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Sample records for high-fat fed rats

  1. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed rats.

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    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-06-01

    The beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of the dietary spice compounds curcumin and capsaicin were evaluated. Curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination were included in the diet of high-(30%)-fat-fed rats for 8 weeks. Dietary high-fat-induced hypertriglyceridemia was countered by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination by 12%-20%. Curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination also produced a slight decrease in serum total cholesterol in these animals. Serum alpha-tocopherol content was increased by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination in high-fat-fed rats. Serum total thiol content in high-fat-fed animals and serum ascorbic acid in normal animals was elevated by the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione was increased by curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination in normal animals. Hepatic glutathione and alpha-tocopherol were increased, whereas lipid peroxide level was reduced by dietary curcumin and combination of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed animals. Serum glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in high-fat-fed rats were generally higher as a result of dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly elevated by dietary spice principles in high-fat-fed animals. The additive effect of the 2 bioactive compounds was generally not evident with respect to hypolipidemic or antioxidant potential. However, the effectiveness of the combination was higher in a few instances.

  2. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

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    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  3. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet.

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    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

  4. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

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    Alexey A. Tinkov; Elizaveta V. Popova; Evgenia R. Gatiatulina; Anastasia A. Skalnaya; Elena N. Yakovenko; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and method...

  5. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

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    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  6. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

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    Alessandra Ferramosca

    Full Text Available Krill oil (KO is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  7. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

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    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  8. Effects of Antioxidants Supplemment, Astaxanthin, Vitamin E, C, in Rat Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    AA Vahidinia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.

  9. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

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    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  10. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

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    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  11. Dissociation between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (p<0.05). To clarify the mechanism by which a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPARdelta activation, which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet, on GLUT-4 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nM GW501516 (PPARdelta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 mRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPARdelta, despite an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  12. Aspirin prevents bone loss with little mechanical improvement in high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats.

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    Lin, Sien; Lee, Wayne Y W; Huang, Meiling; Fu, Ziwei; Liang, Yanlong; Wu, Haiyou; Xu, Liangliang; Suen, Chun Wai; Huang, Jianping; Wu, Tie; Cui, Liao; Li, Gang

    2016-11-15

    Obesity and osteoporosis are often concurrently happened in the menopausal women. Obesity in menopausal women is not only related to a high risk of cardiovascular disease, but also results in a detrimental effect on bone health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aspirin, a popular anti-thrombosis drug, on bone quantity and quality in the high-fat-fed animal model. Adult female rats were subjected to either sham operations or ovariectomized operations. The ovariectomized rats were orally administered with deionized water or standardized high fat emulsion with or without aspirin. All rats were injected with calcein before killed for the purpose of double in vivo labeling. Biochemistry, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography analysis, mechanical test, and component analysis were performed after 12 weeks. In vitro cell culture was also performed to observe the effect of aspirin in osteogenesis. We found that high fat remarkably impaired bone formation and bone biomechanics. Aspirin treatment significantly prevented bone loss by increasing bone formation. In vitro studies also validated the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation. However, aspirin presented no significant improvement in bone mechanical properties. Component analysis shown aspirin could significantly increase the content of mineral, but had limited effect on the content of collagen. In conclusion, aspirin is beneficial for the prevention of bone loss; meanwhile, it may cause an imbalance in the components of bone which may weaken the mechanical properties. The current study provided further evidence that aspirin might not be powerful for the prevention of fracture in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  14. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  15. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  16. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of Cocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

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    Olufadekemi Tolulope Kunle-Alabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water, C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water, high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet and high fat diet + C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet. All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P < 0.05 serum interleukin-1β compared with C. nucifera water offspring. The increase in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein observed in female high fat diet offspring was not present in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring.Heart tissues from high fat diet offspring showed scanty fibers and congested myocardium with mild fibrosis. Male high fat diet offspring kidneys showed mesangial cell hyperplasia, fat infiltration and mild tubular necrosis. These were accompanied with alterations in serum urea and creatinine levels in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring. Conclusions: C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  17. Effects of lipoic acid on AMPK and adiponectin in adipose tissue of low- and high-fat-fed rats.

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    Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Alfredo Martínez, J; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2013-03-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant with antiobesity and antidiabetic properties. Adiponectin is an adipokine with potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzyme involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK has been considered as a target to reverse the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LA on AMPK phosphorylation and adiponectin production in adipose tissue of low-fat (control diet) and high-fat diet-fed rats. Dietary supplementation with LA reduced body weight and adiposity in control and high-fat-fed rats. LA also reduced basal hyperinsulinemia as well as the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) levels, an index of insulin resistance, in high-fat-fed rats, which was in part independent of their food intake lowering actions. Furthermore, AMPK phosphorylation was increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) from LA-treated rats as compared with pair-fed animals. Dietary supplementation with LA also upregulated adiponectin gene expression in WAT, while a negative correlation between adiposity-corrected adiponectin levels and HOMA index was found. Our present data suggest that the ability of LA supplementation to prevent insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats might be related in part to the stimulation of AMPK and adiponectin in WAT.

  18. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

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    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  19. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on lipid metabolism in liver of high-fat-fed rats

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    Wang GUAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of hydrogen sulfide on lipid metabolism in liver of high-fat-fed(H-FD rats.Methods Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into control group,H-FD group and H-FD+NaHS group(8 each.Rats were sacrificed after feeding for eight weeks,and hepatic tissue was obtained and frozen sectioned.They were stained with oil red O,Philipin and HE.The oil red O and Philipin-dyed pictures were measured by image analysis system.Results Oil red O staining showed that the cell shape and structure of hepatic tissue were normal in control group,and massive diffuse lipid deposition and damaged structure in hepatic lobule were found in H-FD group.The lipid deposition decreased significantly,and the damage of hepatic lobule also ameliorated,in H-FD+NaHS group(5818.79±297.45 compared with H-FD group(62612.70±756.46,P < 0.01.Philipin staining showed that the fluorescence signal of total cholesterol was negative in control group,and it was positive in H-FD group where the signal was strong and well distributed.The fluorescence intensity of total cholesterol was significantly weakened in H-FD+NaHS group(52.13±3.70 compared with H-FD group(201.21±3.18,P < 0.01.Moicroscopic examination with HE staining showed that the cell shape and structure of hepatic tissue were normal in control group;the hepatocytes contained big lipid droplets,becoming swollen and rounded with obviously injured central area of hepatic lobule in H-FD group;while the lipid droplets in hepatocytes was distinctly decreased in H-FD+NaHS group,and the shape and structure of hepatocytes recovered to certain extent.Conclusion Exogenous hydrogen sulfide might show a novel regulatory effect on abnormality of lipid metabolism in liver of high-fat-fed rats.

  20. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

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    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  1. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  2. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Chien, Mei-Yin; Ku, Yu-Hua; Chang, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chih-Min; Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. The prescriptions-Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi-were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis)on rats fed with high-fat diet.

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    Vidal Martins, Marcos; Montezano de Carvalho, Izabela Maria; Magalhães Caetano, Mônica Maria; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Avelar Xavier, Antônio; De Queiroz, José Humberto

    2016-11-29

    Lecythis pisonis Cambess is commonly known as "castanha de sapucaia" in Brazil. Chemical composition studies revealed that this nut is an excellent source of anti-oxidant minerals and of essential lipids. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of Lecythis pisonis Cambess on the brain tissue of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in four experimental groups (n = 6), total of forty-eight rats. Treatments included the standard diet (AIN-93G) and high-fat food, supplemented with Sapucaianut from 14 to 28 days. The gene expression markers TNF-α, NFkB, ZnSOD and HSP-72 were defined through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). The anti-oxidant effect was assessed through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the measurement of the activity performed by superoxide dismutase enzymes. Accordingly, the gene expression of the inflammatory markers NFkB (p65) and TNF-αwas lower in rats fed on diets supplemented with "sapucaia", and they presented significant difference in the Tukey test (p < 0.05). The heat-shock HSP-72 protein and the ZnSOD enzyme raised the gene expression and showed significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) in both groups fed on Sapucaia nut-based diet. Thus, the nutritional properties of the Sapucaia nuts perform important neuroprotective activities because they modulated the anti-oxidant activity and the brain tissue inflammatory process in the assessed animals.

  4. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

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    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  5. Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in high-fat diet fed rats

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    Xue-Wei Yuan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have reported the favorable effect of leucine supplementation on insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity. However, whether or not leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity remains unclear. Design: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either a high-fat diet (HFD or HFD supplemented with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% leucine for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum leptin level was measured by ELISA, and leptin receptor (ObR in the hypothalamus was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of ObR and leptin-signaling pathway in adipose tissues were detected by western blot. Results: No significant differences in body weight and food/energy intake existed among the four groups. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower, and ObR expression in the hypothalamus and adipose tissues was significantly higher in the three leucine groups than in the control group. These phenomena suggested that leptin sensitivity was improved in the leucine groups. Furthermore, the expressions of JAK2 and STAT3 (activated by ObR were significantly higher, and that of SOCS3 (inhibits leptin signaling was significantly lower in the three leucine groups than in the control group. Conclusions: Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in rats on HFD likely by promoting leptin signaling.

  6. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects ofCocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Opeyemi Oreofe Akindele; Yinusa Raji

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects ofCocos nucifera (C. nucifera) water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water),C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater), high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet) and high fat diet +C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet). All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-wayANOVA andP Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P Conclusions:C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  7. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP.

  8. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

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    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  9. Melatonin effect on plasma adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in normal and high fat-fed rats.

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    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Scacchi, Pablo A; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    Melatonin effect on body weight progression, mean levels and 24-hr pattern of circulating adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were examined in rats fed a normal or a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats fed a normal diet were divided into two groups: receiving melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking water) or vehicle for 9 wk. In experiment 2, animals were divided into three groups: two fed with a high-fat diet (35% fat) and melatonin (25 μg/mL) or vehicle in drinking water for 11 wk, while a third group was given a normal diet (4% fat). At the end of experiments, groups of eight rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24-hr period. Melatonin administration for 9 wk decreased body weight gain from the 3rd wk on without affecting food intake. A significant reduction in circulating insulin, glucose and triglyceride mean levels and disrupted daily patterns of plasma adiponectin, leptin and insulin were observed after melatonin. In high fat-fed rats, melatonin attenuated body weight increase, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, as well as the increase in mean plasma adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The high-fat diet disrupted normal 24-hr patterns of circulating adiponectin, insulin and cholesterol, the effects on insulin and cholesterol being counteracted by melatonin. Nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration in control and obese rats receiving melatonin for 11 wk attained values 21-24-fold greater than controls. The results indicate that melatonin counteracts some of the disrupting effects of diet-induced obesity in rats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

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    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (Pbetaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (Pbetaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (Pbetaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  11. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

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    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  12. Effect of ethyl pyruvate on skeletal muscle metabolism in rats fed on a high fat diet.

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    Olek, Robert A; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Wierzba, Tomasz H; Kaczor, Jan J

    2013-07-01

    Impaired mitochondrial capacity may be implicated in the pathology of chronic metabolic diseases. To elucidate the effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on skeletal muscles metabolism we examined changes in activities of mitochondrial and antioxidant enzymes, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation (an indirect marker of oxidative stress) during the development of obesity. After 6 weeks feeding of control or high fat diet, Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control diet, control diet and ethyl pyruvate, high fat diet, and high fat diet and ethyl pyruvate. Ethyl pyruvate was administered as 0.3% solution in drinking water, for the following 6 weeks. High fat diet feeding induced the increase of activities 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and fumarase. Moreover, higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation, were noted. Ethyl pyruvate supplementation did not affect the mitochondrial enzymes' activities, but induced superoxide dismutase activity and sulfhydryl groups oxidation. All of the changes were observed in soleus muscle, but not in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Additionally, positive correlations between fasting blood insulin concentration and activities of catalase (p = 0.04), and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.01) in soleus muscle were noticed. Prolonged ethyl pyruvate consumption elevated insulin concentration, which may cause modifications in oxidative type skeletal muscles.

  13. Long-term globular adiponectin administration improves adipose tissue dysmetabolism in high-fat diet-fed Wistar rats.

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    Matafome, P; Rodrigues, T; Pereira, A; Letra, L; Azevedo, H; Paixão, A; Silvério, M; Almeida, A; Sena, C; Seiça, R

    2014-10-01

    Adiponectin administration to obese or type 2 diabetic patients is still far off, due to its expensive costs and absence of studies demonstrating the effectiveness of its chronic administration. We performed long-term globular adiponectin administration, testing its usefulness in improving adipose tissue metabolism. Adiponectin (98 υg/day) was administered through a subcutaneous minipump with continued release (28 days) to Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. Adiponectin decreased body weight and adipocyte size, while decreasing circulating leptin levels. More, adiponectin was able to increase IkappaBalpha and PPARgamma levels and to prevent high-fat diet-induced impairment of insulin signalling, especially in epididymal adipose tissue. This resulted in improved glucose profile. High-fat diet caused an impairment of lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue, which was partially restored by adiponectin treatment. Long-term globular adiponectin administration was able to improve pathways of insulin signalling and lipid storage in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats, contributing to a better metabolic profile.

  14. Preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese rats.

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    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed male Wistar rats. Five-month-old male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 rats in each group). Among the two groups, one group received 30 % high-fat diet (HFD) and another group received 30 % HFD with curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 10 weeks, oxidative stress parameters in skeletal muscle and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content were estimated. Histological examinations of the liver samples were performed at the end of the experiment. High-fat feeding caused increase in body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass. Rats fed with HFD showed increased levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There was also increase in the plasma inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS)] in these rats. In addition, high-fat feeding increased liver TAG content and caused fat accumulation in the liver. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced body weight, relative organ weights (liver, adipose tissue), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Curcumin supplementation decreased plasma levels of TC, TAG, VLDL-c, TNF-α and increased HDL-c. Administration of curcumin also reduced MDA, TOS in skeletal muscle, hepatic TAG content and liver fat deposition. Curcumin supplementation improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic effect of daily fisetin supplementation in high fat fed Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Shin, Min-Jeong; Cho, Yoonsu; Moon, Jiyoung; Jeon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Seung-Min; Chung, Ji Hyung

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to test whether fisetin could modulate cholesterol homeostasis in rats with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which fisetin exerts its cholesterol lowering effect. Blood lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol content, as well as gene expressions in cholesterol metabolism were examined. Elevated levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, along with hepatic cholesterol content in a high fat group were found to be significantly reduced by fisetin. The high fat diet significantly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of LDLR, SREBP2, HMGCR and PCSK9 in comparison to the control diet, however, fisetin did not further elicit any changes in mRNA levels of the same genes. The high fat diet dramatically increased the transcript levels of CYP7A1, which was subsequently reversed by the fisetin. In HepG2 cells, fisetin was found to increase the levels of a nuclear form of SREBP2 and LDLR. In conclusion, fisetin supplementation displayed hypocholesterolemic effects by modulating the expression of genes associated with cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isoflavone Regulates Lipid Metabolism via Expression of Related Genes in OVX Rats Fed on a High-fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-LIN NA; JUNKO EZAKI; FUMIE SUGIYAMA; HONG-BIN CUI; YOSHIKO ISHIMI

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of isoflavone on body weight, fat mass, and gene expression in relation to lipid metabolism. Methods Thirty-six female SD rats were variectomized or sham-operated and fed on a high-fat diet. Two months later, abdominal incision was made, blood was collected to separate serum, and the liver and adipose tissue were immediately collected and weighed. Some portions of these tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃. Results Ovariectomy (OVX) with a high-fat diet could induce obesity in rats, while treatment with isoflavone significantly inhibited the increase in body weight and fat mass in abdomen. Serum total cholesterol and leptin were significantly decreased in isoflavone group, compared with the OVX group. The mRNA expression of liver fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the OVX group was significantly higher than that in sham-operated group, while this difference was not observed in the isoflavone group. The mRNA expression of liver hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the OVX rats tended to be lower than that in the sham-operated rats. Furthermore, a large amount of isoflavone maintained the mRNA expression at a sham level. Conclusion lsoflavone may prevent obesity induced by ovariectomy with a high-fat diet, in part by modulating gene expression related to lipid metabolism.

  17. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and coronary dysfunction in high-fat-fed obesity-resistant/prone rats.

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    Dake, Brian L; Oltman, Christine L

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic leading to several comorbidities including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The hypothesis that the genetic background of the obesity-prone rat (OP) predisposes to physiologic, metabolic, and microvascular dysfunction which is exacerbated by a diet high in saturated fats was tested. Male OP and obesity-resistant (OR) rats were fed either a diet containing 10% (chow) or 45% kcal fat (HF) for 42 weeks. Weight of OP rats was greater than OR rats by 8 weeks on both diets. Blood pressure was increased in OP rats on chow and further augmented by HF diet compared to OR rats on similar diets. In contrast to weight and blood pressure, glucose clearance was similar in OR and OP rats on chow and impaired in both models on HF diet. Relaxation to acetylcholine was attenuated in OP rats compared to OR rats by 8 weeks and remained reduced throughout the study. A longer period of time was required to observe vascular dysfunction in HF-fed OR rats. When compared to OR rats, OP rats are prone to develop not only greater obesity but also hypertension and vascular dysfunction on a normal diet which is further augmented with HF diet. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  19. Platelet hyperaggregability in high-fat fed rats: A role for intraplatelet reactive-oxygen species production

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    Monteiro Priscila F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiposity greatly increases the risk of atherothrombotic events, a pathological condition where a chronic state of oxidative stress is reported to play a major role. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of (NO-soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC signaling pathway in the platelet dysfunction from high fat-fed (HFF rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed for 10 weeks with standard chow (SCD or high-fat diet (HFD. ADP (10 μM- and thrombin (100 mU/ml-induced washed platelet aggregation were evaluated. Measurement of intracellular levels of ROS levels was carried out using flow cytometry. Cyclic GMP levels were evaluated using ELISA kits. Results High-fat fed rats exhibited significant increases in body weight, epididymal fat, fasting glucose levels and glucose intolerance compared with SCD group. Platelet aggregation induced by ADP (n = 8 and thrombin from HFD rats (n = 8 were significantly greater (P n = 6. N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 1 mM and PEG-catalase (1000 U/ml fully prevented the increased ROS production and platelet hyperaggregability in HFD group. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10 μM and SNAP (10 μM, as well as the NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator BAY 41-2272 (10 μM inhibited the platelet aggregation in HFD group with lower efficacy (P P n = 4. Conclusions Metabolic abnormalities as consequence of HFD cause platelet hyperaggregability involving enhanced intraplatelet ROS production and decreased NO bioavailability that appear to be accompanied by potential defects in the prosthetic haem group of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

  20. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

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    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  1. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

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    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  2. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

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    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  3. Effects of xanthohumol-rich extract from the hop on fatty acid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Yui, Kazuki; Kiyofuji, Ayane; Osada, Kyoichi

    2014-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid of female inflorescences of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a hydrophobic flavonoid. We examined the effects of dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract in obese rats that was induced by feeding a high-fat diet. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract significantly lowered the body weight gain of these rats compared to rats fed a high-fat diet without the extract. The increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol levels in the plasma and liver of the rats fed a high-fat diet was ameliorated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract tended to reduce hepatic fatty acid synthesis through the reduction of hepatic SREBP1c mRNA expression in the rats fed a high-fat diet. The excreted of triacylglycerol into feces also was promoted by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Plasma adiponectin levels in the rats fed a high-fat diet also tended to be elevated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Thus, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may inhibit the increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol in the plasma and liver induced by feeding high-fat diet through the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and inhibition of intestinal fat absorption. Therefore, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may exert preventive function on the increase of body weight and tissue triacylglycerol levels by overnutrition.

  4. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  6. Metformin HCl has curative effect on rebuilding of ventricular diastolic functions in high-fat-diet fed rats.

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    Topal, Askin Ender; Kelle, Ilker; Akkoc, Hasan; Yilmaz, Sedat; Yilmaz, Sedat; Akkus, Murat

    2017-05-01

    Myocardial lipid accumulation due to diabetes and/or obesity plays a role in the progression of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Our aims were to exhibit the correlation between histopathologic stage of the liver and cardiac functions, and to evaluate the effects of metformin HCl and rosiglitazone on myocardial functions. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups to exhibit the correlation between histopathologic stage of the liver and cardiac functions and to determine whether metformin HCl and rosiglitazone have effects on cardiac functions. For 20 weeks, one group was fed standard rat basic diet, whereas the other groups were on high-fat-diet. During the last 4 weeks, metformin HCl was given to the third group, rosiglitazone to the fourth group. Histological evaluation of rat livers yielded significantly higher steatosis grade in high-fat-diet group and different fibrosis stages among groups. Also, there was significant correlation between diastolic functions and steatosis grade/fibrosis stage of rat liver. Electrophysiological study of hearts via Langendorff technique showed better coronary perfusion pressures and diastolic functions in standard-diet and metformin HCl groups compared to other groups. Metformin HCl improves LV diastolic dysfunction and coronary perfusion pressures.

  7. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

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    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  8. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

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    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2014-05-01

    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation decreases food consumption and weight gain in rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Gil, Krzysztof; Bugajski, A; Thor, P

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. We previously showed that long-term VNS (102 days) with low-frequency electrical impulses (0.05 Hz) decreased food intake and body weight in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high frequency (10 Hz) VNS on feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet; peptide secretion and other parameters were assessed as well. Adult male Wistar rats were each implanted subcutaneously with a microstimulator (MS) and fed a high-fat diet throughout the entire study period (42 days). The left vagus nerve was stimulated by rectangular electrical pulses (10 ms, 200 mV, 10 Hz, 12 h a day) generated by the MS. Body weight and food intake were measured each morning. At the end of the experimental period, animals were euthanized and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and nesfatin-1 were assessed using radioimmunoassays. Adipose tissue content was evaluated by weighing epididymal fat pads, which were incised at the time of sacrifice. To determine whether VNS activated the food-related areas of the brain, neuronal c-Fos induction in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) was assessed. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased food intake, body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight in animals that received VNS compared with control animals. Significant neuronal responses in the NTS were observed following VNS. Finally, serum concentrations of ghrelin were increased, while serum levels of leptin were decreased. Although not significant, serum nesfatin-1 levels were also elevated. These results support the theory that VNS leads to reductions in food intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue by increasing brain satiety signals conducted through the vagal afferents. VNS also evoked a feed-related hormonal response, including elevated blood concentrations of nesfatin-1.

  10. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (Pobese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  11. Endothelial and vascular dysfunctions and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

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    Bourgoin, Frédéric; Bachelard, Hélène; Badeau, Mylène; Mélançon, Sébastien; Pitre, Maryse; Larivière, Richard; Nadeau, André

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet on vascular and metabolic actions of insulin. Male rats were randomized to receive an HFHS or regular chow diet for 4 wk. In a first series of experiments, the rats had pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters implanted to measure blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. Insulin sensitivity and vascular responses to insulin were assessed during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp performed in conscious rats. In a second series of experiments, new groups of rats were used to examine skeletal muscle glucose transport activity and to determine in vitro vascular reactivity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in muscle and vascular tissues and endothelin content, nitrotyrosine formation, and NAD(P)H oxidase protein expression in vascular tissues. The HFHS-fed rats displayed insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and impaired insulin-mediated renal and skeletal muscle vasodilator responses. A reduction in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, accompanied by a decreased eNOS protein expression in muscles and blood vessel endothelium, and increased vascular endothelin-1 protein content were also noted in HFHS-fed rats compared with control rats. Furthermore, the HFHS diet induced a reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in muscles and increased levels of NAD(P)H oxidase protein and nitrotyrosine formation in vascular tissues. These findings support the importance of eNOS protein in linking metabolic and vascular disease and indicate the ability of a Westernized diet to induce endothelial dysfunction and to alter metabolic and vascular homeostasis.

  12. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

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    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  13. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  14. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

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    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  15. Physical exercise remodels visceral adipose tissue and mitochondrial lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gonçalves, Inês O; Beleza, Jorge; Frühbeck, Gema; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of two physical exercise models, voluntary physical activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) as preventive and therapeutic strategies, respectively, on lipid accumulation regulators and mitochondrial content in VAT of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old, n=60) were assigned into sedentary and VPA groups fed isoenergetic diets: standard (S, 35 kcal% fat) or HFD (71 kcal% fat). The VPA groups had free access to wheel running during the entire protocol. After 9 weeks, half of the sedentary animals were exercised on a treadmill while maintaining the dietary treatments. The HFD induced no changes in plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol levels and decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunit IV and increased truncated/full-length sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP1c) ratio in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). VPA decreased plasma glycerol levels, aquaglyceroporin 7 (AQP7) and increased subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) protein, in standard diet fed animals. Eight weeks of ET decreased body weight, visceral adiposity and adipocyte size and plasma NEFA and glycerol levels, as well as AQP7 protein expression in eWAT. ET increased fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), mitochondrial content of complexes IV and V subunits, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamic (mitofusins and optic atrophy 1)-related proteins. Moreover, lipogenesis-related markers (SREBP1c and acetyl CoA carboxylase) were reduced after 8 weeks of ET. In conclusion, ET-induced alterations reflect a positive effect on mitochondrial function and the overall VAT metabolism of HFD-induced obese rats.

  16. Chungtaejeon, a Korean fermented tea, prevents the risk of atherosclerosis in rats fed a high-fat atherogenic diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keshav Raj Paudel; Ung-Won Lee; Dong-Wook Kim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the wel-established risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-atherogenic effect of Chungtaejeon (CTJ, a Korean fermented tea) aqueous extract on proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cels (HASMCs)in vivo andin vitro. METHODS: The authors used high-fat atherogenic diet (HFAD) to induce hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats inin vivoanimal experiments and used HASMCs forin vitro cel experiments. For thein vitro cel experiment, the proliferation of HASMCs was evaluated using the MTT assay. Similarly, the expression of matrix metaloproteinases (MMPs) in HASMCs was measured using gelatin zymography. Antimigratory activity of CTJ was revealed using the wound-healing model and Boyden’s chamber assay. In thein vivo experiment, CTJ was administered in three different doses for 20 d from the initiation of the HFAD. After 20 d, the serum lipid proifle and total lipid contents in liver were measured. RESULTS:Treatment with CTJ for 24 h dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation and migration of HASMCs and expression of MMP-2 in HASMCs. The oral administration of CTJ at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/kg decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total serum cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol of HFAD-fed rats. CONCLUSION: CTJ possessed strong antiproliferative, antimigratory, as wel as lipid-lowering activities. Thus, CTJ can be considered as a therapeutic option in the treatment of high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis.

  17. Resveratrol increases nephrin and podocin expression and alleviates renal damage in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing-Rong; Ren, Yan-Long; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Hu, Yan-Jin; Zheng, Jin-Su; Fan, Hui; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Xian

    2014-07-14

    Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol). Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  18. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  19. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

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    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  20. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  1. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Hayato; Ushijima, Kentaro; Arakawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Ken-Ichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2016-07-01

    Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (olmesartan (2 mg/kg), another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a high fat diet (HFD). HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

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    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  3. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Lecomte

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001, this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  4. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Yanagihara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB, has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (<5 mg/kg in rats. To address the issue, telmisartan (2 mg/kg and olmesartan (2 mg/kg, another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high fat diet (HFD. HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (<5 mg/kg in rats. This study showed that 2 mg/kg of telmisartan and olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions.

  5. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Toshiki Yoneda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18 were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  6. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  7. Sesamin exerts renoprotective effects by enhancing NO bioactivity in renovascular hypertensive rats fed with high-fat-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Qi; Kong, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Kai; Yang, Jie-Ren; Li, Xin-Li

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of sesamin on kidney damage and renal endothelial dysfunction in two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat-sucrose diet (2K1C rats on HFS diet). Sesamin was intragastrically administered to 2K1C rats on HFS diet for eight weeks. Then, we measured the levels of serum hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), total antioxidant capability (T-AOC), renal malonaldehyde (MDA), total-erythrocuprein (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P(X)). The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitrotyrosine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p47(phox) in the left and right renal cortexes were detected by Western blotting. Pathological changes in the left and right renal cortexes were observed by periodic acid-schiff staining (PAS) and Masson's staining. Treatment with sesamin (120 and 60mg/kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) in 2K1C rats on HFS diet improved renal function, corrected structural abnormalities, and attenuated renal oxidative stress. Furthermore, sesamin increased eNOS protein expression and reduced nitrotyrosine and p47phox protein expression. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment with sesamin had renoprotective effect and improved renal endothelial dysfunction via upregulation of eNOS expression and reduction of NO oxidative inactivation in both clipped and contralateral kidneys of 2K1C rats on HFS diet, and sesamin may have a favorably therapeutic value in treating chronic kidney disease in patients with hypertension and hyperlipemia.

  8. Additional effect of metformin and celecoxib against lipid dysregulation and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed rats with insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chieh-Hua; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan

    2016-10-15

    We investigated the effects of metformin and celecoxib on obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance (IR), fatty liver, and high blood pressure in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either regular or HF diet for 8 weeks. Rats fed with regular diet were treated with vehicle for further 4 weeks. HF fed rats were divided into 6 groups, namely, vehicle, celecoxib (30mg/kg/day), metformin (300mg/kg/day), metformin (150mg/kg/day), metformin (300mg/kg/day) with celecoxib (30mg/kg/day), and metformin (150mg/kg/day) with celecoxib (15mg/kg/day) for additional 4 weeks. Increased body weight in HF fed rats was significantly reduced by metformin alone and metformin combined with celecoxib. The increases in the HOMA-IR value and the area under the curve of glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test, systolic blood pressure, and adipocyte size were significantly diminished in treated rats, especially rats undergoing combined treatment. Treatments with either celecoxib or in combination with metformin resulted in a reduction in AT macrophage infiltration and decreases in levels of adipose tissue TNF-α, MCP-1, and leptin levels in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Furthermore, the elevated hepatic triglycerides content was significantly decreased in the combined treatment group compared to that of groups of celecoxib or metformin alone. Celecoxib exerts a synergistic beneficial effect with metformin on and obesity-associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in high-fat fed rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Absence of an inhibitory effect of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats fed low- or high-fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnkels, J.M.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Alink, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The potential inhibitory effects of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis were examined in rats fed low- or high-fat diets. Rats were fed low-fat diets (20 energy percent, Diets A and B) or high-fat diets (40 energy percen

  10. Absence of an inhibitory effect of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats fed low- or high-fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnkels, J.M.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Alink, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The potential inhibitory effects of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis were examined in rats fed low- or high-fat diets. Rats were fed low-fat diets (20 energy percent, Diets A and B) or high-fat diets (40 energy percen

  11. Liraglutide prevents microvascular insulin resistance and preserves muscle capillary density in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Weidong; Fu, Zhuo; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Liu, Zhenqi

    2016-09-01

    Muscle microvasculature critically regulates endothelial exchange surface area to facilitate transendothelial delivery of insulin, nutrients, and oxygen to myocytes. Insulin resistance blunts insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment and decreases muscle capillary density; both contribute to lower microvascular blood volume. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are able to dilate blood vessels and stimulate endothelial cell proliferation. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of sustained stimulation of the GLP-1 receptors on insulin-mediated capillary recruitment and metabolic insulin responses, small arterial endothelial function, and muscle capillary density. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 wk with or without simultaneous administration of liraglutide and subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp for 120 min after an overnight fast. Insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment and muscle oxygenation were determined before and during insulin infusion. Muscle capillary density was determined and distal saphenous artery used for determination of endothelial function and insulin-mediated vasodilation. HFD induced muscle microvascular insulin resistance and small arterial vessel endothelial dysfunction and decreased muscle capillary density. Simultaneous treatment of HFD-fed rats with liraglutide prevented all of these changes and improved insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. These were associated with a significantly increased AMPK phosphorylation and the expressions of VEGF and its receptors. We conclude that GLP-1 receptor agonists may exert their salutary glycemic effect via improving microvascular insulin sensitivity and muscle capillary density during the development of insulin resistance, and early use of GLP-1 receptor agonists may attenuate metabolic insulin resistance as well as prevent cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Nerium oleander Distillate Improves Fat and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Ahmet Levent Bas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg bw in all rats of five groups after being fed for 2 weeks high-fat diet. Type 2 diabetic Nerium-oleander- (NO- administered groups received the NO distillate at a dose of 3.75, 37.5, and 375 μg/0.5 mL of distilled water (NO-0.1, NO-1, NO-10, resp.; positive control group had 0.6 mg glibenclamide/kg bw/d by gavage daily for 12 weeks. Type 2 diabetic negative control group had no treatment. NO distillate administration reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, triglyceride-HDL ratio, insulin, and leptin levels. Improved beta cell function and HDL concentration were observed by NO usage. HDL percentage in total cholesterol of all NO groups was similar to healthy control. NO-10 distillate enhanced mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- (PPAR- α, β, and γ in adipose tissue and PPAR-α–γ in liver. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the considerable beneficial effect of NO distillate administration at a dose of 375 μg/0.5 mL of distilled water may offer new approaches to treatment strategies that target both fat and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  13. Silk and silkworm pupa peptides suppress adipogenesis in preadipocytes and fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Dongsun; Yang, Goeun; Bae, Dae-Kwon; Yang, Yun-Hui; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Dajeong; Kyung, Jangbeen; Yeon, Sungho; Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Jeong-Yong; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Joo, Seong Soo; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to confirm the anti-obesity activity of a silk peptide (SP) and a silkworm pupa peptide (SPP) in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to elucidate their action mechanism(s) in a preadipocyte culture system. In an in vitro mechanistic study, the differentiation and maturation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated with insulin (5 μg/mL), and effects of SP and SPP on the adipogenesis of mature adipocytes were assessed. In an in vivo anti-obesity study, male C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD containing SP or SPP (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0%) for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. Hormonal stimulation of preadipocytes led to a 50-70% increase in adipogenesis. Polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed increases in adipogenesis-specific genes (leptin and Acrp30) and proteins (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Acrp30). The hormone-induced adipogenesis and activated gene expression was substantially inhibited by treatment with SP and SPP (1-50 μg/mL). The HFD markedly increased body weight gain by increasing the weight of epididymal and mesenteric fat. Body and fat weights were significantly reduced by SP and SPP, in which decreases in the area of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of epididymal adipocytes were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic examination, respectively. Long-term HFD caused hepatic lipid accumulation and increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol, in addition to their regulatory factors Acrp30 and leptin. However, SP and SPP recovered the concentrations of Acrp30 and leptin, and attenuated steatosis. SP and SPP inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes and adipogenesis by modulating signal transduction pathways and improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes.

  14. Effect of different exercise protocols on metabolic profiles and fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Xu, Xiangfeng; Yue, Kai; Xu, Guodong

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mild-intensity endurance, high-intensity interval, and concurrent exercise on preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male rats were divided into five groups, control diet/sedentary group, high-fat diet/sedentary, high-fat diet/endurance exercise, high-fat diet/interval exercise (HI), and high-fat diet/concurrent exercise. All exercise groups were made to exercise for 10 weeks, with matched running distances. Body weight, fat content, blood metabolites, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and adipocyte and liver lipid droplet size were assessed, and the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes was quantified. All exercise protocols reduced body weight, adiposity, serum triglycerides, and fasting glucose and also improved QUICKI to some extent. However, only HI prevented obesity and its associated pathologies completely. The expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 was elevated in all rats fed a high-fat diet whereas carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) expression was increased with exercise. Rev-erbα expression was elevated only in the HI group, which also had the highest level of CPT1 expression. The HI-induced increase in Rev-erbα and CPT1 expression was associated with the complete prevention of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the increased caloric expenditure achieved with this protocol was preferential over other exercise regimens, and might be used to improve lipid metabolism. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  15. In Vivo Lipid Regulation Mechanism of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

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    Pei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the water extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and its processed products (PMRP on liver lipid metabolism were observed in this paper. Aqueous extract of PMR and PMRP was given to nonalcoholic fatty liver model rats, respectively. PMR was better in reducing the contents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL than PMRP and the positive control groups. In the aspect of regulating TG, medium dose PMR reduced the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT to 1536±47.69 pg/mL (P<0.001 and promoted the expression of hepatic lipase (HL to 23.59±0.2758 U/mL (P<0.05. HL promotion ability of medium dose PMR was similar with the simvastatin positive control. Both medium and high dose of PMR showed significant alterations in TC, which were related to the downregulation effects on hydroxyl methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR and upregulation effects on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or cytochrome P450 7A (CYP7A. Quantitative relationships research indicated that the prominent effect on inhibiting the content of HMGCR (r=0.756, P<0.05 was strongly positive correlated with to the TC regulation effects. Effects of PMR on enhancing decomposition rate or reducing de novo synthesis rate of TG and TC were better than PMRP.

  16. Wholegrain barley β-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Taketa, Shin; Bird, Anthony R

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of oat and barley β-glucans is believed to mediate in part their metabolic health benefits, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that barley β-glucan fermentation raises circulating incretin hormone levels and improves glucose control, independent of other grain components. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 2 weeks. The low- (LBG, 0% β-glucan) and high- (HBG, 3% β-glucan) β-glucan diets contained 25% wholegrain barley and similar levels of insoluble dietary fiber, available carbohydrate, and energy. A low-fiber diet (basal) was included for comparison. Immediately prior to the dietary intervention, gastric emptying rate (using the (13)C-octanoic breath test) and postprandial glycemic response of each diet were determined. At the end of the study, circulating gut hormone levels were determined; and a glucose tolerance test was performed. The rats were then killed, and indices of cecal fermentation were assessed. Diet did not affect live weight; however, the HBG diet, compared to basal and LBG, reduced food intake, tended to slow gastric emptying, increased cecal digesta mass and individual and total short-chain fatty acid pools, and lowered digesta pH. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, insulin, gastric-inhibitory peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucose tolerance were unaffected by diet. In conclusion, wholegrain barley β-glucan suppressed feed intake and increased cecal fermentation but did not improve postprandial glucose control or insulin sensitivity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis by Berberine Resulting in Improved Metabolic Status in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether or not berberine could improve metabolic status of high-fat-fed rats through modulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis. Methods: Berberine was administered on high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain-gut hormones were detected, and changes of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Berberine could reduce weight gain and lipolysis in the high-fat diet-fed group. Moreover, trends of ameliorated insulin resistance and decreased endogenous glucose production were observed. In addition, the microbiota-gut-brain axis was found to be modulated, including structural and diversity changes of microbiota, elevated serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and neuropeptide Y level, decreased orexin A level, up-regulated glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor mRNA level as well as ultra-structural improvement of the hypothalamus. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings suggest that berberine improved metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diet through modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  18. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  19. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE and Nopal dry power (NADP in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1 nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control; (2 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control; (3 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE; and (4 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone. In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P<0.05. Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P<0.05 than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  20. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement. PMID:28303158

  1. Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-09-06

    Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.

  2. Decreased vascular H2S production is associated with vascular oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Trisha A; Nguyen, Jason C D; Hart, Joanne L

    2016-07-01

    A Western-style high-fat diet is known to cause vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. H2S contributes to the regulation of vascular function and acts as a vasoprotective molecule; however, the effects of high-fat diet on vascular H2S production and function are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-fat diet on vascular function and H2S production. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21 % fat) or control rat chow (6 % fat) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the aorta was collected for assessing vascular function and NO and H2S bioavailability. Superoxide anion production was quantitated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The expression of NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 and the H2S-producing protein cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) were examined by Western blotting. WD rats had significantly higher body weight and body fat than control (p muscle cell function was unaffected. Vascular superoxide production and Nox2 expression were significantly increased in the aorta from WD rats. L-Cysteine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in the WD group (p fat feeding induces vascular oxidative stress and a reduction in endothelial function. Furthermore, there is a reduced capacity for both basal and stimulated vascular H2S production via CSE in fat fed rats.

  3. Carnitine supplementation in high-fat diet-fed rats does not ameliorate lipid-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Bart; van den Broek, Nicole M A; Ciapaite, Jolita; Houten, Sander M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-10-01

    Muscle lipid overload and the associated accumulation of lipid intermediates play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Carnitine insufficiency is a common feature of insulin-resistant states and might lead to incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired export of lipid intermediates out of the mitochondria. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced lipotoxicity, improves muscle mitochondrial function, and ameliorates insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet for 15 wk. One group of high-fat diet-fed rats was supplemented with 300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) L-carnitine during the last 8 wk. Muscle mitochondrial function was measured in vivo by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry. Muscle lipid status was determined by (1)H MRS (intramyocellular lipids) and tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines). High-fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance and was associated with decreases in muscle and blood free carnitine, elevated levels of muscle lipids and acylcarnitines, and an increased number of muscle mitochondria that showed an improved capacity to oxidize fat-derived substrates when tested ex vivo. This was, however, not accompanied by an increase in muscle oxidative capacity in vivo, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial function was compromised. Despite partial normalization of muscle and blood free carnitine content, carnitine supplementation did not induce improvements in muscle lipid status, in vivo mitochondrial function, or insulin sensitivity. Carnitine insufficiency, therefore, does not play a major role in high-fat diet-induced muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

  4. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk,...

  5. Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets

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    Lingxiao Gong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat with refined wheat flour (HFS-W or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum fasting insulin (FINS, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD. However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets.

  6. Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf in lean rats fed a high fat diet.

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    Rahman, Hafeedza Abdul; Sahib, Najla Gooda; Saari, Nazamid; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-02-22

    Obesity is a major health concern both in developed and developing countries. The use of herbal medicines became the subject of interest for the management of obesity due to its natural origin, cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study aimed at investigating anti-obesity potential of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf (EECCL). In this study, the rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (ND); (2) Normal Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 175 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 350 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 175 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 350 mg/kgBW). The anti-obesity potential was evaluated through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight, and blood biochemicals including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leptin, insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin and fecal fat content. In addition, metabolite profiling of EECCL was carried out using NMR spectroscopy. Rats receiving EECCL together with HFD showed significant (p rats receiving HFD only. At the end of study, the body weight gain of EECCL treated rats was not significantly (p > 0.05) different with those of ND rats. Other related obesity biomarkers including plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels also showed significant improvement (p < 0.05). Administration of EECCL caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in fecal fat excretion, which validates the hypothesis of lipase inhibition, an anti-obesity mechanism similar to standard drug of Orlistat. The (1)H-NMR spectra of EECCL ascertained the presence of catechin, quercetin, rutin, kaempherol and chlorogenic acid in the extract. Conclusively, EECCL showed anti-obesity properties by inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and

  7. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla in high fat fed albino rats

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    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.

  8. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet.

  9. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat-fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Andrew C; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Holmes, Gregory M; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery to produce weight loss has been well-documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Despite the recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from presurgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long-term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption.

  10. Multi-Strain Probiotics Inhibit Cardiac Myopathies and Autophagy to Prevent Heart Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

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    Lai, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Pai, Pei-ying; Chung, Li-Chin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Liao, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diets induce obesity, leading to cardiomyocyte fibrosis and autophagy imbalance. In addition, no previous studies have indicated that probiotics have potential health effects associated with cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in obese rats. This study investigates the effects of probiotics on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in rat hearts. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were separated randomly into five equally sized experimental groups: Normal diet (control) and high-fat (HF) diet groups and groups fed a high-fat diet supplemented with low (HL), medium (HM) or high (HH) doses of multi-strain probiotic powders. These experiments were designed for an 8-week trial period. The myocardial architecture of the left ventricle was evaluated using Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry staining. Key probiotics-related pathway molecules were analyzed using western blotting. Abnormal myocardial architecture and enlarged interstitial spaces were observed in HF hearts. These interstitial spaces were significantly decreased in groups provided with multi-strain probiotics compared with HF hearts. Western blot analysis demonstrated that key components of the TGF/MMP2/MMP9 fibrosis pathways and ERK5/uPA/ANP cardiac hypertrophy pathways were significantly suppressed in probiotic groups compared to the HF group. Autophagy balance is very important in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we observed that the beclin-1/LC3B/Atg7 autophagy pathway in HF was increased after probiotic supplementation was significantly decreased. Together, these results suggest that oral administration of probiotics may attenuate cardiomyocyte fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy and the autophagy-signaling pathway in obese rats.

  11. Emodin, a Naturally Occurring Anthraquinone Derivative, Ameliorates Dyslipidemia by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats

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    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic effects of emodin on high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. After being fed HFD for two weeks, Wistar rats were dosed orally with emodin (40 and 80 mg kg−1 or pioglitazone (20 mg kg−1, once daily for eight weeks. Emodin (80 mg kg−1 per day displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg kg−1 per day in reducing body weight gain, plasma lipid levels as well as coronary artery risk index and atherogenic index of HFD-fed rats. Emodin also caused dose related reductions in the hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents and lowered hepatic lipid droplets accumulation in HFD-fed rats. Emodin and pioglitazone enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in hepatocytes of HFD-fed rats. Our findings suggest emodin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and increasing mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway.

  12. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Potential of Organic and Conventional Grape Juices in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Iselde Buchner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the chronic use of conventional (CGJ or organic (OGJ grape juice from the Bordeaux variety grape on oxidative stress and cytoarchitecture in the liver of rats supplemented with a high-fat diet (HFD for three months. The results demonstrated that HFD induced an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, catalase (CAT activity and 2′,7′-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCFH oxidation and a decrease in sulfhydryl content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. HFD also induced hepatocellular degeneration and steatosis. These alterations were prevented by CGJ and OGJ, where OGJ was more effective. Therefore, it was concluded that HFD induced oxidative stress and liver damage and that the chronic use of grape juice was able to prevent these alterations.

  13. Shugan Xiaozhi Decoction Attenuates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Enhancing PPARα and L-FABP Expressions in High-Fat-Fed Rats

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    Yu-feng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Shugan Xiaozhi decoction (SX on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH induced by high-fat diet in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely, control, model, fenofibrate, and three different dosage of SX (10, 20, and 40 g/kg/day, p.o.. After establishing the NASH model, at 8 weeks of the experiment, treatments were administrated intragastrically to the fenofibrate and SX groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks of treatment. Compared with the model group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, free fatty acid (FFA, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL serum in the serum were significantly reduced in all SX treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Evidence showed that SX could protect the liver by upregulating the gene and protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical constituents of SX were further analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS and 30 chemicals in the ethanolic extract were tentatively identified. To conclude, our results clearly indicated that SX could protect liver functions and relieve hepatic steatosis and inflammation.

  14. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Mina Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective: This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus fed a high-fat diet. Design: The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD, a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD, or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2. Results: The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions: These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  15. Urine and Serum Metabolite Profiling of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet and the Anti-Obesity Effects of Caffeine Consumption

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    Hyang Yeon Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND, HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS, and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling.

  16. Urine and serum metabolite profiling of rats fed a high-fat diet and the anti-obesity effects of caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Mee Youn; Park, Hye Min; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Shon, Jong Cheol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-02-13

    In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC)-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS), and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS) combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling.

  17. Effects of raftilose on serum biochemistry and liver morphology in rats fed with normal or high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Sá, Inês; de-Sousa-Lopes, Hugo; Martins, Maria J; Azevedo, Isabel; Moura, Eduardo; Vieira-Coelho, Maria A

    2013-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the leading cause of chronic liver injury in developed countries. Oligofructose (OFS) is a prebiotic with proven benefits for health. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of 10% OFS on hepatic morphology and lipid metabolism in Wistar Kyoto rats submitted to normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (FD). Animals were treated for 7 weeks. Lipid profile and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured and liver histology evaluated at the end of the study. Ten percent OFS reduced triglyceride (TAG) levels when added to any of the diet regimens; 10% OFS decreased plasmatic urea in ND and plasmatic and urinary urea levels in FD; ND + 10% OFS treated rats showed lower ALP activity than controls. FD increased ALP activity, an effect not reversed by OFS. Animals submitted to FD have microscopic hepatic changes: marked steatosis with disarranged centrilobular zone structure; enlarged sinusoids; enlarged mitochondria and an increase in number and volume of adiposomes. Supplementation with 10% OFS in FD reversed those effects. In conclusion, 10% OFS supplementation prevented deleterious effects of FD such as alterations on lipid profile (TAG elevation) and hepatic morphologic changes. OFS decreased ALP activity in animals subjected to ND, which may have contributed to the differences on lipid metabolism. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

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    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of fisetin supplementation on hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats fed on a high fat diet.

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    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Do, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taewon; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-15

    The modulatory effects of daily fisetin supplementation for 8 weeks on genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in rats fed a high fat (HF) diet were evaluated. Elevated levels of triglyceride (TG), along with hepatic TG content and glucose concentrations in a high fat diet group were found to be reduced by fisetin supplementation. The high fat diet significantly increased hepatic mRNA expressions of PPARγ, SREBP1C and SCD-1 genes in comparison to the control diet, which was subsequently reversed by supplementation with fisetin. In addition, fisetin supplementation significantly reduced hepatic mRNA abundance of FAS, ATPCL and G6Pase compared to the control group. Finally, epididymal mRNA abundance of GLUT4 was significantly increased by fisetin supplementation, compared to levels in the control and HF groups. Enhancement of GLUT4 expression by fisetin was further confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fisetin supplementation decreases cardiovascular risks by ameliorating hepatic steatosis and lowering circulating glucose concentrations.

  20. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

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    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S, a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intraabdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200% and a lower number (44% of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25% and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11% and length (5%. Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health.

  1. Kaempferol regulates the lipid-profile in high-fat diet-fed rats through an increase in hepatic PPARα levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of the flavonoid kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with kaempferol (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or fenofibrate (100 mg/kg) once daily for eight weeks. Fenofibrate is an antilipemic agent that exerts its therapeutic effects through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α). Kaempferol (300 mg/kg/day) produced effects similar to fenofibrate in reducing body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol also caused dose-related reductions in hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content and lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic PPAR α. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1) proteins were reversed by kaempferol and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in HFD-fed rats were lowered by kaempferol and fenofibrate. These results suggest that kaempferol reduced the accumulation of visceral fat and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-fed obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the downregulation of SREBPs and promoting the hepatic expression of ACO and CYP4A1, secondary to a direct upregulation hepatic PPAR α expression.

  2. Grape pomace and grape pomace extract improve insulin signaling in high-fat-fructose fed rat-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Perdicaro, Diahann Jeanette; Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel Ramón; Miatello, Roberto Miguel; Bottini, Rubén; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In this study the effect of diet supplementation with grape pomace (GP) and grape pomace extract (GPE) on insulin sensitive tissues (adipose, liver and muscle) was evaluated in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS was developed by giving a high-fat-fructose (HFF) diet to Wistar rats. Six weeks of HFF diet induced weight gain, which was partially attenuated by GP (1 g per kg per day) and GPE (300 mg per kg per day) supplementation. HFF diet increased systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin resistance (HOMA:IR) and inflammation (c-reactive protein (CRP)). Supplementation with GP prevented SBP, triglycerides and CRP increased and partially attenuated insulin resistance. On the other hand, GPE partially reduced SBP and triglycerides and significantly prevented insulin resistance and inflammation. Also, HFF diet induced higher triglycerides content and enhanced NADPH oxidase activity in the liver. Also, HFF diet increased the epididymal adipose tissue weight, enlarged adipocyte size, and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, probably contributing to a pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern (higher resistin) and lower adiponectin protein expression. These alterations may result in an impairment of insulin signaling cascade observed in adipose, liver and muscle tissue (IRS1, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2)) from HFF rats. Supplementation with GP and to a greater extent GPE attenuated liver triglyceride content and adiposity and restored adipose, liver and muscle response to insulin. These findings show that supplementation with GP and GPE to a greater extent can counteract adiposity, inflammation, liver damage and impaired insulin signaling associated to MetS, supporting the utilization of winemaking residues in food industry/human health due to their high amount of bioactive compounds.

  3. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  4. Effects of chitosan and water-soluble chitosan micro- and nanoparticles in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hong-liang Zhang,1,2 Xiao-bin Zhong,1 Yi Tao,3 Si-hui Wu,4 Zheng-quan Su21Department of Pharmacy, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 2Key Research Center of Liver Regulation for Hyperlipemia SATCM/Level 3 Laboratory of Lipid Metabolism, Guangdong TCM Key Laboratory for Metabolic Diseases, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, 3HEC Pharm Group, Dongguan, 4Department of Pharmacy, Guangdong Food and Drug Vocational Technical School, Guangzhou, ChinaPurpose: This study determined the effects of chitosan (CTS and water-soluble chitosan (WSC microparticles (MPs and nanoparticles (NPs in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into eight groups: a normal diet group (the blank control, a high-fat emulsion group (the negative control, CTS and WSC control groups, CTS-MP and WSC-MP groups, and CTS-NP and WSC-NP groups. All groups (except the blank control group were fed the high-fat diet for 4 weeks to establish the obesity model. Different samples were administered orally once daily to the treatment groups for 4 weeks.Results: A significantly lower weight gain was observed in the WSC-MP and WSC-NP groups, as well as in the CTS-MP and CTS-NP groups, compared with rats given a normal diet and a high-fat diet (P < 0.05. The WSC-MP rats had the least weight gain among all the groups. The food intake in the eight groups had the same trend as weight gain. CTS and WSC MPs and NPs significantly reduced the final amounts of epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue. Liver weight was reduced in the CTS-MP group compared to rats fed a high-fat diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced in all treatment groups, with the WSC-MP and CTS-MP groups showing a more significant reduction than the other groups. Triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the WSC-NP group compared to the high-fat group. The mortality rates of CTS-MP, CTS

  5. Photoperiod regulates lean mass accretion, but not adiposity, in growing F344 rats fed a high fat diet.

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    Alexander W Ross

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. On long (16L:8D, relative to short (8L:16D, photoperiod food intake and growth rate were increased, but percentage adiposity remained constant (ca 3-4%. On a high fat diet (HFD, containing 22.8% fat (45% energy as fat, food intake was reduced, but energy intake increased on both photoperiods. This led to a small increase in adiposity (up to 10% without overt change in body weight. These changes were also reflected in plasma leptin and lipid levels. Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. As for other animals and humans, there was evidence of central hyposomatotropism in response to obesity, as GHRH gene expression was suppressed by the HFD. Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. However, there was a general dissociation between plasma leptin levels and expression of these hypothalamic energy balance genes. Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSHβ or NMU, which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function.

  6. Swimming Exercise Alleviated Insulin Resistance by Regulating Tripartite Motif Family Protein 72 Expression and AKT Signal Pathway in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet

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    Jie Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether swimming exercise could improve insulin resistance (IR by regulating tripartite motif family protein 72 (TRIM72 expression and AKT signal pathway in rats fed with high-fat diet. Five-week-old rats were classified into 3 groups: standard diet as control (CON, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD plus swimming exercise (Ex-HFD. After 8 weeks, glucose infusion rate (GIR, markers of oxidative stress, mRNA and protein expression of TRIM72, protein of IRS, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were determined in quadriceps muscles. Compared with HFD, the GIR, muscle SOD, and GSH-Px were significantly increased (p<0.05, resp., whereas muscle MDA and 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and p<0.01 in Ex-HFD. Expression levels of TRIM72 mRNA and protein in muscles were significantly reduced (p<0.05 and p<0.01, whereas protein expression levels of IRS-1, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were significantly increased in Ex-HFD compared with HFD (p<0.01, p<0.01, and p<0.05. These results suggest that an 8-week swimming exercise improves HFD-induced insulin resistance maybe through a reduction of TRIM72 in skeletal muscle and enhancement of AKT signal transduction.

  7. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  8. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rebeca Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart., a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control diet or a high-fat (HF diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  9. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-02

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  10. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD-Fed Rats

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    Wen-Chang Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The results show that vanillic acid (VA demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05, indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  11. Structural changes of gut microbiota during berberine-mediated prevention of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats.

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    Xu Zhang

    Full Text Available Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD-fed rats, which showed decreased food intake. Increases in the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin and decrease in the serum level of adiponectin corrected for body fat in HFD-fed rats were also significantly retarded by the co-administration of berberine at 100 mg/kg body weight. Bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant reduction in the gut microbiota diversity of berberine-treated rats. UniFrac principal coordinates analysis revealed a marked shift of the gut microbiota structure in berberine-treated rats away from that of the controls. Redundancy analysis identified 268 berberine-responding operational taxonomic units (OTUs, most of which were essentially eliminated, whereas a few putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA-producing bacteria, including Blautia and Allobaculum, were selectively enriched, along with elevations of fecal SCFA concentrations. Partial least square regression models based on these 268 OTUs were established (Q(2>0.6 for predicting the adiposity index, body weight, leptin and adiponectin corrected for body fat, indicating that these discrete phylotypes might have a close association with the host metabolic phenotypes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance by berberine in HFD-fed rats is at least partially mediated by structural modulation of the gut microbiota, which may help to alleviate inflammation by reducing the exogenous antigen load in the host and elevating SCFA levels in the intestine.

  12. Metabolic effects of the iodothyronine functional analogue TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed overweight rats: an integrated proteomic study.

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    Silvestri, Elena; Glinni, Daniela; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Ceccarelli, Michele; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-07-06

    A novel functional iodothyronine analogue, TRC150094, which has a much lower potency toward thyroid hormone receptor (α1/β1) activation than triiodothyronine, has been shown to be effective at reducing adiposity in rats simultaneously receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, by combining metabolic, functional and proteomic analysis, we studied how the hepatic and skeletal muscle phenotypes might respond to TRC150094 treatment in HFD-fed overweight rats. Drug treatment increased both the liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities without altering mitochondrial efficiency. Coherently, in terms of individual respiratory in-gel activity, blue-native analysis revealed an increased activity of complex V in the liver and of complexes II and V in tibialis muscle in TCR150094-treated animals. Subsequently, the identification of differentially expressed proteins and the analysis of their interrelations gave an integrated view of the phenotypic/metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver and muscle proteomes during drug treatment. TRC150094 significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways, including amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. The canonical pathways most strongly influenced by TRC150094 in tibialis muscle included glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid, fructose and mannose metabolism, and cell signaling. The phenotypic/metabolic influence of TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of HFD-fed overweight rats suggests the potential clinical application of this iodothyronine analogue in ameliorating metabolic risk parameters altered by diet regimens.

  13. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

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    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  14. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L.; Tovar, Armando R.; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M.; Raybould, Helen E.

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism. PMID:28196086

  15. Hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin via up-regulation of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase in rats fed a high fat diet.

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    Kim, Minji; Kim, Yangha

    2010-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) protective agent via decreased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) level. The aim of this study was to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), a rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of bile acid from cholesterol, at the mRNA level. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 45% high fat diet or same diet supplemented with curcumin (0.1% wt/wt) for 8 weeks. The curcumin diet significantly decreased serum triglyceride (TG) by 27%, total cholesterol (TC) by 33.8%, and LDL-cholesterol by 56%, respectively as compared to control group. The curcumin-supplemented diet also significantly lowered the atherogenic index (AI) by 48% as compared to control group. Hepatic TG level was significantly reduced by 41% in rats fed with curcumin-supplemented diet in comparison with control group (P curcumin diet significantly increased fecal TG and TC. The curcumin diet up-regulated hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level by 2.16-fold, compared to control group p (P curcumin.

  16. Comparison of enzymatically synthesized inulin, resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate effects on biomarkers of metabolic disease in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (cafeteria) diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugatani, Junko; Osabe, Makoto; Wada, Tadashi; Yamakawa, Kasumi; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Ikari, Akira; Miwa, Masao

    2008-06-01

    While naturally occurring inulin has anti-hyperlipidemic effects in animals and humans, health effects of synthetic inulin with different degrees of fructose polymerization remain poorly understood. Our study aimed at distinguishing health effects of synthetic inulin with different degrees of fructose polymerization (DP) from those of resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate. We examined effects of synthetic inulin on serum and liver lipid profiles and blood biochemical parameters in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF, cafeteria) diet when compared to resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate. Treatment with inulin (average DP = 6-8, 16-17 and 23) and resistant maltodextrin for 3 weeks reduced the elevation in liver levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol of rats fed the cafeteria diet but not the standard diet. In these groups, inulin (average DP = 16-17) significantly reduced the portal plasma glucose level. Moreover, the levels of portal plasma propionate and circulating serum adiponectin, which were decreased in cafeteria rats, recovered to nearly normal levels after administration of inulin (average DP = 16-17). In addition, the dietary inulin suppressed elevation in levels of portal plasma insulin and circulating serum leptin and induction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase mRNAs in the liver of cafeteria rats, consistent with the reduction of liver lipids. The dietary inulin and clofibrate markedly reduced triacylglycerol levels in serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and liver and epididymal adipose tissue weights of cafeteria rats; the extent of suppression by the dietary inulin was higher than that by clofibrate. No additive or synergistic effect of the dietary inulin and clofibrate was found in decrease in circulating serum VLDL and liver lipid levels. These observations indicate that the dietary inulin may prevent the development of metabolic disease such as hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia caused by intake of cafeteria

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of fibrotic liver of rats fed high fat diet contained lard versus corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualin; Sit, Wat-Hung; Tipoe, George Lim; Liu, Zhiguo; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2017-02-01

    The influences of dietary fatty acids on the progress of chronic liver diseases have attracted lots of attentions, but the mechanisms of the effects of lipids rich in saturated fatty acids or PUFAs on hepatic fibrogenesis remain unclear. Female Fischer 344 rats were fed normal chow or chow plus 20% (w/w) of corn oil or lard, respectively, and injected CCl4 twice a week for 4 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. Masson's staining was adopted to illustrate the fibrosis level. The mRNA expression level of α-SMA and the DNA methylation level of its promoter region were analyzed. A 2-DE gel based proteomic approach was constructed to investigate the differential expression level of hepatic proteome between three diet groups. Histological evaluations and α-SMA expression analysis illustrated the high corn oil intake has no effects on hepatic fibrogenesis, but lard intake aggravated liver fibrosis, partly attributed to DNA demethylation of α-SMA promoter region. 2-DE Gel based proteomic study demonstrated excessive lard consumption elevated the expression of fibrosis related alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor, and endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1 and protein disulfide isomerase associated 3. Moreover, unlike corn oil rich in PUFAs, lard had no effects to elevate the expression of glutathione S-transferases, but decreased the expression of iron store related proteins heme binding protein 1 and ferritin. Lard intake aggravates CCl4 induced liver fibrosis via enhancing the expression of fibrogenesis and ER stress related proteins, and disturbing the hepatic transmethylation reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasi, S; Nwobodo, E; Ofili, J O

    2000-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypocholesterolemic agent in obese patients. The scientific basis for their use in hypercholesterolemia was therefore examined. It was found that administration of the crude leaf extract of Moringa oleifera along with high-fat diet decreased the high-fat diet-induced increases in serum, liver, and kidney cholesterol levels by 14.35% (115-103.2 mg/100 ml of serum), 6.40% (9.4-8.8 mg/g wet weight) and 11.09% (1.09-0.97 mg/g wet weight) respectively. The effect on the serum cholesterol was statistically significant. No significant effect on serum total protein was observed. However, the crude extract increased serum albumin by 15.22% (46-53 g/l). This value was also found to be statistically significant. It was concluded that the leaves of Moringa oleifera have definite hypocholesterolemic activity and that there is valid pharmacological basis for employing them for this purpose in India.

  19. Energy restriction and exercise modulate angiopoietins and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the cavernous tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In(ě)s Tomada; Nuno Tomada; Henrique Almeida; Delminda Neves

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet,energy restriction and exercise on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and 2,and their receptors in rat corpus cavernosum (CC).Male Wistar rats were fed adlibitum with an HF diet for 8 or 16 weeks.After 8 weeks of the HF diet,a group of rats was subjected to energy restriction with or without exercise for 8 weeks.Control animals had free access to standard diet for the same period.After euthanasia,blood was collected and the penises removed for immunofluorescence assays (VEGF,VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 and 2,Ang1,Ang2 and Tie2) and semiquantification of VEGF,VEGFR1,VEGFR2,Ang1,Ang2,Tie2,endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt/phospho-Akt by Western blotting.HF diet-fed rats exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels,higher systolic blood pressure and an increased atherogenic index.A significant increase in Ang2 expression in the CC was verified and coupled to a decrease in VEGF and VEGFRs.The Akt pathway was activated by the HF diet.Energy restriction and exercise increased eNOS expression and restored most HF diet-induced modifications except for VEGFR2 expression.These results emphasize the role of diet on vascular function regulation,demonstrating that cavernous imbalance of VEGF/VEGFRs and Angs/rie2 systems occurs before serum lipid changes and obesity onset,antedating structural atherosclerotic features.

  20. Tocotrienol rich tocomin attenuates oxidative stress and improves endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from rats fed a high-fat western diet

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    Saher F Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat or control rat chow (SD, 6% fat for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc or its vehicle (peanut oil was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin-Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and calcium activated potassium (KCa channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggests that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity.

  1. Preventative effect of Zingiber officinale on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-fed rat model and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Kota, Bhavani P; Nammi, Srinivas; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a core component of metabolic syndrome and usually precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have examined the preventative effect of an ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-fed rat model of metabolic syndrome. The HFHC control rats displayed severe insulin resistance, whilst rats treated with ginger extract (200 mg/kg) during HFHC diet feeding showed a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 10 weeks (p ginger, dose-dependently (from 50 to 150 μM) increased AMPK α-subunit phosphorylation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was accompanied by a time-dependent marked increment of PGC-1α mRNA expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that the protection from HFHC diet-induced insulin resistance by ginger is likely associated with the increased capacity of energy metabolism by its major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol.

  2. Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo C. Salvador

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. lipophilic and polar extract dietary supplementation effects were evaluated according to diabetes management indices, using an in vivo model. A research pipeline was constructed, that ranged from extract preparation, partial chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation, to examining the elderberry extract dietary supplementation effects on biofluid and tissues. Extracts toxicity was screened using an Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence model. A concentration of up to 60 mg/L was selected, and rat doses for oral supplementation were computed applying the interspecies correlation between A. fischeri and rats. Wistar type 2 diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ, were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented for 4 weeks at doses of 190 and 350 mg/kg body weight/day of lipophilic and polar extract, respectively. As far as we know, lipophilic elderberry extract supplementation was assessed for the first time, while polar extract was administrated at higher doses and for a shorter period compared to previous studies, aiming to evaluate subacute supplementation effects. The polar extract modulated glucose metabolism by correcting hyperglycemia, while the lipophilic extract lowered insulin secretion. Both extracts lowered insulin resistance, without remarkable alterations to hematological indices, sera lipids and sera and tissular trace element homeostasis. In conclusion, elderberries are a potential source of bioactive compounds for formulations to be used as co-adjuvants in diabetes management.

  3. NEU-P11, a novel melatonin agonist, inhibits weight gain and improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat/high-sucrose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Meihua; Deng, Xiaojian; Guo, Zhenyu; Laudon, Moshe; Hu, Zhuowei; Liao, Duanfang; Hu, Xiaobo; Luo, Yi; Shen, Qingyun; Su, Zehong; Yin, Weidong

    2009-04-01

    Evidences indicate that a complex relationship exists among sleep disorders, obesity and insulin resistance. NEU-P11 is a novel melatonin agonist used in treatment of psychophysiological insomnia, and in animal studies NEU-P11 showed sleep-promoting effect. In this study, we applied NEU-P11 on obese rats to assess its potential melatoninergic effects in vivo. Obese models were established using high-fat/high-sucrose-fed for 5 months. NEU-P11 (10mg/kg)/melatonin (4mg/kg)/vehicle were administered by a daily intraperitoneal injection respectively for 8 weeks. Our results showed that NEU-P11 or melatonin inhibited both body weight gain and deposit of abdominal fat with no influence on food intake. The impaired insulin sensitivity and antioxidative potency were improved and the levels of plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) decreased with an increased in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) after NEU-P11 or melatonin administration. These data suggest that NEU-P11, like melatonin, decreased body weight gain and improved insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles in obese rats. We conclude that NEU-P11 has a melatoninergic effect on regulating body weight in obese rats and also improving metabolic profiles and efficiently enhancing insulin sensitivity.

  4. Partial Replacement with Menhaden Oil Improves Peripheral Neuropathy in High-Fat-Fed Low-Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetic Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Coppey, Lawrence J.; Amey Holmes; Davidson, Eric P.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To determine the effect of partial replacement of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. High-fat/low-dose streptozotocin diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of replacing 50% of the source of the high-fat diet (lard) with menhaden oil, a natural source of n-3 fatty acids, on diabetic neuropathy. Endpoints included analyses of glucose tolerance, fatty liver disease, serum and liver fatty acid com...

  5. Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedernaes Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid (FA composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP or resistant (OR on a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1 product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18, de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6 and FA elongation (18:0/16:0. Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma. Results After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher

  6. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  7. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Liang, Nu-Chu; Ewald, Erin R; Purcell, Ryan H; Boersma, Gretha J; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2013-11-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk, after which all rats remained sedentary, resulting in four groups: CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, HF-SED, and HF-RW. Male HF offspring gained more body weight by PND7 compared with CHOW pups and maintained this weight difference through the entire experiment. Three weeks of postweaning exercise did not affect body weight gain in either CHOW or HF offspring, but reduced adiposity in HF offspring. Plasma leptin was decreased at the end of the 3-wk running period in HF-RW rats but was not different from HF-SED 9 wk after the exercise period ended. At 14 wk of age, intracerebroventricular injection of leptin suppressed food intake in CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, and HF-RW, while it did not affect food intake in HF-SED group. At death, HF-RW rats also had higher leptin-induced phospho-STAT3 level in the arcuate nucleus than HF-SED rats. Both maternal HF diet and postweaning exercise had effects on hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor mRNA expression in adult offspring. Our data suggest that postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity and signaling in this model.

  8. A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqu Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO and astaxanthin (ASX on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX. Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  9. A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Rong, Shuang; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Yang, Wei; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Xiao, Lingyun; Huang, Fenghong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:28335388

  10. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  11. Intermittent hypoxia upregulates hepatic heme oxygenase-1 and ferritin-1, thereby limiting hepatic pathogenesis in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and a high-fat diet (HFD) reproduce SAS and NAFLD, respectively, in rodents. In this study, rats were fed either an HFD or a standard diet (SD) for 2 weeks, and breathed either IH air or normoxic air for 4 days (early phase) or 6 weeks (late phase), with the same diets maintained during the exposure. HFD increased hepatic lipid accumulation, as detected by oil-red staining and triglyceride content. However, IH exposure reversed the hepatic steatosis at the late phase in these HFD-rats. IH exposure also increased hepatic expression of HO-1 and iron-binding protein ferritin-1 at the late phase, in association with increase in serum iron, bilirubin, and hepatic levels of lipid peroxides, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). IH exposure increased serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb) at the early phase and immunofluorescence of Hb and HO-1 in CD68-positive Kupffer cells (KCs) at the late phase. These findings support that IH induces erythrocytosis, erythro-phagocytosis, and generation of Hb in the KCs. The Hb promotes HO-1 expression in KCs, thereby produces iron, bilirubin, and carbon monoxide (CO). The iron would be either sequestrated by ferritin-1, transferred to the bone marrow for erythropoiesis, or would produce hydroxyradicals and HNE in the liver of rats fed an HFD. HNE might also contribute to the upregulation of HO-1, transferrin-1, and IκB, thereby limiting hepatic steatosis and inflammation via inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation.

  12. Activation of β3-adrenoceptors increases in vivo free fatty acid uptake and utilization in brown but not white fat depots in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Kjellstedt, Ann; Carreras, Alba; Böttcher, Gerhard; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Seale, Patrick; Oakes, Nicholas; Lindén, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) present potential new therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation on tissue-specific uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFA) and its implications for whole body FFA metabolism in diet-induced obese rats using a multi-radiotracer technique. Male Wistar rats were high fat-fed for 12 wk and administered β3-agonist CL316,243 (CL, 1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline via osmotic minipumps during the last 3 wk. The rats were then fasted and acutely infused with a tracer mixture ([(14)C]palmitate and the partially metabolized R-[(3)H]bromopalmitate) under anesthesia. CL infusion decreased body weight gain and fasting plasma glucose levels. While core body temperature was unaffected, infrared thermography showed an increase in tail heat dissipation following CL infusion. Interestingly, CL markedly increased both FFA storage and utilization in interscapular and perirenal BAT, whereas the flux of FFA to skeletal muscle was decreased. In this rat model of obesity, only sporadic populations of beige adipocytes were detected in the epididymal WAT depot of CL-infused rats, and there was no change in FFA uptake or utilization in WAT following CL infusion. In summary, β3-agonism robustly increased FFA flux to BAT coupled with enhanced utilization. Increased BAT activation most likely drove the increased tail heat dissipation to maintain thermostasis. Our results emphasize the quantitative role of brown fat as the functional target of β3-agonism in obesity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Uninephrectomized High-Fat-Fed Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Model for the Investigation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Yuri V.; Chefu, Svetlana G.; Pchelin, Ivan Yu.; Bairamov, Alekber A.; Alexeyeva, Nina P.; Shatalov, Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) could be reproduced in rats with alimentary obesity by using low doses of streptozotocin (LD-STZ) as well as STZ in high doses with preliminary nicotinamide (NA) administration. However, STZ could induce tubulotoxicity. Aim. To develop rat model of DN in NA-STZ-induced DM2 and compare it with LD-STZ-model in order to choose the most relevant approach for reproducing renal glomerular and tubular morphofunctional diabetic changes. Starting at 3 weeks after uninephrectomy, adult male Wistar rats were fed five-week high-fat diet and then received intraperitoneally either LD-STZ (40 mg/kg) or NA (230 mg/kg) followed by STZ (65 mg/kg). Control uninephrectomized vehicle-injected rats received normal chow. At weeks 10, 20, and 30 (the end of the study), metabolic parameters, creatinine clearance, albuminuria, and urinary tubular injury markers (NGAL, KIM-1) were evaluated as well as renal ultrastructural and light microscopic changes at weeks 20 and 30. NA-STZ-group showed higher reproducibility and stability of metabolic parameters. By week 10, in NA-STZ-group NGAL level was significantly lower compared to LD-STZ-group. By week 30, diabetic groups showed early features of DN. However, morphofunctional changes in NA-STZ-group appeared to be more pronounced than those in STZ-group despite lower levels of KIM-1 and NGAL. We proposed a new rat model of DM2 with DN characterized by stable metabolic disorders, typical renal lesions, and lower levels of tubular injury markers as compared to LD-STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:28090542

  14. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H2O2. HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  17. Phytosterol esters attenuate hepatic steatosis in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihua; Qu, Dan; Zhang, Qing; jiang, Jing; Zhou, Haiyue; Jiang, Rui; Li, Yating; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    Given the adverse effects of drugs used for NAFLD treatment, identifying novel and effective natural compound to prevent NAFLD is urgently needed. In the present study, the effects of phytosterol esters (PSEs) on NAFLD were explored. Adult SD rats were randomized into five groups: normal chow diet (NC), high-fat diet (HF), low-, medium- and high-dose PSE treatment plus high-fat diet groups (PSEL, PSEM, and PSEH). Our results showed that the levels of LDL-C in the PSEL group and hepatic TG, TC, and FFA in the three PSEs groups were significantly decreased. Notably, the uric acid (UA) level was significantly decreased by PSEs intervention. The hepatic inflammatory stress was ameliorated via the inhibition of the cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-6, IL-10 and CRP in the PSEs intervention groups. Further, the oxidative status was improved by PSE treatment through adjusting the enzyme activity (SOD and XOD) and decreasing the MDA level. These beneficial effects of PSE may have been partly due to its regulation on the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TNF-α, UCP-2, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in hepatic tissue at both mRNA and protein level. The results of this study suggest that PSEs may be used as therapeutic agents for the prevention and progression of NAFLD and that hyperuricemia is induced by high-fat diet consumption. PMID:28169366

  18. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T; Forssten, Sofia D; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10(10) bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6-2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol - alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron - increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0-8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0-8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.

  19. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals.

  20. [Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on gut microbiota and endotoxin levels in portal vein of rats fed with high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhan-jiang; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin; Tian, Shu-bo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) on gut microbiota and endotoxin levels in portal vein of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed with normal control diet (CD), HFD, CD supplemented with n-3PUFAs, and HFD supplemented with n-3PUFAs, respectively. Fresh fecal samples were collected to analyze the gut microbiota 10 weeks after feeding. DNA was exacted from the fresh fecal samples. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the composition of the gut microbiota. The endotoxin levels were detected through modified azo chromogenic substrate limulus amebocyte lysate assay. The differences in body weight before breeding in each group were not statistically significant among these four groups (P=0.613). The increase in the body weight was significantly larger in the HFD group than in the CD group (P=0.0002), CD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.0001), and HFD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.022). There were significantly more firmicutes (P=0.002) and enterobacteriales (P=0.022) and significantly less bacteroidetes (P=0.026) and bifidobactera (P=0.034) in the gut of rats from HFD group than those from the CD group. There were significantly more bacteroidetes in the fecal samples of the rats from the CD+n-3PUFAs group compared to those from the CD group (P=0.043). There were significantly more firmicutes (P=0.044)and enterobacteriales (P=0.012) and less bacteroidetes (P=0.042) in the fecal samples of the rats from HFD group compared to those from the HFD+n-3PUFAs group. The endotoxin in plasma form portal vein of rats in HFD group were significantly higher than in CD group (P=0.007) and HFD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.042) but showed no significant difference between CD+n-3PUFAs and CD group (P=0.210). HFD can increase body weight and change gut microbiota. Supplementation of n-3PUFAs can partially counteract such gut dysbiosis, lower endotoxin level in portal vein blood, and improve the body

  1. Effects of Solanum torvum fruit water extract on hyperlipidemia and sex hormones in high-fat fed male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: S. torvum extract can reverse the level of sex hormones to their normal level and reduce serum cholesterol in HFD-induced obese male rats. Furthermore, the long term oral administration of S. torvum extract is harmless.

  2. Protective effect of pinitol against D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yusi; Park, Chung-Mu; Cho, Chung-Won; Song, Young-Sun

    2008-07-01

    The protective effect of pinitol against D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver damage was examined. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, GalN control, and pinitol groups (0.5%, 1%, and 2%). After 8 weeks of feeding, a single dose of GalN (650 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before their sacrifice. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were significantly increased after an injection with GalN (Ppinitol supplementation at the level of 0.5% reversed these changes to normal levels. Significant decreases in serum triglyceride and cholesterol and increases in hepatic cholesterol were observed in GalN-intoxicated rats. However, supplementation with pinitol significantly attenuated these trends. In addition, pinitol elevated the Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase activities, prevented hepatic lipid peroxidation, and restored the hepatic GSH levels and cytochrome P450 2E1 function. Thus, 0.5% pinitol supplementation protected the rats from the hepatotoxicity induced by GalN, at least part of its effect being attributable to attenuation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory process promoted by GalN.

  3. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of 4 different dietary fats (rapeseed oil (RO), rapeseed oil interesterified with decanoic acid (R/C10), olive oil (OO), and butter) after feeding a high-fat (30 wt-%) diet rich in trans-fatty acids (mainly trans-C18:1) for 3 weeks. The trans...

  4. Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, decreased visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size in rats fed with high fat diet more effectively than nonfermented soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Park, Sang Chul; Song, Kye Yong

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is known to have an anti-obesity effect. We compared the anti-obesity effect of doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, with that of nonfermented soybeans in rats. Steamed soybeans and doenjang (steamed soybeans fermented and aged for 10 months) were sampled and freeze-dried. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed basal (BA) (5% fat), high fat (HF) (30% fat), HF+steamed soybeans (SOY), or HF+doenjang (DJ) diet ad libitum for 8 weeks. HF significantly increased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and epididymal fat pad weight compared with BA. Compared with HF, body weight gain and hepatic TG and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in SOY and DJ groups, but they were not significantly different from each other. DJ significantly reduced visceral fat weight and epididymal adipocyte size compared with HF, whereas SOY resulted in a mild reduction without significance. This was possibly because DJ showed lowered fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and elevated carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 activity in liver tissue more than SOY. SOY and DJ did not affect serum total and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels compared with HF; however, DJ significantly lowered the atherogenic index and serum leptin level. In conclusion, doenjang, a fermented soybean product, was more effective than soybeans for preventing diet-induced visceral fat accumulation, possibly because of its greater effects on CPT-1 activity stimulation and FAS activity suppression. These effects may be due in part to the higher content of aglycone isoflavones in doenjang.

  5. Partial Replacement with Menhaden Oil Improves Peripheral Neuropathy in High-Fat-Fed Low-Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Coppey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine the effect of partial replacement of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. High-fat/low-dose streptozotocin diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of replacing 50% of the source of the high-fat diet (lard with menhaden oil, a natural source of n-3 fatty acids, on diabetic neuropathy. Endpoints included analyses of glucose tolerance, fatty liver disease, serum and liver fatty acid composition, serum lipid and adiponectin levels, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity and innervation of the hindpaw. Results. Diabetic rats were insulin resistant and menhaden oil did not improve whole animal glucose utilization. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels but serum levels of adiponectin were significantly increased and hepatic steatosis was significantly improved. Diabetic rats were thermal hypoalgesic, had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and intraepidermal nerve fiber profiles were decreased in the hindpaw and these endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil. Conclusions. We found that enrichment of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil improved a number of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy.

  6. Possible role of intestinal fatty acid oxidation in the eating-inhibitory effect of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian Azari, Elnaz; Leitner, Claudia; Jaggi, Thomas; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    PPAR-α plays a key role in lipid metabolism; it enhances fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. Pharmacological PPAR-α activation improves insulin sensitivity and reduces food intake, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We here report that intraperitoneal (IP) administration of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 (40 mg/kg BW) reduced food intake in adult male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 49% of the energy) mainly through an increase in the latency to eat after injection, and without inducing a conditioned taste avoidance. Also, IP administered Wy-14643 caused an acute (the first 60 min) decrease in the respiratory quotient (RQ) and an increase in hepatic portal vein β-hydroxybutyrate level (at 35 min) without affecting plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Given the known stimulatory effect of PPAR-α on FAO and ketogenesis, we measured the protein expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT 1A) and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMG-CoAS2), two key enzymes for FAO and ketogenesis, respectively, in liver, duodenum and jejunum. Wy-14643 induced a significant increase in the expression of CPT 1A in the jejunum and duodenum and of HMG-CoAS2 in the jejunum, but neither CPT 1A nor HMG-CoAS2 expression was increased in the liver. The induction of CPT 1A and HMG-CoAS2 expression was associated with a decrease in the lipid droplet content selectively in the jejunum. Our findings indicate that Wy-14643 stimulates FAO and ketogenesis in the intestine, in particular in the jejunum, rather than in the liver, thus supporting the hypothesis that PPAR-α activation inhibits eating by stimulating intestinal FAO.

  7. Possible role of intestinal fatty acid oxidation in the eating-inhibitory effect of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Karimian Azari

    Full Text Available PPAR-α plays a key role in lipid metabolism; it enhances fatty acid oxidation (FAO and ketogenesis. Pharmacological PPAR-α activation improves insulin sensitivity and reduces food intake, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We here report that intraperitoneal (IP administration of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 (40 mg/kg BW reduced food intake in adult male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 49% of the energy mainly through an increase in the latency to eat after injection, and without inducing a conditioned taste avoidance. Also, IP administered Wy-14643 caused an acute (the first 60 min decrease in the respiratory quotient (RQ and an increase in hepatic portal vein β-hydroxybutyrate level (at 35 min without affecting plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Given the known stimulatory effect of PPAR-α on FAO and ketogenesis, we measured the protein expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT 1A and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMG-CoAS2, two key enzymes for FAO and ketogenesis, respectively, in liver, duodenum and jejunum. Wy-14643 induced a significant increase in the expression of CPT 1A in the jejunum and duodenum and of HMG-CoAS2 in the jejunum, but neither CPT 1A nor HMG-CoAS2 expression was increased in the liver. The induction of CPT 1A and HMG-CoAS2 expression was associated with a decrease in the lipid droplet content selectively in the jejunum. Our findings indicate that Wy-14643 stimulates FAO and ketogenesis in the intestine, in particular in the jejunum, rather than in the liver, thus supporting the hypothesis that PPAR-α activation inhibits eating by stimulating intestinal FAO.

  8. Reshaping faecal gut microbiota composition by the intake of trans-resveratrol and quercetin in high-fat sucrose diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, U; Arias, N; Boqué, N; Macarulla, M T; Portillo, M P; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

    2015-06-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated to an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota composition. Resveratrol and quercetin, widely known for their health beneficial properties, have low bioavailability, and when they reach the colon, they are targets of the gut microbial ecosystem. Hence, the use of these molecules in obesity might be considered as a potential strategy to modulate intestinal bacterial composition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trans-resveratrol and quercetin administration could counteract gut microbiota dysbiosis produced by high-fat sucrose diet (HFS) and, in turn, improve gut health. Wistar rats were randomised into four groups fed an HFS diet supplemented or not with trans-resveratrol [15 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day], quercetin (30 mg/kg BW/day) or a combination of both polyphenols at those doses. Administration of both polyphenols together prevented body weight gain and reduced serum insulin levels. Moreover, individual supplementation of trans-resveratrol and quercetin effectively reduced serum insulin levels and insulin resistance. Quercetin supplementation generated a great impact on gut microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels, attenuating Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and inhibiting the growth of bacterial species previously associated to diet-induced obesity (Erysipelotrichaceae, Bacillus, Eubacterium cylindroides). Overall, the administration of quercetin was found to be effective in lessening HFS-diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. In contrast, trans-resveratrol supplementation alone or in combination with quercetin scarcely modified the profile of gut bacteria but acted at the intestinal level, altering the mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins and inflammation-associated genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  10. Changes in intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota in high-fat diet-fed rats are dynamic and region dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M Kristina; Boudry, Gaëlle; Lemay, Danielle G; Raybould, Helen E

    2015-05-15

    A causal relationship between the pathophysiological changes in the gut epithelium and altered gut microbiota with the onset of obesity have been suggested but not defined. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal relationship between impaired intestinal barrier function and microbial dysbiosis in the small and large intestine in rodent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Rats were fed HF diet (45% fat) or normal chow (C, 10% fat) for 1, 3, or 6 wk; food intake, body weight, and adiposity were measured. Barrier function ex vivo using FITC-labeled dextran (4,000 Da, FD-4) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) probes in Ussing chambers, gene expression, and gut microbial communities was assessed. After 1 wk, there was an immediate but reversible increase in paracellular permeability, decrease in IL-10 expression, and decrease in abundance of genera within the class Clostridia in the ileum. In the large intestine, HRP flux and abundance of genera within the order Bacteroidales increased with time on the HF diet and correlated with the onset of increased body weight and adiposity. The data show immediate insults in the ileum in response to ingestion of a HF diet, which were rapidly restored and preceded increased passage of large molecules across the large intestinal epithelium. This study provides an understanding of microbiota dysbiosis and gut pathophysiology in diet-induced obesity and has identified IL-10 and Oscillospira in the ileum and transcellular flux in the large intestine as potential early impairments in the gut that might lead to obesity and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. The involvement of ginseng berry extract in blood flow via regulation of blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Min Hee Kim

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest the possibility that GBx can ameliorate blood flow by decreasing intima-media thickness via the regulation of blood coagulation factors related to lipid metabolites in rats fed a HFD.

  12. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  13. A lower proportion of dietary saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the expression of adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jieyi; Pen, Anfang; Ying, Chenjiang; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2012-04-01

    The role for the amount of different dietary fatty acids in regulating expression of adiponectin and metabolism of glucose and lipids has been implicated, but the optimal amount has not been established yet. To address this issue, we fed male Wistar rats with either chow diet or various high-fat diets (HFDs) for 12 weeks. The HFDs contained the same percentage of fat (35% energy from fat) but had different proportions of saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated (S/M/P) (1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, 1:2:1, or 1:1:2) fat. Glucose and lipid metabolism and adiponectin expression were subsequently examined. In comparison with chow diet, HFD with any proportion of S/M/P increased energy intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:1 or 1:1:2 significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1. The HFD containing the highest level of saturated fatty acids (S/M/P proportion at 2:1.5:1) increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose. Levels of serum insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index were significantly increased by HFD with S/M/P proportions at 1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1 but not by the HFD with the S/M/P proportions at 1:1:2 (containing the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Levels of adiponectin messenger RNA in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were reduced by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2 or 1:1:1 but increased by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:2. These changes in expression of adiponectin were inversely associated with those in levels of triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Together, the proportion of different fatty acids in diets plays an important role in expression of adiponectin and

  14. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate: fat intake

    OpenAIRE

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Gregory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A.; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HF...

  15. Hesperidin ameliorates streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dilpesh P Jain; Rahul S Somani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates protective effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion and high fat diet for 2 weeks to induce glucose intolerance and then injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). Following 48 h of streptozotocin injection blood glucose level was estimated to confirm hyperglycemia. After 4 weeks of diabetes induction ...

  16. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  17. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Nur Akmal Ishak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P<0.05 increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL, insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.

  18. Exendin-4 shows no effects on the prostatic index in high-fat-diet-fed rat with benign prostatic hyperplasia by improving insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J-X; Xiao, Y-C; Hu, Y-R; Hao, M; Kuang, H-Y

    2015-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease globally, and accumulating evidence has indicated an association between BPH, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Exendin-4 is widely used in clinics, which could enhance the proliferation of pancreatic β cells. The ability of exendin-4 to promote tumorigenesis has been of concern, and whether exendin-4 would enhance the propagation of BPH is not fully understood. We aimed to determine whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) were expressed in rat prostate and to determine the effect of exendin-4 on prostate of BPH. Male Wistar rats were used and assigned to six groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + exendin-4, HFD + BPH, HFD + BPH + exendin-4 and HFD + BPH + rosiglitazone group. After castration, steroids were injected subcutaneously for 4 weeks to induce BPH. Rats were kept on high-fat diet to induce IR. Treatment groups were treated with exendin-4 and rosiglitazone. Prostatic index and HOMA-IR index were used to evaluate the prostatic hyperplasia status and the degree of IR respectively. The expression of GLP-1R was indicated not only by immunohistochemistry, but also by Western blot analysis. The expression of GLP-1R was significantly higher, and HOMA-IR index and body weight significantly decreased after administration of exendin-4. However, no significant differences in the prostatic index were observed between exendin-4 treatment groups and non-exendin-4 treatment groups. Prostatic index was not influenced by exendin-4 maybe by improving IR and weight loss.

  19. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Morris, E Matthew; Kearney, Monica L; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Thyfault, John P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ∼27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p hepatic TAG secretion rate was ∼39% lower (p Hepatic TAG content was ∼2-fold higher (p profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression.

  20. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  1. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  2. A prescribed Chinese herbal medicine improves glucose profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in Goto-Kakisaki rats fed with high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet β cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn't show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation "Qing Huo Yi Hao" (QHYH improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet β cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n = 20 and chow diet feeding group (n = 10. Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet β cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet β cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving β cell function partly via its

  3. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin W.; Anekonda, Vishwanath T.; Ho, Jacqueline M.; Graham, James L.; Roberts, Zachary S.; Hwang, Bang H.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Havel, Peter J.; Bales, Karen L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26791828

  4. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Thompson, Benjamin W; Anekonda, Vishwanath T; Ho, Jacqueline M; Graham, James L; Roberts, Zachary S; Hwang, Bang H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J; Havel, Peter J; Bales, Karen L; Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G

    2016-04-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity.

  5. Reduced CGP12177 binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in hyperglycemic high-fat-diet-fed, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, James T.; Parsa-Nezhad, Maryam; Kenk, Miran; Thorn, Stephanie L. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); Kolajova, Maria [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Beanlands, Rob S.B. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); DaSilva, Jean N., E-mail: jdasilva@ottawaheart.ca [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Abnormal sympathetic nervous system and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) signaling is associated with diabetes. [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 is a nonselective {beta}-AR antagonist that can be labeled with carbon-11 for positron emission tomography. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of this tracer for evaluation of altered {beta}-AR expression in diabetic rat hearts. Methods: Ex vivo biodistribution with [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 was carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats for evaluation of specific binding and response to continuous {beta}-AR stimulation by isoproterenol. In a separate group, high-fat-diet feeding imparted insulin resistance and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle evoked hyperglycemia (blood glucose >11 mM). [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 biodistribution was assessed at 2 and 8 weeks post-STZ to measure {beta}-AR binding in heart, 30 min following tracer injection. Western blotting of {beta}-AR subtypes was completed in parallel. Results: Infusion of isoproterenol over 14 days did not affect cardiac binding of [{sup 3}H]CGP12177. Approximately half of rats treated with STZ exhibited sustained hyperglycemia and progressive hypoinsulinemia. Myocardial [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding was unchanged at 2 weeks post-STZ but significantly reduced by 30%-40% at 8 weeks in hyperglycemic but not euglycemic STZ-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Western blots supported a significant decrease in {beta}{sub 1}-AR in hyperglycemic rats. Conclusions: Reduced cardiac [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding in the presence of sustained hyperglycemia corresponds to a decrease in relative {beta}{sub 1}-AR expression. These data indirectly support the use of [{sup 11}C]CGP12177 for assessment of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes.

  6. The physico-chemical properties of dietary fibre determine metabolic responses, short-chain Fatty Acid profiles and gut microbiota composition in rats fed low- and high-fat diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Fåk

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM and viscosity of guar gum (low, medium or high resulted in different effects in the rats, where total blood and caecal amounts of SCFA were increased with guar gum (all viscosities and with high methoxylated (HM pectin. However, only guar gum with medium and high viscosity increased the levels of butyric acid in caecum and blood. Both pectin and guar gum reduced cholesterol, liver steatosis and blood glucose levels, but to varying extent depending on the degree of methoxylation and viscosity of the fibres. The medium viscosity guar gum was the most effective preparation for prevention of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis. Caecal abundance of Akkermansia was increased with high-fat feeding and with HM pectin and guar gum of all viscosities tested. Moreover, guar gum had distinct bifidogenic effects independent of viscosity, increasing the caecal abundance of Bifidobacterium ten-fold. In conclusion, by tailoring the viscosity and possibly also the degree of methoxylation of dietary fibre, metabolic effects may be optimized, through a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolites.

  7. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  8. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  9. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health.

  10. Amelioration of oxidative stress and insulin resistance by soy isoflavones (from Glycine max) in ovariectomized Wistar rats fed with high fat diet: the molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, P; Zachariah, Bobby; Vickneshwaran, V; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Sridhar, M G

    2015-03-01

    Estrogen deficiency after menopause accelerates the redox imbalance and insulin signaling, leading to oxidative stress (OS) and insulin resistance (IR). The molecular mechanisms by which the loss of ovarian hormone leads to OS and IR remain unclear. In the present study we found that rats when subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) resulted in reduction of whole blood antioxidants and elevation of oxidant markers. The expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was suppressed whereas the pro-oxidative enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX4) and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK 1/2 and p38 were increased at different tissues. Treatment with soy (SIF, 150 mg/kg BW for 12 weeks) extract markedly reversed these metabolic changes and improved OS. Ovariectomized rats also displayed glucose intolerance (GI) and IR as evident from the impaired glucose tolerance test, and reduced expression of adipose and hepatic insulin receptor beta (IRβ) and adipose tissue GLUT4. Treatment with SIF reversed the ovariectomy induced GI and IR. On the other hand, all these metabolic changes were further augmented when ovariectomy was followed by a high fat diet, and these changes were also reversed by SIF. Taken together, these findings emphasized the antioxidant property and anti-diabetic effects of soy isoflavones suggesting the use of this natural phytoestrogen as a strategy for relieving oxidative stress and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cooking enhances beneficial effects of pea seed coat consumption on glucose tolerance, incretin, and pancreatic hormones in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Zohre; Yang, Kaiyuan; Yang, Han; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn; Chan, Catherine B

    2015-04-01

    Pulses, including dried peas, are nutrient- and fibre-rich foods that improve glucose control in diabetic subjects compared with other fibre sources. We hypothesized feeding cooked pea seed coats to insulin-resistant rats would improve glucose tolerance by modifying gut responses to glucose and reducing stress on pancreatic islets. Glucose intolerance induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat diet (HFD; 10% cellulose as fibre) was followed by 3 weeks of HFD with fibre (10%) provided by cellulose, raw-pea seed coat (RP), or cooked-pea seed coat (CP). A fourth group consumed low-fat diet with 10% cellulose. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (oGTT, ipGTT) were done. CP rats had 30% and 50% lower glucose and insulin responses in oGTT, respectively, compared with the HFD group (P < 0.05) but ipGTT was not different. Plasma islet and incretin hormone concentrations were measured. α- and β-cell areas in the pancreas and density of K- and L-cells in jejunum and ileum were quantified. Jejunal expression of hexose transporters was measured. CP feeding increased fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses (P < 0.05), but K- and L-cells densities were comparable to HFD, as was abundance of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA. No significant difference in β-cell area between diet groups was observed. α-cell area was significantly smaller in CP compared with RP rats (P < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that CP feeding can reverse adverse effects of HFD on glucose homeostasis and is associated with enhanced incretin secretion and reduced α-cell abundance.

  12. Offspring from rat mothers fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet during gestation and lactation accumulate free fatty acids in the liver when exposed to high fat diet as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Ingvorsen, Camilla

    -fostered by the dams, so that half of the pups born by HFHS mothers was lactated by C dams and vice versa, generating four groups; CC, CH, HC and HH (first letter maternal diet during pregnancy and the second diet during lactation). At weaning all pups were transferred to chow-diet and kept on this diet until the age......Introduction: Maternal diet during gestation and lactation has been implicated as a factor that modifies the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Hepatic lipid accumulation is strongly linked to development of metabolic diseases. Free fatty acids induce ER stress, mitochondrial...... stress and are the substrate for formation of other lipotoxic species, such as ceramide, diacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. We have therefore investigated if the maternal intake of a high fat diet combined with sucrose-rich beverage alters the offsprings ability to metabolically cope with a high-fat challenge...

  13. Evaluation of the Effects and Mechanism of L-Citrulline on Anti-obesity by Appetite Suppression in Obese/Diabetic KK-Ay Mice and High-Fat Diet Fed SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Maya; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Momoo, Maki; Suguro, Shiori; Yamagishi, Yoshie; Gao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    L-Citrulline (L-Cit), a free amino acid from watermelon, has effects on hypertension and anti-oxidization; however, there are few reports of effects related to obesity. This study investigated the effects and mechanism of L-Cit on anti-obesity in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. L-Cit induced significant reduction of food intake, body weight and fat tissue mass in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. Moreover, blood glucose level did not change but free fatty acid level and serum insulin level were significantly decreased by treatment with L-Cit, suggesting that L-Cit improved glucose and fatty metabolism in obesity model mice. As well as obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice, there was a significant decrease in food intake and a tendency of body weight to decrease in high-fat diet fed SD rats treated with L-Cit. Also, levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a food intake suppression peptide, increased in the hypothalamus. Our study suggests that L-Cit improves metabolic syndrome through decreased body weight by appetite suppression.

  14. Insulin resistance in two animal models of obesity: A comparison of HISS-dependent and HISS-independent insulin action in high-fat diet-fed and Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; Lautt, W Wayne; Ribeiro, Rogério Tavares; Legare, Dallas J; Macedo, Maria Paula

    2007-01-01

    Normal postprandial insulin sensitivity depends on the action of the hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS), which requires hepatic parasympathetic nerve activation. Since HISS action is impaired in several pathological models, including the genetically-modified obese Zucker rat (OZR), we compared the HISS-dependent and HISS-independent components of insulin action between the OZR model, and the high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. We hypothesize that both models present an impaired HISS action, accounting for the decrease in insulin sensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a HFD for 1 week (n = 5) and OZR (n = 5) were used as obese models. Standard diet-fed (STD, n = 5) and lean Zucker rats (LZR, n = 6) were the HFD and OZR non-obese controls, respectively. Rats were 9-weeks-old when tested. Insulin sensitivity was measured in the fed state, before and after atropine blockade of HISS release), using the Rapid Insulin Sensitivity Test (RIST, mg glucose/kg bw). HISS-dependent action was the difference between control and post-atropine RISTs. HISS action was impaired in both the obese groups (HFD vs STD: 40.1 +/- 5.0 vs 117.0 +/- 3.8 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.001; OZR vs LZR: 34.4 +/- 12.8 vs 115.9 +/- 19.4 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.01), whereas the HISS-independent component (post-atropine RIST), i.e., insulin action per se, was decreased only in the OZR (OZR vs LZR: 39.3 +/- 3.5 vs 173.3 +/- 20.5 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.001). According to our data, the insulin resistance mechanisms are different in the two obesity models studied: in the HFD-fed rats, only the HISS-dependent component is impaired, whereas in the OZR both components of nsulin action are equally impaired.

  15. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablet Ameliorates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis via the Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet Fed and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-jun Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT is a Chinese traditional medicine that has been shown to protect podocytes from injury and reduce the proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TGT on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and its potential mechanism in high-fat diet fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into normal control rats (NC group, diabetic rats without drug treatment (DM group, and diabetic rats treated with TGT (1, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day, respectively for 8 weeks. The results showed that 24 h proteinuria and urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG in diabetic rats were decreased by TGT treatment without affecting blood glucose. Masson’s trichrome stains showed that apparent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was found in DM group, which was ameliorated by TGT treatment. The expression of α-SMA was significantly decreased, accompanied by increased expression of E-cadherin in TGT-treated rats, but not in untreated DM rats. Further studies showed that TGT administration markedly reduced expression of TLR4, NF-κB, IL-1β, and MCP-1 in TGT-treated diabetic rats. These results showed that TGT could ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the mechanism which may be at least partly associated with the amelioration of EMT through suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

  16. Canagliflozin potentiates GLP-1 secretion and lowers the peak of GIP secretion in rats fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Tohru; Koga, Toshiki; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2017-10-14

    The glucose-induced secretion of incretins, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), is dependent on luminal glucose levels and transport of glucose via the sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) in the small intestine. Because GLP-1 and GIP function in decreasing and increasing the body weight, respectively, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient inhibition of SGLT1 by canagliflozin on incretin secretion in an obese rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6-7 weeks, and plasma GLP-1 and GIP levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In addition, GLP-1 secretion was examined in a murine GLP-1 producing enteroendocrine cell line, GLUTag. Concomitant administration of 10 mg/kg canagliflozin with glucose loading suppressed glucose excursion, increased total GLP-1 levels, and reduced total GIP levels in systemic circulation, as revealed in the OGTT. Total and active GLP-1 levels were increased in portal blood, whereas total and active GIP levels tended to be decreased 15 min after the administration of canagliflozin with glucose. Canagliflozin (at 0.1-30 μM) did not directly affect release of GLP-1 in vitro. These results suggest that the oral administration of canagliflozin suppresses GIP secretion via the inhibition of SGLT1 in the upper part of the intestine and enhances GLP-1 secretion by increasing the glucose delivery to the lower part of the small intestine in an obese rodent model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myoung Soo [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Sun [Molecular Cancer Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  18. The influence of bifidobacterium vinegar on the plasama lipid of rat fed with high-fat diet%双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金玲; 张德纯; 王春耀; 郭亚楠

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响作用.方法 48只SD大鼠被随机分成双歧醋低剂量组[1.8 mL/( kg·BW)]、中剂量组[3.4 mL/(kg · BW)]、高剂量组[6.8 mL/(kg · BW)]和市售醋组[3.4 mL/( kg·BW)]、高脂模型组以及正常组,观察双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响作用,测定指标包括大鼠体重、肝指数、体脂指数、病理学观察肝脏脂肪变性等.结果 实验结果显示,双歧醋各组所有测定指标值都较高脂模型组有明显好转,特别是甘油三酯(TG)和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平双歧杆菌醋的高、中量组与市售醋组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 双歧醋能有效预防高脂饮食大鼠的血脂水平升高,对预防体重、肝指数升高和肝脏脂肪变性也有一定作用.%Objective To discuss the prophylactic antiobesity effect of bifidobacterium vinegar and possible mechanism. Method 48 SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; bifidobacterium vinegar groups of three different doses, ordinary vineger group, high-fat model group and basic group. The effect of bifidobacterium vinegar on rats fed with high-fat diet was observed. Body weight, body fat index, fatty degeneration in liver were determined. Result All indicator values measured were improved obviously compared with high-fat model group. Particularly, TCHO, HDL-C levels of high and medium dosage bifidobacterium vinegar groups were improved obviously compared with ordinary vineger group. Conclusion Bifidobacterium vinegar can prevent rats fed with high-fat diet from development of high TG and HDL-C, and prevent the body weight, liver index, fatty degeneration in liver from increasing in some degree.

  19. Hypolipidemic, antiobesity and cardioprotective effects of sardinelle meat flour and its hydrolysates in high-fat and fructose diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemil, Ines; Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Rim; Mora, Leticia; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hajji, Mohamed; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the antiobesity, hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects of fermented sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysates (FSPHs) produced with two proteolytic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis A26 (FSPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (FSPH-An6). Wistar rats were fed during 10weeks a standard laboratory diet, a high caloric diet (HCD) and a HCD coupled with the oral administration of sardinelle meat flour (SMF) or FSPHs. HCD caused hyperlipidemia and increased body weight (BW). The daily oral administration of FSPHs or SMF reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) serum levels, and increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Nevertheless, FSPHs were found to be more efficient than SMF. FSPHs also lowered hepatic TC and TG content and decreased the pancreatic lipase activity. Further, the administration of FSPHs or SMF decreased the BW gain, the food intake and the relative epididymal adipose tissue weight. FSPHs exhibited a potent cardioprotective effect against heart attack, which was demonstrated by returning atherogenic indexes to their normal levels and the conservation of standard histological structure of the heart and aorta. The overall results indicate that FSPHs contained bioactive peptides which significantly attenuated hyperlipidemia, and might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rats fed HCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  1. Effects of dietary inulin, statin, and their co-treatment on hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis and changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet

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    Sugatani Junko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF diet develop hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia. There are several reports that a change in nutritional status affects hepatic levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Synthetic inulin is a dietary component that completely evades glucide digestion. Supplementing a HF diet with inulin ameliorates hypertriglycemia and hepatic steatosis, but not hypercholesterolemia. This study aimed at distinguishing the effects of synthetic inulin and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Methods We examined effects of co-treatment with synthetic inulin (5% and fluvastatin (0, 4, and 8 mg/kg, per os on body weight, epidydimal white adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP mRNA and protein profiles in rats fed a standard diet or a HF diet for 3 weeks. Results Treatment with the synthetic inulin (5% or fluvastatin at 4 mg/kg (lethal dose in rats fed the HF diet, 8 mg/kg ameliorated the elevation in hepatic triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in rats fed the HF diet. Whereas co-treatment with the inulin (5% and fluvastatin (4 mg/kg had a tendency to more strongly suppress the elevation in serum levels of very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol than either treatment alone, no additive or synergistic effect was found in decrease in hepatic lipid levels. Hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were reduced in rats fed the HF diet. The synthetic inulin alleviated the reduction in hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein more strongly than fluvastatin, and no synergistic effects were observed on co-treatment. Furthermore, hepatic levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA were decreased in rats fed the HF diet and recovered to near normal values with the intake of dietary inulin

  2. The Effects of Yerba Maté (Ilex Paraguariensis) consumption on IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 production by bone marrow cells in wistar rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Carmo, Luciana Simão; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Cortez, Mayara; Yamada, Monica; Jacob, Patrícia Silva; Bastos, Deborah Helena Markowicz; Borelli, Primavera; Ambrósio Fock, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    An excessive consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) results in becoming overweight or obese, which triggers a chronic inflammatory condition that is associated with a high white blood cell count. Because of the potential for yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) (YM) to impact obesity, this study aimed to investigate the effects of YM consumption on the hematological response and on the production of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 by bone marrow cells from Wistar rats fed a HFD. Male Wistar rats were fed a control (CON) or HFD diet for twelve weeks. At the end of this period, the rats received YM (1 g/kg/day body weight) for 4 weeks. After euthanasia, hemograms and myelograms were evaluated, while the bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate the production of IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10. The consumption of YM reduced the body weight, the body adiposity, and the cholesterol levels in HFD-fed rats. Bone marrow cells from the HFD group produced more IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α, and less IL-10, when compared to cells from the control group, and YM consumption reduced the IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α production by the cells. However, cells from the HFD rats that were stimulated with LPS increased their IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α production, but YM consumption did not change this result. In summary, the consumption of YM affects the production of IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α by bone marrow cells, promotes weight loss, decreases the number of white blood cells, and significantly improves serum cholesterol level in HFD-fed rats. However, the bone marrow cells from the HFD+YM-fed rats challenged with LPS did not show improvement in the inflammatory response compared to the cells from animals fed only a HFD that were also challenged with LPS.

  3. Histopathological changes in rat pancreas and skeletal muscle associated with high fat diet induced insulin resistance.

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    Ickin Gulen, M; Guven Bagla, A; Yavuz, O; Hismiogullari, A A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a high fat diet on the development of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and secretion have been widely investigated. We investigated the effects of a high fat diet on the pancreas and skeletal muscle of normal rats to explore diet-induced insulin resistance mechanisms. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: a control group fed standard chow, a group fed a 45% fat diet and a group fed a 60% fat diet for 3 weeks to measure acute effects; an additional three groups were fed the same diet regimens for 8 weeks to measure chronic effects. The morphological effects of the two high fat diets were examined by light microscopy. Insulin in pancreatic islets was detected using immunohistochemistry. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and insulin staining intensity in islets increased significantly with acute administration of high fat diets, whereas staining intensity decreased with chronic administration of the 45% fat diet. Islet areas increased significantly with chronic administration. High fat diet administration led to islet degeneration, interlobular adipocyte accumulation and vacuolization in the pancreatic tissue, as well as degeneration and lipid droplet accumulation in the skeletal muscle tissue. Vacuolization in the pancreas and lipid droplets in skeletal muscle tissue increased significantly with chronic high fat diet administration. We suggest that the glucolipotoxic effects of high fat diet administration depend on the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid content in the diet and to the total fat content of the diet.

  4. The mechanism of bifidobacterium vinegar affecting the plasma lipid of rats fed with high-fat diet%双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂影响的机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金玲; 张德纯; 刘永云; 陈翠竹; 王春耀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the prophylactic antiobesity effect of bifidobacterium vinegar and its possible mechanism. Methods 48 SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; bifidobacterium vinegar groups of three different doses, ordinary vineger group, high-fat model group and basic group. The possible mechanism of bifidobacterium vinegar affecting the plasma lipid of rats fed with high-fat diet was observed. The lipidoses in liver were measured; mRNA expression of LDLR and HMGCoA reductase in liver tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Results The levels of HMGCoA re-ductase of bifidobacterium vinegar groups were depressed obviously compared with that of high-fat model group. Conclusion Bifidobacterium vinegar can prevent the occurance of high-fat in rats through adjusting the LDLR and HMGCoA reductase in liver to some degree.%目的 探讨双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响机制.方法 48只SD大鼠被随机分成双歧醋低剂量组[1.8 mL/(kg·BW)]、中剂量组[3.4 mL/(kg· BW)]、高剂量组[6.8 mL/(kg·BW)]和市售醋组[3.4 mL/(kg·BW)]、高脂模型组以及基础对照组,观察双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响作用机制,测定指标包括大鼠肝脏脂质、大鼠LDLR的免疫组化分析,HMGCoA还原酶和LDLR的RT-PCR分析.结果 双歧醋各组对于HMGCoA还原酶表达有抑制作用,但可以上调LDLR的基因和蛋白质表达.结论 双歧醋可以通过调节HMGCoA还原酶和LDLR的表达预防高脂饮食大鼠高血脂的发生.

  5. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets

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    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  6. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, and Biochemical Evaluation of Antidiabetic Properties of a New Zinc-Diosmin Complex Studied in High Fat Diet Fed-Low Dose Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Rats

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    Veerasamy Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the established antidiabetic properties of zinc, the present study was aimed at evaluating the hypoglycemic properties of a new zinc-diosmin complex in high fat diet fed-low dose streptozotocin induced experimental type 2 diabetes in rats. Zinc-diosmin complex was synthesized and characterized by various spectral studies. The complexation between zinc ions and diosmin was further evidenced by pH-potentiometric titrations and Job’s plot. Diabetic rats were orally treated with zinc-diosmin complex at a concentration of 20 mg/kg b.w./rat/day for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were subjected to oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, HOMA-IR and various biochemical parameters related to glucose homeostasis were analyzed. Treatment with zinc-diosmin complex significantly improved the glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats. Treatment with zinc-diosmin complex significantly improved insulin sensitivity, at least in part, through enhancing protein metabolism and alteration in the levels of muscle and liver glycogen. The assay of clinical marker enzymes revealed the nontoxic nature of the complex. Determination of renal tissue markers such as blood urea and serum creatinine indicates the renoprotective nature of the complex. These findings suggest that zinc-diosmin complex is nontoxic and has complimentary potential to develop as an antihyperglycemic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  7. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise to Serum Lipid Metabolism of Rats Fed with High-Fat-Diet%有氧运动对高脂饮食大鼠血脂代谢的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 黄力平

    2011-01-01

    实验目的:以正常饮食和药物干预为对照,观察8周有氧运动对高脂饮食大鼠血脂代谢的影响。实验材料与方法:SD大鼠40只,随机分为4组,每组10只,分别为:正常饮食组(N)、高脂饮食组(H)、高脂运动组(HE)和高脂药物组(HI),运动方式为跑台运动,灌胃药物为吉非罗齐胶囊。实验持续8周。实验结束后测定大鼠血清甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)和高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)。实验结果:H组、HE组大鼠血清TG、TC、LDL-C水平显著升高,HDL-C水平则显著下降;HE组较H组大%To investigate the effect of 8-week aerobic exercise to rats' serum lipids fed with high-fat-diet,compared with Normal and Medicine groups.Methods:40 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups:Normal group(N);High-fat-diet group(H);High-fat-diet with

  8. Fructose supplementation worsens the deleterious effects of short-term high-fat feeding on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the short-term effect of high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose feeding on hepatic lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in adult sedentary rats. Adult male rats were fed a high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose diet for 2 weeks. Body and liver composition, hepatic steatosis, plasma lipid profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity, together with whole-body and hepatic de novo lipogenesis, were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial mass, functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were also measured. Rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and indexes of hepatic insulin resistance compared with rats fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglycerides and ceramide, as well as the degree of steatosis and necrosis, were significantly higher, while liver p-Akt was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet than in rats fed high-fat diet. A significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and hepatic fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase activity was found in rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet compared with those fed the high-fat diet. Significantly lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity but significantly higher oxidative stress was found in rats fed high-fat and high-fat-high-fructose diets compared with rats fed low-fat diet, while mitochondrial mass significantly increased only in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a Western diet, rich in saturated fats and fructose, is more conducive to the development of liver steatosis and deleterious to glucose homeostasis than a high-fat diet. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nora; Bezzina, Rebecca; Hinch, Edward; Lewandowski, Paul A; Cameron-Smith, David; Mathai, Michael L; Jois, Markandeya; Sinclair, Andrew J; Begg, Denovan P; Wark, John D; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S

    2009-11-01

    The mechanisms of how tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) lower body fat are not completely understood. This study investigated long-term administration of green tea (GT), black tea (BT), or isolated EGCG (1 mg/kg per day) on body composition, glucose tolerance, and gene expression related to energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis; it was hypothesized that all treatments would improve the indicators of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 6 months from 4 weeks of age and were supplied GT, BT, EGCG, or water. GT and BT reduced body fat, whereas GT and EGCG increased lean mass. At 16 weeks GT, BT, and EGCG improved glucose tolerance. In the liver, GT and BT increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, MCD, ACC) and oxidation (PPAR-alpha, CPT-1, ACO); however, EGCG had no effect. In perirenal fat, genes that mediate adipocyte differentiation were suppressed by GT (Pref-1, C/EBP-beta, and PPAR-gamma) and BT (C/EBP-beta), while decreasing LPL, HSL, and UCP-2 expression; EGCG increased expression of UCP-2 and PPAR-gamma genes. Liver triacylglycerol content was unchanged. The results suggest that GT and BT suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid uptake into adipose tissue, while increasing fat synthesis and oxidation by the liver, without inducing hepatic fat accumulation. In contrast, EGCG increased markers of thermogenesis and differentiation in adipose tissue, while having no effect on liver or muscle tissues at this dose. These results show novel and separate mechanisms by which tea and EGCG may improve glucose tolerance and support a role for these compounds in obesity prevention.

  10. Why does a high-fat diet induce preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats?*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ge; Jun Wang; Dan Xue; Zhengsheng Zhu; Zhenyu Chen; Xiaoqiu Li; Dongfeng Su; Juan Du

    2013-01-01

    Changes in neurotransmitter levels in the brain play an important role in epilepsy-like attacks after pregnancy-induced preeclampsia-eclampsia. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 participates in the onset of lipid metabolism disorder-induced preeclampsia. Pregnant rats were fed with a high-fat diet for 20 days. Thus, these pregnant rats experienced preeclampsia-like syndromes such as tension and proteinuria. Simultaneously, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 mRNA and protein ex-pressions were upregulated in the rat hippocampus. These findings indicate that increased sion of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 promotes the occurrence of high-fat diet-induced preec-lampsia in pregnant rats.

  11. Calorie Restriction with a High-Fat Diet Effectively Attenuated Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress-Related Markers in Obese Tissues of the High Diet Fed Rats

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    Seungae Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity characterized by increased mass of adipose tissue leads to systemic inflammation. Calorie restriction (CR improves parameters associated with immune response and antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that CR with a high fat diet (HFCR regulates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress damage in a high fat diet induced obesity (HF group. We investigated effect of HFCR on inflammation and oxidative stress-related markers in liver and adipose tissues as well as adipokines in plasma. HFCR lowered liver triglyceride levels, total cholesterol levels, and the plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio to normal levels and improved glucose tolerance. HFCR also improved fatty liver and normalized adipocyte size and morphology. HFCR reduced lipid peroxidation and decreased the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthetase, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-E2-related factor, and heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. Moreover, HFCR suppressed the expression levels of C- reactive protein and manganese superoxide dismutase in the adipose tissue in the HF group. These results suggest that HFCR may have beneficial effects on inflammation and oxidative stress as well as lipid profiles in the HF diet induced obesity. Moreover, HFCR may be a good way to increase compliance in obese patients and to prevent obesity induced complications without changes in dietary pattern.

  12. Rapid loss of adiponectin-stimulated fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high fat diet is not due to altered muscle redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Ian R W; Dyck, David J

    2012-01-01

    A high fat (HF) diet rapidly impairs the ability of adiponectin (Ad) to stimulate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in oxidative soleus muscle, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Mere days of HF feeding also increase the muscle's production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and shift cellular redox to a more oxidized state. It seems plausible that this shift towards a more oxidized state might act as negative feedback to suppress the ability of Ad to stimulate FA oxidation and generate more ROS. Therefore, we sought to determine whether i) a shift towards a more oxidized redox state (reduction in GSH/2GSSG) coincided with impaired Ad-stimulated palmitate oxidation in oxidative and glycolytic rodent muscle after 5 days of HF feeding (60% kCal), and ii) if supplementation with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could prevent the HF-diet induced impairment in Ad-response. Globular Ad (gAd) increased palmitate oxidation in isolated soleus and EDL muscles by 42% and 34%, respectively (pmuscles. HF feeding decreased total GSH (-26%, pmuscle. Furthermore, direct incubations with H(2)O(2) did not impair Ad-stimulated FA oxidation in either muscle. In conclusion, our data indicates that skeletal muscle Ad resistance is rapidly induced in both oxidative and glycolytic muscle, independently of altered cellular redox state.

  13. Comparative study between the effect of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha ligands fenofibrate and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase-alpha1 in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawi, Tarek M Kamal; Hashem, Reem M; Rashed, Laila A; El-Razek, Sabry M Abd

    2009-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. It results from an energy imbalance in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. The cellular fuel gauge 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of one catalytic subunit (alpha) and two non-catalytic subunits (beta and gamma), and approximately equal levels of alpha1 and alpha2 complexes are present in the liver. AMPK regulates metabolic pathways in response to metabolic stress and in particular ATP depletion to switch on energy-producing catabolic pathways such as beta-oxidation of fatty acids and switch off energy-depleting processes such as synthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. A high-fat diet alters AMPK-alpha1 gene expression in the liver and skeletal muscle of rats and results in body weight gain and hyperglycaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the potential effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonists fenofibrate and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in modulation of AMPK-alpha1 activity in liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed rats. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for determination of AMPK-alpha1 in liver and soleus muscle and both PPAR-alpha and CPT-1 in hepatic tissues. Serum, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, fatty acid and fasting blood glucose were determined colorimetrically. Both PPAR-alpha agonists, fenofibrate and n-3 PUFA, increased the mRNA expression of AMPK-alpha1 activity in liver and skeletal muscle of obese diabetic rats. Fenofibrate was superior in its activation of hepatic mRNA expression of AMPK-alpha 1 to exert more lipolytic effect and body weight reduction, as estimated through the decrease of triacylglycerol output and serum levels of fatty acid on the one hand and the increase in CPT-1 mRNA expression, the key enzyme in beta-oxidation of fatty acid, on the other hand. n-3 PUFA activated AMPK-alpha1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle much

  14. Effect of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Lipid Profile in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats in the Presence and Absence of Vitamin C

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    Hossein Najafzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The daily stress and shift working cause insomnia. In other hands, fatty food consumption increased this disorder. The aim of present study is evaluation additive effect of partial insomnia and high fatty diet with or without vitamin C on serum lipid profile in rats.Materials and Methods: Fifty six rats in 7 groups (8 rats each group were conducted for study during 26 days as: 1: normal diet+normal sleep, 2: high fatty diet+normal sleep, 3: normal diet+insomnia, 4: high fatty diet+insomnia, 5: high fatty diet+normal sleep+vitamin C, 6: high fatty diet+insomnia+vitamin C, 7: normal diet+insomnia+ vitamin C. The lipid profile was examined at end of study. Results: Results shown the high fatty diet+insomnia increased triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level and decreased HDL level with comparison to high fatty diet+normal sleep group. But only insomnia did not change serum lipid profile. High fatty diet increased level of cholesterol (p<0.05. The normal diet increased body weight but high fatty diet decreased it significantly. Liver weight ratio was elevated by high fatty diet+insomnia. The vitamin C decreased cholesterol and increased HDL level in group of rats which received high fatty diet+insomnia. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study shown the only insomnia did not affect on serum lipid profile while insomnia along with high fatty diet increased lipid high risk factors in blood.

  15. Inhibitory Activities of Zygophyllum album: A Natural Weight-Lowering Plant on Key Enzymes in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Kais Mnafgui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious health problem that increased risk for many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The results showed EZA, which found rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro with IC50 of 91.07 μg/mL. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and serum leptin level; and inhibited lipase activity of obese rats by 37% leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-c levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-c concentration in serum and liver of EZA treated HFD-rats. Moreover, the findings revealed that EZA helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Interestingly, supplementation of EZA modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 36% in serum of HFD animals and improve some of serum electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, EZA significantly protected the liver-kidney function by reverted back near to normal the values of the liver-kidney dysfunction indices AST&ALT, ALP, CPK and GGT activities, decreased T-Bili, creat, urea and uric acid rates. In conclusion, these results showed a strong antihypelipidemic effect of EZA which can delay the occurrence of dislipidemia and hypertension.

  16. Inhibitory Activities of Zygophyllum album: A Natural Weight-Lowering Plant on Key Enzymes in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnafgui, Kais; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Hichem; Kchaou, Mouna; Nasri, Mbarek; Slama, Sadok; Derbali, Fatma; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem that increased risk for many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The results showed EZA, which found rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro with IC50 of 91.07 μg/mL. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and serum leptin level; and inhibited lipase activity of obese rats by 37% leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-c levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-c concentration in serum and liver of EZA treated HFD-rats. Moreover, the findings revealed that EZA helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Interestingly, supplementation of EZA modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 36% in serum of HFD animals and improve some of serum electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, EZA significantly protected the liver-kidney function by reverted back near to normal the values of the liver-kidney dysfunction indices AST&ALT, ALP, CPK and GGT activities, decreased T-Bili, creat, urea and uric acid rates. In conclusion, these results showed a strong antihypelipidemic effect of EZA which can delay the occurrence of dislipidemia and hypertension. PMID:23258993

  17. Chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate protects against renal dysfunction by modulation of NF-κB pathway in high-fat diet fed and Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Selcuk Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus. Although chromium is an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, its effects on diabetic nephropathy are not well understood. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic and chromium histidinate (CrHis on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 pathway in the rat kidney. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Group I received a standard diet (8% fat and served as a control; Group II was fed with a standard diet and received CrPic; Group III was fed with a standard diet and received CrHis; Group IV received a high fat diet (HFD, 40% fat for 2 weeks and then were injected with streptozotocin (STZ (HFD/STZ; Group V was treated as group IV (HFD/STZ but supplemented with CrPic for 12 weeks. Group VI was treated as group IV (HFD/STZ but supplemented with CrHis. Results The increased NF-κβ p65 in the HFD/STZ group was inhibited by CrPic and CrHis supplementation (P P P Conclusion Our result show that in kidney tissue CrHis/CrPic increases Nrf2 level, parallelly decreases NF-κB and partially restores IκBα levels in HFD/STZ group, suggesting that CrPic and CrHis may play a role in antioxidant defense system via the Nrf2 pathway by reducing inflammation through NF-κβ p65 inhibition. Moreover, a greater reduction in NF-κB expression and greater increases in expressions of IκBα and Nrf2 in diabetic rats supplemented with CrHis than rats supplemented with CrPic suggest that CrHis has more favorable effects than CrPic.

  18. Hemin improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in high fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Woo-Young; Kim, Yong-Woon; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, So-Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether hemin could prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in the liver and skeletal muscle using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. A four-week high-fat feeding to mice increased the body weight, fat mass, and plasma levels of insulin and lipid, which were reduced by hemin. High-fat diet reduced whole body glucose uptake, which were increased by hemin. Insulin-stimulated hepatic glucose production (HGP) was increased by high-fat diet, but hemin had no significant effect on HGP. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake was reduced by high-fat diet, and hemin normalized the glucose uptake. High-fat diet increased triglyceride levels and mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes, and decreased mRNA levels of enzymes involved in lipid β-oxidation, which was reversed by hemin. Phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of high fat-fed hemin-injected mice. High-fat diet reduced mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and nitrotyrosine levels, which was normalized by hemin in the skeletal muscle. However, hemin had no significant effect on these factors in the liver. These results suggest that hemin prevents the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by increased insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle.

  19. Effect of α-Linolenic Acid on Fatty Acid Metabolism of Rats Fed with High Fat Diet%α-亚麻酸对高脂模型大鼠组织脂肪酸代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹晓; 邓乾春; 黄凤洪; 黄庆德; 杨金娥

    2012-01-01

    研究不同ALA含量油脂对高脂模型大鼠组织脂肪酸代谢的影响.60只雄性Wistar大鼠分为正常组、高脂组、花生油组、13%、27%和55% ALA含量油脂组,除正常组和高脂组外,其余各组在饲喂高脂饲料的同时采用灌胃方式连续给予2 mL/kg.bw剂量的受试油.试验6周后分别测定大鼠各组织脂肪酸组成.结果表明,高脂饮食能够降低大鼠各组织n-3脂肪酸含量,但摄入不同ALA油脂可显著增加组织n-3脂肪酸含量,并具有一定的剂量效应关系;但ALA及其代谢产物EPA、DPA和DHA的累积具有组织特异性,其中肾和心组织中ALA累积高于血浆、脑及肝组织,肝和脑组织中EPA和DPA含量增加较显著,而肾和心组织中EPA含量不变,各组织DHA含量增加不显著.不同ALA油脂组C18:3(n-6)和C20:3 (n-6)差异不显著,但与花生油组相比,其血浆、脑和肾组织C20:4含量显著降低.因此,富含ALA含量的油脂能够增加组织中ALA及其代谢产物在组织中的含量,提高其在脑组织中的分布比例,这可能是ALA具有心血管保护作用和促进脑生长发育的作用机制之一.%In order to investigate the effect of different ALA levels of oils on fatty acid metabolism of rats fed with high fat diet,rats were divided into control (Cont) group,high fat diet (HFD) group,peanut oil (PO) group,13%, 27% and 55% a-linolenic acid blend oil (ALA-BO) groups. Besides Cont and HFD groups,other rats were fed with high-fat diet and treated simultaneously with corresponding oils (2 ml/kg, bw) orally for 6 weeks. The total fatty acid composition in plasma,liver,brain,kidney and heart were determined. The results showed that high fat diet could reduce the n-3 PUFA levels in all tissues,but increasing ALA intake could result in an incorporation of n-3 PUFA in tissues and also showed a dose-effect relationship. There were some tissue-dependent differences in the increase of n-3 PUFA levels,the increase of ALA in kidney

  20. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  1. The effect of high-fat--high-fructose diet on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of isoenergetic administration to adult rats of high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet for 2 weeks on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic. Body and skeletal muscle composition, energy balance, plasma lipid profile and glucose tolerance were measured, together with mitochondrial functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, together with significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin response to glucose load. Skeletal muscle triglycerides and ceramide were significantly higher in rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 content were significantly higher, while adenine nucleotide translocase content was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet. The results suggest that a high-fat--high-fructose diet even without hyperphagia is able to increase lipid flow to skeletal muscle and mitochondrial energetic efficiency, with two detrimental effects: (a) energy sparing that contributes to the early onset of obesity and (b) reduced oxidation of fatty acids and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which could generate insulin resistance.

  2. Differential expression of apolipoprotein D in male reproductive system of rats by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, W; Bae, H; Song, G

    2016-11-01

    Apolipoprotein D, a 29-kDa secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin superfamily, is widely expressed in various tissues and associated with lipid metabolism as a component of high-density lipoproteins. Although Apolipoprotein D binds to small hydrophobic ligands including cholesterol, little is known about effects of high-fat diet with cholesterol on expression of Apolipoprotein D in the male reproductive tract. Therefore, we investigated Apod expression in penises, prostate glands, and testes from rats fed a high-fat diet including a high amount of cholesterol. Our previous research indicated that a high-fat diet induces dyslipidemia leading to histological changes and dysfunction of male reproduction in rats. Consistent with these results, Apod mRNA expression was significantly (p high-fat diet as compared with normal diet. In addition, Apod mRNA and protein were detected predominantly in urethral epithelium and penile follicle from rats. Moreover, changes in expression of specific microRNAs (miR-229b-3p, miR-423-3p, and miR-490-3p) regulating Apod in the penises and prostate glands were negatively associated with Apod expression. Collectively, results of this study suggest that Apod is a novel regulatory gene in the male reproductive system, especially in penises of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, and that expression of Apod is regulated at the posttranscriptional level by target microRNAs.

  3. Impact of chromium histidinate on high fat diet induced obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzcu Zeynep

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium (Cr is an essential trace element that has garnered interest for use as a weight loss aid, but its molecular mechanism in obesity is not clear. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of chromium histidinate (CrHis on glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 and the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE expressions in liver of rats fed high fat diet (HFD. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40, 8 wk-old were divided into four groups. Group I was fed a standard diet (12% of calories as fat; Group II was fed a standard diet and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d; Group III was fed a HFD (40% of calories as fat; Group IV was fed HFD and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d. Results Rats fed HFD possessed greater serum insulin (40 vs.33 pmol/L and glucose (158 vs. 143 mg/dL concentration and less liver Cr (44 vs.82 μg/g concentration than rats fed the control diet. However, rats supplemented with CrHis had greater liver Cr and serum insulin and lower glucose concentration in rats fed HFD (P P P Conclusion These findings demonstrate that supplementation of CrHis is protective against obesity, at least in part, through Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 in rats fed high fat diet.

  4. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  5. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R S; Surya, D; Nalini, N

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells.

  6. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  7. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  8. Exercise and a High Fat Diet Synergistically Increase the Pantothenic Acid Requirement in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that both exercise and dietary composition increase the utilization of, and thus the requirement for, certain water-soluble vitamins. However, there have been no studies evaluating the combined impacts of exercise and dietary composition on vitamin utilization. In this experiment, rats were fed a pantothenic acid (PaA)-restricted (0.004 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet containing 5% (ordinary amount of dietary fat) or 20% fat (high fat), and were forced to swim until exhaustion every other day for 22 d. PaA status was assessed by urinary excretion, which reflects body stores of water-soluble vitamins. The urinary excretion of PaA in rats fed a 5% fat diet was not affected by swimming (5% fat + non-swimming vs. 5% fat + swim; p>0.05). Excretion of PaA was decreased by the high-fat diet (5% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + non-swim; pswim vs. 20% fat + swim; p<0.05). There was a significant interaction between exercise and a high-fat diet. Plasma PaA concentrations showed changes similar to those seen for urinary excretion. The experiment was then repeated using rats fed a PaA-sufficient (0.016 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet, and PaA excretion was again synergistically decreased by the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet synergistically increases the requirement for PaA.

  9. Hesperidin ameliorates streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpesh P. Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigates protective effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion and high fat diet for 2 weeks to induce glucose intolerance and then injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.. Following 48 h of streptozotocin injection blood glucose level was estimated to confirm hyperglycemia. After 4 weeks of diabetes induction diabetic rats were orally treated with hesperidin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment kidney functions, oxidative stress indices, biochemical estimations and histopathological examination were carried out to assess the efficacy of the treatment. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited significant rise in blood glucose level, altered kidney functions, oxidative stress and histological abnormalities compared to control rats. Hesperidin treatment significantly reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, creatinine, urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglyceride when compared with diabetic control rats. Significant rise in renal hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, microalbuminuria as well as oxidative stress in the diabetic rats were effectively attenuated with hesperidin treatment, dose dependently. Moreover, basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion observed in the kidney of diabetic rats restored near to normal structure. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest that hesperidin ameliorate early diabetic nephropathy. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(4.000: 261-267

  10. Physical training at sub-threshold intensity reduces the prevalence of hepatic steatosis after high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemar Guedes da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of swimming physical training with sub-threshold load on the prevalence of hepatic steatosis in Wistar rats fed high-fat diets (cafeteria or baru. After 2 months of cafeteria diet administration, the rats were separated into 6 groups: Sedentary or Trained Baru diet; Sedentary or Trained Cafeteria diet; Sedentary or Trained standard diet. The trained groups were subjected to swimming exercise at sub-threshold intensity (2% of body weight during 8 weeks, 5x/week, 1h/day. The body weight and hepatohistological changes were analyzed. Sedentary groups fed high-fat diets presented higher body weight gain when compared to control trained group. The swimming training at the proposed intensity was able to prevent the hepatic steatosis in rats fed high-fat diets.

  11. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loh, Su Peng

    2016-05-23

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a novel functional food that is high in fiber and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. This study aims to evaluate anti-obesity effects of GBR in obese rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were then administrated with GBR where the source of dietary carbohydrate of HFD was replaced by either 25 % GBR, 50 % GBR or 100 % GBR for another 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometry, dietary status, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and adipose tissue were measured. Rats fed with HFD were showed elevation in body weight gain and in white adipose tissue mass compared with rats consumed commercial diet. The GBR administration in 50 % GBR and 100 % GBR were significantly decreased body weight gains and food intakes as well as improved lipid profiles in obese rats. In addition, the administration of GBR  had reduced adiposity by showing declination in white adipose tissue mass, adipocytes size and leptin level concomitantly with a higher ratio of fat excretion into feces. Micro- and macrovesicular steatosis were evidently attenuated in obese rats fed GBR. These findings demonstrated that GBR exhibited anti-obesity effects through suppression of body weight gain and food intake, improvement of lipid profiles and reduction of leptin level and white adipose tissue mass in obese rats fed HFD.

  12. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Souza, Gabriel Inacio de Morais Honorato de [UNIFESP; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Santos, Bruno dos [UNIFESP; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu [UNIFESP; Pinto Neto, Nelson Inacio [UNIFESP; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Esposito, Elisa; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do [UNIFESP; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Oyama, Lila Missae [UNIFESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet.Methods: Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 ...

  13. Antihyperlipidemic activity of adenosine triphosphate in rabbits fed a high-fat diet and hyperlipidemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianshan; Liang, Libin; Tong, Tong; Qin, Yuguo; Xu, Yanping; Tong, Xinglong

    2016-10-01

    Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C were measured on the 20th day and 30th day. Heart, liver and aorta were subjected histopathological examination. Twenty outpatients diagnosed primary hyperlipidemia took ATP at a dose of 60 mg twice a day for 1 week. Results Feeding rabbits with a high-fat diet resulted in a significant elevation of lipid parameters including TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C compared to the normal diet group (p ATP treatment significantly decreased serum TG level (p ATP significantly reduced the thickness of fat layer in cardiac epicardium (p ATP for 1 week, hyperlipidemia patients exhibited a significant decrease of TG (p ATP selectively decreases serum TG levels in high-fat diet rabbits and hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, ATP supplementation may provide an effective approach to control TG level.

  14. Subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial responses to short-term high-fat feeding in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the alterations in mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle that were elicited by short-term high-fat feeding in sedentary rats. Two groups of rats were pair-fed for 1 wk and received a low-fat or high-fat diet. Body composition, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis were measured. Mitochondrial mass, oxidative capacity, and energetic efficiency as well as parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were evaluated in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria from the skeletal muscle. Body energy, lipid content, and metabolic efficiency were significantly higher and energy expenditure was significantly decreased among rats that were fed a high-fat diet, as compared with controls. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency, oxidative capacity for lipid substrates, and antioxidant defense were significantly increased in rats that were fed a high-fat diet as compared with controls. Acute isocaloric high-fat feeding is able to induce increased phosphorylation efficiency in skeletal muscle subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. This modification implies a reduced oxidation of energy substrates that may contribute to the early onset of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-fat feeding reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rats: differential mechanisms for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-Yao; Gao, Yu; Di, Yu-Wei; Pan, Li-Li; Zhou, Yu; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2006-08-01

    1. Chronic feeding with a high-fat diet can cause metabolic syndrome in rodents similar to humans, but the role of saturated versus unsaturated fats in vascular tension remains unclear. 2. The present study shows that rats on a diet rich in either saturated or unsaturated fat had higher blood pressure compared with chow-fed rats (approximately 130 vs 100 mmHg, respectively), along with hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Compared with responses of phenylephrine-preconstricted artery segments from chow-fed rats, vasorelaxation of isolated renal arteries from high-fat fed rats was reduced substantially (> 50%) in response to acetylcholine (0.01-10 micromol/L) and moderately to nitroprusside (>or=1 micromol/L) at low concentrations. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of arteries from high-fat fed rats was also more sensitive to inhibition by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine and methylene blue. 3. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the production of NO and endothelin-1 was significantly inhibited by unsaturated fatty acids. In comparison, saturated fatty acids stimulated endothelin-1 production without altering NO production. 4. The data indicate that both saturated and unsaturated high-fat feeding may result in an increase in blood pressure owing to reduced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the arterial system. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids may involve different mechanisms.

  16. Hepatic stereology of schistosomiasis mansoni infected-mice fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Heisler Neves

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diets induce weight gain and fatty liver in wild-type mice. Schistosomiasis mansoni infection also promotes hepatic injury. This study was designed to quantify hepatic alterations in schistosomiasis mansoni-infected mice fed a high fat-rich chow compared to mice fed a standard rodent chow, using stereology. Female SW mice fed each either high-fat diet (29% lipids or standard chow (12% lipids over 8 months, and then were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Four experimental groups were studied: infected mice fed a high-fat diet (IHFC or standard chow (ISC, uninfected mice fed a high-fat diet (HFC or standard chow (SC. Mice were sacrificed during early infection (9 weeks from exposure. The following hepatic biometry and the stereology parameters were determined: volume density (hepatocytes [h], sinusoids [s], steatosis [st] and hepatic fibrosis [hf]; numerical density (hepatocyte nuclei - Nv[h]; absolute number of total hepatocyte N[h], normal hepatocyte N[nh], and binucleated hepatocyte N[bh], percentage of normal hepatocyte P[nh] and binucleated hepatocyte P[bh]. IHFC and HFC groups exhibited TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and body mass significantly greater (p < 0.05 than control group. No significant differences were found regards liver volume (p = 0.07. Significant differences were observed regards P[nh] (p = 0.0045, P[bh] (p = 0.0045, Nv[h] (p = 0.0006, N[h] (p = 0.0125, N[bh] (p = 0.0164 and N[nh] (p = 0.0078. IHFC mice group presented 29% of binucleated hepatocytes compared to HFC group (19%, ISC group (17% and SC (6%. Volume density was significantly different between groups: Vv[h] (p = 0.0052, Vv[s] (p = 0.0025, Vv[st] (p = 0.0004, and Vv[hf] (p = 0.0007. In conclusion, schistosomiasis mansoni infection with concurrent high-fat diet promotes intensive quantitative changes in hepatic structure, contributing to an increasing on hepatic regeneration.

  17. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  18. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  19. Effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan-enriched flaxseed powder on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure in rats fed a high-fructose and high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan-enriched flaxseed powder LEFP) on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure were investigated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n=8) that were fed either a norm...

  20. Argan oil reduces, in rats, the high fat diet-induced metabolic effects of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sour, S; Belarbi, M; Sari, N; Benammar, C H; Baghdad, C H; Visioli, F

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder which is of worldwide concern. In addition to calorie control, some specific dietary components might help resolving some of the complication of obesity, by providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effect of argan oil supplementation on plasma lipid profile and oxidant-antioxidant status of rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity compared with rats fed a normal diet (ND). We used an animal model of high fat diet-induced obesity to study the metabolic effects of argan oil and we measured several markers lipid and redox statuses. Consumption of a high-fat diet led to an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TAG) concentrations; however, argan oil blunted the increases of TC, LDL-C and TG, glucose, and insulin. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower, whereas plasma hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, and susceptibility of LDL to copper-induced oxidation were higher in obese rats compared with normal rats. Administration of argan oil ameliorated all these indices of redox status. Proper diet and lifestyle should be foremost implemented to reduce the lipoprotein metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant status alterations brought about by obesity. In addition, argan oil reduces the metabolic effects of obesity and its use might be promoted within the context of a balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of soy isoflavone on insulin sensitivity and adipocytokines in insulin resistant rats administered with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Min; Chen, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Li-Shi; Feng, Xiao-Fan

    2008-12-01

    The effects of soy isoflavone (SIF) on insulin sensitivity and adipocytokines in high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistant (IR) rats were studied. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly assigned into a basal diet fed group and high-fat diet fed group. The high-fat-diet-induced IR rats were assigned into IR model control group and three SIF-treated groups with different dosages. Thirty days later, the fasting blood glucose, insulin and adipocytokines in serum and mRNA expressions of adipocytokines in perirenal white adipose tissue were measured. The Homeostasis Model Assessment of IR was calculated. The administration of 450 mg kg(-1) d(-1) SIF decreased the body weights and depositions of visceral adipose tissue as well as improved insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced IR rats. The mechanisms were associated with SIF regulating the expression of adipocytokines, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin and TNF-alpha. SIF supplements may have favourable effects on insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced IR rats.

  2. Telmisartan improves insulin resistance and modulates adipose tissue macrophage polarization in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaka, Shiho; Usui, Isao; Kanatani, Yukiko; Ikutani, Masashi; Takasaki, Ichiro; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Bukhari, Agussalim; Yamazaki, Yu; Suzuki, Hikari; Senda, Satoko; Aminuddin, Aminuddin; Nagai, Yoshinori; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Masashi; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2011-05-01

    Diet-induced obesity is reported to induce a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophages from an antiinflammatory M2 state to a proinflammatory M1 state. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, reportedly has more beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity than other angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. In this study, we studied the effects of telmisartan on the adipose tissue macrophage phenotype in high-fat-fed mice. Telmisartan was administered for 5 wk to high-fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Insulin sensitivity, macrophage infiltration, and the gene expressions of M1 and M2 markers in visceral adipose tissues were then examined. An insulin- or a glucose-tolerance test showed that telmisartan treatment improved insulin resistance, decreasing the body weight gain, visceral fat weight, and adipocyte size without affecting the amount of energy intake. Telmisartan reduced the mRNA expression of CD11c and TNF-α, M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers, such as CD163, CD209, and macrophage galactose N-acetyl-galactosamine specific lectin (Mgl2), in a quantitative RT-PCR analysis. A flow cytometry analysis showed that telmisartan decreased the number of M1 macrophages in visceral adipose tissues. In conclusion, telmisartan improves insulin sensitivity and modulates adipose tissue macrophage polarization to an antiinflammatory M2 state in high-fat-fed mice.

  3. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet.

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    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-07-01

    Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy-based control diet or that diet containing 3-7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. The high-fat diet elevated (P obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation, and phosphorylation of lipids. This porcine model may be used to study interactive mechanisms between excess fat intake and selenoprotein function. © 2015 American Society for

  4. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  5. The effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains on rat lipid metabolism receiving a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaj, Rastislav; Stofilová, Jana; Soltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter; Bomba, Alojz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance.

  6. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Mohd Nazri Abu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC, and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO. After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%, adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L, total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L, blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L, resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL, and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet.

  7. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (pdrinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (pdrinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (pdrinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters.

  8. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  9. Gallic acid attenuates high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced insulin resistance via partial agonism of PPARγ in experimental type 2 diabetic rats and enhances glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Jothi, Gnanasekaran; Antony, Poovathumkal James; Balakrishna, Kedike; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Stalin, Antony; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of gallic acid from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (Fabaceae) beans was examined against high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular-dockings were done to determine the putative binding modes of gallic acid into the active sites of key insulin-signaling markers. Gallic acid (20 mg/kg) given to high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced rats lowered body weight gain, fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats. It further restored the alterations of biochemical parameters to near normal levels in diabetic treated rats along with cytoprotective action on pancreatic β-cell. Histology of liver and adipose tissues supported the biochemical findings. Gallic acid significantly enhanced the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the adipose tissue of treated rat compared to untreated diabetic rat; it also slightly activated PPARγ expressions in the liver and skeletal muscle. Consequently, it improved insulin-dependent glucose transport in adipose tissue through translocation and activation of glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) dependent pathway. Gallic acid docked with PPARγ; it exhibited promising interactions with the GLUT4, glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), PI3K and p-Akt. These findings provided evidence to show that gallic acid could improve adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, modulate adipogenesis, increase adipose glucose uptake and protect β-cells from impairment. Hence it can be used in the management of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  12. Progressive adaptation of hepatic ketogenesis in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Nishanth E; Satapati, Santhosh; Fu, Xiaorong; He, TianTeng; Mehdibeigi, Roshi; Spring-Robinson, Chandra; Duarte, Joao; Potthoff, Matthew J; Browning, Jeffrey D; Burgess, Shawn C

    2010-06-01

    Hepatic ketogenesis provides a vital systemic fuel during fasting because ketone bodies are oxidized by most peripheral tissues and, unlike glucose, can be synthesized from fatty acids via mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Since dysfunctional mitochondrial fat oxidation may be a cofactor in insulin-resistant tissue, the objective of this study was to determine whether diet-induced insulin resistance in mice results in impaired in vivo hepatic fat oxidation secondary to defects in ketogenesis. Ketone turnover (micromol/min) in the conscious and unrestrained mouse was responsive to induction and diminution of hepatic fat oxidation, as indicated by an eightfold rise during the fed (0.50+/-0.1)-to-fasted (3.8+/-0.2) transition and a dramatic blunting of fasting ketone turnover in PPARalpha(-/-) mice (1.0+/-0.1). C57BL/6 mice made obese and insulin resistant by high-fat feeding for 8 wk had normal expression of genes that regulate hepatic fat oxidation, whereas 16 wk on the diet induced expression of these genes and stimulated the function of hepatic mitochondrial fat oxidation, as indicated by a 40% induction of fasting ketogenesis and a twofold rise in short-chain acylcarnitines. Together, these findings indicate a progressive adaptation of hepatic ketogenesis during high-fat feeding, resulting in increased hepatic fat oxidation after 16 wk of a high-fat diet. We conclude that mitochondrial fat oxidation is stimulated rather than impaired during the initiation of hepatic insulin resistance in mice.

  13. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

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    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice. RESULTS: Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  14. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E Dale; Pereira, Troy J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-HF had lower (P high-fat diet reduced blood pressure and improved arterial function in SHR without producing signs of insulin resistance or altering insulin-mediated signaling in the heart, skeletal muscle, or vasculature.

  15. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ren-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-You; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lu-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is the main active ingredient of anthocyanidin. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C3G on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22), and were fed with standard diet or high fat diet. Five weeks later, 17 high-fat diet-induced obese rats were randomly given C3G [100 mg/(kg·d)] or normal saline via intragastric administration for 5 weeks. Five weeks later, body weight, visceral adiposity and food intake were measured. Blood samples were collected for detecting fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and adiponectin. Insulin resistance index, atherosclerosis index and average feed efficiency ratio were calculated. C3G supplementation markedly decreased body weight, visceral adiposity, average feed efficiency ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and atherosclerosis index in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. C3G supplementation normalized serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Cyanidin-3-glucoside can reduce body weight gain, and attenuate obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats via up-regulating serum adiponectin level.

  16. Detrimental effects of a high fat/high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal markers in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Wang, Xiuzhe; Schultzberg, Marianne; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Freeman, Linnea R

    2016-10-01

    High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months. All animals underwent cognitive testing for 12days in a water radial arm maze to assess spatial and working reference memory. Hippocampal tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for structural changes and inflammation, and Western blot analysis. Young and Aged rats fed the HFHC diet exhibited worse performance on a spatial working memory task. They also exhibited significant reduction of NeuN and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity as well as an increased activation of microglial cells in the hippocampal formation. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus showed higher levels of p-Tau S202/T205 and T231 in Aged HFHC rats, suggesting abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein following the HFHC diet exposure. This work demonstrates HFHC diet-induced cognitive impairment with aging and a link between high fat diet consumption and pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Beneficial effects of curcumin on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Myung-Joo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Shin, Su-Kyung; Seong, Chi-Nam; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of curcumin (0.05-g/100-g diet) supplementation on a high-fat diet (10% coconut oil, 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) fed to hamsters, one of the rodent species that are most closely related to humans in lipid metabolism. Curcumin significantly lowered the levels of free fatty acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, whereas it elevated the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and paraoxonase activity in plasma, compared with the control group. The levels of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride were also lower in the curcumin group than in the control group. In the liver, fatty acid beta-oxidation activity was significantly higher in the curcumin group than in the control group, whereas fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activities were significantly lower. Curcumin significantly lowered the lipid peroxide levels in the erythrocyte and liver compared with the control group. These results indicate that curcumin exhibits an obvious hypolipidemic effect by increasing plasma paraoxonase activity, ratios of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol and of apo A-I to apo B, and hepatic fatty acid oxidation activity with simultaneous inhibition of hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis in high-fat-fed hamsters.

  18. Probiotics lower plasma glucose in the high-fat fed C57BL/6J mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, U; Bränning, C; Ahrné, S; Molin, G; Alenfall, J; Onning, G; Nyman, M; Holm, C

    2010-06-01

    Today, the gut microbiota is considered a key organ in host nutritional metabolism and recent data have suggested that alterations in gut microbiota contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Accordingly, a whole range of beneficial effects relating to inflammation and gut health have been observed following administration of probiotics to both humans and different animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of an oral probiotic supplement, Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313, to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice, a model of human obesity and early diabetes. The mice were fed the experimental diets for 20 weeks, after which the HFD had induced an insulin-resistant state in both groups compared to the start of the study. The increase in body weight during the HFD feeding was higher in the probiotic group than in the control group, however, there were no significant differences in body fat content. Fasting plasma glucose levels were lower in the group fed the probiotic supplement, whereas insulin and lipids were not different. Caecal levels of short-chain fatty acids were not significantly different between the groups. An oral glucose tolerance test showed that the group fed probiotics had a significantly lower insulin release compared to the control group, although the rate of glucose clearance was not different. Taken together, these data indicate that L. plantarum DSM 15313 has anti-diabetic properties when fed together with an HFD.

  19. Effects of Silybum marianum Extract on High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Disorders in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayin Fatma Kubra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum extract (SME has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of liver and biliary tract. Lately, it has been promoted as a nutritional supplement for beneficial effects on some risk factors of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of SME on high-fat diet (HFD induced metabolic disorders. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed HFD for 11 weeks to induce obesity. SME was given to animals for two different durations, for 11 weeks or for 7 weeks. The results showed significant increase in plasma transaminases, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, leptin, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, glucose and insulin along with significant increase in body mass index (BMI and liver weights in rats fed the HFD diet compared to rats fed with standard rat diet. SME supplementation for different durations raised improvement in the HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatopathy at different degrees. Our study concludes that SME can be well considered as an effective supplement to improve insulin and leptin sensitivity and hyperlipidemia and to suppress body weight gain.

  20. Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia.

  1. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  2. High fat diet enhances cardiac abnormalities in SHR rats: Protective role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis

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    Cao Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR as compared to controls (p 2- levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.

  3. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with increased histone methyl transferase (G9a) and reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  4. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  5. Anti-obesity effect of alkaline reduced water in high fat-fed obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Rosa Mistica Coles; Kang, Tae-Young; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yang, Young-Chul; Sohn, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not alkaline reduced water (ARW) has a positive effect on obesity is unclear. This study aims to prove the positive effect of ARW in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) in C57BL/6 mice model. Toward this, obesity was induced by feeding the C57BL/6 male mice with high-fat diet (w/w 45% fat) for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the animals were administered with either ARW or tap water. Next, the degree of adiposity and DIO-associated parameters were assessed: clinico-pathological parameters, biochemical measurements, histopathological analysis of liver, the expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes in the liver, and serum levels of adipokine and cytokine. We found that ARW-fed mice significantly ameliorated adiposity: controlled body weight gain, reduced the accumulation of epididymal fats and decreased liver fats as compared to control mice. Accordingly, ARW coordinated the level of adiponectin and leptin. Further, mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)7A1 was upregulated. In summary, our data shows that ARW intake inhibits the progression of HF-DIO in mice. This is the first note on anti-obesity effect of ARW, clinically implying the safer fluid remedy for obesity control.

  6. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  7. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  8. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms

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    Hui Yuan Tan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF, high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF, and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle.

  9. Changes in the small intestine of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Neves, Renata Heisler; de Oliveira, Albanita Viana; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2012-05-01

    The consumption of a high-fat diet modifies both the morphology of the small intestine and experimentally tested effects of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, whether a schistosomiasis infection associated with a high-fat diet causes injury to the small intestine has never been investigated. Mice were fed either a high-fat or a standard-fat diet for 6 months and were then infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Physical characteristics of the intestinal tissue (mucosal thickness, small intestinal villi length and height, and abundance of goblet cells and enterocytes on the villous surface) and the distribution of granulomas along the intestinal segments and their developmental stage were measured at the time of sacrifice (9 or 17 weeks post-infection). The group fed a high-fat diet exhibited different granuloma stages, whereas the control group possessed only exudative granulomas. The chronically infected mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher granuloma and egg numbers than the acutely infected group. Exudative, exudative/exudative-productive and exudative-productive granulomas were present irrespective of diet. Computer-aided morphometric analysis confirmed that villus length, villus width, muscular height and submucosal height of the duodenal and jejunal segments were affected by diet and infection. In conclusion, a high-fat diet and infection had a significant impact on the small intestine morphology and morphometry among the animals tested.

  10. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, PFasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P... after an oral glucose challenge (Pmicrobiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P

  11. Time-restricted feeding on weekdays restricts weight gain: A study using rat models of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Magnus Kringstad; Choi, Man Hung; Kulseng, Bård; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2017-05-01

    A recent study reported that a special weekly scheduled time-restricted feeding regimen (TRF), i.e., no food consumption for 15h during the light (inactive) phase per day for 5 weekdays, attenuated the outcome of diverse nutritional challenges in response to high-fat diet in mice. In the present study, we wanted to further test whether this TRF could restrict body weight gain in both juvenile and adult animals when fed a high-fat diet. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats at ages from 5 to 27weeks were used. First, we found that freely fed rats with 60% fat diet gained weight significantly, which was associated with more calorie intake (particularly during light phase) than those fed standard food (7% fat). Secondly, we found that TRF restricted high-fat diet-induced weight gain in both groups of juvenile rats (5 and 13weeks of age) compared to freely fed rats with high-fat diet, despite the same levels of 24h-calorie intake during either weekdays or the weekend. Thirdly, we found that TRF did not restrict high-fat diet-induce weight gain in adult rats (27weeks of age). Thus, we suggest that this special TRF regimen could be further tested in humans (particularly young adults) for the purpose of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael

    2009-01-01

    affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat...... fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding....... compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased...

  13. Impact of metformin treatment and swimming exercise on visfatin levels in high-fat-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Changjiang; Pan, Tianrong; Luo, Li

    2014-02-01

    Visfatin is a recently discovered adipocytokine that contributes to glucose and obesity-related conditions. Until now, its responses to the insulin-sensitizing agent metformin and to exercise are largely unknown. We aim to investigate the impact of metformin treatment and/or swimming exercise on serum visfatin and visfatin levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), peri-renal adipose tissue (PAT) and skeletal muscle (SM) of high-fat-induced obesity rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks to develop obesity model. The high-fat-induced obesity model rats were then randomized to metformin (MET), swimming exercise (SWI), or adjunctive therapy of metformin and swimming exercise (MAS), besides high-fat obesity control group and a normal control group, all with 10 rats per group. Zoometric and glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and serum visfatin levels were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of therapy. Visfatin levels in SAT, PAT and SM were determined by Western Blot. Metformin and swimming exercise improved lipid profile, and increased insulin sensitivity and body weight reduction were observed. Both metformin and swimming exercise down-regulated visfatin levels in SAT and PAT, while the adjunctive therapy conferred greater benefits, but no changes of visfatin levels were observed in SM. Our results indicate that visfatin down-regulation in SAT and PAT may be one of the mechanisms by which metformin and swimming exercise inhibit obesity.

  14. Green tea polyphenols benefits body composition and improves bone quality in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on body composition and 2 bone properties in obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old SD female rats were fed either a 3 low-fat (LF) diet (n = 12) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n= 24) for 4 months. Animals in the LF diet 4 group continu...

  15. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Alink, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of r

  16. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  17. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

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    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  18. Effects of Ramulus Uncariae et Uncus on body mass, food intake,serum glucose and total antioxidative ability of high-fat-fed obese rats%钩藤水煎剂对高脂性肥胖大鼠体质量、进食量、血糖、胰岛素及抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗蓉; 金龙; 田雪松; 卫玉玲; 李伟; 郑天珍; 瞿颂义

    2005-01-01

    脂饮食组明显高于正常对照组和钩藤组(P<0.01).[3]摄食量:实验第1~7周末,钩藤组大鼠进食量均明显低于正常对照组(P<0.01);第3,5,6,7周末钩藤组明显低于高脂饮食组(P<0.05~0.01).[4]摄入热量:钩藤组第1,2,4周末明显高于正常对照组(P<0.05~0.01).第3,5,6,7周末钩藤组大鼠明显低于高脂饮食组(P<0.01).[5]空腹血糖:3组大鼠相近.[6]血胰岛素和丙二醛水平:高脂饮食组明显高于正常对照组和钩藤组(P<0.01).[7]游离脂肪酸水平:高脂饮食组明显高于正常对照组(P<0.05),与钩藤组相近.[8]总抗氧化力:高脂饮食组明显低于钩藤组(P<0.01).结论:[1]饮用钩藤水煎剂可明显抑制高脂性肥胖大鼠的体质量、进食量.[2]可降低高脂性肥胖大鼠自由基和血清胰岛素水平,且血清胰岛素水平降低可能是由于游离脂肪酸水平降低所致.[4]饮用钩藤水煎剂可增加高脂性肥胖大鼠的总抗氧化能力.%BACKGROUND: Ramulus Uncariae et Uncus can be used to treat many diseases of cardiovesculer and neurosystem by calming and protecting endothelium and neuron.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of drinking water extracts of Ramulus Uncariae et Uncus on body mass, food intake, energy intakes, serum glucose, insulin, total antioxidative ability of high-fat-fed rats.DESIGN: A completely randomized and controlled experiment.SETTING: Institute of Physiology, Foundational Medical College of Lanzhou University.MATERIALS: The experiment which is Gansu Province Key Labor of Pre-clinical Research for Chinese Herbs & New Drugs was carried out at the Physiological Laboratory of Institute of Foundational Medical College of Lanzhou University from March 2003 to May 2003. Twenty-seven healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into the following three groups (9 rats each group): namely, the normal control group, the high-fat-fed group and the Ramulus Uncariae et Uncus group.METHODS: [1] The rats of control group

  19. Renoprotective effect of Caralluma fimbriata against high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats

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    Sudhakara Gujjala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE against high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (C, control treated with CFE (C + CFE, high-fat diet fed (HFD, high-fat diet fed treated with CFE (HFD + CFE, and high-fat diet fed treated with metformin (HFD + metformin. CFE was orally administered (200 mg/kg body weight to Groups C + CFE and HFD + CFE rats for 90 days. Renal functional markers such as, urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels in plasma were quantified during the experimental period. At the end of the experimental period, activities of transaminases and oxidative stress markers, i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes were assayed in renal tissue. Coadministration of CFE along with HF-diet in Group HFD + CFE prevented the rise in the levels of plasma urea, uric acid, and creatinine, and elevated activities of renal transaminases with decreased protein content of Group HFD (p < 0.05. Establishment of oxidative stress in Group HFD, as evident from elevated lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels with depleted levels of GSH, and decreased activities of GSH dependent and independent antioxidant enzymes, was prevented in Groups HFD + CFE and HFD + metformin rats. Further, there were no deviations in the studied parameters but there was improved antioxidant status of Group C + CFE from Group C which revealed the nontoxic nature of CFE even under chronic treatment. Thus, CFE treatment effectively alleviated the HF-diet induced renal damage. Hence, this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of HF-diet induced renal damage.

  20. Antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. in high fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Si

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have reported the preventive effects of probiotics on obesity. Among commensal bacteria, bifidobacteria is one of the most numerous probiotics in the mammalian gut and are a type of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Korean on high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1 SD group, fed standard diet; (2 HFD group, fed high fat diet; and (3 HFD-LAB group, fed high fat diet supplemented with LAB supplement (B. pseudocatenulatum SPM 1204, B. longum SPM 1205, and B. longum SPM 1207; 108 ~ 109 CFU. After 7 weeks, the body, organ, and fat weights, food intake, blood serum levels, fecal LAB counts, and harmful enzyme activities were measured. Results Administration of LAB reduced body and fat weights, blood serum levels (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, glucose, leptin, AST, ALT, and lipase levels, and harmful enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and tryptophanase, and significantly increased fecal LAB counts. Conclusion These data suggest that Bifidobacterium spp. used in this study may have beneficial antiobesity effects.

  1. High fat diet and body weight have different effects on cannabinoid CB(1) receptor expression in rat nodose ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluny, N L; Baraboi, E D; Mackie, K; Burdyga, G; Richard, D; Dockray, G J; Sharkey, K A

    2013-12-01

    Energy balance is regulated, in part, by the orexigenic signaling pathways of the vagus nerve. Fasting-induced modifications in the expression of orexigenic signaling systems have been observed in vagal afferents of lean animals. Altered basal cannabinoid (CB1) receptor expression in the nodose ganglia in obesity has been reported. Whether altered body weight or a high fat diet modifies independent or additive changes in CB1 expression is unknown. We investigated the expression of CB1 and orexin 1 receptor (OX-1R) in the nodose ganglia of rats fed ad libitum or food deprived (24h), maintained on low or high fat diets (HFD), with differing body weights. Male Wistar rats were fed chow or HFD (diet-induced obese: DIO or diet-resistant: DR) or were body weight matched to the DR group but fed chow (wmDR). CB1 and OX-1R immunoreactivity were investigated and CB1 mRNA density was determined using in situ hybridization. CB1 immunoreactivity was measured in fasted rats after sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8s) administration. In chow rats, fasting did not modify the level of CB1 mRNA. More CB1 immunoreactive cells were measured in fed DIO, DR and wmDR rats than chow rats; levels increased after fasting in chow and wmDR rats but not in DIO or DR rats. In HFD fasted rats CCK8s did not reduce CB1 immunoreactivity. OX-1R immunoreactivity was modified by fasting only in DR rats. These data suggest that body weight contributes to the proportion of neurons expressing CB1 immunoreactivity in the nodose ganglion, while HFD blunts fasting-induced increases, and CCK-induced suppression of, CB1-immunoreactivity. © 2013.

  2. Extract from Dioscorea batatas ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Jwa, Hyejeong; Yanagawa, Yasuko; Park, Taesun

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Dioscorea batatas (DB) extract attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in the visceral adipose tissues of mice, and by what mechanism(s). Mice were fed a HFD for 4 weeks to induce the early development of insulin resistance. The DB extract was administered to mice fed a HFD by oral gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 weeks. Biochemical parameters in blood were measured using enzymatic kits, and the expression levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), phosphorylated (p-)S6K1, phosphorylated v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (p-AKT), and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase (p-ERK) in epididymal fat tissue were determined by western blot analyses. The DB extract effectively reversed the HFD-induced elevations in plasma glucose and insulin levels, and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and oral glucose tolerance test values. The level of p-AKT protein was up-regulated, whereas the levels of p-ERK and p-S6K1 proteins were down-regulated in the adipose tissues of DB mice compared with HFD mice. Furthermore, the DB extract significantly reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the plasma membrane GLUT4 level in the adipose tissue of mice. The DB extract improved glucose metabolism in HFD-fed mice through the up-regulation of plasma membrane GLUT4 content in the visceral adipose tissue. Activation of the insulin signaling cascade leading to GLUT4 translocation was the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of the DB extract on early-stage obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  3. High fat diet-induced obesity modifies the methylation pattern of leptin promoter in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagro, F I; Campión, J; García-Díaz, D F; Goyenechea, E; Paternain, L; Martínez, J A

    2009-03-01

    Leptin is an adipokine involved in body weight and food intake regulation whose promoter region presents CpG islands that could be subject to dynamic methylation. This methylation process could be affected by environmental (e.g. diet) or endogenous (e.g., adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, hypoxia) factors, and could influence adipocyte leptin gene expression. The aim of this article was to study whether a high-energy diet may affect leptin gene promoter methylation in rats. A group of eleven male Wistar rats were assigned into two dietary groups, one fed on a control diet for 11 weeks and the other on a high-fat cafeteria diet. Rats fed a high-energy diet become overweight and hyperleptinemic as compared to the controls. DNA isolated from retroperitoneal adipocytes was treated with bisulfite and a distal portion of leptin promoter (from -694 to -372 bp) including 13 CpG sites was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The studied promoter portion was slightly more methylated in the cafeteria-fed animals, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for one of the CpG sites (located at the position -443). In obese rats, such methylation was associated to lower circulating leptin levels, suggesting that this position could be important in the regulation of leptin gene expression, probably by being a target sequence of different transcription factors. Our findings reveal, for the first time, that leptin methylation pattern can be influenced by diet-induced obesity, and suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be involved in obesity by regulating the expression of important epiobesigenic genes.

  4. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  5. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  6. META060 protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in a high-fat-diet fed mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.A. van den; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Darland, G.; Konda, V.; Tripp, M.L.; Bland, J.S.; Voshol, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a reduced iso-alpha acid derived from an extract of Humulus lupulus L., META060, had an effect on weight gain, body composition, and metabolism in a high-fat-diet (HFD) fed mouse model. METHODS: Weight gain was monitored for up to 20 wk in mice receiving a low-fat

  7. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  8. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective: The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design: Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w./day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50 with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results: We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG, and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions: These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis.

  9. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  10. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  11. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of Hydroxyethyl Methylcellulose (HEMC) and Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) in mice fed with a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Su Jeong; Rico, Catherine W; Um, In Chul; Kang, Mi Young

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary feeding of hydroxyethyl methylcellulose (HEMC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative status in mice under high fat diet conditions was investigated. The mice were randomly divided and given experimental diets for six weeks: normal control (NC group), high fat (HF group), and high fat supplemented with either HEMC (HF+HEMC group) or HPMC (HF+HPMC group). At the end of the experimental period, the HF group exhibited markedly higher blood glucose and insulin levels as well as a higher erythrocyte lipid peroxidation rate relative to the control group. However, diet supplementation of HEMC and HPMC was found to counteract the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of antioxidant and hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities. These findings illustrate that HEMC and HPMC were similarly effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense system in high fat-fed mice and they may be beneficial as functional biomaterials in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat dietinduced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

  12. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway.

  13. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Allan S.; Perez, Paola K.; Streckenbach, Liana J.; Olson, Jake M.; Cook, Mark E.; Hernandez, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women. PMID:27603698

  14. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

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    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  15. Mice that are fed a high-fat diet display increased hepcidin expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; dos Santos, Aline Noronha; Miyashiro, Renan Akira; Gambero, Sheley; Rocha, Thalita; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery that hepcidin is expressed in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, attention has been increasingly focused on alterations in iron homeostasis that are associated with adiposity. We examined the production of hepcidin, the expression of hepcidin-related genes and the iron content of the adipose tissue in obesity using Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice were maintained on a control diet or HFD for 12 or 24 wk, and body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. The expression of several genes (hepcidin, TfR1, TfR2, DMT1, FT-heavy, ferroportin, IRP-1, IRP-2 and HIF-1) and the protein expression of hepcidin and IL-6 were quantified. The iron level was assessed using a Prussian blue reaction in paraffin-embedded tissue. After 24 wk on the HFD, we observed increases in the levels of hepcidin in the serum and the visceral adipose tissue. The IL-6 levels also increased in the visceral adipose tissue. Adipocytes isolated from the visceral adipose tissues of lean and obese mice expressed hepcidin at comparable levels; however, isolated macrophages from the stromal vascular fraction expressed higher hepcidin levels. Adipose tissues from obese mice displayed increased tfR2 expression and the presence of iron. Our results indicate that IL-6 and iron may affect the signaling pathways governing hepcidin expression. Thus, the mice fed HFD for 24 wk represent a suitable model for the study of obesity-linked hepcidin alterations. In addition, hepcidin may play local roles in controlling iron availability and interfering with inflammation in adipose tissue.

  16. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Kasbi Chadli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA supplemented high fat diet (HFD. Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group were studied for 20 weeks: 1 control diet: Control, 2 HFD group: HF and 3 HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA: HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05 increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01 and cholesterol (p<0.001 with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001. Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001 and cholesterol (p<0.001 related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05 compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05 compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05 compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05 and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05. A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT.

  17. High-fat diet offsets the long-lasting effects of running-wheel access on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Moran, Timothy H; Bi, Sheng

    2011-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that running-wheel access normalizes the food intake and body weight of Otsuka Long-Evens Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Following 6 wk of running-wheel access beginning at 8 wk of age, the body weight of OLETF rats remains reduced, demonstrating a lasting effect on their phenotype. In contrast, access to a high-fat diet exacerbates the hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. To determine whether diet modulates the long-term effects of exercise, we examined the effects of high-fat diet on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats that had prior access to running wheels for 4 wk. We found that 4 wk of running exercise significantly decreased food intake and body weight of OLETF rats. Consistent with prior results, 4 wk of exercise also produced long-lasting effects on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats fed a regular chow. When running wheels were relocked, OLETF rats stabilized at lower levels of body weight than sedentary OLETF rats. However, access to a high-fat diet offset these effects. When OLETF rats were switched to a high-fat diet following wheel relocking, they significantly increased food intake and body weight, so that they reached levels similar to those of sedentary OLETF rats fed a high-fat diet. Gene expression determination of hypothalamic neuropeptides revealed changes that appeared to be appropriate responses to the effects of diet and running exercise. Together, these results demonstrate that high-fat diet modulates the long-lasting effects of exercise on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

  18. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Kalra, Satya P.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  19. [Rosuvastatin improves insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by high fat diet. Role of SIRT1 in adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin resistance in overweight rats induced by high fat diet, as well as potential mediators. We used male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet (CT) or high fat diet (33.5% fat) (HFD); half of the animals HFD were treated with rosuvastatin (15mg/kg/day) (HFD+Rosu) for 7 weeks. HFD rats showed increased body, epididymal and lumbar adipose tissue weights. Treatment with Rosu did not modify body weight or the weight of the adipose packages in HFD rat. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and HOMA index were higher in HFD rats, and rosuvastatin treatment reduced them. Leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma and lumbar adipose tissue were higher in HDF rats, and were reduced by rosuvastatin. SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 protein expression in lumbar adipose tissue were lower in HFD rats and Rosu normalized expression of the three mediators. Rosuvastatin ameliorates insulin sensitivity induced by HFD in rats. This effect is mediated by several mechanisms including reduction of leptin and enhancement of SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 expression in white adipose tissue. SIRT1 could be considered a major mediator of the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by diet. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. High fat diet-induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia caused by down regulation of the transsulphuration pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitano Mariarosaria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy causes increased oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress is now believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the changes which occur in homocysteine (Hcy metabolism in high fat-diet induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats were investigated. Methods and results After feeding rats a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolisable energy as fat for 18 weeks, the concentration of homocysteine in the plasma was significantly raised while that of cysteine was lowered in the high fat as compared to the control diet fed animals. The hepatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CGS, the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of homocysteine to cysteine via the transsulphuration pathway in the liver, were also significantly reduced in the high fat-fed group. Conclusions These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with increased plasma Hcy levels caused by down-regulation of hepatic CBS and CGL activity. Thus, HHcy occurs at an early stage in high fat diet-induced NAFLD and is likely to contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the condition.

  1. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  2. High-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and postnatal development in female rats increases susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth R; Alexander, Barbara T; Lee, Jonathan; Hutchens, Zachary M; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2013-02-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both an adverse prenatal and early postnatal environment increase susceptibility to renal and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however, whether exposure to adverse conditions during both prenatal and postnatal development act synergistically to potentiate the severity of renal and metabolic injury remains unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat/fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. After being weaned, female offspring were randomized to either standard diet or the high-fat/high-fructose diet, resulting in the following treatment groups: NF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; NF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally; HF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; HF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally. At the time of euthanasia (17 wk of age), HF-HF offspring weighed 30% more and had 110% more visceral fat than NF-NF offspring. The HF-HF offspring also had elevated blood glucose levels, glucose intolerance, 286% increase in urine albumin excretion, and 60% increase in glomerulosclerosis compared with NF-NF. In addition, HF-HF offspring exhibited a 100% increase in transforming growth factor-β protein expression and 116% increase in the abundance of infiltrated macrophages compared with the NF-NF offspring. These observations suggest that high-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and throughout postnatal life increases the susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

  3. Effects of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts in high-fat diet-fed obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hak-Yong; Park, Kwang-Hyun; PARK, Young-mi; Moon, Dae-In; Oh, Hong-Geun; Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Okjin; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Se-Chul; Lee, Kun-Hee; Seol, Su-Yeon; Park, Yong-Sik; Park, Jong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng and its extracts have been used as traditional medicines and functional foods in countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the bioavailability of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts (GS-E3D), and the effects of GS-E3D on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as on metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver in high-fat diet fed obese C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 5 groups: normal diet group, high fat diet-vehicle grou...

  4. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits pancreatic lipase and reduces body weight gain in high fat-fed obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Kimberly A; Sae-tan, Sudathip; Kennett, Mary J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-11-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) has been shown to have obesity preventive effects in laboratory studies. We hypothesized that dietary epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could reverse metabolic syndrome in high fat-fed obese C57bl/6J mice, and that these effects were related to inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL). Following treatment with 0.32% EGCG for 6 weeks, a 44% decrease in body weight (BW) gain in high fat-fed, obese mice (P EGCG treatment increased fecal lipid content by 29.4% (P fat-fed control, whereas in vitro, EGCG dose-dependently inhibited PL (IC(50) = 7.5 µmol/l) in a noncompetitive manner with respect to substrate concentration. (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate exhibited similar inhibitory activity, whereas the nonester-containing (-)-epigallocatechin did not. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation reduced final BW and BW gain in obese mice, and some of these effects may be due to inhibition of PL by EGCG.

  5. [Effect of high-fat diet and food restriction on energy metabolism in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Junxia; Zheng, Long; Lian, Weiguang; Liu, Shufeng

    2015-09-01

    To explore the effect of high-fat diet and food restriction on energy metabolism in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into OP, OR and control groups according to their body weight gain after fed with high-fat diet for 3 wk. OP and OR groups were fed with high-fat diet in the following 12 wk to promote the development of obesity. Then one-half of the rats of each group began to food restriction and were allowed access to 50% of their individual baseline mean daily food intake each day, while the other half were maintained on ad libitum food for 2 wk. Basal metabolic rate (BMR), resting metabolic rate (RMR) of each group were measured by indirect calorimetry during the high-fat diet feeding and food restriction conditions. After the rats were sacrificed, body fat content was measured. OR rats had significantly higher BMR and RMR than the other two groups during high-fat diet feeding condition. There was no significant difference between OP and control group. Food restriction led to a reduction in BMR and RMR in all groups. OR rats showed a significantly greater reduction. OP group showed a significant decrease in body fat weight and fat content during the food restriction period, while there was no significant differences in OR rats. There are significant differences between OP and OR rats in BMR and RMR either in high-fat diet feeding condition or food restricted state. OR rat has the ability to sense and respond to energy imbalance more accurately than OP rat.

  6. Effects of voluntary running with defined distances on body adiposity and its associated inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedentary lifestyle contributes to obesity. This study examined the effect of quantitative voluntary running on body adiposity and its associated inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were assigned into six groups and fed the AIN93G (sedentary) or a high-fat diet (sedentary, ...

  7. Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Beatrice Y; Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Sacco, Sandra M; Ward, Wendy E; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J; Leblanc, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p  0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age.

  8. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  9. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1, medium dose (200 mg kg−1, or high dose (300 mg kg−1 or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (p<0.05. Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS (p<0.05. Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (p<0.05. This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs.

  10. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Mousumi; Lambert, Joshua D; Ju, Jihyeung; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Shapses, Sue A; Yang, Chung S

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on high-fat-induced obesity, symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver in mice. In mice fed a high-fat diet (60% energy as fat), supplementation with dietary EGCG treatment (3.2 g/kg diet) for 16 wk reduced body weight (BW) gain, percent body fat, and visceral fat weight (P EGCG treatment. The BW decrease was associated with increased fecal lipids in the high-fat-fed groups (r(2) = 0.521; P EGCG treatment attenuated insulin resistance, plasma cholesterol, and monocyte chemoattractant protein concentrations in high-fat-fed mice (P EGCG treatment also decreased liver weight, liver triglycerides, and plasma alanine aminotransferase concentrations in high-fat-fed mice (P EGCG compared with high-fat diet-fed mice without EGCG treatment. In another experiment, 3-mo-old high-fat-induced obese mice receiving short-term EGCG treatment (3.2 g/kg diet, 4 wk) had decreased mesenteric fat weight and blood glucose compared with high-fat-fed control mice (P EGCG treatment attenuated the development of obesity, symptoms associated with the metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Short-term EGCG treatment appeared to reverse preexisting high-fat-induced metabolic pathologies in obese mice. These effects may be mediated by decreased lipid absorption, decreased inflammation, and other mechanisms.

  11. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  12. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  13. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  14. Epigallocatechin gallate prevents inflammation by reducing macrophage infiltration and inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α signaling in the pancreas of rats on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanli; Bao, Suqing; Yang, Wanli; Zhang, Jin; Li, Lin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) would suppress inflammation in the pancreas, and thus, we investigated the effects that EGCG administration had in the pancreas of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). To test our hypothesis, 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: normal diet (control) group and HFD group. When there was a significant difference in body weight between the 2 groups (P pancreas of HFD rats.

  15. Effects of four Bifidobacteria on obesity in high-fat diet induced rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare the effects of four Bifidobacteria strains(Bifidobacteria L66-5,L75-4,M13-4 and FS31-12,originated from normal human intestines) on weight gain,lipid metabolism,glucose metabolism in an obese murine model induced by high-fat diet.METHODS:Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups.Control group received standard chow,model group received high-fat diet,and intervention groups received high-fat diet added with different Bifidobacteria strains isolated from healthy volu...

  16. High-Fat Diet Alters the Orosensory Sensitivity to Fatty Acids in Obesity-Resistant but not Obesity-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, David W; Hansen, Dane R; Gilbertson, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions play a role in the development of obesity but specific effects of diet on the orosensory detection of fatty acids have yet to be clarified. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of prolonged (5-week) exposure to a high-fat (60%) diet on the behavioral sensitivity to the fatty acid linoleate following a conditioned taste aversion in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Exposure to the high-fat diet significantly enhanced the sensitivity of obesity-resistant (S5B/Pl) rats to linoleate while producing no effect on the fatty acid sensitivity for obesity-prone rats. Specifically, high-fat diet fed S5B/Pl rats showed stronger initial avoidance of linoleate and slower extinction rates than their normal diet cohorts. Our study suggests that prolonged dietary fat consumption may alter the behavioral sensitivity to fatty acids particularly in obesity-resistant animals. PMID:26097499

  17. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  18. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  19. Effects of chronic exercise on the endocannabinoid system in Wistar rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelin, François-Xavier; Aucouturier, Julien; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Mazzarella, Enrico; Aveta, Teresa; Leriche, Melissa; Dupont, Erwan; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Montel, Valérie; Bastide, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Heyman, Elsa

    2016-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated during obesity in tissues involved in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. We examined the effect of chronic exercise on the tissue levels of endocannabinoids (eCBs) and on the expression of genes coding for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively) in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues and in the soleus and extensor digitorim longus (EDL) muscles, in rats fed with standard or high-fat diet. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were placed on high-fat diet or standard diet (HFD and Ctl groups, respectively) during 12 weeks whereafter half of each group was submitted to an exercise training period of 12 weeks (HFD + training and Ctl + training). Tissue levels of eCBs were measured by LC-MS while expressions of genes coding for CB1 and CB2 receptors were investigated by qPCR. High-fat diet induced an increase in anandamide (AEA) levels in soleus and EDL (p < 0.02). In soleus of the HFD group, these changes were accompanied by elevated Cnr1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels (p < 0.05). In EDL, exercise training allowed to reduce significantly this diet-induced AEA increase (p < 0.005). 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels were decreased and increased by high-fat diet in SAT and EDL, respectively (p < 0.04), but not affected by exercise training. Unlike the HFD + training group, 2-AG levels in soleus were also decreased in the HFD group compared to Ctl (p < 0.04). The levels of eCBs and Cnr1 expression are altered in a tissue-specific manner following a high-fat diet, and chronic exercise reverses some of these alterations.

  20. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-04

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  1. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  2. A lard-rich high-fat diet increases hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in endotoxemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Motoki; Miyoshi, Makoto; Fujiwara, Mayu; Nishiyama, Yuya; Inoue, Taketo; Maeshige, Noriaki; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Usami, Makoto

    2017-05-15

    Diets high in saturated fatty acids activate chronic inflammation. We previously reported that, in even acute inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), liver injury was exacerbated in rats fed a lard-rich diet. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are related to inflammation and are also key regulators of lipid metabolism. In this study, we examined effects of high-fat diet on liver injury and hepatic lipid metabolism during endotoxemia, measuring hepatic PPARs and other markers. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 60 kcal% fat) or control diet (CD, 10 kcal% fat) for 4 or 12 wk, injected with LPS and sacrificed at 0, 1.5, or 6 h. Analyses included plasma aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of hepatic PPARα and PPARγ, and mRNA levels of enzymes related to fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. Endotoxemic rats on HFD for 12 wk, but not 4 wk, had higher mRNA and protein levels for hepatic PPARs, than did those on CD (P PPARα and PPARγ expression in endotoxemic rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic Angiotensin-(1-7) Improves Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Fed Mice Independent of Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ian M; Otero, Yolanda F; Bracy, Deanna P; Wasserman, David H; Biaggioni, Italo; Arnold, Amy C

    2016-05-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) improves glycemic control in animal models of cardiometabolic syndrome. The tissue-specific sites of action and blood pressure dependence of these metabolic effects, however, remain unclear. We hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) improves insulin sensitivity by enhancing peripheral glucose delivery. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were placed on standard chow or 60% high-fat diet for 11 weeks. Ang-(1-7) (400 ng/kg per minute) or saline was infused subcutaneously during the last 3 weeks of diet, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed at the end of treatment. High-fat fed mice exhibited modest hypertension (systolic blood pressure: 137 ± 3 high fat versus 123 ± 5 mm Hg chow;P=0.001), which was not altered by Ang-(1-7) (141 ± 4 mm Hg;P=0.574). Ang-(1-7) did not alter body weight or fasting glucose and insulin in chow or high-fat fed mice. Ang-(1-7) increased the steady-state glucose infusion rate needed to maintain euglycemia in high-fat fed mice (31 ± 5 Ang-(1-7) versus 16 ± 1 mg/kg per minute vehicle;P=0.017) reflecting increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, with no effect in chow-fed mice. The improved insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice was because of an enhanced rate of glucose disappearance (34 ± 5 Ang-(1-7) versus 20 ± 2 mg/kg per minute vehicle;P=0.049). Ang-(1-7) enhanced glucose uptake specifically into skeletal muscle by increasing translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the sarcolemma. Our data suggest that Ang-(1-7) has direct insulin-sensitizing effects on skeletal muscle, independent of changes in blood pressure. These findings provide new insight into mechanisms by which Ang-(1-7) improves insulin action, and provide further support for targeting this peptide in cardiometabolic disease.

  4. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Yue, E-mail: ly99ly@vip.163.com [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiac Diseases and Heart Failure, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.

  5. N-Acetylneuraminic acid attenuates hypercoagulation on high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study. Methods: Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into five different groups and fed with HFD alone, HFD low-dose Neu5Ac, HFD high-dose Neu5Ac, HFD simvastatin (10 mg/kg day, and normal pellet alone. Food was given ad libitum while body weight of rats was measured weekly. After 12 weeks of intervention, rats were sacrificed and serum and tissue samples were collected for biochemistry and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: The results showed that Neu5Ac could improve lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia-associated coagulation. Neu5Ac exerted comparable or sometimes better physiological effects than simvastatin, at biochemical and gene expression levels. Conclusions: The data indicated that Neu5Ac prevented HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and associated hypercoagulation in rats through regulation of lipid-related and coagulation-related genes and, by extension, induced metabolite and protein changes. The implications of the present findings are that Neu5Ac may be used to prevent coagulation-related cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic conditions. These findings are worth studying further.

  6. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Cho, Jacob; Kim, Ronald; Michaelides, Michael; Primeaux, Stefany; Bray, George; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-02-02

    Dopamine (DA) and DA D₂ receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Metformin exerts glucose-lowering action in high-fat fed mice via attenuating endotoxemia and enhancing insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zi-Yu; Ren, Li-Wei; Zhan, Ping; Yang, Han-Yan; Chai, Dan-Dan; Yu, Zhi-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from gut gram-negative bacteria can be absorbed, leading to endotoxemia that triggers systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. In this study we examined whether metformin attenuated endotoxemia, thus improving insulin signaling in high-fat diet fed mice. Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 18 weeks to induce insulin resistance. One group of the mice was treated with oral metformin (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 4 weeks. Another group was treated with LPS (50 μg·kg(-1)·d(-1), sc) for 5 days followed by the oral metformin for 10 d. Other two groups received a combination of antibiotics for 7 d or a combination of antibiotics for 7 d followed by the oral metformin for 4 weeks, respectively. Glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in liver and muscle were evaluated, the abundance of gut bacteria, gut permeability and serum LPS levels were measured. In high-fat fed mice, metformin restored the tight junction protein occludin-1 levels in gut, reversed the elevated gut permeability and serum LPS levels, and increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus and Akkermansia muciniphila. Metformin also increased PKB Ser473 and AMPK T172 phosphorylation, decreased MDA contents and redox-sensitive PTEN protein levels, activated the anti-oxidative Nrf2 system, and increased IκBα in liver and muscle of the mice. Treatment with exogenous LPS abolished the beneficial effects of metformin on glucose metabolism, insulin signaling and oxidative stress in liver and muscle of the mice. Treatment with antibiotics alone produced similar effects as metformin did. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of antibiotics were addictive to those of metformin. Metformin administration attenuates endotoxemia and enhances insulin signaling in high-fat fed mice, which contributes to its anti-diabetic effects.

  8. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pfat diet group was significantly increased compared with that of normal control rats (6.62 mmol/L vs. 4.96 mmol/L, Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  9. Effects of 6-week voluntary wheel exercise on sex-hormones and hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in high-fat fed SD rats%6周自由转轮运动对高脂饲养雄性大鼠性激素及下丘脑-垂体-睾丸轴的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岩; 孙景权; 谢敏豪; 严翊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of high fat diet and 6⁃week voluntary wheel running on the structure of hypothalamus, pituitary and testis and sex hormone levels in pubertal male rats. Methods Forty 3⁃week⁃old male Spra⁃gue⁃Dawley rats were randomly divided into following groups: the control group fed with normal diet (C), training group fed with normal diet ( CE) , control group fed with high fat diet ( D) , and training group fed with high fat diet ( DE) , 10 rats in each group. The groups C and D were bred for 8 weeks freely, and the groups CE and DE were assigned to have vol⁃untary wheel running twice/d, 1 h/time, 5 d/w, for 6 weeks after a 2⁃week adaptive feeding. Eight weeks later, blood sample was collected to detect the serum T, E2 , FSH and LH, and the E2 and T of testis were also detected. The histology of hypothalamic, pituitary, and testis tissues was observed by light microscopy. Results ( l) Compared with the group C, the group D had significantly decreased levels of serum T and E2 and testicular T (P<0�05), and significantly increased serum E2, FSH and LH levels (P<0�05). In the group D, vacuolar lipid droplets were increased in the hypothalamus, e⁃osinophils and basophils were reduced in the pituitary, and the area of seminiferous tubules, percentage of sperm cells, and quantity of Leygid cells were significantly decreased in the testis. (2) Compared with the group D, the serum T and testic⁃ular T concentrations were increased, but the serum E2, FSH and LH were decreased significantly (P<0�05) in the group DE, and vacuolar lipid drops were increased in the hypothalamus, eosinophil cells were increased in the pituitary gland, and the area of seminiferous tubules was increased but not significantly in the testis. Conclusions 6⁃week voluntary wheel exercise can improve the high fat diet⁃induced abnormal secretion of sex hormones, but not effectively improve the histologi⁃cal changes in hypothalamus, pituitary gland and

  10. Effects of High-Fat Feeding on Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Nie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we examined the responses of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats fed either a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD from weaning to 20 weeks of age. This comparison included gene expression profiling of skeletal muscle using Affymetrix gene array chips. The expression profiling is interpreted within the context of a wide array of physiological measurements. Genes whose expressions are different between the 2 strains regardless of diet, as well as genes that differ between strains only with HFD, were identified. In addition, genes that were regulated by diet in 1 or both strains were identified. The results suggest that both strains respond to HFD by an increased capacity to oxidize lipid fuels in the musculature but that this adaptation occurs more rapidly in WKY rats. The results also demonstrated an impaired cytokine signalling and heightened inflammatory status in the GK rats.

  11. 慢性间歇低氧对高脂喂养大鼠心肌天冬氨酸特异性半胱氨酸蛋白酶-3和髓过氧化物酶活性的影响%Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on the activities of apoptosis regulating factor cysteine-containing aspartate-specific protease-3 and oxidative stress marker myeloperoxidase in cardiomyocyte in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卉; 田建立; 张蕴; 王林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on myocardial tissue pathology,oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat fed a high-fat diet,and to explore the possible mechanism of CIH induced cardiomyocyte injury.Methods A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 each).The control group was fed common rat forage,the high-fat group was fed high-fat forage,and the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group was fed high-fat forage combined with a 7h/d intermittent hypoxia treatment.The changes of myocardial tissue pathology and ultrastructure of cardiomyocyte,and the activities of apoptosis regulating factor cysteine-containing aspartate-specific proteases-3 (caspase-3) and oxidative stress marker myeloperoxidase (MPO) were observed in the 3 groups after 4 weeks of treatment.Results There were significant differences in the activities of caspase-3 and MPO among the three group (F=89.94,71.24,both P=0.001).The activities of caspase-3 and MPO were lower in the control group than in the high-fat group and in high fat plus intermittent hypoxia group [(0.21±0.06) vs.(0.80±0.11),(1.15±0.21),(3.20±0.58) vs.(10.87±1.96),(13.17±2.22),P<0.01].The activities of caspase-3 and MPO were higher in the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group than in the high fat group[(1.15±0.21) vs.(0.80±0.11),(13.17±2.22) vs.(10.87±1.96),P<0.01].No abnormal findings in the structure of cardiomyocyte were observed in the control group,while multiple pathologic damages in cardiomyocyte were detected in the high-fat group,and more obvious injuries in the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group.Conclusions The pathologic damages to cardiomyocyte are more serious in high fat and intermittent hypoxia group than in the high-fat group.Apoptosis induced by oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of these injuries.%目的 通过观察慢性间歇低氧对高脂喂养大鼠心肌细胞组织病理学、氧化应激

  12. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases the expression of genes related to fat oxidation in the skeletal muscle of high fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Grove, Kimberly A; Kennett, Mary J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2011-02-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to prevent the development of obesity in rodent models. Here, we examined the effect of EGCG on markers of fat oxidation in high fat-fed C57bl/6J mice. High fat-fed mice treated with 0.32% dietary EGCG for 16 weeks had reduced body weight gain and final body weight (19.2% and 9.4%, respectively) compared to high fat-fed controls. EGCG-treatment decreased fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and insulin resistance by 18.5%, 25.3%, and 33.9%, respectively. EGCG treatment also reduced markers of obesity-related fatty liver disease in high fat-fed mice. Gene expression analysis of skeletal muscle showed that EGCG increased mRNA levels of nuclear respiratory factor (nrf)1, medium chain acyl coA decarboxylase (mcad), uncoupling protein (ucp)3, and peroxisome proliferator responsive element (ppar)α by 1.4-1.9-fold compared to high fat-fed controls. These genes are all related to mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. In addition, EGCG increased fecal excretion of lipids in high fat-fed mice. In summary, it appears that EGCG modulates body weight gain in high fat-fed mice both by increasing the expression of genes related fat oxidation in the skeletal muscle and by modulating fat absorption from the diet.

  13. High-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil affect differently pancreas function of young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, C A S; Carlos, A S; de Sousa Dos Santos, A; de Moura, E G; Nascimento-Saba, C C A

    2013-09-01

    The excessive fat intake generally might induce obesity and metabolic disturbances. Thus, the goal of the study was to assess the role of high-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil on intra-abdominal adiposity and pancreatic morphology and function of young rats. After weaning, rats were fed with a control diet (7S) or a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old, when they were sacrificed. Food intake (g/day), body mass and length, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat mass, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and area of pancreatic islets were assessed. The results were considered different with a significant level of pfat mass. The 19C group showed higher HOMA-IR (+43% and +78%) and HOMA-β (+40% and +59%) than 19S and 7S groups, respectively. Both 19S and 19C groups showed lower pancreatic islets area in relation to 7S group. Meantime, 19C presented lower percentage of pancreatic islets area in comparison to 19S (-41%) and 7S group (-70%, poil, the high fat diet promoted development of the obesity. Comparing 19C and 19S groups, the higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, present in the canola oil were worse than higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, present in the soybean oil.

  14. Dietary emulsifiers from milk and soybean differently impact adiposity and inflammation in association with modulation of colonic goblet cells in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Manon; Couëdelo, Leslie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Plaisancié, Pascale; Létisse, Marion; Benoit, Bérengère; Gabert, Laure; Penhoat, Armelle; Durand, Annie; Pineau, Gaëlle; Joffre, Florent; Géloën, Alain; Vaysse, Carole; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced adiposity and metabolic inflammation are major features of obesity that could be impacted by dietary emulsifiers. We investigated in high-fat fed mice the effects of using a new polar lipid (PL) emulsifier from milk (MPL) instead of soybean lecithin (soybean PL [SPL]) on adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa function. Four groups of C57BL6 mice received for 8 wks a low-fat (LF) diet or a high-fat diet devoid of PLs or an high-fat diet including MPL (high-fat-MPL) or SPL (high-fat-SPL). Compared with high-fat diet, high-fat-SPL diet increased white adipose tissue (WAT) mass (p emulsifiers in the frame of obesity outbreak. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Anti-diabetic activity of chromium picolinate and biotin in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Kucuk, Osman; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Juturu, Vijaya; Komorowski, James R

    2013-07-28

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and biotin supplementations in type 2 diabetic rats. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: (1) non-diabetic rats fed a regular diet; (2) diabetic rats fed a HFD; (3) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with CrPic (80 μg/kg body weight (BW) per d); (4) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with biotin (300 μg/kg BW per d); (5) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with both CrPic and biotin. Circulating glucose, cortisol, total cholesterol, TAG, NEFA and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased (Padipose tissue and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS-1) expression of liver, kidney and muscle tissues, while the supplements increased (Ptissues. Expression of NF-κB in the liver and kidney was greater in diabetic rats fed a HFD, as compared with rats fed a regular diet (P< 0·01). The supplements decreased the expression of NF-κB in diabetic rats (P< 0·05). Results of the present study revealed that supplementing CrPic and biotin alone or in a combination exerts anti-diabetic activities, probably through modulation of PPAR-γ, IRS-1 and NF-κB proteins.

  16. (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Increases the Expression of Genes Related to Fat Oxidation in the Skeletal Muscle of High Fat-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sae-tan, Sudathip; Grove, Kimberly A.; Kennett, Mary J.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to prevent the development of obesity in rodent models. Here, we examined the effect of EGCG on markers of fat oxidation in high fat-fed C57bl/6J mice. High fat-fed mice treated with 0.32% dietary EGCG for 16 weeks had reduced body weight gain and final body weight (19.2% and 9.4%, respectively) compared to high fat-fed controls. EGCG-treatment decreased fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and insulin ...

  17. Over-the-counter analgesics normalize blood glucose and body composition in mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Eric L; Schneider, Scott N; Clegg, Deborah J; Genter, Mary Beth; Shertzer, Howard G

    2008-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) develops from a pre-diabetic condition that is characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, and is exacerbated by obesity. In this study, we compared the ability of over-the-counter analgesic drugs (OTCAD) [acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); naproxen (NAP); aspirin (ASA)], to protect against the development of a pre-diabetic state in mice fed a high fat diet. After 10 weeks on the high fat diet, mice had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, but exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment with 20 mg OTCADs/kg body weight improved glucose tolerance, with the order of efficacy, APAP=ASA>IBU, while NAP proved ineffective. Mice fed the high fat diet also exhibited increases in weight gain associated with an increase in body fat. OTCADs prevented in part this increase in body fat, in the order of efficacy, APAP=IBU>NAP=ASA. In isolated liver mitochondria, OTCADs inhibited succinate-dependent H2O2 production, while in white adipose tissue, APAP inhibited NADPH-oxidase mediated H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation. Thus, OTCADs diminish pro-oxidant processes that might otherwise exacerbate inflammation and a pre-diabetic state. We conclude that OTCADs, especially APAP and IBU, may be valuable tools to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes from a pre-diabetic condition.

  18. High fat fed heart failure animals have enhanced mitochondrial function and acyl-coa dehydrogenase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that administration of high fat in heart failure (HF) increased mitochondrial respiration and did not alter left ventricular (LV) function. PPARalpha is a nuclear transcription factor that activates expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and utilization. We hypoth...

  19. Metabolic profile response to administration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; De Laquila, Rachel; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Lira, Fábio Santos; de Souza, Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Telles, Monica Marques; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; Oyama, Lila Missae

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue and glucose intolerance. High-fat diets (HFDs) are known to induce obesity and increase proinflammatory adipokines. The consumption of green tea may improve the health of obese individuals because it contains a potent antioxidant that has effects on body weight, energy expenditure and serum cholesterol concentrations. We examined the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (50 mg/kg body weight per day) or saline after 30 or 60 days of treatment. Mice were distributed into four groups: 1) NS: normolipidic diet receiving saline; 2) NE: normolipidic diet receiving EGCG; 3) HFS: high-fat diet receiving saline; 4) HFE: high-fat diet receiving EGCG. We observed that administration of a HFD plus EGCG treatment for 60 days reduced delta weight, the relative weights of the mesenteric adipose tissue (MES), retroperitonial adipose tissue (RET), epididymal adipose tissue (EPI), the sum of the adipose tissues (SAT), reduced triacylglycerol (TG) and improved both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the adiponectin/STA ratio when compared with HFS. Our results suggest that the chronic administration of EGCG (60 days) promoted a significant improvement in glucose tolerance, decreased adipose tissue deposits, weight mass, TG and HDL-C only when associated with high-fat diet treatment.

  20. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. RESULTS Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism. PMID:26425278

  1. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Sun Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  2. Anti-Obese Effect of Glucosamine and Chitosan Oligosaccharide in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is to evaluate the anti-obese effects of glucosamine (GLC and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS on high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into twelve groups: a normal diet group (NF, a high-fat diet group (HF, Orlistat group, GLC high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (GLC-H, GLC-M, GLC-L, COS1 (COS, number-average molecular weight ≤1000 high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (COS1-H, COS1-M, COS1-L, and COS2 (COS, number-average molecular weight ≤3000 high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (COS2-H, COS2-M, COS2-L. All groups received oral treatment by gavage once daily for a period of six weeks. Results: Rats fed with COS1 gained the least weight among all the groups (P < 0.01, and these rats lost more weight than those treated with Orlistat. In addition to the COS2-H and Orlistat groups, the serum total cholesterol (CHO and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly reduced in all treatment groups compared to the HF group (P < 0.01. The various doses of GLC, COS1 and COS2 reduced the expression levels of PPARγ and LXRα mRNA in the white adipose tissue. Conclusions: The results above demonstrated that GLC, COS1, and COS2 improved dyslipidemia and prevented body weight gains by inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet. Thus, these agents may potentially be used to treat obesity.

  3. 连续和间断运动对高脂饮食大鼠肥胖和脂肪肝作用效果的比较%Effect of intermittent versus continuous exercise on obesity and fatty liver in rats fed with high-fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏丽; 李云川; 张忍发

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨连续运动与间断运动对高脂饮食大鼠肥胖和脂肪肝的作用效果.方法 根据饮食结构不同分为常规饮食?和高脂饮食(H)两大组,再根据运动的不同又分为静坐组(S)、连续运动组(CE)和间断运动组(IE),随机将Wistar大鼠分为6组(n=8).CE组大鼠每天游泳1次,90min/次;IE组大鼠每天游泳3次,30 min/次,每隔4h1次;两组每周运动5d,持续8周.重量分析法测定:腹膜后(RET)、附睾(EPI)和内脏(VIS)的白色脂肪组织、棕色脂肪组织(BAT)、肝脏(L)和腓肠肌(GAST).体内脂肪生成率测定:3H20与皂化后脂肪结合计算脂肪生成率.测定血总胆固醇(CHOL)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、甘油三酯(TG)的含量.每天记录体质量和摄食量.结果 间断运动能够改善血脂,减轻增加的体质量、中心性和内脏性肥胖和脂肪肝,能对控制肥胖症和相关并发症包括非酒精性脂肪肝疾病有效;间断运动在减少高脂饮食和久坐状态引起的肥胖和脂肪肝等不良反应方面较连续运动更有效;高脂饮食和不同运动方案对大鼠体质量增加、肥胖症、脂肪肝以及血脂的影响与运动方式、间隔时间、年龄、性别和实验周期有关.结论 间断运动是一种非药物治疗控制肥胖及其他并发症的重要措施.%Objective To examine the effects of continuous and intermittent exercises on obesity and fatty liver in rats fed with high-fat diet. Methods Wistar rats were randomly assigned into routine diet (R) and high-fat diet (H) groups, and each group were subdivided into sedentary group (S), continuous exercise (CE) group, and intermittent exercise (IE) group (n=8). In the CE group, the rats were forced to swim continuously for 90 min once daily, and those in the IE group swam for 30 min for 3 times (at a 4-h interval) daily. Both the CE and IE groups exercised for 5 days a week for 8 consecutive weeks. After the experiment, the retroperitoneal

  4. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan

    2016-01-01

    the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic......PURPOSE: Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while...... low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay...

  5. Unexpected long-term protection of adult offspring born to high-fat fed dams against obesity induced by a sucrose-rich diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet, rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in

  6. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes Leaves in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Liu, Haifeng; Meng, Ning; Li, Bin; Wang, Jule

    2017-03-01

    Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes (MT) leaves are traditionally used as a medicine for treating or preventing cardiovascular disease in Tibet. In addition to the effect of this medicinal plant on thrombosis, we tested its effect on dyslipidemia in a hypolipidemic rat model. A total of 60 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, as follows: normal control, model control, simvastatin groups, and MT low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. The normal controls were fed with a normal diet, whereas all other groups were fed with a high-fat diet. After 6 weeks, the high-fat diet had induced hyperlipidemia in the rats, which were then orally administered with different doses of MT leaf extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for an additional 6 weeks. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and HDL-c, respectively), as well as the antioxidant capacity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHP-x), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured at the end of the study. MT significantly reduced serum TC, TG, and LDL-c and increased the HDL-c content in MT-treated rats compared with the model group. These changes were dose dependent. MT treatment also significantly elevated the activity of SOD and GSHP-x, and decreased the serum levels of MDA compared with untreated hyperlipidemic rats, thereby increasing serum antioxidant capacity. In addition, MT reduced liver steatosis in hyperlipidemic rats. Overall, MT exerts considerable hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties.

  7. Acute and chronic changes in rat soleus muscle after high-fat high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kelsey H; Hart, David A; Smith, Ian C; Issler, Anthony M; Reimer, Raylene A; Seerattan, Ruth A; Rios, Jaqueline L; Herzog, Walter

    2017-05-01

    The effects of obesity on different musculoskeletal tissues are not well understood. The glycolytic quadriceps muscles are compromised with obesity, but due to its high oxidative capacity, the soleus muscle may be protected against obesity-induced muscle damage. To determine the time-course relationship between a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) metabolic challenge and soleus muscle integrity, defined as intramuscular fat invasion, fibrosis and molecular alterations over six time points. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFS diet (n = 64) and killed at serial short-term (3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks, 28 weeks) time points. Chow-fed controls (n = 21) were killed at 4, 12, and 28 weeks. At sacrifice, animals were weighed, body composition was calculated (DXA), and soleus muscles were harvested and flash-frozen. Cytokine and adipokine mRNA levels for soleus muscles were assessed, using RT-qPCR Histological assessment of muscle fibrosis and intramuscular fat was conducted, CD68(+) cell number was determined using immunohistochemistry, and fiber typing was assessed using myosin heavy chain protein analysis. HFS animals demonstrated significant increases in body fat by 1 week, and this increase in body fat was sustained through 28 weeks on the HFS diet. Short-term time-point soleus muscles demonstrated up-regulated mRNA levels for inflammation, atrophy, and oxidative stress molecules. However, intramuscular fat, fibrosis, and CD68(+) cell number were similar to their respective control group at all time points evaluated. Therefore, the oxidative capacity of the soleus may be protective against diet-induced alterations to muscle integrity. Increasing oxidative capacity of muscles using aerobic exercise may be a beneficial strategy for mitigating obesity-induced muscle damage, and its consequences. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  8. Chronic high-fat diet in fathers programs ß-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Sheau-Fang; Lin, Ruby C Y; Laybutt, D Ross

    2010-01-01

    -induced maternal obesity on adiposity and metabolism in offspring are well established, the extent of any contribution of obese fathers is unclear, particularly the role of non-genetic factors in the causal pathway. Here we show that paternal high-fat-diet (HFD) exposure programs ß-cell 'dysfunction' in rat F(1...

  9. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fat diet promotes diethylnitrosamine initiated early hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been suggested that patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at a high risk for liver cancer. However, it is unknown whether high-fat diet induced NASH promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a low dose of hepatic carcinogen die...

  10. Antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Gardenin A in cellular and high fat diet fed rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppo, Erenius; Darvin, S Sylvester; Esakkimuthu, S; Stalin, A; Balakrishna, K; Sivasankaran, K; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2017-05-01

    The gum of Gardenia resinifera Roth., is one of the important drugs used in the Indian system of medicine and a source of unique polymethoxylated flavones. This study was aimed to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic and anti-NAFLD effects of Gardenin A (Gar-A) from G. resinifera gum using in vitro and in vivo models. Gar-A was isolated from G. resinifera gum and was identified on the basis of the physical and spectral data. Toxicity of Gar-A to HepG2 cells was evaluated using MTT assay. The ability of Gar-A to reduce steatosis was assessed using oleate-palmitate induced HepG2 cell lines by estimating the lipid levels by ORO staining and by estimating the intracellular triglyceride content. Effect of Gar-A on amelioration of lipotoxicity was measured by estimating the LDH levels. The doses for in vivo experiments were fixed by Irwin test, between 50 and 100 mg/kg concentrations, through oral route. The acute antihyperlipidemic effect of Gar-A was assessed in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic animals. The chronic antihyperlipidemic and anti-NAFLD effects of Gar-A were evaluated in HFD fed rats. In vitro experiments with HepG2 cell line indicated that the cells treated with Gar-A did not show any significant reduction in the viability up to 70 μg/mL concentration. Steatotic HepG2 cells treated with Gar-A showed a significant reduction in lipid accumulation at 2.5-10 μg/mL concentrations. In triton induced hyperlipidemic rats, the treatment significantly reduced the lipid levels at the synthesis phase. The treatment with Gar-A to the HFD fed animals significantly lowered the steatosis and transaminase levels. The other biochemical parameters such as TC, TG, LDL-c, ALP and ACP were also decreased significantly. Treatment with Gar-A significantly lowered the hyperlipidemia and fat accumulation in the liver; detailed molecular investigations are necessary to establish the antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective potentials of Gar-A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  11. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, Angélique; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel

    2015-10-28

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the effects of high protein intake on the development of fat deposition and partitioning in response to high-fat and/or HS feeding. A total of thirty adult male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the six dietary regimens with low and high protein, sucrose and fat contents for 5 weeks. Body weight (BW) and food intake were measured weekly. Oral glucose tolerance tests and meal tolerance tests were performed after 4th and 5th weeks of the regimen, respectively. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a calibrated meal. Blood, tissues and organs were collected for analysis of circulating metabolites and hormones, body composition and mRNA expression in the liver and adipose tissues. No changes were observed in cumulative energy intake and BW gain after 5 weeks of dietary treatment. However, high-protein diets reduced by 20 % the adiposity gain induced by HS and high-sucrose high-fat (HS-HF) diets. Gene expression and transcriptomic analysis suggested that high protein intake reduced liver capacity for lipogenesis by reducing mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (fasn), acetyl-CoA carboxylase a and b (Acaca and Acacb) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (Srebf-1c). Moreover, ketogenesis, as indicated by plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels, was higher in HS-HF-fed mice that were also fed high protein levels. Taken together, these results suggest that high-protein diets may reduce adiposity by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating ketogenesis in the liver.

  12. Improvement of thoracic aortic vasoreactivity by continuous and intermittent exercise in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Jian; Luo, Yan; Zhu, Lingqin; Yang, Huifang; Li, Guanghua

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise on the thoracic aortic vasoreactivity and free radical metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet (HD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8, each group): Conventional diet (CD), HD, HD with continuous exercise (HCE) and HD with intermittent exercise (HIE). HCE rats swam once/day for 90 min; HIE rats performed swimming exercises 3 times/day, 30 min each time with an interval of 4 h. In these two groups, the exercise was conducted 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the CD and HD groups were fed without swimming training. At the end of the exercise, all the rats were sacrificed and the blood, thoracic aorta and myocardium were collected immediately. The thoracic aortic vasoreactivity, the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression were measured. Compared to the control group, in the HD group the enhanced contractile response of the thoracic aortic rings to noradrenaline (NA) was observed (Pintermittent exercise is better than the continuous exercise in improving the thoracic aorta vasoreactivity.

  13. Effects of Gliadin consumption on the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Andersen, Daniel; Roager, Henrik Munch; Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Kristiansen, Karsten; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria; Sina, Christian; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Brix, Susanne; Hellgren, Lars I.; Licht, Tine Rask

    2017-01-01

    Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed. Mice fed the gliadin-containing HFD displayed higher glycated hemoglobin and higher insulin resistance as evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment, more hepatic lipid accumulation and smaller adipocytes than mice fed the gliadin-free HFD. This was accompanied by alterations in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota, gut barrier function, urine metabolome, and immune phenotypes within liver and adipose tissue. Our results reveal that gliadin disturbs the intestinal environment and affects metabolic homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting a detrimental effect of gluten intake in gluten-tolerant subjects consuming a high-fat diet. PMID:28300220

  14. Quick establishment of ApoE-/- rats atherosclerosis model by high-fat diet combined with balloon injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong YANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To quickly establish the atherosclerosis (AS model in apoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE-/- rats by short-term high-fat diet combined with balloon injury. Methods Eight-week-old male SD and ApoE-/- rats (10 each were used in the experiments. After fed with high-fat diet for 2 weeks, the blood routine, hepatorenal function, blood lipid profile and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured, and then all the left common carotid arteries were processed by balloon injury. After 2 weeks, rats euthanasia were carried out by excessive chloral hydrate, and then the operation side common carotid arteries were stained with HE, Masson trichrome and oil red O. While the common carotid arteries accepted CD68, α-SMA immunofluorescent staining. Results The blood lipid level was significantly higher in ApoE-/- rats than in SD rats [total cholestrol (TC: 18.56±2.82mmol/L vs 5.69±1.98mmol/L, P<0.01; low density lipoprotein (LDL: 6.86±1.47mmol/L vs 1.92±0.76mmol/L, P<0.01]. In the condition of serious blood lipid disorders, the ApoE-/- rats had been in a state of inflammation [CRP: 4.66±0.57mg/L vs 0.39±0.21mg/L, P<0.05; white blood cell: (21.79±5.10×109/L vs (14.82±2.41×109/L, P<0.01; neutrophil: (9.28±3.35×109/L vs (2.10±0.96×109/L, P<0.01]. HE and Masson staining showed that obvious hyperplasia formed and collagen fibers deposited slightly in the two groups. Oil red O staining revealed the obvious hyperplastic plaques in ApoE-/- rats, but a negative result in SD rats. Immunofluorescence staining showed the significant positive CD68 and weak positive α-SMA in the plaque of ApoE-/- rats, while in SD rats the positive α-SMA was pointed out with no CD68 coloration. Conclusion The atherosclerosis model of ApoE-/- rat may be quickly established by short-term high-fat diet combined with balloon injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.12.03

  15. Modulatory effects of Caralluma fimbriata extract against high-fat diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjala, Sudhakara; Putakala, Mallaiah; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bangeppagari, Manjunatha; Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-08-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet. CFE (200mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to each group of standard pellet diet rats and HF-fed rats and Metformin (Met) (20mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to HFD+Met group for 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters related to glycogen content in liver and muscle, and intestinal disaccharidases like maltase, sucrase and lactase were assayed. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphorfructoki nase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), intestinal disaccharidases and glycogen content as observed in the high fat diet-fed rats were prevented with CFE/Met administration. From this study, we observed that CFE/Met could significantly restore the levels of glycogen in liver and muscle and key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism to near normal in groups-HFD+CFE and HFD+Met. The skeletal muscle of HF-diet fed rats showed degenerative changes of muscle myofibers with fat deposition. These changes were attenuated in the HFD group treated with CFE/Met and retained their normal structure appearance. It can be concluded from these results that CFE might be of value in reducing the alterations related to carbohydrate metabolism under high calorie

  16. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, ye...

  17. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amey Holmes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  18. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  19. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber ameliorate obesity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqian; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming

    2012-10-01

    Much attention has been focused on food components that may be beneficial in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) on high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver in mice. C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet, containing 0.03% SSC, or 0.1% SSC for 8 weeks. Both doses of SSC exhibited a weight-loss effect and significantly decreased adipose tissue weight, in both visceral and subcutaneous depots. Furthermore, 0.1% SSC treatment dramatically decreased the hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol accumulation. Mice administrated with 0.1% SSC had significantly decreased serum glucose and insulin levels, lower homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index, and area under the blood glucose curve, suggesting that insulin sensitivity is enhanced by dietary SSC. Dietary SSC also prevented adipokine imbalance, by increasing adiponectin production and decreasing tumor necrosis factor alpha level caused by high-fat diet. Overall, these data demonstrate that SSC could improve certain metabolic parameters associated with obesity.

  20. Exercise restores bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide and promotes autophagy influx in livers of mice fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Zeng, Jing; Gu, Qi

    2017-06-01

    In the gold standard treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), exercise training has been shown to effectively improve nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, limited data are available about the underlying mechanisms involved. This work was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of exercise training on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in mice. Male mice were fed with HFD and given moderate-intensity exercise for 24 weeks. Exercise training lowered mass gain, attenuated systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, and mitigated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in mice fed with HFD. Exercise training improved mitochondrial function and enhanced mitochondrial β-oxidation in livers of HFD-fed mice. Exercise training enhanced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in plasma and livers, and mRNA expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CES), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) in livers of HFD-fed mice. Exercise training had no significant effect on the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, but decreased p62 protein expression in livers of HFD-fed mice. Additionally, exercise training reduced formation of malondialdehyde, enhanced ratio of GSH/GSSG, and down-regulated expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in livers of HFD-fed mice. Exercise training restored bioavailability of H2S and promoted autophagy influx in livers, which might contribute to its benefit on HFD-induced NAFLD.

  1. 游泳运动和二甲双胍对肥胖大鼠chemerin蛋白表达水平的影响%Impact of treatment with swimming exercise and metformin on chemerin protein expression levels in different tissues of high-fat-diet-fed obesity rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 戴武; 王长江; 胡红琳; 代芳; 夏莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of swimming exercise, metformin and the combination of both inter-ventions on chemerin protein expression levels in epididymis adipose tissue ( EAT), subcutaneus adipose tissue ( SAT) and muscle tissue (MT) of obesity rats and to explore the relationship between chemerin and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Methods The 70 male conventional SD rats were divided into control diet group(n=10) and high fat group (n=60). After 16 weeks obesity model(n=40) was established and was randomly divided into four groups:high fat group(HF), swimming group(SWI), metformin group(MET), and the combination of swimming and metformin group(SAM) with 10 rats in each group. Chemerin protein expression levels in EAT, SAT and MT were determined by Western blot. Results ① After 22 weeks high fat diet induced obesity, chemerin protein ex-pression levels of obesity group in EAT, SAT and MT, especially that of EAT increased compared to NC group(P0.05)。结论①正常SD大鼠高脂饲养后可引起肥胖及脂肪和肌肉组织中chemerin蛋白表达增加;②游泳运动和二甲双胍及两者联合干预均可显著降低脂肪组织,尤其是内脏脂肪组织中chemerin蛋白的表达。

  2. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. Objective: This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Methods: Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy–based control diet or that diet containing 3–7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. Results: The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29–42% and affected (P < 0.05–0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. Conclusions: The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue

  3. Weight gain induced by an isocaloric pair-fed high fat diet: a nutriepigenetic study on FASN and NDUFB6 gene promoters.

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    Lomba, Almudena; Martínez, J Alfredo; García-Díaz, Diego F; Paternain, Laura; Marti, Amelia; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that dietary macronutrient distribution plays an important role in insulin regulation, a risk factor associated to obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To assess whether the macronutrient composition of the diet could be related to obesity onset by affecting the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, we investigated in rats the metabolic effects of two pair-fed isocaloric diets: control (rich in carbohydrates) and high fat diet (rich in fat; HFD). Compared to controls, HFD induced higher weight gain and adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance, which was accompanied by a slight increase in adiponectin levels and liver steatosis. Epididymal adipose tissue expression of the fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1β-subcomplex 6 (NDUFB6) were significantly reduced in HFD group. These variations in mRNA levels were accompanied by changes in the methylation patterns of several CpG islands located in the promoter region of these genes. However, no correlations were found between gene expression and the methylation status. These results suggest that high fat intake produces overweighted rats independently of total energy intake. These diets could also induce some epigenetic changes in the promoters of key genes that could influence gene expression and may be behind metabolic alterations.

  4. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

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    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  5. Anti-lipotoxic action of sesamin on renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet%芝麻素对肾性高压伴高脂高糖饮食大鼠的抗脂毒作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴向起; 杨解人

    2012-01-01

    This study is to observe anti-lipotoxic effect of sesamin on renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Thirty-four complex model rats were induced by two-kidney, one-clip method and on high-fat and refined-carbohydrate diet for thirteen weeks. From the fifth week, intragastric administration of sesamin (120, 60 and 30 mg·kg-1·d-1) lasted for eight weeks. Blood pressure (BP), blood fat (BF), blood glucose (BG), free fatty acids (FFA), insulin (Ins), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined. Pathological changes of pancreas, perirenal fat and liver were semiquantitatively analyzed. In sesamin (120 and 60 mg·kg-1·d-1) group, it was found that there were decrease of levels of BP, BF, BG, TNF-α, IL-6 and FFA, improvement of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, alleviation of body weight, humid weight of fat, liver and pancreas and their organ index, and reduction of islet cell hyperplasia and amount of lipid droplet vacuoles in lipocyte and hepatocyte. It is implied that sesamin had anti-lipotoxic effect and its mechanism may be closely associated with the amelioration of insulin resistance via reducing lipidoses in hepatocyte and inflammatory adipokines such as TNF-a and IL-6.%观察芝麻素对肾性高压伴高脂高糖饮食大鼠的抗脂毒作用.两肾一夹术和高脂高糖饮食13周诱导复合模型大鼠34只,于第5周开始连续灌胃给予芝麻素(120、60及30 mg·kg-1·d-1)8周.测定血压、血脂、血糖、游离脂肪酸、胰岛素、TNF-α和IL-6水平;半定量分析胰腺、肾周脂肪、肝脏病理学改变.结果发现,芝麻素(120及60 mg.kg-1·d-1)能降低模型大鼠血压、血脂、血糖、TNF-α、IL-6和FFA水平;改善胰岛素抵抗和糖耐量异常;减轻体重、内脏脂肪、胰腺和肝脏湿重及其脏器指数;减少胰岛细胞增生和脂肪及肝脏细胞中脂滴空泡的数目.提示芝麻素具有抗脂毒作用,其机制可能与肝细

  6. Centrally administered urocortin 2 decreases gorging on high-fat diet in both diet-induced obesity-prone and -resistant rats.

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    Cottone, P; Sabino, V; Nagy, T R; Coscina, D V; Levin, B E; Zorrilla, E P

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a costly, deadly public health problem for which new treatments are needed. Individual differences in meal pattern have been proposed to have a role in obesity risk. The present study tested the hypothesis that (i) the microstructure of chronic high-fat diet intake differs between genetically selected diet-induced obesity (DIO) and diet-resistant (DR) rats, and (ii) central administration of urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 agonist, decreases high-fat diet intake not only in lean DR rats, but also in obese DIO rats. Male, selectively bred DIO and DR rats (n=10/genotype) were chronically fed a high-fat diet. Food and water intake as well as ingestion microstructure were then compared under baseline conditions and following third intracerebroventricular injection of Ucn 2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 μg). Irrespective of genotype, Ucn 2 reduced nocturnal food intake with a minimum effective dose of 0.3 μg, suppressing high-fat diet intake by ∼40% at the 3 μg dose. Ucn 2 also made rats of both genotypes eat smaller and briefer meals, including at doses that did not reduce drinking. Obese DIO rats ate fewer but larger meals than DR rats, which they ate more quickly and consumed with two-third less water. Unlike leptin and insulin, Ucn 2 retains its full central anorectic efficacy to reduce high-fat diet intake even in obese, genetically prone DIO rats, which otherwise show a 'gorging' meal pattern. These results open new opportunities of investigation toward treating some forms of DIO.

  7. Centrally administered urocortin 2 decreases gorging on high-fat diet in in both diet induced obesity-prone and -resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina; Nagy, Tim R.; Coscina, Donald V.; Levin, Barry E.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a costly, deadly public health problem for which new treatments are needed. Individual differences in meal pattern have been proposed to play a role in obesity risk. The present study tested the hypothesis that i) the microstructure of chronic high-fat diet intake differs between genetically selected Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) and Diet Resistant (DR) rats, and ii) central administration of urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) agonist, decreases high-fat diet intake not only in lean DR rats, but also in obese DIO rats. Design Male, selectively bred DIO and DR rats (n=10/genotype) were chronically fed a high-fat diet. Food and water intake as well as ingestion microstructure were then compared under baseline conditions and following third intracerebroventricular injection of Ucn 2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 µg). Results Irrespective of genotype, Ucn 2 reduced nocturnal food intake with a minimum effective dose of 0.3 µg, suppressing high-fat diet intake by ~40% at the 3 µg dose. Ucn 2 also made rats of both genotypes eat smaller and briefer meals, including at doses that did not reduce drinking. Obese DIO rats ate fewer but larger meals than DR rats, which they ate more quickly and consumed with 2/3rd less water. Conclusions Unlike leptin and insulin, Ucn 2 retains its full central anorectic efficacy to reduce high-fat diet intake even in obese, genetically-prone DIO rats, which otherwise show a “gorging” meal pattern. These results open new opportunities of investigation towards treating some forms of diet-induced obesity. PMID:23478425

  8. Propensity to high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats is associated with changes in the gut microbiota and gut inflammation.

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    de La Serre, Claire Barbier; Ellis, Collin L; Lee, Jennifer; Hartman, Amber L; Rutledge, John C; Raybould, Helen E

    2010-08-01

    Consumption of diets high in fat and calories leads to hyperphagia and obesity, which is associated with chronic "low-grade" systemic inflammation. Ingestion of a high-fat diet alters the gut microbiota, pointing to a possible role in the development of obesity. The present study used Sprague-Dawley rats that, when fed a high-fat diet, exhibit either an obesity-prone (DIO-P) or obesity-resistant (DIO-R) phenotype, to determine whether changes in gut epithelial function and microbiota are diet or obese associated. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily in rats maintained on either low- or high-fat diets. After 8 or 12 wk, tissue was removed to determine adiposity and gut epithelial function and to analyze the gut microbiota using PCR. DIO-P but not DIO-R rats exhibit an increase in toll-like receptor (TLR4) activation associated with ileal inflammation and a decrease in intestinal alkaline phosphatase, a luminal enzyme that detoxifies lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Intestinal permeability and plasma LPS were increased together with phosphorylation of myosin light chain and localization of occludin in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Measurement of bacterial 16S rRNA showed a decrease in total bacterial density and an increase in the relative proportion of Bacteroidales and Clostridiales orders in high-fat-fed rats regardless of phenotype; an increase in Enterobacteriales was seen in the microbiota of DIO-P rats only. Consumption of a high-fat diet induces changes in the gut microbiota, but it is the development of inflammation that is associated with the appearance of hyperphagia and an obese phenotype.

  9. High fat diet and inflammation - modulation of Haptoglobin level in rat brain

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    Maria Stefania eSpagnuolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dietary fats are well known risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of specific markers, whose brain level can be affected by diet, might contribute to unveil the intersection between inflammation/obesity and neurodegeneration. Haptoglobin (Hpt is an acute phase protein, which acts as antioxidant by binding free Haemoglobin (Hb, thus neutralizing its pro-oxidative action. We previously demonstrated that Hpt plays critical functions in brain, modulating cholesterol trafficking in neuroblastoma cell lines, beta-amyloid (Aβ uptake by astrocyte, and limiting Aβ toxicity on these cells. A major aim of this study was to evaluate whether a long term (12 or 24 weeks high-fat diet (HFD influences Hpt and Hb expression in rat hippocampus. We also assessed the development of obesity-induced inflammation by measuring hippocampal level of TNF-alpha, and the extent of protein oxidation by titrating nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr. Hpt concentration was lower (p<0.001 in hippocampus of HFD rats than in control animals, both in the 12 and in the 24 weeks fed groups. HFD was also associated in hippocampus with the increase of Hb level (p<0.01, inflammation and protein oxidative modification, as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of TNF-alpha and nitro-tyrosine. In fact, TNF-alpha concentration was higher in rats receiving HFD for 12 (p<0.01 or 24 weeks (p<0.001 compared to those receiving the control diet. N-Tyr concentration was more elevated in hippocampus of HFD than in control rats in both 12 weeks (p=0.04 and 24 weeks groups (p=0.01, and a positive correlation between Hb and N-Tyr concentration was found in each group. Finally, we found that the treatment of the human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line U-87 MG with cholesterol and fatty acids, such as palmitic and linoleic acid, significantly impairs (p<0.001 Hpt secretion in the extracellular compartment.We hypothesize that the HFD-dependent decrease of

  10. Hemin Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Yi Luan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions. Furthermore, hemin diminishes the accumulation of triglyceride and increases in free fatty acid content in primary hepatocytes induced by palmitate. Oral administration of hemin decreases body weight, energy intake, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and improves insulin and glucose tolerance as well as hepatic insulin signaling and hepatic steatosis in male mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, hemin treatment decreases the mRNA and protein levels of some hepatic genes involved in lipogenic regulation, fatty acid synthesis and storage, and increases the mRNA level and enzyme activity of CPT1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These data demonstrate that hemin can improve lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both cultured hepatocytes and mice fed a high-fat diet, and show the potential beneficial effects of hemin from food on lipid and glucose metabolism.

  11. Quercetin improves macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Cui, Yingjie; Hou, Pengbo; Li, Fahui; Liu, Qinghua; Qin, Shucun; Zhou, Guanghai; Xu, Xuelian; Si, Yanhong; Guo, Shoudong

    2017-01-14

    Quercetin, one of the most widely distributed flavonoids in plants, has been demonstrated to reduce hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) plays a crucial role in exporting cholesterol from peripheral cells, which is one mechanism utilized in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether quercetin reduces lipid accumulation by improving RCT in vivo. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were used to investigate the effect of quercetin on RCT by an isotope tracing method, and the underlying mechanisms were clarified by molecular techniques. These novel results demonstrated that quercetin significantly improved [(3)H]-cholesterol transfer from [(3)H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages to the plasma (approximately 34% increase), liver (30% increase), and bile (50% increase) and finally to the feces (approximately 40% increase) for excretion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, quercetin markedly increased the cholesterol accepting ability of plasma and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dramatically decreased the content of malondialdehyde in plasma and oxidized phosphocholine carried by HDL. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms of quercetin in improving RCT may be partially due to the elevated cholesterol accepting ability of HDL, the increased expression levels of proteins related to RCT, such as ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) A1 and G1, and the improved antioxidant activity of HDL. Quercetin accelerates RCT in an atherosclerosis model, which is helpful in clarifying the lipid-lowering effect of quercetin.

  12. Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis and endothelial vascular function in high-fat diet-fed insulin-resistant mice.

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    Sartori, Claudio; Dessen, Pierre; Mathieu, Caroline; Monney, Anita; Bloch, Jonathan; Nicod, Pascal; Scherrer, Urs; Duplain, Hervé

    2009-12-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance represent a problem of utmost clinical significance worldwide. Insulin-resistant states are characterized by the inability of insulin to induce proper signal transduction leading to defective glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue and impaired insulin-induced vasodilation. In various pathophysiological models, melatonin interacts with crucial molecules of the insulin signaling pathway, but its effects on glucose homeostasis are not known. In a diet-induced mouse model of insulin resistance and normal chow-fed control mice, we sought to assess the effects of an 8-wk oral treatment with melatonin on insulin and glucose tolerance and to understand underlying mechanisms. In high-fat diet-fed mice, but not in normal chow-fed control mice, melatonin significantly improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, as evidenced by a higher rate of glucose infusion to maintain euglycemia during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies and an attenuated hyperglycemic response to an ip glucose challenge. Regarding underlying mechanisms, we found that melatonin restored insulin-induced vasodilation to skeletal muscle, a major site of glucose utilization. This was due, at least in part, to the improvement of insulin signal transduction in the vasculature, as evidenced by increased insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and endoethelial nitric oxide synthase in aortas harvested from melatonin-treated high-fat diet-fed mice. In contrast, melatonin had no effect on the ability of insulin to promote glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue in vitro. These data demonstrate for the first time that in a diet-induced rodent model of insulin resistance, melatonin improves glucose homeostasis by restoring the vascular action of insulin.

  13. Effect of Herbal Acupuncture with Sang-hwang(Phellinus linteus on High Fat Diet-induced Obesity in Rats

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    Ji Hyun Kim

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has fairly good weight-reducing effect in treating simple obesity due to the neuroendocrine regulation. In this study, the anti-obesity effects of herbal acupuncture (HA with Sang-hwang (Phellinus linteus at Fuai (SP16 were investigated in the rat fed on high-fat (HF diet. Sang-hwang mushroom has been proven to have anti-carcinogenic effects and Sang-hwang extracts are highly effective in treatment and preventive treatment of AIDS, diabetes and high blood-pressure. To determine whether the Sang-hwang herbal acupuncture may have the anti-obesity effect, male Sprague-Dawley (4-wk-old rats were fed a HF diet for 5 wk, which produced significant weight gain compared to rats were fed a normal diet, and then herbal acupuncture were treated for 3 wk in HF diet group. The body weight, food consumption, food effeciency ratio (FER, body fat mass, plasma nitric oxide (NO were investigated in rats fed on normal diet, HF diet, and HF diet with HA (HF-diet-HA groups. NO has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of food intake. In addition, the expression of appetite peptides such as orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY and the anorectic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK were observed in the hypothalamus. HF-HA group reduced body weight gain, FER, body fat contents and NO concentration compared to HF diet group. The expression of NPY was reduced in arcuate nucleus (ARC, and CCK was increased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN after treatment of HA. In conclusion, Sang-hwang HA reduced adipocity, plasma NO and hypothalamic NPY, but increased CCK expression in the HF diet-induced obesity rat, therefore HA may have anti-obesity action through regulating body weight and appetite peptide of the central nervous system.

  14. Trace glucose and lipid metabolism in high androgen and high-fat diet induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats

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    Zhai Hua-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different metabolic pathways in the development of diabetes mellitus in high-androgen female mice fed with a high-fat diet. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group(C, n = 10; the andronate-treated group (Andronate, n = 10 (treated with andronate, 1 mg/100 g body weight/day for 8 weeks; and the andronate-treated and high-fat diet group (Andronate+HFD, n = 10. The rate of glucose appearance (Ra of glucose, gluconeogenesis (GNG, and the rate of glycerol appearance (Ra of glycerol were assessed with a stable isotope tracer. The serum sex hormone levels, insulin levels, glucose concentration, and the lipid profile were also measured. Results Compared with control group, both andronate-treated groups exhibited obesity with higher insulin concentrations (P P Conclusions Andronate with HFD rat model showed ovarian and metabolic features of PCOS, significant increase in glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid profiles, as well as normal blood glucose levels. Therefore, aberrant IR, increased glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid metabolism may represent the early-stage of glucose and lipid kinetics disorder, thereby might be used as potential early-stage treatment targets for PCOS.

  15. DHEA supplementation in ovariectomized rats reduces impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion induced by a high-fat diet

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    Katherine Veras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S are steroids produced mainly by the adrenal cortex. There is evidence from both human and animal models suggesting beneficial effects of these steroids for obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and osteoporosis, conditions associated with the post-menopausal period. Accordingly, we hypothesized that DHEA supplementation in ovariectomized (OVX female rats fed a high-fat diet would maintain glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS and pancreatic islet function. OVX resulted in a 30% enlargement of the pancreatic islets area compared to the control rats, which was accompanied by a 50% reduction in the phosphorylation of AKT protein in the pancreatic islets. However, a short-term high-fat diet induced insulin resistance, accompanied by impaired GSIS in isolated pancreatic islets. These effects were reversed by DHEA treatment, with improved insulin sensitivity to levels similar to the control group, and with increased serine phosphorylation of the AKT protein. These data confirm the protective effect of DHEA on the endocrine pancreas in a situation of diet-induced overweight and low estrogen concentrations, a phenotype similar to that of the post-menopausal period.

  16. Fgf21 impairs adipocyte insulin sensitivity in mice fed a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet.

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    Yusuke Murata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (KD induces hepatic ketogenesis and is believed to affect energy metabolism in mice. As hepatic Fgf21 expression was markedly induced in mice fed KD, we examined the effects of KD feeding on metabolism and the roles of Fgf21 in metabolism in mice fed KD using Fgf21 knockout mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined C57BL/6 mice fed KD for 6 or 14 days. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels were greatly increased at 6 days, indicating that hepatic ketogenesis was induced effectively by KD feeding for 6 days. KD feeding for 6 and 14 days impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, although it did not affect body weight, blood NEFA, and triglyceride levels. Hepatic Fgf21 expression and blood Fgf21 levels were markedly increased in mice fed KD for 6 days. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the knockout mice fed KD for 6 days were comparable to those in wild-type mice fed KD, indicating that Fgf21 is not required for ketogenesis. However, the impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity caused by KD feeding were improved in the knockout mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was significantly decreased in the white adipose tissue in wild-type mice fed KD compared with those fed normal chow, but not in the muscle and liver. Its phosphorylation in the white adipose tissue was significantly increased in the knockout mice fed KD compared with wild-type mice fed KD. In contrast, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression in Fgf21 knockout mice fed KD was comparable to those in the wild-type mice fed KD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings indicate that KD feeding impairs insulin sensitivity in mice due to insulin resistance in white adipose tissue. In addition, our findings indicate that Fgf21 induced to express by KD is a negative regulator of adipocyte insulin sensitivity in adaptation to a low-carbohydrate malnutritional state.

  17. Heterozygous SOD2 deletion impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but not insulin action, in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li; Dai, Chunhua; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; Mayes, Wesley H; Mokshagundam, Shilpa; James, Freyja D; Thompson, Courtney S; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G R; Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H; Powers, Alvin C

    2014-11-01

    Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are linked to insulin resistance and islet dysfunction. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a primary defense against mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis that heterozygous SOD2 deletion impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin action, wild-type (sod2(+/+)) and heterozygous knockout mice (sod2(+/-)) were fed a chow or high-fat (HF) diet, which accelerates ROS production. Hyperglycemic (HG) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI) clamps were performed to assess GSIS and insulin action in vivo. GSIS during HG clamps was equal in chow-fed sod2(+/-) and sod2(+/+) but was markedly decreased in HF-fed sod2(+/-). Remarkably, this impairment was not paralleled by reduced HG glucose infusion rate (GIR). Decreased GSIS in HF-fed sod2(+/-) was associated with increased ROS, such as superoxide ion. Surprisingly, insulin action determined by HI clamps did not differ between sod2(+/-) and sod2(+/+) of either diet. Since insulin action was unaffected, we hypothesized that the unchanged HG GIR in HF-fed sod2(+/-) was due to increased glucose effectiveness. Increased GLUT-1, hexokinase II, and phospho-AMPK protein in muscle of HF-fed sod2(+/-) support this hypothesis. We conclude that heterozygous SOD2 deletion in mice, a model that mimics SOD2 changes observed in diabetic humans, impairs GSIS in HF-fed mice without affecting insulin action. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. [Anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar in rats subjected to a high fat diet].

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    Bouderbala, H; Kaddouri, H; Kheroua, O; Saidi, D

    2016-06-01

    The search of new anti-obesogenic treatments based on medicinal plants without or with minimal side effects is a challenge. In this context, the present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) in Wistar rats subjected to a high fat diet. Eighteen male Wistar rats (140±5g) were divided into 3 three equal groups. A witness group submitted to standard laboratory diet and two groups subjected to a high fat diet (cafeteria diet); one receives a daily gavage of apple cider vinegar (7mL/kg/d) for 30 days. Throughout the experiment monitoring the nutritional assessment, anthropometric and biochemical parameters is achieved. In the RCV vs RC group, we observed a highly significant decrease (Pdiet (cafeteria) are thwarted by taking apple cider vinegar which proves to have a satiating effect, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects, and seems prevent the atherogenic risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Decrease of Obesity by Allantoin via Imidazoline I1-Receptor Activation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

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    Hsien-Hui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of the imidazoline I1-receptor (I1R is known to regulate appetite. Allantoin, an active ingredient in the yam, has been reported to improve lipid metabolism in high fat diet- (HFD-fed mice. However, the effect of allantoin on obesity remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of allantoin on HFD-induced obesity. The chronic administration of allantoin to HFD-fed mice for 8 weeks significantly decreased their body weight, and this effect was reversed by efaroxan at a dose sufficient to block I1R. The epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT cell size and weight in HFD-fed mice were also decreased by allantoin via the activation of I1R. In addition, allantoin significantly decreased the energy intake of HFD-fed mice, and this reduction was associated with a decrease in the NPY levels in the brain. However, no inhibitory effect of allantoin on energy intake was observed in db/db mice. Moreover, allantoin lowered HFD-induced hyperleptinemia, and this activity was abolished by I1R blockade with efaroxan. Taken together, these data suggest that allantoin can ameliorate energy intake and eWAT accumulation by activating I1R to improve HFD-induced obesity.

  20. Mycophenolate mofetil prevents high-fat diet-induced hypertension and renal glomerular injury in Dahl SS rats.

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    Spradley, Frank T; De Miguel, Carmen; Hobbs, Janet; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2013-11-01

    We designed experiments to test the hypothesis that Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats are sensitive to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertension and renal injury via an inflammatory mechanism. Twelve-week-old Dahl SS rats were maintained on a normal diet (ND; 14% fat), HFD (59% fat), or HFD supplemented with the lymphocyte immunosuppressive agent, mycophenolate mofetil (HFD + MMF; 30 mg/kg/day orally in diet), for a period of 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), metabolic parameters, T lymphocyte (CD3(+)) localization, and renal structural damage were assessed during the studies. Four weeks of HFD significantly elevated MAP and visceral adiposity without changing circulating levels of lipids or adipokines. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that SS rats on HFD had significantly greater numbers of CD3(+) cells in renal glomerular and medullary areas compared to ND SS rats. Additionally, HFD led to increased glomerular injury, but did not alter renal medullary injury. Chronic MMF treatment in HFD-fed Dahl SS rats reduced MAP, visceral adiposity, infiltration of CD3(+) cells in the glomerulus, as well as glomerular injury. However, MMF treatment did not alter HFD-induced infiltration of CD3(+) cells in the renal medulla. In conclusion, Dahl SS rats are sensitized to HFD-induced hypertension and renal glomerular injury via infiltration of T lymphocytes.

  1. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  2. Cymene and Metformin treatment effect on biochemical parameters of male NMRI mice fed with high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Peyman; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is considered a serious global health threat. Mainly due to change of diet and reduced physical activity, obesity is an important risk factor for chronic diseases. A higher level of cytokines and a general inflammatory state has also been associated with this condition. With this regard, potential anti-obesity compounds with anti-inflammatory properties could be beneficial in better control of the disease. p-Cymene is a natural aromatic compound that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, while the antidiabetic drug metformin has been observed to be effective as an aid for weight loss. In this study, the effect of these comounds was compared in a high fat diet treated mice model. 48 adult NMRI mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group receiving a normal diet, high fat diet (HFD) fed control group, sham group receiving HFD and sunflower seed oil, Experimental group1 (E1) receiving HFD and 20 mg/kg metformin, Experimental group2 (E2) receiving 20 mg/kg metformin and 20 mg/kg p-cymene, Experimental group3 (E3) receiving 20 mg/kg p-cymene. Compounds were administered by intragastric gavage for 45 days. Non-fasting glucose serum levels, ALT, and ALP of E2 and E3 decreased significantly compared to HFD control group. In the E3 group, AST levels decrease was also significant. In E1, non-fasting glucose and TG serum levels decreased significantly compared to HFD control group. Histological observations on liver tissue showed an increase of lipid droplets in the HFD control group compared with the normal group, while upon treatment with the compounds, lipid droplets decreased and the cells appeared to be more ordered. p-Cymene has a potential to ameliorate biochemical parameters in high fat diet treated mice, and its concurrent use with metformin was effective.

  3. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  4. Interaction between maternal and offspring diet to impair vascular function and oxidative balance in high fat fed male mice.

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    Christopher Torrens

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the impact of maternal and post-weaning consumption of a high fat diet on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and redox regulation in adult male mouse offspring. METHODS: Female C57BL6J mice were fed an obesogenic high fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat or standard chow (C, 21% kcal fat pre-conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, male offspring were continued on the same diet as their mothers or placed on the alternative diet to give 4 dietary groups (C/C, HF/C, C/HF and HF/HF which were studied at 15 or 30 weeks of age. RESULTS: There were significant effects of maternal diet on offspring body weight (p<0.004, systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026 and endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh (p = 0.004 and NO production (p = 0.005 measured in the femoral artery. With control for maternal diet there was also an effect of offspring post-weaning dietary fat to increase systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001 and reduce endothelium-dependent relaxation (p = 0.022 and ACh-mediated NO production (p = 0.007. There was also a significant impact of age (p<0.005. Redox balance was perturbed, with altered regulation of vascular enzymes involved in ROS/NO signalling. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal consumption of a HF diet is associated with changes in vascular function and oxidative balance in the offspring of similar magnitude to those seen with consumption of a high fat diet post-weaning. Further, this disadvantageous vascular phenotype is exacerbated by age to influence the risk of developing obesity, raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in adult life.

  5. Adipose tissue biglycan as a potential anti-inflammatory target of sodium salicylate in mice fed a high fat diet

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    Adapala Venkata J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation in adipose tissue (AT during obesity causes impaired AT function. Although multiple extracellular matrix (ECM proteins are expressed in AT their potential role in adipose tissue inflammation is unclear. Biglycan, a pro-inflammatory ECM gene, is highly enriched in adipose tissue. However, whether it is correlated with adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We provide evidence in support of a strong association between biglycan expression and inflammatory status of adipose tissue. Methods C57BL6 mice were fed either a control (10% fat calories or a high fat diet (HFD (60% fat calories for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue was analyzed for the expression of biglycan, IL-6 and TNFα. Biglycan knockout or wild type were also fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks and the expression of inflammatory genes in the mesenteric adipose tissue was examined. To test anti-inflammatory treatment on biglycan expression, a group of mice were fed either the low fat or high fat diet for eight weeks supplemented with either saline or sodium salicylate @ 25mg/100ml in their drinking water. Results Mice on HFD had an increase in ECM genes (BGN and COL1A1, inflammatory genes (IL-6 and TNFα in both the subcutaneous and epididymal depots. However, correlation analysis only shows a positive correlation between biglycan, IL-6 and TNFα expression. In addition, lower expression of IL-6 and CD68 was found in the mesenteric adipose tissue of biglycan knockout mice compared to the wild type. Sodium salicylate treatment reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of BGN, COL1A1, and COL6A1 and a concurrent downregulation of TNFα and IL-6 and TLR4 expression. Salicylate also lowered the serum TGFβ1 levels. Conclusion Biglycan expression correlates with adipose tissue inflammation, especially in the subcutaneous depot compared to the epididymal depot. This is supported by the greater effect of sodium salicylate in attenuating both inflammatory and ECM gene

  6. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-03-17

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  7. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain K21 on High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice

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    Chien-Chen Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of specific probiotics on alleviating obesity-related disorders. Here we aimed to identify probiotics with potential antiobesity activity among 88 lactic acid bacterial strains via in vitro screening assays, and a Lactobacillus plantarum strain K21 was found to harbor abilities required for hydrolyzing bile salt, reducing cholesterol, and inhibiting the accumulation of lipid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, effects of K21 on diet-induced obese (DIO mice were examined. Male C57Bl/6J mice received a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, or HFD with K21 administration (109 CFU in 0.2 mL PBS/day for eight weeks. Supplementation of K21, but not placebo, appeared to alleviate body weight gain and epididymal fat mass accumulation, reduce plasma leptin levels, decrease cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and mitigate liver damage in DIO mice. Moreover, the hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ related to adipogenesis was significantly downregulated in DIO mice by K21 intervention. We also found that K21 supplementation strengthens intestinal permeability and modulates the amount of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Clostridium perfringens in the cecal contents of DIO mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that dietary intake of K21 protects against the onset of HFD-induced obesity through multiple mechanisms of action.

  8. Evaluation of anti-obesity activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata bark on high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Ganjayi, Muniswamy; Banavathy, Kruthika S; Parim, Brahma Naidu; Meriga, Balaji

    2015-03-24

    The prevalence and severity of obesity and associated co-morbidities are rapidly increasing across the world. Natural products-based drug intervention has been proposed as one of the crucial strategies for management of obesity ailments. This study was designed to investigate the anti-obesity activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (TPEE) on high fat diet-induced obese rats. LC-MS/MS analysis was done for ethanolic extract of T. paniculata bark. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups of six each, normal diet fed (NC), high fat diet-fed (HFD), HFD+ orlistat (standard drug control) administered, and remaining three groups were fed with HFD + TPEE in different doses (100,150 and 200 mg/kg b. wt). For induction of obesity rats were initially fed with HFD for 9 weeks, then, (TPEE) was supplemented along with HFD for 42 days. Changes in body weight, body composition, blood glucose, insulin, tissue and serum lipid profiles, atherogenic index, liver markers, and expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as leptin, adiponectin, FAS, PPARgamma, AMPK-1alpha and SREBP-1c, were studied in experimental rats. Also, histopathological examination of adipose tissue was carried out. Supplementation of TPEE reduced significantly (P obesity activities of TPEE promoting it as a formidable candidate to develop anti obesity drug.

  9. Pollock oil supplementation modulates hyperlipidemia and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet

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    Hatanaka Akimasa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperlipidemia associated with obesity is closely related to the development of atherosclerosis. Both n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs; i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers supplementation modulate risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the restoration of impaired lipid metabolism. We therefore examined the effects of pollock oil, which contains a considerable amount of n-3 PUFAs as well as long-chain MUFAs, on plasma hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice (24-26 g were divided into two groups (n = 10/group and were fed a high-fat diet containing 32% lard (control group or 17% lard plus 15% pollock oil (experimental group for 6 weeks. For both groups, fat comprised 60% of the total caloric intake. Results Although body and liver masses for the two groups did not differ significantly, hepatic lipids concentrations (triglycerides and total cholesterols were lower (P P P P SREBP2, HMGCR, and ApoB and lipogenesis (SREPB1c, SCD-1, FAS, and Acacα was suppressed in the experimental group, and may have favorably affected hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by the high-fat diet. Conclusions We demonstrated that pollock oil supplementation effectively improved hyperlipidemia, attenuated hepatic steatosis, and downregulated the express of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice with diet-induced obesity.

  10. Capric Acid Reduces Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-hua LIU; Yong ZHANG; Qing XU; Xin-sheng ZHANG; Jin WANG; Xiao-ming YU; Xue-yan YANG; Chang-yong XUE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the body weight reducing effect of two medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), capric acid and caprylic acid, and the potential underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet.Methods Obese C57BL/6J mice were developed on a high-fat diet containing 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), 2% capric acid (C10:0), or 2% oleic acid (C18:1). Body weight and diet intake were monitored twice a week. After 8 weeks of feeding, body fat composition and the protein or mRNA expression of lipolysis-related genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed.Results In the capric acid group, significant reductions were observed in body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, and epididymal adipose tissue weight, while increased levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) were found in the adipose tissue, compared to the oleic acid group. No significant differences in these parameters were found between caprylic acid and oleic acid groups.Conclusion Capric acid, but not caprylic acid, is effective in reducing body weight in obese C57BL/6J mice,possibly due to up-regulation of β3-AR, ATGL, and HSL in WAT.

  11. High-fat diet reprograms the epigenome of rat spermatozoa and transgenerationally affects metabolism of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Ingerslev, Lars R; Alm, Petter S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic and high consumption of fat constitutes an environmental stress that leads to metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally remodels the epigenome of spermatozoa and metabolism of the offspring. METHODS: F0-male rats fed either HFD or chow diet...... into mechanisms by which HFD transgenerationally reprograms the epigenome of sperm cells, thereby affecting metabolic tissues of offspring throughout two generations.......1 male offspring showed common DNA methylation and small non-coding RNA expression signatures. Altered expression of sperm miRNA let-7c was passed down to metabolic tissues of the offspring, inducing a transcriptomic shift of the let-7c predicted targets. CONCLUSION: Our results provide insight...

  12. Capsaicin-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus and alterations in gut microbial count in high fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboota, Ritesh K; Murtaza, Nida; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Karmase, Aniket; Kaur, Jaspreet; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is a global health problem and recently it has been seen as a growing concern for developing countries. Several bioactive dietary molecules have been associated with amelioration of obesity and associated complications and capsaicin is one among them. The present work is an attempt to understand and provide evidence for the novel mechanisms of anti-obesity activity of capsaicin in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Swiss albino mice divided in three groups (n=8-10) i.e. control, HFD fed and capsaicin (2mg/kg, po)+HFD fed were administered respective treatment for 3months. After measuring phenotypic and serum related biochemical changes, effect of capsaicin on HFD-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT) (visceral and subcutaneous), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and gut microbial alterations was studied and quantified. Our results suggest that, in addition to its well-known effects, oral administration of capsaicin (a) modulates hypothalamic satiety associated genotype, (b) alters gut microbial composition, (c) induces "browning" genotype (BAT associated genes) in subcutaneous WAT and (d) increases expression of thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in BAT. The present study provides evidence for novel and interesting mechanisms to explain the anti-obesity effect of capsaicin.

  13. Chronic NaHS Treatment Is Vasoprotective in High-Fat-Fed ApoE−/− Mice

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    Asha Ford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide is emerging as an important mediator of vascular function that has antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous H2S and the effect of chronic exogenous H2S treatment on vascular function during the progression of atherosclerotic disease. ApoE−/− mice were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks and treated with the H2S donor NaHS or the cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE inhibitor D,L-propargylglycine (PPG, to inhibit endogenous H2S production for the final 4 weeks. Fat-fed ApoE−/− mice displayed significant aortic atherosclerotic lesions and significantly impaired endothelial function compared to wild-type mice. Importantly, 4 weeks of NaHS treatment significantly reduced vascular dysfunction and inhibited vascular superoxide generation. NaHS treatment significantly reduced the area of aortic atherosclerotic lesions and attenuated systolic blood pressure. Interestingly, inhibiting endogenous, CSE-dependent H2S production with PPG did not exacerbate the deleterious vascular changes seen in the untreated fat-fed ApoE−/− mice. The results indicate NaHS can improve vascular function by reducing vascular superoxide generation and impairing atherosclerotic lesion development. Endogenous H2S production via CSE is insufficient to counter the atherogenic effects seen in this model; however exogenous H2S treatment has a significant vasoprotective effect.

  14. Liver glycogen reduces food intake and attenuates obesity in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Zafra, Delia; Duran, Jordi; Adrover, Anna; Calbó, Joaquim; Guinovart, Joan J

    2015-03-01

    We generated mice that overexpress protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) in the liver (PTG(OE)), which results in an increase in liver glycogen. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), these animals reduced their food intake. The resulting effect was a lower body weight, decreased fat mass, and reduced leptin levels. Furthermore, PTG overexpression reversed the glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia caused by the HFD and protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Of note, when fed an HFD, PTG(OE) mice did not show the decrease in hepatic ATP content observed in control animals and had lower expression of neuropeptide Y and higher expression of proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus. Additionally, after an overnight fast, PTG(OE) animals presented high liver glycogen content, lower liver triacylglycerol content, and lower serum concentrations of fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate than control mice, regardless of whether they were fed an HFD or a standard diet. In conclusion, liver glycogen accumulation caused a reduced food intake, protected against the deleterious effects of an HFD, and diminished the metabolic impact of fasting. Therefore, we propose that hepatic glycogen content be considered a potential target for the pharmacological manipulation of diabetes and obesity. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Defective adipose tissue development associated with hepatomegaly in cathepsin E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Kido, Mizuho A; Hatakeyama, Junko; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-03-28

    Cathepsin E is an intracellular aspartic proteinase, which is predominantly distributed in immune-related and epithelial cells. However, the role of the enzyme in adipose tissues remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cathepsin E-deficient (CatE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a mouse model of obesity. HFD-fed CatE(-/-) mice displayed reduced body weight gain and defective development of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), compared with HFD-fed wild-type mice. Moreover, fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice showed abnormal lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues characterized by hepatomegaly, which is probably due to defective adipose tissue development. Detailed pathological and biochemical analyses showed that hepatomegaly was accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice. In fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice, the number of macrophages infiltrating into WAT was significantly lower than in fat-induced wild-type mice. Thus, the impaired adipose tissue development in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice was probably due to reduced infiltration of macrophages and may lead to hepatomegaly accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia.

  16. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS. PMID:26134356

  17. Enhanced mitochondrial superoxide scavenging does not improve muscle insulin action in the high fat-fed mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Daniel S; Kang, Li; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; James, Freyja D; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H

    2015-01-01

    Improving mitochondrial oxidant scavenging may be a viable strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes. Mice overexpressing the mitochondrial matrix isoform of superoxide dismutase (sod2(tg) mice) and/or transgenically expressing catalase within the mitochondrial matrix (mcat(tg) mice) have increased scavenging of O2(˙-) and H2O2, respectively. Furthermore, muscle insulin action is partially preserved in high fat (HF)-fed mcat(tg) mice. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that increased O2(˙-) scavenging alone or in combination with increased H2O2 scavenging (mtAO mice) enhances in vivo muscle insulin action in the HF-fed mouse. Insulin action was examined in conscious, unrestrained and unstressed wild type (WT), sod2(tg), mcat(tg) and mtAO mice using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (insulin clamps) combined with radioactive glucose tracers following sixteen weeks of normal chow or HF (60% calories from fat) feeding. Glucose infusion rates, whole body glucose disappearance, and muscle glucose uptake during the insulin clamp were similar in chow- and HF-fed WT and sod2(tg) mice. Consistent with our previous work, HF-fed mcat(tg) mice had improved muscle insulin action, however, an additive effect was not seen in mtAO mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in muscle from clamped mice was consistent with glucose flux measurements. These results demonstrate that increased O2(˙-) scavenging does not improve muscle insulin action in the HF-fed mouse alone or when coupled to increased H2O2 scavenging.

  18. Enhanced mitochondrial superoxide scavenging does not improve muscle insulin action in the high fat-fed mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Lark

    Full Text Available Improving mitochondrial oxidant scavenging may be a viable strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes. Mice overexpressing the mitochondrial matrix isoform of superoxide dismutase (sod2(tg mice and/or transgenically expressing catalase within the mitochondrial matrix (mcat(tg mice have increased scavenging of O2(˙- and H2O2, respectively. Furthermore, muscle insulin action is partially preserved in high fat (HF-fed mcat(tg mice. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that increased O2(˙- scavenging alone or in combination with increased H2O2 scavenging (mtAO mice enhances in vivo muscle insulin action in the HF-fed mouse. Insulin action was examined in conscious, unrestrained and unstressed wild type (WT, sod2(tg, mcat(tg and mtAO mice using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (insulin clamps combined with radioactive glucose tracers following sixteen weeks of normal chow or HF (60% calories from fat feeding. Glucose infusion rates, whole body glucose disappearance, and muscle glucose uptake during the insulin clamp were similar in chow- and HF-fed WT and sod2(tg mice. Consistent with our previous work, HF-fed mcat(tg mice had improved muscle insulin action, however, an additive effect was not seen in mtAO mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in muscle from clamped mice was consistent with glucose flux measurements. These results demonstrate that increased O2(˙- scavenging does not improve muscle insulin action in the HF-fed mouse alone or when coupled to increased H2O2 scavenging.

  19. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  1. Effects of high-fat diet on salivary α-amylase, serum parameters and food consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lénia; Mouta, Raquel; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Pereira, Alfredo; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia M; Lamy, Elsa

    2015-06-01

    Salivary α-amylase, a major protein in saliva, has been described as a marker of sympathetic nervous system activity, hence for metabolic energy balance. In this context, its expression in overweight and obesity is of interest. Rats fed with a diet enriched with sunflower oil differentially gained weight yielding two subgroups according to their susceptibility (OP) or resistance (OR) to obesity. Elevated plasmatic levels of leptin in the OP subgroup and altered plasmatic lipid profiles (lower triglycerides and higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio compared to controls) in the OR subgroup were observed. Animals from the OP subgroup presented higher α-amylase expression and activity even prior to the dietary treatment, suggesting that this salivary protein may constitute a putative indicator of susceptibility for fat tissue accumulation. After 18 weeks of high-fat diet consumption, salivary α-amylase levels did not significantly change in the OP subgroup, but increased 3-fold in the OR subgroup. The increase in α-amylase levels for the latter might represent an adaptation to lower starch intake. These results suggest that salivary α-amylase secretion might be useful to predict susceptibility for weight gain induced by high-fat diet consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased body fat mass and tissue lipotoxicity associated with ovariectomy or high-fat diet differentially affects bone and skeletal muscle metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Camille; Salles, Jérôme; Landrier, Jean-François; Giraudet, Christophe; Patrac, Véronique; Lebecque, Patrice; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Chanet, Audrey; Pouyet, Corinne; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Boirie, Yves; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Walrand, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the musculoskeletal effects induced by ovariectomy-related fat mass deposition against the musculoskeletal effects caused by a high-fat diet. A group of adult female rats was ovariectomized and fed a control diet. Two additional groups were sham-operated and fed a control or a high-fat diet for 19 weeks. Distal femur and serum bone parameters were measured to assess bone metabolism. Muscle protein metabolism, mitochondrial markers and triglyceride content were evaluated in tibialis anterior. Triglyceride content was evaluated in liver. Circulating inflammatory and metabolic markers were determined. The high-fat diet and ovariectomy led to similar increases in fat mass (+36.6-56.7%; p muscle tissues and inflammatory markers. Consumption of the high-fat diet led to decreased bone formation (-38.4%; p muscle mitochondrial metabolism, muscle lipotoxicity and a 20.9% increase in tibialis anterior protein synthesis rate (p increased +72.7% (p increased +76.4% (p muscle protein synthesis rate (p fat diet and ovariectomy triggered similar gains in fat mass but had different impacts on bone and muscle metabolism. The ovariectomy-induced mechanisms affecting the musculoskeletal system are mainly caused by estrogen depletion, which surpasses the potential-independent effect of adiposity.

  3. Effect of combination therapy consisting of enalapril, α-lipoic acid, and menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in a high fat/low dose streptozotocin treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric P; Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-10-15

    We have previously demonstrated that treating diabetic rats with enalapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, α-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, or menhaden oil, a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids can partially improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In this study we sought to determine the efficacy of combining these three treatments on vascular and neural complications in a high fat fed low dose streptozotocin treated rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a 30 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin. Eight weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia diabetic rats were treated with a combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil. Diabetic rats not receiving treatment were continued on the high fat diet. Glucose clearance was impaired in diabetic rats and significantly improved with treatment. Diabetes caused steatosis, elevated serum lipid levels, slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction, thermal hypoalgesia, reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber profiles, decrease in cornea sub-basal nerve fiber length and corneal sensitivity and impairment in vascular relaxation to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide in epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Treating diabetic rats with the combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil reversed all these deficits to near control levels except for motor nerve conduction velocity which was also significantly improved compared to diabetic rats but remained significantly decreased compared to control rats. These studies suggest that a combination therapeutic approach may be most effective for treating vascular and neural complications of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Maternal high-fat diet induces obesity and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction in male rat offspring at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, J G; Fernandes, T P; Rocha, C P D; Calviño, C; Pazos-Moura, C C; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G; Trevenzoli, I H

    2012-11-01

    Maternal nutritional status affects the future development of offspring. Both undernutrition and overnutrition in critical periods of life (gestation or lactation) may cause several hormonal changes in the pups and programme obesity in the adult offspring. We have shown that hyperleptinaemia during lactation results in central leptin resistance, higher adrenal catecholamine secretion, hyperthyroidism, and higher blood pressure and heart rate in the adult rats. Here, we evaluated the effect of a maternal isocaloric high-fat diet on breast milk composition and its impact on leptinaemia, energy metabolism, and adrenal and thyroid function of the offspring at weaning. We hypothesised that the altered source of fat in the maternal diet even under normal calorie intake would disturb the metabolism of the offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed a normal (9% fat; C group) or high-fat diet (29% fat as lard; HF group) for 8 weeks before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. HF mothers presented increased total body fat content after 8 weeks (+27%, P < 0.05) and a similar fat content at the end of lactation. In consequence, the breast milk from the HF group had higher concentration of protein (+18%, P < 0.05), cholesterol (+52%, P < 0.05) and triglycerides (+86%, P < 0.05). At weaning, HF offspring had increased body weight (+53%, P < 0.05) and adiposity (2 fold, P < 0.05), which was associated with lower β3-adrenoreceptor content in adipose tissue (-40%, P < 0.05). The offspring also presented hyperglycaemia (+30%, P < 0.05) and hyperleptinaemia (+62%, P < 0.05). In the leptin signalling pathway in the hypothalamus, we found lower p-STAT3/STAT3 (-40%, P < 0.05) and SOCS3 (-55%, P < 0.05) content in the arcuate nucleus, suggesting leptin resistance. HF offspring also had higher adrenal catecholamine content (+17%, P < 0.05), liver glycogen content (+50%, P < 0.05) and hyperactivity of the thyroid axis at weaning. Our results suggest that a high fat diet increases

  5. Hypolipidemic activity ofPiper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect ofPiper betel(P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat.Methods:The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally.Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results:In groupII animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein(LDL) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(VLDL) were significantly enhanced when compared to that of normal rat.Conclusion:It could be said that the methanolic leaf extract ofP. betel exhibited a significant hypolipidemic effect.

  6. Effects of Chinese wild rice on lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diet%菰米对高脂诱导脂代谢紊乱大鼠肝脏脂毒性的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 韩淑芬; 曹佩; 翟成凯

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察由米面和菰米等不同构成饲料对高脂饲料大鼠血脂、游离脂肪酸(FFA)和瘦素(leptin)水平的作用,探讨菰米对高脂饲料诱导的脂代谢紊乱大鼠血脂及肝脏脂毒性的作用.方法 44只雄性SD大鼠随机分为阴性对照组、高脂模型组、米面组和菰米组;以相应饲料连续喂养8周,测定各组大鼠体重、血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、FFA和leptin等指标,同时肝脏组织行病理切片检查.结果 与阴性对照组相比,高脂模型组和米面组大鼠的血清TC、TG、FFA和leptin水平显著上升(P<0.05),HDL-C水平显著降低(P<0.05),肝脏发生脂肪变性;与高脂模型组和米面组相比,菰米组大鼠的血清TC、TG、FFA水平显著下降(P<0.05),HDL-C水平显著升高(P<0.05),leptin水平稍低于高脂模型组和米面组,但无显著性差异,肝脏脂肪变性程度显著减轻.结论 菰米具有降低高脂饲料诱导的脂代谢紊乱大鼠血脂水平和肝脏脂毒性的作用.%Objective To study the effects of four kinds of experimental diet, including high fat/cholesterol diet, Chinese wild rice diet, white rice-flour diet and basal diet on the lipotoxicity and disordered lipid metabolism in rats. Methods 44 male SD rats were divided into four groups, the basal group, high fat/cholesterol diet group, white rice-flour group and Chinese wild rice group. All rats of four groups were given different diets. Body weights were measured every week, serum total cholesterol (TC) , triglyceride (TG) , high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C) , free fatty acids ( FFA ) and leptin concentrations were measured, and liver pathology were observed. Results When compared with the basal diet group, the hyperlipidemic rat model was successfully made in high fat/cholesterol diet group. When compared with the high fat/cholesterol diet group and white rice-flour diet group, the serum TG and TC contents were

  7. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

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    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  8. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity. PMID:22174560

  9. 白藜芦醇对高脂饮食大鼠骨骼肌不同线粒体亚群氧化、抗氧化水平和胰岛素敏感性的影响%Effect of resveratrol on the oxidative stress and antioxidant levels of different skeletal muscle mitochondrial subpopulations and insulin sensitivity in rats fed with high-fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐璐; 张好好; 郑涓; 胡祥; 孔雯; 胡帝; 王素星

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of resveratrol on the oxidative stress and antioxidant levels of different mitochondrial subpopulations in the skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity of rats fed with high-fat diet.Methods Male SD rats,aged 8 weeks,were divided into normal chow (NC) group,high-fat diet(HF) group,high-fat diet plus resveratrol ( HFR ) group.After intervention for 8 weeks,the impacts of resveratrol on oxidative stress levels and antioxidant enzymes activities in subsarcolemmal ( SS ) and intermyofibrillar ( IMF ) mitochondria from skeletal muscle as well as general and skeletal mascle insulin sensitivity were assessed.Results Compared with NC group, insulin sensitivity was significantly reduced while reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde(MDA) levels in SS and IMF mitochondria increased in HF group ( all P<0.01 ).In addition,antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in SS mitochondrial and increased in IMF mitochondrial ( both P < 0.05 ).Compared with HF group,the insulin sensitivity in HFR group was significantly improved.Moreover,the activities of antioxidant enzymes in SS and IMF mitochondrial were increased,and the oxidative stress levels returned to normal ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Resveratrol notably improves the oxidative stress of different skeletal muscle mitochondrial subpopulations and insulin resistance in rats fed with high-fat diet.%目的 观察白藜芦醇对高脂饮食大鼠骨骼肌不同线粒体亚群氧化、抗氧化水平及胰岛素敏感性的影响.方法 8周龄雄性SD大鼠分为普通饮食组(NC组)、高脂饮食组(HF组)及白藜芦醇干预高脂饮食组(HFR组);干预8周后检测各组大鼠骨骼肌肌膜下(SS)及肌纤维间(IMF)线粒体氧化应激及抗氧化水平,并观察各组大鼠整体及骨骼肌胰岛素敏感性的变化.结果 与NC组相比,HF组大鼠胰岛素敏感性明显下降(P<0.05),SS及IMF线粒体活性氧簇(ROS)和丙二醛的水平明显增

  10. Isocaloric intake of a high-fat diet modifies adiposity and lipid handling in a sex dependent manner in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lladó Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences. Aim To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling. Methods Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot. Results The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.

  11. Solanum nigrum Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis via Suppression of Hyperglycemia in High-Fat/Ethanol Diet-Induced Rats

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    Cheng-Jeng Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs signal through the receptor for AGE (RAGE, which can lead to hepatic fibrosis in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Solanum nigrum (AESN on AGEs-induced RAGE signaling and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet with ethanol. Methods: An animal model was used to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of AESN in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 30% with ethanol (10%. Male Wistar rats (4 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6: (1 control (basal diet; (2 HFD (30% + ethanol (10% (HFD/ethanol; (3 HFD/ethanol + AESN (100 mg/kg, oral administration; and (4 HFD/ethanol + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, oral administration and treated with HFD for 6 months in the presence or absence of 10% ethanol in dietary water. Results: We found that AESN improved insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and downregulated lipogenesis via regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, PPARγ co-activator (PGC-1α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS mRNA levels in the liver of HFD/ethanol-treated rats. In turn, AESN may delay and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA inhibition and MMP-2 production. Conclusions: These results suggest that AESN may be further explored as a novel anti-fibrotic strategy for the prevention of liver disease.

  12. Anti-obesity effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract on high fat diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, U; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, G

    2013-12-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) has been used frequently in traditional Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Study was performed in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in murine model. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of HFD for 28 days. The anti obesity effect of water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre extract (120 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days) in HFD fed rats was evaluated by the measurement of body weight gain, food intake, hemodynamic changes (systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure and heart rate), serum lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol), leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoproteins A1 and B, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and antioxidant enzymes such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels in liver tissues. Organs and visceral fat pad weight were measured. Histopathological studies were also carried out. Water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre ethanolic extract and rimonabant significantly reduced serum lipids, leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoprotein B and LDH levels while it significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and antioxidant enzymes levels in liver tissue as compared to the HFD fed rats. Histopathological studies of tissues showed no pathological changes. The results of this study show that water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre extract possess antiobesity effect.

  13. High-fat diet disrupts metabolism in two generations of rats in a parent-of-origin specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T. J. G.; Morgan, M. D.; Heger, A. H.; Sharpe, R. M.; Drake, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence demonstrate that ancestral diet might contribute towards offspring health. This suggests that nutrition may be able to modify genetic or epigenetic information carried by germ cells (GCs). To examine if a parental high fat diet (HFD) influences metabolic health in two generations of offspring, GC-eGFP Sprague Dawley rats were weaned onto HFD (45% fat) or Control Diet (CD; 10% fat). At 19 weeks, founders (F0) were bred with controls, establishing the F1 generation. HFD resulted in 9.7% and 14.7% increased weight gain in male and female F0 respectively. F1 offspring of HFD mothers and F1 daughters of HFD-fed fathers had increased weight gain compared to controls. F1 rats were bred with controls at 19 weeks to generate F2 offspring. F2 male offspring derived from HFD-fed maternal grandfathers exhibited increased adiposity, plasma leptin and luteinising hormone to testosterone ratio. Despite transmission via the founding male germline, we did not find significant changes in the F0 intra-testicular GC transcriptome. Thus, HFD consumption by maternal grandfathers results in a disrupted metabolic and reproductive hormone phenotype in grandsons in the absence of detectable changes in the intra-testicular GC transcriptome. PMID:27550193

  14. Acetylshikonin from Zicao Prevents Obesity in Rats on a High-Fat Diet by Inhibiting Lipid Accumulation and Inducing Lipolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Su

    Full Text Available Various drugs have been developed to treat obesity, but these have undesirable secondary effects, and an efficient but non-toxic anti-obesity drug from natural sources is desired. This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanisms of action of acetylshikonin (AS-which is used in traditional Chinese medicine-in rats on a high-fat diet (HFD. Rats were fed a normal diet or an HFD; the latter group was received no treatment or were treated with 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg AS extract by intragastric administration for 6 weeks. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with AS and the effects on adipogenesis and lipolysis were evaluated by western blot analysis of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid-metabolizing enzyme levels and the phosphorylation status of protein kinase (PK A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. AS prevented HFD-induced obesity including reduction in body weight, white adipose tissue content, liver mass, and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in rats. It also suppressed the expression of adipogenic differentiation transcription factors and decreased the expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL. Furthermore, AS treatment induced lipolysis, leading to the release of glycerol and increased in PKA and HSL phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that AS has anti-obesity effects in a rat model and may be a safe treatment for obesity in humans.

  15. Sesamin ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in rats on a high-fat diet via LXRα and PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Zhang, Jinghua; Yang, Haixia; Han, Bei; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin

    2016-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined by a nonalcohol relevant pathological accumulation of fat in the liver. Previous studies have shown that sesamin exerts antioxidant effects and improves lipid metabolism of the fatty liver. In this study, we hypothesized that sesamin improves lipid homeostasis of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) by regulating the expression of genes related to de novo lipogenesis and β-oxidation. We induced NAFLD in rats with HFD and examined the effect of sesamin in vivo. The results showed that HFD rats accumulated total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the liver and developed inflammation, as evidenced by the elevation of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the liver and serum. Sesamin attenuated the disease progression by improving the blood lipid profile in a dose-dependent manner. Sesamin reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and free fatty acid, whereas it increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Meanwhile, sesamin increased the activities of hepatic glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase while reducing the level of malonaldehyde and cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, higher doses of sesamin reduced the expression of liver X receptor α and its downstream target genes, whereas it upregulated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-mediated signaling. These findings suggest that sesamin attenuates diet-induced dyslipidemia and inflammation of NAFLD in rats via mechanisms regulated by liver X receptor α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α.

  16. Acetylshikonin from Zicao Prevents Obesity in Rats on a High-Fat Diet by Inhibiting Lipid Accumulation and Inducing Lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meiling; Huang, Wendong; Zhu, Banghao

    2016-01-01

    Various drugs have been developed to treat obesity, but these have undesirable secondary effects, and an efficient but non-toxic anti-obesity drug from natural sources is desired. This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanisms of action of acetylshikonin (AS)-which is used in traditional Chinese medicine-in rats on a high-fat diet (HFD). Rats were fed a normal diet or an HFD; the latter group was received no treatment or were treated with 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg AS extract by intragastric administration for 6 weeks. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with AS and the effects on adipogenesis and lipolysis were evaluated by western blot analysis of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid-metabolizing enzyme levels and the phosphorylation status of protein kinase (PK) A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). AS prevented HFD-induced obesity including reduction in body weight, white adipose tissue content, liver mass, and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in rats. It also suppressed the expression of adipogenic differentiation transcription factors and decreased the expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Furthermore, AS treatment induced lipolysis, leading to the release of glycerol and increased in PKA and HSL phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that AS has anti-obesity effects in a rat model and may be a safe treatment for obesity in humans.

  17. Basal lipolysis, not the degree of insulin resistance, differentiates large from small isolated adipocytes in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wueest, S; Rapold, R A; Rytka, J M; Schoenle, E J; Konrad, D

    2009-03-01

    Adipocytes in obesity are characterised by increased cell size and insulin resistance compared with adipocytes isolated from lean patients. However, it is not clear at present whether hypertrophy actually does drive adipocyte insulin resistance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to metabolically characterise small and large adipocytes isolated from epididymal fat pads of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were fed normal chow or HFD for 8 weeks. Adipocytes from epididymal fat pads were isolated by collagenase digestion and, in HFD-fed mice, separated into two fractions according to their size by filtration through a nylon mesh. Viability was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium assays. Basal and insulin-stimulated D-[U-(14)C]glucose incorporation and lipolysis were measured. Protein levels and mRNA expression were determined by western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Insulin-stimulated D-[U-(14)C]glucose incorporation into adipocytes isolated from HFD-fed mice was reduced by 50% compared with adipocytes from chow-fed mice. However, it was similar between small (average diameter 60.9 +/- 3.1 microm) and large (average diameter 83.0 +/- 6.6 microm) adipocytes. Similarly, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B and AS160 were reduced to the same extent in small and large adipocytes isolated from HFD-mice. In addition, insulin failed to inhibit lipolysis in both adipocyte fractions, whereas it decreased lipolysis by 30% in adipocytes of chow-fed mice. In contrast, large and small adipocytes differed in basal lipolysis rate, which was twofold higher in the larger cells. The latter finding was associated with higher mRNA expression levels of Atgl (also known as Pnpla2) and Hsl (also known as Lipe) in larger adipocytes. Viability was not different between small and large adipocytes. Rate of basal lipolysis but not insulin responsiveness is different between small and large

  18. Chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity decreased survival and increased hypertrophy of rats with experimental eccentric hypertrophy from chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Wahiba; Drolet, Marie-Claude; Roussel, Elise; Couet, Jacques; Arsenault, Marie

    2014-09-24

    The composition of a diet can influence myocardial metabolism and development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The impact of a high-fat diet in chronic left ventricular volume overload (VO) causing eccentric LVH is unknown. This study examined the effects of chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet in rats with chronic VO caused by severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) on LVH, function and on myocardial energetics and survival. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Shams on control or high-fat (HF) diet (15 rats/group) and AR rats fed with the same diets (ARC (n = 56) and ARHF (n = 32)). HF diet was started one week before AR induction and the protocol was stopped 30 weeks later. As expected, AR caused significant LV dilation and hypertrophy and this was exacerbated in the ARHF group. Moreover, survival in the ARHF group was significantly decreased compared the ARC group. Although the sham animals on HF also developed significant obesity compared to those on control diet, this was not associated with heart hypertrophy. The HF diet in AR rats partially countered the expected shift in myocardial energy substrate preference usually observed in heart hypertrophy (from fatty acids towards glucose). Systolic function was decreased in AR rats but HF diet had no impact on this parameter. The response to HF diet of different fatty acid oxidation markers as well as the increase in glucose transporter-4 translocation to the plasma membrane compared to ARC was blunted in AR animals compared to those on control diet. HF diet for 30 weeks decreased survival of AR rats and worsened eccentric hypertrophy without affecting systolic function. The expected adaptation of myocardial energetics to volume-overload left ventricle hypertrophy in AR animals seemed to be impaired by the high-fat diet suggesting less metabolic flexibility.

  19. Maternal high fat feeding does not have long-lasting effects on body composition and bone health in female and male Wistar rat offspring at young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; LeBlanc, Paul J; Peters, Sandra J; Roy, Brian D; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-12-06

    High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF) feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON) or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only) than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  20. High fat mixed lipid diet modifies protective effects of exercise on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perše, M; Injac, R; Štrukelj, B; Cerar, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term swimming exercise in conjunction with a high fat mixed lipid (HFML) diet on colon cancer (CC) development and lipid peroxidation in the large bowel. We used forty male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into one control group and four cancer groups: sedentary and swimming groups fed a standard diet (LFCO) and sedentary and swimming groups fed an HFML diet. Corticosterone was determined during the experiment. After 6 months of swimming, the rats were sacrificed and blood, heart, liver, muscle and large bowel were taken for determining the activity of serum enzymes, antioxidant capacity and CC development. The results demonstrate that exercise has a protective role in CC development. Attenuated development of CC and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the large bowel of exercised rats show that one of the protective effects of exercise on developing CC is induction of oxidative stress. However, in terms of the combined effects of dietary fat and exercise, our results indicate that the protective role of exercise on CC development is significantly depressed by an HFML diet. An HFML diet significantly reduced the protective influence of exercise on colon carcinogenesis in rats and affected the degree of peroxidation in the large bowel during exercise, as well as concentrations of serum enzymes (LDH, α-HBDH, CK, ALT and AST). Our results indicate that an HFML diet, which reflects the composition of a Western style diet, is a significant modifier of the protective effects of exercise on CC development in rats.

  1. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  2. Vinegar-Baked Radix Bupleuri Regulates Lipid Disorders via a Pathway Dependent on Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB on high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. After being fed HFD for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with VBRB or fenofibrate, once daily for further twelve weeks. VBRB (1.0 g kg−1 per day produced effects similar to fenofibrate (100 mg kg−1 in reducing body weight (BW gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as hepatic TG and cholesterol content of HFD-fed rats. VBRB also lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. VBRB and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1 proteins were reversed by VBRB and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs in HFD-fed rats was lowered by VBRB and fenofibrate. The results of this study show that VBRB suppresses BW gain and body fat accumulation by increasing fatty acid oxidation, an effect which is likely mediated via upregulation of PPARα and downregulation of SREBP expression in the liver of HFD-fed rats.

  3. Inhibitory effects of Leonurus sibiricus on weight gain after menopause in ovariectomized and high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangseon; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-07-01

    Leonurus sibiricus, also called motherwort, is a well-known functional food and medicinal herb. It has been known to possess beneficial properties for women's health, especially for aged women. Estrogen deficiency in the menopause could induce lipid metabolic abnormalities in body fat, resulting in obesity. In this study, the inhibitory effects of L. sibiricus on obesity after the menopause were investigated. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following an induction period, aqueous extracts of L. sibiricus (LS) were orally administrated for 6 weeks. The body, uterine, and visceral fat weights were measured immediately after the animals were killed. Histological analysis was performed to monitor fat and liver. Serum levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were evaluated. In addition, the expression of lipases was analyzed. Total body weight was significantly decreased by LS treatment. Histological changes in adipocyte size were shown along with a decrease of visceral fat weight in the LS-treated group. In addition, the fat infiltration of liver was reduced by LS administration. LS-treated mice experienced decreases of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The expression of HSL and ATGL was significantly increased by LS treatment. These results suggest that LS could regulate the lipid metabolism via an increase of lipases expression in ovariectomized and HFD-fed mice. LS might be a novel candidate for a functional food to inhibit weight gain after the menopause.

  4. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

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    Eun-Young Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1, the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

  5. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-08

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  6. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  7. Zinc deficiency augments leptin production and exacerbates macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Jie; Bao, Shengying; Bolin, Eric R; Burris, Dara L; Xu, Xiaohua; Sun, Qinghua; Killilea, David W; Shen, Qiwen; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana; Belury, Martha A; Failla, Mark L; Knoell, Daren L

    2013-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency and obesity are global public health problems. Zn deficiency is associated with obesity and comorbid conditions that include insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the function of Zn in obesity remains unclear. Using a mouse model of combined high-fat and low-Zn intake (0.5-1.5 mg/kg), we investigated whether Zn deficiency exacerbates the extent of adiposity as well as perturbations in metabolic and immune function. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control (C) diet for 6 wk, followed by further subdivision into 2 additional groups fed Zn-deficient diets (C-Zn, HFD-Zn), along with a C diet and an HFD, for 3 wk (n = 8-9 mice/group). The extent of visceral fat, insulin resistance, or systemic inflammation was unaffected by Zn deficiency. Strikingly, Zn deficiency significantly augmented circulating leptin concentrations (HFD-Zn vs. HFD: 3.15 ± 0.16 vs. 2.59 ± 0.12 μg/L, respectively) and leptin signaling in the liver of obese mice. Furthermore, gene expression of macrophage-specific markers ADAM8 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 8) and CD68 (cluster of differentiation 68) was significantly greater in adipose tissue in the HFD-Zn group than in the HFD group, as confirmed by CD68 protein analysis, indicative of increased macrophage infiltration. Inspection of Zn content and mRNA profiles of all Zn transporters in the adipose tissue revealed alterations of Zn metabolism to obesity and Zn deficiency. Our results demonstrate that Zn deficiency increases leptin production and exacerbates macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in obese mice, indicating the importance of Zn in metabolic and immune dysregulation in obesity.

  8. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL, we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA. In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1 NFD; (2 HFD; (3 HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4 HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5 HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control. ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  9. Inhibition of ileal bile acid uptake protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anuradha; Kosters, Astrid; Mells, Jamie E; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Amanso, Angelica M; Wynn, Grace M; Xu, Tianlei; Keller, Brad T; Yin, Hong; Banton, Sophia; Jones, Dean P; Wu, Hao; Dawson, Paul A; Karpen, Saul J

    2016-09-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world, and safe and effective therapies are needed. Bile acids (BAs) and their receptors [including the nuclear receptor for BAs, farnesoid X receptor (FXR)] play integral roles in regulating whole-body metabolism and hepatic lipid homeostasis. We hypothesized that interruption of the enterohepatic BA circulation using a luminally restricted apical sodium-dependent BA transporter (ASBT) inhibitor (ASBTi; SC-435) would modify signaling in the gut-liver axis and reduce steatohepatitis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Administration of this ASBTi increased fecal BA excretion and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of BA synthesis genes in liver and reduced mRNA expression of ileal BA-responsive genes, including the negative feedback regulator of BA synthesis, fibroblast growth factor 15. ASBT inhibition resulted in a marked shift in hepatic BA composition, with a reduction in hydrophilic, FXR antagonistic species and an increase in FXR agonistic BAs. ASBT inhibition restored glucose tolerance, reduced hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations, and improved NAFLD activity score in HFD-fed mice. These changes were associated with reduced hepatic expression of lipid synthesis genes (including liver X receptor target genes) and normalized expression of the central lipogenic transcription factor, Srebp1c Accumulation of hepatic lipids and SREBP1 protein were markedly reduced in HFD-fed Asbt(-/-) mice, providing genetic evidence for a protective role mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic BA circulation. Together, these studies suggest that blocking ASBT function with a luminally restricted inhibitor can improve both hepatic and whole body aspects of NAFLD.

  10. Effects of bixin in high-fat diet-fed-induced fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez; Rita Valadez Romero

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-obesity activity of bixin (BIX) on C57BL/6J mice which were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to determine the mechanism of this effect. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were separately fed a high-calorie diet or a normal diet for 8 weeks, then they were treated with BIX for another 13 weeks. After administration for 13 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Body adiposity, serum lipid level, and insulin resistance were evaluated. In addition, a histological assay of pancreas and liver, an evaluation of the inhibitory properties on pancreatic lipase, and a-amylase were conducted. Results: Administration of BIX significantly decreased the body weight gain, adipocyte size, fat pad weights, hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, reduced liver weight exhibited decreased serum leptin levels, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hepatic fatty acid synthase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity. However, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione levels were increased in hepatic tissue. BIX also decreased lipid and carbohydrates absorption due to inhibition of pancreatic lipase and a-amylase. Long term supplementation of BIX significantly decreased hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and glucose level. Decreased levels of hepatic steatosis and the islets of Langerhans appeared less shrunken in HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: The antiobesity effect of BIX appears to be associated at least in part, to its inhibitory effect on lipids and carbohydrate digestion enzymes such as pancreatic lipase, a-glucosidase, and a-amylase. The results suggested that BIX also act as an antioxidant and may treat visceral obesity normalizing glucose levels, improving insulin resistance and increasing energy expenditure. Therefore, achiote which has a main component, the carotenoid BIX, could be a viable food for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  11. Dietary sphingomyelin lowers hepatic lipid levels and inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption in high-fat-fed mice.

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    Rosanna W S Chung

    Full Text Available Controlling intestinal lipid absorption is an important strategy for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Accumulation of lipids in the liver is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is well-known that sphingomyelin (SM can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. It is, however, unclear if dietary SM also lowers liver lipid levels. In the present study (i the effect of pure dietary egg SM on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal cholesterol absorption was measured with [(14C]cholesterol and [(3H]sitostanol in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF diet with or without 0.6% wt/wt SM for 18 days; and (ii hepatic lipid levels and gene expression were determined in mice given a HF diet with or without egg SM (0.3, 0.6 or 1.2% wt/wt for 4 weeks. Mice supplemented with SM (0.6% wt/wt had significantly increased fecal lipid and cholesterol output and reduced hepatic [(14C]cholesterol levels after 18 days. Relative to HF-fed mice, SM-supplemented HF-fed mice had significantly lower intestinal cholesterol absorption (-30%. Liver weight was significantly lower in the 1.2% wt/wt SM-supplemented mice (-18%. Total liver lipid (mg/organ was significantly reduced in the SM-supplemented mice (-33% and -40% in 0.6% wt/wt and 1.2% wt/wt SM, respectively, as were triglyceride and cholesterol levels. The reduction in liver triglycerides was due to inactivation of the LXR-SREBP-1c pathway. In conclusion, dietary egg SM has pronounced hepatic lipid-lowering properties in mice maintained on an obesogenic diet.

  12. Effect of high-fat diet on rat myometrium during pregnancy-isolated myometrial mitochondria are not affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin Folke; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Qvortrup, Klaus; Damm, Peter; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-07-01

    Laboring women with elevated body mass index (BMI) have an increased risk of inefficient uterine labor contractions, and despite the significance of mitochondria in the production of energy to drive uterine contractions, mitochondrial function in the myometrium with reference to the BMI has not been explored. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity prior to and during gestation affects oxidative capacity and/or morphology of mitochondria in the myometrium at term in an animal model. Rat dams were fed for 47 days prior to impregnation and during gestation with either (1) a regular chow diet, (2) a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet, or (3) a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet (n = 10 in each group). On day 20 of gestation, corresponding to term pregnancy, total hysterectomy was performed with subsequent examination of the function and morphology of myometrial mitochondria. Body composition was regularly assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, and blood sampling was done prior to diet assignment, impregnation, and hysterectomy. Dams on the high-fat low-carbohydrate diet achieved higher fat percentage compared to rats on the regular chow diet (p < 0.05). Maximal oxygen consumption, phosphate/oxygen ratio, or the amount of mitochondria per gram of myometrium did not differ between the three feeding groups. Electron microscopic examinations did not reveal any morphological differences in mitochondria between groups; however, a previously undescribed subsarcolemmal localization of the mitochondria in the myocyte was identified. We did not find evidence of altered myometrial mitochondrial function or morphology in this animal model of obesity prior to and during pregnancy.

  13. Gene expression profiles of adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obese rats by cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jie; Cheng, Rui; Zhou, Xiao-yu; Zhu, Jin-gai; Zhu, Chun; Qin, Da-ni; Kou, Chun-zhao; Guo, Xi-rong

    2010-12-01

    To better understand the molecular basis of dietary obesity, we examined adipose tissue genes differentially expressed in a well-characterized rat model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity using cDNA microarrays. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either the HFD or the normal diet. Seven weeks later, the weights of obese models (362.92 ± 39.65 g) were significantly higher than those of normal control rats (315.22 ± 42.30 g, P obese models. cDNA microarrays containing 9 216 genes/Ests were used to investigate gene expression of adipose tissue. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 532, 154, and 22 genes were differently expressed over 2-, 3-, and 5-fold, respectively. The analysis of gene expression profiles indicated that 276 genes were up-regulated and 432 genes were down-regulated in response to HFD-induced obesity. Different clusters of genes associated with lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, cell apoptosis, etc., such as VLCS-H2, DGAT, ACADVL, PHYH, SCD, ACACA, ACS, MMP-2, MMP-15, CD38, CAMK2D, CACNA1F, CAPZA2, TMOD3, ARPC2, KNS2, TPM1, MAPK8, GADD45B, DAXX, TOK-1, PRKACA, STAT6, were concerned.

  14. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  15. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with an increase of inflammation-related colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory processes and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF ...

  16. Phototherapy improves wound healing in rats subjected to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Saulo Nani; Leite, Marcel Nani; Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Frade, Marco Andrey C

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the phototherapy effects on wound healing in rats submitted to normal and high-fat diets. Thirty-six rats received normal lipidic diet (NL) and 36 high lipidic (HL) diet for 45 days. The nutritional status was measured by body mass, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. Four experimental groups were performed according light (L) therapy applied "on" or "off" (660 nm, 100 mW, 70 J/cm(2), 2 J) on 1.5-mm-punched dorsum skin wounds as NLL+, NLL-, HLL+, and HLL-. The wound healing rate (WHR) and oxidative stress markers were analyzed on 2nd, 7th, and 14th days. Despite no difference among body mass, the HL rats presented higher blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels than NL rats. Respectively, on the 2nd and 14th days, the HLL+ group presented the highest WHRs (0.38 ± 0.16/0.97 ± 0.02) among all groups, while the HLL- (-0.002 ± 0.12/0.81 ± 12.1) the lowest WHRs. Hydroxyproline level was lower in HLL- (6.41 ± 1.09 μg/mg) than HLL+ (7.71 ± 0.61 μg/mg) and also NLL+ (9.33 ± 0.84 μg/mg). HLL+ presented oxidative stress markers similar to normal control group (NLL-) during follow up and highest antioxidant defense on 7th day. The results showed phototherapy accelerated the cutaneous wound healing by modulating oxidative stress in rats with metabolic disorders under a high-fat diet.

  17. Effects of Berberine on Hepatic Sirtuin 1-uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats Induced by High-fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-jun Deng; Yu-pei Zhang; Qin-he Yang; Li Han; Yin-ji Liang; Yi-fang He; Yuan-yuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the involvement of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) pathway in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and whether berberine exerts its effects by regulating this pathway.Methods Male SD rats were divided into three groups:normal control group,high-fat diet group,and berberine supplement group.The rats in the normal control group were given normal diet while the rats in the other two groups were fed with high-fat diet.Rats in the berberine supplement group were concurrently given berberine (100 mg/kg body weight) once daily.After 1 6 weeks,the levels of serum,liver lipids,and serum aminotransferase were measured using an automatic biochemical analyzer.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver were measured using commercial kits.Histopathological changes of liver tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Oil Red O staining.The hepatic mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1 and UCP2 were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or Western blotting.Results Berberine supplement could significantly decrease the serum and liver lipid contents in rats fed with high-fat diet.Meanwhile,SOD level was significantly elevated,but MDA level was reduced in the liver.The results of HE and Oil Red O staining showed that the hepatic steatosis was alleviated in berberine supplement group.Furthermore,berberine induced an increase in SlRT1 expression but a decrease in UCP2 expression.Conclusion The regulation of hepatic SIRT1-UCP2 pathway may be an important mechanism by which berberine exerts the beneficial effects in NAFLD rats.

  18. 吡格列酮和非诺贝特对高脂饮食大鼠胰岛细胞内信号分子的影响%Effects of fenofibrate and pioglitazone on expressions of intracellular signaling molecules in pancreatic islet of high-fat diet-fed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯婷; 杨波; 田浩明

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of fenofibrate and pioglitazone on the expressions of PPAR- α, PPAR-γ, and intracellular signaling molecules in pancreatic islets of obese rats induced by high-fat diets. Methods SD obese rat models were established with high-fat diet, and 40 male rats were assigned to 4 groups including high-fat diet (HF group), high-fat diet with fenofibrate (FF group), pioglitazone (FP group) treatment, and control rats with normal diet (NC group). After 8 weeks intervention, immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expressions of various proteins in islets; At the same time, islets mass were scored in tissue slides. Results Islets mass enlarged in HF group. The compositions of islet cells were the same as the control. The expression of insulin was lower in HF group than the control, but after using pioglitazone, less islets mass and more insulin expression were found in FP group. Compared with the control group, expressions of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ protein were reduced in HF group, and the expression of PPAR-α protein increased in FF group, and the expression of PPAR-γ protein was increased in FP group. The levels of NF-кB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1 proteins increased significantly in HF group, the expressions of NF-кB, p38 MAPK decreased in FF and FP groups, and the level of ERK1 decreased only in FP group, the protein level of I-кB showed no difference among control, HF group, and FF groups. Conclusion Fenofibrate and pioglitazone may partially protect islet cells function and improve survival by correcting the disturbance of intracellular signaling molecules.%目的 观察吡格列酮和非诺贝特对高脂饮食大鼠胰岛内PPAR-α、-γ和细胞内信号分子的影响.方法 40只雄性SD大鼠随机分为4组:空白对照组(NC)、单纯高脂饮食组(HF)、高脂+非诺贝特组(FF)、高脂+吡格列酮组(FP).HE染色测定胰岛面积;免疫组织化学方法检测胰岛

  19. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeyoung Heo; Minseok Seo; Hwanhee Park; Woon Kyu Lee; Le Luo Guan; Joon Yoon; Kelsey Caetano-Anolles; Hyeonju Ahn; Se-Young Kim; Yoon-Mo Kang; Seoae Cho; Heebal Kim

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice....

  20. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  1. Offspring of mothers fed a high fat diet display hepatic cell cycle inhibition and associated changes in gene expression and DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Dudley

    Full Text Available The association between an adverse early life environment and increased susceptibility to later-life metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is described by the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis. Employing a rat model of maternal high fat (MHF nutrition, we recently reported that offspring born to MHF mothers are small at birth and develop a postnatal phenotype that closely resembles that of the human metabolic syndrome. Livers of offspring born to MHF mothers also display a fatty phenotype reflecting hepatic steatosis and characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In the present study we hypothesised that a MHF diet leads to altered regulation of liver development in offspring; a derangement that may be detectable during early postnatal life. Livers were collected at postnatal days 2 (P2 and 27 (P27 from male offspring of control and MHF mothers (n = 8 per group. Cell cycle dynamics, measured by flow cytometry, revealed significant G0/G1 arrest in the livers of P2 offspring born to MHF mothers, associated with an increased expression of the hepatic cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a. In P2 livers, Cdkn1a was hypomethylated at specific CpG dinucleotides and first exon in offspring of MHF mothers and was shown to correlate with a demonstrable increase in mRNA expression levels. These modifications at P2 preceded observable reductions in liver weight and liver∶brain weight ratio at P27, but there were no persistent changes in cell cycle dynamics or DNA methylation in MHF offspring at this time. Since Cdkn1a up-regulation has been associated with hepatocyte growth in pathologic states, our data may be suggestive of early hepatic dysfunction in neonates born to high fat fed mothers. It is likely that these offspring are predisposed to long-term hepatic dysfunction.

  2. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.