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Sample records for high-fat diet increased

  1. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Mathôt, Ron A A; Romijn, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), S-warfarin (CYP2C9) and caffeine (CYP1A2). In 9 healthy volunteers, pharmacokinetics of the five drugs were assessed after an overnight fast at two separate occasions: after a regular diet and after 3 days of a hypercaloric high fat diet (i.e. regular diet supplemented with 500 mL cream [1715 kcal, 35% fat]). Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean [SEM]) were estimated by non-compartmental analysis. The high fat diet increased exposure to midazolam by 19% from 24.7 (2.6) to 29.5 (3.6) ng ml-1h-1 (p=0.04) and exposure to omeprazole by 31% from 726 (104) to 951 (168) ng ml-1h-1 (p=0.05). Exposure to metoprolol, caffeine and S-warfarin was not affected by the high fat diet. A short-term hypercaloric high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole, possibly reflecting modulation of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.

  2. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong Sheng; Ton, So Ha; Phang, Sonia Chew Wen; Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets) and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult) on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively) Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal), and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water) diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group). Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  3. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

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    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  4. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20......% or 50% of energy). The 2 diets were served on 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at 8.00 h, 16.30 h and 19.30 h, and analysed for triglycerides, FVII coagulant activity using human (FVII:C) or bovine thromboplastin (FVII:Bt), and FVII amidolytic activity (FVII:Am). The ratio FVII...

  5. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13C-lactate/13C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  7. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

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    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  8. Niacin Increases Adiponectin and Decreases Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Desiree; Graff, Emily C.; White, B. Douglas; Judd, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. Materials and Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD) and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2−/− (niacin receptor−/−) mice. Results Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2−/− mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription) in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion). However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. Conclusions Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner. PMID:23967184

  9. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  10. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

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    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  11. Mice chronically fed high-fat diet have increased mortality and disturbed immune response in sepsis.

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    Louise Strandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a potentially deadly disease that often is caused by gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. As there are few effective therapies for sepsis, increased basic knowledge about factors predisposing is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of Western diet on mortality induced by intravenous S. aureus inoculation and the immune functions before and after bacterial inoculation. Here we show that C57Bl/6 mice on high-fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks, like genetically obese Ob/Ob mice on low-fat diet (LFD, have increased mortality during S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with LFD-fed C57Bl/6 controls. Bacterial load in the kidneys 5-7 days after inoculation was increased 10-fold in HFD-fed compared with LFD-fed mice. At that time, HFD-fed mice had increased serum levels and fat mRNA expression of the immune suppressing cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-10 compared with LFD-fed mice. In addition, HFD-fed mice had increased serum levels of the pro-inflammatory IL-1beta. Also, HFD-fed mice with and without infection had increased levels of macrophages in fat. The proportion and function of phagocytosing granulocytes, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by peritoneal lavage cells were decreased in HFD-fed compared with LFD-fed mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings imply that chronic HFD disturb several innate immune functions in mice, and impairs the ability to clear S. aureus and survive sepsis.

  12. Exercise ameliorates high fat diet induced cardiac dysfunction by increasing interleukin 10.

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    Kesherwani, Varun; Chavali, Vishalakshi; Hackfort, Bryan T; Tyagi, Suresh C; Mishra, Paras K

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD) leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, 8 week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1 h/day for 5 days/week for 8 weeks). The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex) and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  13. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

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    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  14. High-fat diet increases ghrelin-expressing cells in stomach, contributing to obesity.

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    François, Marie; Barde, Swapnali; Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Azhar, Saida; El Dhaybi, Mohammed; Guerin, Charlène; Hökfelt, Tomas; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moise; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Mechanisms of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity may involve ghrelin, an orexigenic and adipogenic hormone secreted by the stomach. Previous studies showed that obese subjects may display higher numbers of ghrelin-producing cells and increased affinity of plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) for ghrelin, protecting it from degradation. The aim of this study was to determine if a HFD in mice would increase the number of ghrelin-expressing cells and affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG. Obesity in mice was induced by consumption of a 13-wk HFD. The number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach was analyzed by in situ hybridization and compared with chow-fed, nonobese controls and with genetically obese ob/ob mice. Affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG was analyzed using surface plasmon resonance. Plasma levels of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin were measured. HFD resulted in 30% of body fat content versus only 8% in controls (P < 0.001). The number of preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells was 15% (P < 0.05) higher in HFD-fed mice than in controls, contrasting with ob/ob mice, having a 41% (P < 0.001) decrease. Both models of obesity had normal plasma levels of ghrelin but a decrease of its des-acylated form. Ghrelin-reactive IgG affinity was found in the micromolar range with mean values of the dissociation equilibrium constant 1.5-fold (P < 0.05) lower in HFD-fed versus control mice. Results from the present study showed that HFD in mice induces obesogenic changes, including increased numbers of ghrelin precursor-expressing cells and increased affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG. Such changes may contribute to the mechanisms of HFD-induced obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  16. Protection from High Fat Diet-induced Increase in Ceramide in Mice Lacking Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1*

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Charmi; Yang, Guang; Lee, Ian; Bielawski, Jacek; Yusuf A Hannun; Samad, Fahumiya

    2008-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and adipose tissue plays a central role in this process. Ceramide, the key intermediate of sphingolipid metabolism, also contributes to obesity-related disorders. We show that a high fat diet increased ceramide levels in the adipose tissues and plasma in C57BL/6J mice via a mechanism that involves an increase in gene expression of enzymes mediating ceramide generation through the de novo pathway (e.g. serine palmitoyltransfe...

  17. Colonic aberrant crypt formation accompanies an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to obesity and consumption of a high-fat western diet, but the mechanism underlying this relationship remains to be determined. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a high-fat diet promotes aberrant crypt (AC) format...

  18. Intrauterine Growth Retardation Increases the Susceptibility of Pigs to High-Fat Diet-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Yao, Ying; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW), and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22523560

  19. A high-fat diet increases risk of ventricular arrhythmia in female rats: enhanced arrhythmic risk in the absence of obesity or hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Marie-Claude; Cardin, Sophie; Comtois, Philippe; Clément, Robert; Gosselin, Hugues; Gillis, Marc-Antoine; Le Quang, Khaï; Nattel, Stanley; Perrault, Louis P; Calderone, Angelino

    2010-04-01

    Obesity increases the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and impairs wound healing. However, it is presently unknown whether a high-fat diet affects arrhythmic risk or wound healing before the onset of overt obesity or hyperlipidemia. After 8 wk of feeding a high-fat diet to adult female rats, a nonsignificant increase in body weight was observed and associated with a normal plasma lipid profile. Following ischemia/reperfusion injury, scar length (standard diet 0.29 +/- 0.09 vs. high-fat 0.32 +/- 0.13 cm), thickness (standard diet 0.047 +/- 0.02 vs. high-fat 0.059 +/- 0.01 cm), and collagen alpha(1) type 1 content (standard diet 0.21 +/- 0.04 vs. high-fat 0.20 +/- 0.04 arbitrary units/mm(2)) of infarcted hearts were not altered by the high-fat diet. However, the mortality rate was greatly increased 24 h postinfarction (from 5% to 46%, P diet. In the hearts of rats fed a high-fat diet, connexin-40 expression was absent, connexin-43 was hypophosphorylated and lateralized, and neurofilament-M immunoreactive fiber density (standard diet 2,020 +/- 260 vs. high-fat diet 2,830 +/- 250 microm(2)/mm(2)) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression were increased (P obesity and hyperlipidemia, sympathetic hyperinnervation and an aberrant pattern of gap junctional protein expression and regulation in the heart of female rats fed a high-fat diet may have contributed in part to the higher incidence of inducible cardiac arrhythmias.

  20. Maternal High Fructose Intake Increases the Vulnerability to Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2018-01-09

    Widespread consumption of high-fructose and high-fat diets relates to the global epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension may originate from early life by a combination of prenatal and postnatal nutritional insults. We examined whether maternal high-fructose diet increases vulnerability to post-weaning high-fructose or high-fat diets induced hypertension in adult offspring and determined the underlying mechanisms. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (ND) or chow supplemented with 60% fructose (HFR) during the entire pregnancy and lactation periods. Male offspring were onto either the regular chow, 60% fructose, or high-fat diet (HFA) from weaning to 12 weeks of age and assigned to four groups: ND/ND, HFR/ND, HFR/HFR, and HFR/HFA. Maternal high-fructose diet exacerbates post-weaning high-fat diet-induced programmed hypertension. Post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets similarly reduced Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkag2, Ppara, Pparb, and Ppargc1a mRNA expression in offspring kidneys exposed to maternal high-fructose intake. Additionally, post-weaning high-fat diet significantly reduced renal mRNA levels of Ulk1, Atg5, and Nrf2 and induced greater oxidative stress than did high-fructose diet. Although maternal high-fructose intake increases soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) expression in the kidney, which was restored by post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Maternal high-fructose diet programs differential vulnerability to developing hypertension in male offspring in response to post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Our data implicated that specific therapy targeting on nutrient sensing signals, oxidative stress, and SEH may be a promising approach to prevent hypertension in children and mothers exposed to high-fructose and high-fat consumption.

  1. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

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    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  2. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  3. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice

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    Cornelia Mardare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST or a high fat diet (HFD and subjected to regular endurance training (ET or resistance training (RT. After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs, circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p<0.05. An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p<0.05. Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p<0.05 and reduced serum ceramides (p<0.005. While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p<0.001, respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p<0.001, ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Increased bone resorption and impaired bone microarchitecture in short-term and extended high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Janina M; Kiefer, Florian W; Varga, Peter; Pail, Pamela; Rauner, Martina; Stupphann, Daniela; Resch, Heinrich; Moser, Doris; Zysset, Philippe K; Stulnig, Thomas M; Pietschmann, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Although obesity traditionally has been considered a condition of low risk for osteoporosis, this classic view has recently been questioned. The aim of this study was to assess bone microarchitecture and turnover in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n = 18) were randomized into 3 diet groups. One third (n = 6) received a low-fat diet for 24 weeks, one third was kept on an extended high-fat diet (eHF), and the remaining was switched from low-fat to high-fat chow 3 weeks before sacrifice (sHF). Serum levels of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, and cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) were measured. In addition, bone microarchitecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography; and lumbar spine bone density was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The CTX, body weight, insulin, and leptin were significantly elevated in obese animals (sHF: +48%, +24%, +265%, and +102%; eHF: +43%, +52%, +761%, and +292%). The CTX, body weight, insulin, and leptin showed a negative correlation with bone density and bone volume. Interestingly, short-term high-fat chow caused similar bone loss as extended high-fat feeding. Bone volume was decreased by 12% in sHF and 19% in eHF. Bone mineral density was 25% (sHF) and 27% (eHF) lower when compared with control mice on low-fat diet. As assessed by the structure model index, bone microarchitecture changed from plate- to rod-like appearance upon high-fat challenge. Trabecular and cortical thickness remained unaffected. Short-term and extended high-fat diet-induced obesity caused significant bone loss in male C57BL/6J mice mainly because of resorptive changes in trabecular architecture. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood free fatty acids were not increased in high-fat diet induced obese insulin-resistant animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junfeng; Wu, Yongjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Lu, Li; Wang, Li; Zhang, Baolai; Cui, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    The close connection between high blood FFA and insulin resistance (IR) in obese individuals is well-known. The purpose of this study was to identify whether the blood FFA increased in obese-IR animals. Obese-IR animal models were established using high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD and streptozocin, and treated with drugs. The serum FFA of obese-IR animals was not increased, even significantly lower than that of normal animals, and were not significantly decreased when insulin sensitivity and obesity-related indices were ameliorated after treatment. The results suggest that blood FFA are unlikely the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornayvaz, François R; Jurczak, Michael J; Lee, Hui-Young; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Frederick, David W; Zhang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xian-Man; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I

    2010-11-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P weight gain in mice, KD induces hepatic insulin resistance secondary to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content. Given the key role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of type 2 diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications.

  7. Ethanolic Extract of Taheebo Attenuates Increase in Body Weight and Fatty Liver in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage; the diet of experimental (TBE mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage. Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  8. Interleukin-18 null mutation increases weight and food intake and reduces energy expenditure and lipid substrate utilization in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Eric P; Conti, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) putatively modulates food intake and energy metabolism, but the effects of IL-18 in high-fat diet fed animals are unknown. Whether IL-18 alters basal metabolic rate or metabolic processes of living is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IL-18 modulates weight gain, energy intake, whole-body energy expenditure, and utilization of lipid as a fuel substrate in high-fat diet fed mice. Food intake, whole-body metabolism, and motor activity of IL-18 knockout mice were compared to those of wildtype littermates; anorectic effects of intracerebroventricular IL-18 administration were compared between IL-18 receptor knockout, IL-18/IL-18R knockout and wildtype mice. Chow-reared IL-18 knockout mice were overweight at 6 months of age and then gained excess weight on both low-fat and high-fat diets, ate more high-fat diet, and showed reduced whole-body energy expenditure and increased respiratory exchange ratios. Reductions in energy expenditure of IL-18 knockout mice were seen across fasting vs. feeding conditions, low- vs. high-fat diets, high vs. low levels of physical activity and times of day, suggesting actions on basal metabolic rate. The circadian amplitude of energy expenditure, but not respiratory exchange ratio, food intake, or motor activity, also was blunted in IL-18 knockout mice. Central IL-18 administration reduced high-fat diet intake in wildtype mice, but not in mice lacking the IL-18 receptor. The loss-of-function results support the hypothesis that endogenous IL-18 suppresses appetite and promote energy expenditure and lipid fuel substrate utilization not only during sickness, but also in healthy adults consuming high-fat diets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  10. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  11. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  12. Short-Term High-Fat Diet Increases Leptin Activation of CART Neurons and Advances Puberty in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Jade Cabestre; Margatho, Lisandra Oliveira; Rorato, Rodrigo; Rosales, Roberta Ribeiro Costa; Debarba, Lucas Kniess; Coletti, Ricardo; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Carol F; Elias, Lucila Leico K

    2017-11-01

    Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry; however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day (PN)21 and were studied at PN28 and PN32. The HFD increased body weight and plasma leptin concentrations and decreased the age at vaginal opening (HFD, 32 ± 0.53 days; RD, 38 ± 0.67 days). Similar colocalization of neurokinin B and dynorphin in Kiss1-hrGFP neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was observed between the HFD and RD groups. The HFD increased CART expression in the ARC and Kiss1 messenger RNA expression in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV)/anterior periventricular (Pe). The HFD also increased the number of ARC CART neurons expressing leptin-induced phosphorylated STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at PN32. Close apposition of CART fibers to Kiss1-hrGFP neurons was observed in the ARC of both RD- and HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, these data reinforce the notion that a HFD increases kisspeptin expression in the AVPV/Pe and advances puberty initiation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the HFD-induced earlier puberty is associated with an increase in CART expression in the ARC. Therefore, these data indicate that CART neurons in the ARC can mediate the effect of leptin on Kiss1 neurons in early puberty induced by a HFD. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  13. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ...) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase...

  14. Cinnamomum cassia Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice through the Increase of Muscle Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi Young; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Anna; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Yong-Ki; Jung, Hyo Won

    2017-01-01

    The cortex of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Cinnamomi Cortex: CC) has commonly been used for weight control in traditional medicines, but without a scientific basis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the anti-obesity effect of CC extract in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD for 16 consecutive weeks, and orally administered CC extract (100 or 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) or metformin (250[Formula: see text]mg/kg; positive control) daily for 16 weeks. CC extract administration significantly decreased body weights, food intakes, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and ALT levels, prevented oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, inhibited the protein expressions of MyHC and PGC1[Formula: see text] and the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppressed lipid accumulation in liver, decreased adipocyte size and increased muscle mass in obese mice. For this in vitro study, C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into the myotubes for five days, and then treated with CC extract (0.1 or 0.2[Formula: see text]mg/ml) for 24[Formula: see text]h. CC extract significantly increased ATP levels by increasing the mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors, such as, PGC1[Formula: see text], NRF-1, and Tfam, and the phosphorylations of AMPK and ACC. Our results suggest CC extract controls weight gain in obese mice by inhibiting lipid accumulation and increasing energy expenditure, and that its action mechanism involves the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells.

  15. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (Pdiet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Berberine treatment increases Akkermansia in the gut and improves high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Danying; Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jimin; Weng, Shuqiang; Dong, Ling; Liu, Taotao; Hu, Yu; Shen, Xizhong

    2018-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a major role in metabolic disorders. Berberine is used to treat obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The mechanism underlying the role of berberine in modulating metabolic disorders is not fully clear because berberine has poor oral bioavailability. Thus, we evaluated whether the antiatherosclerotic effect of berberine is related to alterations in gut microbial structure and if so, whether specific bacterial taxa contribute to the beneficial effects of berberine. Apoe-/- mice were fed either a normal-chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). Berberine was administered to mice in drinking water (0.5 g/L) for 14 weeks. Gut microbiota profiles were established by high throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effects of berberine on metabolic endotoxemia, tissue inflammation and gut barrier integrity were also investigated. Berberine treatment significantly reduced atherosclerosis in HFD-fed mice. Akkermansia spp. abundance was markedly increased in HFD-fed mice treated with berberine. Moreover, berberine decreased HFD-induced metabolic endotoxemia and lowered arterial and intestinal expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Berberine treatment increased intestinal expression of tight junction proteins and the thickness of the colonic mucus layer, which are related to restoration of gut barrier integrity in HFD-fed mice. Modulation of gut microbiota, specifically an increase in the abundance of Akkermansia, may contribute to the antiatherosclerotic and metabolic protective effects of berberine, which is poorly absorbed orally. Our findings therefore support the therapeutic value of gut microbiota manipulation in treating atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  18. Trans fat feeding results in higher serum alanine aminotransferase and increased insulin resistance compared with a standard murine high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Sean W P; Elias, Marc; Moseley, Richard H; Green, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    Diets high in trans fats are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. The influence of these toxic fatty acids on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has not been significantly examined. Therefore, we sought to compare the effect of a murine diet high in trans fat to a standard high-fat diet that is devoid of trans fats but high in saturated fats. Male AKR/J mice were fed a calorically identical trans fat diet or standard high-fat diet for 10 days, 4 wk, and 8 wk. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipid, insulin, and leptin levels were determined and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated as a measure of insulin resistance. Additionally, hepatic triglyceride content and gene expression of several proinflammatory genes were assessed. By 8 wk, trans fat-fed mice exhibited higher ALT values than standard high-fat-fed mice (126 +/- 16 vs. 71 +/- 7 U/l, P Trans fat-fed mice also had increased insulin resistance compared with high-fat-fed mice at 4 and 8 wk with significantly higher insulin levels and lower QUICKI values. Additionally, hepatic interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene expression was 3.6-fold higher at 4 wk (P trans fat-fed mice compared with standard high-fat-fed mice. Trans fat feeding results in higher ALT values, increased insulin resistance, and elevated IL-1beta levels compared with standard high-fat feeding.

  19. High-Fat Diet Reduces the Formation of Butyrate, but Increases Succinate, Inflammation, Liver Fat and Cholesterol in Rats, while Dietary Fibre Counteracts These Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Xu, Jie; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. Objective To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Material and Methods Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin – acetic acid; guar gum – propionic acid; or a mixture – butyric acid). At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. Results and Discussion Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet. PMID:24236183

  20. Aberrant crypt formation accompanies an increase of opportunistic pathogens/bacteria in the inflammatory gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity and high fat diet are risk factors for colon cancer, but the mechanism of this relationship remains to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that a high fat diet promotes the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, preneoplastic lesions) in a manner associated with changes in hindgut bacter...

  1. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Agavins Increase Neurotrophic Factors and Decrease Oxidative Stress in the Brains of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Franco-Robles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fructans obtained from agave, called agavins, have recently shown significant benefits for human health including obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of agavins as neuroprotectors and antioxidants by determining their effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF as well as oxidative brain damage in of obese mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD and treated daily with 5% (HFD/A5 or 10% (HFD/A10 of agavins or a standard diet (SD for 10 weeks. The levels of BDNF and GDNF were evaluated by ELISA. The oxidative stress was evaluated by lipid peroxidation (TBARS and carbonyls. SCFAs were also measured with GC-FID. Differences between groups were assessed using ANOVA and by Tukey’s test considering p < 0.05. Results: The body weight gain and food intake of mice HFD/A10 group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. Agavins restored BDNF levels in HFD/A5 group and GDNF levels of HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 groups in cerebellum. Interestingly, agavins decreased TBARS levels in HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 groups in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum. Carbonyl levels were also lower in HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 for only the hippocampus and cerebellum. It was also found that agavins enhanced SCFAs production in feces. Conclusion: Agavins may act as bioactive ingredients with antioxidant and protective roles in the brain.

  3. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in Lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). They have also been shown to induce changes in the gut microbiome, metabolic products of which have also been linked to NAFLD. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat fee...

  4. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  5. High-fat diet causes increased serum insulin and glucose which synergistically lead to renal tubular lipid deposition and extracellular matrix accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jun; Liu, Shu-Xia; Zhao, Song; Liu, Qing-Juan; Liu, Wei; Duan, Hui-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Renal tubular lipid accumulation is associated with renal injury in the metabolic syndrome, but its mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the exact mechanism of renal tubular lipid accumulation in the diet-induced metabolic syndrome. The in vivo experiments showed that a high-fat diet induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia, subsequent increases in sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), lipid droplet deposit in renal tubular cells and interstitial extracellular matrix accumulation in Wistar rats. A human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HKC) was used to determine the direct role of insulin, and the results revealed that insulin induced SREBP-1, fatty acid synthase (FASN), TGF-β1 expressions, lipid droplet and extracellular matrix deposits. Knockdown of SREBP-1 by RNA interference technology significantly inhibited FASN, TGF-β1 up-regulation, lipid and extracellular matrix accumulation caused by insulin. In addition, we found that insulin and high glucose could synergistically increase SREBP-1, FASN, TGF-β1 and fibronectin expressions in HKC cells. These results indicate that high-fat diet-induced increased serum insulin and glucose synergistically cause renal tubular lipid deposit and extracellular matrix accumulation via the SREBP-1 pathway.

  6. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

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    Orison O Woolcott

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia.To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets.Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9 for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7.Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01. In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05, concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg, islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705. No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups were found.In canines, high-fat diet

  7. Increased hepatic fatty acid polyunsaturation precedes ectopic lipid deposition in the liver in adaptation to high-fat diets in mice.

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    Soares, Ana Francisca; Duarte, João M N; Gruetter, Rolf

    2017-10-12

    We monitored hepatic lipid content (HLC) and fatty acid (FA) composition in the context of enhanced lipid handling induced by a metabolic high-fat diet (HFD) challenge and fasting. Mice received a control diet (10% of kilocalories from fat, N = 14) or an HFD (45% or 60% of kilocalories from fat, N = 10 and N = 16, respectively) for 26 weeks. A subset of five mice receiving an HFD (60% of kilocalories from fat) were switched to the control diet for the final 7 weeks. At nine time points, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in vivo at 14.1 T, interleaved with glucose tolerance tests. Glucose intolerance promptly developed with the HFD, followed by a progressive increase of fasting insulin level, simultaneously with that of HLC. These metabolic defects were normalized by dietary reversal. HFD feeding immediately increased polyunsaturation of hepatic FA, before lipid accumulation. Fasting-induced changes in hepatic lipids (increased HLC and FA polyunsaturation, decreased FA monounsaturation) in control-diet-fed mice were not completely reproduced in HFD-fed mice, not even after dietary reversal. A similar adaptation of hepatic lipids to both fasting and an HFD suggests common mechanisms of lipid trafficking from adipose tissue to the liver. Altered hepatic lipid handling with fasting indicates imperfect metabolic recovery from HFD exposure.

  8. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

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    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Loss of microRNA-22 prevents high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia and increases energy expenditure without affecting cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Liu, Jianming; Chen, Jinghai; Ding, Jian; Fonseca, Renata Inzinna; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Donato, Jose; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2017-12-15

    Obesity is associated with development of diverse diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. MiRNA-22 (miR-22) is a critical regulator of cardiac function and targets genes involved in metabolic processes. Previously, we generated miR-22 null mice and we showed that loss of miR-22 blunted cardiac hypertrophy induced by mechanohormornal stress. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-22 in the cardiac and metabolic alterations promoted by high-fat (HF) diet. We found that loss of miR-22 attenuated the gain of fat mass and prevented dyslipidemia induced by HF diet, although the body weight gain, or glucose intolerance and insulin resistance did not seem to be affected. Mechanistically, loss of miR-22 attenuated the increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation mediated by HF diet. Similarly, we found that miR-22 mediates metabolic alterations and inflammation induced by obesity in the liver. However, loss of miR-22 did not appear to alter HF diet induced cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis in the heart. Our study therefore establishes miR-22 as an important regulator of dyslipidemia and suggests it may serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Cocos nucifera water improves metabolic functions in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rats.

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    Kunle-Alabi, Olufadekemi T; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Raji, Yinusa

    2017-10-09

    Maternal high fat diet has been implicated in the aetiology of metabolic diseases in their offspring. The hypolipidaemic actions of Cocos nucifera water improve metabolic indices of dams consuming a high fat diet during gestation. This study investigated the effects of C. nucifera water on metabolism of offspring of dams exposed to high fat diet during gestation. Four groups of pregnant Wistar rat dams (n=6) were treated orally from Gestation Day (GD) 1 to GD 21 as follows: standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (Control), standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water, high fat feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (high fat diet), and high fat feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water (high fat diet+C. nucifera water). The feeds were given ad libitum and all dams received standard rodent feed after parturition. Fasting blood glucose was measured in offspring before being euthanized on Postnatal Day (PND) 120. Serum insulin, leptin, lipid profile and liver enzymes were measured. Serum total cholesterol (TC), insulin, alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased (pfat diet offspring compared with controls. Similar changes were not observed in high fat diet+C. nucifera water offspring. Results suggest that the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring's metabolism can be ameliorated by C. nucifera water.

  11. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin W.; Anekonda, Vishwanath T.; Ho, Jacqueline M.; Graham, James L.; Roberts, Zachary S.; Hwang, Bang H.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Havel, Peter J.; Bales, Karen L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26791828

  12. Incidence of pancreatic cancer is dramatically increased by a high fat, high calorie diet in KrasG12D mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Hua; Moro, Aune; Takakura, Kazuki; Su, Hsin-Yuan; Mo, Allen; Nakanishi, Masako; Waldron, Richard T; French, Samuel W; Dawson, David W; Hines, O Joe; Li, Gang; Go, Vay Liang W; Sinnett-Smith, James; Pandol, Stephen J; Lugea, Aurelia; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Duff, Michael O; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic data has linked obesity to a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To allow for detailed mechanistic studies in a relevant model mimicking diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer, a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD) was given to P48+/Cre;LSL-KRASG12D (KC) mice carrying a pancreas-specific oncogenic Kras mutation. The mice were randomly allocated to a HFCD or control diet (CD). Cohorts were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months and tissues were harvested for further analysis. Compared to CD-fed mice, HFCD-fed animals gained significantly more weight. Importantly, the cancer incidence was remarkably increased in HFCD-fed KC mice, particularly in male KC mice. In addition, KC mice fed the HFCD showed more extensive inflammation and fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions in the pancreas, compared to age-matched CD-fed animals. Interestingly, we found that the HFCD reduced autophagic flux in PanIN lesions in KC mice. Further, exome sequencing of isolated murine PanIN lesions identified numerous genetic variants unique to the HFCD. These data underscore the role of sustained inflammation and dysregulated autophagy in diet-induced pancreatic cancer development and suggest that diet-induced genetic alterations may contribute to this process. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link in males and females, and will facilitate the development of interventions targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer.

  13. Incidence of pancreatic cancer is dramatically increased by a high fat, high calorie diet in KrasG12D mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Chang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic data has linked obesity to a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To allow for detailed mechanistic studies in a relevant model mimicking diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer, a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD was given to P48+/Cre;LSL-KRASG12D (KC mice carrying a pancreas-specific oncogenic Kras mutation. The mice were randomly allocated to a HFCD or control diet (CD. Cohorts were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months and tissues were harvested for further analysis. Compared to CD-fed mice, HFCD-fed animals gained significantly more weight. Importantly, the cancer incidence was remarkably increased in HFCD-fed KC mice, particularly in male KC mice. In addition, KC mice fed the HFCD showed more extensive inflammation and fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions in the pancreas, compared to age-matched CD-fed animals. Interestingly, we found that the HFCD reduced autophagic flux in PanIN lesions in KC mice. Further, exome sequencing of isolated murine PanIN lesions identified numerous genetic variants unique to the HFCD. These data underscore the role of sustained inflammation and dysregulated autophagy in diet-induced pancreatic cancer development and suggest that diet-induced genetic alterations may contribute to this process. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link in males and females, and will facilitate the development of interventions targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer.

  14. Caralluma fimbriata and metformin protection of rat pancreas from high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

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    Sudhakara, G; Mallaiah, P; Rajendran, R; Saralakumari, D

    2018-02-01

    A high fat diet promotes oxidative stress, which contributes to the development of pancreatic fibrosis. We compared the protective effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) to metformin (Met) in the pancreas of Wistar rats fed a high fat diet. The experimental animals were divided into five groups: control (C), treated with CFE (C + CFE), treated with high fat diet (HFD), high fat diet treated with CFE (HFD + CFE), and high fat diet treated with metformin (Met) (HFD + Met). CFE was administered orally to groups C + CFE and HFD + CFE rats for 90 days. Met was given to the HFD + Met group. After 90 days, oxidative stress markers in the pancreas including reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid oxidation (LO), protein oxidation (PO), and activities of antioxidant and polyol pathway enzymes, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were assayed and tissue histology was examined. Establishment of oxidative stress in high fat diet fed rats was verified by elevated LO and PO, decreased GSH, decreased activities of antioxidants and increased activities of polyol pathway enzymes. Oxidative stress was prevented in HFD + CFE and HFD + Met groups. Group C + CFE exhibited improved antioxidant status compared to group C. CFE treatment prevented high fat diet induced acinar cell degeneration, necrosis, edema and hemorrhage. CFE could be used as adjuvant therapy for preventing or managing high fat diet induced pancreatic damage.

  15. Ficus carica leaf extract modulates the lipid profile of rats fed with a high-fat diet through an increase of HDL-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerin, Lorenz; Kauschka, Michaela; Bonnländer, Bernd; Pischel, Ivo; Benedek, Birgit; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-02-01

    Ficus carica has been traditionally used for the treatment of several metabolic syndrome-related health problems. It was the objective of this study to investigate the preventive effects of a Ficus carica (FC) leaf extract on hyperlipidemia in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were fed with a regular diet, HFD or a HFD + oral treatment of either 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg of FC or 30 mg/kg pioglitazone for six weeks. A range of parameters was evaluated including body weight development, plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), adiponectin, leptin, glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), atherogenic index (AI) and the coronary risk index (CRI). FC significantly lowered TG and IL-6 levels and elevated HDL cholesterol (p lipid parameters were more pronounced than those of the positive control pioglitazone. FC significantly lowered AI and CRI (p lipid profile and decreased adipogenic risk factors in HFD rats most likely mediated through an increase in HDL-C levels. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A high-dose Shiitake mushroom increases hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol in rats fed a high-fat diet: underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Dian; Meyer, Barbara J; Chen, Jiezhong; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-02-12

    Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Forty Wistar rats were divided into control group were given HFD and treatment group were fed HFD, enriched with Shiitake mushroom powder at a low dose (LD-M): 0.7%, medium dose (MD-M): 2%, or high dose (HD-M): 6% (wt:wt) for six weeks. Diets were isocaloric containing ~50% energy from fat. After six weeks' dietary intervention, the rats were sacrificed, and blood and tissue samples were collected. The HD-M group showed a significantly higher ratio of liver weight to 100 g body weight (p mushroom dosage and the ratio of liver PC to PE. This study showed the mechanism of how high-dose Shiitake mushroom (HD-M) prevents obesity by increasing TAG accumulation in the liver, rather than adipose tissue.

  17. Evolution from increased cardiac mechanical function towards cardiomyopathy in the obese rat due to unbalanced high fat and abundant equilibrated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourmoura Evangelia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to know whether high dietary energy intake (HDEI with equilibrated and unbalanced diets in term of lipid composition modify the fatty acid profile of cardiac phospholipids and function of various cardiac cells and to know if the changes in membrane lipid composition can explain the modifications of cellular activity. Wistar rats were fed either a control or high-fat (HF diet for 12 weeks and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats as well as their lean littermate (ZL a control diet between week 7 to 11 of their life. Energy intake and abdominal obesity was increased in HF-fed and ZDF rats. Circulating lipids were also augmented in both strains although hyperglycemia was noticed only in ZDF rats. HDEI induced a decrease in linoleate and increase in arachidonate in membrane phospholipids which was more pronounced in the ZDF rats compared to the HF-fed rats. In vivo cardiac function (CF was improved in HF-fed rats whereas ex vivo cardiac function was unchanged, suggesting that environmental factors such as catecholamines stimulated the in vivo CF. The unchanged ex vivo CF was associated with an increased cardiac mass which indicated development of fibrosis and/or hypertrophy. The increased in vivo CF was sustained by an augmented coronary reserve which was related to the cyclooxygenase pathway and accumulation of arachidonate in membrane phospholipids. In conclusion, before triggering a diabetic cardiomyopathy, HDEI stimulated the CF. The development of cardiomyopathy seems to result from fibrosis and/or hypertrophy which augments myocardial stiffness and decreases contractility.

  18. Wheat alkylresorcinols suppress high-fat, high-sucrose diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance by increasing insulin sensitivity and cholesterol excretion in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Itoh, Nanako; Nakao, Reiko; Yasumoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Fukudome, Shin-ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms remain a matter of debate. We aimed to determine the effects of wheat bran-derived alkylresorcinols on diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice. We fed C57BL/6J mice a normal refined diet or a high-fat, high-sucrose diet [29.1% fat, 20.7% protein, 34.0% carbohydrates containing 20.0% sucrose (w/w)] alone (FS) or containing 0.4% (wt:wt) alkylresorcinols (FS-AR) for 10 wk. The alkylresorcinols suppressed FS-induced increases in body weight by 31.0% as well as FS-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation (means ± SEMs: 29.6 ± 3.18 and 19.8 ± 2.42 mg/g tissue in the FS and FS-AR groups, respectively), without affecting energy intake. We measured circadian changes in blood metabolic hormones and found that FS-induced hyperinsulinemia (5.1 and 2.1 μg/L at night in the FS and FS-AR groups, respectively) and hyperleptinemia (21.6 and 10.8 μg/L at night in the FS and FS-AR groups, respectively) were suppressed by alkylresorcinols. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that alkylresorcinols significantly reduced fasting blood glucose concentrations (190 ± 3.62 and 160 ± 8.98 mg/dL in the FS and FS-AR groups, respectively) and suppressed glucose intolerance as well as insulin resistance induced by the FS diet. Furthermore, alkylresorcinols significantly increased insulin-stimulated hepatic serine/threonine protein kinase B phosphorylation compared to the FS diet (+81.3% and +57.4% for Ser473 and Thr308, respectively). On the other hand, pyruvate and starch tolerance tests suggested that alkylresorcinols did not affect gluconeogenesis and carbohydrate digestion, respectively. Alkylresorcinols significantly increased fecal cholesterol excretion by 39.6% and reduced blood cholesterol concentrations by 30.4%, while upregulating the expression of hepatic cholesterol

  19. PODOCYTE-SPECIFIC OVEREXPRESSION OF SIRT-1 INCREASES NEPHRIN IN OBESE MICE FED A HIGH-FAT DIET

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    Han Byoung-Geun

    2012-06-01

    Taken together the results, deterioration of the kidney disease caused by obesity and hyperglycemia could be prevented by increasing the level of the nephrin expression through SIRT-1 activation. SIRT-1 may have the ability to protect the podocyte from injuries caused by obesity and hyperglycemia.

  20. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet increases weight gain and does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or β-cell mass in NZO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, B J; Waters, M F; Andrikopoulos, S

    2016-02-15

    Dietary guidelines for the past 20 years have recommended that dietary fat should be minimized. In contrast, recent studies have suggested that there could be some potential benefits for reducing carbohydrate intake in favor of increased fat. It has also been suggested that low-carbohydrate diets be recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, whether such diets can improve glycemic control will likely depend on their ability to improve β-cell function, which has not been studied. The objective of the study was to assess whether a low-carbohydrate and therefore high-fat diet (LCHFD) is beneficial for improving the endogenous insulin secretory response to glucose in prediabetic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice. NZO mice were maintained on either standard rodent chow or an LCHFD from 6 to 15 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and blood glucose were assessed weekly. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also assessed after fasting and re-feeding and during an oral glucose tolerance test. The capacity of pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin was assessed in vivo with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. β-Cell mass was assessed in histological sections of pancreata collected at the end of the study. In NZO mice, an LCHFD reduced plasma triglycerides (P=0.001) but increased weight gain (P<0.0001), adipose tissue mass (P=0.0015), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.044) and exacerbated glucose intolerance (P=0.013). Although fasting insulin levels tended to be higher (P=0.08), insulin secretory function in LCHFD-fed mice was not improved (P=0.93) nor was β-cell mass (P=0.75). An LCHFD is unlikely to be of benefit for preventing the decline in β-cell function associated with the progression of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.

  1. A High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet Induces Antioxidant Imbalance and Increases the Risk and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

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    Kanokwan Jarukamjorn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat liver is an important manifestation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD on mRNA levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, were determined in mouse livers and brains. The histomorphology of the livers was examined and the state of nonenzymatic reducing system was evaluated by measuring the glutathione system and the lipid peroxidation. Histopathology of the liver showed that fat accumulation and inflammation depended on the period of the HFFD-consumption. The levels of mRNA and enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx were raised, followed by the increases in malondialdehyde levels in livers and brains of the HFFD mice. The oxidized GSSG content was increased while the total GSH and the reduced GSH were decreased, resulting in the increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio in both livers and brains of the HFFD mice. These observations suggested that liver damage and oxidative stress in the significant organs were generated by continuous HFFD-consumption. Imbalance of antioxidant condition induced by long-term HFFD-consumption might increase the risk and progression of NAFLD.

  2. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

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    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  3. Catechins inhibit atherosclerosis in male rats on a high fat diet

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    Erna Susanti

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet increases eNOS expression, decreases PI3K expression, and increases p38 MAPK activity. Administration of catechin decreases eNOS expression, increases PI3K expression, and decreases p38 MAPK activity.

  4. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nunes-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD- induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg−1/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  5. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Souza, Valéria; César-Gomes, Cheila Juliana; Da Fonseca, Lucas José Sá; Guedes, Glaucevane Da Silva; Smaniotto, Salete; Rabelo, Luíza Antas

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD-) induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg(-1)/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  6. Obesity Resistance and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Ahnak-/- Mice Fed a High Fat Diet Are Related to Impaired Adipogenesis and Increased Energy Expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Shin

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that AHNAK expression is altered in obesity, although its role in adipose tissue development remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which Ahnak influences adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis.We investigated the in vitro role of AHNAK in adipogenesis using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs and C3H10T1/2 cells. AHNAK-KO male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% calories from fat and examined for glucose and insulin tolerances, for body fat compositions, and by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping. Energy expenditures were assessed using metabolic cages and by measuring the expression levels of genes involved in thermogenesis in white or brown adipose tissues.Adipogenesis in ADSCs was impaired in AHNAK-KO mice. The loss of AHNAK led to decreased BMP4/SMAD1 signaling, resulting in the downregulation of key regulators of adipocyte differentiation (P<0.05. AHNAK directly interacted with SMAD1 on the Pparγ2 promoter. Concomitantly, HFD-fed AHNAK-KO mice displayed reduced hepatosteatosis and improved metabolic profiles, including improved glucose tolerance (P<0.001, enhanced insulin sensitivity (P<0.001, and increased energy expenditure (P<0.05, without undergoing alterations in food intake and physical activity.AHNAK plays a crucial role in body fat accumulation by regulating adipose tissue development via interaction with the SMAD1 protein and can be involved in metabolic homeostasis.

  7. Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet on Offspring Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jesselea Carlin; Robert George; Reyes, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation cou...

  8. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  10. Ultraviolet light-C increases antioxidant capacity of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) in vitro and in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Solís, Cecilia I; Sandoval-Salazar, Cuauhtémoc; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Maldonado-Aguilera, Genaro A; Aguilar-Zavala, Herlinda; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Pérez-Vázquez, Victoriano; Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids and polyphenols from the strawberry and other fruits have been proposed to reduce the oxidative stress produced by the obesity and her complications. Moreover, it has been proposed that irradiation with UV-C to strawberry may increase the antioxidant capacity of this fruit. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of the UV-C on antioxidant capacity of strawberry in vitro and in vivo. Strawberry slices were irradiated with ultraviolet light-C (UV-C) at 1.2 W/m 2 /16.5 min; then, the power antioxidant was isolated from the nonirradiated and irradiated strawberry slices into an organic phase, which was lyophilized to finally producing a nonirradiated strawberry extract (NSE) and UV-irradiated strawberry extract (UViSE) powder. After the antioxidant capacity of both extracts were determined in vitro using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and in vivo using high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Our results demonstrated that irradiation with UV-C to strawberry slices increased the antioxidants content, which was corroborated in vitro, where the antioxidant capacity of UViSE was higher than the NSE. However, in obese rats, the reduction in the oxidative damage by the UViSE and NSE were similar in peripheral tissues. Interestingly, the UViSE was better than the NSE to reduce the oxidative damage in brain. In conclusion, UV-irradiation increases the antioxidants content of strawberry that is correlated with an increased antioxidant capacity in vitro, but in rats, this antioxidant capacity may be more effective in brain than in peripheral tissues.

  11. High-Fat-Diet-Induced Deficits in Dopamine Terminal Function Are Reversed by Restoring Insulin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordahl, Steve C; Jones, Sara R

    2017-02-15

    Systemically released insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to insulin receptors on several neural cell types, including dopaminergic neurons. Insulin has been shown to decrease dopamine neuron firing in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but potentiate release and reuptake at dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here we show that prolonged consumption of a high fat diet blocks insulin's effects in the NAc, but insulin's effects are restored by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which supports insulin receptor signaling. Mice fed a high fat diet (60% kcals from fat) displayed significantly higher fasting blood glucose 160 mg/dL, compared to 101 mg/dL for control-diet-fed mice, and high-fat-diet-fed mice showed reduced blood glucose clearance after an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry to measure electrically evoked dopamine in brain slices containing the NAc core, high-fat-diet-fed mice exhibited slower dopamine reuptake compared to control-diet-fed mice (2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.67 ± 0.15 μM/s, respectively). Moreover, glucose clearance rate was negatively correlated with Vmax. Insulin (10 nM to 1 μM) dose dependently increased reuptake rates in control-diet-fed mice compared with in the high-fat-diet group; however, the small molecule insulin receptor sensitizing agent, TCS 401 (300 nM), restored reuptake in high-fat-diet-fed mice to control-diet levels, and a small molecule inhibitor of the insulin receptor, BMS 536924 (300 nM), attenuated reuptake, similar to high-fat-diet-fed mice. These data show that a high-fat diet impairs dopamine reuptake by attenuating insulin signaling at dopamine terminals.

  12. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Gratz, Silvia W; Peinado, Diana I; Thomson, Lynn M; Garden, Karen E; Williams, Patricia A; Richardson, Anthony J; Ross, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity.

  13. Increased intramyocellular lipid/impaired insulin sensitivity is associated with altered lipid metabolic genes in muscle of high responders to a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Saori; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Takeno, Kageumi; Sakurai, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Minako; Watanabe, Takahiro; Funayama, Takashi; Sato, Fumihiko; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi; Kanazawa, Akio; Fujitani, Yoshio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) is recognized as an important determinant of insulin resistance, and is increased by a high-fat diet (HFD). However, the effects of HFD on IMCL and insulin sensitivity are highly variable. The aim of this study was to identify the genes in muscle that are related to this inter-individual variation. Fifty healthy men were recruited for this study. Before and after HFD for 3 days, IMCL levels in the tibialis anterior were measured by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and peripheral insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose infusion rate (GIR) during the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Subjects who showed a large increase in IMCL and a large decrease in GIR by HFD were classified as high responders (HRs), and subjects who showed a small increase in IMCL and a small decrease in GIR were classified as low responders (LRs). In five subjects from each group, the gene expression profile of the vastus lateralis muscle was analyzed by DNA microarray analysis. Before HFD, gene expression profiles related to lipid metabolism were comparable between the two groups. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis demonstrated that five gene sets related to lipid metabolism were upregulated by HFD in the HR group but not in the LR group. Changes in gene expression patterns were confirmed by qRT-PCR using more samples (LR, n = 9; HR, n = 11). These results suggest that IMCL accumulation/impaired insulin sensitivity after HFD is closely associated with changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in muscle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. CaMKII Activation Promotes Cardiac Electrical Remodeling and Increases the Susceptibility to Arrhythmia Induction in High-fat Diet-Fed Mice With Hyperlipidemia Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peng; Quan, Dajun; Huang, Yan; Huang, He

    2017-10-01

    Obesity/hyperlipidemia is closely related to both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. CaMKII, a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, has been involved in cardiac arrhythmias of different etiologies. However, its role in obesity/hyperlipidemia-related cardiac arrhythmia is unexplored. The aim of this was to determine the involvement of CaMKII in the process. Adult male APOE mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), administrated with KN93 (10 mg·kg·2d), a specific inhibitor of CaMKII. Serum lipid and glucose profile, cardiac function, and surface electrocardiogram were determined. Electrophysiological study and epicardial activation mapping were performed in Langendorff-perfused heart. Expression of cardiac ion channels, gap junction proteins, Ca handling proteins, and CaMKII were evaluated, coupled with histological analysis. A hyperlipidemia condition was induced by HFD in the APOE mice, which was associated with increased expression and activity of CaMKII in the hearts. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, HFD-induced heart showed increased arrhythmia inducibility, prolonged action potential duration, and decreased action potential duration alternans thresholds, coupled with slow ventricular conduction, connexin-43 upregulation, and interstitial fibrosis. Downregulation of ion channels including Cav1.2 and Kv4.2/Kv4.3 and disturbed Ca handling proteins were also observed in HFD-induced heart. Interestingly, all these alterations were significantly inhibited by KN93 treatment. Our results demonstrated an adverse effect of metabolic components on cardiac electrophysiology and implicated an important role of CaMKII underlying this process.

  15. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Prüller, Florian; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Ainödhofer, Herwig; Pailer, Sabine; Kieslinger, Petra; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Cvirn, Gerhard; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-07-10

    Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30) and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased-and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased-ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  16. Effects of high fat diet on incidence of spontaneous tumors in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KRISTIANSEN, E.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    . There was no difference in food consumption, body weight, weight gain, and longevity between the two groups. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumors in the high-fat group was seen in fibroadenoma of the mammae (female, p = 0.05). No statistically significant difference was seen when the incidence...... of benign mammary tumors (adenomas and fibroadenomas) was combined, just as the overall incidence of mammary tumors (adenomas, fibroadenomas, and adenocarcinomas) was not significantly different between the groups. A statistically significant decrease in the incidence of tumors in the high-fat group...... of cancer. It should be noted that, in our study, fat accounted for about 30% of the total energy in the high-fat diet. This is much below the amount of fat normally found in the western diet but corresponds well to the level recommended for human intake. In addition, the rats fed the high-fat diet did...

  17. Nicotine plus a high-fat diet triggers cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C; Falz, Mark; Chalfant, Victor; Hasan, Mohammad Kamrul; Espinoza-Derout, Jorge; Lee, Desean L; Sims, Carl; Tran, Peter; Mahata, Sushil K; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be aggravated by obesity. Smoking might also trigger cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis. Given that CM apoptosis has been implicated as a potential mechanism in the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure, we characterize the key signaling pathways in nicotine plus high-fat diet (HFD)-induced CM apoptosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD and received twice-daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight [BW]) or saline for 16 weeks. An additional group of nicotine-treated mice on HFD received twice-daily IP injections of mecamylamine (1 mg/kg BW), a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, for 16 weeks. Nicotine when combined with HFD led to a massive increase in CM apoptosis that was fully prevented by mecamylamine treatment. Induction of CM apoptosis was associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic pathway signaling coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, nicotine treatment significantly (P nicotine, when combined with HFD, triggers CM apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress and inactivation of AMPK together with the activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic apoptotic signaling independently of FGF21 and SIRT1.

  18. RS4-type resistant starch prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity via increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation and decreased postprandial GIP in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotoyodome, Akira; Suzuki, Junko; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2010-03-01

    Chemically modified starches (CMS) are RS4-type resistant starch, which shows a reduced availability, as well as high-amylose corn starch (HACS, RS2 type), compared with the corresponding unmodified starch. Previous studies have shown that RS4 increases fecal excretion of bile acids and reduces zinc and iron absorption in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RS4 supplementation on the development of diet-induced obesity in mice. Weight- and age-matched male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 24 wk on a high-fat diet containing unmodified starch, hydroxypropylated distarch phosphate (RS4), or HACS (RS2). Those fed the RS4 diet had significantly lower body weight and visceral fat weight than those fed either unmodified starch or the RS2 diet. Those fed the RS4 diet for 4 wk had a significantly higher hepatic fatty acid oxidation capacity and related gene expression and lower blood insulin than those fed either unmodified starch or the RS2 diet. Indirect calorimetry showed that the RS4 group exhibited higher energy expenditure and fat utilization compared with the RS2 group. When gavaged with fat (trioleate), RS4 stimulated a lower postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; incretin) response than RS2. Higher blood GIP levels induced by chronic GIP administration reduced fat utilization in high-fat diet-fed mice. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RS4-type resistant starch attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity more effectively than RS2 in C57BL/6J mice, which may be attributable to lower postprandial GIP and increased fat catabolism in the liver.

  19. High-fat and ketogenic diets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2013-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Epidemiologic data suggest that malnutrition is a common feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and being overweight or obese confers a survival advantage in this patient population. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse models, a high-fat diet has been shown to lead to weight gain and prolonged survival. However, little research has been conducted to test whether nutritional interventions might ameliorate the disease course in humans. Here we review the currently available evidence supporting the potential role of dietary interventions as a therapeutic tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ultimately, determining whether a high-fat or ketogenic diet could be beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will require large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

  20. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  1. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  2. High-Fat Diet Changes Fungal Microbiomes and Interkingdom Relationships in the Murine Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Timothy; Montassier, Emmanuel; Johnson, Abigail; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel; Lin, Yi-Wei; Wei, Li-Na; Knights, Dan; Gale, Cheryl A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat intake and shifts in gut bacterial community composition are associated with the development of obesity. To date, characterization of microbiota in lean versus obese subjects has been dominated by studies of gut bacteria. Fungi, recently shown to affect gut inflammation, have received little study for their role in obesity. We sought to determine the effects of high-fat diet on fungal and bacterial community structures in a mouse model using the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria. Mice fed a high-fat diet had significantly different abundances of 19 bacterial and 6 fungal taxa than did mice fed standard chow, with high-fat diet causing similar magnitudes of change in overall fungal and bacterial microbiome structures. We observed strong and complex diet-specific coabundance relationships between intra- and interkingdom microbial pairs and dramatic reductions in the number of coabundance correlations in mice fed a high-fat diet compared to those fed standard chow. Furthermore, predicted microbiome functional modules related to metabolism were significantly less abundant in high-fat-diet-fed than in standard-chow-fed mice. These results suggest a role for fungi and interkingdom interactions in the association between gut microbiomes and obesity. IMPORTANCE Recent research shows that gut microbes are involved in the development of obesity, a growing health problem in developed countries that is linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, studies showing links between microbes and metabolism have been limited to the analysis of bacteria and have ignored the potential contribution of fungi in metabolic health. This study provides evidence that ingestion of a high-fat diet is associated with changes to the fungal (and bacterial) microbiome in a mouse model. In addition, we find that interkingdom structural and functional relationships exist between fungi and bacteria

  3. High Fat Diet Induced Obesity and Nutrient Sensing TOR Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Oldham, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has grown to epidemic proportions globally, with 400 million considered obese. Evidence indicates that excessive dietary accumulation of lipids (obesity) is a risk factor in causing deleterious effects on metabolism and has been strongly linked to the progression of heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. Investigating the origin and effects of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and its genetic mediators is an important step in understanding the mechanisms that contribute to obesity. Howe...

  4. High-fat diet determines the composition of the murine gut microbiome independently of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Marie A; Hoffmann, Christian; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Hamady, Micah; Chen, Ying-Yu; Knight, Rob; Ahima, Rexford S; Bushman, Frederic; Wu, Gary D

    2009-11-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome is affected by host phenotype, genotype, immune function, and diet. Here, we used the phenotype of RELMbeta knockout (KO) mice to assess the influence of these factors. Both wild-type and RELMbeta KO mice were lean on a standard chow diet, but, upon switching to a high-fat diet, wild-type mice became obese, whereas RELMbeta KO mice remained comparatively lean. To investigate the influence of diet, genotype, and obesity on microbiome composition, we used deep sequencing to characterize 25,790 16S rDNA sequences from uncultured bacterial communities from both genotypes on both diets. We found large alterations associated with switching to the high-fat diet, including a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in both Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. This was seen for both genotypes (ie, in the presence and absence of obesity), indicating that the high-fat diet itself, and not the obese state, mainly accounted for the observed changes in the gut microbiota. The RELMbeta genotype also modestly influenced microbiome composition independently of diet. Metagenomic analysis of 537,604 sequence reads documented extensive changes in gene content because of a high-fat diet, including an increase in transporters and 2-component sensor responders as well as a general decrease in metabolic genes. Unexpectedly, we found a substantial amount of murine DNA in our samples that increased in proportion on a high-fat diet. These results demonstrate the importance of diet as a determinant of gut microbiome composition and suggest the need to control for dietary variation when evaluating the composition of the human gut microbiome.

  5. Ruscogenin protects against high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

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    Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Lin, Sheng Da; Yang, Cheng; Wu, Ming-Chang; Liu, I-Min

    2014-07-01

    The protective effects of ruscogenin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Ruscogenin (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/day) was orally administered by gavage once daily for eight weeks. A high-fat diet induced increases in plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, while the degree of insulin resistance was lowered by ruscogenin. High-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation were improved by ruscogenin. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB were also increased in the high-fat diet group, which were attenuted by ruscogenin. Ruscogenin decreased hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and its lipogenic target genes. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, together with its target genes responsible for fatty acid β-oxidation were upregulated by ruscogenin. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ruscogenin may attenuate high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, reducing hepatic lipogenic gene expression, and upregulating proteins in the fatty acid oxidation process. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Exercise as a mean to reverse the detrimental effect of high-fat diet on bone’s fracture characteristics

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    Ilias Doulamis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether exercise can reverse some of the adverse effects of high-fat-diet-induced obesity on lipid metabolism and bone biomechanical properties. A total of 26 adult male C57bl/6J mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (A Control group (n=6, (B High-fat diet group (n=10, (C High-fat diet and exercise group (n=10. Body mass and relevant biochemical parameters were measured for the duration of the experimental protocol (37 weeks. Mechanical strength of both femurs of each animal was assessed in-vitro based on three point bending tests. It was re¬vealed that exposure to high-fat diet led to significant increase of body mass and cholesterol levels and also to substantial changes in bone mor-phology and strength. Ultimate stress for the animals exposed to high-fat diet and those exposed to high-fat-diet and exercise was 25% and 24% lower compared to control, respectively. Exercise increased bone thickness by 15% compared to animals that were not exposed to exer¬cise. It was concluded that high-fat-diet ap¬pears to have a detrimental effect on bone biomechanics and strength. Exer¬cise reversed the reduction in bone thickness that appears to be induced by high-fat diet. However no statistically significant increase in bone strength was observed.

  7. Role of high-fat diet in stress response of Drosophila.

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    Erilynn T Heinrichsen

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with many diseases, one of the most common being obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, which in turn leads to blood gas disturbances, including intermittent hypoxia (IH. Obesity, OSA and IH are associated with metabolic changes, and while much mammalian work has been done, mechanisms underlying the response to IH, the role of obesity and the interaction of obesity and hypoxia remain unknown. As a model organism, Drosophila offers tremendous power to study a specific phenotype and, at a subsequent stage, to uncover and study fundamental mechanisms, given the conservation of molecular pathways. Herein, we characterize the phenotype of Drosophila on a high-fat diet in normoxia, IH and constant hypoxia (CH using triglyceride and glucose levels, response to stress and lifespan. We found that female flies on a high-fat diet show increased triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a shortened lifespan in normoxia, IH and CH. Furthermore, flies on a high-fat diet in normoxia and CH show diminished tolerance to stress, with decreased survival after exposure to extreme cold or anoxia (p<0.001. Of interest, IH seems to rescue this decreased cold tolerance, as flies on a high-fat diet almost completely recovered from cold stress following IH. We conclude that the cross talk between hypoxia and a high-fat diet can be either deleterious or compensatory, depending on the nature of the hypoxic treatment.

  8. Pubertal high fat diet: effects on mammary cancer development

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    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies linking dietary fat intake and obesity to breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. This may be due to the difficulty of dissociating fat intake from obesity, and/or the lack of defined periods of exposure in these studies. The pubertal mammary gland is highly sensitive to cancer-causing agents. We assessed how high fat diet (HFD) affects inflammation, proliferative, and developmental events in the pubertal gland, since dysregulation of these can promote mammary tumorigenesis. To test the effect of HFD initiated during puberty on tumorigenesis, we utilized BALB/c mice, for which HFD neither induces obesity nor metabolic syndrome, allowing dissociation of HFD effects from other conditions associated with HFD. Methods Pubertal BALB/c mice were fed a low fat diet (12% kcal fat) or a HFD (60% kcal fat), and subjected to carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced tumorigenesis. Results HFD elevated mammary gland expression of inflammatory and growth factor genes at 3 and 4 weeks of diet. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), robustly induced at 4 weeks, has direct mitogenic activity in mammary epithelial cells and, as a potent inducer of NF-κB activity, may induce inflammatory genes. Three weeks of HFD induced a transient influx of eosinophils into the mammary gland, consistent with elevated inflammatory factors. At 10 weeks, prior to the appearance of palpable tumors, there were increased numbers of abnormal mammary epithelial lesions, enhanced cellular proliferation, increased growth factors, chemokines associated with immune-suppressive regulatory T cells, increased vascularization, and elevated M2 macrophages. HFD dramatically reduced tumor latency. Early developing tumors were more proliferative and were associated with increased levels of tumor-related growth factors, including increased plasma levels of HGF in tumor-bearing animals. Early HFD tumors also had increased

  9. Maternal high fat diet promotion of mammary tumor risk in adult progeny is associated with early expansion of mammary cancer stem-like cells and increased maternal oxidative environment

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    Many adult chronic diseases might be programmed during early life by maternal nutritional history. Here, we evaluated effects of maternal high fat diet on mammary gland development and tumor formation in adult progeny. Female Wnt-1 transgenic mice exposed to high fat (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or control C...

  10. High fat diet accelerates cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice.

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    Wei, Wu; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs; Kops, Nicole; Bos, Pieter K; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zuurmond, Anne-Marie; Dell'Accio, Francesco; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for osteoarthritis, but it is unknown what it does on cartilage repair. Here we investigated whether a high fat diet (HFD) influences cartilage repair in a mouse model of cartilage repair. We fed DBA/1 mice control or HFD (60% energy from fat). After 2 weeks, a full thickness cartilage defect was made in the trochlear groove. Mice were sacrificed, 1, 8, and 24 weeks after operation. Cartilage repair was evaluated on histology. Serum glucose, insulin and amyloid A were measured 24 h before operation and at endpoints. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on synovium and adipose tissue to evaluate macrophage infiltration and phenotype. One week after operation, mice on HFD had defect filling with fibroblast-like cells and more cartilage repair as indicated by a lower Pineda score. After 8 weeks, mice on a HFD still had a lower Pineda score. After 24 weeks, no mice had complete cartilage repair and we did not detect a significant difference in cartilage repair between diets. Bodyweight was increased by HFD, whereas serum glucose, amyloid A and insulin were not influenced. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype in adipose tissue and synovium were not influenced by HFD. In contrast to common wisdom, HFD accelerated intrinsic cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice on the short term. Resistance to HFD induced inflammatory and metabolic changes could be associated with accelerated cartilage repair. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1258-1264, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

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    Carlin, Jesselea; George, Robert; Reyes, Teresa M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males), changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  12. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  13. Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Cedernaes Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid (FA composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP or resistant (OR on a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1 product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18, de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6 and FA elongation (18:0/16:0. Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma. Results After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher

  14. Myocardial Structural and Biological Anomalies Induced by High Fat Diet in Psammomys obesus Gerbils.

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    Abdelhamid Sahraoui

    Full Text Available Psammomys obesus gerbils are particularly prone to develop diabetes and obesity after brief period of abundant food intake. A hypercaloric high fat diet has been shown to affect cardiac function. Here, we sought to determine whether a short period of high fat feeding might alter myocardial structure and expression of calcium handling proteins in this particular strain of gerbils.Twenty Psammomys obesus gerbils were randomly assigned to receive a normal plant diet (controls or a high fat diet. At baseline and 16-week later, body weight, plasma biochemical parameters (including lipid and carbohydrate levels were evaluated. Myocardial samples were collected for pathobiological evaluation.Sixteen-week high fat dieting resulted in body weight gain and hyperlipidemia, while levels of carbohydrates remained unchanged. At myocardial level, high fat diet induced structural disorganization, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, lipid accumulation, interstitial and perivascular fibrosis and increased number of infiltrating neutrophils. Myocardial expressions of pro-apoptotic Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α], intercellular (ICAM1 and vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM1 increased, while gene encoding cardiac muscle protein, the alpha myosin heavy polypeptide (MYH6, was downregulated. Myocardial expressions of sarco(endoplasmic calcium-ATPase (SERCA2 and voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cacna1c decreased, while protein kinase A (PKA and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK2D expressions increased. Myocardial expressions of ryanodine receptor, phospholamban and sodium/calcium exchanger (Slc8a1 did not change.We conclude that a relative short period of high fat diet in Psammomys obesus results in severe alterations of cardiac structure, activation of inflammatory and apoptotic processes, and altered expression of calcium-cycling determinants.

  15. Effect of High-Fat Diet upon Inflammatory Markers and Aortic Stiffening in Mice

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    Andre Bento Chaves Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle such as increase in high-fat food consumption are an important cause for vascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of ACE and TGF-β in the aorta stiffness induced by high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were divided in two groups according to their diet for 8 weeks: standard diet (ST and high-fat diet (HF. At the end of the protocol, body weight gain, adipose tissue content, serum lipids and glucose levels, and aorta morphometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Analysis of collagen fibers by picrosirius staining of aorta slices showed that HF diet promoted increase of thin (55% and thick (100% collagen fibers deposition and concomitant disorganization of these fibers orientations in the aorta vascular wall (50%. To unravel the mechanism involved, myeloperoxidase (MPO and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE were evaluated by protein expression and enzyme activity. HF diet increased MPO (90% and ACE (28% activities, as well as protein expression of ACE. TGF-β was also increased in aorta tissue of HF diet mice after 8 weeks. Altogether, we have observed that the HF diet-induced aortic stiffening may be associated with increased oxidative stress damage and activation of the RAS in vascular tissue.

  16. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

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    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  17. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

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    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  18. Combined high-fat diet and sustained high sucrose consumption promotes NAFLD in a murine model.

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    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Tovar, Armando R; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Noriega, Lilia G; Hiriart, Marcia; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Castillo-Hernandez, María del Carmen; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Uribe, Misael; Torres, Nimbe

    2015-01-01

    The study of NAFLD in humans has several limitations. Using murine models helps to understand disease pathogenesis. Evaluate the impact of 4 different diets in the production of NAFLD with emphasis on a combined high-fat plus sustained high sucrose consumption. Eight week-old male Wistar rats were divided in four groups and fed for 90 days with the following diets: 1) Control chow diet (C); 2) High-fat cholesterol diet (HFC) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 3) High-fat cornstarch diet (HFCO) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 4) Chow diet + 20% sucrose in drinking water (HSD). Metabolic changes, leptin levels, liver histology, hepatic and plasma lipid composition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and liver gene expression of FAS, SREBP-1 and PPAR-α were evaluated. The HFC diet had the highest grade of steatosis (grade 2 of 3) and HSD showed also steatosis (grade 1). Liver weight TG and colesterol concentrations in liver were greater in the HFC diet. There were no increased levels of iron in the liver. Rats in HFC gained significantly more weight (P < 0.001). All experimental groups showed fasting hyperglycemia. HFC had the highest glucose level (158.5 ± 7 mg/dL) (P < 0.005). The HSD and the HFCO diets developed also hyperglycemia. HSD had significantly higher fasting hyperinsulinemia. Serum leptin was higher in the HFC diet (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the HFC diet with combination of high fat and high sucrose is more effective in producing NAFLD compared with a high sucrose diet only.

  19. Differential effects of EPA, DPA and DHA on cardio-metabolic risk factors in high-fat diet fed mice.

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    Guo, Xiao-Fei; Sinclair, Andrew J; Kaur, Gunveen; Li, Duo

    2017-09-22

    The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on lipid metabolism in 4 month-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. The high-fat fed mice showed evidence of fatty liver, obesity and insulin resistance after being on the high-fat diet for 6 weeks compared with the control low-fat diet fed mice. Supplementation of the high-fat diet with either EPA, DPA or DHA prevented the fatty liver, prevented high serum cholesterol and serum glucose and prevented high liver cholesterol levels. DPA (but not EPA or DHA) was associated with a significantly improved homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with the high-fat fed mice. Supplementation with DPA and DHA both prevented the decreased serum adiponectin levels, compared with EPA and the high-fat diet. In addition, supplementation with DPA and DHA both prevented the increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels compared with EPA and the high-fat group, which can be attributed to down-regulation of TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway and decreasing lipogenesis in the liver. Therefore, DPA and DHA seem to exert similar effects in cardio-metabolic protection against the high-fat diet and these effects seem to be different to those of EPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Myostatin expression, lymphocyte population, and potential cytokine production correlate with predisposition to high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

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    Jeri-Anne Lyons

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO resistant (SWR/J and susceptible (C57BL/6 mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4(+/CD44(hi and CD8(+/CD44(hi cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.

  1. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  2. Short-term high-fat diet primes excitatory synapses for long-term depression in orexin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Victoria; Fang, Lisa Z; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2018-01-15

    High-fat diet consumption is a major cause of obesity. Orexin neurons are known to be activated by a high-fat diet and in turn promote further consumption of a high-fat diet. Our study shows that excitatory synapses to orexin neurons become amenable to long-term depression (LTD) after 1 week of high-fat diet feeding. However, this effect reverses after 4 weeks of a high-fat diet. This LTD may be a homeostatic response to a high-fat diet to curb the activity of orexin neurons and hence caloric consumption. Adaptation seen after prolonged high-fat diet intake may contribute to the development of obesity. Overconsumption of high-fat diets is one of the strongest contributing factors to the rise of obesity rates. Orexin neurons are known to be activated by a palatable high-fat diet and mediate the activation of the mesolimbic reward pathway, resulting in further food intake. While short-term exposure to a high-fat diet is known to induce synaptic plasticity within the mesolimbic pathway, it is unknown if such changes occur in orexin neurons. To investigate this, 3-week-old male rats were fed a palatable high-fat western diet (WD) or control chow for 1 week and then in vitro patch clamp recording was performed. In the WD condition, an activity-dependent long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synapses was observed in orexin neurons, but not in chow controls. This LTD was presynaptic and depended on postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and retrograde endocannabinoid signalling. WD also increased extracellular glutamate levels, suggesting that glutamate spillover and subsequent activation of perisynaptic mGluR5 may occur more readily in the WD condition. In support of this, pharmacological inhibition of glutamate uptake was sufficient to prime chow control synapses to undergo a presynaptic LTD. Interestingly, these WD effects are transient, as extracellular glutamate levels were similar to controls and LTD was no longer observed in orexin neurons

  3. Decrease of blood lipids induced by Shan-Zha (fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida) is mainly related to an increase of PPARα in liver of mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, C- S; Chen, C- T; Chen, L- J; Cheng, K- C; Yeh, C- H; Cheng, J- T

    2011-08-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Agents for the treatment of hyperlipidemia are well-developed in the clinic while PPARα is a target for lipid-lowering agents. Shan-Zha (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to increase digestion. Also, Shan-Zha fruit extract showed merit to improve obesity and hyperlipidemia in hamsters; however, the mechanism remained obscure. In the present study, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were induced by high fat diet in C57BL/6 J male mice. Then, they were orally administered with Shan-Zha fruit extract at an effective dose of 250 mg/kg for 7 days. The liver was removed to estimate the expressions of PPARα and β-oxidation-related enzyme. Oral intake of Shan-Zha extract significantly improved hyperlipidemia in high fat diet-fed mice with an increase of PPARα expression in liver. Also, expression of PPARα-regulated β-oxidation-related enzymes was raised in liver by Shan-Zha extract. However, adipose tissue and others were not modified by this treatment of Shan-Zha fruit extract. Thus, Shan-Zha can increase the expression of PPARα to facilitate β-oxidation-related enzymes in liver for lipid degradation and blood lipid decrement. Also, this is the first report showing Shan-Zha fruit extract can influence liver to lower hyperlipidemia prior to the action in adipose tissue. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  5. Maternal obesity is necessary for programming effect of high-fat diet on offspring

    OpenAIRE

    White, Christy L.; Purpera, Megan N.; Christopher D. Morrison

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that maternal consumption of dietary fat, independent from obesity, increases serum leptin in neonatal pups and predisposes them to adult obesity. Female rats either were fed a high-fat (HF) diet or a low-fat (LF) diet or were fed the HF diet but pair fed (PF) to the caloric intake of the LF group for 4 wk before breeding and throughout gestation and lactation. Dams consuming the HF diet had increased adiposity and were hyperphagic. At weaning, pups born to obese dams...

  6. Metabolic and transcriptional response to a high-fat diet in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrichsen, ET; Zhang, H; Robinson, JE; Ngo, J; Diop, S; Bodmer, R; Joiner, WJ; Metallo, CM; Haddad, GG

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has dramatically increased in prevalence, making it essential to understand its accompanying metabolic changes. Modeling diet-induced obesity in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies), we elucidated transcriptional and metabolic changes in w 1118 flies on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics revealed altered fatty acid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism with HFD. Microarray analysis uncovered transcriptional changes in nitrogen metabolism, including CG9510...

  7. Dissociation between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (pGLUT-4 mRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPARdelta activation, which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet, on GLUT-4 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nM GW501516 (PPARdelta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 mRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPARdelta, despite an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  8. Role of high-fat diet in stress response of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichsen, Erilynn T; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with many diseases, one of the most common being obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which in turn leads to blood gas disturbances, including intermittent hypoxia (IH). Obesity, OSA and IH are associated with metabolic changes, and while much mammalian work has been done, mechanisms underlying the response to IH, the role of obesity and the interaction of obesity and hypoxia remain unknown. As a model organism, Drosophila offers tremendous power to study a specific phenotype and, at a subsequent stage, to uncover and study fundamental mechanisms, given the conservation of molecular pathways. Herein, we characterize the phenotype of Drosophila on a high-fat diet in normoxia, IH and constant hypoxia (CH) using triglyceride and glucose levels, response to stress and lifespan. We found that female flies on a high-fat diet show increased triglyceride levels (pcold or anoxia (pcold tolerance, as flies on a high-fat diet almost completely recovered from cold stress following IH. We conclude that the cross talk between hypoxia and a high-fat diet can be either deleterious or compensatory, depending on the nature of the hypoxic treatment.

  9. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  10. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Jehmlich, Nico; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Wirth, Henry; Till, Holger; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Völker, Uwe; Adams, Volker; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  11. High-fat diet induces apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C Moraes

    Full Text Available Consumption of dietary fats is amongst the most important environmental factors leading to obesity. In rodents, the consumption of fat-rich diets blunts leptin and insulin anorexigenic signaling in the hypothalamus by a mechanism dependent on the in situ activation of inflammation. Since inflammatory signal transduction can lead to the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways, we evaluated the effect of high-fat feeding on the induction of apoptosis of hypothalamic cells. Here, we show that consumption of dietary fats induce apoptosis of neurons and a reduction of synaptic inputs in the arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamus. This effect is dependent upon diet composition, and not on caloric intake, since pair-feeding is not sufficient to reduce the expression of apoptotic markers. The presence of an intact TLR4 receptor, protects cells from further apoptotic signals. In diet-induced inflammation of the hypothalamus, TLR4 exerts a dual function, on one side activating pro-inflammatory pathways that play a central role in the development of resistance to leptin and insulin, and on the other side restraining further damage by controlling the apoptotic activity.

  12. Impact of ovariectomy, high fat diet, and lifestyle modifications on oxidative/antioxidative status in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Rosemary; Blažetić, Senka; Oršolić, Ivana; Heffer, Marija; Vari, Sandor G; Gajdoš, Martin; Krivošíková, Zora; Kramárová, Patrícia; Kebis, Anton; Has-Schön, Elizabeta

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the impact of high fat diet and estrogen deficiency on the oxidative and antioxidative status in the liver of the ovariectomized rats, as well as the ameliorating effect of physical activity or consumption of functional food containing bioactive compounds with antioxidative properties on oxidative damage in the rat liver. The study was conducted from November 2012 to April 2013. Liver oxidative damage was determined by lipid peroxidation levels expressed in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), while liver antioxidative status was determined by catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. Sixty-four female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: sham operated and ovariectomized rats that received either standard diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet supplemented with cereal selenized onion biscuits or high fat diet together with introduction of physical exercise of animals. High fat diet significantly increased TBARS content in the liver compared to standard diet (P=0.032, P=0.030). Furthermore, high fat diet decreased the activities of CAT, GR, and GST, as well as the content of GSH (Pactivity remained unchanged in all groups. Physical activity and consumption of cereal selenized onion biscuits showed protective effect through increased GR activity in sham operated rats (P=0.026, P=0.009), while in ovariectomized group CAT activity was increased (P=0.018) in rats that received cereal selenized onion biscuits. Feeding rats with high fat diet was accompanied by decreased antioxidative enzyme activities and increased lipid peroxidation. Bioactive compounds of cereal selenized onion biscuits showed potential to attenuate the adverse impact of high fat diet on antioxidative status.

  13. Effect of exercise training on metabolic flexibility in response to a high-fat diet in obese individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Battaglia, Gina M; Zheng, Donghai; Hickner, Robert C; Houmard, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    ...) upon the imposition of a high-fat diet (HFD). Exercise training increases FAO in the skeletal muscle of obese individuals, but whether this intervention can restore metabolic flexibility is unclear...

  14. Influence of the time of intake of a high fat diet on gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dibák, O

    1985-01-01

    Male Wistar rats aged 75 and 150 days were given high fat diet (36.5 weight % and 30 weight % fat) over a period of 14 days. The growth (PER, NPR) and utilization (NPU, LPU) parameters of protein biological value and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity were determined. In another experiment, the time dependence of liver gluconeogenesis enzyme (PEPCK and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase /FDP-ase/) and transaminase (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase /ALT, AST/) activities during 24 days' administration of the diet were determined. A 14 days' high fat intake had a negative effect on protein utilization in the organism of 75- and 150-day-old animals, which was more pronounced in the younger age group (a bigger drop in net protein utilization /NPU/ and greater stimulation of PEPCK activity). In 150-day-old animals the negative effect of a high fat intake was already manifested on the 6th to 10th day of the diet to the same degree as in the younger animals on the 14th day, as seen from the increase in all the enzyme activities. The paper presents findings on differences in the degree of the negative effect of a high fat intake on protein utilization with reference to age.

  15. The effect of high-fat--high-fructose diet on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of isoenergetic administration to adult rats of high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet for 2 weeks on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic. Body and skeletal muscle composition, energy balance, plasma lipid profile and glucose tolerance were measured, together with mitochondrial functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, together with significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin response to glucose load. Skeletal muscle triglycerides and ceramide were significantly higher in rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 content were significantly higher, while adenine nucleotide translocase content was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet. The results suggest that a high-fat--high-fructose diet even without hyperphagia is able to increase lipid flow to skeletal muscle and mitochondrial energetic efficiency, with two detrimental effects: (a) energy sparing that contributes to the early onset of obesity and (b) reduced oxidation of fatty acids and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which could generate insulin resistance.

  16. Paternal allele influences high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Sumiyo; Horii, Takuro; Kimura, Mika; Arai, Yuji; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-01-01

    C57BL/6J (B6) mice are susceptible to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and have been used in metabolism research for many decades. However, the genetic component of HFD-induced obesity has not yet been elucidated. This study reports evidence for a paternal transmission of HFD-induced obesity and a correlated expression of Igf2 and Peg3 (paternal expressed gene 3) imprinted genes. We found that PWK mice are resistant to HFD-induced obesity compared to C57BL/6J mice. Therefore, we generated and analyzed reciprocal crosses between these mice, namely; (PWK×B6) F1 progeny with B6 father and (B6×PWK) F1 progeny with PWK father. The (PWK×B6) F1 mice were more sensitive to diet-induced obesity compared to (B6×PWK) F1 mice, suggesting a paternal transmission of diet-induced obesity. Expression analysis of imprinted genes in adipocytes revealed that HFD influences the expression of some of the imprinted genes in adipose tissue in B6 and PWK mice. Interestingly, Igf2 and Peg3, which are paternally expressed imprinted genes involved in the regulation of body fat accumulation, were down-regulated in B6 and (PWK×B6) F1 mice, which are susceptible to HFD-induced obesity, but not in PWK and (B6×PWK) F1 mice, which are resistant. Furthermore, in vitro analysis showed that Igf2, but not Peg3, had an anti-inflammatory effect on TNF-α induced MCP-1 expression in adipocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the down-regulation of Igf2 and Peg3 imprinted genes in adipocytes may be involved in the paternal transmission of HFD-induced obesity.

  17. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    Full Text Available Krill oil (KO is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  18. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  19. Metabolic and Testicular Effects of the Long-Term Administration of Different High-Fat Diets in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Campos-Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets on body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and testicular morphology in rats seven months old.Materials and Methods:Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, HF-S (high fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids, HF-P (high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, HF-SP (high fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The rats were fed for 16 weeks. Blood samples, testes and genital fat deposits were collected for analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test, considering pResults:Different high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (pConclusions:The high fat diet administration, independent of the lipid quality, promotes overweight. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids (lard alters the carbohydrate metabolism and the testicular morphology with reductions of seminiferous epithelium height, seminiferous tubule diameter and cell proliferation which could be related to a disturbance of spermatogenesis.

  20. Late gestation undernutrtion can predispose for visceral adiposity by altering fat distribution patterns and increasing the preference for a high-fat diet in early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Thygesen, M P

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a sheep model to facilitate studies of the fetal programming effects of mismatched perinatal and postnatal nutrition. During the last trimester of gestation, twenty-one twin-bearing ewes were fed a normal diet fulfilling norms for energy and protein (NORM) or 50 % of a normal diet...... and three females) were slaughtered for further examination and the other half (females only) were transferred to a moderate sheep diet until slaughtered at 24 months of age (adulthood). Maternal undernutrition during late gestation reduced the birth weight of LOW offspring (P

  1. A maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation, in addition to a postnatal high-fat diet, leads to metabolic syndrome with spatial learning and memory deficits: beneficial effects of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tain, You-Lin; Lin, I-Chun; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chang, Kow-Aung; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung

    2017-12-19

    We tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet consumption during pregnancy, lactation, and/or post weaning, altered the expression of molecular mediators involved in hippocampal synaptic efficacy and impaired spatial learning and memory in adulthood. The beneficial effect of resveratrol was assessed. Dams were fed a rat chow diet or a high-fat diet before mating, during pregnancy, and throughout lactation. Offspring were weaned onto either a rat chow or a high-fat diet. Four experimental groups were generated, namely CC, HC, CH, and HH (maternal chow diet or high-fat diet; postnatal chow diet or high-fat diet). A fifth group fed with HH plus resveratrol (HHR) was generated. Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory. Blood pressure and IPGTT was measured to assess insulin resistance. Dorsal hippocampal expression of certain biochemical molecules, including sirtuin 1, ERK, PPARγ, adiponectin, and BDNF were measured. Rats in HH group showed impaired spatial memory, which was partly restored by the administration of resveratrol. Rats in HH group also showed impaired glucose tolerance and increased blood pressure, all of which was rescued by resveratrol administration. Additionally, SIRT1, phospho-ERK1/2, and phospho-PPARγ, adiponectin and BDNF were all dysregulated in rats placed in HH group; administration of resveratrol restored the expression and regulation of these molecules. Overall, our results suggest that maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and/or lactation sensitizes the offspring to the adverse effects of a subsequent high-fat diet on hippocampal function; however, administration of resveratrol is demonstrated to be beneficial in rescuing these effects.

  2. A high-fat, ketogenic diet induces a unique metabolic state in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Adam R; Pissios, Pavlos; Otu, Hasan; Roberson, Russell; Xue, Bingzhong; Asakura, Kenji; Furukawa, Noburu; Marino, Frank E; Liu, Fen-Fen; Kahn, Barbara B; Libermann, Towia A; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2007-06-01

    Ketogenic diets have been used as an approach to weight loss on the basis of the theoretical advantage of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. To evaluate the physiological and metabolic effects of such diets on weight we studied mice consuming a very-low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (KD). This diet had profound effects on energy balance and gene expression. C57BL/6 mice animals were fed one of four diets: KD; a commonly used obesogenic high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HF); 66% caloric restriction (CR); and control chow (C). Mice on KD ate the same calories as mice on C and HF, but weight dropped and stabilized at 85% initial weight, similar to CR. This was consistent with increased energy expenditure seen in animals fed KD vs. those on C and CR. Microarray analysis of liver showed a unique pattern of gene expression in KD, with increased expression of genes in fatty acid oxidation pathways and reduction in lipid synthesis pathways. Animals made obese on HF and transitioned to KD lost all excess body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and increased energy expenditure. Analysis of key genes showed similar changes as those seen in lean animals placed directly on KD. Additionally, AMP kinase activity was increased, with a corresponding decrease in ACC activity. These data indicate that KD induces a unique metabolic state congruous with weight loss.

  3. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets on hepatic lipogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Damiano, Fabrizio; Siculella, Luisa; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic fatty acid synthesis is influenced by several nutritional and hormonal factors. In this study, we have investigated the effects of distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrate or in fat on hepatic lipogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrates (70% w/w) or in fat (20 and 35% w/w). Activity and expression of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase were analyzed through the study with assessments at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Liver lipids and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were assayed in parallel. Whereas the high-carbohydrate diet moderately stimulated hepatic lipogenesis, a strong inhibition of this anabolic pathway was found in animals fed high-fat diets. This inhibition was time-dependent and concentration-dependent. Moreover, whereas the high-carbohydrate diet induced an increase in plasma triglycerides, the high-fat diets determined an accumulation of triglycerides in liver. An increase in the plasmatic levels of glucose and insulin was observed in all cases. The excess of sucrose in the diet is converted into fat that is distributed by bloodstream in the organism in the form of circulating triglycerides. On the other hand, a high amount of dietary fat caused a strong inhibition of lipogenesis and a concomitant increase in the level of hepatic lipids, thereby highlighting, in these conditions, the role of liver as a reservoir of exogenous fat.

  5. Health Benefits of Dietary Tree Peony Seed Oil in a High Fat Diet Hamster Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhiqiang Zheng; Jigang Han; Yingyi Mao; Xue Tang; Yan Guan; Yonghong Hu

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, we experimentally investigated benefits of dietary tree peony seed oil(PSO) in dyslipidemia-associated metabolic diseases using a high fat diet hamster model.Methods:High fat diets(HFD)containing 15 % coconut oil(CO...

  6. High-Fat Diet Causes Subfertility and Compromised Ovarian Function Independent of Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaznik-Wikiel, Malgorzata E; Swindle, Delaney C; Allshouse, Amanda A; Polotsky, Alex J; McManaman, James L

    2016-05-01

    Excess calorie consumption, particularly of a diet high in fat, is a risk factor for both obesity and reproductive disorders. Animal model studies indicate that elevated dietary fat can influence some reproductive functions independent of obesity. In the current study we sought to determine whether a high-fat diet (HFD) impacts ovarian function, long-term fertility, and local and systemic markers of inflammation independent of obesity. Five-week-old mice were fed either low-fat diet (control group-LF-Ln) or HFD for 10 wk and were divided based on body weight into high-fat obese (HF-Ob: >25 g) and high-fat lean (HF-Ln: obesity phenotype. Macrophage counts revealed increased tissue inflammation in the ovary independent of obesity. In addition, serum proinflammatory cytokines were increased in HF-Ln and HF-Ob in comparison to LF-Ln mice. Moreover, HFD had a sustained effect on litter production rate and number of pups per litter regardless of obese phenotype. This study describes for the first time that exposure to HFD causes significant reduction in primordial follicles, compromised fertility, produced higher proinflammatory cytokine levels, and increased ovarian macrophage infiltration, independent of obesity. The negative effects of HFD on primordial follicles may be mediated by increased tissue inflammation. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  8. Fasting and high-fat diet alter histone deacetylase expression in the medial hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Funato

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is now being given to the epigenetic regulation of animal and human behaviors including the stress response and drug addiction. Epigenetic factors also influence feeding behavior and metabolic phenotypes, such as obesity and insulin sensitivity. In response to fasting and high-fat diets, the medial hypothalamus changes the expression of neuropeptides regulating feeding, metabolism, and reproductive behaviors. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are involved in the epigenetic control of gene expression and alter behavior in response to a variety of environmental factors. Here, we examined the expression of HDAC family members in the medial hypothalamus of mice in response to either fasting or a high-fat diet. In response to fasting, HDAC3 and -4 expression levels increased while HDAC10 and -11 levels decreased. Four weeks on a high-fat diet resulted in the increased expression of HDAC5 and -8. Moreover, fasting decreased the number of acetylated histone H3- and acetylated histone H4-positive cells in the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus. Therefore, HDACs may be implicated in altered gene expression profiles in the medial hypothalamus under different metabolic states.

  9. High-fat Diet Enhances and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Deficiency Attenuates Bone Loss in Mice with Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2015-07-01

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (Pai1(-/-)) on the bone structure in male C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Significant reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) in femurs and vertebrae were found in LLC-bearing mice compared to non-tumor-bearing mice. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G control diet significantly reduced BV/TV, Tb.N and BMD in femurs and BV/TV in vertebrae. The high-fat diet significantly reduced BMD in vertebrae in wild-type mice but not in Pai1(-/-) mice. Compared to wild-type mice, PAI1 deficiency significantly increased BV/TV and Tb.N in femurs. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin was significantly lower and that of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) was significantly higher in LLC-bearing mice. The high-fat diet significantly reduced plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b. Deficiency in PAI1 prevented the high-fat diet-induced increases in plasma TRAP5b. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet enhances, whereas PAI1 deficiency, attenuates metastasis-associated bone loss, indicating that a high-fat diet and PAI1 contribute to metastasis-associated bone deterioration. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  11. Effects of overfeeding and high-fat diet on cardiosomatic parameters and cardiac structures in young and adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a complex global health problem because it is a risk factor for multiple chronic pathologies such as cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. It is considered a multicausal disease, and one of the determining factors is nutritional imbalances, which include high-fat diets. In this paper, we use the zebrafish model to assess the impact of overfeeding and a high-fat diet in somatic and cardiac parameters in young and adult zebrafish. The results show that fish receiving a high-fat diet showed greater weight gain compared to fish receiving a standard fat diet. Additionally, changes in the heart, including increases in size, a change in the triangular shape of the ventricle to a globular shape, and an increase in the thickness of the trabeculae of the spongy myocardium were observed. These changes could be indicators of cardiovascular overload. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the intake of a high-fat diet and obesity, which in turn can induce cardiac changes, supporting the hypothesis of the relationship between high-fat diets and cardiovascular risk factors. Given the genetic similarity between zebrafish and humans, these results could be extrapolated to human beings, and the findings similarly highlight the importance of incorporating a balanced diet from the early life stages to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Voluntary exercise improves murine dermal connective tissue status in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Kende; Haluszka, Dóra; Kiss, Norbert; Gyöngyösi, Nóra; Bánvölgyi, András; Szipőcs, Róbert; Wikonkál, Norbert M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Its influence on the skin is less obvious, yet certain negative effects of adipose tissue inflammation on the dermis have been suggested. Excess weight is closely associated with sedentary behavior, so any increase in physical activity is considered beneficial against obesity. To investigate the effects of obesity and physical exercise on the skin, we established a mouse model in which mice were kept either on a high-fat diet or received standard chow. After the two groups achieved a significant weight difference, physical exercise was introduced to both. Animals were given the opportunity to perform voluntary exercise for 40 min daily in a hamster wheel for a period of 8 weeks. We evaluated the status of the dermis at the beginning and at the end of the exercise period by in vivo nonlinear microscopy. Obese mice kept on high-fat diet lost weight steadily after they started to exercise. In the high-fat diet group, we could detect significantly larger adipocytes and a thicker layer of subcutaneous tissue; both changes started to normalize after exercise. Nonlinear microscopy revealed an impaired collagen structure in obese mice that improved considerably after physical activity was introduced. With the ability to detect damage on collagen structure, we set out to address the question whether this process is reversible. With the use of a novel imaging method, we were able to show the reversibility of connective tissue deterioration as a benefit of physical exercise.

  13. Chronic high-fat diet in fathers programs ß-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Sheau-Fang; Lin, Ruby C Y; Laybutt, D Ross

    2010-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity is increasing across most ages in both sexes. This is contributing to the early emergence of type 2 diabetes and its related epidemic. Having either parent obese is an independent risk factor for childhood obesity. Although the detrimental impacts of diet......-induced maternal obesity on adiposity and metabolism in offspring are well established, the extent of any contribution of obese fathers is unclear, particularly the role of non-genetic factors in the causal pathway. Here we show that paternal high-fat-diet (HFD) exposure programs ß-cell 'dysfunction' in rat F(1...

  14. Citrus flavanones prevent systemic inflammation and ameliorate oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was investigated the preventive effects of the flavanones hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol on the oxidative stress and systemic inflammation induced by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. The mice received a standard diet (9.5% kcal from fat), high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) or high fat diet ...

  15. Influence of High-Fat Diet on Bone Tissue: An Experimental Study in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Yanagihara, G; Carminati Shimano, R; Atsuko Tida, J; Suzuki Yamanaka, J; Yasuyo Fukada, S; Mardegan Issa, J P; Shimano, A C; Tavares, J M

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and bone tissue remains contradictory, especially when the effect of high-fat diet is assessed in experimental models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-fat diet on bone metabolism of growing rats. Twenty weaned female Wistar rats were equally divided into two groups: SD (standard diet) and HFD (high-fat diet with 60 % of energy as fat). After five weeks of the two diets, the rats were euthanized, and the liver, blood and bones extracted. The liver was analysed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations. Blood was analysed by the ELISA method for osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tumour necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11/RANKL). The bone tissue was analysed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), mechanical tests, computed microtomography, histological quantitative analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The gene expressions of PPAR-γ Runx-2, RANKL and Cathepsin-K were also evaluated. HFD caused an increase in the MDA concentration, indicating oxidative stress. It also increased the expression of PPAR-γ, which is the gene that is related to adipocyte differentiation. There was an increase in BMD of the tibia of animals fed with the HFD, but other microstructural and mechanical properties were maintained unaltered. In addition, there were no changes in the gene expressions related to the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, as well as no changes to the biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption. Liver and gene parameters are changed in response to the HFD. However, although there was an increase in BMD, the microstructure and function of the bone did not change after a 5-week HFD.

  16. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of glycogen-lowering exercise in the change of fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. One of the candidate factors for determining the increase of fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat diet to a high-fat diet is the size of the glycogen storage. Therefore, we studied the effect of low glycogen stores on

  18. Maternal deprivation exacerbates the response to a high fat diet in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Mela

    Full Text Available Maternal deprivation (MD during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including affectation of metabolism. Indeed, MD for 24 hours during the neonatal period reduces body weight throughout life when the animals are maintained on a normal diet. However, little information is available regarding how this early stress affects the response to increased metabolic challenges during postnatal life. We hypothesized that MD modifies the response to a high fat diet (HFD and that this response differs between males and females. To address this question, both male and female Wistar rats were maternally deprived for 24 hours starting on the morning of postnatal day (PND 9. Upon weaning on PND22 half of each group received a control diet (CD and the other half HFD. MD rats of both sexes had significantly reduced accumulated food intake and weight gain compared to controls when raised on the CD. In contrast, when maintained on a HFD energy intake and weight gain did not differ between control and MD rats of either sex. However, high fat intake induced hyperleptinemia in MD rats as early as PND35, but not until PND85 in control males and control females did not become hyperleptinemic on the HFD even at PND102. High fat intake stimulated hypothalamic inflammatory markers in both male and female rats that had been exposed to MD, but not in controls. Reduced insulin sensitivity was observed only in MD males on the HFD. These results indicate that MD modifies the metabolic response to HFD intake, with this response being different between males and females. Thus, the development of obesity and secondary complications in response to high fat intake depends on numerous factors.

  19. Obesity Takes Its Toll on Visceral Pain: High-Fat Diet Induces Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Visceral Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Tramullas

    Full Text Available Exposure to high-fat diet induces both, peripheral and central alterations in TLR4 expression. Moreover, functional TLR4 is required for the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Recently, central alterations in TLR4 expression have been associated with the modulation of visceral pain. However, it remains unknown whether there is a functional interaction between the role of TLR4 in diet-induced obesity and in visceral pain. In the present study we investigated the impact of long-term exposure to high-fat diet on visceral pain perception and on the levels of TLR4 and Cd11b (a microglial cell marker protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus. Peripheral alterations in TLR4 were assessed following the stimulation of spleenocytes with the TLR4-agonist LPS. Finally, we evaluated the effect of blocking TLR4 on visceral nociception, by administering TAK-242, a selective TLR4-antagonist. Our results demonstrated that exposure to high-fat diet induced visceral hypersensitivity. In parallel, enhanced TLR4 expression and microglia activation were found in brain areas related to visceral pain, the PFC and the hippocampus. Likewise, peripheral TLR4 activity was increased following long-term exposure to high-fat diet, resulting in an increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, TLR4 blockage counteracted the hyperalgesic phenotype present in mice fed on high-fat diet. Our data reveal a role for TLR4 in visceral pain modulation in a model of diet-induced obesity, and point to TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the development of drugs to treat visceral hypersensitivity present in pathologies associated to fat diet consumption.

  20. A high-fat diet regulates gastrin and acid secretion through primary cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Dowdle, William E.; Reiter, Jeremy F.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2012-01-01

    The role of primary cilia in the gastrointestinal tract has not been examined. Here we report the presence of primary cilia on gastric endocrine cells producing gastrin, ghrelin, and somatostatin (Sst), hormones regulated by food intake. During eating, cilia in the gastric antrum decreased, whereas gastric acid and circulating gastrin increased. Mice fed high-fat chow showed a delayed decrease in antral cilia, increased plasma gastrin, and gastric acidity. Mice fed high-fat chow for 3 wk showed lower cilia numbers and acid but higher gastrin levels than mice fed a standard diet, suggesting that fat affects gastric physiology. Ex vivo experiments showed that cilia in the corpus responded to acid and distension, whereas cilia in the antrum responded to food. To analyze the role of gastric cilia, we conditionally deleted the intraflagellar transport protein Ift88 (Ift88−/fl). In fed Ift88−/fl mice, gastrin levels were higher, and gastric acidity was lower. Moreover, gastrin and Sst gene expression did not change in response to food as in controls. At 8 mo, Ift88−/fl mice developed foveolar hyperplasia, hypergastrinemia, and hypochlorhydria associated with endocrine dysfunction. Our results show that components of food (fat) are sensed by antral cilia on endocrine cells, which modulates gastrin secretion and gastric acidity.—Saqui-Salces, M., Dowdle, W. E., Reiter, J. F., Merchant, J. L. A high-fat diet regulates gastrin and acid secretion through primary cilia. PMID:22516298

  1. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Fatoorechi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Materials and Methods: Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet, high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek for 14 weeks. Results: High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG, plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Conclusion: Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.

  2. Grape seed procyanidin supplementation to rats fed a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation increases the body fat content and modulates the inflammatory response and the adipose tissue metabolism of the male offspring in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Bas, J M; Crescenti, A; Arola-Arnal, A; Oms-Oliu, G; Arola, L; Caimari, A

    2015-01-01

    Procyanidins are polyphenolic bioactive compounds that exert beneficial effects against obesity and its related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supplementation with low doses of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) to rats during pre- and postnatal periods provides biological effects to their offspring in youth. The metabolic programming effect of GSPE was evaluated in the 30-day-old male offspring of four groups of rats that were fed either a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and that were supplemented with either GSPE (25 mg kg(-1) of body weight per day) or vehicle during pregnancy and lactation. Significant increases in the adiposity index and in the weights of all the white adipose tissue depots studied (retroperitoneal, mesenteric, epididymal (EWAT) and inguinal) were observed in the offspring of rats that were fed a HFD and that were treated with GSPE (HFD-GSPE group) compared with the offspring of rats that were fed the same diet but that did not receive the procyanidins (HFD group). The HFD-GSPE animals also exhibited a higher number of cells in the EWAT, a sharp decrease in the circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and a moderate decrease in the plasma glycerol levels. The transcriptomic analysis performed in the EWAT showed 238 genes that were differentially expressed between the HFD and the HFD-GSPE animals, most of which were associated with the immune function and the inflammatory response, in addition to genes associated with adipose tissue remodeling and function, lipid and glucose homeostasis and the metabolism of methyl groups. The GSPE treatment in rats that were fed an HFD during pregnancy and lactation induced a clear metabolic programming effect in the offspring, increasing adiposity, decreasing the circulating levels of MCP-1 and changing the gene expression in the EWAT toward a better inflammatory profile.

  3. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice is associated with enhanced insulin translation in islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Ayumi, E-mail: akanno@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Asahara, Shun-ichiro, E-mail: asahara@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Masuda, Katsuhisa, E-mail: katsuhisa.m.0707@gmail.com [Division of Medical Chemistry, Department of Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomokazu, E-mail: tomokazu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kimura-Koyanagi, Maki, E-mail: koyanagi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Seino, Susumu, E-mail: seino@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular and Metabolic Medicine, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Ogawa, Wataru, E-mail: ogawa@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kido, Yoshiaki, E-mail: kido@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Medical Chemistry, Department of Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan)

    2015-03-13

    A high-fat diet (HF) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. Animal studies have shown compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells after high fat load, such as increased pancreatic β-cell mass, enhanced insulin secretion, and exocytosis. However, the effects of high fat intake on insulin synthesis are obscure. Here, we investigated whether insulin synthesis was altered in correlation with an HF diet, for the purpose of obtaining further understanding of the compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells. Mice fed an HF diet are obese, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic, and glucose intolerant. In islets of mice fed an HF diet, more storage of insulin was identified. We analyzed insulin translation in mouse islets, as well as in INS-1 cells, using non-radioisotope chemicals. We found that insulin translational levels were significantly increased in islets of mice fed an HF diet to meet systemic demand, without altering its transcriptional levels. Our data showed that not only increased pancreatic β-cell mass and insulin secretion but also elevated insulin translation is the major compensatory mechanism of pancreatic β-cells. - Highlights: • More stored insulin was recognized in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was not enhanced by fatty acids, but by insulin demand. • Insulin transcription was not altered in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was markedly enhanced in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Non-radioisotope chemicals were used to measure insulin translation in mouse islets.

  4. Effects of chicken-liver hydrolysates on lipid metabolism in a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kou-Tai; Lin, Chen; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2014-10-01

    The contents of free hydrophobic amino acids, taurine and carnosine/anserine were elevated after hydrolyzing chicken livers by pepsin and compared to dried chicken livers. Chicken-liver-hydrolysates (CLHs) exhibited in vitro inhibitory lipase activity and bile-acid binding ability (phamsters were assigned randomly to the following groups: (1) chow diet; (2) high-fat diet (HFD); (3) HFD and 100 mg CLH/kg BW; (4) HFD and 200 mg CLH/kg BW; (5) HFD and 400 mg CLH/kg BW; (6) HFD and 200 mg carnosine/kg BW. CLHs alleviated (p<0.05) serum oxidative stress and improved (p<0.05) the serum lipid profile in the high-fat dietary groups; meanwhile, improved (p<0.05) antioxidant abilities and decreased (p<0.05) lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and TNF-α/IL-1β levels in the livers. These benefits might result from regulations of lipid homeostasis and increased faecal bile-acid outputs (p<0.05). Hence, lipid-homeostasis and antioxidant abilities of CLHs in the high-fat dietary habit were demonstrated and were similar to pure carnosine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Different effect of high fat diet and physical exercise in the hippocampal signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Cammarota, Martín; Dietrich, Marcelo de Oliveira; Rotta, Liane N; Portela, Luis Valmor; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Izquierdo, Iván; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Perry, Marcos Luiz Santos

    2008-05-01

    Obesity is an epidemic disease that may affect brain function. The present study examined the effect of high fat diet (HF) and physical exercise on peripheral tissue and hippocampal signaling. CF-1 mice (n = 4, per cage) were divided into groups receiving high fat (HF) or control (CD) diets for 5 months, with or without voluntary exercise. Serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDLc, liver triacylglycerol and glycogen concentrations were evaluated (n = 6). Also, the phosphorylation state of the AKT --> ERK 1/2 --> CREB pathway (AKT, pAKTser473, ERK 1/2, pERK 1/2, CREB and pCREB, n = 4-6) was analyzed in the hippocampus. HF diet caused an increase in AKT phosphorylation at ser473 (P fat (P fat gain in the abdominal region (P diet on brain signaling appear to affect the hippocampal AKT --> ERK 1/2 --> CREB pathway in independent ways: HF intake caused increased phosphorylation of AKTser473, while exercise increased ERK 1/2 --> CREB signaling. The physiological relevance of these findings in brain function remains to be elucidated.

  6. [Anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar in rats subjected to a high fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, H; Kaddouri, H; Kheroua, O; Saidi, D

    2016-06-01

    The search of new anti-obesogenic treatments based on medicinal plants without or with minimal side effects is a challenge. In this context, the present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) in Wistar rats subjected to a high fat diet. Eighteen male Wistar rats (140±5g) were divided into 3 three equal groups. A witness group submitted to standard laboratory diet and two groups subjected to a high fat diet (cafeteria diet); one receives a daily gavage of apple cider vinegar (7mL/kg/d) for 30 days. Throughout the experiment monitoring the nutritional assessment, anthropometric and biochemical parameters is achieved. In the RCV vs RC group, we observed a highly significant decrease (P<0.001) in body weight and food intake. On the other hand, the VCP decreases very significantly different anthropometric parameters: BMI (P<0.01), chest circumference and abdominal circumference (P<0.001), decreases serum glucose levels (26.83%) and improves the serum lipid profile by reducing plasma levels of total cholesterol (34.29%), TG (51.06%), LDL-c (59.15%), VLDL (50%) and the total lipid (45.15%), and increasing HDL-c (39.39%), thus offering protection against oatherogenic risk (61.62%). This preliminary study indicates that the metabolic disorders caused by high fat diet (cafeteria) are thwarted by taking apple cider vinegar which proves to have a satiating effect, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects, and seems prevent the atherogenic risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of guggulsterone isolated from Commiphora mukul in high fat diet induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavna; Salunke, Rajani; Srivastava, Swati; Majumder, Chandrajeetbalo; Roy, Partha

    2009-10-01

    Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity and longer lifespan are some of the major reasons for the rise of metabolic disorders like type II diabetes, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia among people of various age groups. High fat diet induced diabetic rodent models resembling type II diabetic condition in human population were used to assess the anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic activity of guggulsterone (isolated from Commiphora mukul resin). Four groups of rats were fed high fat diet, for 16 weeks. On feeding the normal rats with fat rich diet they showed increased serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels along with increase in insulin resistance significantly (p<0.05) in comparison to control animals. Different biochemical parameters like GTT, glycogen content, glucose homeostatic enzymes (like glucose-6-phosphatase, hexokinase), insulin release in vivo and expression profiles of various genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism clearly demonstrated the hypoglycemic effect of this extract. Guggulsterone demonstrated a differential effect with a significantly improved PPARgamma expression and activity in in vivo and in vitro conditions, respectively. However, it inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation in vitro. The results presented here suggest that the guggulsterone has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect which can help to cure type II diabetes.

  8. Lipid droplet-associated proteins in high-fat fed mice with the effects of voluntary running and diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Hulmi, Juha J; Torvinen, Sira; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Kivelä, Riikka; Reunanen, Hilkka; Kujala, Urho M; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2014-08-01

    The relation between lipid accumulation and influence of exercise on insulin sensitivity is not straightforward. A proper balance between lipid droplet synthesis, lipolysis, and oxidative metabolism would ensure low local intramyocellular fatty acid levels, thereby possibly protecting against lipotoxicity-associated insulin resistance. This study investigated whether the accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets in response to high availability of fatty acids after high-fat feeding would parallel the abundance of intramyocellular perilipin proteins, especially PLIN5. The effects on these variables after diet change or voluntary running exercise intervention in skeletal muscle were also investigated. During a 19-week experiment, C57BL/6J mice were studied in six different groups: low-fat diet sedentary, low-fat diet active, high-fat diet sedentary, high-fat diet active and two groups which were high-fat sedentary for nine weeks, after which divided into low-fat sedentary or low-fat active groups. Myocellular triglyceride concentration and perilipin protein expression levels were assessed. We show that, concurrently with impaired insulin sensitivity, the expression level of PLIN5 and muscular triglyceride concentration increased dramatically after high-fat diet. These adaptations were reversible after the diet change intervention with no additional effect of exercise. After high-fat diet, lipid droplets become larger providing more surface area for PLIN5. We suggest that PLIN5 is an important regulator of lipid droplet turnover in altered conditions of fatty acid supply and consumption. Imbalances in lipid droplet metabolism and turnover might lead to lipotoxicity-related insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K.; Siow, Yaw L.; House, James D.

    2015-01-01

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver. PMID:26400185

  10. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  11. Effect of high-fat diet on hepatic proteomics of hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Chung; Lin, Ya-Lin; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-02-18

    A high-fat diet contributes to the etiology of metabolic diseases. As the liver plays a crucial role in metabolism, an insight into the hepatic proteomics will help to illustrate the physiological effect of a high-fat diet. Fourteen nine-week old male Syrian hamsters were maintained on either control (C) or high-fat (HF) diets (0.2% cholesterol +22% fat) for 8 weeks. Hamsters were chosen because they show close similarity to human lipid metabolism. At the end of study, blood and livers were collected for analysis. Liver proteins were fractionated by electrophoresis, digested by trypsin, and then separated by label-free nano-LC/MS/MS. The TurboSequest algorithm was used to identify the peptide sequences against the hamster database in Universal Proteins Resource Knowledgebase (UniProt). The results indicate that 1191 hepatic proteins were identified and 135 of them were expressed differentially in the high-fat group (p diet had significantly (p diet also had significantly (p diet (p diet (p diet (p diet, including carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1), ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and arginase 1 (ARG 1). Post-translational modifications (PTM) of ANXA3, ANXA5, and XDH were also analyzed. A set of differentially expressed proteins were identified as molecular markers for elucidating the pathological mechanism of high-fat diet.

  12. Sirt1 Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul T. Pfluger; Daniel Herranz; Susana Velasco-Miguel; Manuel Serrano; Matthias H. Tschöp

    2008-01-01

    .... Mammalian Sirt1 is a protein deacetylase that has been involved in resveratrol-mediated protection from high-fat diet-induced metabolic damage, but direct proof for the implication of Sirt1 has remained elusive...

  13. Ilex paraguariensis extracts extend the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpo, A C; Lima, M E; da Rosa, H S; Leal, A P; Colares, C C; Zago, A C; Salgueiro, A C F; Bertelli, P R; Minetto, L; Moura, S; Mendez, A S L; Folmer, V

    2017-11-30

    Studies have suggested that total energy intake and diet composition affect lifespan and ageing. A high-fat diet induces oxidative stress and affects the development of diseases. In contrast, antioxidants are capable of reducing its harmful effects. Yerba mate beverages are an important source of antioxidants, but there is scarce knowledge about their effects on suppressing fat accumulation. Here, we investigated the compounds present in yerba mate extracts and assessed their effects on Drosophila melanogaster given a high cholesterol diet. LS-ESI-MS analysis showed the presence of matesaponins, phenolic compounds and methylxanthines in all of the examined extracts. In Drosophila, under extract treatment conditions, the mean lifespan was significantly extended from 38 to 43 days, there was an increase in the ability to support induced stress and decrease in lipid peroxidation products. Moreover, yerba mate extracts recovered the glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity and reduced the cholesterol level. Taken together, our results support that extracts can extend lifespan by reducing the detrimental effect of a high-fat diet in D. melanogaster, and this outcome can be associated with the compound content in the extracts. This study improves the understanding of natural interventions that reduce stress-induced oxidative damage, which is fundamental in promoting healthy ageing.

  14. Ilex paraguariensis extracts extend the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Colpo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that total energy intake and diet composition affect lifespan and ageing. A high-fat diet induces oxidative stress and affects the development of diseases. In contrast, antioxidants are capable of reducing its harmful effects. Yerba mate beverages are an important source of antioxidants, but there is scarce knowledge about their effects on suppressing fat accumulation. Here, we investigated the compounds present in yerba mate extracts and assessed their effects on Drosophila melanogaster given a high cholesterol diet. LS-ESI-MS analysis showed the presence of matesaponins, phenolic compounds and methylxanthines in all of the examined extracts. In Drosophila, under extract treatment conditions, the mean lifespan was significantly extended from 38 to 43 days, there was an increase in the ability to support induced stress and decrease in lipid peroxidation products. Moreover, yerba mate extracts recovered the glutathione S-transferases (GST activity and reduced the cholesterol level. Taken together, our results support that extracts can extend lifespan by reducing the detrimental effect of a high-fat diet in D. melanogaster, and this outcome can be associated with the compound content in the extracts. This study improves the understanding of natural interventions that reduce stress-induced oxidative damage, which is fundamental in promoting healthy ageing.

  15. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Alink, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  16. Effect of one month duration ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets on mouse brain bioenergetic infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfridge, J Eva; Wilkins, Heather M; E, Lezi; Carl, Steven M; Koppel, Scott; Funk, Eric; Fields, Timothy; Lu, Jianghua; Tang, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Wang, WenFang; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2015-04-01

    Diet composition may affect energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Using C57Bl/6J mice, we tested the effect of ketosis-inducing and non-inducing high fat diets on genes relevant to brain bioenergetic infrastructures, and on proteins that constitute and regulate that infrastructure. At the end of a one-month study period the two high fat diets appeared to differentially affect peripheral insulin signaling, but brain insulin signaling was not obviously altered. Some bioenergetic infrastructure parameters were similarly impacted by both high fat diets, while other parameters were only impacted by the ketogenic diet. For both diets, mRNA levels for CREB, PGC1α, and NRF2 increased while NRF1, TFAM, and COX4I1 mRNA levels decreased. PGC1β mRNA increased and TNFα mRNA decreased only with the ketogenic diet. Brain mtDNA levels fell in both the ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diet groups, although TOMM20 and COX4I1 protein levels were maintained, and mRNA and protein levels of the mtDNA-encoded COX2 subunit were also preserved. Overall, the pattern of changes observed in mice fed ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets over a one month time period suggests these interventions enhance some aspects of the brain's aerobic infrastructure, and may enhance mtDNA transcription efficiency. Further studies to determine which diet effects are due to changes in brain ketone body levels, fatty acid levels, glucose levels, altered brain insulin signaling, or other factors such as adipose tissue-associated hormones are indicated.

  17. Effect of One Month Duration Ketogenic and non-Ketogenic High Fat Diets on Mouse Brain Bioenergetic Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfridge, J. Eva; Wilkins, Heather M.; Lezi, E; Carl, Steven M.; Koppel, Scott; Funk, Eric; Fields, Timothy; Lu, Jianghua; Tang, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Wang, WenFang; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Using C57Bl/6J mice, we tested the effect of ketosis-inducing and non-inducing high fat diets on genes relevant to brain bioenergetic infrastructures, and on proteins that constitute and regulate that infrastructure. At the end of a one-month study period the two high fat diets appeared to differentially affect peripheral insulin signaling, but brain insulin signaling was not obviously altered. Some bioenergetic infrastructure parameters were similarly impacted by both high fat diets, while other parameters were only impacted by the ketogenic diet. For both diets, mRNA levels for CREB, PGC1α, and NRF2 increased while NRF1, TFAM, and COX4I1 mRNA levels decreased. PGC1β mRNA increased and TNFα mRNA decreased only with the ketogenic diet. Brain mtDNA levels fell in both the ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diet groups, although TOMM20 and COX4I1 protein levels were maintained, and mRNA and protein levels of the mtDNA-encoded COX2 subunit were also preserved. Overall, the pattern of changes observed in mice fed ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets over a one month time period suggests these interventions enhance some aspects of the brain’s aerobic infrastructure, and may enhance mtDNA transcription efficiency. Further studies to determine which diet effects are due to changes in brain ketone body levels, fatty acid levels, glucose levels, altered brain insulin signaling, or other factors such as adipose tissue-associated hormones are indicated. PMID:25104046

  18. Vitamin E Modifies High-Fat Diet-Induced Increase of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Remely

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, increased ROS production and DNA damage. Supplementation with antioxidants might ameliorate DNA damage and support epigenetic regulation of DNA repair. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high-fat (HFD or a control diet (CD with and without vitamin E supplementation (4.5 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for four months. DNA damage, DNA promoter methylation and gene expression of Dnmt1 and a DNA repair gene (MLH1 were assayed in liver and colon. The HFD resulted in organ specific changes in DNA damage, the epigenetically important Dnmt1 gene, and the DNA repair gene MLH1. Vitamin E reduced DNA damage and showed organ-specific effects on MLH1 and Dnmt1 gene expression and methylation. These results suggest that interventions with antioxidants and epigenetic active food ingredients should be developed as an effective prevention for obesity—and oxidative stress—induced health risks.

  19. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H. L. Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD, only fed a high-fat diet (HFD, or fed low-fat diet (LFD for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha. BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue.

  20. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intak...

  1. Soy protein is beneficial but high-fat diet and voluntary running are detrimental to bone structure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Graef, George L; Nielsen, Forrest H; Johnson, LuAnn K; Cao, Jay

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity and soy protein isolate (SPI) augmentation have been reported to be beneficial for bone health. We hypothesized that combining voluntary running and SPI intake would alleviate detrimental changes in bone induced by a high-fat diet. A 2 × 2 × 2 experiment was designed with diets containing 16% or 45% of energy as corn oil and 20% SPI or casein fed to sedentary or running male C57BL/6 mice for 14 weeks. Distal femurs were assessed for microstructural changes. The high-fat diet significantly decreased trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Soy protein instead of casein, regardless of fat content, in the diet significantly increased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and decreased Tb.Sp. Voluntary running, regardless of fat content, significantly decreased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and increased Tb.Sp. The high-fat diet significantly decreased osteocalcin and increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) concentrations in plasma. Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin were increased by both SPI and running. Running alleviated the increase in TRAP 5b induced by the high-fat diet. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet is deleterious, and SPI is beneficial to trabecular bone properties. The deleterious effect of voluntary running on trabecular structural characteristics indicates that there may be a maximal threshold of running beyond which beneficial effects cease and detrimental effects occur. Increases in plasma osteocalcin and decreases in plasma TRAP 5b in running mice suggest that a compensatory response occurs to counteract the detrimental effects of excessive running. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Sex-specific effects of high fat diet on indices of metabolic syndrome in 3xTg-AD mice: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Anna M; Rosario, Emily R; Elteriefi, Reem; Pike, Christian J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple factors of metabolic syndrome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, endocrine dysfunction and dyslipidemia. High fat diet, a common experimental model of obesity and metabolic syndrome, has been shown to accelerate cognitive decline and AD-related neuropathology in animal models. However, sex interacts with the metabolic outcomes of high fat diet and, therefore, may alter neuropathological consequences of dietary manipulations. This study examines the effects of sex and high fat diet on metabolic and AD-related neuropathological outcomes in 3xTg-AD mice. Three month-old male and female 3xTg-AD mice were fed either standard or high fat diets for 4 months. Obesity was observed in all high fat fed mice; however, ectopic fat accumulation, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were observed only in males. Interestingly, despite the different metabolic outcomes of high fat diet, the neuropathological consequences were similar: both male and female mice maintained under high fat diet exhibited significant worsening in behavioral performance and hippocampal accumulation of β-amyloid protein. Because high fat diet resulted in obesity and increased AD-like pathology in both sexes, these data support a role of obesity-related factors in promoting AD pathogenesis.

  3. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high-fat diet induced steatohepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Seitz, Helmut K; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2010-03-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum with Lieber-DeCarli high-fat diet (71% energy from fat) for 6 weeks to induce NASH, as demonstrated previously. Afterwards, these rats were continuously fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 55% total energy from fat) or high fat plus alcohol diet (HFA, 55% energy from fat and 16% energy from alcohol) for an additional 4 weeks. Pathological lesions including fat accumulation and inflammatory foci in liver were examined and graded. Lipid peroxidation and apoptotic hepatocytes in the liver were assessed. The mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1), Fas death receptor (Fas) and Fas ligant (FasL), IL-1beta and IL-12 were determined by real-time PCR. Protein levels of total and cleaved caspase-3, CYP2E1, Bax, and Bcl-2 were measured by western blotting. The number of hepatic inflammatory foci and apoptotic hepatocytes were significantly increased in rats fed with HFA as compared with those in HFD-fed rats. The aggravated inflammatory response and cellular apoptosis mediated by HFA were associated with elevated mRNA expression of Fas/FasL and cleaved caspase-3 protein. Although no significant differences were observed between HFD and HFA groups, the levels of lipid peroxidation, Bax and Bcl-2 protein concentration, and mRNA levels of other inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in these 2 groups than those in the control group. These data suggest that even moderate alcohol consumption can cause more hepatic inflammation and cellular apoptosis in a pre-existing NASH condition.

  4. Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Yang, Hye Jeong; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Dae Young; Sung, Mi Jeong

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the protective effect of Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract (DLE) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. To determine the hepatoprotective effect of DLE, we fed C57BL/6 mice with normal chow diet (NCD), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 2g/kg DLE DLE (DL), and HFD supplemented with 5 g/kg DLE (DH). We found that the HFD supplemented by DLE dramatically reduced hepatic lipid accumulation compared to HFD alone. Body and liver weights of the DL and DH groups were significantly lesser than those of the HFD group, and DLE supplementation dramatically suppressed triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), insulin, fasting glucose level in serum, and Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) induced by HFD. In addition, DLE treatment significantly increased activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle protein. DLE significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver, reduced insulin resistance, and lipid in HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice via the AMPK pathway. These results indicate that the DLE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Al-Massadi, Omar; Donelan, Elizabeth; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Trivedi, Chitrang; Müller, Timo D; Woods, Stephen C; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2012-06-25

    Hypothalamic inflammation is a potentially important process in the pathogenesis of high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders that has recently received significant attention. Microglia are macrophage-like cells of the central nervous system which are activated by pro-inflammatory signals causing local production of specific interleukins and cytokines, and these in turn may further promote systemic metabolic disease. Whether or how this microglial activation can be averted or reversed is unknown. Since running exercise improves systemic metabolic health and has been found to promote neuronal survival as well as the recovery of brain functions after injury, we hypothesized that regular treadmill running may blunt the effect of western diet on hypothalamic inflammation. Using low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (l dlr-/-) mice to better reflect human lipid metabolism, we first confirmed that microglial activation in the hypothalamus is severely increased upon exposure to a high-fat, or "western", diet. Moderate, but regular, treadmill running exercise markedly decreased hypothalamic inflammation in these mice. Furthermore, the observed decline in microglial activation was associated with an improvement of glucose tolerance. Our findings support the hypothesis that hypothalamic inflammation can be reversed by exercise and suggest that interventions to avert or reverse neuronal damage may offer relevant potential in obesity treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Verlinde, Eline; Schrauwen, Patrick; Keijer, Jaap

    2011-08-16

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092-1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed HF diet-induced body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain, resulting in significantly reduced serum leptin and resistin levels and increased adiponectin levels. We questioned how WAT is modulated and characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycemic index-mediated effects using whole genome microarrays. This showed that the LGI diet mainly exerts its beneficial effects via substrate metabolism, especially fatty acid metabolism. In addition, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling showed reduced expression, in line with lower WAT mass. An important transcription factor showing enhanced expression is PPAR-γ. Furthermore, serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were all significantly reduced by LGI diet, and simultaneously muscle insulin sensitivity was significantly increased as analyzed by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation. Cumulatively, even though these mice were fed an HF diet, the LGI diet induced significantly favorable changes in metabolism in WAT. These effects suggest a partial overlap with pharmacological approaches by thiazolidinediones to treat insulin resistance and statins for hypercholesterolemia. It is therefore tempting to speculate that such a dietary approach might beneficially support pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance or hypercholesterolemia in humans.

  7. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  8. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  9. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous introduction of a novel high fat diet and wheel running induces anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpace, E T; Matheny, M; Strehler, K Y E; Shapiro, A; Cheng, K Y; Tümer, N; Scarpace, P J

    2012-02-28

    Voluntary wheel running (WR) is a form of physical activity in rodents that influences ingestive behavior. The present report describes an anorexic behavior triggered by the simultaneous introduction of a novel diet and WR. This study examined the sequential, compared with the simultaneous, introduction of a novel high-fat (HF) diet and voluntary WR in rats of three different ages and revealed a surprising finding; the simultaneous introduction of HF food and voluntary WR induced a behavior in which the animals chose not to eat although food was available at all times. This phenomenon was apparently not due to an aversion to the novel HF diet because introduction of the running wheels plus the HF diet, while continuing the availability of the normal chow diet did not prevent the anorexia. Moreover, the anorexia was prevented with prior exposure to the HF diet. In addition, the anorexia was not related to extent of WR but dependent on the act of WR. The introduction a HF diet and locked running wheels did not induce the anorexia. This voluntary anorexia was accompanied by substantial weight loss, and the anorexia was rapidly reversed by removal of the running wheels. Moreover, the HF/WR-induced anorexia is preserved across the age span despite the intrinsic decrease in WR activity and increased consumption of HF food with advancing age. The described phenomenon provides a new model to investigate anorexia behavior in rodents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Haghshenas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Consumption of high-fat foods is one of the major causes of obesity. Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet (HFD on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma. Materials and Methods:Twenty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group with standard diet (CSD, endurance training with a standard diet (ESD, control group with high-fat diet (CHFD and endurance training with high-fat diet (EHFD. Twenty-four hr after the last training session, the blood samples were obtained and analyzed for hormones levels. Results: The significant increased weight gain and food intake and decreased plasma nesfatin-1 and PYY3-36 levels were observed in CHFD group, while exercise under the HFD antagonized these effects. There were no significant changes in ghrelin, insulin and leptin levels in different groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise can prevent fattening effect of HFD. Probably, performing exercise makes a reduction of food intake and weight gain in rat via the increase in nesfatin-1 and PYY levels. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this field.

  12. High fat diet enhances cardiac abnormalities in SHR rats: Protective role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR as compared to controls (p 2- levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.

  13. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  14. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  15. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  16. High fat diet reduces neuroprotection of isoflurane post-treatment: role of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein-Akt signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hai; Deng, Jiao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective High fat diet (HFD) contributes to the increased prevalence of obesity and hyperlipidemia in young adults, a possible cause for their recent increase in stroke. Isoflurane post-treatment provides neuroprotection. We determined whether isoflurane post-treatment induced neuroprotection in HFD-fed mice. Design and Methods Six-week old CD-1 male mice were fed HFD or regular diet (RD) for 5 or 10 weeks. Their hippocampal slices (400 ?m) were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)....

  17. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jinhee; Shin, Ki Ok; Park, So Young; Jang, Ki Soeng; Kang, Sunghwun

    2013-10-08

    Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1-4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5-8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning capacity unlike dietary control.

  18. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation.

  19. Interaction between Maternal and Offspring Diet to Impair Vascular Function and Oxidative Balance in High Fat Fed Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Christopher; Ethirajan, Priya; Bruce, Kimberley D.; Cagampang, Felino R. A.; Siow, Richard C. M.; Hanson, Mark A.; Byrne, Christopher D.; Mann, Giovanni E.; Clough, Geraldine F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the impact of maternal and post-weaning consumption of a high fat diet on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and redox regulation in adult male mouse offspring. Methods Female C57BL6J mice were fed an obesogenic high fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) or standard chow (C, 21% kcal fat) pre-conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, male offspring were continued on the same diet as their mothers or placed on the alternative diet to give 4 dietary groups (C/C, HF/C, C/HF and HF/HF) which were studied at 15 or 30 weeks of age. Results There were significant effects of maternal diet on offspring body weight (pmaternal diet there was also an effect of offspring post-weaning dietary fat to increase systolic blood pressure (pMaternal consumption of a HF diet is associated with changes in vascular function and oxidative balance in the offspring of similar magnitude to those seen with consumption of a high fat diet post-weaning. Further, this disadvantageous vascular phenotype is exacerbated by age to influence the risk of developing obesity, raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in adult life. PMID:23227196

  20. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092–1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced

  1. High-fat diets and seizure control in myoclonic-astatic epilepsy: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard-Tremblay, Elisabeth; Berry, Patricia; Owens, Aaron; Cook, William Byron; Sittner, Haley R; Mazzanti, Marta; Huber, Jennifer; Warner, Molly; Shurtleff, Hillary; Saneto, Russell P

    2015-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and Ketogenic Diet (KD) in seizure control within a population of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) patients. This was a retrospective, single center study evaluating the seizure control by high fat diets. Seizure diaries kept by the parents performed seizure counts. All patients met the clinical criteria for MAE. Nine patients met the clinical criteria. We found that both the MAD and KD were efficacious in complete seizure control and allowed other medications to be stopped in seven patients. Two patients had greater than 90% seizure control without medications, one on the KD and the other on the MAD. Seizure freedom has ranged from 13 to 36 months, and during this time four patients have been fully weaned off of diet management. One patient was found to have a mutation in SLC2A1. Our results suggest that strictly defined MAE patients respond to the MAD with prolonged seizure control. Some patients may require the KD for seizure freedom, suggesting a common pathway of increased requirement for fats. Once controlled, those fully responsive to the Diet(s) could be weaned off traditional seizure medications and in many, subsequently off the MAD or KD. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of high-fat diet on stress responsiveness in borderline hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A; Crump, E M; Alvers, K M; Robertson, K L; Rowland, N E

    2011-01-01

    Stress in combination with genetic susceptibility is a factor in the development of hypertension. We used borderline hypertensive rats to investigate whether exposure to high-fat and/or junk-food diet at different stages of ontogeny has programing consequences on stress responses. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 weeks prior to mating with spontaneously hypertensive males, and during gestation. At birth, litters were fostered either to a dam in the same or an alternative diet condition as during gestation. After weaning, male offspring were fed either a control-chow diet or an intermittent junk food fatty diet. Between postnatal days 57-61, half of the rats in each dietary group received daily social defeat sessions using a resident-intruder protocol, and the other half were unstressed controls. Blood pressure was measured indirectly both before and after each defeat session. On the final day, rats were killed for physiological measures. Socially defeated rats showed large increases in serum corticosterone concentration and adrenal hypertrophy, indicating the effectiveness of this non-adapting stressor. Serum corticosterone level was also higher in rats fed with the junk-food diet post-weaning compared with those fed with chow only, but there were no significant effects of gestational or lactational dietary history.

  3. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eCai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects.

  4. One-year high fat diet affects muscle-but not brain mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Tenna; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that few weeks of high fat (HF) diet may induce metabolic disturbances and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletalmuscle. However, little is known about the effects of long-term HF exposure and effects on brain mitochondria are unknown. Wistarrats were fed either chow (13E% fat......) or HF diet (60E% fat) for 1 year. The HF animals developed obesity, dyslipidemia, insulinresistance, and dysfunction of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria: state 3 and state 4 were 30% to 50% increased (P .... Adding also succinate in state 3 resulted in ahigher substrate control ratio (SCR) with PC, but a lower SCR with pyruvate (P mitochondria from the same animal showed no changes with the substrates relevant...

  5. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... in the ranking order PPARalpha > PPARdelta > PPARgamma. Expression of PPARgamma target genes in adipose tissue was unaffected by TTA treatment, whereas the hepatic expression of PPARalpha-responsive genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and oxidation was induced. This was accompanied...... by increased hepatic mitochondrial beta-oxidation and a decreased fatty acid/ketone body ratio in plasma. These findings indicate that PPARalpha-dependent mechanisms play a pivotal role, but additionally, the involvement of PPARalpha-independent pathways is conceivable. Taken together, our results suggest...

  6. The Effects of Gymnema sylvestre in High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Ah Young; Jang, Yoonjeong; Davaadamdin, Orkhonselenge; Hong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jun Sung; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2017-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate the effects of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract as a functional dietary supplement with a high-fat diet. This approach examined insulin resistance, the dysfunction of adipose tissue, and liver steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for the acute and chronic study, in addition to GS in different doses (100, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight). Their body composition changes, serum lipid and glucose parameters, adipose and liver tissue histology, and gene expression were measured. It was found that GS significantly suppressed the increase of body weight, serum levels of lipid, insulin and leptin, and adipose tissue, and liver inflammation. GS also demonstrated hypoglycemic effects due to the amylase inhibition activity. Our results support the existence of a relationship between the HFD induced insulin resistance, adipose dysfunction and liver steatosis. In conclusion, GS works as a functional dietary supplement with preventative effects against metabolic disorder.

  7. Oral insulin improves metabolic parameters in high fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO C. LIPINSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS. Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001, fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05 an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05. Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05 in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.

  8. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  9. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  10. Changes in cardiac energy metabolic pathways in overweighed rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrego, Javier; de las Heras, Natalia; Zamorano-León, Jose J; Mateos-Cáceres, Petra J; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Valero-Muñoz, Maria; Lahera, Vicente; López-Farré, Antonio J

    2013-03-01

    Heart produces ATP through long-chain fatty acids beta oxidation. To analyze whether in ventricular myocardium, high-fat diet may modify the expression of proteins associated with energy metabolism before myocardial function was affected. Wistar Kyoto rats were divided into two groups: (a) rats fed standard diet (control; n = 6) and (b) rats fed high-fat diet (HFD; n = 6). Proteins from left ventricles were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and Western blotting. Rats fed with HFD showed higher body weight, insulin, glucose, leptin and total cholesterol plasma levels as compared with those fed with standard diet. However, myocardial functional parameters were not different between them. The protein expression of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acyl-CoA hydrolase mitochondrial precursor and enoyl-CoA hydratase, three long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation-related enzymes, and carnitine-O-palmitoyltransferase I was significantly higher in left ventricles from HFD rats. Protein expression of triosephosphate isomerase was higher in left ventricles from HFD rats than in those from control. Two α/β-enolase isotypes and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate isomerase were significantly increased in HFD rats as compared with control. Pyruvate and lactate contents were similar in HFD and control groups. Expression of proteins associated with Krebs cycle and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was higher in HFD rats. Expression of proteins involved in left ventricle metabolic energy was enhanced before myocardial functionality was affected in rats fed with HFD. These findings may probably indicate higher cardiac energy requirement due to weight increase by HFD.

  11. Mori Folium and Mori Fructus Mixture Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Geun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global health problem, contributing to various diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and dementia. Increasing evidence suggests that obesity can also cause neuronal damage, long-term memory loss, and cognitive impairment. The leaves and the fruits of Morus alba L., containing active phytochemicals, have been shown to possess antiobesity and hypolipidemic properties. Thus, in the present study, we assessed their effects on cognitive functioning in mice fed a high-fat diet by performing immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against c-Fos, synaptophysin, and postsynaptic density protein 95 and a behavioral test. C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 21 weeks exhibited increased body weight, but mice coadministered an optimized Mori Folium and Mori Fructus extract mixture (2 : 1; MFE for the final 12 weeks exhibited significant body weight loss. Additionally, obese mice exhibited not only reduced neural activity, but also decreased presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, while MFE-treated mice exhibited recovery of these activities. Finally, cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet were recovered by cotreatment with MFE in the novel object recognition test. Our findings suggest that the antiobesity effects of MFE resulted in recovery of the cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet by regulation of neural and synaptic activities.

  12. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet (the ketogenic diet) exaggerates biotin deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Matsui, Tomoyoshi; Ando, Saori; Ishii, Yoshie; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a cofactor for several carboxylases. The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, is used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and promote weight loss. In Japan, the infant version of the ketogenic diet is known as the "ketone formula." However, as the special infant formulas used in Japan, including the ketone formula, do not contain sufficient amounts of biotin, biotin deficiency can develop in infants who consume the ketone formula. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ketogenic diet on biotin status in mice. Male mice (N = 32) were divided into the following groups: control diet group, biotin-deficient (BD) diet group, ketogenic control diet group, and ketogenic biotin-deficient (KBD) diet group. Eight mice were used in each group. At 9 wk, the typical symptoms of biotin deficiency such as hair loss and dermatitis had only developed in the KBD diet group. The total protein expression level of biotin-dependent carboxylases and the total tissue biotin content were significantly decreased in the KBD and BD diet groups. However, these changes were more severe in the KBD diet group. These findings demonstrated that the ketogenic diet increases biotin bioavailability and consumption, and hence, promotes energy production by gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which results in exaggerated biotin deficiency in biotin-deficient mice. Therefore, biotin supplementation is important for mice that consume the ketogenic diet. It is suggested that individuals that consume the ketogenic diet have an increased biotin requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Raspberry ketone protects rats fed high-fat diets against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-05-01

    The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the raspberry ketone low-dose (0.5%) (RKL) group (n=8), the raspberry ketone middle-dose (1%) (RKM) group (n=8), and the raspberry ketone high-dose (2%) (RKH) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks. After 8 weeks of experiment, all the rats were sacrificed, and blood lipid parameters (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), liver function parameters (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), leptin (LEP), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), blood glucose (GLU), and insulin (INS) with calculated INS resistance index (IRI) and INS-sensitive index (ISI) were measured in rats. Therefore, we determined the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activity in liver homogenate and the levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponection (APN), superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The liver tissues of rats in each group were imaged by electron microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin as the staining agent. The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, INS, IRI, FFA, LEP, TNF-α, MDA, and hs-CRP of MC rats were significantly increased (Praspberry ketone was an effective intervention for NASH in rats. It was believed that raspberry ketone had a dual effect of liver protection and fat reduction, and the mechanism was probably

  14. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Watson, Walter H. [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Zhong, Hai [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); States, J. Christopher [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Arteel, Gavin E., E-mail: gavin.arteel@louisville.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a '2-hit' paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet ({+-} arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  15. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L.; Power, Michael L.; Moran, Timothy H.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was t...

  16. Health Benefits of Dietary Tree Peony Seed Oil in a High Fat Diet Hamster Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Tree peony (Paeonia ostii seed oil is rich in different unsaturated fatty acids, including monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, n-3,and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA.Overall, health benefits of this edible plant oil have not been widely explored. In this study, we experimentally investigated benefits of dietary tree peony seed oil(PSO in dyslipidemia-associated metabolic diseases using a high fat diet hamster model.Methods:High fat diets(HFDcontaining 15 % coconut oil(COor PSOwere initially developed based on the rodent chowdiet. Fatty acid profiles of diets and red blood cells (RBC from animals fed these diets for 8 weeks were analyzed and compared. Effects of these oil supplements on triglycerides and cholesterol levels were characterized. Benefits on fatty liver progress were also investigated in this animal model. Results:HFDfortified with 15% PSOwas abundant in different unsaturated fatty acids, containing 40% α-linolenic acid, 27% linoleic acid,and 23% oleic acid respectively. Compared to the control group with 15% CO, animals with 15% PSOdisplayed dramatic alteration of in vivofatty acid profile in RBC, featuring a significant increase in n-3 but no change in n-6PUFA, thereby resulting in a decreased ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA. PSO intervention also remarkably reduced triglyceride levels in both blood and adipose tissues, but did not affect circulating cholesterol. Moreover, benefits on liver health were observed in the PSO group, evidenced with reduced hepatic steatosis and improved hepatic histology.Conclusion:Altogether, the data demonstrated multifaceted benefits of dietary PSO in reducing important risk factors of dyslipidemia-associated cardiovascular and liver diseases.

  17. Maternal obesity and high-fat diet program offspring metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mina; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Beall, Marie; Lane, Robert H; Ross, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    We determined the potential programming effects of maternal obesity and high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and/or lactation on offspring metabolic syndrome. A rat model of maternal obesity was created using an HF diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, thereby generating 4 paradigms of maternal diets during pregnancy/lactation: (1) control (Con) diet during pregnancy and lactation (Con/Con), (2) HF during pregnancy and lactation (HF/HF), (3) HF during pregnancy alone (HF/Con), and (4) HF during lactation alone (Con/HF). Maternal phenotype during pregnancy and the end of lactation evidenced markedly elevated body fat and plasma corticosterone levels in HF dams. In the offspring, the maternal HF diet during pregnancy alone programmed increased offspring adiposity, although with normal body weight, whereas the maternal HF diet during lactation increased both body weight and adiposity. Metabolic disturbances, particularly that of hyperglycemia, were apparent in all groups exposed to the maternal HF diet (during pregnancy and/or lactation), although differences were apparent in the manifestation of insulin resistant vs insulin-deficient phenotypes. Elevated systolic blood pressure was manifest in all groups, implying that exposure to an obese/HF environment is disadvantageous for offspring health, regardless of pregnancy or lactation periods. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism may differ because offspring that experienced in utero HF exposure had increased corticosterone levels. Maternal obesity/HF diet has a marked impact on offspring body composition and the risk of metabolic syndrome was dependent on the period of exposure during pregnancy and/or lactation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-apoptotic and Pro-survival Effects of Food Restriction on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Yuan; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Chen, Chiao-Nan Joyce; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Kao, Chung-Lan; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lee, Shin-Da

    2017-04-01

    Food restriction and weight loss are known to prevent obesity-related heart diseases. This study investigates whether food restriction elicits anti-apoptotic and pro-survival effects on high-fat diet-induced obese hearts. Histopathological analysis, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats which were fed with regular chow diet (CON, 13.5 % fat), a high-fat ad libitum diet (HFa, 45 % fat), or a high-fat food-restricted diet (HFr, 45 % fat, maintaining the same weight as CON) for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood pressure, heart weight, triglycerides, insulin, HOMAIR, interstitial spaces, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were increased in HFa relative to CON, whereas these parameters were decreased in HFr relative to HFa. The protein levels of cardiac Fas ligand, Fas receptors, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways), as well as t-Bid/Bid, Bax/Bcl-2, Bad/p-Bad, Cytochrome c, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways) in HFr were lower than those in HFa. Moreover, the Bcl-xL and IGF-1-related components of IGF-1, p-PI3 K/PI3 K, p-Akt/Akt in HFr were higher than those in HFa. Our findings suggest that a restricted high-fat diet for maintaining weight control could diminish cardiac Fas receptor-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways as well as might enhance IGF-1-related pro-survival pathways. In sum, food restriction for maintaining normal weight could elicit anti-apoptotic and pro-survival effects on high-fat diet-induced obese hearts.

  19. Effects of high fat diet and perinatal dioxin exposure on development of body size and expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Amartuvshin; Nishijo, Muneko; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tomoya; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Van Le, Quang; Takamura, Yusaku; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    Environmental exposure to dioxins, consumption of a high fat diet, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β signaling in the brain affect feeding behavior, which is an important determinant of body growth. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and high fact diet after weaning on body growth and expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β in the brain in rat pups. Subjects from the control and dioxin exposure groups were assigned to 1 of 3 different diet groups: standard diet, high fat diet in the juvenile period, or high fat diet in adulthood. Body weight gain rate in the juvenile high fat diet group and the length gain rate in the adult high fat diet group were greater than the corresponding values in the standard diet group only in male offspring, although the effects of dioxin exposure on growth were not significant. Consumption of a high fat diet decreased platelet-derived growth factor receptor β levels in the amygdala and hippocampus in both sexes compared to control groups, while 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin decreased platelet-derived growth factor receptor platelet-derived growth factor receptor β levels in the amygdala and striatum only in females receiving an high fat diet. Furthermore, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β levels in the hippocampus and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β striatum were inversely correlated with increases in body length, while changes in platelet-derived growth factor receptor β in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens were significantly correlated to body weight gain or body mass index. In conclusion, these findings suggest that these 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and high fat diet-induced changes in body growth and feeding behaviors might be partially mediated by changes in brain platelet-derived growth factor receptor β levels.

  20. Purple Sweet Potato Attenuate Weight Gain in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ronghui; Zheng, Shujuan; Luo, Hongxia; Wang, Changgang; Duan, Lili; Sheng, Yao; Zhao, Changhui; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-03-01

    Purple sweet potato (PSP) is widely grown in Asia and considered as a healthy vegetable. The objective of the current study was to determine the anti-obesity effect of the PSP on high fat diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The mice were administrated with high fat diet supplemented with the sweet potato (SP) or PSP at the concentration of 15% and 30% for 12 wk, respectively. The results showed that the supplementation of SP or PSP at 30% significantly ameliorated high fat diet induced obesity and its associated risk factors, including reduction of body weight and fat accumulation, improvement of lipid profile and modulation of energy expenditure. Moreover, PSP also posed beneficial effect on the liver and kidney functions. These results indicate that PSP and SP have anti-obesity effect and are effective to reduce the metabolic risk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. PTPRT regulates high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiujing; Scott, Anthony; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Yiqing; Doerner, Stephanie; Satake, Masanobu; Croniger, Colleen M; Wang, Zhenghe

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for many human diseases. However, the underlying molecular causes of obesity are not well understood. Here, we report that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T (PTPRT) knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Those mice avoid many deleterious side effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity, displaying improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, lower blood glucose and insulin levels. Compared to wild type littermates, PTPRT knockout mice show reduced food intake. Consistently, STAT3 phosphorylation is up-regulated in the hypothalamus of PTPRT knockout mice. These studies implicate PTPRT-modulated STAT3 signaling in the regulation of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

  2. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Wayne; Rivera, Osvaldo; Talbert, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control) diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation. PMID:29141990

  3. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hemphill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation.

  4. Effects of ad libitum Low Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Hollingsworth, Angela; Seltmann, Christie L; O'Neal, Eric K

    2017-11-06

    This study examined the effects of a 3-week ad libitum high fat (~70% of calories), low carbohydrate (diet (LCHF) on markers of endurance performance in middle-aged, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) following their normal HC diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed 5, 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological, metabolic variables and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20-min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial (5TT) on a road course. Subjects then consumed a LCHF diet for 3 weeks and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and 7-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (p diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF. Respiratory exchange ratio and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly while fat oxidation increased after LCHF for every pace (p diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  5. Skin-specific Deletion of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Alters Skin Lipid Composition and Protects Mice from High Fat Diet-induced Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harini Sampath; Matthew T. Flowers; Xueqing Liu; Chad M. Paton; Ruth Sullivan; Kiki Chu; Minghui Zhao; James M. Ntambi

    2009-01-01

    .... In addition, SKO mice have significantly increased energy expenditure and are protected from high fat diet-induced obesity, thereby recapitulating the hypermetabolic phenotype of global SCD1 deficiency...

  6. Impaired mTORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons exaggerates high fat diet-induced hyperphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Dadalko

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data support a model in which mTORC2 signaling within catecholaminergic neurons constrains consumption of a high-fat diet, while disruption causes high-fat diet-specific exaggerated hyperphagia. In parallel, impaired mTORC2 signaling leads to aberrant striatal DA neurotransmission, which has been associated with obesity in human and animal models, as well as with escalating substance abuse. These data suggest that defects localized to the catecholaminergic pathways are capable of overriding homeostatic circuits, leading to obesity, metabolic impairment, and aberrant DA-dependent behaviors.

  7. Low-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet: Can it Help Exercise Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chen-Kang; Borer, Katarina; Lin, Po-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weigh...

  8. High fat diet accelerates pathogenesis of murine Crohn's disease-like ileitis independently of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gruber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with a more severe disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and epidemiological data identified dietary fats but not obesity as risk factors for the development of IBD. Crohn's disease is one of the two major IBD phenotypes and mostly affects the terminal ileum. Despite recent observations that high fat diets (HFD impair intestinal barrier functions and drive pathobiont selection relevant for chronic inflammation in the colon, mechanisms of high fat diets in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease are not known. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of HFD on the development of chronic ileal inflammation in a murine model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. METHODS: TNF(ΔARE/WT mice and wildtype C57BL/6 littermates were fed a HFD compared to control diet for different durations. Intestinal pathology and metabolic parameters (glucose tolerance, mesenteric tissue characteristics were assessed. Intestinal barrier integrity was characterized at different levels including polyethylene glycol (PEG translocation, endotoxin in portal vein plasma and cellular markers of barrier function. Inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well as immune cell infiltration into ileal tissue were determined and related to luminal factors. RESULTS: HFD aggravated ileal inflammation but did not induce significant overweight or typical metabolic disorders in TNF(ΔARE/WT. Expression of the tight junction protein Occludin was markedly reduced in the ileal epithelium of HFD mice independently of inflammation, and translocation of endotoxin was increased. Epithelial cells showed enhanced expression of inflammation-related activation markers, along with enhanced luminal factors-driven recruitment of dendritic cells and Th17-biased lymphocyte infiltration into the lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS: HFD feeding, independently of obesity, accelerated disease onset of small intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease

  9. A high-fat diet regulates gastrin and acid secretion through primary cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Dowdle, William E; Reiter, Jeremy F; Merchant, Juanita L

    2012-08-01

    The role of primary cilia in the gastrointestinal tract has not been examined. Here we report the presence of primary cilia on gastric endocrine cells producing gastrin, ghrelin, and somatostatin (Sst), hormones regulated by food intake. During eating, cilia in the gastric antrum decreased, whereas gastric acid and circulating gastrin increased. Mice fed high-fat chow showed a delayed decrease in antral cilia, increased plasma gastrin, and gastric acidity. Mice fed high-fat chow for 3 wk showed lower cilia numbers and acid but higher gastrin levels than mice fed a standard diet, suggesting that fat affects gastric physiology. Ex vivo experiments showed that cilia in the corpus responded to acid and distension, whereas cilia in the antrum responded to food. To analyze the role of gastric cilia, we conditionally deleted the intraflagellar transport protein Ift88 (Ift88(-/fl)). In fed Ift88(-/fl) mice, gastrin levels were higher, and gastric acidity was lower. Moreover, gastrin and Sst gene expression did not change in response to food as in controls. At 8 mo, Ift88(-/fl) mice developed foveolar hyperplasia, hypergastrinemia, and hypochlorhydria associated with endocrine dysfunction. Our results show that components of food (fat) are sensed by antral cilia on endocrine cells, which modulates gastrin secretion and gastric acidity.

  10. Voluntary running of defined distances reduces body adiposity and its associated inflammation in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Sundaram, Sneha; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of voluntary running of defined distances on body adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were assigned to 6 groups and fed a standard AIN93G diet (sedentary) or a modified high-fat AIN93G diet (sedentary; unrestricted running; or 75%, 50%, or 25% of unrestricted running) for 12 weeks. The average running distance was 8.3, 6.3, 4.2, and 2.1 km/day for the unrestricted, 75%, 50%, and 25% of unrestricted runners, respectively. Body adiposity was 46% higher in sedentary mice when fed the high-fat diet instead of the standard diet. Running decreased adiposity in mice fed the high-fat diet in a dose-dependent manner but with no significant difference between sedentary mice and those running 2.1 km/day. In sedentary mice, the high-fat instead of the standard diet increased insulin resistance, hepatic triacylglycerides, and adipose and plasma concentrations of leptin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Running reduced these variables in a dose-dependent manner. Adipose adiponectin was lowest in sedentary mice fed the high-fat diet; running raised adiponectin in both adipose tissue and plasma. Running 8.3 and 6.3 km/day had the greatest, but similar, effects on the aforementioned variables. Running 2.1 km/day did not affect these variables except, when compared with sedentariness, it significantly decreased MCP-1. The findings showed that running 6.3 kg/day was optimal for reducing adiposity and associated inflammation that was increased in mice by feeding a high-fat diet. The findings suggest that voluntary running of defined distances may counteract the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet.

  11. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway.

  12. Effects of cafeteria diet and high fat diet intake on anxiety, learning and memory in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Renata Tavares Beschizza; Ferreira do Vales, Lucas Duarte Manhas; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2017-09-01

    The effects of cafeteria and high fat diets were investigated on animal models of behavior. Male Wistar rats were treated with Control (C), Cafeteria (CD) and High Fat (FD) diets and tested in the Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) procedures. Body weight, length, abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues were recorded. Physical parameters, weight of tissues, EPM, and MWM data were subjected to ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). There were no differences on weight and length parameters between CD and C rats up to 98 days of age. However, abdominal circumferences were higher in CD as compared to C at 35 and 70 days of age, respectively, the 5th and the 7th weeks. FD presented lower measures of weight and abdominal circumference; nevertheless there was an increase on those parameters at the end of the nutritional treatment. Even without an apparent weight gain of CD and FD these animals presented a greater accumulation of retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues. In addition, CD and FD demonstrated behaviors that can suggest lower anxiety. CD showed a better learning performance and FD showed better recall of previous learned information in the memory retention test. According to those data it was concluded that hypercaloric diet ingestion was capable of triggering metabolic alterations and possibly lowering anxiety associated to learning or memory improvement on a spatial task.

  13. Genetic and Sex-Specific Transgenerational Effects of a High Fat Diet in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew-Budd, Kelly; Jarnigan, Julie; Reed, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    An organism's phenotype is the product of its environment and genotype, but an ancestor's environment can also be a contributing factor. The recent increase in caloric intake and decrease in physical activity of developed nations' populations is contributing to deteriorating health and making the study of the longer term impacts of a changing lifestyle a priority. The dietary habits of ancestors have been shown to affect phenotype in several organisms, including humans, mice, and the fruit fly. Whether the ancestral dietary effect is purely environmental or if there is a genetic interaction with the environment passed down for multiple generations, has not been determined previously. Here we used the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the genetic, sex-specific, and environmental effects of a high fat diet for three generations' on pupal body weights across ten genotypes. We also tested for genotype-specific transgenerational effects on metabolic pools and egg size across three genotypes. We showed that there were substantial differences in transgenerational responses to ancestral diet between genotypes and sexes through both first and second descendant generations. Additionally, there were differences in phenotypes between maternally and paternally inherited dietary effects. We also found a treated organism's reaction to a high fat diet was not a consistent predictor of its untreated descendants' phenotype. The implication of these results is that, given our interest in understanding and preventing metabolic diseases like obesity, we need to consider the contribution of ancestral environmental experiences. However, we need to be cautious when drawing population-level generalization from small studies because transgenerational effects are likely to exhibit substantial sex and genotype specificity.

  14. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  15. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue [Mus musculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that a low versus high glycemic index (GI) diet on a high fat (30% kcal fat) background (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in C57BL/6J male mice. The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed high fat diet-induced

  16. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  17. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  18. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-07-01

    Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy-based control diet or that diet containing 3-7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. The high-fat diet elevated (P high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation, and phosphorylation of lipids. This porcine model may be used to study interactive mechanisms between excess fat intake and selenoprotein function. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Waking and sleeping in the rat made obese through a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Marco; Cerri, Matteo; Martelli, Davide; Tupone, Domenico; Del Vecchio, Flavia; Di Cristoforo, Alessia; Perez, Emanuele; Zamboni, Giovanni; Amici, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Sleep restriction leads to metabolism dysregulation and to weight gain, which is apparently the consequence of an excessive caloric intake. On the other hand, obesity is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness in humans and promotes sleep in different rodent models of obesity. Since no consistent data on the wake-sleep (WS) pattern in diet-induced obesity rats are available, in the present study the effects on the WS cycle of the prolonged delivery of a high-fat hypercaloric (HC) diet leading to obesity were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The main findings are that animals kept under a HC diet for either four or eight weeks showed an overall decrease of time spent in wakefulness (Wake) and a clear Wake fragmentation when compared to animals kept under a normocaloric diet. The development of obesity was also accompanied with the occurrence of a larger daily amount of REM sleep (REMS). However, the capacity of HC animals to respond to a "Continuous darkness" exposure condition (obtained by extending the Dark period of the Light-Dark cycle to the following Light period) with an increase of Sequential REMS was dampened. The results of the present study indicate that if, on one hand, sleep curtailment promotes an excess of energy accumulation; on the other hand an over-exceeding energy accumulation depresses Wake. Thus, processes underlying energy homeostasis possibly interact with those underlying WS behavior, in order to optimize energy storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P ... and in exercise-induced mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, with the effects being present hours after the exercise. The effect of HFD is present even without effects on insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular lipid accumulation. An isocaloric high-fat diet does not cause insulin resistance....

  1. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  2. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    to modulate their vitC homeostasis during high-fat (HF) feeding. METHODS: Twenty-five male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high- or low-fat diets for 14 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 weeks of intervention. Terminal fasting plasma samples were analyzed for insulin......, glucose and vitC concentrations. Hepatic vitC concentration and gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) capacity, as a measure of vitC de novo biosynthesis, were analyzed in liver homogenates. RESULTS: HF diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of vitC compared with a control diet low in fat (P ....05). Hepatic de novo biosynthesis of vitC was upregulated (P plasma concentration of vitC was significantly positively correlated with plasma glucose and insulin concentrations...

  4. Adiponectin deficiency rescues high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis and autophagy loss despite persistent steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, R; Nair, S; Zhang, Y; Ren, J

    2017-09-01

    Background &aims:Low levels of adiponectin (APN), an adipose-derived adipokine, are associated with obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis although its role in high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury and steatosis remains unclear. Here we hypothesized that APN deficiency alters fat diet-induced hepatic function. To this end, we examined the effect of APN deficiency on high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis and steatosis. Adult wild type and APN knockout mice were fed a low- or high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, hepatic triglycerides, steatosis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and autophagy were examined. High-fat feeding led to elevated body (48.2%) and liver weights (18.8%), increased levels of ALT (87.8%), serum cholesterol (104.4%), hepatic triglycerides (305.6%) and hepatic fat deposition as evidenced by Oil Red O staining, along with a reduced AST/ALT ratio and unchanged AST. Although APN knockout itself did not affect hepatic function and morphology, it reconciled fat diet-induced hepatic injury (Pfat diet intake promoted AMPK phosphorylation, p62 accumulation and apoptosis, including elevated Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2, along with suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3 and JNK, and the autophagy makers Atg7, Beclin-1 and LC3B (Pfat diet intake promotes hepatic steatosis, apoptosis and interrupted autophagy. APN knockout elicits protective effect against hepatic injury possibly associated with autophagy regulation despite persistent hepatic steatosis.

  5. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Abu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC, and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO. After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%, adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L, total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L, blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L, resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL, and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet.

  6. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  7. Distinct Adipose Depots from Mice Differentially Respond to a High-Fat, High-Salt Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClercq, Vanessa C; Goldsby, Jennifer S; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Dietary factors such as high-sodium or high-fat (HF) diets have been shown to induce a proinflammatory phenotype. However, there is limited information with respect to how microenvironments of distinct intra-abdominal adipose depots respond to the combination of a high-salt, HF diet. We tested the hypothesis that HF feeding would cause changes in distinct adipose depots, which would be further amplified by the addition of high salt to the diet. Twenty-seven male C57BL6 mice were fed an HF diet (60% of kcal from fat), an HF + high-salt diet (4% wt:wt), a control diet [low-fat (LF);10% of kcal from fat], or an LF + high-salt diet for 12 wk. The main sources of fat in the diets were corn oil and lard. Adipokines in serum and released from adipose tissue organ cultures were measured by immunoassays. QIAGEN's Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to perform functional analysis of the RNA-sequencing data from distinct adipose depots. Diet-induced obesity resulted in a classical inflammatory phenotype characterized by increased concentrations of circulating inflammatory mediators (38-56%) and reduced adiponectin concentrations (27%). However, high-salt feeding did not exacerbate the HF diet-induced changes in adipokines and cytokines. Leptin and interleukin-6 were differentially released from adipose depots and HF feeding impaired adiponectin and resistin secretion across all 3 depots (34-48% and 45-83%, respectively). The addition of high salt to the HF diet did not further modulate secretion in cultured adipose tissue experiments. Although gene expression data from RNA sequencing indicated a >4.3-fold upregulation of integrin αX (Itgax) with HF feeding in all 3 depots, markers of cellular function were differentially expressed in response to diet across depots. Collectively, these findings highlight the role of distinct adipose depots in mice in the development of obesity and emphasize the importance of selecting specific depots to study the effects of therapeutic

  8. The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Glastras

    Full Text Available Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease.Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p. or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32.HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity.Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity.

  9. High-fat diets affect energy and bone metabolism in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, Elisa V; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Mandalunis, Patricia; Zeni, Susana; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M

    2012-06-01

    High-fat diets are usually associated with greater weight (W) gain and body fat (BF). However, it is still unclear whether the type and amount of fat consumed influence BF. Additionally, dietary fat intake may also have consequences on skeletal health. To evaluate in healthy growing rats the effects of high-fat diets and type of dietary fat intake (saturated or vegetable oils) on energy and bone metabolism. At weaning, male Wistar rats (n = 50) were fed either a control diet (C; fat = 7% w/w) or a high-fat diet (20% w/w) containing either: soybean oil, corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), or beef tallow (BT) for 8 weeks. Zoometric parameters, BF, food intake and digestibility, and total and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) were assessed. Total skeleton bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), BMC/W, spine BMD, and bone volume (static-histomorphometry) were measured. Animals fed BT diet achieved lower W versus C. Rats fed high-fat vegetable oil diets showed similar effects on the zoometric parameters but differed in BF. BT showed the lowest lipid digestibility and BMC. In contrast, high vegetable oil diets produced no significant differences in BMC, BMC/W, BMD, spine BMD, and bone volume. Marked differences were observed for LO and BT groups in b-AP and CO and BT groups in bone volume. BT diet rich in saturated fatty acids had decreased digestibility and adversely affected energy and bone metabolisms, in growing healthy male rats. There were no changes in zoometric and bone parameters among rats fed high vegetable oil diets.

  10. Impairment of mitochondrial function of rat hepatocytes by high fat diet and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garnol, T.; Endlicher, R.; Kučera, O.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Červinková, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2014), s. 271-274 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) PRVOUK P37/02 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hepatocytes * high fat diet * mitochondrial activities * ROS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  11. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  12. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  13. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical. Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  14. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  15. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  17. Delta FosB-mediated alterations in dopamine signaling are normalized by a palatable high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Sarah L; Nestler, Eric J; Bale, Tracy L

    2008-12-01

    Sensitivity to reward has been implicated as a predisposing factor for behaviors related to drug abuse as well as overeating. However, the underlying mechanisms contributing to reward sensitivity are unknown. We hypothesized that a dysregulation in dopamine signaling might be an underlying cause of heightened reward sensitivity whereby rewarding stimuli could act to normalize the system. We used a genetic mouse model of increased reward sensitivity, the Delta FosB-overexpressing mouse, to examine reward pathway changes in response to a palatable high-fat diet. Markers of reward signaling in these mice were examined both basally and following 6 weeks of palatable diet exposure. Mice were examined in a behavioral test following high-fat diet withdrawal to assess the vulnerability of this model to removal of rewarding stimuli. Our results demonstrate altered reward pathway activation along the nucleus accumbens-hypothalamic-ventral tegmental area circuitry resulting from overexpression of Delta FosB in the nucleus accumbens and striatal regions. Levels of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (pCREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and dopamine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) in the nucleus accumbens were reduced in Delta FosB mice, suggestive of reduced dopamine signaling. Six weeks of high-fat diet exposure completely ameliorated these differences, revealing the potent rewarding capacity of a palatable diet. Delta FosB mice also showed a significant increase in locomotor activity and anxiety-related responses 24 hours following high-fat withdrawal. These results establish an underlying sensitivity to changes in reward related to dysregulation of Delta FosB and dopamine signaling that can be normalized with palatable diets and may be a predisposing phenotype in some forms of obesity.

  18. Differential Effect of Sucrose and Fructose in Combination with a High Fat Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Kidney Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Villegas, Adriana; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Ramírez, Victoria; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-04-16

    There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota and renal oxidative stress. Rats were fed for four months with either high-fat + sucrose (HFS) or high-fat + fructose (HFF) or a control diet (C). Half of the HFS or HFF groups were maintained with the same diet and the other half were switched to the consumption of C. HFS and HFF groups increased 51% and 19% body weight, respectively, compared with the C group. Body fat mass, metabolic inflexibility, glucose intolerance, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), insulin, renal reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nadphox, and Srebp-1 were significantly higher and antioxidant enzymes and lean body mass were significantly lower in the HFS group with respect to the HF-F group. Change in the consumption of HFS or HFF to a C diet ameliorated the insulin and glucose intolerance. The type of carbohydrate differentially modified the microbiota composition, however, both groups significantly decreased C. eutactus with respect to the C group. Thus, metabolic alterations with the HFS diet had a more detrimental effect than HFF.

  19. High-fat diet action on adiposity, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity depends on the control low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Bérengère; Plaisancié, Pascale; Awada, Manar; Géloën, Alain; Estienne, Monique; Capel, Frédéric; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Debard, Cyrille; Pesenti, Sandra; Morio, Béatrice; Vidal, Hubert; Rieusset, Jennifer; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2013-11-01

    Animal studies using a high-fat diet (HFD) have studied the effects of lipid overconsumption by comparing a defined HFD either with a natural-ingredient chow diet or with a defined low-fat diet (LFD), despite the dramatic differences between these control diets. We hypothesized that these differences in the control diet could modify the conclusions regarding the effects that an increase of fat in the diet has on several metabolic parameters. For 11 weeks, C57bl6/J mice were fed a low-fat chow diet (8% energy from fat), a typical semisynthetic LFD (12%), or a semisynthetic HFD (sy-HF) (40%). Conclusions about the effect of sy-HF on body weight gain, subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue inflammation were modified according to the control LFD. Conversely, conclusions about epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue; fat intake effects on liver and muscular lipids, cholesterol, free fatty acids, and markers of low-grade inflammation; and of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration were the same regardless of the use of low-fat chow diet or semisynthetic LFD. For some physiological outcomes, conflicting conclusions were even reached about the effects of increased fat intake according to the chosen low-fat control. Some deleterious effects of sy-HF may not be explained by lipid overconsumption but rather by the overall quality of ingredients in a semisynthetic diet. According to the control LFD chosen, conclusions on the lipid-related effects of HFDs must be formulated with great care because some end points are profoundly affected by the ingredient composition of the diet rather than by fat content. © 2013.

  20. Obesity, but not high-fat diet, promotes murine pancreatic cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patrick B; Ziegler, Kathryn M; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A; Wang, Sue S; Lillemoe, Keith D; Pitt, Henry A; Zyromski, Nicholas J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity accelerates pancreatic cancer growth; the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. This study evaluated the hypothesis that obesity, rather than high-fat diet, is responsible for accelerated pancreatic cancer growth. Male C57BL/6J mice were studied after 19 weeks of high-fat (60 % fat; n = 20) or low-fat (10 % fat; n = 10) diet and 5 weeks of Pan02 murine pancreatic cancer growth (flank). By two-way ANOVA, diet did not (p = 0.58), but body weight, significantly influenced tumor weight (p = 0.01). Tumor weight correlated positively with body weight (R (2) = 0.562; p pancreatic cancer growth observed in this model of diet-induced obesity. Decreased tumor apoptosis appears to play an important mechanistic role in this process. The concept that decreased apoptosis is potentiated by hypoadiponectinemia (seen in obesity) deserves further investigation.

  1. Adipose Tissue CLK2 Promotes Energy Expenditure during High-Fat Diet Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatting, Maximilian; Rines, Amy K; Luo, Chi; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Sharabi, Kfir; Hall, Jessica A; Verdeguer, Francisco; Trautwein, Christian; Puigserver, Pere

    2017-02-07

    A promising approach to treating obesity is to increase diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but the regulation of this process remains unclear. Here we find that CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2) is expressed in BAT and upregulated upon refeeding. Mice lacking CLK2 in adipose tissue exhibit exacerbated obesity and decreased energy expenditure during high-fat diet intermittent fasting. Additionally, tissue oxygen consumption and protein levels of UCP1 are reduced in CLK2-deficient BAT. Phosphorylation of CREB, a transcriptional activator of UCP1, is markedly decreased in BAT cells lacking CLK2 due to enhanced CREB dephosphorylation. Mechanistically, CREB dephosphorylation is rescued by the inhibition of PP2A, a phosphatase that targets CREB. Our results suggest that CLK2 is a regulatory component of diet-induced thermogenesis in BAT through increased CREB-dependent expression of UCP1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  3. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez; Gerardo N. Escalona-Cardoso; Leticia Garduño-Siciliano; Carlos Galaviz-Hernández; Norma Paniagua-Castro

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant ...

  4. Effects of Late Gestational High Fat Diet on Body Weight, Metabolic Regulation and Adipokine Expression in Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Carreras, Alba; Hakim, Fahed; Cunningham, John M.; Wang, Yang; Gozal, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Gestational exposures such as dietary changes can alter offspring phenotype through epigenetic modifications and promote increased risk for specific diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that high fat diet (HFD) during late gestation would lead increased risk for insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia via associated epigenetic alterations in tissue adipocytokine genes. Methods Offspring mice of mothers fed a HFD during late gestation (HFDO) were weighed and thei...

  5. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  6. High Fat Diet Alters Lactation Outcomes: Possible Involvement of Inflammatory and Serotonergic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Laura L.; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Yadav, Ekta; Seeley, Randy J.; Horseman, Nelson D.

    2012-01-01

    Delay in the onset of lactogenesis has been shown to occur in women who are obese, however the mechanism altered within the mammary gland causing the delay remains unknown. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD) has been previously determined to result decreased litters and litter numbers in rodent models due to a decrease in fertility. We examined the effects of feeding a HFD (60% kcal from fat) diet versus a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat) to female Wistar rats on lactation outcomes. Feeding of HFD diet resulted in increased pup weights compared to pups from LFD fed animals for 4 d post-partum. Lactation was delayed in mothers on HFD but they began to produce copious milk volumes beginning 2 d post-partum, and milk yield was similar to LFD by day 3. Mammary glands collected from lactating animals on HFD diet, displayed a disrupted morphologies, with very few and small alveoli. Consistently, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of milk protein genes, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and keratin 5 (K5), a luminobasal cell marker in the mammary glands of HFD lactating animals. Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin (5-HT) biosynthesis, and the 5-HT7 receptor (HTR7), which regulates mammary gland involution, were significantly increased in mammary glands of HFD animals. Additionally, we saw elevation of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α). These results indicate that consumption of HFD impairs mammary parenchymal tissue and impedes its ability to synthesize and secrete milk, possibly through an increase in 5-HT production within the mammary gland leading to an inflammatory process. PMID:22403677

  7. High fat diet alters lactation outcomes: possible involvement of inflammatory and serotonergic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Hernandez

    Full Text Available Delay in the onset of lactogenesis has been shown to occur in women who are obese, however the mechanism altered within the mammary gland causing the delay remains unknown. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD has been previously determined to result decreased litters and litter numbers in rodent models due to a decrease in fertility. We examined the effects of feeding a HFD (60% kcal from fat diet versus a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat to female Wistar rats on lactation outcomes. Feeding of HFD diet resulted in increased pup weights compared to pups from LFD fed animals for 4 d post-partum. Lactation was delayed in mothers on HFD but they began to produce copious milk volumes beginning 2 d post-partum, and milk yield was similar to LFD by day 3. Mammary glands collected from lactating animals on HFD diet, displayed a disrupted morphologies, with very few and small alveoli. Consistently, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of milk protein genes, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and keratin 5 (K5, a luminobasal cell marker in the mammary glands of HFD lactating animals. Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin (5-HT biosynthesis, and the 5-HT(7 receptor (HTR7, which regulates mammary gland involution, were significantly increased in mammary glands of HFD animals. Additionally, we saw elevation of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α. These results indicate that consumption of HFD impairs mammary parenchymal tissue and impedes its ability to synthesize and secrete milk, possibly through an increase in 5-HT production within the mammary gland leading to an inflammatory process.

  8. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  9. Characterization of high-salt and high-fat diets on cardiac and vascular function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianli; Larson, Douglas F; Slayback, Denise; Lundeen, Tamara F; Baxter, Jeffrey H; Watson, Ronald R

    2004-01-01

    This study compared two established dietary formulations, high salt and high fat-high carbohydrate, separately or in combination on the induction cardiovascular dysfunction. One-month-old C57BL/6J mice were fed one of the following diets for 3 mo: (1) control diet consisting of a high fat-high sim-ple carbohydrate (HFHSC); (2) 8% NaCl diet (HS); or (3) HFHSC diet supplemented with 1% NaCl (HFHS). After 3 mo, the HFHSC mice demonstrated significantly increased end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume, specifically increases of 35% and 78%, respectively (p < 0.01) and a reduction of ventricular stiffness by 27% (p = 0.015). The HS mice exhibited arterial hyper-tension with an increase of 33% in maximum end-systolic pressure (p =.024) and a decrease of 44% in arterial elastance (p = 0.020), corroborated by an increase in the heart weight to body weight ratios (p = 0.002) and vascular types I and III collagen (p = 0.03 and p = 0.0008, respectively). The HFHS group revealed a striking response of 230% to the alpha1-adrenergic challenge (p = 0.00034). These data suggest that the HFHSC diet causes dilated cardio-myopathy, whereas the HS diet produces arterial hypertension and the HFHS diet causes a vascular dysfunctional state that was highly responsive to alpha-adrenergic stimulation.

  10. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Improves Maternal High Fat Diet-Induced Programming of Metabolic Dysfunction in Adult Male Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2017-07-27

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that an adverse early life environment, including in utero exposure to a maternal obesogenic environment, can lead to an increased long-term risk of obesity and related metabolic complications in offspring. We assessed whether maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could prevent some of these adverse effects in offspring exposed to a maternal high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley dams consumed either a: control (CD), control with CLA (CLA), high fat (HF) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA) diet 10 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy/lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet. Body composition was quantified by DXA and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted on adult offspring. Gene/protein expression and histological analysis were conducted in adipose tissue. Offspring from HF dams had increased body weight, body fat deposition, impaired insulin sensitivity and adipocyte hypertrophy; all of which were rescued in HFCLA offspring. Molecular and histological analyses of the adipose tissue suggest that disturbances in adipogenesis may mediate the metabolic dysfunction observed in HF offspring. Therefore, CLA supplementation to a maternal obesogenic diet may be a promising strategy to prevent adverse programming outcomes.

  11. Exercise training and high-fat diet elicit endocannabinoid system modifications in the rat hypothalamus and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelin, François-Xavier; Aucouturier, Julien; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Mazzarella, Enrico; Aveta, Teresa; Leriche, Melissa; Dupont, Erwan; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Leclair, Erwan; Bastide, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Heyman, Elsa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic exercise on the hypothalamus and hippocampus levels of the endocannabinoids (eCBs) anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and of two AEA congeners and on the expression of genes coding for CB1, CB2 receptors (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively), and the enzymes responsible for eCB biosynthesis and degradation, in rats fed with a standard or high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats (n = 28) were placed on a 12-week high-fat (HFD) or standard diet period, followed by 12 weeks of exercise training for half of each group. Tissue levels of eCBs and related lipids were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and expression of genes coding for CB1 and CB2 receptors and eCB metabolic enzymes was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). HFD induced a significant increase in 2-AG (p hypothalamus. High-fat diet paired with exercise training had no effect on AEA, 2-AG, and AEA congener levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Cnr1 expression levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus in response to HFD, exercise, and the combination of both (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that eCB signaling in the CNS is sensitive to diet and/or exercise.

  12. Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K

    2015-01-01

    Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

  13. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

  14. Gestational high fat diet programs hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and histone modification in neonatal offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakovsky, Rita S; Zhang, Xiyuan; Zhou, Dan; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2011-06-01

    In insulin resistance and type II diabetes, there is an elevation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which contributes to hyperglycaemia. Studies in experimental animals have provided evidence that consumption of high fat (HF) diets by female rats programs the progeny for glucose intolerance in adulthood, but the mechanisms behind the in utero programming remain poorly understood. The present study analysed the effect of a maternal HF diet on fetal gluconeogenic gene expression and potential regulation mechanism related to histone modifications. Dams were fed either a Control (C, 16% kcal fat) or a high-fat (HF, 45% kcal fat) diet throughout gestation. Livers of the offspring were collected on gestational day 21 and analysed to determine the consequences of a maternal HF diet on molecular markers of fetal liver gluconeogenesis. We demonstrated that offspring of HF-fed dams were significantly heavier and had significantly higher blood glucose levels at the time of delivery than offspring of dams fed the C diet. While maternal gluconeogenesis and plasma glucose were not affected by the HF diet, offspring of HF-fed dams had significantly higher mRNA contents of gluconeogenic genes in addition to the elevated plasma glucose. In addition to increased transcription rate, a gestational HF diet resulted in modifications of the Pck1 histone code in livers of offspring. Our results demonstrate that in utero exposure to HF diet has the potential to program the gluconeogenic capacity of offspring through epigenetic modifications, which could potentially lead to excessive glucose production and altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood.

  15. Induction of Osteoarthritis and Metabolic Inflammation by a Very High Fat Diet in Mice: Effects of Short-term Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Timothy M.; Huebner, Janet L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Yan, Zhen; Guilak, Farshid

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypotheses that obesity due to a very high fat diet induces knee osteoarthritis, and that short-term wheel running exercise protects against obesity-induced knee osteoarthritis by reducing systemic inflammation and metabolic dysregulation. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control (13.5% kcal fat) or very high fat diet (60% kcal fat) from 12–24 wks of age. From 20–24 wks, half of the animals were housed with running wheels. Knee osteoarthritis severity was determined via histopathology, and serum cytokines were measured using a multiplex bead immunoassay and ELISAs. Body composition was quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin resistance was assessed by glucose tolerance testing. Results A very high fat diet increased osteoarthritis scores and serum leptin, adiponectin, KC (mouse analog of IL-8), MIG (monokine induced by interferon-gamma, or CXCL9), and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) levels in proportion to percent body fat, which increased 3-fold compared to controls. Wheel running reduced osteoarthritis progression in the medial femur of obese mice. Exercise disrupted the clustering of cytokine expression and improved glucose tolerance without reducing body fat or cytokine levels. Conclusion Obesity induced by a very high-fat diet causes osteoarthritis and systemic inflammation in proportion to body fat. Increased joint loading is not sufficient to explain the increased incidence of knee osteoarthritis with obesity as wheel running is protective rather than damaging. Exercise improves glucose tolerance and disrupts the co-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that increased aerobic exercise may act independent of weight loss in promoting joint health. PMID:21953366

  16. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

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    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  17. Antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. in high fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Si

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have reported the preventive effects of probiotics on obesity. Among commensal bacteria, bifidobacteria is one of the most numerous probiotics in the mammalian gut and are a type of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Korean on high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1 SD group, fed standard diet; (2 HFD group, fed high fat diet; and (3 HFD-LAB group, fed high fat diet supplemented with LAB supplement (B. pseudocatenulatum SPM 1204, B. longum SPM 1205, and B. longum SPM 1207; 108 ~ 109 CFU. After 7 weeks, the body, organ, and fat weights, food intake, blood serum levels, fecal LAB counts, and harmful enzyme activities were measured. Results Administration of LAB reduced body and fat weights, blood serum levels (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, glucose, leptin, AST, ALT, and lipase levels, and harmful enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and tryptophanase, and significantly increased fecal LAB counts. Conclusion These data suggest that Bifidobacterium spp. used in this study may have beneficial antiobesity effects.

  18. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

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    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    . They showed that patients in the highcarbohydrate/high-calorie groups gained 0.39 kg more weight per month, compared with 0.11kg per month in the control group, and there was an average weight loss of 0.46 kg per month in the high-fat/high-calorie group. However, there are some concerns that highcarbohydrate low-fat diets might increase the risk of ALS and these findings should be interpreted with caution (4. Furthermore, according to Wills et al. high fat-high caloric diets could not be ideal regimens for these patients due to the associated gastrointestinal complications (3. Dorst and associates, in their study, showed that high caloric food supplement with high fat is suitable to establish body weight compared to high carbohydrate formula. Hence, it seems that high protein-high caloric diets could be more appropriate options for both improving negative nitrogen balance and decreasing muscle atrophy in patients with ALS based on the pathophysiology of proteinenergy malnutrition and hypermetabolism which is thought to be due to mitochondria problem. The multifactorial pathophysiology of ALS has resulted in hypotheses that there may be subgroups of patients, eventually defined by a specific underlying etiology or clinical presentation, which selectively respond to a particular regimen. Consequently, further RCTs with larger sample size are required to clarify the best regimen for weight gain and improved survival in ALS patients and it seems that personalized nutritional support or combined regimens might be the best way and could improve the quality of life considering the complex pathophysiology of malnutrition.

  19. High-fat Diet Promotes Cardiac Remodeling in an Experimental Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fernando; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Pagan, Luana Urbano; Martinez, Paula Felippe; Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Oliveira-Junior, Silvio Assis de

    2015-11-01

    Although nutritional, metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities are commonly seen in experimental studies of obesity, it is uncertain whether these effects result from the treatment or from body adiposity. To evaluate the influence of treatment and body composition on metabolic and cardiovascular aspects in rats receiving high saturated fat diet. Sixteen Wistar rats were used, distributed into two groups, the control (C) group, treated with isocaloric diet (2.93 kcal/g) and an obese (OB) group, treated with high-fat diet (3.64 kcal/g). The study period was 20 weeks. Analyses of nutritional behavior, body composition, glycemia, cholesterolemia, lipemia, systolic arterial pressure, echocardiography, and cardiac histology were performed. High-fat diet associates with manifestations of obesity, accompanied by changes in glycemia, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and myocardial interstitial fibrosis. After adjusting for adiposity, the metabolic effects were normalized, whereas differences in morphometric changes between groups were maintained. It was concluded that adiposity body composition has a stronger association with metabolic disturbances in obese rodents, whereas the high-fat dietary intervention is found to be more related to cardiac morphological changes in experimental models of diet-induced obesity.

  20. High-fat Diet Promotes Cardiac Remodeling in an Experimental Model of Obesity

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    Fernando Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Although nutritional, metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities are commonly seen in experimental studies of obesity, it is uncertain whether these effects result from the treatment or from body adiposity.Objective:To evaluate the influence of treatment and body composition on metabolic and cardiovascular aspects in rats receiving high saturated fat diet.Methods:Sixteen Wistar rats were used, distributed into two groups, the control (C group, treated with isocaloric diet (2.93 kcal/g and an obese (OB group, treated with high-fat diet (3.64 kcal/g. The study period was 20 weeks. Analyses of nutritional behavior, body composition, glycemia, cholesterolemia, lipemia, systolic arterial pressure, echocardiography, and cardiac histology were performed.Results:High-fat diet associates with manifestations of obesity, accompanied by changes in glycemia, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and myocardial interstitial fibrosis. After adjusting for adiposity, the metabolic effects were normalized, whereas differences in morphometric changes between groups were maintained.Conclusion:It was concluded that adiposity body composition has a stronger association with metabolic disturbances in obese rodents, whereas the high-fat dietary intervention is found to be more related to cardiac morphological changes in experimental models of diet-induced obesity.

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Improves Maternal High Fat Diet-Induced Programming of Metabolic Dysfunction in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Clare M. Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that an adverse early life environment, including in utero exposure to a maternal obesogenic environment, can lead to an increased long-term risk of obesity and related metabolic complications in offspring. We assessed whether maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could prevent some of these adverse effects in offspring exposed to a maternal high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley dams consumed either a: control ...

  2. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Methods Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6?7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male ...

  3. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin?e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-01-01

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lip...

  4. The Role of Maternal High Fat Diet in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic and Bone Disease in the Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Brenseke, Bonnie Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are diseases of long duration, slow progression, and are by far the leading cause of death worldwide. A growing body of evidence links adverse exposures in early development with an increased risk of chronic diseases in adult life. The studies presented in this dissertation sought to exploit this phenomenon to determine the extent to which gestational and lactational exposure to a high fat diet predisposes the ...

  5. Comparison of the behavioral effects of exercise and high fat diet on cognitive function in adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Song, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Ju; Kim, Youn-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment, neuronal plasticity, and cognitive function. Experiences of adolescence can be exerted positive and negative effects on brain development. Physical exercise has a positive effect on brain function, which is characterized by improving memory function and increased neural plasticity. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has a negative effect on brain function, which is characterized by insulin resistance and neuroinflammation and reduced mic...

  6. STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETES PARTIALLY ATTENUATES THE EFFECTS OF A HIGH-FAT DIET ON LIVER AND BRAIN FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Beth; Ozias, Marlies K.; Guilford, Brianne L.; Wright, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study addresses the effects of a high-fat diet on liver and brain fatty acid compositions and the interaction of that diet with diabetes in a type 1 mouse model. Adult, male, normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice were fed standard (14% kcals from fat) or high-fat (54% kcals from fat, hydrogenated vegetable shortening and corn oil) diets for 8 weeks. Liver and whole brain total phospholipid fatty acid compositions were then determined by TLC/GC. In the liver of non-diabetic mice, the high-fat diet increased the percentages of 18:1n-9, 20:4n-6, and 22:5n-6 and decreased 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3. Diabetes increased 16:0 in liver, and decreased 18:1n-7 and 20:4n-6. The effects of the high-fat diet on liver phospholipids in diabetic mice were similar to those in non-diabetic mice, or were of smaller magnitude. In the brain, the high-fat diet increased 18:0 and 20:4n-6 of non-diabetic, but not diabetic mice. Brain 22:5n-6 acid was increased by the high-fat diet in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, but this increase was smaller in diabetic mice. Diabetes alone did not alter the percentage of any individual fatty acid in brain. This indicates that the effects of a high-fat diet on liver and brain phospholipid fatty acid compositions are mitigated by concomitant hyperglycemia with hypoinsulinemia. PMID:23893338

  7. Protective effect of doxycycline on germinal epithelial loss caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; García-Rivera, Alejandro; Madrigal-Pérez, M Violeta M; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Alejandrina; Lugo-Radillo, Agustin; Galvan-Salazar, Hector R; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D; Gómez-Tapia, Fernando; Martinez-Martinez, Rafael; Valdez-Velazquez, Laura L; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar A; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Melnikov, Valery; Lara-Esqueda, Agustin; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose

    2014-05-01

    A high-fat diet and male obesity are aspects associated with germinal epithelial alterations and male infertility. Some reports have shown that certain tetracyclines can protect the germinal epithelium from toxic drugs. The aim of the present study design was to evaluate the possible effect of doxycycline on testicular germ cells in individuals fed a Western diet (atherogenic), using a murine model. Two groups of male mice (BALB/c) were fed a high-fat Western diet (HFD). One of these two groups was given doxycycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day (HFD+Dox). A third group was fed a standard rodent diet (SD group). After 6 months, the mice were euthanized and morphologic and histopathologic analyses were performed. Germinal epithelial height was similar between the SD group (54 μm) and the HFD+Dox group (53 μm) (p = 0.26), and it was significantly reduced in the HFD group (47 μm) (p = 0.0001). The degree of germinal epithelial loss (DGEL) was significantly lower in the SD (10) and HFD+Dox (12.5) groups than in the HFD group (30) (p = 0.0001 and =0.007, respectively). There were no differences in the DGEL between the SD and HFD+Dox groups (p = 0.42). Doxycycline administration was shown to prevent germinal epithelial loss in the testes of mice fed a high-fat diet. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical usefulness of doxycycline or its analogs in persons with a habitual high-fat diet.

  8. Altered autophagy and sympathetic innervation in salivary glands from high-fat diet mice.

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    de Carvalho, Polliane Morais; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Carpenter, Guy Howard

    2017-03-01

    to investigate the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) on salivary glands in vivo, in a mouse model. In particular, whether it will induce the appearance of fat cells in salivary glands, alterations related to autophagy, mTOR pathway and sympathetic innervation. 27 adult female ICR mice were separated in six groups. Three groups fed with (HFD) containing 55% fat, for one, two and three month and another three groups fed with normal diet (2.7% of fat), for the same time periods. The submandibular glands and liver were dissected and part homogenized for protein analyses and part fixed in formalin for histological analyses. After three months the HFD fed mice total body weight fold change increased compared to controls. The Oil Red O staining showed no fat cells deposit in salivary gland however a large increase was observed in liver after three months of HFD. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in the HFD group after three months. The group fed with HFD for three months showed increased conversion of the LC3 autophagy marker in salivary gland. mTOR showed no activation regarding the time point studied. Tyrosine hydroxylase significantly decreased after two and three month of HFD. HFD caused several changes after three months however the earliest change was noticed after two months regarding sympathetic innervation. This suggests neural alteration may drive other diet induced changes in salivary glands. These early changes may be the starting point for longer term alterations of salivary glands with alterations in diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

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    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Astrup, Arne; Tholstrup, Tine; Raben, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB). The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P cholesterol concentration (P cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacylglycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P CHEESE and MEAT diets. Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01739153

  11. Antagonism of T-type calcium channels inhibits high-fat diet-induced weight gain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebele, Victor N; Gotter, Anthony L; Nuss, Cindy E; Kraus, Richard L; Doran, Scott M; Garson, Susan L; Reiss, Duane R; Li, Yuxing; Barrow, James C; Reger, Thomas S; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Ballard, Jeanine E; Tang, Cuyue; Metzger, Joseph M; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Koblan, Kenneth S; Renger, John J

    2009-06-01

    The epidemics of obesity and metabolic disorders have well-recognized health and economic burdens. Pharmacologic treatments for these diseases remain unsatisfactory with respect to both efficacy and side-effect profiles. Here, we have identified a potential central role for T-type calcium channels in regulating body weight maintenance and sleep. Previously, it was shown that mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type calcium channels have altered sleep/wake activity. We found that these mice were also resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain, without changes in food intake or sensitivity to high-fat diet-induced disruptions of diurnal rhythm. Administration of a potent and selective antagonist of T-type calcium channels, TTA-A2, to normal-weight animals prior to the inactive phase acutely increased sleep, decreased body core temperature, and prevented high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Administration of TTA-A2 to obese rodents reduced body weight and fat mass while concurrently increasing lean muscle mass. These effects likely result from better alignment of diurnal feeding patterns with daily changes in circadian physiology and potentially an increased metabolic rate during the active phase. Together, these studies reveal what we believe to be a previously unknown role for T-type calcium channels in the regulation of sleep and weight maintenance and suggest the potential for a novel therapeutic approach to treating obesity.

  12. Physiological adaptations induced by swimming in mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Pedro Augusto Silva; Pereira, Miriam Pimenta; Soares, Jeferson José Gomes; Filho, Anderson Ferraz Norton; Tanimoto, Izadora Mayumi Fujinami; Fonseca, Ivana Alice Teixeira; Avelar, Homero Oliveira; Botelho, Francoise Vasconcelos; Roever, Leonardo; Vieira, Alexandre Antônio; Zanon, Renata Graciele

    2017-06-01

    This study examined physiological variables of animals fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or with a normal diet (ND) subjected to swimming at low and moderate level. Over 16 weeks, a group of animals was fed with HFD or ND, and at the 8 weeks, they started swimming with 50% or 80% of the maximum load achieved in the progressive work test. Weekly, body weight and the amount of ingested food were registered. The glycemic level was measured at the beginning, middle and at the end of the experiment. Adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscles and hearts were collected for morphometry. The results showed that the animals fed an HFD had a minor caloric intake; however, the HFD increased body weight and adiposity, likely causing cardiac hypertrophy and an increase in the glycemic level. In this context, swimming with an 80% load contributed positively to weight control, adiposity, glycemic level, to control cardiac hypertrophy and induce hypertrophy in the gastrocnemius muscle. All parameters assessed showed better results for the ND animals. Therefore, the importance of fat consumption was emphasized in relation to obesity onset. The practice of swimming with an 80% load produced greater benefits than swimming with a 50% load for overweight treatment.

  13. Postnatal high-fat diet enhances ectopic fat deposition in pigs with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honglin; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Bing; Yu, Jie; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2017-03-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal nutrition are risk factors for adult metabolic syndrome. However, the influences of long-term high-fat diet (HFD) intake on ectopic fat deposition in non-adipose tissues in IUGR pigs remain unclear. The present study was to determine whether HFD consumption would enhance ectopic fat deposition in IUGR pigs. At day 28, IUGR and control pigs were fed ad libitum to either a regular diet or a HFD. Lipid store, enzymatic activities and mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-related factors in liver and semitendinosus muscle (SM) were quantified at postnatal day 178. Feeding a HFD to IUGR pigs but not to control pigs significantly increased daily weight gain, carcass fat mass, plasma leptin level and lipid content and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mRNA abundances of LPL and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in liver and SM, but decreased daily feed intake and mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) in liver and SM (P IUGR pigs had a lower body weight but higher plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC) and insulin (P IUGR increased the vulnerability of HFD-fed pigs to ectopic fat deposition via enhanced fatty acid flux toward ectopic sites and reduced lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation.

  14. Chronic high-fat diet in fathers programs β-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sheau-Fang; Lin, Ruby C Y; Laybutt, D Ross; Barres, Romain; Owens, Julie A; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-10-21

    The global prevalence of obesity is increasing across most ages in both sexes. This is contributing to the early emergence of type 2 diabetes and its related epidemic. Having either parent obese is an independent risk factor for childhood obesity. Although the detrimental impacts of diet-induced maternal obesity on adiposity and metabolism in offspring are well established, the extent of any contribution of obese fathers is unclear, particularly the role of non-genetic factors in the causal pathway. Here we show that paternal high-fat-diet (HFD) exposure programs β-cell 'dysfunction' in rat F(1) female offspring. Chronic HFD consumption in Sprague-Dawley fathers induced increased body weight, adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Relative to controls, their female offspring had an early onset of impaired insulin secretion and glucose tolerance that worsened with time, and normal adiposity. Paternal HFD altered the expression of 642 pancreatic islet genes in adult female offspring (P intergenerational transmission of metabolic sequelae of a HFD from father to offspring.

  15. High fat diet and GLP-1 drugs induce pancreatic injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, Rodney, E-mail: rodney.rouse@fda.hhs.gov; Xu, Lin; Stewart, Sharron; Zhang, Jun

    2014-04-15

    Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) drugs are currently used to treat type-2 diabetes. Safety concerns for increased risk of pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal metaplasia have accompanied these drugs. High fat diet (HFD) is a type-2 diabetes risk factor that may affect the response to GLP-1 drug treatment. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diet and GLP-1 based drugs on the exocrine pancreas in mice. Experiments were designed in a mouse model of insulin resistance created by feeding a HFD or standard diet (STD) for 6 weeks. The GLP-1 drugs, sitagliptin (SIT) and exenatide (EXE) were administered once daily for additional 6 weeks in both mice fed HFD or STD. The results showed that body weight, blood glucose levels, and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and KC) were significantly greater in HFD mice than in STD mice regardless of GLP-1 drug treatment. The semi-quantitative grading showed that pancreatic changes were significantly greater in EXE and SIT-treated mice compared to control and that HFD exacerbated spontaneous exocrine pancreatic changes seen in saline-treated mice on a standard diet. Exocrine pancreatic changes identified in this study included acinar cell injury (hypertrophy, autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy), vascular injury, interstitial edema and inflammation, fat necrosis, and duct changes. These findings support HFD as a risk factor to increased susceptibility/severity for acute pancreatitis and indicate that GLP-1 drugs cause pancreatic injury that can be exacerbated in a HFD environment.

  16. Intrarenal ghrelin receptor antagonism prevents high-fat diet-induced hypertension in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brandon A; Howell, Nancy L; Gildea, John J; Padia, Shetal H

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight gain contributes up to 65% of the risk of primary hypertension, and the increase in blood pressure in response to high-fat diet (HFD) is preceded by significant increases in renal tubular sodium (Na(+)) reabsorption. In normal rats, intrarenal ghrelin infusion increases distal nephron-dependent Na(+) reabsorption via activation of the intrarenal ghrelin receptor (GHSR). This study focusses on the role of intrarenal GHSR-mediated Na(+) reabsorption in HFD-induced hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive rats received standard diet or HFD for 6 weeks. Rats underwent uninephrectomy and osmotic minipump implantation for chronic intrarenal delivery of vehicle (0.25 μL/h × 28 d), selective GHSR antagonist [D-Lys-3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (0.2μM/d), or GHSR inverse agonist [D-Arg(1), D-Phe(5), D-Trp(7,9), Leu(11)]-substance P (SUB-P) (3.6μM/d). HFD rats with vehicle pumps had significantly increased renal GHSR expression compared with standard diet (0.092 ± 0.005 vs 0.065 ± 0.004 arbitrary units; P ghrelin levels were similar (16.3±6.2 vs 15.7±8.7 pg/g tissue). HFD rats with vehicle pumps became hypertensive after 2 weeks (P ghrelin-dependent, activity of the GHSR, and HFD-induced α-epithelial Na(+) channel up-regulation was abolished during GHSR antagonism, these data suggest that HFD increases the constitutive activity of renal GHSR to increase Na(+) reabsorption and induce hypertension in rats.

  17. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in weaned rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitose Sugiyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effects of Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in the liver of weaned male rats fed high fat, carbohydrate-free diets. The rats of three experimental groups and control were fed for 10 days. The diets were high fat, carbohydrate-free diets consisting either of a corn oil or MCT, and high protein carbohydrate-free diet and a control (high carbohydrate diet. The hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase activity increased in the experimental groups. Despite the elevated G6Pase activity in these groups, hepatic activities of glutamic alanine transaminase (GAT, pyruvate carboxylase (PC and arginase differed among the experimental groups. The HF-corn oil rats showed elevation of PC activity, but no elevation of GAT activity, and the lowest arginase activity among the three groups. The HF-MCT diet-fed rats showed higher GAT and arginase activities than the HF-corn oil group. In the HP diet-fed rats, GAT and arginase activities enhanced, PC did not.

  18. Variable penetrance of metabolic phenotypes and development of high-fat diet-induced adiposity in NEIL1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Harini; Batra, Ayesha K; Vartanian, Vladimir; Carmical, J Russ; Prusak, Deborah; King, Irena B; Lowell, Brian; Earley, Lauriel F; Wood, Thomas G; Marks, Daniel L; McCullough, Amanda K; R Stephen, Lloyd

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to chronic and acute oxidative stress is correlated with many human diseases, including, but not limited to, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. In addition to cellular lipids and proteins, cellular oxidative stress can result in damage to DNA bases, especially in mitochondrial DNA. We previously described the development of spontaneous late-onset obesity, hepatic steatosis, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in mice that are deficient in the DNA glycosylase nei-like 1 (NEIL1), which initiates base excision repair of several oxidatively damaged bases. In the current study, we report that exposure to a chronic oxidative stress in the form of a high-fat diet greatly accelerates the development of obesity in neil1(-/-) mice. Following a 5-wk high-fat diet challenge, neil1(-/-) mice gained significantly more body weight than neil1(+/+) littermates and had increased body fat accumulation and moderate to severe hepatic steatosis. Analysis of oxygen consumption by indirect calorimetry indicated a modest reduction in total oxygen consumption in neil1(-/-) mice that was abolished upon correction for lean body mass. Additionally, hepatic expression of several inflammatory genes was significantly upregulated in neil1(-/-) mice following high-fat diet challenge compared with chow-fed or neil1(+/+) counterparts. A long-term high-fat diet also induced glucose intolerance as well as a significant reduction in mitochondrial DNA and protein content in neil1(-/-) mice. Collectively, these data indicate that NEIL1 deficiency results in an increased susceptibility to obesity and related complications potentially by lowering the threshold for tolerance of cellular oxidative stress in neil1(-/-) mice.

  19. EFEK DIET TINGGI KARBOHIDRAT DAN DIET TINGGI LEMAK TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN KEPADATAN SEL BETA PANKREAS PADA TIKUS WISTAR (EFFECT OF HIGH CARBOHYDRATE DIET AND HIGH FAT DIET ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND BETA CELL PANCREAS DENSITY IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Mutiyani

    2014-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes the clustering of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and obesity associated with the increasing risk of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and death both in less developed and developed countries in the world. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increasES every year. The aim of this study was to assess blood glucose level using Glucose Oksidase (GOD-PAP and beta cell pancreas density using microscope.  Blood glucose concentration and beta cell pancreas density were compared in rats fed isocalorically a high carbohydrate diet for 12 w (80,57% carbohydrate, 14% protein, and 5.41% fat or a high fat diet for 12 w (55,63% carbohydrate; 14,25% protein; and 30,10% fat. At the end of the study, high carbohydrate rats had higher blood glucose concentration than the high fat group (293.57 mg/dl. High carbohydrate and high fat diet both resulted in elevated beta cell pancreas density, but the density was seen lowest in high carbohydrate fed (45,06 mm2. The findings suggest that both high carbohydrate and high fat fed elevated blood glucose concentration and decreased the density of beta cell in rats. Keywords: high carbohydrate diet, high fat diet, blood glucose, beta cell pancreas density

  20. Extended exenatide administration enhances lipid metabolism and exacerbates pancreatic injury in mice on a high fat, high carbohydrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Rouse

    Full Text Available This study expanded upon a previous study in mice reporting a link between exenatide treatment and exocrine pancreatic injury by demonstrating temporal and dose responses and providing an initial mechanistic hypothesis. The design of the present study included varying lengths of exenatide exposure (3, 6 weeks to 12 weeks at multiple concentrations (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg with multiple endpoints (histopathology evaluations, immunoassay for cytokines, immunostaining of the pancreas, serum chemistries and measurement of trypsin, amylase, and, lipase, and gene expression profiles. Time- and dose-dependent exocrine pancreatic injury was observed in mice on a high fat diet treated with exenatide. The morphological changes identified in the pancreas involved acinar cell injury and death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy, cell adaptations (hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and cell survival (proliferation/regeneration accompanied by varying degrees of inflammatory response leading to secondary injury in pancreatic blood vessels, ducts, and adipose tissues. Gene expression profiles indicated increased signaling for cell survival and altered lipid metabolism in exenatide treated mice. Immunohistochemistry supported gene expression findings that exenatide caused and/or exacerbated pancreatic injury in a high fat diet environment potentially by further increasing high fat diet exacerbated lipid metabolism and resulting oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and determine their relevance to human disease.

  1. Extended exenatide administration enhances lipid metabolism and exacerbates pancreatic injury in mice on a high fat, high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Rodney; Zhang, Leshuai; Shea, Katherine; Zhou, Hongfei; Xu, Lin; Stewart, Sharron; Rosenzweig, Barry; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study expanded upon a previous study in mice reporting a link between exenatide treatment and exocrine pancreatic injury by demonstrating temporal and dose responses and providing an initial mechanistic hypothesis. The design of the present study included varying lengths of exenatide exposure (3, 6 weeks to 12 weeks) at multiple concentrations (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg) with multiple endpoints (histopathology evaluations, immunoassay for cytokines, immunostaining of the pancreas, serum chemistries and measurement of trypsin, amylase, and, lipase, and gene expression profiles). Time- and dose-dependent exocrine pancreatic injury was observed in mice on a high fat diet treated with exenatide. The morphological changes identified in the pancreas involved acinar cell injury and death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy), cell adaptations (hypertrophy and hyperplasia), and cell survival (proliferation/regeneration) accompanied by varying degrees of inflammatory response leading to secondary injury in pancreatic blood vessels, ducts, and adipose tissues. Gene expression profiles indicated increased signaling for cell survival and altered lipid metabolism in exenatide treated mice. Immunohistochemistry supported gene expression findings that exenatide caused and/or exacerbated pancreatic injury in a high fat diet environment potentially by further increasing high fat diet exacerbated lipid metabolism and resulting oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and determine their relevance to human disease.

  2. Cholecystokinin knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Min; King, Alexandra; Samuelson, Linda C; Kindel, Tammy Lyn; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald J; Raybould, Helen E; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a satiation peptide released during meals in response to lipid intake; it regulates pancreatic digestive enzymes that are required for absorption of nutrients. We proposed that mice with a disruption in the CCK gene (CCK knockout [CCK-KO] mice) that were fed a diet of 20% butter fat would have altered fat metabolism. We used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to determine body composition and monitored food intake of CCK-KO mice using an automated measurement system. Intestinal fat absorption and energy expenditure were determined using a noninvasive assessment of intestinal fat absorption and an open circuit calorimeter, respectively. After consuming a high-fat diet for 10 weeks, CCK-KO mice had reduced body weight gain and body fat mass and enlarged adipocytes, despite the same level of food intake as wild-type mice. CCK-KO mice also had defects in fat absorption, especially of long-chain saturated fatty acids, but pancreatic triglyceride lipase did not appear to have a role in the fat malabsorption. Energy expenditure was higher in CCK-KO than wild-type mice, and CCK-KO mice had greater oxidation of carbohydrates while on the high-fat diet. Plasma leptin levels in the CCK-KO mice fed the high-fat diet were markedly lower than in wild-type mice, although levels of insulin, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1 were normal. CCK is involved in regulating the metabolic rate and is important for lipid absorption and control of body weight in mice placed on a high-fat diet. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Salicornia herbacea prevents high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Ko, Sung Kwon; Choi, Jin Gyu; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2006-03-01

    Salicornia herbacea L. (Chenopodiaceae) has been used as a seasoned vegetable by living in coastal areas. S. herbacea (SH) has been demonstrated to stimulate cytokine production, nitric oxide release, and to show anti-oxidative effect. In a series of investigations to develop potential anti-diabetic and/or anti-hyperlipidemic agents from Korean indigenous plants, 50% ethanol extract of Salicornia herbacea was found to prevent the onset of the hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia induced by high fat diet in ICR mice. At 6 week old, the ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups; two control and three treatment groups. The control mice were to receive either a regular diet (RD) or high-fat diet (HFD), and the treatment groups were fed a high fat diet with either 350 mg/kg, 700 mg/kg of SH (SH350 and SH700) or 250 mg/kg of metformin (MT250) for a 10-week period. SH not only reduced body weight but also corrected associated hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in a dose dependent manner. SH exerted beneficial effects on the plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis possibly ascribed to its specific effects on lipogenesis related genes (SREBP1a, FAS, GAPT), and PEPCK, glucose 6-phosphatase gene expressions in liver. Ethanol extract of S. herbacea has potential as a preventive agent for type 2 diabetes (and possibly hyperlipidemia) and deserves future clinical trial.

  4. High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations

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    Oller do Nascimento Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Results Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose

  5. Pleiotropic Functions of High Fat Diet in the Etiology of Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Asou

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA. To investigate the roles of increased mechanical loading in the onset of obesity-induced OA, knee joints were histologically analyzed after applying a tail suspension (TS model to a high-fat diet (HFD-induced OA model. Mice were divided into four groups: normal diet (ND with normal loading (NL group; HFD with NL group; ND with TS group; and HFD with TS group. Whole knee joints were evaluated by immunohistological analysis. The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP was excised and mRNA expression profiles were compared by qPCR analysis. After twelve weeks of the diet, body weight was increased by HFD in both the NL group and TS group. Upon histological analysis, the irregularity of the surface layer of articular cartilage was observed only in the NL+HFD group. Osteophyte area increased as a result of HFD in both the NL and TS groups, although osteophyte area in the TS+HFD group was smaller than that of the NL+HFD group. In the evaluation of the IPFP by qPCR, adipokines and inflammatory cytokines also increased as a result of HFD. While TGF-β increased as a result of HFD, the trend was slightly lower in the TS group, in parallel with osteophyte area. To detect apoptosis of articular chondrocytes, TUNEL staining was employed. TUNEL-positive cells were abundantly observed in the articular cartilage in the HFD mice regardless of mechanical loading. IPFP inflammation, enhanced chondrocyte apoptosis, and osteophyte formation were seen even in the TS group as a result of a HFD. In all, these data demonstrate that HFD contributed to osteophyte formation through mechanical loading dependent and independent mechanisms.

  6. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Stimulate De novo Lipogenesis and Improve Glucose Homeostasis during Refeeding with High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cancelliere, Rosa; Bianco, Francesca; Giacco, Antonia; Liverini, Giovanna; Dulloo, Abdul G; Iossa, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The recovery of body weight after a period of caloric restriction is accompanied by an enhanced efficiency of fat deposition and hyperinsulinemia-which are exacerbated by isocaloric refeeding on a high fat diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA-MUFA), and poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and associated with a blunting of de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue and liver. As high fat diets rich in PUFA have been shown to limit the excess fat deposition and improve glucose homeostasis, we investigated here the extent to which de novo lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissues (white and brown), as well as hepatic oxidative stress, are influenced by refeeding on diets rich in PUFA. Design: In rats calorically restricted for 14 days and refed for 14 days on isocaloric amounts of a high fat diet rich in lard (i.e., high SFA-MUFA) or in safflower and linseed oils (rich in PUFA), we investigated energy balance, body composition, glycemic profile, and the regulation of fatty acid synthase (rate-limiting enzyme of de novo lipogenesis) in liver, white and brown adipose tissue. We also evaluated oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle and markers of hepatic inflammation. Results: Rats refed the PUFA diet gained less lipids and more proteins compared to rats refed SFA-MUFA diet and showed lower amount of visceral and epididymal white adipose tissue, but increased depots of interscapular brown adipose tissue, with higher expression of the uncoupling protein 1. A significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and carbohydrate utilization was found in rats refed PUFA diet. Rats refed PUFA diet showed improved glucose homeostasis, as well as lower triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Fatty acid synthase activity was significantly higher in liver, white and brown adipose tissue, while lipid peroxidation and the degree of inflammation in the liver were significantly lower, in rats refed PUFA diet. Conclusions: When considering the

  7. Salvia libanotica improves glycemia and serum lipid profile in rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Maya; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohammad; Zeeni, Nadine

    2015-10-23

    Salvia libanotica (S. Libanotica) is a commonly used herb in folk medicine in Lebanon and the Middle East. The present study aimed to assess the scientific basis for the therapeutic use of S. libanotica in glycemia and to evaluate its effects on lipemia and abdominal fat. Animals were fed a high-fat diet and allocated into a control and three experimental groups (GI, GII and GIII) receiving incremental doses of the plant water extract in drinking water (50, 150 and 450 mg/Kg body weight respectively) for six weeks. The intake of S. libanotica extract was associated with a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose (102.9 ± 10.8 in GII and 87.5 ± 6.4 in GIII vs. 152.1 ± 7.9 mg/dl in controls) and a two fold increase in fasting serum insulin (GIII) and liver glycogen content (GII and GIII). Group III also had better glucose tolerance following intraperitoneal glucose challenges. Additionally, the plant extract intake produced a significant improvement in serum HDL (34.4 ± 2.4 in GIII vs. 27.2 ± 1.9 mg/dl in controls) and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio (2.79 ± 0.32 in GII and 3.02 ± 0.31 in GIII vs. 1.74 ± 0.18 in controls), as well as a decrease in abdominal fat. The current study is the first to demonstrate that the chronic intake of S. libanotica infusion helps in the prevention of high fat-induced hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This supports the plant use as a remedy for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. High-Fat Diet Feeding Causes Rapid, Non-apoptotic Cleavage of Caspase-3 in Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J.; Nguyen, Hong T.; Hwang, Bang H.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.; Thaler, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes respond to multiple forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury by entering a reactive state characterized by morphological changes and a specific pattern of altered protein expression. Termed astrogliosis, this response has been shown to strongly influence the injury response and functional recovery of CNS tissues. This pattern of CNS inflammation and injury associated with astrogliosis has recently been found to occur in the energy homeostasis centers of the hypothalamus during diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodent models, but the characterization of the astrocyte response remains incomplete. Here, we report that astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus respond robustly and rapidly to purified high-fat diet (HFD) feeding by cleaving caspase-3, a protease whose cleavage is often associated with apoptosis. Although obesity develops in HFD-fed rats by day 14, caspase-3 cleavage occurs by day 3, prior to the development of obesity, suggesting the possibility that it could play a causal role in the hypothalamic neuropathology and fat gain observed in DIO. Caspase-3 cleavage is not associated with an increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL staining, suggesting it plays a non-apoptotic role analogous to the response to excitotoxic neuron injury. Our results indicate that astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus respond rapidly and robustly to HFD feeding, activating caspase-3 in the absence of apoptosis, a process that has the potential to influence the course of DIO. PMID:23548599

  9. Effects of canagliflozin on weight loss in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenjun; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Meng; Yan, Wenhui; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Shuting; Lu, Jun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weight, liver weight, liver morphology, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were examined. Signaling molecules, including diacylgycero1 acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), peroxisome proliferation receptor alpha-1 (PPARα1), PPARγ1, PPARγ2 mRNA levels and the protein expression of SGLT2 were evaluated. Canagliflozin reduced body weight, especially the high-dose canagliflozin, and resulted in increased body weight loss compared with orlistat. Moreover, canagliflozin reduced the liver weight and the ratio of liver weight to body weight, lowered the serum levels of TC and TG, and ameliorated liver steatosis. During the canagliflozin treatment, SGLT2, DGAT2, PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 were inhibited, and PPARα1 was elevated in the liver tissues. This finding may explain why body weight was reduced and secondary liver injury was ameliorated in response to canagliflozin. Together, the results suggest that canagliflozin may be a potential anti-obesity strategy.

  10. Weight loss enhances hepatic antioxidant status in a NAFLD model induced by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Iara Karise Santos; Matsuura, Cristiane; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: standard chow (SC; 10% energy from fat, 16 weeks); HF (50% energy from fat, 16 weeks); SC-HF (SC for 8 weeks followed by HF for 8 weeks); and HF-SC (HF for 8 weeks followed by SC for 8 weeks). The HF diet during 8 (SC-HF) and 16 weeks (HF) downregulated messenger RNA levels and protein expression of Nrf2 and endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the liver; caused liver steatosis; affected liver function markers; increased intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue; and induced glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia compared with controls (SC). Diet-induced weight loss significantly reduced the intrahepatic lipid accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and restored both gene and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that a dietary intervention aimed to induce weight loss may exert protective effects in NAFLD as it can reduce hepatic oxidative stress and intrahepatic lipid accumulation, which can hinder the progression of this condition to more severe states.

  11. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. THE RATS WERE RANDOMLY SEPARATED INTO THREE GROUPS: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.

  12. Fresh garlic amelioration of high-fat-diet induced fatty liver in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Aisha; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of fresh garlic on high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver changes. The experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from October to November 2008, and comprised adult albino rats weighing 200-240g each. The rats were divided into 5 groups according to dietary regimen for eight weeks each. Group A received control diet; Group B received high saturated fat diet; Group C received high unsaturated fat diet; Group D received high saturated fat diet with fresh garlic; and Group E received high unsaturated fat diet with garlic for 8 weeks. Liver tissue slides were stained with Oil red-O and haematoxylin and Periodic acid-Schiff-haematoxylin. The 50 rats in the study were divided into five groups of 10(20%) each. There was marked deposition of fat in hepatocyte along with marked decrease in glycogen content in liver of rats in Groups B and C, with Group B showing more marked changes. The changes in fat and glycogen content were reversed and ameliorated close to Group A in rats belonging to Groups D and E. Fresh garlic minimised the high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver changes in rats.

  13. Vagal afferent neurons in high fat diet-induced obesity; intestinal microflora, gut inflammation and cholecystokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lartigue, Guillaume; de La Serre, Claire Barbier; Raybould, Helen E

    2011-11-30

    The vagal afferent pathway is the major neural pathway by which information about ingested nutrients reaches the CNS and influences both GI function and feeding behavior. Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) express receptors for many of the regulatory peptides and molecules released from the intestinal wall, pancreas, and adipocytes that influence GI function, glucose homeostasis, and regulate food intake and body weight. As such, they play a critical role in both physiology and pathophysiology, such as obesity, where there is evidence that vagal afferent function is altered. This review will summarize recent findings on changes in vagal afferent function in response to ingestion of high fat diets and explore the hypothesis that changes in gut microbiota and integrity of the epithelium may not only be important in inducing these changes but may be the initial events that lead to dysregulation of food intake and body weight in response to high fat, high energy diets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic effect of Commiphora mukul (gum resin and Lagenaria siceraria (fruit extracts in high fat diet induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Nadeem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the synergistic effect of Commiphora mukul (gum resin and Lagenaria siceraria (fruit extracts in high fat diet induced obese rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into seven groups: (i non-obese control (NOB, (ii Obese control (OB, (iii orlistat (50 mg/ kg; p.o. , (iv ethyl acetate extract of Commiphora mukul (gum resin (200 mg/kg; p.o. , (v ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (fruit (200 mg/kg; p.o. were examined individually, (vi C. mukul and L.siceraria (200 mg/kg; p.o. and (vii C. mukul and L.siceraria (400 mg/kg; p.o. extracts were administered in combination to the high fat-diet-induced obese rats for 30 days to evaluate its synergistic activity. Results: For synergistic effect, after combination treatment caused most significant (P<0.001 reduction in body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increase levels of HDL. Conclusions: The result demonstrated that combination C.mukul and L.siceraria has ameliorated the high fat diet induced obesity.

  15. Ablation of PPP1R3G reduces glycogen deposition and mitigates high-fat diet induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxian; Gu, Jin; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Zilong; Pan, Yi; Chen, Yan

    2017-01-05

    Glycogen and triglyceride are two major forms of energy storage in the body and provide the fuel during different phases of food deprivation. However, how glycogen metabolism is linked to fat deposition in adipose tissue has not been clearly characterized. We generated a mouse model with whole-body deletion of PPP1R3G, a glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase-1 required for glycogen synthesis. Upon feeding with high-fat diet, the body weight and fat composition are significantly reduced in the PPP1R3G-/- mice compared to the wild type controls. The metabolic rate of the mice as measured by O2 consumption and CO2 production is accelerated by PPP1R3G deletion. The high-fat diet-induced liver steatosis is also slightly relieved by PPP1R3G deletion. The glycogen level in adipose tissue is reduced by PPP1R3G deletion. In 3T3L1 cells, overexpression of PPP1R3G leads to increases of both glycogen and triglyceride levels. In conclusion, our study indicates that glycogen is actively involved in fat accumulation in adipose tissue and obesity development upon high-fat diet. Our study also suggests that PPP1R3G is an important player that links glycogen metabolism to lipid metabolism in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Kesby

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old and aged (15 months old mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  17. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Ross, Megan L; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A; Forbes, Sara G; Mirtschin, Joanne G; Cato, Louise E; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P; Hawley, John A

    2017-05-01

    Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support. Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole-body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities. The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real-life race performance in elite race walkers. In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world-class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg -1  day -1 : 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (economy. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

  18. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Weng-Yew Wong; Hemant Poudyal; Leigh C. Ward; Lindsay Brown

    2012-01-01

    Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carboh...

  19. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  20. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  1. Effects of high-fat diets from different sources on serum and thymus lipid profile: study in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina; Perris, Paula D; Fernandez, Ines; Godoy, Maria F; Mambrin, Cecilia; Slobodianik, Nora H; Feliu, Maria S

    2014-01-01

    A balanced diet is important to maintain an optimal health status and to prevent noncommunicable chronic diseases. The principal objective of this study was to analyze the effect of diets containing high fat levels from different sources, on serum and thymus lipid profile, in adult rats. Experimental diets contained 50% kcal of fat, provided by butter (B) or sunflower oil (S); control diet (C) was isocaloric, with 15 kcal of fat per 100 total kcal, provided by soy oil. Diets were otherwise complete in all nutrients and were administered for 40 days. Group B had higher levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides than C; S serum lipid profile did not differ from C, despite the higher fat content. Regarding serum and thymus FA profile, B showed an increase of saturated fatty acids and lower levels of ω6 and ω3 FA, and S had lower levels of ω3 fatty acids. The administration of high-fat diets, during 40 days to adult rats, provoked specific variations on serum and thymus fatty acids, as a consequence of differences in FA profile of their lipid sources. These results reflect the impact that eating habits have on health status. It is important to put emphasis not only on the reduction of total fat intake, but also on choosing healthy sources of fat, replacing saturated fatty acids by polyunsaturated and including oils with higher content of ω3 to keep a balanced ω6/ω3 ratio.

  2. Effects of Orlistat and herbal mixture extract on brain, testes functions and oxidative stress biomarkers in a rat model of high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaa R. Galaly; Walaa G. Hozayen; Kamal A. Amin; Shimaa M. Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of herbal mixture extracts of pumpkin seed oil, peanuts shell and Orlistat on brain, testes functions, oxidative stress biomarkers and histopathological changes in male albino rats administered high fat diet. Fifty male rats were divided into four groups: 1st administered normal diet, 2nd administered high fat diet, 3rd administered high fat diet with Orlistat and 4th administered high fat diet with herbal mix. A group of rats were fed wi...

  3. Yamabushitake mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) improved lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, Kazuyuki; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Nao; Hata, Keishi; Mukaiyama, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Kenji; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Komai, Michio

    2010-01-01

    The effects of dietary Yamabushitake mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) on lipid metabolism were examined. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet containing hot-water extract (HW-E) and an ethanol extract (EtOH-E) of Yamabushitake mushroom. Administration of HW-E or EtOH-E with a high-fat diet for 28 d resulted in a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat weight, and serum and hepatic triacylglycerol levels. Our in vitro experiments indicated that EtOH-E acts as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Quantitative analyses of hepatic mRNA levels revealed that EtOH-E administration resulted in up-regulation of mRNA for a number of PPARalpha-regulating genes in spite of the fact that the gene expression of PPARalpha did not change. These results suggest that EtOH-E improves lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet, and that these effects were mediated by modulation of lipid metabolic gene expression, at least in part via activation of PPARalpha.

  4. High-fat diet induced isoform changes of the Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poschmann, Gereon; Seyfarth, Katrin; Besong Agbo, Daniela; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang; Rozman, Jan; Wurst, Wolfgang; Wiltfang, Jens; Meyer, Helmut E; Klingenspor, Martin; Stühler, Kai

    2014-05-02

    Genetic and environmental factors mediate via different physiological and molecular processes a shifted energy balance leading to overweight and obesity. To get insights into the underlying processes involved in energy intake and weight gain, we compared hypothalamic tissue of mice kept on a high-fat or control diet for 10 days by a proteomic approach. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis in combination with LC-MS/MS, we observed significant abundance changes in 15 protein spots. One isoform of the protein DJ-1 was elevated in the high-fat diet group in three different mouse strains SWR/J, C57BL/6N, and AKR/J analyzed. Large-scale validation of DJ-1 isoforms in individual samples and tissues confirmed a shift in the pattern of DJ-1 isoforms toward more acidic isoforms in several brain and peripheral tissues after feeding a high-fat diet for 10 days. The identification of oxidation of cysteine 106 as well as 2-succinyl modification of the same residue by mass spectrometry not only explains the isoelectric shift of DJ-1 but also links our results to similar shifts of DJ-1 observed in neurodegenerative disease states under oxidative stress. We hypothesize that DJ-1 is a common physiological sensor involved in both nutrition-induced effects and neurodegenerative disease states.

  5. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  6. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  7. Tea polyphenols ameliorate fat storage induced by high-fat diet in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashima, Yasunari; Murata, Shinichi; Sato, Misaki; Matsuura, Kanako; Asanuma, Toshimichi; Chimoto, Junko; Ishii, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko

    2015-12-01

    Polyphenols in tea are considered beneficial to human health. However, many such claims of their bioactivity still require in vitro and in vivo evidence. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model multicellular organism, we assess the fat accumulation-suppressing effects of theaflavin (TF), a tea polyphenol; epitheaflagallin (ETG), which has an unknown function; and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), a prominent component of green tea. Dietary TF reduced the malondialdehyde accumulation related to a high-fat diet in adult flies. Other physiological and genetic responses induced by the high-fat diet, such as lipid accumulation in the fat body and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, were ameliorated by the addition of TF, ETG, and EGCg, in some cases approaching respective levels without high-fat diet exposure. Continuous ingestion of the three polyphenols resulted in a shortened lifespan. We provide evidence in Drosophila that tea polyphenols have a fat accumulation-suppressing effect that has received recent attention. We also suggest that tea polyphenols can provide different desirable biological activities depending on their composition and the presence or absence of other chemical components.

  8. The early infant gut microbiome varies in association with a maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derrick M; Antony, Kathleen M; Ma, Jun; Prince, Amanda L; Showalter, Lori; Moller, Michelle; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-08-09

    Emerging evidence suggests that the in utero environment is not sterile as once presumed. Work in the mouse demonstrated transmission of commensal bacteria from mother to fetus during gestation, though it is unclear what modulates this process. We have previously shown in the nonhuman primate that, independent of obesity, a maternal high-fat diet during gestation and lactation persistently shapes the juvenile gut microbiome. We therefore sought to interrogate in a population-based human longitudinal cohort whether a maternal high-fat diet similarly alters the neonatal and infant gut microbiome in early life. A representative cohort was prospectively enrolled either in the early third trimester or intrapartum (n = 163), with a subset consented to longitudinal sampling through the postpartum interval (n = 81). Multiple body site samples, including stool and meconium, were collected from neonates at delivery and by 6 weeks of age. A rapid dietary questionnaire was administered to estimate intake of fat, added sugars, and fiber over the past month (National Health and Examination Survey). DNA was extracted from each infant meconium/stool sample (MoBio) and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. On average, the maternal dietary intake of fat ranged from 14.0 to 55.2 %, with an average intake of 33.1 % (σ = 6.1 %). Mothers whose diets significantly differed from the mean (±1 standard deviation) were separated into two distinct groups, a control group (n = 13, μ = 24.4 %) and a high-fat group (n = 13, μ = 43.1 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the microbiome of the neonatal stool at birth (meconium) clustered differently by virtue of maternal gestational diet (PERMANOVA p = 0.001). LEfSe feature selection identified several taxa that discriminated the groups, with a notable relative depletion of Bacteroides in the neonates exposed to a maternal high-fat gestational diet (Student's t-test, p

  9. Naringin Improves Neuronal Insulin Signaling, Brain Mitochondrial Function, and Cognitive Function in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Yan, Junqiang; Chen, Jing; Wu, Wenlan; Zhu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The epidemic and experimental studies have confirmed that the obesity induced by high-fat diet not only caused neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment in mice. Naringin has been reported to posses biological functions which are beneficial to human cognitions, but its protective effects on HFD-induced cognitive deficits and underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. In the present study Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for 20 weeks and then randomized into four groups treated with their respective diets including control diet, control diet + naringin, high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet + naringin (HFDN). The behavioral performance was assessed by using novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test. Hippocampal mitochondrial parameters were analyzed. Then the protein levels of insulin signaling pathway and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampus were detected by Western blot method. Our results showed that oral administration of naringin significantly improved the learning and memory abilities as evidenced by increasing recognition index by 52.5% in the novel object recognition test and inducing a 1.05-fold increase in the crossing-target number in the probe test, and ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction in mice caused by HFD consumption. Moreover, naringin significantly enhanced insulin signaling pathway as indicated by a 34.5% increase in the expression levels of IRS-1, a 47.8% decrease in the p-IRS-1, a 1.43-fold increase in the p-Akt, and a 1.89-fold increase in the p-GSK-3β in the hippocampus of the HFDN mice versus HFD mice. Furthermore, the AMPK activity significantly increased in the naringin-treated (100 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) group. These findings suggest that an enhancement in insulin signaling and a decrease in mitochondrial dysfunction through the activation of AMPK may be one of the mechanisms that naringin

  10. High fat diet feeding exaggerates perfluorooctanoic acid-induced liver injury in mice via modulating multiple metabolic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Tan

    Full Text Available High fat diet (HFD is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels and increased liver weight along with reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass. HFD alone did not cause liver damage, but exaggerated PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by higher plasma ALT and AST levels, and more severe pathological changes including hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet accumulation and necrosis as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. These additive effects of HFD on PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity correlated with metabolic disturbance in liver and blood as well as up-regulation of hepatic proinflammatory cytokine genes. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that both serum and hepatic metabolite profiles of PFOA, HFD, or HFD-PFOA group were clearly differentiated from that of controls. PFOA affected more hepatic metabolites than HFD, but HFD showed positive interaction with PFOA on fatty acid metabolites including long chain fatty acids and acylcarnitines. Taken together, dietary high fat potentiates PFOA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and necrotic cell death by disturbing hepatic metabolism and inducing inflammation. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that HFD increases the risk of PFOA in induction of hepatotoxicity.

  11. META060 protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in a high-fat-diet fed mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.A. van den; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Darland, G.; Konda, V.; Tripp, M.L.; Bland, J.S.; Voshol, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a reduced iso-alpha acid derived from an extract of Humulus lupulus L., META060, had an effect on weight gain, body composition, and metabolism in a high-fat-diet (HFD) fed mouse model. METHODS: Weight gain was monitored for up to 20 wk in mice receiving a low-fat

  12. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woo, Jinhee; Shin, Ki Ok; Park, So Young; Jang, Ki Soeng; Kang, Sunghwun

    2013-01-01

    .... This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain...

  13. Maternal high-fat diet influences outcomes after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, John D; Liu, Yiqing; Shangguan, Yu; Djuric, Zora; Ren, Jianwei; Silverstein, Faye S

    2017-01-01

    The typical US diet has >30% calories from fat; yet, typical laboratory diets contain 17% calories from fat. This disparity could confound the clinical relevance of findings in cerebral ischemia models. We compared outcomes after neonatal brain injury in offspring of rat dams fed standard low-fat chow (17% fat calories) or a higher fat diet (34% fat calories) from day 7 of pregnancy. On postnatal day 7, hypoxic-ischemic injury was induced by right carotid ligation, followed by 60, 75 or 90 min 8% oxygen exposure. Sensorimotor function, brain damage, and serum and brain fatty acid content were compared 1 to 4 weeks later. All lesioned animals developed left forepaw placing deficits; scores were worse in the high-fat groups (p diet groups. Serum and brain docosahexaenoic acid fatty acid fractions were lower in high-fat progeny (p diet disrupted docosahexaenoic acid-dependent recovery mechanisms. These findings have significant implications both for refinement of neonatal brain injury models and for understanding the impact of maternal diet on neonatal neuroplasticity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  15. Postprandial fatty acid uptake and adipocyte remodeling in angiotensin type 2 receptor-deficient mice fed a high-fat/high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christophe; Labbé, Sébastien M; Pinard, Sandra; Shum, Michael; Bilodeau, Lyne; Chouinard, Lucie; Phoenix, Serge; Lecomte, Roger; Carpentier, André C; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The role of the angiotensin type-2 receptor in adipose physiology remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether genetic angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency prevents or worsens metabolic and adipose tissue morphometric changes observed following a 6-week high-fat/high-fructose diet with injection of a small dose of streptozotocin. We compared tissue uptake of nonesterified fatty acid and dietary fatty acid in wild-type and angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice by using the radiotracer 14(R,S)-[(1) (8)F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid in mice fed a standard or high-fat diet. Postprandial fatty acid uptake in the heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and adipose tissue was increased in wild-type mice after a high-fat diet and in angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice on both standard and high-fat diets. Compared to the wild-type mice, angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice had a lower body weight, an increase in fasting blood glucose and a decrease in plasma insulin and leptin levels. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited increased adipocyte size that was prevented by angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency. Angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency abolished the early hypertrophic adipocyte remodeling induced by a high-fat diet. The small size of adipocytes in the angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice reflects their inability to store lipids and explains the increase in fatty acid uptake in non-adipose tissues. In conclusion, a genetic deletion of the angiotensin type-2 receptor is associated with metabolic dysfunction of white adipose depots, and indicates that adipocyte remodeling occurs before the onset of insulin resistance in the high-fat fed mouse model.

  16. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  17. The influence of maternal high fat diet on ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation in Long Evans male and female rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing interest in understanding how maternal diet can increase the sensitivity of offspring to environmental exposures. In this study, we examined the influence of high fat diet (HFD) during puberty, pregnancy and lactation in Long Evans rats on the susceptibility of...

  18. Maternal high-fat diet accelerates development of Crohn's disease-like ileitis in TNF ΔaRE/WT offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Lisa; Hemmerling, Jana; Schüppel, Valentina; Müller, Michael; Boekschoten, M.V.; Haller, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and obesity increases the risk of the offspring to develop inflammatory processes in various organs including the gut. We hypothesized that maternal diet-induced obesity programs the fetal gut towards inflammation in a mouse model of genetically-driven

  19. Impact of Early Consumption of High-Fat Diet on the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naneix, F; Tantot, F; Glangetas, C; Kaufling, J; Janthakhin, Y; Boitard, C; De Smedt-Peyrusse, V; Pape, J R; Vancassel, S; Trifilieff, P; Georges, F; Coutureau, E; Ferreira, G

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggest that consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) can impact the maturation of brain circuits, such as during adolescence, which could account for behavioral alterations associated with obesity. In the present study, we used behavioral sensitization to amphetamine to investigate the effect of periadolescent HFD exposure (pHFD) in rats on the functionality of the dopamine (DA) system, a central actor in food reward processing. pHFD does not affect responding to an acute injection, however, a single exposure to amphetamine is sufficient to induce locomotor sensitization in pHFD rats. This is paralleled by rapid neurobiological adaptations within the DA system. In pHFD-exposed animals, a single amphetamine exposure induces an increase in bursting activity of DA cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as well as higher DA release and greater expression of (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Post-synaptically, pHFD animals display an increase in NAc D2 receptors and c-Fos expression after amphetamine injection. These findings highlight the vulnerability of DA system to the consumption of HFD during adolescence that may support deficits in reward-related processes observed in obesity.

  20. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  1. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

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    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD or low fat (LFD diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-, and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women.

  2. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R; Bohrer, Justin C; Prichard, Allan S; Perez, Paola K; Streckenbach, Liana J; Olson, Jake M; Cook, Mark E; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women.

  3. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001) and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001). The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  4. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  5. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Promote Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Hamster Fed High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Kasbi Chadli; Hassane Nazih; Michel Krempf; Patrick Nguyen; Khadija Ouguerram

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA) supplemented high fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group) were studied for 20 weeks: 1) control diet: Control, 2) HFD group: HF and 3) HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA): HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3)H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrop...

  6. Chronic Reduction of GIP Secretion Alleviates Obesity and Insulin Resistance Under High-Fat Diet Conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasteska, Daniela; Harada, Norio; Suzuki, Kazuyo; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Joo, Erina; Iwasaki, Kanako; Shibue, Kimitaka; Harada, Takanari; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2014-01-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) exhibits potent insulinotropic effects on β-cells and anabolic effects on bone formation and fat accumulation. We explored the impact of reduced GIP levels in vivo on glucose homeostasis, bone formation, and fat accumulation in a novel GIP-GFP knock-in (KI) mouse. We generated GIP-GFP KI mice with a truncated prepro-GIP gene. The phenotype was assessed in heterozygous and homozygous states in mice on a control fat diet and a high-fat diet (HFD) in vivo and...

  7. Postweaning low-calcium diet promotes later-life obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Han; Li, Song-Tao; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Guan; He, Ying; Liao, Xi-Lu; Sun, Chang-Hao; Li, Ying

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a postweaning low-calcium diet on later obesity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Ninety-six male rats were weaned at 3 weeks of age, fed standard (STD: 0.50% calcium, n=48) and low-calcium (LC: 0.15% calcium, n=48) diets for 3 weeks, and then fed the standard diet for a 3-week washout period successively. Finally, the STD rats were divided into STD control and high-fat diet (HFD) groups, and the LC ones into LC control and LC+HFD (LCHF) groups. The STD and LC rats were fed the standard diet, while the HFD control and LCFD ones were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. During the three feeding periods, adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its responsive proteins phospho-acetyl-coA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and uncoupling protein 3 were persistently down-regulated in the LC group (decreased by 18%, 24%, 18% and 20%, respectively) versus the STD group, and these effects were significantly more pronounced in the LCHFD group (decreased by 21%, 30%, 23% and 25%, respectively) than the HFD group by a later high-fat stimuli, causing more fat and body weight in adulthood. However, lipolysis enzymes, serum leptin, insulin and lipids were not significantly affected until the body weight and fat content changed at 15 weeks of age. The results suggest that the low-calcium diet after weaning promotes rat adult-onset obesity induced by high-fat diet, which might be achieved by programming expressions of genes involved in AMPK pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Orexin activation counteracts decreases in nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) caused by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunney, P E; Zink, A N; Holm, A A; Billington, C J; Kotz, C M

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity result from an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure, including expenditure from spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Changes in SPA and resulting changes in non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) likely interact with diet to influence risk for obesity. However, previous research on the relationship between diet, physical activity, and energy expenditure has been mixed. The neuropeptide orexin is a driver of SPA, and orexin neuron activity can be manipulated using DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs). We hypothesized that HFD decreases SPA and NEAT, and that DREADD-mediated activation of orexin neuron signaling would abolish this decrease and produce an increase in NEAT instead. To test these ideas, we characterized behaviors to determine the extent to which access to a high-fat diet (HFD) influences the proportion and probability of engaging in food intake and activity. We then measured NEAT following access to HFD and following a DREADD intervention targeting orexin neurons. Two cohorts of orexin-cre male mice were injected with an excitatory DREADD virus into the caudal hypothalamus, where orexin neurons are concentrated. Mice were then housed in continuous metabolic phenotyping cages (Sable Promethion). Food intake, indirect calorimetry, and SPA were automatically measured every second. For cohort 1 (n=8), animals were given access to chow, then switched to HFD. For cohort 2 (n=4/group), half of the animals were given access to HFD, the other access to chow. Then, among animals on HFD, orexin neurons were activated following injections of clozapine n-oxide (CNO). Mice on HFD spent significantly less time eating (pNEAT was decreased in animals on HFD, and was increased to the NEAT level of control animals following activation of orexin neurons with DREADDs. Food intake (kilocalories) was not significantly different between mice on chow and HFD, yet mice on chow expended more energy per

  9. High-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and postnatal development in female rats increases susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth R; Alexander, Barbara T; Lee, Jonathan; Hutchens, Zachary M; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2013-02-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both an adverse prenatal and early postnatal environment increase susceptibility to renal and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however, whether exposure to adverse conditions during both prenatal and postnatal development act synergistically to potentiate the severity of renal and metabolic injury remains unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat/fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. After being weaned, female offspring were randomized to either standard diet or the high-fat/high-fructose diet, resulting in the following treatment groups: NF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; NF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally; HF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; HF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally. At the time of euthanasia (17 wk of age), HF-HF offspring weighed 30% more and had 110% more visceral fat than NF-NF offspring. The HF-HF offspring also had elevated blood glucose levels, glucose intolerance, 286% increase in urine albumin excretion, and 60% increase in glomerulosclerosis compared with NF-NF. In addition, HF-HF offspring exhibited a 100% increase in transforming growth factor-β protein expression and 116% increase in the abundance of infiltrated macrophages compared with the NF-NF offspring. These observations suggest that high-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and throughout postnatal life increases the susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

  10. A high-fat diet induces obesity and impairs bone acquisition in young male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhao, Hong; Wang, En-Hua

    2013-04-01

    The postnatal development of obesity is highly associated with the excessive consumption of a high-calorie, high-fat diet (HFD). However, the correlation between HFD-induced pediatric obesity and skeletal development remains to be elucidated. In the present study, postnatal day 17 (PND17) mice were weaned on a HFD for eight weeks ad libitum to induce obesity. The HFD mice showed a significant increase in the total body weight and gonadal and abdominal fat mass compared with the control animals. Peripheral quantitative (pQ) CT scans of the tibial bone revealed that the bone mineral density (BMD), including the total, trabecular and cortical BMD, was unchanged between the HFD and control diet groups, but that it was inversely associated with body fat. By contrast, the bone mineral content (BMC) and trabecular area were significantly decreased in the HFD group compared with the control. RNA and protein were isolated from the femur. qPCR and western blot analyses showed a significant downregulation in the gene expression of the key canonical Wnt signaling molecule β-catenin, the osteoblastic cell differentiation marker Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and also in the β-catenin gene encoded protein levels of the HFD mice when compared with the controls. Consistent with the increased fat mass in the HFD-induced obese animals, the expression of the adipogenic genes and aP2 was increased compared with the controls. Bone marrow cells were aspirated and the ex vivo bone marrow cell cultures showed that the number of colony-forming unit osteoblasts (CFU-OBs) per bone was significantly decreased in the samples from the HFD mice compared with those from the controls. These observations suggested that HFD-induced obesity in growing animals may affect the total available osteoblastic cell differentiation progenitors in the bone, while increasing adipogenesis. This may result in negative consequences for the bone later on in adult life.

  11. High fat diet induces dysregulation of hepatic oxygen gradients and mitochondrial function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantena, Sudheer K; Vaughn, Denty Paul; Andringa, Kelly K; Eccleston, Heather B; King, Adrienne L; Abrams, Gary A; Doeller, Jeannette E; Kraus, David W; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Bailey, Shannon M

    2009-01-01

    NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), associated with obesity and the cardiometabolic syndrome, is an important medical problem affecting up to 20% of western populations. Evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in NAFLD initiation and progression to the more serious condition of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis). Herein we hypothesize that mitochondrial defects induced by exposure to a HFD (high fat diet) contribute to a hypoxic state in liver and this is associated with increased protein modification by RNS (reactive nitrogen species). To test this concept, C57BL/6 mice were pair-fed a control diet and HFD containing 35% and 71% total calories (1 cal approximately 4.184 J) from fat respectively, for 8 or 16 weeks and liver hypoxia, mitochondrial bioenergetics, NO (nitric oxide)-dependent control of respiration, and 3-NT (3-nitrotyrosine), a marker of protein modification by RNS, were examined. Feeding a HFD for 16 weeks induced NASH-like pathology accompanied by elevated triacylglycerols, increased CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E1) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) protein, and significantly enhanced hypoxia in the pericentral region of the liver. Mitochondria from the HFD group showed increased sensitivity to NO-dependent inhibition of respiration compared with controls. In addition, accumulation of 3-NT paralleled the hypoxia gradient in vivo and 3-NT levels were increased in mitochondrial proteins. Liver mitochondria from mice fed the HFD for 16 weeks exhibited depressed state 3 respiration, uncoupled respiration, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings indicate that chronic exposure to a HFD negatively affects the bioenergetics of liver mitochondria and this probably contributes to hypoxic stress and deleterious NO-dependent modification of mitochondrial proteins.

  12. Effects of a standard high-fat diet with or without multiple deficiencies on bone parameters in ovariectomized mature rat.

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    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a standard high fat diet (D12451 with or without vitamin D3, phosphorus, and calcium (i.e., high-fat diet [HFD] or high-fat deficient diet [HFDD] on the bone parameters of ovariectomized female rats. Six-month-old of female Sprauge Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into six study groups: sham operation with standard chow diet (SSCD, sham operation with a HFD (SHFD, sham operation with a HFDD (SHFDD, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX with a HFD (OVX-HFD, and OVX with a HFDD (OVX-HFDD. A bilateral ovariectomy was administered to the OVX, OVX-HFD, and OVX-HFDD rats, while the SSCD, SHFD, and SHFDD rats were only given a laparotomy. Multiple analyses concerning the glucose and insulin tolerance, structure, bone strength, bone matrix, and mineralization of the rats were conducted in order to produce a detailed characterization of the effects of a HFD and a HFDD on postmenopausal osteoporotic rats. Seven months of HFD and HFDD feeding resulted in obesity and insulin resistance in female SD rats. A standard HFD increased the bone calcium content and bone strength of OVX rats. Conversely, the serum N-mid osteocalcin (N-MID-OT and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP levels in the OVX-HFDD group were increased, accompanied by a clear decrease in the bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, bone calcium and bone strength, as well as reduced osteocalcin expression. A HFDD weakened the activity of the osteoblasts while aggravating bone loss and decreasing bone strength in ovariectomized rats, which may be due to the calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 deficiencies in the diet.

  13. Changes in the Diaphragm Lipid Content after Administration of Streptozotocin and High-Fat Diet Regime

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    Bartlomiej Lukaszuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diaphragm is a dome-shaped skeletal muscle indispensable for breathing. Its activity contributes up to 70% of the total ventilatory function at rest. In comparison to other skeletal muscles, it is distinguished by an oxidative phenotype and uninterrupted cyclic contraction pattern. Surprisingly, the research regarding diaphragm diabetic phenotype particularly in the light of lipid-induced insulin resistance is virtually nonexistent. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control, streptozotocin-induced (STZ type-1 diabetes, and rodents fed with high-fat diet (HFD. Additionally, half of the animals from each group were administered with myriocin, a robust, selective inhibitor of ceramide synthesis and, therefore, a potent agent ameliorating insulin resistance. Diaphragm lipid contents were evaluated using chromatography. Fatty acid transporter expression was determined by Western blot. The STZ and HFD rats had increased concentration of lipids, namely, ceramides (CER and diacylglycerols (DAG. Interestingly, this coincided with an increased concentration of long-chain (C ≥ 16 saturated fatty acid species present in both the aforementioned lipid fractions. The CER/DAG accumulation was accompanied by an elevated fatty acid transporter expression (FATP-1 in HFD and FATP-4 in STZ. Surprisingly, we observed a significantly decreased triacylglycerol content in the diaphragms of STZ-treated rats.

  14. Geldanamycin derivative ameliorates high fat diet-induced renal failure in diabetes.

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    Hong-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of longstanding diabetes and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Oxidative stress may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA induce peroxynitrite generation in primary human kidney mesangial cells and heat shock protein 90β1 (hsp90β1 is indispensable for the PUFA action. Here we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD on kidney function and structure of db/db mice, a widely used rodent model of type 2 diabetes. Our results indicated that HFD dramatically increased the 24 h-urine output and worsened albuminuria in db/db mice. Discontinuation of HFD reversed the exacerbated albuminuria but not the increased urine output. Prolonged HFD feeding resulted in early death of db/db mice, which was associated with oliguria and anuria. Treatment with the geldanamycin derivative, 17-(dimethylaminoehtylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG, an hsp90 inhibitor, preserved kidney function, and ameliorated glomerular and tubular damage by HFD. 17-DMAG also significantly extended survival of the animals and protected them from the high mortality associated with renal failure. The benefit effect of 17-DMAG on renal function and structure was associated with a decreased level of kidney nitrotyrosine and a diminished kidney mitochondrial Ca(2+ efflux in HFD-fed db/db mice. These results suggest that hsp90β1 is a potential target for the treatment of nephropathy and renal failure in diabetes.

  15. Fermented garlic protects diabetic, obese mice when fed a high-fat diet by antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Mi; Lee, Seon-Ha; Lee, Dong-Sub; You, Myung-Jin; Chung, In Kwon; Cheon, Woo Hyun; Kwon, Young-Sam; Lee, Young-Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the bioactivity of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)-fermented aged black garlic (FBG) on obese mice supplied a high-fat diet (HFD) and its in vitro antioxidant activity. Aged black garlic (BG) exhibits potent antioxidative effects and has been subjected to extensive research. In addition, the bioactivity of some natural products is increased by fermentation. In a preliminary test, this study found that the antioxidant activity of FBG is stronger than that of BG. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the bioactivity of BG would be increased by yeast fermentation and would be a good candidate as a nutraceutical product for improving the oxidative defense systems in older patients or patients affected by various oxidative stresses, for example, diabetes and diabetic complications. To test this hypothesis, the bioactivities of FBG in diabetic and obese mice as well as the antioxidant activity in vitro were examined. After 91 days of continuous HFD supply, the mice showed marked obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and liver and kidney damages. Black garlic and all 3 different doses of FBG showed favorable hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, and antiobesity effects compared with the HFD control, but no hypoglycemic effects. In particular, more favorable bioactivity against all 4 HFD-induced diabetic complications was detected in the FBG-treated groups compared with the group given equivalent doses of BG. These findings suggest that the bioactivities of BG can be improved by yeast fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-fat diet induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the inhibition of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yi; Lee, Bai-Chin; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2016-10-01

    Excessive fat intake induces obesity and causes cardiac injury. Intracellular degradation process involving destruction of long-lived proteins and organelles maintains homeostasis for cells under stress. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac injury and intracellular degradation process with regard to autophagy and ER stress. HFD feeding for 24 weeks induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and cardiac hypertrophy in adult male C57BL/6 mice. In the heart, PARP cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis, levels of LC3-II and p62, indicators of autophagy, and CHOP, indicator of ER stress, were increased. A palmitate-treated cardiomyoblast (H9C2) cell culture was examined to explore how HFD induced myocardial injury. Excessive palmitate (400 μM) treatment induced apoptosis and increased the number of autophagosomes and acid vacuoles of H9C2 cells. Besides, it elevated the expression of LC3-II, p62, and PARP cleavage. Induction of autophagy by rapamycin ameliorated palmitate-induced apoptosis, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or LC3 siRNA exacerbated palmitate-induced apoptosis. Palmitate treatment also induced CHOP expression which is associated with ER stress. HFD can cause cardiac injury by induction of apoptosis which is associated with autophagy dysregulation and ER stress. In addition, autophagy deficiency augments cardiac apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy serves as a pro-survival role in lipotoxic condition.

  17. Piperine reverses high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seoyoon; Choi, Youngshim; Choi, Yeji; Kim, Sohee; Jang, Jeehee; Park, Taesun

    2013-12-15

    This study examined the effect of piperine on hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance induced in mice by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 13 weeks and elucidated potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Administration of piperine (50 mg/kg body weight) to mice with HFD-induced hepatic steatosis resulted in a significant increase in plasma adiponectin levels. Also, elevated plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose and hepatic lipid levels induced by feeding a HFD were reversed in mice when they were administered piperine. However, piperine did not reduce body weight and other biochemical markers to an extent where they became equal to the levels found in the CD-fed mice. Piperine reversed HFD-induced down-regulation of adiponecitn-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling molecules which play an important role in mediating lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and insulin signalling in the livers of mice. The expressions of lipogenic target genes were decreased, whereas the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) gene involved in fatty acid oxidation was increased in the livers of the Pin50 group. Piperine significantly decreased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) compared with the HFD-fed mice. Administration of piperine appeared to reverse preexisting HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, probably by activation of adiponectin-AMPK signalling in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiobesity and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous extract of Ibervillea sonorae in mice fed a high-fat diet with fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  19. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

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    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  20. Triticale Bran Alkylresorcinols Enhance Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Rania Agil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticale (× Triticosecale Whitm. is a cereal grain with high levels of alkyresorcinols (AR concentrated in the bran. These phenolic lipids have been shown to reduce or inhibit triglyceride accumulation and protect against oxidation; however, their biological effects have yet to be evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ARs extracted from triticale bran (TB added to a high–fat diet on the development of obesity and oxidative stress. CF-1 mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF diet, a 60% high-fat diet (HF and HF diets containing either 0.5% AR extract (HF-AR, 10% TB (HF-TB, or 0.5% vitamin E (HF-VE. Energy intake, weight gain, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose (FBG levels, and body composition were determined. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and glutathione (GSH assays were performed on mice liver and heart tissues. The findings suggest that ARs may serve as a preventative measure against risks of oxidative damage associated with high-fat diets and obesity through their application as functional foods and neutraceuticals. Future studies aim to identify the in vivo mechanisms of action of ARs and the individual homologs involved in their favorable biological effects.

  1. High-fat maternal diet during pregnancy persistently alters the offspring microbiome in a primate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Prince, Amanda L.; Bader, David; Hu, Min; Ganu, Radhika; Baquero, Karalee; Blundell, Peter; Harris, R. Alan; Frias, Antonio E.; Grove, Kevin L.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a unique ecosystem and an essential mediator of metabolism and obesity in mammals. However, studies investigating the impact of the diet on the establishment of the gut microbiome early in life are generally lacking, and most notably so in primate models. Here we report that a high-fat maternal or postnatal diet, but not obesity per se, structures the offspring’s intestinal microbiome in Macaca fuscata (Japanese macaque). The resultant microbial dysbiosis is only partially corrected by a low-fat, control diet after weaning. Unexpectedly, early exposure to a high-fat diet diminished the abundance of non-pathogenic Campylobacter in the juvenile gut, suggesting a potential role for dietary fat in shaping commensal microbial communities in primates. Our data challenge the concept of an obesity-causing gut microbiome, and rather provide evidence for a contribution of the maternal diet in establishing the microbiota, which in turn affects intestinal maintenance of metabolic health. PMID:24846660

  2. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low

  3. Hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis in mice fed on low-cost high-fat diet - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.10871

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    Lívia Bracht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To verify whether high-fat diet prepared from commercial diet plus chocolate, roasted peanuts and corn cookies induces hypercholesterolemia in mice and whether there is any hepatic involvement in this type of animal testing. Swiss mice received a high-fat diet for 15 and 30 days; plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose rates were determined. Hepatic impairment was evaluated by histopathological analysis. Cholesterol levels increased 43% in animals treated with high-fat diet for 30 days. Further, histopathological analysis revealed that treatment of animals for 15 and 30 days produced hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, respectively. Experimental model is suitable for assessing the action of anti-hypercholesterolemia and the treatment of steatohepatitis.  

  4. Red algae (Gelidium amansii) hot-water extract ameliorates lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii (GA) hot-water extracts (GHE) on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Six-week-old male Syrian hamsters were used as the experimental animals. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1) control diet group (CON); (2) high-fat diet group (HF); (3) HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE); (4) HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO). All groups were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 6 weeks. The results showed that GHE significantly decreased body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue (perirenal and paraepididymal) weight. The HF diet induced an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, GHE supplementation reversed the increase of plasma lipids caused by the HF diet. In addition, GHE increased fecal cholesterol, TG and bile acid excretion. Lower hepatic TC and TG levels were found with GHE treatment. GHE reduced hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) including SREBP 1 and SREBP 2 protein expressions. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression in hamsters was decreased by the HF diet; however, GHE supplementation increased the phosphorylation of AMPK protein expression. Our results suggest that GHE may ameliorate lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a HF diet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Red algae (Gelidium amansii hot-water extract ameliorates lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a high-fat diet

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    Tsung-Han Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii (GA hot-water extracts (GHE on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Six-week-old male Syrian hamsters were used as the experimental animals. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1 control diet group (CON; (2 high-fat diet group (HF; (3 HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE; (4 HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO. All groups were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 6 weeks. The results showed that GHE significantly decreased body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue (perirenal and paraepididymal weight. The HF diet induced an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, GHE supplementation reversed the increase of plasma lipids caused by the HF diet. In addition, GHE increased fecal cholesterol, TG and bile acid excretion. Lower hepatic TC and TG levels were found with GHE treatment. GHE reduced hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP including SREBP 1 and SREBP 2 protein expressions. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK protein expression in hamsters was decreased by the HF diet; however, GHE supplementation increased the phosphorylation of AMPK protein expression. Our results suggest that GHE may ameliorate lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a HF diet.

  6. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

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    Fatima Kasbi Chadli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA supplemented high fat diet (HFD. Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group were studied for 20 weeks: 1 control diet: Control, 2 HFD group: HF and 3 HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA: HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05 increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01 and cholesterol (p<0.001 with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001. Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001 and cholesterol (p<0.001 related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05 compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05 compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05 compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05 and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05. A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT.

  7. A high-fat diet and NAD(+) activate Sirt1 to rescue premature aging in cockayne syndrome.

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    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Mitchell, Sarah J; Fang, Evandro F; Iyama, Teruaki; Ward, Theresa; Wang, James; Dunn, Christopher A; Singh, Nagendra; Veith, Sebastian; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi; Mangerich, Aswin; Wilson, Mark A; Mattson, Mark P; Bergersen, Linda H; Cogger, Victoria C; Warren, Alessandra; Le Couteur, David G; Moaddel, Ruin; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; de Cabo, Rafael; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2014-11-04

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an accelerated aging disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration caused by mutations in genes encoding the DNA repair proteins CS group A or B (CSA or CSB). Since dietary interventions can alter neurodegenerative processes, Csb(m/m) mice were given a high-fat, caloric-restricted, or resveratrol-supplemented diet. High-fat feeding rescued the metabolic, transcriptomic, and behavioral phenotypes of Csb(m/m) mice. Furthermore, premature aging in CS mice, nematodes, and human cells results from aberrant PARP activation due to deficient DNA repair leading to decreased SIRT1 activity and mitochondrial dysfunction. Notably, β-hydroxybutyrate levels are increased by the high-fat diet, and β-hydroxybutyrate, PARP inhibition, or NAD(+) supplementation can activate SIRT1 and rescue CS-associated phenotypes. Mechanistically, CSB can displace activated PARP1 from damaged DNA to limit its activity. This study connects two emerging longevity metabolites, β-hydroxybutyrate and NAD(+), through the deacetylase SIRT1 and suggests possible interventions for CS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids high fat diet intervention on the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obesity-insulin resistance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianxing; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Wei; Ma, Lanzhi; Ding, Ming; Liu, Yuan

    2016-04-22

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have previously been demonstrated in association with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA-rich perilla oil (PO) and fish oil (FO) high fat diet intervention against the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obesity-insulin resistance model rats. In the modeling period, the male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the high fat (HF) group were given a high fat pure diet containing 20.62% lard. In the intervention period, the model rats were intervened with purified high-fat diets rich in PO or FO, containing same energy content with high fat pure diet in HF. After the intervention, the protein and mRNA expressions status of the key genes involved in synthesis of hepatic HDL-c were measured for further analytic comparison. The obesity-insulin resistance model rats were characterized by surprisingly high levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and increased body weight (P increase the level of serum apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) (P fat diets promoted the synthesis of HDL-c in the obesity-insulin resistance rats.

  9. The effects of ovariectomy and lifelong high-fat diet consumption on body weight, appetite, and lifespan in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Yano, Kiyohito; Irahara, Minoru

    2018-01-01

    In females, ovarian hormones play pivotal roles in metabolic, appetite, and body weight regulation. In addition, it has been reported that ovarian hormones also affect longevity in some species. Recently, it was found that the consumption of a high-fat diet aggravates ovariectomy-associated metabolic dysregulation in female rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that long-term high-fat diet consumption and ovariectomy interact to worsen body weight regulation and longevity in female rats. At 21days of age, female rats were weaned and randomly divided into two groups, one of which was given the high-fat diet, and the other was supplied with standard chow. At 23weeks of age, each group was further divided into ovariectomized and sham-operated groups, and then their body weight changes, food intake, and longevity were measured until 34months of age. The sham - high-fat diet rats exhibited greater body weight changes and higher feed efficiency than the sham - standard chow rats. On the other hand, the ovariectomized - high-fat diet and ovariectomized - standard chow rats displayed similar body weight changes and feed efficiency. The sham - high-fat diet and ovariectomized - standard chow rats demonstrated similar body weight changes and feed efficiency, indicating that the impact of ovariectomy on the regulation of body weight and energy metabolism might be similar to that of high-fat diet. Contrary to our expectations, ovariectomy and high-fat diet consumption both had small favorable effects on longevity. As the high-fat diet used in the present study not only had a high fat content, but also had a high caloric content and a low carbohydrate content compared with the standard chow, it is possible that the effects of the high-fat diet on body weight and longevity were partially induced by its caloric/carbohydrate contents. These findings indicate that the alterations in body weight and energy metabolism induced by ovariectomy and high-fat

  10. Antioxidant effect of Azadirachta indica on high fat diet induced diabetic Charles Foster rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Atul; Chaturvedi, Upma; Sonkar, Ravi; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, J K; Bhatia, Gitika

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. Excessively high levels of free radicals cause damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, and eventually cell death. The present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract in high fat diet induced diabetic Charles Foster rats. The increased level of lipidperoxidation and altered levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione) antioxidants were seen in high fructose fed animals. The treatment with A. indica leaf extract significantly normalized the altered levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status at 400 mg/kg b.w. dose. The A. indica leaf extract was also tested for in vitro inhibition of generation of superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radical in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. The A. indica leaf extract was found to inhibit generation of superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radical significantly at 200 μg/ml concentration. Data of present study demonstrated that the A. indica leaf extract has both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties.

  11. The Effects of Erythropoietin Dose Titration during High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

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    Amanda Foskett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (Epo is a pleotropic cytokine with several nonhematopoietic tissue effects. High-dose Epo treatment-mediated effects on body weight, fat mass and glucose tolerance have recently been reported, thus extending its pleotropic effects to fat and glucose metabolism. However, the exact dose range of Epo treatment required for such effects remains unidentified to date. We investigated Epo dosage effect (up to 1000 U/kg on hematocrit, body weight, body composition, glucose metabolism, food intake, and physical activity, during high-fat diet-induced obesity. We report that Epo doses (1000, 600, 300, and 150 U/kg significantly reduced body weight gain and fat mass, while, only Epo doses of 300 U/kg and higher significantly affected glucose tolerance. None of the tested Epo doses showed any detectable effects on food intake, and only 1000 U/kg dose significantly increased physical activity, suggesting that these parameters may only be partially responsible for the metabolic effects of Epo treatment.

  12. Ginkgolide A ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases on high fat diet mice.

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    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Lee, In-Seung; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Yumi; Kim, Ki-Suk; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases worldwide and has continuously increased. NAFLD refers to a spectrum of diseases ranging from fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and even to hepatocyte carcinoma. Excessive fatty acid enters the cell and the mitochondria undergo stress and unremoved ROS can trigger a form of cell apoptosis known as 'lipoapoptosis'. NASH arises from damaged liver hepatocytes due to lipotoxicity. NASH not only involves lipid accumulation and apoptosis but also inflammation. Ginkgo biloba has been tested clinical trials as a traditional medicine for asthma, bronchitis and cardiovascular disease. The effects of Ginkgolide A (GA), derived from the ginkgo biloba leaf, are still unknown in NAFLD. To determine the protective effects of GA in NAFLD, we examined the fatty liver disease condition in the non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)-induced HepG2 cell line and in a high fat diet mouse model. The findings of this study suggest that GA is non-toxic at high concentrations in hepatocytes. Moreover, GA was found to inhibit cellular lipogenesis and lipid accumulation by causing mitochondrial oxidative stress. GA showed hepatoprotective efficacy by inducing cellular lipoapoptosis and by inhibiting cellular inflammation. The results demonstrated that GA may be feasible as a therapeutic agent for NAFLD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

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    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  14. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

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    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  15. The effects of erythropoietin dose titration during high-fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Foskett, Amanda; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Wang, Li; Teng, Ruifeng; Noguchi, Constance T

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a pleotropic cytokine with several nonhematopoietic tissue effects. High-dose Epo treatment-mediated effects on body weight, fat mass and glucose tolerance have recently been reported, thus extending its pleotropic effects to fat and glucose metabolism. However, the exact dose range of Epo treatment required for such effects remains unidentified to date. We investigated Epo dosage effect (up to 1000 U/kg) on hematocrit, body weight, body composition, glucose metabolism, food intake, and physical activity, during high-fat diet-induced obesity. We report that Epo doses (1000, 600, 300, and 150 U/kg) significantly reduced body weight gain and fat mass, while, only Epo doses of 300 U/kg and higher significantly affected glucose tolerance. None of the tested Epo doses showed any detectable effects on food intake, and only 1000 U/kg dose significantly increased physical activity, suggesting that these parameters may only be partially responsible for the metabolic effects of Epo treatment.

  16. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Promising effect of Rosa damascena extract on high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.

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    Davoodi, Ida; Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Farzaei, Fatemeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Memariani, Zahra; Najafi, Fariba

    2017-10-01

    NAFLD is a chronic liver disease that affects a high proportion of the world's population which causes metabolic and hepatic damages. Rosa damascena Mill is traditionally used as a dietary supplement for liver disorders. This study was carried out to determine the beneficial effect of standardized extract of R. damascena on animal model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in Wistar rats. HFD rats showed an increase (p < 0.05) in the plasma lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and reduced the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. R. damascena significantly reduced the elevation of final body weight, liver fat accumulation, TG, TC, LDL-C concentrations and hepatic enzymes (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue confirmed the therapeutic effect of R. damascena. Improvement of total antioxidant power activity, total thiol content, MPO enzyme activity, and also lipid peroxidation were also considered in treated animals (p < 0.05). HPLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds including gallic acid, quercetin and syringic acid are the main bioactive compounds of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract. In conclusion, R. damascena dietary supplementation has a therapeutic effect in NAFLD. Improvement of oxidative stress associated damage in liver tissue is among the main pharmacological mechanisms involved in therapeutic activity of the plant.

  18. Promising effect of Rosa damascena extract on high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver

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    Ida Davoodi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available NAFLD is a chronic liver disease that affects a high proportion of the world's population which causes metabolic and hepatic damages. Rosa damascena Mill is traditionally used as a dietary supplement for liver disorders. This study was carried out to determine the beneficial effect of standardized extract of R. damascena on animal model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. NAFLD was induced by high-fat diet (HFD in Wistar rats. HFD rats showed an increase (p < 0.05 in the plasma lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and reduced the high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels. R. damascena significantly reduced the elevation of final body weight, liver fat accumulation, TG, TC, LDL-C concentrations and hepatic enzymes (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue confirmed the therapeutic effect of R. damascena. Improvement of total antioxidant power activity, total thiol content, MPO enzyme activity, and also lipid peroxidation were also considered in treated animals (p < 0.05. HPLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds including gallic acid, quercetin and syringic acid are the main bioactive compounds of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract. In conclusion, R. damascena dietary supplementation has a therapeutic effect in NAFLD. Improvement of oxidative stress associated damage in liver tissue is among the main pharmacological mechanisms involved in therapeutic activity of the plant.

  19. Lowering effects of aspirin eugenol ester on blood lipids in rats with high fat diet.

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    Karam, Isam; Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Kong, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Le; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-11-17

    Aspirin and eugenol were esterified to synthesize aspirin eugenol ester (AEE). As a pale yellow and odourless crystal, AEE reduced the gastrointestinal damage of aspirin and vulnerability of eugenol. The study was conducted to evaluate the preventive effects of AEE on blood lipids in rats with high fat diet (HFD). Suspensions of AEE and simvastatin were prepared in 5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC-Na). In order to observe the intervention effects, the drugs and HFD were administrated at the same time. Based on individual weekly body weight (BW), AEE was intragastrically administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 54 mg/kg. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg) and CMC-Na (20 mg/kg) were used as control drug. After 6 weeks of administration, the changes of BW and blood lipid indices including triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol (TCH) were determined in the experiment. The rat blood lipids profile in model group was remarkably different after feeding 6-weeks HFD. TG, TCH and LDL indexes in model group were increased significantly compared with those in control group (p mechanism of action of AEE should be investigated in further studies.

  20. High fat diet and inflammation - modulation of Haptoglobin level in rat brain

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    Maria Stefania eSpagnuolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dietary fats are well known risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of specific markers, whose brain level can be affected by diet, might contribute to unveil the intersection between inflammation/obesity and neurodegeneration. Haptoglobin (Hpt is an acute phase protein, which acts as antioxidant by binding free Haemoglobin (Hb, thus neutralizing its pro-oxidative action. We previously demonstrated that Hpt plays critical functions in brain, modulating cholesterol trafficking in neuroblastoma cell lines, beta-amyloid (Aβ uptake by astrocyte, and limiting Aβ toxicity on these cells. A major aim of this study was to evaluate whether a long term (12 or 24 weeks high-fat diet (HFD influences Hpt and Hb expression in rat hippocampus. We also assessed the development of obesity-induced inflammation by measuring hippocampal level of TNF-alpha, and the extent of protein oxidation by titrating nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr. Hpt concentration was lower (p<0.001 in hippocampus of HFD rats than in control animals, both in the 12 and in the 24 weeks fed groups. HFD was also associated in hippocampus with the increase of Hb level (p<0.01, inflammation and protein oxidative modification, as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of TNF-alpha and nitro-tyrosine. In fact, TNF-alpha concentration was higher in rats receiving HFD for 12 (p<0.01 or 24 weeks (p<0.001 compared to those receiving the control diet. N-Tyr concentration was more elevated in hippocampus of HFD than in control rats in both 12 weeks (p=0.04 and 24 weeks groups (p=0.01, and a positive correlation between Hb and N-Tyr concentration was found in each group. Finally, we found that the treatment of the human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line U-87 MG with cholesterol and fatty acids, such as palmitic and linoleic acid, significantly impairs (p<0.001 Hpt secretion in the extracellular compartment.We hypothesize that the HFD-dependent decrease of

  1. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss.

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    Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  2. Maternal High-Fat Diet Modulates Hepatic Glucose, Lipid Homeostasis and Gene Expression in the PPAR Pathway in the Early Life of Offspring

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    Jia Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal dietary modifications determine the susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adult life. However, whether maternal high-fat feeding can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in the early life of offspring is less understood. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms that influence the phenotype. Using C57BL/6J mice, we examined the effects on the offspring at weaning from dams fed with a high-fat diet or normal chow diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Gene array experiments and quantitative real-time PCR were performed in the liver tissues of the offspring mice. The offspring of the dams fed the high-fat diet had a heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased serum cholesterol and hepatic steatosis at weaning. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that all differentially expressed genes of the offspring between the two groups were mapped to nine pathways. Genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway were verified by quantitative real-time PCR and these genes were significantly up-regulated in the high-fat diet offspring. A maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can modulate hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis, and gene expression in the PPAR signaling in the early life of offspring, and our results suggested that potential mechanisms that influences this phenotype may be related partially to up-regulate some gene expression in the PPAR signalling pathway.

  3. Isocaloric intake of a high-fat diet modifies adiposity and lipid handling in a sex dependent manner in rats

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    Lladó Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences. Aim To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling. Methods Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot. Results The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.

  4. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

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    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  5. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

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    Ji Hye Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective: The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design: Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w./day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50 with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results: We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG, and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions: These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis.

  6. High-fat diet exposure from pre-pubertal age induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats.

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    Patel, Roshni; Shah, Gaurang

    2018-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal model focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Therefore, we hypothesized that high-fat diet feeding to pre-pubertal female rats results in both reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. Pre-pubertal female rats were divided into two groups: group I received normal pellet diet and group II received high-fat diet (HFD). In the letrozole study, adult female rats were divided into two groups: group I received 1% carboxy methyl cellulose and group II received 1 mg/kg letrozole orally. Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, estrus cycle, hormonal profile, ovary weight, luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor expression were measured. Polycystic ovarian morphology was assessed through histopathological changes of ovary. Feeding of HFD gradually increase glucose intolerance and fasting insulin levels. Triglyceride level was higher in HFD study while total cholesterol level was higher in the letrozole study. Alteration in testosterone and estrogen levels was observed in both studies. LH receptor expression was upregulated only in HFD study. Histopathological changes like increase cystic follicle, diminished granulosa cell layer and thickened theca cell layer were observed in letrozole as well as HFD study. High-fat diet initiated at pre-puberty age in rats produces both metabolic disturbances and ovarian changes similar to that observed clinically in PCOS patients. Letrozole on the other hand induces change in ovarian structure and function. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

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    Woong Sun Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  8. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

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    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Yue, E-mail: ly99ly@vip.163.com [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiac Diseases and Heart Failure, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.

  9. Gold nanoparticles improve metabolic profile of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Ng, Jane P M; Tan, Yi; McGrath, Kristine; Bishop, David P; Oliver, Brian; Chan, Yik Lung; Cortie, Michael B; Milthorpe, Bruce K; Valenzuela, Stella M

    2018-02-06

    Obesity is a high risk for multiple metabolic disorders due to excessive influx of energy, glucose and lipid, often from a western based diet. Low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the progression of such metabolic disorders. The anti-inflammatory property of gold compounds has been used in treating rheumatoid arthritis in the clinic. Previously we found that pure gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, 21 nm) also possess anti-inflammatory effects on the retroperitoneal fat tissue following intraperitoneal injection, by downregulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. However, whether such an effect can change the risk of metabolic disorders in the obese has not been well studied. The study employed C57BL/6 mice fed a pellet high fat diet (HFD, 43% as fat) that were treated daily with AuNPs [low (HFD-LAu) or high (HFD-HAu) dose] via intraperitoneal injection for 9 weeks. In the in vitro study, RAW264.7 macrophages and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with low and high concentrations of AuNPs alone or together. The HFD-fed mice showed a significant increase in fat mass, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and liver steatosis. The HFD-LAu group showed an 8% reduction in body weight, ameliorated hyperlipidemia, and normal glucose tolerance; while the HFD-HAu group had a 5% reduction in body weight with significant improvement in their glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The underlying mechanism may be attributed to a reduction in adipose and hepatic local proinflammatory cytokine production, e.g. TNFα. In vitro studies of co-cultured murine RAW264.7 macrophage and 3T3-L1 adipocytes supported this proposed mechanism. AuNPs demonstrate a promising profile for potential management of obesity related glucose and lipid disorders and are useful as a research tool for the study of biological mechanisms.

  10. Hepatic glucose metabolism in late pregnancy: normal versus high-fat and -fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Smith, Marta S; Shiota, Masakazu; Irimia, Jose M; Roach, Peter J; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2013-03-01

    Net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) is an important contributor to postprandial glycemic control. We hypothesized that NHGU is reduced during normal pregnancy and in a pregnant diet-induced model of impaired glucose intolerance/gestational diabetes mellitus (IGT/GDM). Dogs (n = 7 per group) that were nonpregnant (N), normal pregnant (P), or pregnant with IGT/GDM (pregnant dogs fed a high-fat and -fructose diet [P-HFF]) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp with intraportal glucose infusion. Clamp period insulin, glucagon, and glucose concentrations and hepatic glucose loads did not differ among groups. The N dogs reached near-maximal NHGU rates within 30 min; mean ± SEM NHGU was 105 ± 9 µmol·100 g liver⁻¹·min⁻¹. The P and P-HFF dogs reached maximal NHGU in 90-120 min; their NHGU was blunted (68 ± 9 and 16 ± 17 µmol·100 g liver⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively). Hepatic glycogen synthesis was reduced 20% in P versus N and 40% in P-HFF versus P dogs. This was associated with a reduction (>70%) in glycogen synthase activity in P-HFF versus P and increased glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity in both P (1.7-fold greater than N) and P-HFF (1.8-fold greater than P) dogs. Thus, NHGU under conditions mimicking the postprandial state is delayed and suppressed in normal pregnancy, with concomitant reduction in glycogen storage. NHGU is further blunted in IGT/GDM. This likely contributes to postprandial hyperglycemia during pregnancy, with potential adverse outcomes for the fetus and mother.

  11. Isoproterenol exacerbates hyperglycemia and modulates chromium distribution in mice fed with a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Wen-Kai; Hou, Po-Hsun; Mao, Frank Chiahung

    2017-12-01

    Isoproterenol (ISO), a nonselective β-adrenoceptor agonist for treating bradycardia and asthma, has been proposed to raise blood glucose level. Little is known regarding the relationship between ISO treatment, the induced chromium (Cr) redistribution, and changes in glucose metabolism. We aimed to characterize the effects of a single dose of ISO on glucose homeostasis and Cr level changes in an obesity mouse model. Mice (C57BL6/j strain) were first fed for a continuous period of 12 weeks with either a high fat diet (HFD), to develop an obesity animal model, or a standard diet (SD), to develop a lean animal model as controls. These groups were each separated into two subgroups to receive either a single dose of ISO or saline (control). We measured in vivo their metabolic parameters, fasting glucose level, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose level time profile, insulin level time profile, insulin sensitivity index, and chromium distribution. After a single dose of ISO, the SD-fed mice had slightly higher blood glucose levels compared with the SD controls, when the level was measured 30 and 60min after injection. By contrast, the ISO-treated HFD-fed mice had significantly higher blood glucose levels and AUC during the entire 120min following one administration compared with the HFD control group. Additionally, they had a substantially lower HOMA-IR index, whereas insulin levels remained unchanged. The Cr level in their bones and liver was decreased, and loss of Cr through urinary excretion was elevated. The results demonstrated that ISO exacerbated hyperglycemic syndrome in the obesity animal model. ISO induced a net negative Cr balance as a result of increased urinary excretion, leading to Cr mobilization that was not desirable to overcome the hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiac function and lipid distribution in rats fed a high-fat diet: in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Vijayasarathi; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Kaneko, Manami; Angeli, Veronique; Gluckman, Peter; Richards, Arthur Mark; Kuchel, Philip W; Velan, S Sendhil

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and its pathophysiological precondition insulin resistance. Very little is known about the metabolic changes that occur in the myocardium and consequent changes in cardiac function that are associated with high-fat accumulation. Therefore, cardiac function and metabolism were evaluated in control rats and those fed a high-fat diet, using magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mRNA analysis, histology, and plasma biochemistry. Analysis of blood plasma from rats fed the high-fat diet showed that they were insulin resistant (P biochemistry, magnetic resonance imaging, and mRNA analysis confirmed that rats on the high-fat diet had moderate diabetes along with mild cardiac hypertrophy. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy results showed the extramyocellular lipid signal only in the spectra from high-fat diet rats, which was absent in the control diet rats. The intramyocellular lipids in high-fat diet rats was higher (8.7%) compared with rats on the control diet (6.1%). This was confirmed by electron microscope and light microscopy studies. Our results indicate that lipid accumulation in the myocardium might be an early indication of the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R S; Surya, D; Nalini, N

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells.

  14. Aged garlic extract enhances exercise-mediated improvement of metabolic parameters in high fat diet-induced obese rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dae Yun Seo; SungRyul Lee; Arturo Figueroa; Yi Sub Kwak; Nari Kim; Byoung Doo Rhee; Kyung Soo Ko; Hyun Seok Bang; Yeong Ho Baek; Jin Han

    2012-01-01

    .... We examined the effects of exercise with and without aged garlic extract administration on body weight, lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress marker in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats...

  15. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  16. High Fat Diets Sex-Specifically Affect the Renal Transcriptome and Program Obesity, Kidney Injury, and Hypertension in the Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lin, Yu-Ju; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-04-03

    Obesity and related disorders have increased concurrently with an increased consumption of saturated fatty acids. We examined whether post-weaning high fat (HF) diet would exacerbate offspring vulnerability to maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension and kidney disease sex-specifically, with a focus on the kidney. Next, we aimed to elucidate the gene-diet interactions that contribute to maternal HF-induced renal programming using the next generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND) or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets) for five weeks before the delivery. The offspring of both sexes were put on either the ND or HF diet from weaning to six months of age, resulting in four groups of each sex (maternal diet/post-weaning diet; n = 5-7/group): ND/ND, ND/HF, HF/ND, and HF/HF. Post-weaning HF diet increased bodyweights of both ND/HF and HF/HF animals from three to six months only in males. Post-weaning HF diet increased systolic blood pressure in male and female offspring, irrespective of whether they were exposed to maternal HF or not. Male HF/HF offspring showed greater degrees of glomerular and tubular injury compared to the ND/ND group. Our NGS data showed that maternal HF diet significantly altered renal transcriptome with female offspring being more HF-sensitive. HF diet induced hypertension and renal injury are associated with oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulated sodium transporters and circadian clock. Post-weaning HF diet sex-specifically exacerbates the development of obesity, kidney injury, but not hypertension programmed by maternal HF intake. Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel personalized dietary intervention to prevent obesity and related disorders.

  17. Ingested capsaicinoids can prevent low-fat-high-carbohydrate diet and high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating the NADPH oxidase and Nrf2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Nurhan; Ozdemir, Oguzhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    Capsaicinoids (CAPs), most commonly found in chili peppers, have a multitude of pharmacological and physiological effects, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we set out to investigate the hypothesis that CAPs mitigate obesity in rats and the possible mechanisms thereof. Rats were divided into six groups, including control (±10 mg CAPs/kg body weight [BW]), low-fat-high-sucrose diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW), and high-fat diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW). Blood samples and liver and aortic tissues were taken at the end of the study. CAPs supplementation significantly reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (P<0.001) and ameliorated oxidative damage by reducing malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and liver and by increasing total antioxidant capacity in serum induced by the low-fat-high-sucrose and high-fat diets (P<0.001 for all). CAPs also depressed levels of NFκB p65, gp91phox, and p22phox, essential components of NADPH oxidase, in the aorta of rats. However, levels of Nrf2, Sirt1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were significantly increased in the aorta. CAPs may at least partially reduce adverse effects due to high-fat diet and sucrose consumption through regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and proteins involved in vasoprotection.

  18. Ingested capsaicinoids can prevent low-fat–high-carbohydrate diet and high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating the NADPH oxidase and Nrf2 pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Nurhan; Ozdemir, Oguzhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    Objective Capsaicinoids (CAPs), most commonly found in chili peppers, have a multitude of pharmacological and physiological effects, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we set out to investigate the hypothesis that CAPs mitigate obesity in rats and the possible mechanisms thereof. Materials and methods Rats were divided into six groups, including control (±10 mg CAPs/kg body weight [BW]), low-fat–high-sucrose diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW), and high-fat diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW). Blood samples and liver and aortic tissues were taken at the end of the study. Results CAPs supplementation significantly reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (P<0.001) and ameliorated oxidative damage by reducing malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and liver and by increasing total antioxidant capacity in serum induced by the low-fat–high-sucrose and high-fat diets (P<0.001 for all). CAPs also depressed levels of NFκB p65, gp91phox, and p22phox, essential components of NADPH oxidase, in the aorta of rats. However, levels of Nrf2, Sirt1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were significantly increased in the aorta. Conclusion CAPs may at least partially reduce adverse effects due to high-fat diet and sucrose consumption through regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and proteins involved in vasoprotection. PMID:29180887

  19. Physical exercise promotes memory capability by enhancing hippocampal mitochondrial functions and inhibiting apoptosis in obesity-induced insulin resistance by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sang; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2018-02-01

    A high-fat diet induces obesity in mice, leading to insulin resistance, decreased mitochondrial function, and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus, which eventually result in memory loss. The present study investigated the effect of physical exercise on memory, hippocampal mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in mice with in insulin resistance caused by obesity due to high-fat diet. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (CON), control and exercise (CON + EX), high fat diet (HFD), and high fat diet and exercise (HFD + EX). After receiving a high-fat (60%) diet for 20 weeks to induce obesity, the animals were subjected to an exercise routine 6 times per week, for 12 weeks. The exercise duration and intensity gradually increased over 4-week intervals. Hippocampal memory was examined using the step-down avoidance task. Mitochondrial function and apoptosis were also examined in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. We found that obesity owing to a high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and caused a decrease in memory function. Insulin resistance also caused a decrease in mitochondrial function in the hippocampus by reducing Ca 2+ retention and O 2, respiration, increasing the levels of H 2 O 2 , and Cyp-D, and mPTP opening. In addition, apoptosis in the hippocampus increased owing to decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells. In contrast, physical exercise led to reduced insulin resistance, improved mitochondrial function, and reduced apoptosis in the hippocampus. The results suggest that physiological stimulations such as exercise improve hippocampal function and suppress apoptosis, potentially preventing the memory loss associated with obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  20. Alleviation of high fat diet-induced obesity by oligofructose in gnotobiotic mice is independent of presence of Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woting, Anni; Pfeiffer, Nora; Hanske, Laura; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne; Blaut, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with changes in the gut microbiota and low-grade inflammation. Oligofructose was reported to ameliorate high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice by restoring the number of intestinal bifidobacteria. However, this has not been experimentally demonstrated. We fed conventional mice, germfree mice, mice associated with a simplified human gut microbiota composed of eight bacterial species including Bifidobacterium longum (SIHUMI), and mice associated with SIHUMI without B. longum a low fat diet (LFD), a high fat diet (HFD), or a HFD containing 10% oligofructose (HFD + OFS) for five weeks. We assessed body composition, bacterial cell numbers and metabolites, markers of inflammation, and gut permeability. Conventional mice fed HFD or HFD + OFS did not differ in body weight gain and glucose tolerance. The gnotobiotic mouse groups fed LFD or HFD + OFS gained less body weight and body fat, and displayed an improved glucose tolerance compared with mice fed HFD. These differences were not affected by the presence of B. longum. Mice fed HFD showed no signs of inflammation or increased intestinal permeability. The ability of oligofructose to reduce obesity and to improve glucose tolerance in gnotobiotic mice fed HFD was independent of the presence of B. longum. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. [Rosuvastatin improves insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by high fat diet. Role of SIRT1 in adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin resistance in overweight rats induced by high fat diet, as well as potential mediators. We used male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet (CT) or high fat diet (33.5% fat) (HFD); half of the animals HFD were treated with rosuvastatin (15mg/kg/day) (HFD+Rosu) for 7 weeks. HFD rats showed increased body, epididymal and lumbar adipose tissue weights. Treatment with Rosu did not modify body weight or the weight of the adipose packages in HFD rat. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and HOMA index were higher in HFD rats, and rosuvastatin treatment reduced them. Leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma and lumbar adipose tissue were higher in HDF rats, and were reduced by rosuvastatin. SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 protein expression in lumbar adipose tissue were lower in HFD rats and Rosu normalized expression of the three mediators. Rosuvastatin ameliorates insulin sensitivity induced by HFD in rats. This effect is mediated by several mechanisms including reduction of leptin and enhancement of SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 expression in white adipose tissue. SIRT1 could be considered a major mediator of the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by diet. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of high fat diets with different ketogenic ratios on the hippocampal accumulation of creatine - FTIR microspectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, A.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, Ch.; Borondics, F.; Chwiej, J.

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was the determination and comparison of anomalies in creatine (Cr) accumulation occurring within CA3 and DG areas of hippocampal formation as a result of two high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) with different ketogenic ratio (KR). To reach this goal, Fourier transformed infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source (SRFTIR microspectroscopy) was applied for chemical mapping of creatine absorption bands, occurring around 1304, 1398 and 2800 cm- 1. The samples were taken from three groups of experimental animals: control group (N) fed with standard laboratory diet, KD1 and KD2 groups fed with high-fat diets with KR 5:1 and 9:1 respectively. Additionally, the possible influence on the phosphocreatine (PhCr, the high energetic form of creatine) content was evaluated by comparative analysis of chemical maps obtained for creatine and for compounds containing phosphate groups which manifest in the spectra at the wavenumbers of around 1240 and 1080 cm- 1. Our results showed that KD2 strongly modifies the frequency of Cr inclusions in both analyzed hippocampal areas. Statistical analysis, performed with Mann-Whitney U test revealed increased accumulation of Cr within CA3 and DG areas of KD2 fed rats compared to both normal rats and KD1 experimental group. Moreover, KD2 diet may modify the frequency of PhCr deposits as well as the PhCr to Cr ratio.

  3. Chronic inflammation aggravates metabolic disorders of hepatic fatty acids in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lei; Zhong, Shan; Qu, Haiyang; Xie, Yunxia; Cao, Zhennan; Li, Qing; Yang, Ping; Varghese, Zac; Moorhead, John F.; Chen, Yaxi; Ruan, Xiong Z.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases with increasing body mass index (BMI). However, approximately 40?50% of obese adults do not develop hepatic steatosis. The level of inflammatory biomarkers is higher in obese subjects with NAFLD compared to BMI-matched subjects without hepatic steatosis. We used a casein injection in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice to induce inflammatory stress. Although mice on a HFD exhibited apparent phenotypes of obesity and hyperl...

  4. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  5. Myeloid-specific deletion of NOX2 prevents the metabolic and neurologic consequences of high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Pepping

    Full Text Available High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with inflammatory and oxidative signaling in macrophages that likely participates in metabolic and physiologic impairment. One key factor that could drive pathologic changes in macrophages is the pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase. However, NADPH oxidase is a pleiotropic enzyme with both pathologic and physiologic functions, ruling out indiscriminant NADPH oxidase inhibition as a viable therapy. To determine if targeted inhibition of monocyte/macrophage NADPH oxidase could mitigate obesity pathology, we generated mice that lack the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit NOX2 in myeloid lineage cells. C57Bl/6 control (NOX2-FL and myeloid-deficient NOX2 (mNOX2-KO mice were given high fat diet for 16 weeks, and subject to comprehensive metabolic, behavioral, and biochemical analyses. Data show that mNOX2-KO mice had lower body weight, delayed adiposity, attenuated visceral inflammation, and decreased macrophage infiltration and cell injury in visceral adipose relative to control NOX2-FL mice. Moreover, the effects of high fat diet on glucose regulation and circulating lipids were attenuated in mNOX2-KO mice. Finally, memory was impaired and markers of brain injury increased in NOX2-FL, but not mNOX2-KO mice. Collectively, these data indicate that NOX2 signaling in macrophages participates in the pathogenesis of obesity, and reinforce a key role for macrophage inflammation in diet-induced metabolic and neurologic decline. Development of macrophage/immune-specific NOX-based therapies could thus potentially be used to preserve metabolic and neurologic function in the context of obesity.

  6. Elicited soybean (Glycine max L.) extract improves regulatory T cell activity in high fat-fructose diet mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atho'illah, Mochammad Fitri; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by the central distribution of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. A high-fat diet can lead to overnutrition and directly trigger inflammation in adipose tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential negative regulators of inflammation. Soybean (Glycine max L.) has a variety of beneficial health. It contains isoflavones, particularly daidzein and genistein which can be transformed using microbial and physical stimuli to enhance bioactivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of elicited soybean extract (ESE) on Treg activity in high fat-fructose (HFFD) mice. Twenty-eight female Balb/C mice were divided into seven groups: normal diet (ND) only, ND + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, HFFD only, HFFD + Simvastatin 2.8 mg/kg, HFFD + ESE 78 mg/kg BW, HFFD + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, and HFFD + ESE 130 mg/kg BW. The high fat-fructose diet was given over a period of 20 weeks, and ESE was administered orally per day after 20 weeks for four weeks. At week 24, the animals were sacrificed and the spleen was collected. Tregs were labeled as CD4+CD25+CD62L+ and the relative Treg number was measured using flow cytometry. The HFFD treatment significantly decreased Treg number (p < 0.05) compared to a normal diet. The ESE treatment in HFFD mice could improve Treg numbers compared to HFFD mice. Our results suggest that ESE has potential to be used as a supplement to suppress chronic inflammation via increased Treg number.

  7. Nicotine Enhances High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arany, Istvan; Hall, Samuel; Reed, Dustin K; Reed, Caitlyn T; Dixit, Mehul

    2016-07-01

    Life expectancy of an obese smoker is 13 years less than a normal weight smoker, which could be linked to the increased renal risk imposed by smoking. Both smoking-through nicotine (NIC)-and obesity-by free fatty acid overload-provoke oxidative stress in the kidney, which ultimately results in development of chronic kidney injury. Their combined renal risk, however, is virtually unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic NIC exposure worsens renal oxidative stress in mice on high-fat diet (HFD) by altering the balance between expression of pro-oxidant and antioxidant genes. Nine-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice consumed normal diet (ND) or HFD and received either NIC (200 μg/ml) or vehicle (2% saccharine) in their drinking water. Body weight, plasma clinical parameters, renal lipid deposition, markers of renal oxidative stress and injury, as well as renal expression of the pro-oxidant p66shc and the antioxidant MnSOD were determined after 12 weeks. NIC significantly augmented levels of circulating free fatty acid, as well as lipid deposition, oxidative stress and sublethal injury in the kidneys of mice on HFD. In addition, NIC exposure suppressed HFD-mediated induction of MnSOD while increased expression of p66shc in the kidney. Tobacco smoking or the increasingly popular E-cigarettes-via NIC exposure-could worsen obesity-associated lipotoxicity in the kidney. Hence, our findings could help to develop strategies that mitigate adverse effects of NIC on the obese kidney. Life expectancy of an obese smoker is 13 years less than a normal weight smoker, which could be linked to the increased renal risk imposed by smoking. NIC-the main component of tobacco smoke, E-cigarettes and replacement therapies-links smoking to renal injury via oxidative stress, which could superimpose renal oxidative stress caused by obesity. Our results substantiate this scenario using a mouse model of diet induced obesity and NIC exposure and imply the augmented long-term renal risk in obese

  8. Effects of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets on apparent digestibility of minerals and trace elements in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommelt, Lena; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Menhofer, Dominik; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Kienzle, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets reduce growth and bone mineral density in children with epilepsy and in rats. Part of this effect might be due to a reduced availability of calcium in high-fat diets. The aim of this study was to determine mineral digestibility by total collection method in LCHF diets compared with a chow diet and a standard high-fat diet (HFD, high in fat and carbohydrates). Twelve-wk-old male Wistar rats were pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of either six different LCHF diets based on tallow and casein (crude fat 75%-50%, crude protein 10%-35%), with chow or with a HFD diet. Mineral-to-energy ratio was matched in all diets. Circulating parathyroid hormone was measured by immunoassay. The apparent digestibility of calcium was reduced in all HFDs (high-fat diets, LCHF diets and the HFD diet) by at least 30% compared with the chow diet (P diet. The alteration of apparent calcium and phosphorus digestibility may affect the impact of HFDs on bone metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

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    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  11. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

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    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  12. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-10-14

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet.

  13. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqu Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1 but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet.

  14. Comparison of rapamycin schedules in mice on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontieva, Olga V; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2014-01-01

    At a wide range of doses, rapamycin extends life span in mice. It was shown that intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of rapamycin prevent weight gain in mice on high-fat diet (HFD). We further investigated the effect of rapamycin on weight gain in female C57BL/6 mice on HFD started at the age of 7.5 months. By the age of 16 and 23 months, mice on HFD weighed significantly more (52 vs 33 g; p = 0.0001 and 70 vs 38 g; p applications are discussed.

  15. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M; Crump, Erica M; Rowland, Neil E

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or "junk food" diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance.

  16. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  17. Purified berry anthocyanins but not whole berries normalize lipid parameters in mice fed an obesogenic high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male C57BL/6 mice received diets with either 10% of kcal from fat (LF), or a high fat diet [45% (HF45) or 60% (HF60) kcal from fat]. Diets were prepared with or without freeze dried powders (10%) from whole blueberries (BB), strawberries (SB), Concord grape (CG) or black raspberry (BRB). In the 2nd ...

  18. Gestational high-fat diet and bisphenol A exposure heightens mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Cheong, Ana; Veevers, Jennifer; Song, Dan; Gear, Robin; Zhu, Xuegong; Ying, Jun; Kendler, Ady; Medvedovic, Mario; Belcher, Scott; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-07-01

    In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High-fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further influences carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose-response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group. In utero HBF and BPA exposure elicited differential effects at the gene level in PND21 mammary glands through DNA methylation, compared with HBF intake in the absence of BPA. Top HBF + BPA-dysregulated genes ( ALDH1B1 , ASTL , CA7 , CPLX4 , KCNV2 , MAGEE2 and TUBA3E ) are associated with poor overall survival in The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) human breast cancer cohort ( n  = 1082). Furthermore, the prognostic power of the identified genes was further enhanced in the survival analysis of Caucasian patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. In conclusion, concurrent HBF dietary and a low-dose BPA exposure during pregnancy increases mammary tumor incidence in offspring, accompanied by alterations in mammary gland development and gene expression, and possibly through epigenetic reprogramming. © 2017 The authors.

  19. High fat diet-induced animal model of age-associated obesity and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halade, Ganesh V; Rahman, Md M; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    Osteoporosis and obesity remain a major public health concern through its associated fragility and fractures. Several animal models for the study of osteoporotic bone loss, such as ovariectomy (OVX) and denervation, require unique surgical skills and expensive set up. The challenging aspect of these age-associated diseases is that no single animal model exactly mimics the progression of these human-specific chronic conditions. Accordingly, to develop a simple and novel model of post menopausal bone loss with obesity, we fed either a high fat diet containing 10% corn oil (CO) or standard rodent lab chow (LC) to 12-month-old female C57Bl/6J mice for 6 months. As a result, CO fed mice exhibited increased body weight, total body fat mass, abdominal fat mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in different skeletal sites measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We also observed that decreased BMD with age in CO fed obese mice was accompanied by increased bone marrow adiposity, up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, cathepsin k and increased proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α) in bone marrow and splenocytes, when compared to that of LC fed mice. Therefore, this appears to be a simple, novel and convenient age-associated model of post menopausal bone loss, in conjunction with obesity, which can be used in pre-clinical drug discovery to screen new therapeutic drugs or dietary interventions for the treatment of obesity and osteoporosis in the human population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-fat diets: modeling the metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Roland; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Bollheimer, L Cornelius

    2007-04-01

    High-fat (HF) diet feeding can induce obesity and metabolic disorders in rodents that resemble the human metabolic syndrome. However, this dietary intervention is not standardized, and the HF-induced phenotype varies distinctly among different studies. The question which HF diet type is best to model the metabolic deterioration seen in human obesity remains unclear. Therefore, in this review, metabolic data obtained with different HF diet approaches are compiled. Both whole-body and organ-specific diet effects are analyzed. On the basis of these results, we conclude that animal fats and omega-6/omega-9-containing plant oils can be used to generate an obese and insulin-resistant phenotype in rodents, whereas fish oil-fed animals do not develop these disorders. Looking at the present data, it does not seem possible to define an ideal HF diet, and an exact definition of diet composition and a thorough metabolic characterization of the HF diet effects in a researcher's specific laboratory setting remains essential for metabolic studies with this model.

  1. Gliadin affects glucose homeostasis and intestinal metagenome in C57BL6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Bahl, Martin Iain

    limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gliadin on glucose homeostasis and intestinal ecology in the mouse. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet containing either 4% gliadin or no gliadin for 22 weeks. Gliadin consumption significantly increased the HbA1c level over...... of the gliadin consuming mice from the control mice in the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of weighted UniFrac distance. Moreover, gliadin reduced the ileal gene expression of tight junction protein 1, occludin, cadherin 1, mucin 2 and mucin 3, indicating an impaired intestinal barrier function...

  2. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin'e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-03-06

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  3. High-fat diet: bacteria interactions promote intestinal inflammation which precedes and correlates with obesity and insulin resistance in mouse.

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    Shengli Ding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity induced by high fat (HF diet is associated with inflammation which contributes to development of insulin resistance. Most prior studies have focused on adipose tissue as the source of obesity-associated inflammation. Increasing evidence links intestinal bacteria to development of diet-induced obesity (DIO. This study tested the hypothesis that HF western diet and gut bacteria interact to promote intestinal inflammation, which contributes to the progression of obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Conventionally raised specific-pathogen free (CONV and germ-free (GF mice were given HF or low fat (LF diet for 2-16 weeks. Body weight and adiposity were measured. Intestinal inflammation was assessed by evaluation of TNF-alpha mRNA and activation of a NF-kappaB(EGFP reporter gene. In CONV but not GF mice, HF diet induced increases in body weight and adiposity. HF diet induced ileal TNF-alpha mRNA in CONV but not GF mice and this increase preceded obesity and strongly and significantly correlated with diet induced weight gain, adiposity, plasma insulin and glucose. In CONV mice HF diet also resulted in activation of NF-kappaB(EGFP in epithelial cells, immune cells and endothelial cells of small intestine. Further experiments demonstrated that fecal slurries from CONV mice fed HF diet are sufficient to activate NF-kappaB(EGFP in GF NF-kappaB(EGFP mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bacteria and HF diet interact to promote proinflammatory changes in the small intestine, which precede weight gain and obesity and show strong and significant associations with progression of obesity and development of insulin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that intestinal inflammation is an early consequence of HF diet which may contribute to obesity and associated insulin resistance. Interventions which limit intestinal inflammation induced by HF diet and bacteria may protect against obesity and insulin

  4. The kielin/chordin-like protein (KCP) attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soofi, Abdul; Wolf, Katherine I; Emont, Margo P; Qi, Nathan; Martinez-Santibanez, Gabriel; Grimley, Edward; Ostwani, Wesam; Dressler, Gregory R

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and its associated complications such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-β superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissue differentiation. The kielin/chordin-like protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-β superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-β and activin signals while enhancing bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, KCP's effects on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models. Therefore, we examined the effects of KCP loss or gain of function in mice that were maintained on either a regular or a high-fat diet. KCP loss sensitized the mice to obesity and associated complications such as glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis. In contrast, transgenic mice that expressed KCP in the kidney, liver, and adipose tissues were resistant to developing high-fat diet-induced obesity and had significantly reduced white adipose tissue. Moreover, KCP overexpression shifted the pattern of SMAD signaling in vivo, increasing the levels of phospho (P)-SMAD1 and decreasing P-SMAD3. Adipocytes in culture showed a cell-autonomous effect in response to added TGF-β1 or BMP7. Metabolic profiling indicated increased energy expenditure in KCP-overexpressing mice and reduced expenditure in the KCP mutants with no effect on food intake or activity. These findings demonstrate that shifting the TGF-β superfamily signaling with a secreted protein can alter the physiology and thermogenic properties of adipose tissue to reduce obesity even when mice are fed a high-fat diet. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Pancreatic Fat Accumulation, Fibrosis, and Acinar Cell Injury in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Fed a Chronic High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Akiko; Makino, Naohiko; Tozawa, Tomohiro; Shirahata, Nakao; Honda, Teiichiro; Ikeda, Yushi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Miho; Kakizaki, Yasuharu; Akamatsu, Manabu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The histological alteration of the exocrine pancreas in obesity has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated biochemical and histological changes in the exocrine pancreas of obese model rats. Methods Zucker lean rats were fed a standard diet, and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into 2 groups fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. These experimental groups were fed each of the diets from 6 weeks until 12, 18, 24 weeks of age. We performed blood biochemical assays and histological analysis of the pancreas. Results In the ZDF rats fed a high-fat diet, the ratio of accumulated pancreatic fat area relative to exocrine gland area was increased significantly at 18 weeks of age in comparison with the other 2 groups (P fat diet, fat accumulates in pancreatic acinar cells, and this fatty change seems to be related to subsequent pancreatic fibrosis and acinar cell injury. PMID:24717823

  6. Pancreatic fat accumulation, fibrosis, and acinar cell injury in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat fed a chronic high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Akiko; Makino, Naohiko; Tozawa, Tomohiro; Shirahata, Nakao; Honda, Teiichiro; Ikeda, Yushi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Miho; Kakizaki, Yasuharu; Akamatsu, Manabu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-07-01

    The histological alteration of the exocrine pancreas in obesity has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated biochemical and histological changes in the exocrine pancreas of obese model rats. Zucker lean rats were fed a standard diet, and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into 2 groups fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. These experimental groups were fed each of the diets from 6 weeks until 12, 18, 24 weeks of age. We performed blood biochemical assays and histological analysis of the pancreas. In the ZDF rats fed a high-fat diet, the ratio of accumulated pancreatic fat area relative to exocrine gland area was increased significantly at 18 weeks of age in comparison with the other 2 groups (P fat diet, fat accumulates in pancreatic acinar cells, and this fatty change seems to be related to subsequent pancreatic fibrosis and acinar cell injury.

  7. Rosemary Extract-Mediated Lifespan Extension and Attenuated Oxidative Damage in Drosophila melanogaster Fed on High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Li; Sun, Zhen-Ou; Rehman, Rizwan-Ur; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Rosemary extract has a potent antioxidant activity and is widely used in the food industry. In this study, the lifespan prolonging and antioxidant activity of rosemary extract was evaluated by high-fat-induced oxidative damage in Drosophila melanogaster. The results revealed that the lifespan and climbing ability of fruit flies was enhanced significantly by feeding rosemary extract. Furthermore, feeding with rosemary extract significantly increased the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and significantly decreased the level of malonaldehyde. The gene expression of SOD, CAT, and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 was enhanced and that for methuselah was significantly reduced. The comet assay showed that high-fat diet-induced DNA lesion was significantly reduced in larvae treated with the rosemary extract. Our results suggest that feeding with rosemary extract is effective to the extended lifespan in fruit flies by strengthening of the resistance to high-fat-induced oxidative stress and by stimulating, at least in part, the endogenous antioxidant response. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Quercetin improves macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yingjie; Hou, Pengbo; Li, Fahui; Liu, Qinghua; Qin, Shucun; Zhou, Guanghai; Xu, Xuelian; Si, Yanhong; Guo, Shoudong

    2017-01-14

    Quercetin, one of the most widely distributed flavonoids in plants, has been demonstrated to reduce hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) plays a crucial role in exporting cholesterol from peripheral cells, which is one mechanism utilized in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether quercetin reduces lipid accumulation by improving RCT in vivo. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were used to investigate the effect of quercetin on RCT by an isotope tracing method, and the underlying mechanisms were clarified by molecular techniques. These novel results demonstrated that quercetin significantly improved [(3)H]-cholesterol transfer from [(3)H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages to the plasma (approximately 34% increase), liver (30% increase), and bile (50% increase) and finally to the feces (approximately 40% increase) for excretion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, quercetin markedly increased the cholesterol accepting ability of plasma and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dramatically decreased the content of malondialdehyde in plasma and oxidized phosphocholine carried by HDL. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms of quercetin in improving RCT may be partially due to the elevated cholesterol accepting ability of HDL, the increased expression levels of proteins related to RCT, such as ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) A1 and G1, and the improved antioxidant activity of HDL. Quercetin accelerates RCT in an atherosclerosis model, which is helpful in clarifying the lipid-lowering effect of quercetin.

  9. Role of sigma 1 receptor in high fat diet-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tieying; Zhao, Jianhui; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zaiwang; Jiang, Bo; Yang, Yunliang

    2017-09-26

    The neurobiological mechanisms of obesity-induced peripheral neuropathy are poorly understood. We evaluated the role of Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) and NMDA receptor (NMDARs) in the spinal cord in peripheral neuropathy using an animal model of high fat diet-induced diabetes. We examined the expression of Sig-1R and NMDAR subunits GluN2A and GluN2B along with postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the spinal cord after 24-week HFD treatment in both wild-type and Sig-1R-/- mice. Finally, we examined the effects of repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sig-1R antagonists BD1047 in HFD-fed wild-type mice on peripheral neuropathy. Wild-type mice developed tactile allodynia and thermal hypoalgesia after 24-week HFD treatment. HFD-induced peripheral neuropathy correlated with increased expression of GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDARs, PDS-95, and Sig-1R, as well as increased Sig-1R-NMDAR interaction in the spinal cord. In contrast, Sig-1R-/- mice did not develop thermal hypoalgesia or tactile allodynia after 24-week HFD treatment, and the levels of GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 were not altered in the spinal cord of HFD-fed Sig-1R-/- mice. Finally, repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sig-1R antagonists BD1047 in HFD-fed wild-type mice attenuated peripheral neuropathy. Our results suggest that obesity-associated peripheral neuropathy may involve Sig-1R-mediated enhancement of NMDAR expression in the spinal cord.

  10. Impact of chromium histidinate on high fat diet induced obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzcu Zeynep

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium (Cr is an essential trace element that has garnered interest for use as a weight loss aid, but its molecular mechanism in obesity is not clear. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of chromium histidinate (CrHis on glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 and the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE expressions in liver of rats fed high fat diet (HFD. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40, 8 wk-old were divided into four groups. Group I was fed a standard diet (12% of calories as fat; Group II was fed a standard diet and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d; Group III was fed a HFD (40% of calories as fat; Group IV was fed HFD and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d. Results Rats fed HFD possessed greater serum insulin (40 vs.33 pmol/L and glucose (158 vs. 143 mg/dL concentration and less liver Cr (44 vs.82 μg/g concentration than rats fed the control diet. However, rats supplemented with CrHis had greater liver Cr and serum insulin and lower glucose concentration in rats fed HFD (P P P Conclusion These findings demonstrate that supplementation of CrHis is protective against obesity, at least in part, through Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 in rats fed high fat diet.

  11. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis by reduced systemic inflammatory status in mice.

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    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and considered an inflammatory disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH is a major enzyme hydrolyzing epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and attenuates their cardiovascular protective and anti-inflammatory effects. We examined whether sEH inhibition can protect against high-fat (HF-diet-induced fatty liver in mice and the underlying mechanism. Compared with wild-type littermates, sEH-null mice showed lower diet-induced lipid accumulation in liver, as seen by Oil-red O staining and triglycerides levels. We studied the effect of sEH inhibition on diet-induced fatty liver by feeding C57BL/6 mice an HF diet for 8 weeks (short-term or 16 weeks (long-term and administering t-AUCB, a selective sEH inhibitor. sEH inhibition had no effect on the HF-diet-increased body and adipose tissue weight or impaired glucose tolerance but alleviated the diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sEH in liver increased the level of triglycerides in liver and the hepatic inflammatory response. Surprisingly, the induced expression of sEH in liver occurred only with the long-term but not short-term HF diet, which suggests a secondary effect of HF diet on regulating sEH expression. Furthermore, sEH inhibition attenuated the HF-diet-induced increase in plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their mRNA upregulation in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration. Therefore, sEH inhibition could alleviate HF-diet-induced hepatic steatosis, which might involve its anti-inflammatory effect in adipose tissue and direct inhibition in liver. sEH may be a therapeutic target for HF-diet-induced hepatic steatosis in inhibiting systemic inflammation.

  12. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

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    Wilmon F Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  13. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

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    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  14. Linarin Enriched Extract Attenuates Liver Injury and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet in Rats

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    Zhen-Jie Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the potential beneficial effects of linarin enriched Flos Chrysanthemi extract (Lin-extract on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH induced by high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC diet in rats. SD rats received normal diet, HFHC diet, or HFHC diet plus different doses of Lin-extract. The liver content of triglyceride and total cholesterol markedly increased in HFHC diet-fed model rats while middle and high dose of Lin-extract lowered liver cholesterol significantly. The expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 was upregulated by HFHC diet and further elevated by high dose Lin-extract. High dose of Lin-extract also markedly lowered the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and inhibited the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK induced by HFHC in livers. The HFHC-increased mRNA levels of hepatic inflammation cytokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, were suppressed by Lin-extract dose-dependently. Furthermore, pathology evaluation showed that high dose Lin-extract greatly improved lobular inflammation. Our results suggest that Lin-extract could attenuate liver injury and inflammation induced by HFHC diet in rats. Its modulatory effect on lipid metabolism may partially contribute to this protective effect.

  15. Reduced size-independent mechanical properties of cortical bone in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Ionova-Martin, S S; Do, S H; Barth, H D; Szadkowska, M; Porter, A E; Ager, J W; Ager, J W; Alliston, T; Vaisse, C; Ritchie, R O

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly expanding health problems in children and adolescents. Obesity is associated with greater bone mineral content that might be expected to protect against fracture, which has been observed in adults. Paradoxically, however, the incidence of bone fractures has been found to increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Prior studies have shown some reduced mechanical properties as a result of high-fat diet (HFD) but do not fully address size-independent measures of mechanical properties, which are important to understand material behavior. To clarify the effects of HFD on the mechanical properties and microstructure of bone, femora from C57BL/6 mice fed either a HFD or standard laboratory chow (Chow) were evaluated for structural changes and tested for bending strength, bending stiffness and fracture toughness. Here, we find that in young, obese, high-fat fed mice, all geometric parameters of the femoral bone, except length, are increased, but strength, bending stiffness, and fracture toughness are all reduced. This increased bone size and reduced size-independent mechanical properties suggests that obesity leads to a general reduction in bone quality despite an increase in bone quantity; yield and maximum loads, however, remained unchanged, suggesting compensatory mechanisms. We conclude that diet-induced obesity increases bone size and reduces size-independent mechanical properties of cortical bone in mice. This study indicates that bone quantity and bone quality play important compensatory roles in determining fracture risk. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Daming capsule restores endothelial dysfunction induced by high-fat diet

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    Zhang Rong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daming capsule (DMC, a traditional Chinese formula, has a lipid-modulating action with reduced adverse side effects as compared with other lipid lowering compounds. Since endothelial dysfunction often accompanies the hyperlipidemic state, we hypothesize that DMC might restore endothelial dysfunction produced by a high-fat (HF diet. Importantly, we also investigate possible mechanisms involved in mediating the effects of DMC on vascular reactivity. Methods Rats were divided into four groups: control, HF diet, HF mixed DMC diet, HF mixed atorvastatin (ATV diet. After 30 days, the thoracic cavity was exposed to remove the thoracic aorta for (i histological examination; (ii measurement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS by western blot; and (iii tension study of thoracic aortic ring. Results HF diet induced significant attenuation in the contraction and relaxation of rat aortic rings. Treatment with DMC significantly improved the relaxation of the aortic rings as compared with those from HF rats (P + channels (KATP on the structure and/or function. DMC exerted the same protective effect as ATV, a positive control drug, on vascular injury produced by HF diet. Conclusion DMC partially protects the aorta from HF-induced endothelial dysfunction via upregulation of the expression of eNOS.

  17. Exercise improved lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rats fed a high-fat diet by regulating glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and musclin expression

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    J. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin.

  18. Heterozygous deficiency of endoglin decreases insulin and hepatic triglyceride levels during high fat diet.

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    Daniel Beiroa

    Full Text Available Endoglin is a transmembrane auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta that is predominantly expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. It plays a wide range of physiological roles but its importance on energy balance or insulin sensitivity has been unexplored. Endoglin deficient mice die during midgestation due to cardiovascular defects. Here we report for first time that heterozygous endoglin deficiency in mice decreases high fat diet-induced hepatic triglyceride content and insulin levels. Importantly, these effects are independent of changes in body weight or adiposity. At molecular level, we failed to detect relevant changes in the insulin signalling pathway at basal levels in liver, muscle or adipose tissues that could explain the insulin-dependent effect. However, we found decreased triglyceride content in the liver of endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet in comparison to their wild type littermates. Overall, our findings indicate that endoglin is a potentially important physiological mediator of insulin levels and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  19. Salicornia herbacea prevents weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation in obese ICR mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Foods that are rich in fat and or sodium chloride promote obesity and associated diseases, whereas intake of dietary fiber averts obesity development. Salicornia herbacea (SH) is a rich source of dietary fiber and high in sodium chloride; therefore, we investigated whether replacing common salt with SH in a high-fat diet could prevent obesity development. Mice were divided into five groups: group ND was fed a normal diet, group HD was fed a high-fat diet, group HD-NaCl was fed a high fat diet with sodium chloride 10 g kg(-1) , group HD-CL was fed a high-fat diet with cellulose 30 g kg(-1) and group HD-SH was fed a high-fat diet with SH powder 50 g kg(-1) . The amount of sodium chloride and cellulose added in the respective diet was equivalent to their amount in SH. Data from our study showed that, SH supplementation significantly decreased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride, serum leptin and insulin, along with the mRNA level of key lipid anabolic genes such as SREBP-1c, PPARγ and FAS compared to the HD group. The results of this study demonstrated that SH is a potential natural anti-obesity agent that can be used in place of sodium chloride. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Hsp70 plays an important role in high-fat diet induced gestational hyperglycemia in mice.

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    Xing, Baoheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Qin; Cao, Yalei; Dong, Xiujuan; Liang, Jun; Wu, Xiaohua

    2015-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has emerged as an epidemic disease during the last decade, affecting about 2 to 5% pregnant women. Even among women who have gestational hyperglycemia may also be positively related to adverse outcomes as GDM. Since heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 has been reported to be associated with diabetes and insulin resistance and its expression was reported to be negatively regulated by the membrane-permeable Hsp70 inhibitor MAL3-101 while positively regulated by the Hsp70 activator BGP-15, we investigated whether Hsp70 played a role in a gestational hyperglycemia mouse model. Mice were divided into non-pregnant and pregnant groups, and each comprised three subgroups: control, high-fat diet (HFD) + MAL3-101, and HFD + BGP-15. We examined the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, and insulin, as well as conducted thermal detection of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The role of Hsp70 in BAT apoptosis was also investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspase-3 staining. Higher serum level of Hsp70 was associated with increased bodyweight gain after pregnancy in mice fed HFD. Circulating Hsp70 was elevated in control pregnant mice compared to control non-pregnant mice. BGP-induced serum Hsp70 expression reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels in the serum. Additionally, thermal detection of BAT, TUNEL, and caspase-3 staining revealed relationship correlation between Hsp70 and BAT functions. Hsp70 level is associated with hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Our results support the role of Hsp70 in facilitating BAT activities and protecting BAT cells from apoptosis via caspase-3 pathway.

  1. Sake lees extract improves hepatic lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed mice.

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    Kubo, Hisako; Hoshi, Masato; Matsumoto, Takuya; Irie, Motoko; Oura, Shin; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Saito, Kuniaki

    2017-06-03

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide as one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. Sake lees (SL) are secondary products of sake manufacturing and are considered to have beneficial effects on human health. To investigate these effects, we used high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice treated with or without the SL extract. Mice were the HFD ad libitum for 8 weeks and were administered 500 μL of distilled water with or without the SL extract (350 mg/mL) by a feeding needle daily for the last 4 weeks. Food intake, body weight, and liver weight were measured. Triacylglycerol content and the mRNA and protein expression levels of various lipid and glucose metabolism-related genes were determined in liver tissues. The levels of triglyceride, free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and liver cell damage markers were determined in serum. Fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the SL extract. Mice fed a HFD and treated with the SL extract demonstrated a significant reduction in hepatic lipid accumulation and mRNA and protein levels of peroxidome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), PPARα, CD36, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in the liver, while the SL extract did not affect body weight and food intake. Moreover, insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed mice improved after administration of the SL extract. In HepG2 cells, the SL extract suppressed fatty acid-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. These findings suggest that treatment with the SL extract could potentially reduce the risk of NAFLD development, and that the SL extract may be clinically useful for the treatment of NAFLD.

  2. High-fat diet induces periodontitis in mice through lipopolysaccharides (LPS receptor signaling: protective action of estrogens.

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    Vincent Blasco-Baque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fat-enriched diet favors the development of gram negative bacteria in the intestine which is linked to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Interestingly, some pathogenic gram negative bacteria are commonly associated with the development of periodontitis which, like T2D, is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, estrogens have been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis via an LPS receptor dependent immune-modulation. In this study, we evaluated whether diet-induced metabolic disease would favor