do megaesôfago chagásico avançado

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    João Batista Neto

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da esofagectomia trans-hiatal no tratamento do megaesôfago chagásico avançado. MÉTODO: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 28 pacientes portadores de megaesôfago chagásico avançado (MCA, graus III e IV, segundo a classificação radiológica de Rezende (adotada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde, e que foram submetidos à esofagectomia subtotal trans-hiatal no Serviço de Clínica Cirúrgica do Hospital Universitário Prof. Alberto Antunes (HUPAA da Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 1982 e 2000. Foram analisadas, as seguintes variáveis: A Queixas clínicas pré-operatórias versus as pós-operatórias (disfagia, regurgitação, pirose, diarréia, dumping, plenitude pós-prandial, pneumonia e o estado ponderal. B avaliação radiológica pós-operatória da boca anastomótica esofagogástrica cervical e do estômago transposto. C avaliação endoscópica pós-operatória do coto esofágico e da boca anastomótica. RESULTADOS: O seguimento variou de 4 a 192 meses, média de 58,18 meses. Dezesseis pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 12 masculinos. Idade mínima de 16 e máxima de 67 anos, média de 36,5 anos. Não houve mortalidade nesta série. Houve resolução plena da disfagia na maioria dos pacientes (20/28 - 71,4%, um (3,6% referiu disfagia leve que não necessitou tratamento e 7/28 (25% necessitaram de uma ou mais sessões de dilatação. Nenhum necessitou de dilatação permanente. A pirose foi o sintoma mais importante no seguimento tardio (35,7%, seguida da regurgitação (25%, diarréia (14,3%, plenitude pós-prandial (10,7% e dumping (3,6%. Houve ganho ponderal em 87,5% dos pacientes avaliados. A esofagite no coto esofágico foi o achado endoscópico mais significativo (46,4%. O esôfago de Barrett no coto remanescente foi encontrada em 10,7% dos casos. A maioria dos achados radiológicos foi normal, embora três doentes (10,7% tenham apresentado estase gástrica. CONCLUSÃO: A esofagectomia

  3. Mensuration et évaluation des impacts et héritages de projets de mega événement dans le cadre du capital immatériel


    Rodrigues, Mauricio


    According some evidences, mega events can play a significant role in local development and competitiveness. This benefit is generally due to the catalyst effect of a series of factors related to infrastructure, tourism and local population welfare/quality of life. However, mega events also have potential downsides. In order to assess the cost-benefit of hosting them, we usually measure its socio-economic outcomes and impacts. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate positive intangible impacts a...

  4. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh) (United States)

    Salam, Abdus


    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  5. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Determining the effects of unpredictable disturbances on dynamic ecological systems is challenged by the paucity of appropriate temporal and spatial coverage of data. On 27 February 2010, an 8.8 Mw mega-earthquake and tsunami struck central Chile and caused coastal land-level changes, massive damage to coastal infrastructure, and widespread mortality of coastal organisms. Wave-exposed sandy beaches showed significant changes of species abundances from before to after the earthquake, but the highly dynamic biotic and abiotic conditions of these habitats make difficult to draw clear-cut conclusions from these patterns. Here, we analysed a beyond-BACI (Before-After Control-Impact sampling design to test whether the effects of the Maule earthquake on sandy-shore species diversity, abundance, and structure were heterogeneous along the shore. Invertebrate species abundances were quantified before (i.e. February 2010 and after (i.e. March 2010, September 2010, and March 2011 the earthquake at three sandy shores randomly located within the earthquake rupture area and three sites within a "control" area located >400 km southward from epicentre. Immediately after the earthquake took place, the three sites located in the rupture area showed anomalous beach-profile uplifts that did not comply with the erosion (i.e. "negative" uplifts that regularly occurs during late summer in the region. Species richness, abundance, and community structure significantly varied from before to after the strike, but these patterns of change varied among sites within both areas. Only the site with the strongest and persistent beach-profile uplift within the rupture area showed significant concomitant changes in species richness and community structure; after 13 months, this community showed a similar multivariate structure to the before-disturbance state. This site, in particular, was located in the section of the rupture area that received most of the impact of the after

  6. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake. (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Roger D; Valdivia, Nelson


    Determining the effects of unpredictable disturbances on dynamic ecological systems is challenged by the paucity of appropriate temporal and spatial coverage of data. On 27 February 2010, an 8.8 Mw mega-earthquake and tsunami struck central Chile and caused coastal land-level changes, massive damage to coastal infrastructure, and widespread mortality of coastal organisms. Wave-exposed sandy beaches showed significant changes of species abundances from before to after the earthquake, but the highly dynamic biotic and abiotic conditions of these habitats make difficult to draw clear-cut conclusions from these patterns. Here, we analysed a beyond-BACI (Before-After Control-Impact) sampling design to test whether the effects of the Maule earthquake on sandy-shore species diversity, abundance, and structure were heterogeneous along the shore. Invertebrate species abundances were quantified before (i.e. February 2010) and after (i.e. March 2010, September 2010, and March 2011) the earthquake at three sandy shores randomly located within the earthquake rupture area and three sites within a "control" area located >400 km southward from epicentre. Immediately after the earthquake took place, the three sites located in the rupture area showed anomalous beach-profile uplifts that did not comply with the erosion (i.e. "negative" uplifts) that regularly occurs during late summer in the region. Species richness, abundance, and community structure significantly varied from before to after the strike, but these patterns of change varied among sites within both areas. Only the site with the strongest and persistent beach-profile uplift within the rupture area showed significant concomitant changes in species richness and community structure; after 13 months, this community showed a similar multivariate structure to the before-disturbance state. This site, in particular, was located in the section of the rupture area that received most of the impact of the after-earthquake tsunami

  7. Design and Development of a Two-Color Emissive FRET Pair Based on a Photostable Fluorescent Deoxyuridine Donor Presenting a Mega-Stokes Shift. (United States)

    Barthes, Nicolas P F; Gavvala, Krishna; Bonhomme, Dominique; Dabert-Gay, Anne Sophie; Debayle, Delphine; Mély, Yves; Michel, Benoît Y; Burger, Alain


    We report the synthesis and site-specific incorporation in oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of an emissive deoxyuridine analog electronically conjugated on its C5-position with a 3-methoxychromone moiety acting as a fluorophore. When incorporated in ODNs, this fluorescent deoxyuridine analog exhibits remarkable photostability and good quantum yields. This deoxyuridine analog also displays a mega-Stokes shift, which allows for its use as an efficient donor for FRET-based studies when paired with the yellow emissive indocarbocyanine Cy3 acceptor.

  8. Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Operational Efficiency Ratio, Financing To Deposit Ratio Terhadap Return On Asset Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia


    Nainggolan, Benget M.


    Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah untuk menganalisis Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Operational Efficiency Ratio, Financing to Deposit Ratio terhadap Return On Asset Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia Jenis data yang akan diolah dan diteliti adalah data sekunder berupa laporan keuangan seperti neraca dan laporan laba-rugi serta bahan publikasi lain yang relevan dengan permasalahan yang diteliti. Tahun buku akuntansi yang dipilih adalah tahun buku 2007 sampai dengan t...

  9. Mega-events, Local Economies, and Global Status: What Happened before the 2008 Olympics in Beijing and the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun


    Full Text Available Mega-events such as the World Cup and the Olympics have been used for economic development, urban transformation and global status enhancement. Beijing and Shanghai embraced these purposes when they won the bids for the 2008 Olympics and the 2010 World Expo respectively. This article examines the pre-event economic changes in Beijing and Shanghai that are associated with their pursuit of mega-events. Changes in a group of economic indicators are tracked from 1997 to 2006. It was found that after winning the bids for the Olympics and the World Expo, Beijing and Shanghai experienced greater growth in construction and tourism, a speeding-up in economic development and restructuring, and an improvement in physical infrastructure. However, the enhancement of global exposure was not accompanied by growth in foreign trade and in the finance, insurance and real estate (FIRE industries. The empirical analyses place the mega-events in large economic contexts and provide a base for future post-event studies.

  10. Strength and fracture energy of foamed concrete incorporating rice husk ash and polypropylene mega-mesh 55 (United States)

    Jaini, Z. M.; Rum, R. H. M.; Boon, K. H.


    This paper presents the utilization of rice husk ash (RHA) as sand replacement and polypropylene mega-mesh 55 (PMM) as fiber reinforcement in foamed concrete. High pozzolanic reaction and the ability to become filler make RHA as a strategic material to enhance the strength and durability of foamed concrete. Furthermore, the presence of PMM optimizes the toughness of foamed concrete in resisting shrinkage and cracking. In this experimental study, cube and cylinder specimens were prepared for the compression and splitting-tensile tests. Meanwhile, notched beam specimens were cast for the three-point bending test. It was found that 40% RHA and 9kg/m3 PMM contribute to the highest strength and fracture energy. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths are 32MPa, 2.88MPa and 6.68MPa respectively, while the fracture energy achieves 42.19N/m. The results indicate high potential of RHA and PMM in enhancing the mechanical properties of foamed concrete.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Ayu Lestari


    Full Text Available The background of this research is population of straw headed bulbul (Pcynonotus zeylanicus in the nature has decreased sharply.The effort should be done is ex-situ conservation by means of captive breeding of straw headed bulbul. The aim of the research was to identify captivation technique, success indicator, song training techniques and distribution sound quality of straw headed bulbul. This research was conducted in Mega Bird and Orchid Farm, Bogor from March to April 2014. Descriptive and quantitative data analysis was applied in this research. The results showed that straw headed bulbul has three types of cage, they are cage for growing periode, ge of reproduction, and cage of incubator. Foods given to the bird were banana, papaya, voer and cricket. The types of diseases recorded were diarrhea, white-colored feces, green-colored feces, flu, and paralyzed feet. The criteria and success rate in captivating were consist of medium-scaled egg hatching rate (68.69%, high breed rate (77.38%, and low mortality(10.34%. Distribution song quality of straw headed bulbul was varies. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that breeding management for success breeding of straw headed bulbul comprised of such aspects as cage system management, feed management, health and care management, result utilization management,  and song quality management. Keywords: captive breeding, management, straw headed bulbul

  12. Toward 100 Mega-Frames per Second: Design of an Ultimate Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Vu Truong Son


    Full Text Available Our experiencein the design of an ultra-high speed image sensor targeting the theoretical maximum frame rate is summarized. The imager is the backside illuminated in situ storage image sensor (BSI ISIS. It is confirmed that the critical factor limiting the highest frame rate is the signal electron transit time from the generation layer at the back side of each pixel to the input gate to the in situ storage area on the front side. The theoretical maximum frame rate is estimated at 100 Mega-frames per second (Mfps by transient simulation study. The sensor has a spatial resolution of 140,800 pixels with 126 linear storage elements installed in each pixel. The very high sensitivity is ensured by application of backside illumination technology and cooling. The ultra-high frame rate is achieved by the in situ storage image sensor (ISIS structure on the front side. In this paper, we summarize technologies developed to achieve the theoretical maximum frame rate, including: (1 a special p-well design by triple injections to generate a smooth electric field backside towards the collection gate on the front side, resulting in much shorter electron transit time; (2 design technique to reduce RC delay by employing an extra metal layer exclusively to electrodes responsible for ultra-high speed image capturing; (3 a CCD specific complementary on-chip inductance minimization technique with a couple of stacked differential bus lines.

  13. Measurements of the temporal onset of mega-Gauss magnetic fields in a laser-driven solenoid (United States)

    Goyon, Clement; Polllock, B. B.; Turnbull, D. T.; Hazi, A.; Ross, J. S.; Mariscal, D. A.; Patankar, S.; Williams, G. J.; Farmer, W. A.; Moody, J. D.; Fujioka, S.; Law, K. F. F.


    We report on experimental results obtained at Omega EP showing a nearly linear increase of the B-field up to about 2 mega-Gauss in 0.75 ns in a 1 mm3 region. The field is generated using 1 TW of 351 nm laser power ( 8*1015 W/cm2) incident on a laser-driven solenoid target. The coil target converts about 1% of the laser energy into the B-field measured both inside and outside the coil using proton deflectometry with a grid and Faraday rotation of probe beam through SiO2 glass. Proton data indicates a current rise up to hundreds of kA with a spatial distribution in the Au solenoid conductor evolving in time. These results give insight into the generating mechanism of the current between the plates and the time behavior of the field. These experiments are motivated by recent efforts to understand and utilize High Energy Density (HED) plasmas in the presence of external magnetic fields in areas of research from Astrophysics to Inertial Confinement Fusion. We will describe the experimental results and scale them to a NIF hohlraum size. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Evaluation of TCR Gene Editing Achieved by TALENs, CRISPR/Cas9, and megaTAL Nucleases. (United States)

    Osborn, Mark J; Webber, Beau R; Knipping, Friederike; Lonetree, Cara-lin; Tennis, Nicole; DeFeo, Anthony P; McElroy, Amber N; Starker, Colby G; Lee, Catherine; Merkel, Sarah; Lund, Troy C; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S; Jensen, Michael C; Voytas, Daniel F; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred; Gabriel, Richard; Hippen, Keli L; Miller, Jeffrey S; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Tolar, Jakub; Blazar, Bruce R


    Present adoptive immunotherapy strategies are based on the re-targeting of autologous T-cells to recognize tumor antigens. As T-cell properties may vary significantly between patients, this approach can result in significant variability in cell potency that may affect therapeutic outcome. More consistent results could be achieved by generating allogeneic cells from healthy donors. An impediment to such an approach is the endogenous T-cell receptors present on T-cells, which have the potential to direct dangerous off-tumor antihost reactivity. To address these limitations, we assessed the ability of three different TCR-α-targeted nucleases to disrupt T-cell receptor expression in primary human T-cells. We optimized the conditions for the delivery of each reagent and assessed off-target cleavage. The megaTAL and CRISPR/Cas9 reagents exhibited the highest disruption efficiency combined with low levels of toxicity and off-target cleavage, and we used them for a translatable manufacturing process to produce safe cellular substrates for next-generation immunotherapies.

  15. Experimental comparison of performances of Mega Acer Kit, Ranger and ThermoSens according to flow rates and distances. (United States)

    Seo, Hong Ju; Kim, Sang Hun; An, Tae Hun; Kim, Dong Joon


    We experimentally investigated the fluid warming performances of three warmers with different technology, according to flow rates and distances. We used the following intravenous fluid warmers: Mega Acer Kit (Group M, n = 8), Ranger (group R, n = 8), and ThermoSens (group T, n = 8). Fluids that had been stored in the operating room over the previous 24 h were delivered at sequent flow rates of from 440 mL/h up to 2500 mL/h through preheated warming devices. The fluid temperatures were recorded at the inlet point, 76-cm proximal (Pout1) and 166-cm distal outlet points (Pout2) every 1 min for 10 min. We repeated each test eight times. The delivered fluid temperature [mean (95% confidence interval)] was significantly higher in group M than group R and T at flow rates up to 650 mL/h with the highest value at 440 mL/h [34.30 (33.35-35.24)°C] (P flow rates over 1140 mL/h at Pout1 [36.67 (36.62-36.73)°C and 37.85 (37.52-38.17)°C at 2500 mL/h, respectively] (P flow rates for each device (P flow rates. Furthermore, the device performance is more effective with shorter extension lines.

  16. Ultra-high enhancement of light focusing through disordered media controlled by mega-pixel modes (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Lee, KyeoReh; Park, YongKeun


    Developing an efficient strategy for light focusing through scattering media is an important topic in the study of multiple light scattering. The enhancement factor of the light focusing, defined as the ratio between the optimized intensity and the background intensity is proportional to the number of controlling modes in a spatial light modulator (SLM). The demonstrated enhancement factors in previous studies are typically less than 1,000 due to several limiting factors, such as the slow refresh rate of a LCoS SLM, long optimization time, and lack of an efficient algorithm for high controlling modes. A digital micro-mirror device is an amplitude modulator, which is recently widely used for fast optimization through dynamic biological tissues. The fast frame rate of the DMD up to 16 kHz can also be exploited for increasing the number of controlling modes. However, the manipulation of large pattern data and efficient calculation of the optimized pattern remained as an issue. In this work, we demonstrate the enhancement factor more than 100,000 in focusing through scattering media by using 1 Mega controlling modes of a DMD. Through careful synchronization between a DMD, a photo-detector and an additional computer for parallel optimization, we achieved the unprecedented enhancement factor with 75 mins of the optimization time. We discuss the design principles of the system and the possible applications of the enhanced light focusing.

  17. Air quality assessment in Portugal and the special case of the Tâmega e Sousa region (United States)

    de Almeida, Fátima; Correia, Aldina; Silva, Eliana Costa e.


    Air pollution is a major environmental problem which can present a significant risk for human health. This paper, presents the evaluation of the air quality in several region of Portugal. Special focus is given to the region of Tâmega e Sousa where ESTG/P. Porto is located. ANOVA and MANOVA techniques are applied to study the differences between air quality in the period between 2009 and 2012 in several regions of Portugal. The data includes altitude, area, expenditure of environmental measures on protection of air quality and climate, expenditure on protection of biodiversity and landscape, burned area, number of forest fires, extractive and manufacturing industries, per municipality and per year. Using information gathered by the project QualAr about concentrations of the pollutants: CO, NO2, O3, PM10 and SO2, an air quality indicator with five levels is consider. The results point to significant differences in the air quality for the regions and the years considered. Additionally, for identifying the factors that influence the air quality in 2012 a multivariate regression model was used. The results show statistical evidence that air quality in 2011, number of forest fires in 2012 and 2010, number of manufacturing industries per km2 in 2012 and number of forest fires in 2010 are the variables that present a larger contribution to the quality of the air in 2012.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in indoor and outdoor dusts around a mega fluorochemical industrial park in China: Implications for human exposure. (United States)

    Su, Hongqiao; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Shi, Yajuan; Li, Qifeng; Zhou, Yunqiao; Johnson, Andrew C


    The manufacture of fluorochemicals can lead to high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) contaminating the surrounding environment and consequently elevated exposure to the local residents. In this study, measurements of PFAAs associated with indoor and outdoor dusts around a mega fluorochemical industrial park (FIP) were made. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C4-C7 PFCAs) were the predominant forms in all samples. The signature of the PFAAs in dusts in the local area matched that found within the FIP complex. The contamination plume in the local area could be linked to the prevailing wind direction starting from the FIP. The dust concentrations decreased exponentially with distance from the FIP (noticeably in the first 5km). PFAAs contamination could be detected at the furthest location, 20km away from the FIP. The concentrations of PFAAs were higher in indoor dust (73-13,500ng/g, median: 979ng/g) than those in outdoor dust (5-9495ng/g, median: 62ng/g) at every location. The highest estimated daily intake of PFOA via dust ingestion (26.0ng/kg·bw/day) was for toddlers (2-5years) living 2km away from the FIP, which is posing human health risk, though exposure remains within the provisional tolerable daily intake values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics. (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick


    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  20. Electrical properties of nano-resistors made from the Zr-doped HfO2 high-k dielectric film (United States)

    Zhang, Shumao; Kuo, Yue


    Electrical properties of nano-sized resistors made from the breakdown of the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor composed of the amorphous high-k gate dielectric have been investigated under different stress voltages and temperatures. The effective resistance of nano-resistors in the device was estimated from the I–V curve in the high voltage range. It decreased with the increase of the number of resistors. The resistance showed complicated temperature dependence, i.e. it neither behaves like a conductor nor a semiconductor. In the low voltage operation range, the charge transfer was controlled by the Schottky barrier at the nano-resistor/Si interface. The barrier height decreased with the increase of stress voltage, which was probably caused by the change of the nano-resistor composition. Separately, it was observed that the barrier height was dependent on the temperature, which was probably due to the dynamic nano-resistor formation process and the inhomogeneous barrier height distribution. The unique electrical characteristics of this new type of nano-resistors are important for many electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  1. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.


    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  2. GaN-Based High-k Praseodymium Oxide Gate MISFETs with P2S5/(NH42SX + UV Interface Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Lin


    Full Text Available This study examines the praseodymium-oxide- (Pr2O3- passivated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs with high dielectric constant in which the AlGaN Schottky layers are treated with P2S5/(NH42SX + ultraviolet (UV illumination. An electron-beam evaporated Pr2O3 insulator is used instead of traditional plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PECVD, in order to prevent plasma-induced damage to the AlGaN. In this work, the HEMTs are pretreated with P2S5/(NH42SX solution and UV illumination before the gate insulator (Pr2O3 is deposited. Since stable sulfur that is bound to the Ga species can be obtained easily and surface oxygen atoms are reduced by the P2S5/(NH42SX pretreatment, the lowest leakage current is observed in MIS-HEMT. Additionally, a low flicker noise and a low surface roughness (0.38 nm are also obtained using this novel process, which demonstrates its ability to reduce the surface states. Low gate leakage current Pr2O3 and high-k AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs, with P2S5/(NH42SX + UV illumination treatment, are suited to low-noise applications, because of the electron-beam-evaporated insulator and the new chemical pretreatment.

  3. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins. (United States)

    Sommer, Carlos A; Lima, Evandro F; Nardi, Lauro V S; Liz, Joaquim D; Waichel, Breno L


    The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  4. Transmission Enhancement of High-$k$ Waves through Metal-InGaAsP Multilayers Calculated via Scattering Matrix Method with Semi-Classical Optical Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, Joseph S T; Shahin, Shiva; Kanté, Boubacar; Fainman, Yeshaiahu


    We analyze the steady-state transmission of high-momentum (high-$k$) electromagnetic waves through metal-semiconductor multilayer systems with loss and gain in the near-infrared (NIR). Using a semi-classical optical gain model in conjunction with the scattering matrix method (SMM), we study indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP) quantum wells as the active semiconductor, in combination with the metals, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and silver (Ag). Under moderate external pumping levels, we find that NIR transmission through Ag/InGaAsP systems may be enhanced by several orders of magnitude relative to the unpumped case, over a large angular and frequency bandwidth. Conversely, transmission enhancement through AZO/InGaAsP systems is orders of magnitude smaller, and has a strong frequency dependence. We discuss the relative importance of Purcell enhancement on our results and validate analytical calculations based on the SMM with numerical finite-difference time domain simulations.

  5. Effects of Gate Stack Structural and Process Defectivity on High-k Dielectric Dependence of NBTI Reliability in 32 nm Technology Node PMOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hussin


    Full Text Available We present a simulation study on negative bias temperature instability (NBTI induced hole trapping in E′ center defects, which leads to depassivation of interface trap precursor in different geometrical structures of high-k PMOSFET gate stacks using the two-stage NBTI model. The resulting degradation is characterized based on the time evolution of the interface and hole trap densities, as well as the resulting threshold voltage shift. By varying the physical thicknesses of the interface silicon dioxide (SiO2 and hafnium oxide (HfO2 layers, we investigate how the variation in thickness affects hole trapping/detrapping at different stress temperatures. The results suggest that the degradations are highly dependent on the physical gate stack parameters for a given stress voltage and temperature. The degradation is more pronounced by 5% when the thicknesses of HfO2 are increased but is reduced by 11% when the SiO2 interface layer thickness is increased during lower stress voltage. However, at higher stress voltage, greater degradation is observed for a thicker SiO2 interface layer. In addition, the existence of different stress temperatures at which the degradation behavior differs implies that the hole trapping/detrapping event is thermally activated.

  6. High-performance III-V MOSFET with nano-stacked high-k gate dielectric and 3D fin-shaped structure. (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Hung; Liao, Wen-Shiang; Yang, Hsin-Chia; Wang, Shea-Jue; Liaw, Yue-Gie; Wang, Hao; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Mu-Chun


    A three-dimensional (3D) fin-shaped field-effect transistor structure based on III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) fabrication has been demonstrated using a submicron GaAs fin as the high-mobility channel. The fin-shaped channel has a thickness-to-width ratio (TFin/WFin) equal to 1. The nano-stacked high-k Al2O3 dielectric was adopted as a gate insulator in forming a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure to suppress gate leakage. The 3D III-V MOSFET exhibits outstanding gate controllability and shows a high Ion/Ioff ratio > 105 and a low subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. Compared to a conventional Schottky gate metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor or planar III-V MOSFETs, the III-V MOSFET in this work exhibits a significant performance improvement and is promising for future development of high-performance n-channel devices based on III-V materials.

  7. Teores de ácidos graxos em ovos comerciais convencionais e modificados com ômega-3 Fatty acids levels in conventional and designer omega-3 commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Marinho Magalhães Cedro


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os teores de ácidos graxos em ovos comerciais convencionais e em ovos modificados com ômega-3. Foram utilizadas 864 poedeiras da linhagem Isa Brown aleatoriamente distribuídas em dois grupos, de modo que cada gaiola com quatro aves foi considerada uma repetição, totalizando 216 repetições. No grupo para produção de ovos convencionais, as aves foram alimentadas durante toda a vida produtiva com ração à base de milho e farelo de soja, enquanto, no grupo para produção de ovos modificados, foram alimentadas, a partir da 22ª semana de idade, com ração contendo 1,5% de substrato de algas marinhas e 1,8% de óleo de peixe. Foram coletados, aleatoriamente, 180 ovos de cada grupo de poedeira (totalizando 360 ovos, que foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, considerando cada ovo uma repetição. Os ovos modificados com ômega-3 apresentaram menores de índice de gema, mas não diferiram dos ovos convencionais quanto aos demais parâmetros de qualidade. As médias de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados ômega-3 e de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados foram mais altas nos ovos modificados. As relações entre ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e saturados e entre ômega-6 e ômega-3 nos ovos modificados foram próximas ao ideal estimado para alimentação humana. As médias de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega-6 e de ácidos graxos saturados nos ovos convencionais foram significativamente maiores que dos ovos modificados com ômega-3.The objective of this work was to compare the levels of fatty acids between conventional commercial eggs and designer omega-3 eggs. It was used 864 Isa Brown line laying hens randomly distributed in two groups, so each cage with four birds was considered a replicate, totalizing 216 repetitions. In the group for production of conventional eggs, birds were fed corn- and soybean-based rations during the entire productive life while in the group for production of designer

  8. Influencia de la temperatura y el tiempo de almacenamiento en la conservación del fruto de mango (Manifera indica L. variedad Van Dyke Influence of temperature and storage time on quality of mango fruit (Mangifera indica l. variety Van Dyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvis Jesús A.


    Full Text Available Mangos (Mangifera índica L. Variedad Van Dyke en grado de madurez fisiológica, se almacenaron en tres temperaturas de refrigeración (12, 10 Y 7°C y H. R del 85 - 90%, por tiempos de 10, 20 y 30 días. Adicionalmente se almacenaron mangos a 18°C por 15 días, los cuales fueron tomados como testigo. Los mangos fueron cosechados de la finca Frutol, localizada
    en el municipio de El Espinal, departamento del Tolima.
    Temperatura media 29°C, altitud 431 m.s.n.m, humedad
    relativa del 70%, precipitación promedio anual 1368
    mm. Durante el almacenamiento se evaluaron características
    fisicas como porcentaje de pérdidas de peso, dureza del
    fruto y de la pulpa. Además se evaluaron algunos cambios
    químicos y bioquímicos como la variación de los °Brix, el pH, el porcentaje de acidez, el contenido de sacarosa, glucosa y fructosa y de ácidos (cítrico, málico, succínico y ascórbico. Finalmente se evaluaron los cambios de color de la corteza.
    Del estudio se concluyó que la mejor temperatura de
    almacenamiento fue 12°C, en la cual el fruto maduró
    hasta alcanzar la madurez organoléptica en el día 30, lo
    cual equivale al doble del tiempo de conservación respecto
    a los mangos almacenados a 18°C. El mango resultó ser sensible a las temperaturas de 10 y 7°C, la cual se caracterizó por la interrupción del proceso de maduración siendo más graves los daños por frío en la temperatura de 7°C. En la temperatura de 10°C, se presentó evolución de los cambios que caracterizan la maduración hasta el día 20, pero entre el día 21 y el día 30 los cambios fueron interrumpidos, lo que indica que los daños por frío se hicieron irreversibles a partir del día 21.Mangos variety Van Dyke harvested at physiologic maturity were stored at low temperatures (12, 10 and 7°C, 85% RH, for 10, 20 and 30 days. Control mangos were stored at 18°C by 15 days. The fruits were harvested in the Frutol

  9. Effective use of fluorides in the People's Republic of China--a model for WHO Mega Country initiatives. (United States)

    Petersen, P E; Kwan, S; Zhu, L; Zhang, B X; Bian, J Y


    Poor dental health has been reported in the Chinese National Surveys of Oral Health. With the changing lifestyle and growing consumption of sugars, the incidence of dental caries may well continue to rise, compounded by limited access to professional care. The increasing oral disease burden could become a major public health problem in China, leading to considerable personal and health service costs. There is a desperate need for systematic implementation of preventive programmes. Currently, China is strengthening the prevention of chronic diseases, which provides an excellent opportunity to integrate oral disease prevention into the overall non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention programmes. In order to address this growing public health problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme advocates the effective use of fluoride as an essential approach to prevent dental caries in the 21st century--part of the WHO Global Oral Health Strategy. Population-wide automatic fluoridation measures are considered the most effective, complemented by appropriate use of toothpastes containing fluoride. There are wide variations of fluoride levels in drinking water in China and, in many areas, the levels of fluoride in drinking water are lower than the recommended levels. The use of toothpaste containing fluoride is still too low in some areas and decreases with age. Those who live in rural areas have limited access to affordable toothpastes containing fluoride. In March 2006, as part of the WHO Mega Country Health Promotion Network initiatives, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme organised a three-day symposium in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The aim of the symposium was to bring together international experience and Chinese expertise to facilitate policy development for effective use of fluoride in China, highlighting the benefits of, and barriers to, the implementation of different fluoridation programmes at the strategic levels as well as

  10. Influence of Design and Process Parameters of 32-nm Advanced-Process High- k p-MOSFETs on Negative-Bias Temperature Instability and Study of Defects (United States)

    Alimin, A. F. Muhammad; Radzi, A. A. Mohd; Sazali, N. A. F.; Hatta, S. F. Wan Muhamad; Soin, N.; Hussin, H.


    Negative-bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become a prominent factor limiting scaling of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. This work presents a comprehensive simulation study on the effects of critical design parameters of 32-nm advanced-process high- k p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on NBTI. The NBTI mechanism and defects were explored for various geometric and process design parameters over a wide range of values. The NBTI simulation method applied in this work follows the on-the-fly method to capture the mechanisms of fast and slow traps. This work illustrates the dependence of the threshold voltage ( V th) degradation on the stress oxide field and stress temperature as well as investigation of the Arrhenius plot for the devices. The temperature insensitivity during short stress time of 1 ms indicates absence of generated defects and presence of preexisting defects. It is also observed that significant defects are generated in the gate stack subsequent to NBTI. The slope obtained from the V th degradation analysis at 1 ks and 375°C shows that changing the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness affects the V th degradation by 96.16% more than changing the HfO2 thickness and by 80.67% more than changing the metal gate thickness. It is also found that the NBTI effect depends on process design considerations, specifically the boron concentration in the highly doped drain, the metal gate work function, and the halo doping concentration; it was observed that higher boron dose and high metal work function may lead to higher V th degradation. However, the halo doping concentration in the advanced 32-nm structure has an insignificant effect on NBTI.

  11. Interactions of the space debris environment with mega constellations-Using the example of the OneWeb constellation (United States)

    Radtke, Jonas; Kebschull, Christopher; Stoll, Enrico


    Recently, several announcements have been published to deploy satellite constellations into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) containing several hundred to thousands of rather small sized objects. The purpose of these constellations is to provide a worldwide internet coverage, even to the remotest areas. Examples of these mega-constellations are one from SpaceX, which is announced to comprise of about 4000 satellites, the Norwegian STEAM network, which is told to contain 4257 satellites, and the OneWeb constellation, which forms one of the smaller constellations with 720 satellites. As example constellation, OneWeb has been chosen. From all announced constellation, OneWeb by far delivered most information, both in regards to constellation design and their plans to encounter space debris issues, which is the reason why it has been chosen for these analyses. In this paper, at first an overview of the planned OneWeb constellation setup is given. From this description, a mission life-cycle is deduced, splitting the complete orbital lifetime of the satellites into four phases. Following, using ESA-MASTER, for each of the mission phases the flux on both single constellations satellites and the complete constellation are performed and the collision probabilities are derived. The focus in this analysis is set on catastrophic collisions. This analysis is then varied parametrically for different operational altitudes of the constellation as well as different lifetimes with different assumptions for the success of post mission disposal (PMD). Following the to-be-expected mean number of collision avoidance manoeuvres during all active mission phases is performed using ARES from ESA's DRAMA tool suite. The same variations as during the flux analysis are considered. Lastly the characteristics of hypothetical OneWeb satellite fragmentation clouds, calculated using the NASA Breakup model, are described and the impact of collision clouds from OneWeb satellites on the constellation itself is

  12. Monitoring tumor motion with on-line mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography imaging in a cine mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Bodo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Gayou, Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Parda, David S [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States)


    Accurate daily patient localization is becoming increasingly important in external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) utilizing a therapy beam and an on-board electronic portal imager can be used to localize tumor volumes and verify the patient's position prior to treatment. MV-CBCT produces a static volumetric image and therefore can only account for inter-fractional changes. In this work, the feasibility of using the MV-CBCT raw data as a fluoroscopic series of portal images to monitor tumor changes due to e.g. respiratory motion was investigated. A method was developed to read and convert the CB raw data into a cine. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio on the MV-CB projection data, image post-processing with filtering techniques was investigated. Volumes of interest from the planning CT were projected onto the MV-cine. Because of the small exposure and the varying thickness of the patient depending on the projection angle, soft-tissue contrast was limited. Tumor visibility as a function of tumor size and projection angle was studied. The method was well suited in the upper chest, where motion of the tumor as well as of the diaphragm could be clearly seen. In the cases of patients with non-small cell lung cancer with medium or large tumor masses, we verified that the tumor mass was always located within the PTV despite respiratory motion. However for small tumors the method is less applicable, because the visibility of those targets becomes marginal. Evaluation of motion in non-superior-inferior directions might also be limited for small tumor masses. Viewing MV-CBCT data in a cine mode adds to the utility of MV-CBCT for verification of tumor motion and for deriving individualized treatment margins.

  13. Monitoring tumor motion with on-line mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography imaging in a cine mode (United States)

    Reitz, Bodo; Gayou, Olivier; Parda, David S.; Miften, Moyed


    Accurate daily patient localization is becoming increasingly important in external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) utilizing a therapy beam and an on-board electronic portal imager can be used to localize tumor volumes and verify the patient's position prior to treatment. MV-CBCT produces a static volumetric image and therefore can only account for inter-fractional changes. In this work, the feasibility of using the MV-CBCT raw data as a fluoroscopic series of portal images to monitor tumor changes due to e.g. respiratory motion was investigated. A method was developed to read and convert the CB raw data into a cine. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio on the MV-CB projection data, image post-processing with filtering techniques was investigated. Volumes of interest from the planning CT were projected onto the MV-cine. Because of the small exposure and the varying thickness of the patient depending on the projection angle, soft-tissue contrast was limited. Tumor visibility as a function of tumor size and projection angle was studied. The method was well suited in the upper chest, where motion of the tumor as well as of the diaphragm could be clearly seen. In the cases of patients with non-small cell lung cancer with medium or large tumor masses, we verified that the tumor mass was always located within the PTV despite respiratory motion. However for small tumors the method is less applicable, because the visibility of those targets becomes marginal. Evaluation of motion in non-superior-inferior directions might also be limited for small tumor masses. Viewing MV-CBCT data in a cine mode adds to the utility of MV-CBCT for verification of tumor motion and for deriving individualized treatment margins.

  14. A practical monitoring system for the structural safety of mega-trusses using wireless vibrating wire strain gauges. (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Lee, Hwan Young; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok


    Sensor technologies have been actively employed in structural health monitoring (SHM) to evaluate structural safety. To provide stable and real-time monitoring, a practical wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs) is proposed and applied to a building under construction. In this WSNS, the data measured from each VWSG are transmitted to the sensor node via a signal line and then transmitted to the master node through a short-range wireless communication module (operating on the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band). The master node also employs a long-range wireless communication module (Code Division Multiple Access-CDMA) to transmit the received data from the sensor node to a server located in a remote area, which enables a manager to examine the measured data in real time without any time or location restrictions. In this study, a total of 48 VWSGs, 14 sensor nodes, and seven master nodes were implemented to measure long-term strain variations of mega-trusses in an irregular large-scale building under construction. Based on strain data collected over a 16-month period, a quantitative evaluation of the construction process was performed to determine the aspects that exhibit the greatest influence on member behavior and to conduct a comparison with numerical simulation results. The effect of temperature stress on the structural elements was also analyzed. From these observations, the feasibility of a long-term WSNS based on VWSGs to evaluate the structural safety of an irregular building under construction was confirmed.

  15. Pocket money, eating behaviors, and weight status among Chinese children: The Childhood Obesity Study in China mega-cities. (United States)

    Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa


    Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban China. Data were collected in 2015 from 1648 students in 16 primary and middle schools in four mega-cities in China (4 schools/city): Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Xi'an. Cluster robust negative binomial regression models were fit to assess family correlates of pocket money, associations of pocket money with child eating behaviors and weight outcomes, and possible modifying effects of schools' unhealthy food restrictions. Sixty-nine percent of students received pocket money weekly. Students received more pocket money if mothers frequently ate out of home (IRR=2.28 [1.76, 2.94]) and/or family rarely had dinner together (IRR=1.42, 95%=[1.01, 1.99]). Students got less pocket money if parents were concerned about child's future health due to unhealthy eating (IRR=0.56 [0.32,0.98]). Students with more pocket money more frequently consumed (by 25-89%) sugary beverages, snacks, fast food, or at street food stalls, and were 45-90% more likely to be overweight/obese. Associations of pocket money with unhealthy eating and overweight/obesity were weaker in schools with unhealthy food restrictions. Pocket money is a risk factor for unhealthy eating and obesity in urban China. School policies may buffer pocket money's negative influence on students' eating and weight status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China. (United States)

    Liu, Enfeng; Yan, Ting; Birch, Gavin; Zhu, Yuxin


    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n=99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2-23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca>Cu>Pb≈Zn>Cr≈Fe>Ni≈Ba>Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega City of São Paulo - SP, Brazil (United States)

    Gonçalves Santos, Rafael; Saraiva Lopes, António Manuel; Prata-Shimomura, Alessandra


    Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega city of São Paulo - SP, Brazil Tropical megacities have presented a strong trend in growing urban. Urban management in megacities has as one of the biggest challenges is the lack of integration of urban climate and urban planning to promote ecologically smart cities. Local Climatic Zones (LCZs) are considered as important and recognized tool for urban climate management. Classes are local in scale, climatic in nature, and zonal in representation. They can be understood as regions of uniform surface cover, structure, material and human activity that have to a unique climate response. As an initial tool to promote urban climate planning, LCZs represent a simple composition of different land coverages (buildings, vegetation, soils, rock, roads and water). LCZs are divided in 17 classes, they are based on surface cover (built fraction, soil moisture, albedo), surface structure (sky view factor, roughness height) and cultural activity (anthropogenic heat flux). The aim of this study is the application of the LCZs classification system in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil. Located at a latitude of 23° 21' and longitude 46° 44' near to the Tropic of Capricorn, presenting humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with diversified topographies. The megacity of São Paulo currently concentrates 11.890.000 inhabitants is characterized by large urban conglomerates with impermeable surfaces and high verticalization, having as result high urban heat island intensity. The result indicates predominance in urban zones of Compact low-rise, Compact Mid-rise, Compact High-rise and Open Low-rise. Non-urban regions are mainly covered by dense vegetation and water. The LCZs classification system promotes significant advantages for climate sensitive urban planning in the megacity of São Paulo. They offers new perspectives to the management of temperature and urban ventilation and allows the formulation of urban planning

  18. The Patterned Topography of Ice Stream Beds; Insight from the Spatial Frequency of Mega-Scale Glacial Lineations (United States)

    Spagnolo, M.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Clark, C.; Stokes, C.; Atkinson, N.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Ely, J.; Graham, A. G. C.; Hogan, K.; King, E. C.; Livingstone, S. J.; Pritchard, H. D.


    The formation of Mega-Scale Glacial Lineations (MSGLs), key to the understanding of how fast flowing ice streams interact with, and are controlled by, their beds is unresolved. Here we present a contribution to this debate based on a technique applied for the first time to these subglacial landscapes. 2D Fourier spectra were obtained from 22 datasets extracted from various offshore and terrestrial settings in Antarctica and Canada, including 11 samples from ice stream beds rich in MSGLs, both palaeo and extant, as well as terrains characterised by iceberg furrows, shelf-break canyons, streamlined bedrock, crag-and-tails and fluvial landforms. The Fourier analyses produces amplitude vs. wavelength plots for all possible orientations across all sampled datasets, thus allowing us to quantify which wavelengths are dominant and how strong their Fourier signal is. Uniquely amongst all other analysed terrains, MSGLs are characterised by amplitudes that are generally low along most orientations, but much higher than average along the consistent orientation of the landform's long axis. This is especially evident within a range of wavelengths between 300 and 1100 m, where a few dominant wavelengths show much higher amplitudes than all others. This distinct spectral signature could serve as a guide for models of ice stream flow and landscape evolution and allow for the automatic identification of MSGLs. The small number of dominant wavelengths also indicates that MSGLs represent a patterned topography in the sense that they are characterised by a regular lateral spacing and should be considered as a spatially self-organised phenomenon. Taken together, these results support the idea that some form(s) of instability is a key ingredient in the formation of the MSGLs.

  19. Das práticas de gestão de grandes projetos urbanos Management practices of urban mega projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Nerone Gadens


    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca contribuir para o maior aprofundamento da discussão sobre um fenômeno comum a algumas cidades brasileiras: os Grandes Projetos Urbanos (GPUs. Para tanto, parte-se da assertiva de que se trata ainda de um conceito em formação na literatura acadêmica. Nesse sentido, baseado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, o artigo discute seu delineamento conceitual e sua implementação no cenário brasileiro a partir da década de 1970, estabelecendo relações com as práticas e modelos de gestão urbana presenciados ao longo das últimas quatro décadas de análise. Os resultados evidenciam aspectos similares e díspares no debate teórico sobre GPUs, enquanto as conclusões demonstram a necessidade de maior aprofundamento conceitual do tema, tendo em vista a relevância da discussão e reflexão sobre esse tipo de intervenção urbanística no planejamento do território das cidades contemporâneas.This article aims to contribute to further deepen the discussion of a phenomenon common to several Brazilian cities: the Urban Mega Projects (UMPs. To do so, it starts from the assertion that it's still an emergent concept in the academic literature. Based on a bibliographic research, the article discusses its formation and implementation in the Brazilian context since the 1970s, establishing relationships with the practices and models of urban management witnessed over the last four decades of analysis. The results reveal similarities and dissimilarities in the theoretical debate on UMPs, while the final conclusions show the need for deepening conceptual reflections on this topic, as it is a central question on this kind of intervention in territorial planning of contemporary cities.

  20. Performance quantification of a flat-panel imager in industrial mega-voltage X-ray imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stritt, Carina, E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Center for X-ray Analytics, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Plamondon, Mathieu; Hofmann, Jürgen; Flisch, Alexander [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Center for X-ray Analytics, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sennhauser, Urs [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Reliability Science and Technology Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)


    Active matrix flat-panel detectors have gained popularity amongst X-ray imaging systems due to their speed, resolution and high dynamic range. With appropriate shielding modern flat-panel imagers can even be used in high energy Computed Tomography (CT) systems of energies up to several mega-electronvolt (MeV). However, the performance of a digital detector is not independent of the rest of the radiographic system but depends on all other components of the system. Signal and noise transfer properties highly depend on all parameters of an imaging chain. This work focuses on quantifying the resolution capabilities and the noise in the signals of a MeV X-ray imaging system. The performance quantification is done by computing the modulation transfer function (MTF) using the standard edge method as well as the noise power spectrum (NPS) of the imaging system. We performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in order to understand the influence of scattered radiation on the measurements. A comparison of the horizontal and vertical MTF showed that the imaging behaviour of the detector is isotropic. Moreover, an additional investigation of the noise performance of the system showed that there is no measurable noise correlation present in the system. It was shown that the thickness of the edge device does not have a significant influence on the resulting system MTF. A rapid drop in the visibility could be observed resulting in a value of 1.2 line pairs per mm at 50% MTF. The visibility limit of line pair patterns was found to be at 2.3 line pairs per mm given by the 10% MTF value.

  1. Crop bioaccumulation and human exposure of perfluoroalkyl acids through multi-media transport from a mega fluorochemical industrial park, China. (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Lu, Yonglong; Shi, Yajuan; Wang, Pei; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew J; Johnson, Andrew C; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Yunqiao; Lu, Xiaotian; Su, Chao; Sarvajayakesavaluc, Suriyanarayanan; Khan, Kifayatullah


    Significant quantities of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are released to the environment from fluorochemical manufacturing processes through wastewater discharge and air emission in China, which may lead to human exposure and health risks through crop bioaccumulation from PFAAs-contaminated soil and irrigation water. This paper systematically studied the distribution and transport of PFAAs in agricultural soil, irrigation water and precipitation, followed by crop bioaccumulation and finally human exposure of PFAAs within a 10km radius around a mega-fluorochemical industrial park (FIP). Hotspots of contamination by PFAAs were found near the FIP and downstream of the effluent discharge point with the maximum concentrations of 641ng/g in agricultural soil, 480ng/g in wheat grain, 58.8ng/g in maize grain and 4,862ng/L in precipitation. As the distance increased from the FIP, PFAAs concentrations in all media showed a sharp initial decrease followed by a moderate decline. Elevated PFAA concentrations in soil and grains were still present within a radius of 10 km of the FIP. The soil contamination was associated with the presence of PFAAs in irrigation water and precipitation, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFAA component in soil. However, due to bioaccumulation preference, short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), especially perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), became the major PFAA contaminants in grains of wheat and maize. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for both grains showed a decrease with increasing chain length of PFAAs (approximately 0.5 log decrease per CF2 group). Compared to maize grain, wheat grain showed higher BAFs, possibly related to its higher protein content. The PFCA (C4-C8) concentrations (on a log10 basis) in agricultural soil and grain were found to show a linear positive correlation. Local human exposure of PFOA via the consumption of contaminated grains represents a health risk for local residents, especially for

  2. Trap state passivation improved hot-carrier instability by zirconium-doping in hafnium oxide in a nanoscale n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistors with high-k/metal gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hsi-Wen; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chien-Yu [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Ye, Yi-Han [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)


    This work investigates the effect on hot carrier degradation (HCD) of doping zirconium into the hafnium oxide high-k layer in the nanoscale high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. Previous n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistor studies demonstrated that zirconium-doped hafnium oxide reduces charge trapping and improves positive bias temperature instability. In this work, a clear reduction in HCD is observed with zirconium-doped hafnium oxide because channel hot electron (CHE) trapping in pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. However, this reduced HCD became ineffective at ultra-low temperature, since CHE traps in the deeper bulk defects at ultra-low temperature, while zirconium-doping only passivates shallow bulk defects.

  3. Evaluating sustainable adaptation strategies for vulnerable mega-deltas using system dynamics modelling: Rice agriculture in the Mekong Delta's An Giang Province, Vietnam. (United States)

    Chapman, Alexander; Darby, Stephen


    Challenging dynamics are unfolding in social-ecological systems around the globe as society attempts to mitigate and adapt to climate change while sustaining rapid local development. The IPCC's 5th assessment suggests these changing systems are susceptible to unforeseen and dangerous 'emergent risks'. An archetypal example is the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) where the river dyke network has been heightened and extended over the last decade with the dual objectives of (1) adapting the delta's 18 million inhabitants and their livelihoods to increasingly intense river-flooding, and (2) developing rice production through a shift from double to triple-cropping. Negative impacts have been associated with this shift, particularly in relation to its exclusion of fluvial sediment deposition from the floodplain. A deficit in our understanding of the dynamics of the rice-sediment system, which involve unintuitive delays, feedbacks, and tipping points, is addressed here, using a system dynamics (SD) approach to inform sustainable adaptation strategies. Specifically, we develop and test a new SD model which simulates the dynamics between the farmers' economic system and their rice agriculture operations, and uniquely, integrates the role of fluvial sediment deposition within their dyke compartment. We use the model to explore a range of alternative rice cultivation strategies. Our results suggest that the current dominant strategy (triple-cropping) is only optimal for wealthier groups within society and over the short-term (ca. 10years post-implementation). The model suggests that the policy of opening sluice gates and leaving paddies fallow during high-flood years, in order to encourage natural sediment deposition and the nutrient replenishment it supplies, is both a more equitable and a more sustainable policy. But, even with this approach, diminished supplies of sediment-bound nutrients and the consequent need to compensate with artificial fertilisers will mean that smaller

  4. Incidência da cardiopatia chagásica em 15.000 necrópsias consecutivas e sua associação com os «megas»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. A. Barbosa


    Full Text Available Os AA. estudaram, a incidência da cardiopatia chagásica em 15.000 necrópsias consecutivas e sua associação com os megas. Em 875 cardiopatias chagásicas houve 145 casos de megas, ou seja, 16,56%, com predominância do sexo masculino. No branco houve maior incidência (55 de megas do que no mulato (53 e no negro (31 dentre 858 cardiopatias chagásicas. Em 848 cardiopatias chagásicas, 85,78% eram de indivíduos que faleceram entre 21 e 60 anos. O maior número de cardiopatias (120 ou 14,14% e de "megas'' (21 ou 15,78% foi encontrado nos indivíduos entre 36 a 40 anos. Os nossos resultados mostram uma incidência diferente da associação cardiopatia-mega, em comparação da observada em outras regiões do País e em outros países da América do Sul.

  5. Observational evidence on the effects of mega-fires on the frequency of hydrogeomorphic hazards. The case of the Peloponnese fires of 2007 in Greece. (United States)

    Diakakis, M; Nikolopoulos, E I; Mavroulis, S; Vassilakis, E; Korakaki, E


    Even though rare, mega-fires raging during very dry and windy conditions, record catastrophic impacts on infrastructure, the environment and human life, as well as extremely high suppression and rehabilitation costs. Apart from the direct consequences, mega-fires induce long-term effects in the geomorphological and hydrological processes, influencing environmental factors that in turn can affect the occurrence of other natural hazards, such as floods and mass movement phenomena. This work focuses on the forest fire of 2007 in Peloponnese, Greece that to date corresponds to the largest fire in the country's record that burnt 1773km(2), causing 78 fatalities and very significant damages in property and infrastructure. Specifically, this work examines the occurrence of flood and mass movement phenomena, before and after this mega-fire and analyses different influencing factors to investigate the degree to which the 2007 fire and/or other parameters have affected their frequency. Observational evidence based on several data sources collected during the period 1989-2016 show that the 2007 fire has contributed to an increase of average flood and mass movement events frequency by approximately 3.3 and 5.6 times respectively. Fire affected areas record a substantial increase in the occurrence of both phenomena, presenting a noticeably stronger increase compared to neighbouring areas that have not been affected. Examination of the monthly occurrence of events showed an increase even in months of the year were rainfall intensity presented decreasing trends. Although no major land use changes has been identified and chlorophyll is shown to recover 2years after the fire incident, differences on the type of vegetation as tall forest has been substituted with lower vegetation are considered significant drivers for the observed increase in flood and mass movement frequency in the fire affected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can Trade Help Overcome Economic Crisis? Implications for Northeast Asia Creating Regional FTA between Korea, China, and Japan and Mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park


    Full Text Available Globalization processes have formed a triad of economic and trade systems in terms of GDP and trade volume. These are the European Union (EU, North America Free Trade Association (NAFTA, and Northeast Asia, the major actors in the global economic system and trade since 1990s. However, the global financial crisis in 2008 created a new global economic order and governance that consisted of existing global economic power such as the G7 as well as new emerging economic powers, such as G20 and BRICS. Under such rapidly changing global economic conditions, global trade has contributed to rapid economic growth in the world in the last half-century. Regarding FTAs, the European Union (EU is the frontrunner and has developed the most advanced system for regional economic integration. The EU’s single market provides several implications for Northeast Asian countries trying to build their own regional bilateral and multilateral FTAs and participate in different mega-FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. As a result, their economic interests are rather divided deeply and related to political and security issues in the context of Northeast Asia. Therefore, it is more difficult for Northeast Asian countries to economically integrate in a way that is comparable with the EU. This paper addresses a regional FTA between South Korea, China, and Japan that could be a starting point for their formal economic integration and create a reliable platform to strengthen their trade, boosting further economic growth. It also asks which of the three nations’ economic interests are served by participating in mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. Finally, it analyses the best scenario for participating in the multilateral FTA and mega FTAs for each nation.

  7. Esofagectomia transhiatal laparoscópica para o tratamento do megaesôfago avançado: análise de 60 casos


    Crema, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Lara Beatriz Prata; Sousa, Renato Costa; Terra Júnior, Júverson Alves; Silva, Bruna Ferrante; Silva, Alex Augusto; Silva, Athos Vargas


    OBJETIVO: Utilizamos esta pesquisa para estudar e demonstrar que a esofagectomia subtotal através do acesso laparoscópico e transmediastinal para o preparo do estômago, dissecção do esôfago, abdominal e torácico, e cervicotomia esquerda para retirada da peça e anastomose esôfago-gástrica é facultativa e segura no tratamento do megaesôfago avançado. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 60 esofagectomias transhiatais por laparoscopia de setembro de 1996 até dezembro de 2006 (10 casos com preservação dos n...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tulokhonov


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the prospect of the development of Russia’s transport infrastructure mega-projects in the context of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization formation. The paper focuses on the country’s interests in the area of influence of the Silk and the Tea Roads. Economic cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region on the Trans-Siberian Railway-Mongolia-China direction, with diversification of transport routes to all four oceans and five continents, is the most effective policy for Russia.

  9. Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based high-K dielectric thin films from solution processed at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frunză, Raluca C., E-mail: [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kmet, Brigita [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jankovec, Marko; Topič, Marko [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Malič, Barbara [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Highlights: • Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} (Ta:Al:Si = 8:1:1 atomic ratio) and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were processed from solutions. • The XRD-amorphous films, heated at or below 400 °C, are smooth (RMS < 0.5 nm). • The dielectric permittivity of the single- and mixed-oxide films heated at 400 °C is 27 and 22, respectively. • The current–voltage characteristics of the mixed-oxide films reveal the Poole–Frenkel behaviour. - Abstract: Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based thin films were prepared by chemical solution deposition at temperatures not exceeding 400 °C. The aim of the work was to investigate the properties of high-K dielectric films of the ternary composition Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} with the Ta:Al:Si = 8:1:1 atomic ratio. Pure Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} samples were also prepared. All thin films were amorphous, and had smooth and flat surfaces with the average roughness of below 0.5 nm. The mixed oxide samples heated between 300 °C and 400 °C showed little difference in the dielectric permittivity with the values ranging from about 19 to 22. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film heated at 400 °C exhibited the highest permittivity of about 27. The current–voltage measurements revealed considerably improved characteristics of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} samples within the investigated heating temperature range, with a significant overall decrease of the leakage currents in contrast to that of the pure Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films.

  10. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.


    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  11. Heavy steel casting components for power plants 'mega-components' made of high Cr-steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, Reinhold [voestalpine Giesserei Linz GmbH, Linz (Austria)


    solutions to process related problems such as deoxidation, solidification behavior, heat treatment with long hold times, welding on the casting, stresses, etc. Cast components for power plants, made of high Cr-steels and Ni-base alloys are becoming bigger. Development work and investments in new processes and technologies are necessary, process-modelling is an indispensable tool for the ability to produce also these 'mega-components'. (orig.)

  12. Model elucidating the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution over Northeast mega-city cluster in China. (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gbaguidi, Alex; Yan, Pingzhong; Zhang, Wending; Zhu, Lili; Yao, Xuefeng; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hui


    Recent studies on regional haze pollution over China come up in general with strong variability of main causes of heavy polluted episodes, in linkage with local specificities, sources and pollution characteristics. This paper therefore aims at elucidating the main specific sources and formation mechanisms of observed strong haze pollution episodes over 1-15 November 2015 in Northeast region considered as one of biggest megacity clusters in China. The Northeast China mega-city cluster, including Heilong Jiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces, is adjacent to Russia in the north, Mongolian at the west, North Korea at east, and representing key geographical location in the regional and transnational air pollution issues in China due to the presence of heavy industries and intense economic activities. The present study, based on air quality monitoring, remote sensing satellite data and sensitivity experiments carried on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS), quantitatively assesses the impact of meteorological conditions and potential contributions from regional chemical transport, intensive energy combustion, illegal emission and biomass burning emissions to PM2.5 concentration variation. The results indicate strong inversion occurrence at lower atmosphere with weak near-surface wind speed and high relative humidity, leading to PM2.5 concentration increase of about 30-50%. Intensive energy combustion (plausibly for heating activities) and illegal emission also significantly enhance the overall PM2.5 accumulation by 100-200 μg m-3 (60-70% increase), against 75-100 μg m-3 from the biomass burning under the northeast-southwest transport pathway, corresponding to a contribution of 10-20% to PM2.5 concentration increase. Obviously, stagnant meteorological conditions, energy combustion, illegal emission and biomass burning are main drivers of strong haze formation and spatial distribution over Northeast China megacity cluster. In clear, much effort on

  13. Mega deposits and erosive features related to the glacial lake Nedre Glomsjø outburst flood, southeastern Norway (United States)

    Høgaas, Fredrik; Longva, Oddvar


    In this paper we present a suite of erosional remnants, mega deposits and subtle bar morphology that we relate to the outburst flood from the glacial lake Nedre Glomsjø at the end of the last Ice Age. By using large datasets of airborne LiDAR data implemented in a geographic information system (GIS), we have mapped flood related features along the Glomma and Vrangselva rivers in southeastern Norway. The unprecedented overview of the valley reaches obtained by the vegetation-free LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM) has revealed a set of hitherto undocumented landforms. Persisting erosive lines - indicators of the uppermost flooded level - are carved into surficial deposits in the hillsides and are found as high as 80-90 m above the modern valley floor. By using the indicators as an upper flood boundary, we have computed cross-sectional profiles showing that the flood in some reaches inundated more than 120 000 m2 of the valley. Large, streamlined bed forms, which we interpret as flood bars, drape sections of the valley floor, some several kilometers long. The most morphologically striking - pendant bars - are developed behind flood flow projections, such as bedrock knolls or in lee of a valley bend. Flood bars occur in the entire study area, but are more widespread in the north and generally decrease in size moving in a downstream direction. Kettle holes and ice-block obstacle marks from icebergs arrested during the flood are common. These features support the theory of a catastrophic drainage event, but also indicate a pattern of differential erosion and deposition that allowed us to interpret palaeoflow on individual bars. Vast aeolian dune fields in the region are interpreted as a secondary product of the flood, as deposits related to the event were mobilised by northerly winds momentarily after the flood waned. The dune fields cover an excess of 50 km2 and reveal that the region was a highly active periglacial desert after the flood. Our mapping

  14. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

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    Liu, Enfeng, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Birch, Gavin [School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhu, Yuxin [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)


    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  15. Efecto de Inhibidores de Pardeamiento y la Técnica de Atmósfera Modifcada en Mango (Mangifera Indica L Variedad Van Dyke Mínimamente Procesado

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    Jesús Antonio Galvis Vanegas


    Full Text Available El mango (Mangifera indica L variedad Van Dyke es un fruto apetecido a nivel nacional e internacional por su agradable aroma, intenso color amarillo y buen balance de ácidos/azúcares. La investigación se desarrolló en dos etapas. En la primera se determinó la respuesta de los trozos de fruto a la aplicación de tres inhibidores de pardeamiento en dos concentraciones: (ácido cítrico a 150 y 300 ppm; ácido ascórbico a 250 y 500 ppm y L-Cysteina a 100 y 200 ppm, con relación a la calidad y tiempo de almacenamiento; en la segunda, se estableció el tiempo de vida útil de modo que conserve sus características organolépticas, cuando se combina el mejor inhibidor de pardeamiento, con la técnica de atmósfera modificada en concentraciones de 5% de CO2, 5% de O2 y 90% de N2, empleando dos tipos de empaque: canastillas plásticas y bandejas de icopor, colocadas dentro de bolsas de polietileno de baja densidad (LDPE calibre 2 (0.035 mm de espesor.

  16. Determination of trace elements in Mesozoic dykes of the Serra do Mar by neutron activation; Determinacao de elementos tracos em diques mesozoicos da Serra do Mar por meio de ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Caio M.; Marques, Leila S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The analysis of trace elements such as rare earths, Th, U, Ta, Hf, Ba, Rb and Ba, is a very important tool for petrogenetic studies. In order to study these processes in dykes of Enxame Serra do Mar (Coast of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro), belonging to the Parana Magmatic Province (PMP), one of the most significant provinces of continental basalts in the world, were perform analyzes by neutron activation in these dikes. The technique, employed in Centro de Reator de Pesquisa of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, provided concentrations of trace elements with accuracy levels of 10% and 9%, which are suitable for petrogenetic studies. Due to the low concentrations of the elements analyzed, the experimental routine sample preparation processes covered very careful to avoid contamination. The samples investigated can be divided into four groups: basic rocks (SiO{sub 2} <55%) with Ti / Y> 500; basic rocks with Ti / Y <500; intermediate rocks (55% 63%). Dikes of intermediate and acid composition only occur at the Sao Sebastiao Island and adjacent coastal region. The concentrations of major and minor elements, as well as the abundance patterns of rare earths and other incompatible elements of these more differentiated rocks, show significant similarities with the type of the volcanic Chapeco, suggesting similar genesis, in other worlds, including also processes of crustal contamination.

  17. Tracking changes of forest carbon density following mega-fires: comparison studies in the Yellowstone National Park and Boreal Forests of Northeast China (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Huang, Chengquan; Huang, Chao; He, Hong; Zhu, Zhiliang


    Wildfires and post-fire management directly change C stored in biomass and soil pools, and can have indirect impacts on long-term C balance. Two mega fires occurred in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and the boreal forests of Northeast China in 1988 and 1987, respectively, making them ideal sites to examine and compare the effects of management and disturbances on regional carbon dynamics. In this study, we quantified effects of the 1988 Yellowstone fires on YNP carbon storages and fluxes. And then we tracked and modeled post-1988 forest carbon stocks change in YNP, and compared with simulation results of carbon stock changes in post-1987 fire boreal forests of Northeast China. Preliminary results show that in YNP, the mega fires in 1988 were responsible for an immediate loss of 900 g/m2 ecosystem average C density and it would take about a decade before the YNP ecosystem recover to the pre-fire average C condition. In boreal forests of Northeast China, fire reduced aboveground and belowground carbon by 230±60 g/m2 and 460±340 g/m2, respectively.

  18. Extraction and Analysis of Mega Cities’ Impervious Surface on Pixel-based and Object-oriented Support Vector Machine Classification Technology: A case of Bombay (United States)

    Yu, S. S.; Sun, Z. C.; Sun, L.; Wu, M. F.


    The object of this paper is to study the impervious surface extraction method using remote sensing imagery and monitor the spatiotemporal changing patterns of mega cities. Megacity Bombay was selected as the interesting area. Firstly, the pixel-based and object-oriented support vector machine (SVM) classification methods were used to acquire the land use/land cover (LULC) products of Bombay in 2010. Consequently, the overall accuracy (OA) and overall Kappa (OK) of the pixel-based method were 94.97% and 0.96 with a running time of 78 minutes, the OA and OK of the object-oriented method were 93.72% and 0.94 with a running time of only 17s. Additionally, OA and OK of the object-oriented method after a post-classification were improved up to 95.8% and 0.94. Then, the dynamic impervious surfaces of Bombay in the period 1973-2015 were extracted and the urbanization pattern of Bombay was analysed. Results told that both the two SVM classification methods could accomplish the impervious surface extraction, but the object-oriented method should be a better choice. Urbanization of Bombay experienced a fast extending during the past 42 years, implying a dramatically urban sprawl of mega cities in the developing countries along the One Belt and One Road (OBOR).

  19. Analysis of Attraction Features of Tourism Destinations in a Mega-City Based on Check-in Data Mining—A Case Study of Shenzhen, China

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    Zhihui Gu


    Full Text Available Location-based service information, provided by social networks, provides new data sources and perspectives to research tourism activities, especially in highly populated mega-cities. Based on three years (2012–2014 of approximately 340,000 check-in records collected from Sina micro-blog at 86 tourist attractions in Shenzhen, a first-tier city in southern China, we conducted a comprehensive study of the attraction features involving different aspects, such as tourist source, duration of stay, check-in activity index, and attraction correlation degree. The results showed that (1 theme parks established in the early 1990s were the most popular tourist attractions in Shenzhen, but a negative trend was detected in the check-in population; (2 compared with check-in times from surrounding activities and the kernel density of tourists, most destinations in Shenzhen showed a lack of attraction, failing to make the most of their geographic accessibility; and (3 the homogeneity and inconvenient traffic conditions of major tourist destinations leading to the construction of a tourism tour chain has become a challenge. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of big-data mining and provide valuable insights into tourism market design and management in mega-cities.

  20. “Festivalisation” of Urban Governance in South African Cities: Framing the Urban Social Sustainability of Mega-Event Driven Development from Below

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    Matthias Fleischer


    Full Text Available This article is based on field research in two South African host cities of the Men’s Football World Cup 2010 (eThekwini and Johannesburg. The discussed work is part of the research project “Festivalisation” of Urban Governance: The Production of Socio-Spatial Control in the Context of the FIFA World Cup 2010 in South Africa. In the context of mega-events, impacts and changes on urban development can vary on a spectrum of festivalisation between opposing poles, either “driven by the event”, or on the other hand where existing configurations of actors and established policies are “driving the event”. By drawing on a theoretical framework which is inspired by an analytical understanding of urban governance, our assumptions are that (a different configurations of governance promote different ways of handling the challenges associated to the hosting and (b that different types of “festivalisation” have different consequences and effects for the lived realities of the residents at a local level. The latter is an arena in which urban governance policies are translated, adapted, renegotiated or rejected. We argue that the bringing together of both spheres (local and metropolitan provides a profound understanding of the process of mega-event implementation and its relation to urban social sustainability.