WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-explosive containment experiment

  1. Modeling a High Explosive Cylinder Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Marvin A.

    2017-06-01

    Cylindrical assemblies constructed from high explosives encased in an inert confining material are often used in experiments aimed at calibrating and validating continuum level models for the so-called equation of state (constitutive model for the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor). Such is the case in the work to be discussed here. In particular, work will be described involving the modeling of a series of experiments involving PBX-9501 encased in a copper cylinder. The objective of the work is to test and perhaps refine a set of phenomenological parameters for the Wescott-Stewart-Davis reactive burn model. The focus of this talk will be on modeling the experiments, which turned out to be non-trivial. The modeling is conducted using ALE methodology.

  2. Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the molten salt destruction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process which has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD has been used by Rockwell International and by Anti-Pollution Systems to destroy hazardous wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents (including the HE) of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. In the case of HE-containing mixed wastes, any actinides in the waste are retained in the molten salt, thus converting the mixed wastes into low-level wastes. (Even though the MSD process is applicable to mixed wastes, this paper will emphasize HE-treatment.) The destruction of HE is accomplished by introducing it, together with oxidant gases, into a crucible containing a molten salt, such as sodium carbonate, or a suitable mixture of the carbonates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium. The temperature of the molten salt can be between 400 to 900 degrees C. The combustible organic components of the waste react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen and steam

  3. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Gerard; Roudot, Marie; Genetier, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Composite HMX and NTO based high explosives (HE) are widely used in ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside HE. Comparing to a pressed HE, a composite HE is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain - binder interface leading to a different behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. An investigation of how shock-to-detonation transition occurs inside composite HE containing RDX and NTO is proposed in this lecture. Two composite HE have been studied. The first one is HMX - HTPB 82:18. The second one is HMX - NTO - HTPB 12:72:16. These HE have been submitted to plane sustained shock waves at different pressure levels using a laboratory powder gun. Pressure signals are measured using manganin gauges inserted at several distances inside HE. The corresponding run-distances to detonation are determined using wedge test experiments where the plate impact is performed using a powder gun. Both HE exhibit a single detonation buildup curve in the distance - time diagram of shock-to-detonation transition. This feature seems a common shock-to-detonation behavior for composite HE without porosity. This behavior is also confirmed for a RDX - HTPB 85:15 based composite HE. Such a behavior is exploited to determine the heterogeneous reaction rate versus the shock pressure using a method based on the Cauchy-Riemann problem inversion. The reaction rate laws obtained allow to compute both run-distance to detonation and pressure signals.

  4. Preliminary experiments using light-initiated high explosive for driving thin flyer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    Light-initiated high explosive, silver acelytide - silver-nitrate (SASN), has been used to produce simulated x ray blow-off impulse loading on reentry vehicles to study the system structural response. SASN can be used to accelerate thin flyer plates to high terminal velocities which, in turn, can deliver a pressure pulse that can be tailored to the target material. This process is important for impulse tests where both structural and material response is desired. The theories used to calculate the dynamic state of the flyer plate prior to impact are summarized. Data from several experiments are presented which indicate that thin flyer plates can be properly accelerated and that there are predictive techniques available which are adequate to calculate the motion of the flyer plate. Recommendations are made for future study that must be undertaken to make the SASN flyer plate technique usable

  5. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  6. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  7. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  8. Small scale thermal violence experiments for combined insensitive high explosive and booster materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Clare L [AWE, UK; Stennett, C [DCMT SHRIVENHAM, UK; Flower, H M [AWE, UK

    2010-01-01

    A small scale cook-off experiment has been designed to provide a violence metric for both booster and IHE materials, singly and in combination. The experiment has a simple, axisymmetric geometry provided by a 10 mm internal diameter cylindrical steel confinement up to 80 mm in length. Heating is applied from one end of the sample length creating pseudo 1-D heating profile and a thermal gradient across the sample(s). At the opposite end of the confinement to the heating block, a machined groove provides a point of rupture that generates a cylindrical fragment. The displacement of the external face of the fragment is detected by Heterodyne Velocimetry. Proof of concept experiments are reported focusing on HMX and TATB formulations, and are described in relation to confinement, ullage and heating profile. The development of a violence metric, based upon fragment velocity records is discussed.

  9. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  10. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G; Roudot, M; Genetier, M; Mateille, P; Lefrançois, A

    2014-01-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  11. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, G.; Roudot, M.; Genetier, M.; Mateille, P.; Lefrançois, A.

    2014-05-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  12. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  13. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig

  14. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  15. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  16. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor

  17. High explosive driven plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.E.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Goforth, J.H.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental effort is underway to understand and improve upon the performance of high explosive driven plasma opening switches such as those first described by Pavlovskii et al. We have modeled these switches in both planar and cylindrical geometry using a one dimensional Lagrangian MHD code. This one-dimensional analysis is now essentially complete. It has shown that simple, one-dimensional, compression of the current-carrying channel can explain the observed resistance increases during the time of flight of the HE detonation products. Our calculations imply that ionization plays an important role as an energy sink and the performance of these switches might be improved by a judicious choice of gases. We also predict improved performance by lowering the pressure in the plasma channel. The bulk of our experimental effort to date has been with planar switches. We have worked with current densities of 0.25 to 0.4 MA/cm and have observed resistance increases of 40 to 60 mΩ. Significant resistance increases are observed later than the time of flight of the HE detonation products. We suggest that these resistance increases are due to mixing between the hot plasma and the relatively cooler detonation products. Such mixing is not included in the 1-D, Lagrangian code. We are presently beginning a computational effort with a 2-D Eulerian code. The status of this effort is discussed. Experimentally we have designed an apparatus that will permit us to test the role of different gases and pressures. This system is also in a planar geometry, but the plasma channel is doughnut shaped, permitting us to avoid edge effects associated with the planar rectangular geometry. The first experiments with this design are quite encouraging and the status of this effort is also discussed

  18. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N 2 and H 2 O within ∼10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N 2 and H 2 O productions

  19. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O within ∼10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O productions.

  20. Characterization Of High Explosives Detonations Via Laser-Induced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    One objective of the Department of Energy’s National Security Administration is to develop technologies that can help the United States government to detect foreign nuclear weapons development activities. The realm of high explosive (HE) experiments is one of the key areas to assess the nuclear ambitions of a country. SRNL has participated in the collection of particulates from HE experiments and characterized the material with the purpose to correlate particulate matter with HE. Since these field campaigns are expensive, on-demand simulated laboratory-scale explosion experiments are needed to further our knowledge of the chemistry and particle formation in the process. Our goal is to develop an experimental test bed in the laboratory to test measurement concepts and correlate particle formation processes with the observables from the detonation fireball. The final objective is to use this knowledge to tailor our experimental setups in future field campaigns. The test bed uses pulsed laser-induced plasmas to simulate micro-explosions, with the intent to study the temporal behavior of the fireball observed in field tests. During FY15, a plan was prepared and executed which assembled two laser ablation systems, procured materials for study, and tested a Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (SS-FTIR). Designs for a shadowgraph system for shock wave analysis, design for a micro-particulate collector from ablated pulse were accomplished. A novel spectroscopic system was conceived and a prototype system built for acquisition of spectral/temporal characterization of a high speed event such as from a high explosive detonation. Experiments and analyses will continue into FY16.

  1. Emission spectroscopy of hypervelocity impacts on aluminum, organic and high-explosive targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Day, J.P.R.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Loiseau, J.; Huneault, J.; Higgins, A.J.; Devir, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of hypervelocity impacts on aluminum, nylon and high-explosive targets are presented. Spectral measurements of the impact flash are recorded, together with radiometric measurements to derive the temperature of the flash. Such experiments aim at demonstrating that the impact

  2. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    In some nuclear reactor core-melt accidents, a potential exists for molten core-debris to be dispersed into the containment under high pressure. Resulting energy transfer to the containment atmosphere can pressurize the containment. This process, known as direct containment heating (DCH), has been the subject of extensive experimental and analytical programs sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The DCH modeling has been an important focus for the development of the CONTAIN code. Results of a detailed independent peer review of the CONTAIN code were published recently. This paper summarizes work performed in support of the peer review in which the CONTAIN code was applied to analyze DCH experiments. Goals of this work were comparison of calculated and experimental results, CONTAIN DCH model assessment, and development of guidance for code users, including development of a standardized input prescription for DCH analysis

  3. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  4. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This papent describes a method for suppressing the tendency of a porous solid high explosive to ignite and detonate. It comprises: filling substantially all the press of the solid high explosive material with a predetermined pore radius of at least 10μm with a relatively inert, stable, pore filling material in liquid form, the pore filling being selected from gallium, rubidium-potassium eutectic, and Wood's metal; and solidifying the pore filling material in the pores of the explosive material

  5. Prediction of Ignition of High Explosive When Submitted To Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picart, Didier; Delmaire-Sizes, Franck; Gruau, Cyril; Trumel, Herve

    2009-06-01

    High explosive structures may unintentionally ignite and transit to deflagration or detonation, when subjected to mechanical loadings, such as low velocity impact. We focus our attention on ignition. The Browning and Scammon [1] criterion has been adapted. A concrete like constitutive law is derived, with an up-to-date experimental characterization. These models have been implemented in Abaqus/Explicit [2]. Numerical simulations are used to calibrate the ignition threshold. The presentation or the poster will detail the main assumptions, the models (Browning et al, mechanical behavior) and the calibration procedure. Comparisons between numerical results and experiments [3] will show the interest of this method but also its limitations (numerical artifacts, lack of mechanical data, misinterpretation of reactive tests). [1] R. Browning and R. Scammon, Shock compression of condensed matter, pp. 987-990, (2001). [2] C. Gruau, D. Picart et al., 17^th Dymat technical meeting, Cambridge, UK, (2007). [3] F. Delmaire-Sizes et al., 3^rd International symposium on energetic materials, Tokyo, Japan, (2008).

  6. Understanding the shock and detonation response of high explosives at the continuum and meso scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, C. A.; Lambourn, B. D.; Whitworth, N. J.; James, H. R.; Belfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The shock and detonation response of high explosives has been an active research topic for more than a century. In recent years, high quality data from experiments using embedded gauges and other diagnostic techniques have inspired the development of a range of new high-fidelity computer models for explosives. The experiments and models have led to new insights, both at the continuum scale applicable to most shock and detonation experiments, and at the mesoscale relevant to hotspots and burning within explosive microstructures. This article reviews the continuum and mesoscale models, and their application to explosive phenomena, gaining insights to aid future model development and improved understanding of the physics of shock initiation and detonation propagation. In particular, it is argued that "desensitization" and the effect of porosity on high explosives can both be explained by the combined effect of thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, rather than the traditional hotspot-based explanations linked to pressure-dependent reaction rates.

  7. High-explosive-driven delay line pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The inclusion of a delay line circuit into the design of a high-explosive-driven generator shortens the time constant of the output pulse. After a brief review of generator concepts and previously described pulse-shortening methods, a geometry is presented which incorporates delay line circuit techcniques into a coil generator. The circuit constants are adjusted to match the velocity of the generated electromagnetic wave to the detonation velocity of the high explosive. The proposed generator can be modeled by adding a variable inductance term to the telegrapher's equation. A particular solution of this equation is useful for exploring the operational parameters of the generator. The duration of the electromagnetic pulse equals the radial expansion time of the high-explosive-driven armature until it strikes the coil. Because the impedance of the generator is a constant, the current multiplication factor is limited only by nonlinear effects such as voltage breakdown, diffusion, and compression at high energies

  8. High explosive programmed burn in the FLAG code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, D.; Burton, D.; Lund, C.

    1998-02-01

    The models used to calculate the programmed burn high-explosive lighting times for two- and three-dimensions in the FLAG code are described. FLAG uses an unstructured polyhedra grid. The calculations were compared to exact solutions for a square in two dimensions and for a cube in three dimensions. The maximum error was 3.95 percent in two dimensions and 4.84 percent in three dimensions. The high explosive lighting time model described has the advantage that only one cell at a time needs to be considered.

  9. The advanced containment experiments (ACE) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Ritzman, R.; Merilo, M.; Rahn, F.; Machiels, A.

    1992-01-01

    The overall structure and content of the ACE Project, which has been obtaining experimental data in four key areas of LWR severe accident technology are described. The key areas consist of filtration systems for vented containment concepts, radioiodine behavior in containment, the interaction of molten core material with structural concrete, and the use of water to terminate the core-concrete interaction process. Experiment procedures used in each phase of the work are summarized and the principal results and conclusions developed to date are discussed

  10. Docker Containers for Deep Learning Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning is a powerful tool to solve problems in the area of image analysis. The dominant compute platform for deep learning is Nvidia’s proprietary CUDA, which can only be used together with Nvidia graphics cards. The nivida-docker project allows exposing Nvidia graphics cards to docker containers and thus makes it possible to run deep learning experiments in docker containers.In our department, we use deep learning to solve problems in the area of medical image analysis and use docker ...

  11. Operational experience with SLAC's beam containment electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, T.N.; Crook, K.; Heggie, D.

    1977-03-01

    Considerable operating experience was accumulated at SLAC with an extensive electronic system for the containment of high power accelerated beams. Average beam power at SLAC can approach 900 kilowatts with the potential for burning through beam stoppers, protection collimators, and other power absorbers within a few seconds. Fast, reliable, and redundant electronic monitoring circuits have been employed to provide some of the safeguards necessary for minimizing the risk to personnel. The electronic systems are described, and the design philosophy and operating experience are discussed

  12. CONTAIN assessment of the NUPEC mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of the CONTAIN code to predict the thermal hydraulics of five experiments performed in the NUPEC 1/4-scale model containment was assessed. These experiments simulated severe accident conditions in a nuclear power plant in which helium (as a nonflammable substitute for hydrogen) and steam were coinjected at different locations in the facility with and without the concurrent injection of water sprays in the dome. Helium concentrations, gas temperatures and pressures, and wall temperatures were predicted and compared with the data. The use of different flow solvers, nodalization schemes, and analysis methods for the treatment of water sprays was emphasized. As a result, a general procedure was suggested for lumped-parameter code analyses of problems in which the thermal hydraulics are dominated by water sprays

  13. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20)

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Pelin; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steve; Sidhoum, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in the presence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources. Biodegradation studies were conducted using various nutrient media under diverse conditions. Variables included the...

  14. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  15. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  16. Disposal/storage container development experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Fowler, E.; Barreira, D.G.; Emmett, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental work is currently underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design and manufacture a radioactive waste container suitable for both storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. The container is designed to fulfill the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for on-site storage, as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for high integrity containers. The project also involves meeting the strict design and manufacturing ANSI/ASME NQA-1 guidelines. Special provisions of the container include a double containment system, with the inner barrier being corrosion resistant, the capability to monitor the internal cavity of the container, and off-gas venting capability. Further, yet related developmental work includes evaluating the cask for other varied uses, such as a processing cask, an ALARA shield, and even the possibility of Department of Transportation approval for an over-the-road transport cask

  17. Seoul's greenbelt: an experiment in urban containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Youn Yeo-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach to growth management. The greenbelt-based urban containment policy of Seoul, Republic of Korea is examined as a case study. Seoul's greenbelt has generated both significant social costs and benefits. Korea's greenbelt policy is currently being revised, largely due to pressure from...

  18. Design of a spheromak compressor driven by high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henins, I.; Fernandez, J.C.; Jarboe, T.R.; Marsh, S.P.; Marklin, G.J.; Mayo, R.M.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    High energy density spheromaks can be used to accelerate a thin section of the flux conserver wall to high velocities. The energy density of a spheromak, formed by conventional helicity injection into a flux conserver, can be increased by reducing the flux conserver volume after the spheromak is formed. A method of accomplishing this is by imploding one wall of the flux conserver with high explosives. The authors have embarked on a program to demonstrate that a spheromak can be used as an energy transfer medium, and that a velocity gain over high-explosive driven plate velocities can be achieved. To do this, a plasma gun helicity source that will inject a spheromak with suitable initial energy density and lifetime is needed. Also, an implodable flux conserver that remains intact and clean during the implosion must be developed. The flux conserver problem is probably the more challenging one, because very little experimental work has been done in the past on explosively driven metal plates into a high vacuum, with sizes and travel distances appropriate for their application. There are two necessary practical requirements for an explosive compression of a flux conserver. The first is that the imploding wall does not rupture. The second is that gasses or other debri are not ejected which could penetrate and poison the spheromak plasma, and thus reduce the spheromak lifetime below what is necessary to carry out the spheromak compression and the subsequent acceleration of the flyer plate. The authors have designed and fabricated a plasma gun to be used for injecting the initial spheromak plasma into the collapsible flux conserver

  19. Determining the Coalescence of Hotspots into Uniform Detonation Fronts in High Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Mays, R. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Converse, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baluyot, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tringe, J. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Microwave Interferometry (MI) offers the advantage of a continuous time measurement of detonation front velocity from detonation initiation to disassembly, which is an important step to assure the quality of stockpile high explosives. However, the method is currently characterized by areas of poor signal strength, which lead to low confidence measurements. Experiments in inert materials were conducted to determine if reflective hot spots, pockets of plasma that form during detonation, are responsible due to varying hot spot concentrations. Instead, it was found that the copper tube used in a range of standard HE test configurations is the cause of the poor signal reception. Hot spots were represented by microwave reflective aluminum particles. The aluminum was mixed with Titanium Dioxide, a material electrically similar to the insensitive high explosive, triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), in volume percent fractions (VPFs) between 0 and 100% aluminum, in increments of 10%. Reflectivity was measured based on input and reflection received from a test apparatus with a layer representing undetonated explosive and another representing an approaching shockwave. The results showed no correlation between VPF and measured reflectivity test cases while enclosed in the standard copper tube. Upon further testing, each sample’s measured reflectivity independent of the copper enclosure did correlate with VPF. This revealed that the test enclosure currently used for MI measurements is causing poor MI signal reception, and new methods must be developed to account for this aberration in MI measurements.

  20. High explosive characterization for the dice throw event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, F.; Finger, M.; Hayes, B.; Lee, E.; Cheung, H.; Walton, J.

    1976-06-16

    An equation of state for detonation products was developed to describe the detonation of large charges of ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). The equation of state will be used to predict air-blast and ground-motion effects in the Dice Throw Event. The explosive performance of ANFO is highly dependent on charge size. The equation developed from this work is applicable to heavily confined detonations 101.6 mm in diameter or larger. The equation of state is based on results from experiments in cylinders and hemispheres, and a large field test. The report contains a detailed discussion of the diagnostic and initiation techniques used in these experiments.

  1. Design experiments for a vented containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesboel, R.

    1985-01-01

    A filtered containment venting system, operable late in 1985, is currently under installation at the Barsebaeck twin nuclear power station in Sweden. The filter unit, which communicates with the containments of both reactor units, but is separated from them by rupture discs, consists of a concrete bed, 40 m high and 20 m in diameter, filled with gravel of grain size 25-35 mm. The performance of the gravel bed under such accident conditions which might lead to an activation of this safeguard system has been the subject for investigation within the FILTRA project. These investigations have shown that the gravel bed acts as: an expansion volume for decreasing gas pressure and increasing gas residence time, a heat sink for condensing steam, an excellent filter medium for removing aerosols and elemental iodine, and a sump volume for collecting radioactive condensate. The results from iodine retention studies in gravel beds are mainly considered

  2. Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

    1999-12-01

    In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The

  3. An integral model of plume rise from high explosive detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughton, B.A.; De Laurentis, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed which provides a complete description of the time evolution of both the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud formed when a high explosive is detonated. This simulation employs the integral technique. The model equations are derived by integrating the three-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy over the plume cross section. Assumptions are made regarding (a) plume symmetry; (b) the shape of profiles of velocity, temperature, etc. across the plume; and (c) the methodology for simulating entrainment and the effects of the crossflow induced pressure drag force on the plume. With these assumptions, the integral equations can be reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations on the plume centerline variables. Only the macroscopic plume characteristics, e.g., plume radius, centerline height, temperature and density, are predicted; details of the plume intrastructure are ignored. The model explicitly takes into account existing meteorology and has been expanded to consider the alterations in plume behavior which occur when aqueous foam is used as a dispersal mitigating material. The simulation was tested by comparison with field measurements of cloud top height and diameter. Predictions were within 25% of field observations over a wide range of explosive yield and atmospheric stability

  4. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Nicolich

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in the presence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources. Biodegradation studies were conducted using various nutrient media under diverse conditions. Variables included the CL-20 concentration; levels of carbon (as glycerol and ammonium sulfate and yeast extract as sources of nitrogen. Cultures that received CL-20 at the time of inoculation transformed CL-20 completely under all nutrient conditions studied. When CL-20 was added to pre-grown cultures, degradation was limited. The extent of mineralization was monitored by the 14CO2 time evolution; up to 51% mineralization was achieved when the fungus was incubated with [14C]-CL-20. The kinetics of CL-20 biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium follows the logistic kinetic growth model.

  5. Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Shea, Patrick J.; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2007-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (Fe 0 , ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe 0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl - and Br - was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br - was present in solution. - The addition of halide ions promotes the degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

  6. Model testing of a 10-kg high explosive blast attenuation maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacigalupi, C.M.; Burton, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basement area of the proposed High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory includes 10-kg HE assembly and process cells, and a 10-kg corridor for the transport of up to 10 kg of HE from the receiving dock to the cells and to the experimental firing tanks. Previous model experiments developed a process cell-maze configuration that attenuated the effects of an accidental 10-kg detonation to acceptable levels (maximum of 10 to 11 psi reflected). This document reports 1/8-scale model tests conducted to confirm the maze design and to determine the blast pressures in adjacent areas in the final HEAF building configuration. In addition, pressure/time information was obtained at selected points in the model expansion chamber to provide the architect-engineer with information for structural design

  7. iVCJ: A tool for Interactive Visualization of high explosives CJ states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, Hasani Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aslam, Tariq Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whitley, Von Howard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-12

    A graphical user interface (GUI) tool has been developed that facilitates the visualization and analysis of the Chapman-Jouguet state for high explosives gaseous products using the Jones- Wilkins-Lee equation of state.

  8. Simulation of containment atmosphere stratification experiment using local instantaneous description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, M.; Kljenak, I.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment on mixing and stratification in the atmosphere of a nuclear power plant containment at accident conditions was simulated with the CFD code CFX4.4. The original experiment was performed in the TOSQAN experimental facility. Simulated nonhomogeneous temperature, species concentration and velocity fields are compared to experimental results. (author)

  9. A novel method for the measurement of the von Neumann spike in detonating high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollier, A.; Bouyer, V.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in T2 (97 wt. % TATB) and TX1 (52 wt. % TATB and 45 wt. % HMX) high explosives. The experiments consisted in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. Free surface velocity wave profiles were measured at the explosive/air interface using a Photon Doppler Velocimetry system. We demonstrate that a comparison of these free surface wave profiles with those measured at explosive/window interfaces in similar conditions allows to bracket the von Neumann spike in a narrow range. For T2, our measurements show that the spike pressure lies between 35.9 and 40.1 GPa, whereas for TX1, it lies between 42.3 and 47.0 GPa. The numerical simulations performed in support to these measurements show that they can be used to calibrate reactive burn models and also to check the accuracy of the detonation products equation of state at low pressure.

  10. The Mistra experiment for field containment code validation first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron-Charles, M.; Blumenfeld, L.

    2001-01-01

    The MISTRA facility is a large scale experiment, designed for the purpose of thermal-hydraulics multi-D codes validation. A short description of the facility, the set up of the instrumentation and the test program are presented. Then, the first experimental results, studying helium injection in the containment and their calculations are detailed. (author)

  11. Review on experiments relating to primary containment vessel failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uchida, Sunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Experiments regarding failures of primary containment vessels (PCVs) are reviewed and remained issues to be investigated in the future are discussed. Experiments are categorized as those relating to criteria of PCV failures and to FP releases through breaches on PCV boundaries. In the experiments categorized as those relating to criteria of PCV failures, experiments with full-scale, scale models, and compounds used for sealing are surveyed. Experiments relating to an amount of radioactive fission products (FPs) trapped at breaches on PCV boundaries are also reviewed. As remained issues to be investigated in the future, two items are pointed out: Evaluating degradation behavior of PCV boundaries exposed to temperature and pressure from the failure onset criteria to far above them, and evaluating an amount of FPs trapped at breaches on PCV boundaries. (author)

  12. The buffer/container experiment design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, N.A.; Wan, A.W.L.; Roach, P.J

    1998-03-01

    The Buffer/Container Experiment was a full-scale in situ experiment, installed at a depth of 240 m in granitic rock at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The experiment was designed to examine the performance of a compacted sand-bentonite buffer material under the influences of elevated temperature and in situ moisture conditions. Buffer material was compacted in situ into a 5-m-deep, 1.24-m-diameter borehole drilled into the floor of an excavation. A 2.3-m long heater, representative of a nuclear fuel waste container, was placed within the buffer, and instrumentation was installed to monitor changes in buffer moisture conditions, temperature and stress. The experiment was sealed at the top of the borehole and restrained against vertical displacement. Instrumentation in the rock monitored pore pressures, temperatures and rock displacement. The heater was operated at a constant power of 1200 W, which provided a heater skin temperature of approximately 85 degrees C. Experiment construction and installation required two years, followed by two and a half years of heater operation and two years of monitoring the rock conditions during cooling. The construction phase of the experiment included the design, construction and testing of a segmental heater and controller, geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock, excavation of the experiment room, drilling of the emplacement borehole using high pressure water, mixing and in situ compaction of buffer material, installation of instrumentation in the rock, buffer and on the heater, and the construction of concrete curb and steel vertical restraint system at the top of emplacement borehole. Upon completion of the experiment, decommissioning sampling equipment was designed and constructed and sampling methods were developed which allowed approximately 2000 samples of buffer material to be taken over a 12-day period. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of experiment

  13. The buffer/container experiment design and construction report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, N.A.; Wan, A.W.L.; Roach, P.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Buffer/Container Experiment was a full-scale in situ experiment, installed at a depth of 240 m in granitic rock at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The experiment was designed to examine the performance of a compacted sand-bentonite buffer material under the influences of elevated temperature and in situ moisture conditions. Buffer material was compacted in situ into a 5-m-deep, 1.24-m-diameter borehole drilled into the floor of an excavation. A 2.3-m long heater, representative of a nuclear fuel waste container, was placed within the buffer, and instrumentation was installed to monitor changes in buffer moisture conditions, temperature and stress. The experiment was sealed at the top of the borehole and restrained against vertical displacement. Instrumentation in the rock monitored pore pressures, temperatures and rock displacement. The heater was operated at a constant power of 1200 W, which provided a heater skin temperature of approximately 85 degrees C. Experiment construction and installation required two years, followed by two and a half years of heater operation and two years of monitoring the rock conditions during cooling. The construction phase of the experiment included the design, construction and testing of a segmental heater and controller, geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock, excavation of the experiment room, drilling of the emplacement borehole using high pressure water, mixing and in situ compaction of buffer material, installation of instrumentation in the rock, buffer and on the heater, and the construction of concrete curb and steel vertical restraint system at the top of emplacement borehole. Upon completion of the experiment, decommissioning sampling equipment was designed and constructed and sampling methods were developed which allowed approximately 2000 samples of buffer material to be taken over a 12-day period. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of experiment construction

  14. AREVA’s Containment Venting Technologies and Experience Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, M.

    2015-07-01

    The AREVA Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS) is a product family that minimizes the environmental impact in case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP). Our experience is based on a large-scale test and qualification program as well as on the design, licensing and installation of more than 80 projects worldwide. The product family provides flexibility regarding the adaptation to respective accident scenarios, applicable codes and standards, seismic design, supply chain, implementation and localization. AREVA has broad experience of managing fleet supplies, successful support of licensing and cooperating with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of pressurized and boiling water reactors (PWR and BWR). (Author)

  15. Comparison of ANL containment codes with SNR-300 simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.; Wang, C.Y.; Fistedis, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of REXCO and ICECO code predictions is made with data obtained from experiments of LMFBR excursion models. The comparisons are based on published results of tests conducted for the safety analysis of the SNR-300 fast breeder. The test configurations consist of a centrally located spherical source immersed in a pool of water which is encased in a cylindrical container. The cylinical walls of the container are prestressed by holddown bolts which span the two rigid ends. The space above the surface of the water within the container is occupied by air. Although certain aspects of the tests could not be simulated by the analytical models exactly, the comparison of results shows quite close agreement. The fact that the REXCO and ICECO codes involve different analytical formulations, their own close correspondence of results lends added credence to the value of analytical predictions

  16. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass (M/C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/C ratio, with larger M/C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  17. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass ( M/ C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/ C ratio, with larger M/ C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  18. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This detailed report on Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is funcioning effectively

  20. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  1. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  2. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL's current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL's existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility

  3. LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program and initial test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Bloom, G.R.; McCormack, J.D.; Rahn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program is described. The LACE program is being performed at the Hanford Engineer Development Laboratory (operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company) and the initial tests are sponsored by EPRI. The objectives of the LACE program are: to demonstrate, at large-scale, inherent radioactive aerosol retention behavior for postulated high consequence LWR accident situations; and to provide a data base to be used for aerosol behavior . Test results from the first phase of the LACE program are presented and discussed. Three large-scale scoping tests, simulating a containment bypass accident sequence, demonstrated the extent of agglomeration and deposition of aerosols occurring in the pipe pathway and vented auxiliary building under realistic accident conditions. Parameters varied during the scoping tests were aerosol type and steam condensation

  4. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.; Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L.

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes operating

  5. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes

  6. MELCOR 1.8.3 assessment: CSE containment spray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-12-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part, of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a series of containment spray tests performed in the Containment Systems Experiment (CSE) vessel to evaluate the performance of aqueous sprays as a means of decontaminating containment atmospheres. Basecase MELCOR results are compared with test data, and a number of sensitivity studies on input modelling parameters and options in both the spray package and the associated aerosol washout and atmosphere decontamination by sprays modelled in the radionuclide package have been done. Time-step and machine-dependency calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in these CSE assessment analyses. A significant time-step dependency due to an error in the spray package coding was identified and eliminated. A number of other code deficiencies and inconveniences also are noted

  7. High-order shock-fitted detonation propagation in high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romick, Christopher M.; Aslam, Tariq D.

    2017-03-01

    A highly accurate numerical shock and material interface fitting scheme composed of fifth-order spatial and third- or fifth-order temporal discretizations is applied to the two-dimensional reactive Euler equations in both slab and axisymmetric geometries. High rates of convergence are not typically possible with shock-capturing methods as the Taylor series analysis breaks down in the vicinity of discontinuities. Furthermore, for typical high explosive (HE) simulations, the effects of material interfaces at the charge boundary can also cause significant computational errors. Fitting a computational boundary to both the shock front and material interface (i.e. streamline) alleviates the computational errors associated with captured shocks and thus opens up the possibility of high rates of convergence for multi-dimensional shock and detonation flows. Several verification tests, including a Sedov blast wave, a Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Döring (ZND) detonation wave, and Taylor-Maccoll supersonic flow over a cone, are utilized to demonstrate high rates of convergence to nontrivial shock and reaction flows. Comparisons to previously published shock-capturing multi-dimensional detonations in a polytropic fluid with a constant adiabatic exponent (PF-CAE) are made, demonstrating significantly lower computational error for the present shock and material interface fitting method. For an error on the order of 10 m /s, which is similar to that observed in experiments, shock-fitting offers a computational savings on the order of 1000. In addition, the behavior of the detonation phase speed is examined for several slab widths to evaluate the detonation performance of PBX 9501 while utilizing the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) model, which is commonly used in HE modeling. It is found that the thickness effect curve resulting from this equation of state and reaction model using published values is dramatically more steep than observed in recent experiments. Utilizing the present fitting

  8. Detonation of high explosives in Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes using the programmed burn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.E.

    1975-09-01

    Two initiation methods were developed for improving the programmed burn technique for detonation of high explosives in smeared-shock Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes. The methods are verified by comparing the improved programmed burn with existing solutions in one-dimensional plane, converging, and diverging geometries. Deficiencies in the standard programmed burn are described. One of the initiation methods has been determined to be better for inclusion in production hydrodynamic codes

  9. Automated detection of cavities present in the high explosive filler of artillery shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.P.; Janney, D.H.; Breedlove, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Initial research has been conducted into the use of digital image analysis techniques for automated detection and characterization of piping cavities present in the high explosive (HE) filler region of 105-mm artillery shells. Experimental work utilizing scene segmentation techniques followed by a sequential similarity detection algorithm for cavitation detection have yielded promising initial results. This work is described with examples of computer-detected defects

  10. Results from the DCH-1 [Direct Containment Heating] experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.; Ross, J.E.; Oliver, M.S.; Lucero, D.A.; Kerley, T.E.; Arellano, F.E.; Gomez, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    The DCH-1 (Direct Containment Heating) test was the first experiment performed in the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility. The test involved 20 kg of molten core debris simulant ejected into a 1:10 scale model of the Zion reactor cavity. The melt was produced by a metallothermic reaction of iron oxide and aluminum powders to yield molten iron and alumina. The cavity model was placed so that the emerging debris propagated directly upwards along the vertical centerline of the chamber. Results from the experiment showed that the molten material was ejected from the caviity as a cloud of particles and aerosol. The dispersed debris caused a rapid pressurization of the 103-m 3 chamber atmosphere. Peak pressure from the six transducers ranged from 0.09 to 0.13 MPa (13.4 to 19.4 psig) above the initial value in the chamber. Posttest debris collection yielded 11.6 kg of material outside the cavity, of which approximately 1.6 kg was attributed to the uptake of oxygen by the iron particles. Mechanical sieving of the recovered debris showed a lognormal size distribution with a mass mean size of 0.55 mm. Aerosol measurements indicated a subsantial portion (2 to 16%) of the ejected mass was in the size range less than 10 m aerodynamic equivalent diameter

  11. A Multipathway Model for High Explosives and Barium Transport Using GoldSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B. D.; Hickmott, D. D.; Keating, E. H.; Robinson, B. A.; Gard, M. O.

    2002-05-01

    Outfalls from High Explosives (HE) production sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) discharged RDX, TNT, HMX, and barium contaminated waters onto a mesa /canyon system on the western edge of the Pajarito Plateau from 1944 to 1996. HE concentrations in surface soils ranged to over 20 wt.%, and HE in waters range to over 800 ug/L. HE in water is present in springs, surface waters, alluvial waters and deep perched (> 700 ft. depth) and possibly regional (> 1200 ft depth) groundwaters. Barium concentrations range to over 4 wt.% in sediments, and to over 5000 ug/L in spring and alluvial waters. Because of the size of contaminant inventories and observations of HE in the perched zone and possibly deeper, there has been concern that there may be a long-term risk at a downgradient drinking water supply well. To address this concern, a GoldSim multipathway model was developed to simulate transport of HE and barium from source areas to the supply well. The objectives of the modeling effort were to generate a preliminary assessment of potential concentrations at the supply well and to identify any model components/parameters that require additional characterization based on model sensitivity and uncertainty. The model evaluates two main source areas, one is controlled by flow through the mesa vadose zone, and the other by flow through the canyon vadose zone. The two vadose zone modules feed into a saturated zone module that terminates at a pumping well (drinking water) module. The hydrogeology of the site is extremely complex and includes a heterogeneous, unfractured/fractured tuff vadose zone geology, ponds, springs, alluvial aquifers, a perennial stream reach, and two deep aquifers. Because of this complexity, and limited characterization and contaminant inventory information, we used a stochastic approach to quantitatively represent model/parameter uncertainties. Model parameters were developed using a variety of information including flow and transport modeling

  12. Chemistry experiences from a containment fire at Ringhals unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Bengt; Svanberg, Pernilla; Bengtsson, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    containment, together with 1000 smear test (cotton pads) for chloride analysis in the chemistry laboratory to evaluate contamination levels and verify the cleaning procedures and results. The main chemistry issues and concerns have been related to surface and water contamination of chloride, bromide, carbon, lead, copper and zinc from corrosion point of view. Lack of specification and guidelines for several of this parameters forced Ringhals to establish some internal guidelines and technical basis for clean up and restart of the plant. The solubility of soot particles was found to be very low and more adhesive to surfaces at high temperature, this caused some concerns and actions to clean up reactor coolant from soot particles before fuel reload and heating. An extensive review of stainless steel Outer Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) was performed independently from the fire incident during the outage, indicating a high number of crack indications of 1-3 mm depth, all within acceptance criteria for material thickness and operation. The indications are more likely to be addressed to almost 40 years of operation in marine atmosphere then the fire itself, even if the chloride contamination from fire may have supported some propagation. All found cracks were grinded according to authority requirements and no pipes needed to be replaced. The heating and start-up of Ringhals 2 could be done successfully without any water chemistry deviations due to the fire and the following cycle have been normal. The cleanness of R2 containment surfaces are now highly improved compared to earlier outages or other sea-cooled power plants. However, an extended program has been introduced to follow external surface chloride contamination built up in containment more frequently, together with inspections of ODSCC. The workload from the containment fire has been extreme and the chemistry and corrosion experiences several. This paper gives a summary of the results, challenges, solutions and

  13. Status of the LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.R.; Dickinson, D.R.; Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Rahn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The LACE program, sponsored by an international consortium, is investigating inherent aerosol behavior for three postulated high consequence accident sequences; the containment bypass or V-sequence, failure to isolate containment, and delayed containment failure. Six large-scale tests are described which focus on these accident situations and which will be completed in the Containment Systems Test Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. The aerosol generation systems used to generate soluble and insoluble aerosols for the large-scale tests are described. The report then focuses on those tests which deal with the containment bypass accident sequence. Test results are presented and discussed for three containment bypass scoping tests

  14. Reactor containment purge and vent valve performance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.A.; Steele, R.; Watkins, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Three nuclear-designed butterfly valves typical of those used in domestic nuclear power plant containment purge and vent applications were tested. For a comparison of responses, two eight-inch nominal pipe size valves with differing internal design were tested. For extrapolation insights, a 24-inch nominal pipe size valve was also tested. The valve experiments were performed with various piping configurations and valve disc orientations to the flow, to simulate various installation options in field application. As a standard for comparing the effects of the installation options, testing was also performed in a standard ANSI test section. Test cycles were performed at inlet pressures of 5 to 60 psig, while monitoring numerous test parameters, such as the valve disc position, valve shaft torque, mass flow rate, and the pressure and temperature at multiple locations throughout the test section. An experimental data base was developed to assist in the evaluation of the current analytical methods and to determine the influence of inlet pressure, inlet duct geometry, and valve orientation to the flow media on valve torque requirements, along with any resulting limitations to the extrapolation methods. 2 refs., 15 figs

  15. Dynamics of the formation of the condensed phase particles at detonation of high explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Evdokov, O V; Kulipanov, G N; Luckjanchikov, L A; Lyakhov, N Z; Mishnev, S I; Sharafutdinov, M R; Sheromov, M A; Ten, K A; Titov, V M; Tolochko, B P; Zubkov, P I

    2001-01-01

    The article presents the results of the experimental study SAXS on condensed carbon particles that appear at the detonation of a high explosive. It was shown that the SAXS signal rises for 1.5-4 mu s after the detonation front passing. The SAXS signal in trotyl and its alloys with hexogen starts just after the compression of the material in the detonation wave. In octogen, hexogen and PETN, the SAXS signal appears in 0.5 mu s and is much smaller than the signal at the detonation of trotyl and its alloys with hexogen.

  16. A survey of high explosive-induced damage and spall in selected metals using proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtkamp, D.B.; Clark, D.A.; Ferm, E.N.; Gallegos, R.A.; Hammon, D.; Hemsing, W.F.; Hogan, G.E.; Holmes, V.H.; King, N.S.P.; Lopez, R.P.; Merrill, F.E.; Morris, C.L.; Morley, K.B.; Murray, M.M.; Pazuchanics, P.D.; Prestridge, K.P.; Quintana, J.P.; Saunders, A.; Shinas, M.A.; Stacy, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple spall and damage layers can be created in metal when the free surface reflects a Taylor wave generated by high explosives. These phenomena have been explored in different thicknesses of several metals (tantalum, copper, 6061 T6-aluminum, and tin) using high-energy proton radiography. Multiple images (up to 21) can be produced of the dynamic evolution of damaged material on the microsecond time scale with a <50 ns 'shutter' time. Movies and multiframe still images of areal and (Abel inverted) volume densities are presented. An example of material that is likely melted on release (tin) is also presented

  17. Progress in model development to quantify High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) to mechanical insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaugh, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid release of chemical energy has found application for industrial and military purposes since the invention of gunpowder. Black powder, smokeless powder of various compositions, and pyrotechnics all exhibit the rapid release of energy without detonation when they are being used as designed. The rapidity of energy release for these materials is controlled by adjustments to the particle surface area (propellant grain configuration or powder particle size) in conjunction with the measured pressure-dependent burning rate, which is very subsonic. In this way a manufacturing process can be used to engineer the desired violence of the explosion. Detonations in molecular explosives, in contrast, propagate with a supersonic velocity that depends on the loading density, but is independent of the surface area. In ideal detonations, the reaction is complete within a small distance of the propagating shock front. Non-ideal detonations in molecular and composite explosives proceed with a slower velocity, and the reaction may continue well behind the shock front. We are developing models to describe the circumstances when molecular and composite explosives undergo a rapid release of energy without detonating. The models also apply to the behavior of rocket propellants subject to mechanical insult, whether for accidents (Hazards) or the suite of standardized tests used to assess whether the system can be designated an Insensitive Munition (IM). In the application described here, we are studying an HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane) explosive developed in the UK, which is 91% by weight HMX and 9% binder-plasticizer. Most explosives and propellants, when subjected to a mechanical insult, drop or impact that is well below the threshold for detonation have been observed to react violently. This behavior is known as High Explosive Violent Reaction (HEVR). The basis of our model is the observation that the mechanical insult produces damage in a volume of the

  18. Forensic analysis of high explosives residues in post-blast water samples employing solid phase extraction for analyte pro-concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Kalsom Ahmad; Rajendran, Sumathy; Ling, Lee Woan

    2008-01-01

    Nitro aromatic, nitramine and nitrate ester compounds are a major group of high order explosive or better known as military explosives. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitro-toluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) are secondary high explosives classified as most commonly used explosives components. There is an increasing demand for pre-concentration of these compounds in water samples as the sensitivity achieved by instrumental analytical methods for these high explosives residues are the main drawback in the application at trace levels for forensic analysis. Hence, a simple cartridge solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was optimized as the off-line extraction and pre-concentration method to enhance the detection limit of high explosive residues using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) methods. The SPE cartridges utilized LiChrolut EN as the SPE adsorbent. By emplying pre-concentration using SPE, the detection limits of the target analytes in water sample were lowered by more than 1000 times with good percentage recovery (>87%) for MEKC method and lowered by 120 times with more than 2 % percentage recovery for GC-ECD methods. In order to test the feasibility of the developed method to real cases, post-blast water samples were analyzed. The post-blast water samples which were collected from Baling Bom training range, Ulu Kinta, Perak contained RDX and PETN in the range of 0.05 - 0.17 ppm and 0.0124 - 0.0390 ppm respectively. (author)

  19. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Kevin B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, Otis R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benjamin, Russ [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, William H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    A computational study was performed to examine the differences in near-surface ground-waves and air-blast waves generated by high-explosive energy sources and those generated by much higher energy - density low - yield nuclear sources. The study examined the effect of explosive-source emplacement (i.e., height-of-burst, HOB, or depth-of-burial, DOB) over a range from depths of -35m to heights of 20m, for explosions with an explosive yield of 1-kt . The chemical explosive was modeled by a JWL equation-of-state model for a ~14m diameter sphere of ANFO (~1,200,000kg – 1 k t equivalent yield ), and the high-energy-density source was modeled as a one tonne (1000 kg) plasma of ‘Iron-gas’ (utilizing LLNL’s tabular equation-of-state database, LEOS) in a 2m diameter sphere, with a total internal-energy content equivalent to 1 k t . A consistent equivalent-yield coupling-factor approach was developed to compare the behavior of the two sources. The results indicate that the equivalent-yield coupling-factor for air-blasts from 1 k t ANFO explosions varies monotonically and continuously from a nearly perfec t reflected wave off of the ground surface for a HOB ≈ 20m, to a coupling factor of nearly zero at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear air - blast coupling curve, on the other hand, remained nearly equal to a perfectly reflected wave all the way down to HOB’s very near zero, and then quickly dropped to a value near zero for explosions with a DOB ≈ -10m. The near - surface ground - wave traveling horizontally out from the explosive source region to distances of 100’s of meters exhibited equivalent - yield coupling - factors t hat varied nearly linearly with HOB/DOB for the simulated ANFO explosive source, going from a value near zero at HOB ≈ 5m to nearly one at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear-source generated near-surface ground wave coupling-factor remained near zero for almost all HOB’s greater than zero, and then appeared to vary nearly - linearly with depth

  20. Pharmaceutical cost-containment policies and sustainability: recent Irish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneally, Martin; Walshe, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Our objective is to review and assess the main pharmaceutical cost-containment policies used in Ireland in recent years, and to highlight how a policy that improved fiscal sustainability but worsened economic sustainability could have improved both if an option-based approach was implemented. The main public pharmaceutical cost-containment policy measures including reducing the ex-factory price of drugs, pharmacy dispensing fees and community drug scheme coverage, and increasing patient copayments are outlined along with the resulting savings. We quantify the cost implications of a new policy that restricts the entitlement to free prescription drugs of persons older than 70 years and propose an alternative option-based policy that reduces the total cost to both the state and the patient. This set of policy measures reduced public spending on community drugs by an estimated €380m in 2011. The policy restricting free prescription drugs for persons older than 70 years, though effective in reducing public cost, increased the total cost of the drugs supplied. The policy-induced cost increase stems from a fees anomaly between the two main community drugs schemes which is circumvented by our alternative option-based policy. Our findings highlight the need for policymakers, even when absorbed with reducing cost, to design cost-containment policies that are both fiscally and economically sustainable. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon Condensation during High Explosive Detonation with Time Resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Joshua; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Nielsen, Michael; Lauderbach, Lisa; Hodgin, Ralph; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Larry; May, Chadd; Sinclair, Nicholas; Jensen, Brian; Gustavsen, Rick; Dattelbaum, Dana; Watkins, Erik; Firestone, Millicent; Ilavsky, Jan; van Buuren, Tony; Willey, Trevor; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Washington State University/Advanced Photon Source Team

    Carbon condensation during high-energy detonations occurs under extreme conditions and on very short time scales. Understanding and manipulating soot formation, particularly detonation nanodiamond, has attracted the attention of military, academic and industrial research. An in-situ characterization of these nanoscale phases, during detonation, is highly sought after and presents a formidable challenge even with today's instruments. Using the high flux available with synchrotron X-rays, pink beam small angle X-ray scattering is able to observe the carbon phases during detonation. This experimental approach, though powerful, requires careful consideration and support from other techniques, such as post-mortem TEM, EELS and USAXS. We present a comparative survey of carbon condensation from different CHNO high explosives. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Mechanisms of formation of trace decomposition products in complex high explosive mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodyard, J.D.; Burgess, C.E. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    1999-03-01

    A significant concern in the nation`s stockpile surveillance program in prediction of the lifetimes of the high explosives (HE) and their components as the weapons age. The Department of Energy`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target issues of degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. These material science topics are being addressed at the DOE national laboratories and production plants, including Pantex. The principal goal of this project is to identify the mechanisms of decomposition of HE, plasticizers, plastic polymer binders, and radical stabilizers resulting from exposures to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The following reports the work completed for 1998, including a comprehensive literature review about some of the materials examined and the laboratory work completed to date. The materials focused on in the laboratory are TATB, Estane 5301, and Irganox 1010.

  3. Fine Tuning the CJ Detonation Speed of a High Explosive products Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-12

    For high explosive (HE) simulations, inaccuracies of a per cent or two in the detonation wave speed can result from not suficiently resolving the reaction zone width or from small inaccuracies in calibrating the products equation of state (EOS) or from variation of HE lots. More accurate detonation speeds can be obtained by ne tuning the equation of state to compensate. Here we show that two simple EOS transformations can be used to adjust the CJ detonation speed by a couple of per cent with minimal effect on the CJ release isentrope. The two transformations are (1) a shift in the energy origin and (2) a linear scaling of the speci c volume. The effectiveness of the transformations is demonstrated with simulations of the cylinder test for PBX 9502 starting with a products EOS for which the CJ detonation speed is 1 per cent too low.

  4. Water temperature and concentration measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, J R; Lightstone, J M; Piecuch, S; Koch, J D

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of absorption spectroscopy to directly measure temperature and concentration histories of water vapor within the expansion of a high explosive detonation. While the approach of absorption spectroscopy is well established, the combination of a fast, near-infrared array, broadband light source, and rigid gauge allow the first application of time-resolved absorption measurements in an explosive environment. The instrument is demonstrated using pentaerythritol tetranitrate with a sampling rate of 20 kHz for 20 ms following detonation. Absorption by water vapor is measured between 1335 and 1380 nm. Water temperatures are determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Water mole fractions are deduced following the temperature assignment. The sources of uncertainty and their impact on the results are discussed. These measurements will aid the development of chemical-specific reaction models and the predictive capability in technical fields including combustion and detonation science

  5. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. FFTF in-containment cell liner design and installation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umek, A.M.; Swenson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Design features and liner construction techniques are discussed. Cell leak-rate tests and the methods used to locate and repair leaks are described. A brief analysis of the overall experience at FFTF is provided, with recommendations for future plant designs

  7. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  8. Transport in porous media containing residual hydrocarbon. 2: Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, K.; Ziegler, J.; Burris, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    When liquid hydrocarbons or nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) become entrapped below the water table, flowing ground waters carry soluble NAPL components away from the spill zone. Transport of these dissolved NAPL components is controlled by several processes including advection, dispersion, sorption to aquifer materials, and liquid-liquid partitioning. To better understand these processes, miscible displacement experiments were conducted to generate break-through curves (BTCs) of pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA), benzene, and toluene on sand column with and without a fixed decane residual. A departure from equilibrium transport is observed in BTCs from the sand-decane system. These BTCs show characteristics of early breakthrough, asymmetry, and tailing. The cause of nonequilibrium is hypothesized to be rate-limited solute exchange between decane and water. A new transport model, capable of handling time-dependent exchange processes, is successfully applied to reproduce experimental BATCs. Results indicate that time-dependent partitioning becomes increasingly important as the solute decane-water partition coefficient and the aqueous-phase fluid velocity increase

  9. Dependence of hotspot initiation on void distribution in high explosive crystals simulated with molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Stuart Davis

    Microscopic defects may dramatically affect the susceptibility of high explosives to shock initiation. Such defects redirect the shock's energy and become hotspots (concentrations of stress and heat) that can initiate chemical reactions. Sufficiently large or numerous defects may produce a self-sustaining deflagration or even detonation from a shock notably too weak to detonate defect-free samples. The effects of circular or spherical voids on the shock sensitivity of a model (two- or three-dimensional) high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. In both dimensionalities, the probability of initiating chemical reactions rises more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void of even 10 nm radius (˜39 interatomic spacings) reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4 (8 in 3D). The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in micron-long samples with a single void (and its periodic images). Reactions during the shock traversal increase rapidly with velocity, then become a reliable detonation. In 2D, a void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal; a Pop plot of the detonation delays at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence. 3D samples are more likely to react but less to detonate. In square lattices of voids, reducing the (common) void radius or increasing the porosity without changing the other parameter causes the hotspots to consume the material faster and detonation to occur sooner and at lower velocities. Early behavior is seen to follow a very simple ignition and growth model; the pressure exponents are more realistic than with single voids. The hotspots collectively develop a broad pressure wave (a sonic, diffuse deflagration front

  10. Coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of high explosives under different rubbing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y Q; Chaudhri, M Munawar

    2013-01-01

    The coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of commonly used high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and beta-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) under several rubbing configurations and at a relative sliding speed of 0.22 mm s -1 were measured. The sliding configurations were (1) crystal-polished steel pairs, (2) like-crystal pairs and (3) unlike-crystal pairs. For every rubbing configuration the friction force showed oscillations, which are thought to be caused by the formation and shearing of the adhesive junctions formed at the surface of the rubbing crystals. This shearing of the adhesive junctions led to the formation of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles, which were confirmed by an environmental scanning electron microscope study. For every rubbing configuration and for relatively high normal loads pressing the rubbing crystals together, the coefficient of friction was generally in the range 0.2-0.25 and it has been concluded that the coefficient of friction is controlled by the adhesion with almost negligible contribution from the ploughing component. From a knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the uniaxial yield stress values of single crystals of RDX and β-HMX, the shear strength of these crystals were determined to be ∼13.4 MPa and ∼16.8 MPa, respectively.

  11. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area

  12. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  13. Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Niels G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in a micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.

  14. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Containment Technology Test Facility (CTTF) and the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are used to perform scaled experiments for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that simulate High Pressure Melt Ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) phenomena on the containment load. High-temperature, chemically reactive melt is ejected by high-pressure steam into a scale model of a reactor cavity. Debris is entrained by the steam blowdown into a containment model where specific phenomena, such as the effect of subcompartment structures, prototypic atmospheres, and hydrogen generation and combustion, can be studied

  15. Characterization of laser-induced plasmas as a complement to high-explosive large-scale detonations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Kimblin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations into the characteristics of laser-induced plasmas indicate that LIBS provides a relatively inexpensive and easily replicable laboratory technique to isolate and measure reactions germane to understanding aspects of high-explosive detonations under controlled conditions. Spectral signatures and derived physical parameters following laser ablation of aluminum, graphite and laser-sparked air are examined as they relate to those observed following detonation of high explosives and as they relate to shocked air. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS reliably correlates reactions involving atomic Al and aluminum monoxide (AlO with respect to both emission spectra and temperatures, as compared to small- and large-scale high-explosive detonations. Atomic Al and AlO resulting from laser ablation and a cited small-scale study, decay within ∼10-5 s, roughly 100 times faster than the Al and AlO decay rates (∼10-3 s observed following the large-scale detonation of an Al-encased explosive. Temperatures and species produced in laser-sparked air are compared to those produced with laser ablated graphite in air. With graphite present, CN is dominant relative to N2+. In studies where the height of the ablating laser’s focus was altered relative to the surface of the graphite substrate, CN concentration was found to decrease with laser focus below the graphite surface, indicating that laser intensity is a critical factor in the production of CN, via reactive nitrogen.

  16. Experiences made with tritium-containing water used as tracer in laboratory experiments with fluvioglacial gravels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Rauert, W.

    1982-01-01

    Batch tests performed on 11 different Bavarian fluvioglacial gravels led to tritium distribution coefficients, which deviated not or only insignificantly from zero within the range of experimental accuracy applied to routine testings. The result of nine flow experiments in a gravelfilled column was a mean retardation factor of 1.01 +- 0.01. These experiments thus showed - as it had been expected - that 3 HHO is not significantly delayed with regard to the flow or movement of the water. (orig.) [de

  17. DHCVIM - a direct heating containment vessel interactions module: applications to Sandia National Laboratories Surtsey experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Direct containment heating is the mechanism of severe nuclear reactor accident containment loading that results from transfer of thermal and chemical energy from high-temperature, finely divided, molten core material to the containment atmosphere. The direct heating containment vessel interactions module (DHCVIM) has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to model the mechanisms of containment loading resulting from the direct heating accident sequence. The calculational procedure is being used at present to model the Sandia National Laboratories one-tenth-scale Surtsey direct containment heating experiments. The objective of the code is to provide a test bed for detailed modeling of various aspects of the thermal, chemical, and hydrodynamic interactions that are expected to occur in three regions of a containment building: reactor cavity, intermediate subcompartments, and containment dome. Major emphasis is placed on the description of reactor cavity dynamics. This paper summarizes the modeling principles that are incorporated in DHCVIM and presents a prediction of the Surtsey Test DCH-2 that was made prior to execution of the experiment

  18. Automated nuclear material recovery and decontamination of large steel dynamic experiment containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Gallant, D.A.; Nelson, D.C.; Stovall, L.A.; Wedman, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    A key mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to reduce the global nuclear danger through stockpile stewardship efforts that ensure the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons. In support of this mission LANL performs dynamic experiments on special nuclear materials (SNM) within large steel containers. Once these experiments are complete, these containers must be processed to recover residual SNM and to decontaminate the containers to below low level waste (LLW) disposal limits which are much less restrictive for disposal purposes than transuranic (TRU) waste limits. The purpose of this paper is to describe automation efforts being developed by LANL for improving the efficiency, increasing worker safety, and reducing worker exposure during the material cleanout and recovery activities performed on these containers

  19. Reliable discrimination of high explosive and chemical/biological artillery using acoustic UGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohil, Myron E.; Desai, Sachi

    2005-10-01

    discrimination between conventional and simulated chemical/biological artillery rounds using acoustic signals produced during detonation. Distinct characteristics arise within the different airburst signatures because high explosive warheads emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects, while chemical/biological warheads are designed to disperse their contents over large areas, therefore employing a slower burning, less intense explosive to mix and spread their contents. The ensuing blast waves are readily characterized by variations in the corresponding peak pressure and rise time of the blast, differences in the ratio of positive pressure amplitude to the negative amplitude, and variations in the overall duration of the resulting waveform. We show that, highly reliable discrimination (> 98%) between conventional and potentially chemical/biological artillery is achieved at ranges exceeding 3km. A feedforward neural network classifier, trained on a feature space derived from the distribution of wavelet coefficients found within different levels of the multiresolution decomposition yields.

  20. Direct containment heating experiments in Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry using prototypic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments have been completed which utilize prototypic core materials. The experiments reported on here are a continuation of the Integral Effects Testing (IET) DCH program. The experiments incorporated a 1/40 scale model of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant containment structures. The model included representations of the primary system volume, RPV lower head, cavity and instrument tunnel, and the lower containment structures. The experiments were steam driven. Iron-alumina thermite with chromium was used as a core melt stimulant in the earlier IET experiments. These earlier IET experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided useful data on the effect of scale on DCH phenomena; however, a significant question concerns the potential experiment distortions introduced by the use of non-prototypic iron/alumina thermite. Therefore, further testing with prototypic materials has been carried out at ANL. Three tests have been completed, DCH-U1A, U1B and U2. DCH-U1A and U1B employed an inerted containment atmosphere and are counterpart to the IET-1RR test with iron/alumina thermite. DCH-U2 employed nominally the same atmosphere composition of its counterpart iron/alumina test, IET-6. All tests, with prototypic material, have produced lower peak containment pressure rises; 45, 111 and 185 kPa in U1A, U1B and U2, compared to 150 and 250 kPa IET-1RR and 6. Hydrogen production, due to metal-steam reactions, was 33% larger in U1B and U2 compared to IET-1RR and IET-6. The pressurization efficiency was consistently lower for the corium tests compared to the IET tests

  1. Simulation of International Standard Problem No. 44 'KAEVER' experiments on aerosol behaviour with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in a vapor-saturated atmosphere, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations are presented and analyzed.(author)

  2. The assessment of containment codes by experiments simulating severe accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1992-01-01

    Hitherto, a generally applicable validation matrix for codes simulating the containment behaviour under severe accident conditions did not exist. Past code applications have shown that most problems may be traced back to inaccurate thermalhydraulic parameters governing gas- or aerosol-distribution events. A provisional code-validation matrix is proposed, based on a careful selection of containment experiments performed during recent years in relevant test facilities under various operating conditions. The matrix focuses on the thermalhydraulic aspects of the containment behaviour after severe accidents as a first important step. It may be supplemented in the future by additional suitable tests

  3. Application of a CFD based containment model to different large-scale hydrogen distribution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, D.C.; Siccama, N.B.; Jayaraju, S.T.; Komen, E.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based model developed in ANSYS-FLUENT for simulating the distribution of hydrogen in the containment of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident is validated against four large-scale experiments. • The successive formation and mixing of a stratified gas-layer in experiments performed in the THAI and PANDA facilities are predicted well by the CFD model. • The pressure evolution and related condensation rate during different mixed convection flow conditions in the TOSQAN facility are predicted well by the CFD model. • The results give confidence in the general applicability of the CFD model and model settings. - Abstract: In the event of core degradation during a severe accident in water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPPs), large amounts of hydrogen are generated that may be released into the reactor containment. As the hydrogen mixes with the air in the containment, it can form a flammable mixture. Upon ignition it can damage relevant safety systems and put the integrity of the containment at risk. Despite the installation of mitigation measures, it has been recognized that the temporary existence of combustible or explosive gas clouds cannot be fully excluded during certain postulated accident scenarios. The distribution of hydrogen in the containment and mitigation of the risk are, therefore, important safety issues for NPPs. Complementary to lumped parameter code modelling, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is needed for the detailed assessment of the hydrogen risk in the containment and for the optimal design of hydrogen mitigation systems in order to reduce this risk as far as possible. The CFD model applied by NRG makes use of the well-developed basic features of the commercial CFD package ANSYS-FLUENT. This general purpose CFD package is complemented with specific user-defined sub-models required to capture the relevant thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the containment during a severe accident as well as the effect of

  4. Application of a CFD based containment model to different large-scale hydrogen distribution experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, D.C., E-mail: visser@nrg.eu; Siccama, N.B.; Jayaraju, S.T.; Komen, E.M.J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based model developed in ANSYS-FLUENT for simulating the distribution of hydrogen in the containment of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident is validated against four large-scale experiments. • The successive formation and mixing of a stratified gas-layer in experiments performed in the THAI and PANDA facilities are predicted well by the CFD model. • The pressure evolution and related condensation rate during different mixed convection flow conditions in the TOSQAN facility are predicted well by the CFD model. • The results give confidence in the general applicability of the CFD model and model settings. - Abstract: In the event of core degradation during a severe accident in water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPPs), large amounts of hydrogen are generated that may be released into the reactor containment. As the hydrogen mixes with the air in the containment, it can form a flammable mixture. Upon ignition it can damage relevant safety systems and put the integrity of the containment at risk. Despite the installation of mitigation measures, it has been recognized that the temporary existence of combustible or explosive gas clouds cannot be fully excluded during certain postulated accident scenarios. The distribution of hydrogen in the containment and mitigation of the risk are, therefore, important safety issues for NPPs. Complementary to lumped parameter code modelling, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is needed for the detailed assessment of the hydrogen risk in the containment and for the optimal design of hydrogen mitigation systems in order to reduce this risk as far as possible. The CFD model applied by NRG makes use of the well-developed basic features of the commercial CFD package ANSYS-FLUENT. This general purpose CFD package is complemented with specific user-defined sub-models required to capture the relevant thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the containment during a severe accident as well as the effect of

  5. Calculations of the SNL experiments Sup1 and Sup2 with CONTAIN 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.; Noebel, R.; Wendlandt, T.

    2000-01-01

    Post-test calculations using the CONTAIN code were performed for the SNL melt dispersal/DCH tests SUP-1 und SUP-2, resulting in a workable input model for future applications to high-temperature melt dispersal experiments as well as for prototypes with tight annular reactor cavity geometries. (orig.) [de

  6. HECTR [Hydrogen Event: Containment Transient Response] analyses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) premixed combustion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.C.

    1988-11-01

    The HECTR (Hydrogen Event: Containment Transient Response) computer code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to predict the transient pressure and temperature responses within reactor containments for hypothetical accidents involving the transport and combustion of hydrogen. Although HECTR was designed primarily to investigate these phenomena in LWRs, it may also be used to analyze hydrogen transport and combustion experiments as well. It is in this manner that HECTR is assessed and empirical correlations, such as the combustion completeness and flame speed correlations for the hydrogen combustion model, if necessary, are upgraded. In this report, we present HECTR analyses of the large-scale premixed hydrogen combustion experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comparison with the test results. The existing correlations in HECTR version 1.0, under certain conditions, have difficulty in predicting accurately the combustion completeness and burn time for the NTS experiments. By combining the combustion data obtained from the NTS experiments with other experimental data (FITS, VGES, ACUREX, and Whiteshell), a set of new and better combustion correlations was generated. HECTR prediction of the containment responses, using a single-compartment model and EPRI-provided combustion completeness and burn time, compares reasonably well against the test results. However, HECTR prediction of the containment responses using a multicompartment model does not compare well with the test results. This discrepancy shows the deficiency of the homogeneous burning model used in HECTR. To overcome this deficiency, a flame propagation model is highly recommended. 16 refs., 84 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Containment integrity and leak testing. Procedures applied and experiences gained in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Containment systems are the ultimate safety barrier for preventing the escape of gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive materials produced in normal operation, not retained in process systems, and for keeping back radioactive materials released by system malfunction or equipment failure. A primary element of the containment shell is therefore its leak-tight design. The report describes the present containment concepts mostly used in European countries. The leak-testing procedures applied and the experiences gained in their application are also discussed. The report refers more particularly to pre-operational testing, periodic testing and extrapolation methods of leak rates measured at test conditions to expected leak rates at calculated accident conditions. The actual problems in periodic containment leak rate testing are critically reviewed. In the appendix to the report a summary is given of the regulations and specifications applied in different member countries

  8. A Risk Management Framework to Characterize Black Swan Risks: A Case Study of Lightning Effects on Insensitive High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gary A.

    Effective and efficient risk management processes include the use of high fidelity modeling and simulation during the concept exploration phase as part of the technology and risk assessment activities, with testing and evaluation tasks occurring in later design development phases. However, some safety requirements and design architectures may be dominated by the low probability/high consequence "Black Swan" vulnerabilities that require very early testing to characterize and efficiently mitigate. Failure to address these unique risks has led to catastrophic systems failures including the space shuttle Challenger, Deepwater Horizon, Fukushima nuclear reactor, and Katrina dike failures. Discovering and addressing these risks later in the design and development process can be very costly or even lead to project cancellation. This paper examines the need for risk management process adoption of early hazard phenomenology testing to inform the technical risk assessment, requirements definition and conceptual design. A case study of the lightning design vulnerability of the insensitive high explosives being used in construction, mining, demolition, and defense industries will be presented to examine the impact of this vulnerability testing during the concept exploration phase of the design effort. While these insensitive high explosives are far less sensitive to accidental initiation by fire, impact, friction or even electrical stimuli, their full range of sensitivities have not been characterized and ensuring safe engineering design and operations during events such as lightning storms requires vulnerability testing during the risk assessment phase.

  9. Large-scale experiments on aerosol behavior in light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, W.; Bunz, H.; Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Rahn, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, three large-scale experimental programs were carried out dealing with the behavior of aerosols during core-melt accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). In the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) program, the principal behaviors of different insoluble aerosols and of mixed aerosols were measured in dry air atmospheres and in condensing steam-air atmospheres contained in a 38-m/sup 3/ steel vessel. The Demonstration of Nuclear Aerosol Behavior (DEMONA) program used a 640-m/sup 3/ concrete containment model to simulate typical accident sequence conditions, and measured the behavior of different insoluble aerosols and mixed aerosols in condensing and transient atmospheric conditions. Part of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) program was also devoted to aerosol behavior in containment; and 852-m/sup 3/ steel vessel was used, and the aerosols were composed of mixtures of insoluble and soluble species. The results of these experiments provide a suitable data base for validation of aerosol behavior codes. Fundamental insight into details of aerosol behavior in condensing environments has been gained through the results of the NSPP tests. Code comparisons have been and are being performed in the DEMONA and LACE experiments

  10. Degassing vs. eruptive styles at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): Volatile stocking, gas fluxing, and the shift from low-energy to highly-explosive basaltic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Roberto; Métrich, Nicole; Di Renzo, Valeria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Allard, Patrick; Arienzo, Ilenia

    2017-04-01

    Basaltic magmas can transport and release large amounts of volatiles into the atmosphere, especially in subduction zones, where slab-derived fluids enrich the mantle wedge. Depending on magma volatile content, basaltic volcanoes thus display a wide spectrum of eruptive styles, from common Strombolian-type activity to Plinian events. Mt. Etna in Sicily, is a typical basaltic volcano where the volatile control on such a variable activity can be investigated. Based on a melt inclusion study in products from Strombolian or lava-fountain activity to Plinian eruptions, here we show that for the same initial volatile content, different eruptive styles reflect variable degassing paths throughout the composite Etnean plumbing system. The combined influence of i) crystallization, ii) deep degassing and iii) CO2 gas fluxing can explain the evolution of H2O, CO2, S and Cl in products from such a spectrum of activity. Deep crystallization produces the CO2-rich gas fluxing the upward magma portions, which will become buoyant and easily mobilized in small gas-rich batches stored within the plumbing system. When reaching gas dominated conditions (i.e., a gas/melt mass ratio of 0.3 and CO2,gas/H2Ogas molar ratio 5 ), these will erupt effusively or mildly explosively, whilst in case of the 122 BC Plinian eruption, open-system degassing conditions took place within the plumbing system, such that continuous CO2-fluxing determined gas accumulation on top of the magmatic system. The emission of such a cap in the early eruptive phase triggered the arrival of deep H2O-rich whose fast decompression and bubble nucleation lead to the highly explosive character, enhanced by abundant microlite crystallization and consequent increase of magma effective viscosity. This could explain why open system basaltic systems like Etna may experience highly explosive or even Plinian episodes during eruptions that start with effusive to mildly explosive phases. The proposed mechanism also determines a

  11. ORNL experiments to characterize fuel release from the reactor primary containment in severe LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.L.; Kress, T.S.; Smith, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results from aerosol source term experiments performed in the ORNL Aerosol Release and Transport (ART) Program sponsored by the US NRC. The tests described were performed to provide information on fuel release from an LMFBR primary containment as a result of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). The release path investigated in these tests assumes that a fuel/sodium bubble is formed after disassembly that transports fuel and fission products through the sodium coolant and cover gas to be relased into the reactor secondary containment. Due to the excellent heat transfer characteristics of the sodium, there is potential for large attenuation of the maximum release

  12. Particles growth by steam nucleation in a containment. The PITEAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layly, V.D.

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues of the fission products inventory in the containment of a nuclear power plant during the few hours following the initiating phase of a severe accident (involving core degradation and fission products release from the fuel) is the physical behaviour of the aerosols suspended in the containment atmosphere. The aerosol mass concentration versus time is controlled by agglomeration, sedimentation, deposition on walls and steam nucleation phenomena. In order to assess the Nuclear Safety codes dealing with such phenomena, analytical experiments are necessary. PITEAS is an analytical experiment, on the behaviour of soluble aerosols in humid atmosphere. The PITEAS program covers three topics: diffusiophoresis, agglomeration and particle growth by steam nucleation. In the present work, we analyse the results of the tests devoted to the soluble particle growth and how such results are used to assess the IPSN code AEROSOL-B2 code, part of the System of codes ESCADRE. (author)

  13. Model experiment and numerical simulation of drop impact response of multilayer-combinational container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ruoze; Zhong Weizhou; Wan Qiang; Huang Xicheng; Zhang Fangju

    2015-01-01

    The drop impact process of multilayer-combinational container was simulated experimentally using a gas gun, and the normal impact and oblique impact of scaled models were tested. The experiments of scaled models were simulated numerically, and the stress distribution and plastic deformation in the tested structures during collision process were obtained. The results were compared with the experiment data. It was shown that the impact work mainly converted into plastic work due to the plastic deformation of the cushion wood and the plastic hinge in the buckled steel shell. The plastic deformation mainly happened at the collided end of the scaled models, and there was no plastic deformation found far from the collided end. The compressive stress-strain curve of the wood in texture direction can be used to simulate numerically the drop impact process of multilayer-combinational container. (authors)

  14. The COLIMA experiment on aerosol retention in containment leak paths under severe nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: flavio.parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Department, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Caracciolo, Eduardo D.J., E-mail: eduardo.caracciolo@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Department, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Journeau, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.journeau@cea.fr [CEA Cadarache (France); Piluso, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.piluso@cea.fr [CEA Cadarache (France)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► Experiment investigating aerosol retention within concrete containment cracks under nuclear severe accident conditions. ► Provided representative conditions of the aerosols suspended inside the containment of PWRs under a severe accident. ► Prototypical aerosol particles generated with a thermite reaction and transported through the crack sample reproducing surface characteristics, temperature, pressure drop and gas leakage. ► The results indicate the significant retention due to zig-zag path. -- Abstract: CEA and RSE managed an experimental research concerning the investigation of aerosol retention within concrete containment cracks under severe accident conditions. The main experiment was carried out in November 2008 with aerosol generated from the COLIMA facility and a sample of cracked concrete with defined geometric characteristics manufactured by RSE. The facility provided representative conditions of the aerosols suspended inside the containment of PWRs under a severe accident. Prototypical aerosol particles were generated with a thermite reaction and transported through the crack sample, where surface characteristics, temperature, pressure drop and gas leakage were properly reproduced. The paper describes the approach adopted for the preparation of the cracked concrete sample and the dimensioning of the experimental apparatus, the test procedure and the measured parameters. The preliminary results, obtained from this single test, are also discussed in the light of the present knowledge about aerosol phenomena and the theoretical analyses of particle behaviour with the crack path.

  15. An Artificial Channel Experiment for Purifying Drainage Water Containing Arsenic by Using Eleocharis acicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kenji; Yamazaki, Shusaku; Kurahashi, Toshiyuki; Sakakibara, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the results of an artificial channel experiment in which water containing arsenic was purified by using Eleocharis acicularis. The experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation by Eleocharis acicularis in civil engineering projects. In the experiment, 15 m2 of Eleocharis acicularis mats were laid in an artificial channel. Three sessions of artificial flow were implemented by leading 100.0 L of river water containing 0.234 mg/L of arsenic into the channel each time. The arsenic concentration of the leachate from the channel was analyzed. As the results of experiment, the arsenic concentrations of the leachate for the three sessions were 0.045 mg/L, 0.133 mg/L, and 0.249 mg/L. This shows that the arsenic concentration decreased during the first two sessions, whose flow totaled 200 L. The arsenic concentrations in the Eleocharis acicularis were 0.87 mg/kg, 1.01 mg/kg, and 4.16 mg/kg, which show that the plant absorbs arsenic. Moreover, it was found that the amount of sample water was reduced through evapotranspiration from the plant and the artificial channel.

  16. Containment analysis on the PHEBUS FPT-0, FPT-1 and FPT-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenes, Gyorgy; Ammirabile, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The CPA/ASTEC code can reproduce similar patterns of CFD-based codes. → The deposition on elliptic bottom and on the painted wet condenser are qualitatively predicted. → The gas circulation affects the quick mixing of aerosols in the containment atmosphere. → The flow fields in CPA/ASTEC have a medium impact on the airborne mass in the PHEBUS containment. - Abstract: In a severe accident, most of the fission-product species are already condensed in aerosols when they are released to the containment. The behaviour of these aerosol particles controls the fission-product transport into the containment and affects the global Source Term. The calculations presented here were performed using the CPA module (Containment Package implemented in the European integral code ASTEC) for the in-pile PHEBUS FPT-0, FPT-1 and FPT-2 experiments and are focused on the aerosol transport. A detailed thermal-hydraulic model was used in the CPA/ASTEC code to evaluate the gas circulation pattern in the closed containment volume. The comparison of ASTEC results showed that the patterns are similar to the ones predicted by the CFD-based codes. Good agreement was reached with the measured average thermo-hydraulic parameters such as containment gas pressure, temperature and the condensation rate on the condensers. The calculations with the detailed simulation of the flow in the PHEBUS containment qualitatively predicted the particle settling on the elliptic bottom and deposition on the painted wet condenser surfaces. It was shown that the influence of the gas circulation leads to a relatively quick mixing of aerosols in the containment atmosphere. In the tests investigated, the effect of the gas circulation on the airborne aerosol mass during the aerosol injection period is small because the injected mass flux is significantly higher compared to the deposition fluxes on the vessel surfaces. During the long-term aerosol deposition phase, the flow fields predicted

  17. Modelling of containment atmosphere mixing and stratification experiment using CFD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivo Kljenak; Miroslav Babic; Borut Mavko; Ivan Bajsic

    2005-01-01

    An experiment on containment atmosphere mixing and stratification, which was originally performed in the TOSQAN facility in Saclay (France), was simulated with the Computational Fluid Dynamics code CFX. The TOSQAN facility consists of a large cylindrical vessel in which gases are injected. In the considered experiment, steam, air and helium were injected during different phases of the experiment, with steam condensing on vessel walls. Three intermediate steady states, which were obtained with different boundary conditions, were simulated independently. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model of the TOSQAN vessel for the CFX4.4 code was developed. The flow in the simulation domain was modelled as single-phase. Steam condensation on vessel walls was modelled as a sink of mass and energy. Calculated profiles of temperature, steam concentration, and velocity components are compared to experimental results. (authors)

  18. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  19. Warnings on alcohol containers and advertisements: international experience and evidence on effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Claire; Room, Robin

    2009-07-01

    In light of possible introduction of alcohol warning labels in Australia and New Zealand, this paper discusses the international experience with and evidence of effects of alcohol warning labels. The report describes international experience with providing information and warnings concerning the promotion or sale of alcoholic beverages, and considers the evidence on the effects of such information and warnings. The experience with and evaluations of the effects of tobacco warning labels are also considered. The most methodologically sound evaluations of alcohol warning labels are based on the US experience. Although these evaluations find little evidence that the introduction of the warning label in the USA had an impact on drinking behaviour, there is evidence that they led to an increase in awareness of the message they contained. In contrast, evaluations of tobacco warning labels find clear evidence of effects on behaviour. There is a need and opportunity for a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of introducing alcohol warning labels to add to the published work on their effectiveness. The experience with tobacco labels might guide the way for more effective alcohol warning labels. Alcohol warning labels are an increasingly popular alcohol policy initiative. It is clear that warning labels can be ineffective, but the tobacco experience suggests that effective warning labels are possible. Any introduction of alcohol warning labels should be evaluated in terms of effects on attitudes and behaviour.

  20. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-Off of an HMX Based High Explosive PBX 9501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Forbes, J.W.; Tarver, C.M.; Urtiew, P.A.; Greenwood, D.W.; Vandersall, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios

  1. Criticality experiments with low enriched UO2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.; Murphy, E.S.; Clayton, E.D.; Keay, R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The results obtained in a criticality experiments program performed for British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) under contract with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved low enriched UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium, and are in direct support of BNFL plans to use soluble compounds of the neutron poison gadolinium as a primary criticality safeguard in the reprocessing of low enriched nuclear fuels. The experiments were designed primarily to provide data for validating a calculation method being developed for BNFL design and safety assessments, and to obtain data for the use of gadolinium as a neutron poison in nuclear chemical plant operations - particularly fuel dissolution. The experiments program covers a wide range of neutron moderation (near optimum to very under-moderated) and a wide range of gadolinium concentration (zero to about 2.5 g Gd/l). The measurements provide critical and subcritical k/sub eff/ data (1 greater than or equal to k/sub eff/ greater than or equal to 0.87) on fuel-water assemblies of UO 2 rods at two enrichments (2.35 wt % and 4.31 wt % 235 U) and on mixed fuel-water assemblies of UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 rods containing 4.31 wt % 235 U and 2 wt % PuO 2 in natural UO 2 respectively. Critical size of the lattices was determined with water containing no gadolinium and with water containing dissolved gadolinium nitrate. Pulsed neutron source measurements were performed to determine subcritical k/sub eff/ values as additional amounts of gadolinium were successively dissolved in the water of each critical assembly. Fission rate measurements in 235 U using solid state track recorders were made in each of the three unpoisoned critical assemblies, and in the near-optimum moderated and the close-packed poisoned assemblies of this fuel

  2. Scaling for Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Passive Containments and Experiment Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shengfei; Yu, Yu; Lv, Xuefeng; Niu, Fenglei; Yan, Xiuping

    2012-01-01

    Most of the advanced nuclear reactor design utilizes passive systems to remove heat from the core by natural circulation. The passive systems will be widely used in generation III pressurized water reactor. One of the typical passive systems is passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is a passive condenser system designed to remove heat from the containment for long term cooling after a postulated reactor accident. In order to establish empirical correlations and develop simulation models, a scaling analysis is performed in designing an experiment for the prototype PCCS. This paper presents a scaling method and the design of the experimental facility. The key dimensionless parameters governing the dominant processes are given at last

  3. Swimming in a contained space: Understanding the experience of indoor lap swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Miranda

    2017-07-01

    Drawing on ethnographic work, this paper explores the convergence of bodies, materialities and practices found at the indoor swimming pool - a space that has not often been the subject of geographical study, in spite of the fact that swimming is one of the most popular forms of exercise in countries such as the UK. The paper focuses on the "contained" nature of the indoor pool environment, examining the distinct experience this can create for lap swimmers. This focus is placed in the context of a broader politics of exercise, with an emphasis on the popularity and potential benefits of swimming, as well as less encouraging facts about participation and facility provision, suggesting that in order to encourage further uptake of swimming and preservation of swimming facilities the voices and experiences of regular swimmers should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The TN-GEMINI: experience on a versatile alpha waste transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Chanzy, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper discusses experience gained in moving alpha wastes and its teachings regarding transport aspects of D and D. Alpha wastes are generated in fuel cycle facilities such as those involved in reprocessing, in manufacture of mixed oxide fuel, and by research laboratories. If a significant amount of wastes has to be transported, then a Type B packaging is required. Developed by Transnucleaire and COGEMA, the TN GEMINI container enables nuclear facilities operators to optimise their alpha waste transport management, and more generally contribute to their D and D projects. After describing succinctly the design of the TN GEMINI, the paper will explain how the packaging is being operated. Teachings from experience will be shared. (orig.)

  5. Microbial analysis of the buffer/container experiment at AECL's underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Buffer/Container Experiment (BCE) was carried out at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for 2.5 years to examine the in situ performance of compacted buffer material in a single emplacement borehole under vault-relevant conditions. During decommissioning of this experiment, numerous samples were taken for microbial analysis to determine if the naturally present microbial population in buffer material survived the conditions (i.e., compaction, heat and desiccation) in the BCE and to determine which group(s) of microorganisms would be dominant in such a simulated vault environment. Such knowledge will be very useful in assessing the potential effects of microbial activity on the concept for deep disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste, proposed by AECL. 46 refs., 31 tabs., 35 figs

  6. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  7. The directors’ roles in containing the Robben Island Diversity Experience (RIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of the directors of RIDE in the last 10 years. Motivation for the study: Of the many and different diversity events that South African organisations present, RIDE is the only systems psycho-dynamically designed and presented event. This research was an effort to explore the nature of the directors’ roles in working with unconscious diversity dynamics in such a provocative venue. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted qualitative, descriptive and double hermeneutic research. The various RIDE events served as case studies. The data consisted of researcher field notes collected during the 10 years. Thematic analysis resulted in four themes, for which the researchers formulated working hypotheses. They integrated them into the research hypothesis. Main findings: Four themes emerged. They were the diversity characteristics of the directors as containers, working on the boundary between RIDE and the macro role players, attacks on the programme as container and challenges from participants. Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the important roles of directors’ authorisation as a resilience factor in containing RIDE. Contribution/value-add: The research contributed towards the awareness of intergroup relations between role players during diversity dynamic events and of how authorisation cements relationships.

  8. Large scale fire experiments in the HDR containment as a basis for fire code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Dobbernack, R.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1991 7 different series of large scale fire experiments and related numerical and theoretical investigations have been performed in the containment of a high pressure reactor in Germany (known as HDR plant). The experimental part included: gas burner tests for checking the containment behaviour; naturally ventilated fires with wood cribs; naturally and forced ventilated oil pool fires; naturally and forced ventilated cable fires. Many results of the oil pool and cable fires can directly be applied to predict the impact of real fires at different locations in a containment on mechanical or structural components as well as on plant personnel. But the main advantage of the measurements and observations was to serve as a basis for fire code development and validation. Different types of fire codes have been used to predict in advance or evaluate afterwards the test results: zone models for single room and multiple room configurations; system codes for multiple room configurations; field models for complex single room configurations. Finally, there exist codes of varying degree of specialization which have proven their power and sufficient exactness to predict fire effects as a basis for optimum fire protection design. (author)

  9. Assessment of GOTHIC and TRACE codes against selected PANDA experiments on a Passive Containment Condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, Davide, E-mail: davide.papini@psi.ch; Adamsson, Carl; Andreani, Michele; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Code comparison on the performance of a Passive Containment Condenser. • Simulation of separate effect tests with pure steam and non-condensable gases. • Role of the secondary side and accuracy of pool boiling models are discussed. • GOTHIC and TRACE predict the experimental performance with slight underestimation. • Recirculatory flow pattern with injection of light non-condensable gas is inferred. - Abstract: Typical passive safety systems for ALWRs (Advanced Light Water Reactors) rely on the condensation of steam to remove the decay heat from the core or the containment. In the present paper the three-dimensional containment code GOTHIC and the one-dimensional system code TRACE are compared on the calculation of a variety of phenomena characterizing the response of a passive condenser submerged in a boiling pool. The investigation addresses the conditions of interest for the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) proposed for the ESBWR (Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor). The analysis of selected separate effect tests carried out on a PCC (Passive Containment Condenser) unit in the PANDA large-scale thermal-hydraulic facility is presented to assess the code predictions. Both pure steam conditions (operating pressure of 3 bar, 6 bar and 9 bar) and the effect on the condensation heat transfer of non-condensable gases heavier than steam (air) and lighter than steam (helium) are considered. The role of the secondary side (pool side) heat transfer on the condenser performance is examined too. In general, this study shows that both the GOTHIC and TRACE codes are able to reasonably predict the heat transfer capability of the PCC as well as the influence of non-condensable gas on the system. A slight underestimation of the condenser performance is obtained with both codes. For those tests where the experimental and simulated efficiencies agree better the possibility of compensating errors among different parts of the heat transfer

  10. On beyond the standard model for high explosives: challenges & obstacles to surmount

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph Ds [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) are heterogeneous materials. Nevertheless, current explosive models treat them as homogeneous materials. To compensate, an empirically determined effective burn rate is used in place of a chemical reaction rate. A significant limitation of these models is that different burn parameters are needed for applications in different regimes; for example, shock initiation of a PBX at different initial temperatures or different initial densities. This is due to temperature fluctuations generated when a heterogeneous material is shock compressed. Localized regions of high temperatures are called hot spots. They dominate the reaction for shock initiation. The understanding of hot spot generation and their subsequent evolution has been limited by the inability to measure transients on small spatial ({approx} 1 {micro}m) and small temporal ({approx} 1 ns) scales in the harsh environment of a detonation. With the advances in computing power, it is natural to try and gain an understanding of hot-spot initiation with numerical experiments based on meso-scale simulations that resolve material heterogeneities and utilize realistic chemical reaction rates. However, to capture the underlying physics correctly, such high resolution simulations will require more than fast computers with a large amount of memory. Here we discuss some of the issues that need to be addressed. These include dissipative mechanisms that generate hot spots, accurate thermal propceties for the equations of state of the reactants and products, and controlling numerical entropy error from shock impedance mismatches at material interfaces. The later can generate artificial hot spots and lead to premature reaction. Eliminating numerical hot spots is critical for shock initiation simulations due to the positive feedback between the energy release from reaction and the hydrodynamic flow.

  11. Irradiation experiment on fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides up to 7 at.% burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, H.; Yokoo, T.; Ogata, T.; Inoue, T.; Ougier, M.; Glatz, J.P.; Fontaine, B.; Breton, L.

    2007-01-01

    Fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides (MAs: Np, Am, Cm) and rare earths (REs) have been irradiated in the fast reactor PHENIX. In this experiment, four types of fuel alloys, U-19Pu-10Zr, U-19Pu-10Zr-2MA-2RE, U-19Pu-10Zr-5MA-5RE and U-19Pu-10Zr-5MA (wt.%), are loaded into part of standard metal fuel stacks. The postirradiation examinations will be conducted at ∼2.4, ∼7 and ∼11 at.% burnup. As for the low-burnup fuel pins, nondestructive postirradiation tests have already been performed and the fuel integrity was confirmed. Furthermore, the irradiation experiment for the intermediate burnup goal of ∼7 at.% was completed in July 2006. For the irradiation period of 356.63 equivalent full-power days, the neutron flux level remained in the range of 3.5-3.6 x 10 15 n/cm 2 /s at the axial peak position. On the other hand, the maximum linear power of fuel alloys decreased gradually from 305-315 W/cm (beginning of irradiation) to 250-260 W/cm (end of irradiation). The discharged peak burnup was estimated to be 6.59-7.23 at.%. The irradiation behavior of MA-containing metal fuels up to 7 at.% burnup was predicted using the ALFUS code, which was developed for U-Pu-Zr ternary fuel performance analysis. As a result, it was evaluated that the fuel temperature is distributed between ∼410 deg. C and ∼645 deg. C at the end of the irradiation experiment. From the stress-strain analysis based on the preliminarily employed cladding irradiation properties and the FCMI stress distribution history, it was predicted that a cladding strain of not more than 0.9% would appear. (authors)

  12. LWR severe accident simulation: Iodine behaviour in FPT2 experiment and advances on containment iodine chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, N., E-mail: nathalie.girault@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP3 - 13115 St.-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bosland, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP3 - 13115 St.-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dickinson, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Harwell, Oxon OX11 0QT (United Kingdom); Funke, F. [AREVA NP Gmbh, PO Box 1109, 91001 Erlangen (Germany); Guentay, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Herranz, L.E. [Centro des Investigaciones Energeticas, MedioAmbiantales y Tecnologicas, av. Complutense 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Powers, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Short term gaseous iodine fraction can be produced either in primary circuit or on containment condensing surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gaseous radiolytic reactions convert volatile iodine into non-volatile iodine oxide particulates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline and evaporating sump decrease the iodine volatility in containment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of volatile iodine from containment surfaces explained the long term stationary residual gaseous iodine concentration. - Abstract: The Phebus Fission Product (FP) Program studies key phenomena of severe accidents in water-cooled nuclear reactors. In the framework of the Phebus program, five in-pile experiments have been performed that cover fuel rod degradation and behaviour of fission products released via the coolant circuit into the containment vessel. The focus of this paper is on iodine behaviour during the Phebus FPT2 test. FPT2 used a 33 GWd/t uranium dioxide fuel enriched to 4.5%, re-irradiated in situ for 7 days to a burn-up of 130 MWd/t. This test was performed to study the impact of steam-poor conditions and boric acid on the fission product chemistry. For the containment vessel, more specifically, the objective was to study iodine chemistry in an alkaline sump under evaporating conditions. The iodine results of the Phebus FPT2 test confirmed many of the essential features of iodine behaviour in the containment vessel provided by the first two Phebus tests, FPT0 and FPT1. These are the existence of an early gaseous iodine fraction, the persistence of low gaseous iodine concentrations and the importance of the sump in suppressing the iodine partitioning from sump to atmosphere. The main new insights provided by the Phebus FPT2 test were the iodine desorption from stainless steel walls deposits and the role of the evaporating sump in further iodine depletion in the containment atmosphere. The current paper presents an interpretation of

  13. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of (239)Pu due to non-nuclear detonation of high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. L.; Harvey, T. F.; Freis, R. P.; Pitovranov, S. E.; Chernokozhin, E. V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of (239)Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal 'coupling coefficient' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of (239)Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported.

  14. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of 239Pu due to non- nuclear detonation of high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Freis, R.P.; Pitovranov, S.E.; Chernokozhin, E.V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of 239 Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal ''coupling coefficient'' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of 239 Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported

  15. Solid phase microextraction sampling of high explosive residues in the presence of radionuclides and radionuclide surrogate metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Crump, S.L.; Ray, R.J.; Beals, D.; Cotham, W.E.; Mount, K.; Koons, R.D.; Leggitt, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ( 239/240 Pu, 238 U, 237 Np, 85 Sr, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 226 Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. (author)

  16. Determining the effect of turbulent shear on containment aerosol dynamics using microgravity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.K.; Abdelbaky, M.

    1997-01-01

    Determining the characteristics of large aerosol aggregates 'clusters' under turbulent conditions is fundamental for predicting the behaviour of radioactive aerosols inside the reactor containment following a severe accident. Studying such rapidly settling clusters is extremely difficult in ground-based experiments due to the effect of the earth's gravity. In this study, the microgravity environment is exploited to investigate the effect of turbulent shear on the aggregation and breakage of clusters by examining their structure and measuring their strength parameters while suspended under weightlessness conditions. A parametric model is introduced to correlate the experimental results over into nuclear aerosol models. It was demonstrated that the cluster parameters depend mainly on the turbulent field intensity as well as initial powder conditions. (author)

  17. Microbial analysis of the buffer/container experiment at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Hamon, C.J.; Haveman, S.A.; Delaney, T.L.

    1996-05-01

    The Buffer/Container experiment was carried out for 2.5 years to examine the in-situ performance of compacted buffer material in a single emplacement borehole under vault-relevant conditions. During decommissioning of this experiment, numerous samples were taken for microbial analysis to determine if the naturally present microbial population in buffer material survived to conditions and to determine which groups of microorganisms would be dominant in such a simulated vault environment. Microbial analyses were initiated within 24 hour of sampling for all types of samples taken. The culture results showed an almost universal disappearance of viable microorganisms in the samples taken from near the heater surface. The microbial activity measurements confirmed the lack of viable organisms with very weak or no activity measured in most of these samples. Generally, aerobic heterotrophic culture conditions gave the highest mean colony-forming units (CFU) values at both 25 and 50 C. Under anaerobic conditions, and especially at 50 C, lower mean CFU values were obtained. In all samples analyzed, numbers of sulfate reducing bacteria were less than 1000 CFU/g dry material. Methanogens were either not present or were found in very low numbers. Anaerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria were found in higher numbers in most sample types with sufficient moisture. The statistical evaluation of the culture data demonstrated clearly that the water content was the variable limiting the viability of the bacteria present, and not the temperature. 68 refs, 35 figs, 37 tabs

  18. Reflooding experiments on a 49-rod cluster containing a long 90% blockage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.; Cooper, C.A.; Jowitt, D.; Kinneir, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A series of reflooding experiments was performed on a model fuel assembly, containing a very severe partial blockage, in the THETIS rig. The assembly comprised 49 full length, electrically heated fuel rod simulators and the blockage was created by attaching thin-walled, preformed swellings to a group of 16 rods. Results are presented for single phase and forced reflooding experiments. The most important findings relate to the improvements in heat transfer created by spacer grids and the nature of the heat transfer processes within the blockage. Spacer grids are shown to improve heat transfer by increasing turbulence and also, when wet, by cooling the steam flowing through them. Liquid penetration evidently deteriorates as the rewetting front approaches the blockage, allowing the steam through the blockage to superheat strongly and giving rise to a late peak in cladding temperature. At low reflooding rates there is a temperature penalty associated with the blockage which becomes increasingly larger as the reflooding rate is reduced. The adequacy of cooling in this very severe blockage becomes questionable when the reflooding rate falls to about 2cm/s. (U.K.)

  19. Microbial analysis of the buffer/container experiment at AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; Hamon, C J; Haveman, S A; Delaney, T L [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs; Pedersen, K; Ekendahl, S; Jahromi, N; Arlinger, J; Hallbeck, L [Univ. of Goeteborg, (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Daumas, S; Dekeyser, K [Guiges Recherche Appliquee en Microbiologie, Aix-en-Provence, (France)

    1996-05-01

    The Buffer/Container experiment was carried out for 2.5 years to examine the in-situ performance of compacted buffer material in a single emplacement borehole under vault-relevant conditions. During decommissioning of this experiment, numerous samples were taken for microbial analysis to determine if the naturally present microbial population in buffer material survived to conditions and to determine which groups of microorganisms would be dominant in such a simulated vault environment. Microbial analyses were initiated within 24 hour of sampling for all types of samples taken. The culture results showed an almost universal disappearance of viable microorganisms in the samples taken from near the heater surface. The microbial activity measurements confirmed the lack of viable organisms with very weak or no activity measured in most of these samples. Generally, aerobic heterotrophic culture conditions gave the highest mean colony-forming units (CFU) values at both 25 and 50 C. Under anaerobic conditions, and especially at 50 C, lower mean CFU values were obtained. In all samples analyzed, numbers of sulfate reducing bacteria were less than 1000 CFU/g dry material. Methanogens were either not present or were found in very low numbers. Anaerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria were found in higher numbers in most sample types with sufficient moisture. The statistical evaluation of the culture data demonstrated clearly that the water content was the variable limiting the viability of the bacteria present, and not the temperature. 68 refs, 35 figs, 37 tabs.

  20. Criticality experiments with annular cylinders containing plutonium solutions; Experiences de criticite sur des cylindres annulaires contenant des solutions de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molbert, M; Sauve, A; Houelle, M; Deilgat, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The criticality station of Dijon involves three cells, shielded by concrete walls of 1.46 meter thickness. Those cells are designed to contain the criticality experiment apparatus. The engineering building is also involving: one chemical laboratory where plutonium solutions are prepared, one analysis laboratory, several activated solutions storages, several control rooms, One cell contains the B system, which is designed to study: annular cylindrical geometries, slab of 10 cm thickness, interaction between annular cylinders. This report includes the first results given by experiments on annular cylinders defined by their own geometry (outer and inner diameter of ring containing plutonium solutions). Those results have been plotted in curves, for several concentrations and for different reflection conditions (outer or inner light water reflector, cadmium screen), H{sub c} and M{sub c} = f (c) (where H{sub c} is the critical height of solution, M{sub c} is the critical mass, c is the plutonium concentration: 42,3 g/lexperiments on this cylinder being unfinished to the date of this present report publication. On this miscellaneous results, we have following informations know: - Screen effect of light water in central hole. Strengthened effect by cadmium foil on the inside wall. - Normalized interaction curves ( {alpha}*H{sub c}/H{sub c{infinity}} ) versus the distance between the two vessels, where H{sub c{infinity}} critical height of an insulated cylinder, shows that: 1) In light water, two cylinders set aside from 15 cm, can be considers like separated. 2) For some configurations, {alpha} vary

  1. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  2. Benchmark of the HDR E11.2 containment hydrogen mixing experiment using the MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung, Jin; Paik, Chan Y.; Henry, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The MAAP4 code was benchmarked against the hydrogen mixing experiment in a full-size nuclear reactor containment. This particular experiment, designated as E11.2, simulated a small loss-of-coolant-accident steam blowdown into the containment followed by the release of a hydrogen-helium gas mixture. It also incorporated external spray cooling of the steel dome near the end of the transient. Specifically, the objective of this bench-mark was to demonstrate that MAAP4, using subnodal physics, can predict an observed gas stratification in the containment

  3. HECLA experiments on interaction between metallic melt and hematite-containing concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevon, Tuomo, E-mail: tuomo.sevon@vtt.f [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kinnunen, Tuomo; Virta, Jouko; Holmstroem, Stefan; Kekki, Tommi; Lindholm, Ilona [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-10-15

    In a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear power plant, molten materials may come into contact with concrete, causing concrete ablation. In five HECLA experiments the interaction between metallic melt and concrete was investigated by pouring molten stainless steel at almost 1800 {sup o}C into cylindrical concrete crucibles. The tests were transient, i.e. no decay heat simulation was used. The main objective was to test the behavior of the FeSi concrete, containing hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and siliceous aggregates. This special concrete type is used as a sacrificial layer in the Olkiluoto 3 EPR reactor pit, and very scarce experimental data is available about its behavior at high temperatures. It is concluded that no clear differences between the ablation of FeSi concrete and ordinary siliceous concrete were observed. The ablation depths were small, 25 mm at maximum. No dramatic effects, such as cracking of large pieces of concrete due to the thermal shock, took place. An important side result of the test series was gaining knowledge of the properties of the special concrete type. Chemical analyses were conducted and mechanical properties were measured.

  4. Design of an experiment to measure fire exposure of packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire abroad a container cargo ship. A stack of nice used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Fire environments, both inside and outside the containers, typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container-to-container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container-to-container fire spread characteristics. (authors)

  5. Surveillance and Monitoring Program Full-Scale Experiments to Evaluate the Potential for Corrosion in 3013 Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duque, Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harradine, David Martin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Dallas Dwight [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaczar, Gregory Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lillard, R. Scott [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Lopez, Annabelle Sarita [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Max Alfonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Peppers, Larry G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rios, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Edward L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Leonardo Alberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Kennard Virden Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    A set of six long-term, full-scale experiments were initiated to determine the type and extent of corrosion that occurs in 3013 containers packaged with chloride-bearing plutonium oxide materials. The materials were exposed to a high relative humidity environment representative of actual packaging conditions for the materials in storage. The materials were sealed in instrumented, inner 3013 containers with corrosion specimens designed to test the corrosiveness of the environment inside the containers under various conditions. This report focuses on initial loading conditions that are used to establish a baseline to show how the conditions change throughout the storage lifetime of the containers.

  6. Experiences in the emptying of waste silos containing solid nuclear waste from graphite- moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2003-01-01

    difference in the two streams lays in the chosen retrieval technology, reflecting the different problems involved. The most significant differences in the retrieval solutions are; - MAC recovery is achieved with a hydraulic Artisan manipulator arm deployed through a series of new access points in the vault roof; - FED recovery utilizes two retrieval units which deploy petal grabs through tubes originally connected to the waste discharge conveyors. The waste is then transported for further treatment including monitoring, packing, lid and grouting fitting, box filling and swabbing of the boxes to eliminate external contamination. This poster session discusses the experiences made with the retrieval and emptying of graphite containing nuclear waste silos

  7. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with methyl iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT, Espoo (Finland)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    An experimental study on radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. In year 2008 the NROI project, a Nordic collaboration studying iodine chemistry in the containment, was started. During year 2008 (NROI-1) the radiolytic oxidation of elemental iodine was investigated and during 2009 (NROI-2), the radiolytic oxidation of organic iodine was studied. This project (NROI-3) is a continuation of the investigation of the oxidation of organic iodine. The project has been divided into two parts. 1. The aims of the first part were to investigate the effect of ozone and UV-radiation, in dry and humid conditions, on methyl iodide. 2. The second project was about gamma radiation (approx20 kGy/h) and methyl iodide in dry and humid conditions. 1. Experimental results showed that the methyl iodide concentration in the facility was reduced with increasing temperature and increasing UV-radiation intensity. Similar behaviour occurred when ozone was present in the system. Formed organic gas species during the decomposition of methyl iodide was mainly formaldehyde and methanol. The particle formation was instant and extensive when methyl iodide was exposed to ozone and/or radiation at all temperatures. The size of the formed primary particles was about 10 nm and the size of secondary particles was between 50-200 nm. From the SEM-EDX analyses of the particles, the conclusion was drawn that these were some kind of iodine oxides (I{sub xO{sub y}). However, the correct speciation of the formed particles was difficult to obtain because the particles melted and fused together under the electron beam. 2. The results from this sub-project are more inconsistent and hard to interpret. The particle formation was significant lesser than corresponding experiments when ozone/UV-radiation was used instead of gamma radiation. The transport of gaseous methyl iodide through the facility was

  8. TENERIFE program: high temperature experiments on A 4 tons UF6 container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.; Wataru, M.; Shiomi, S.; Ozaki, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    1993-01-01

    To know the input of the future thermo-mechanical code, we have to get a better understanding of the thermo-physical evolution of the UF 6 which pressurizes the container. This evolution is function of: a) the heat transfer rate from the fire to the container b) the UF 6 behaviour in the container. These tests are essentially analytical at simulated fire temperatures of between 800 and 1000degC. They use a representative mass of UF 6 (around 4 tons). The tests will not seek to rupture the test container which has a diameter equal to the 48Y container, but shorter length. These tests carried out in realistic conditions (typical thermal gradient at the wall, characteristic period for UF 6 internal mass transfer) should make possible to improve knowledge of two fundamental phenomena: 1) vaporization of UF 6 on contact with the heated wall (around 400degC), a phenomenon which controls the container internal pressurization kinetic, 2) the equivalent conductivity of solid UF 6 , a phenomenon which is linked to the heat transfer by UF 6 vaporization-condensation through the solid's porosities and which depends on the diameter of the container. In addition, they will allow the influence of other parameters to be studied, such as UF 6 container filling mode or the mechanical characteristics of the container material. A UF 6 container fitted with instruments (wall temperature, UF 6 temperature, pressure) is heated by a rapid heat transient in a radiating furnace where the temperature and thermal power supplied can be measured. The test continues until pre-established thresholds have been reached: 1) strain threshold measured on the container surface (strain gauges positioned on the outside), 2) maximum temperature threshold of UF 6 , 3) container internal pressure threshold. (J.P.N.)

  9. Safety Research Experiment Facility Project. Conceptual design report. Volume IV. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    The principal purpose of the SAREF Reactor Containment Building (RCB) is to prevent the uncontrolled release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere as a result of accidental occurrences inside the containment. The RCB houses numerous reactor systems and components including the Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV). The design of the RCB is of reinforced concrete (steel-lined). The containment building is embedded nearly 100 feet in lava rock. It has therefore been necessary to independently formulate an appropriate and conservative design approach

  10. An international survey of in-service inspection experience with prestressed concrete pressure vessels and containments for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    An international survey is presented of experience obtained from the in-service surveillance of prestressed concrete pressure vessels and containments for nuclear reactors. Some information on other prestressed concrete structures is also given. Experience has been gained during the working life of such structures in Western Europe and the USA over the years since 1967. For each country a summary is given of the nuclear programme, national standards and Codes of Practice, and the detailed in-service inspection programme. Reports are then given of the actual experience obtained from the inspection programme and the methods of measurement, examination and reporting employed in each country. A comprehensive bibliography of over 100 references is included. The appendices contain information on nuclear power stations which are operating, under construction or planned worldwide and which employ either prestressed concrete pressure vessels or containments. (U.K.)

  11. Experiences in development, qualification, and use of concrete high-integrity containers in commercial disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of EPICOR prefilters as commercial radioactive wastes is being accomplished by using a first-of-a-kind, reinforced concrete, high-integrity container in lieu of prior in situ solidification of resins before disposal of prefilters. Experiences in developing, testing, certifying, and using high-integrity containers are an untold story worthy of review for the benefit of the nuclear industry at large. The lessons learned in gaining regulatory acceptance of the concrete HIC are discussed

  12. Experiences in development, qualification, and use of concrete high-integrity containers in commercial disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of EPICOR prefilters as commercial radioactive wastes is being accomplished by using a first-of-a-kind, reinforced concrete, high-integrity container (HIC) in lieu of prior in situ solidification of resins before disposal of prefilters. Experiences in developing, testing, certifying, and using high-integrity containers are an untold story worthy of review for the benefit of the nuclear industry at large. The lessons learned in gaining regulatory acceptance of the concrete HIC are discussed. 6 refs., 1 tab

  13. Physical experiments on the utility of non-iodine-containing contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, H.; Burmester, U.; Stringaris, K.; Jentsch, F.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the excellent ability of the CT scanner in analyzing absorption, the use of non-iodine-containing contrast media will be discussed. Experimental studies of the chemical elements with the atomic number Z = 1-83 with a scan tension of 120 kV were made to determine how many atoms of a given element are necessary to replace one iodine atom in an iodine-containing contrast medium, whereby the same contrast enhancement in the scan picture as with the iodine-containing contrast medium is produced. (orig.) 891 ORU/orig. 892 MB [de

  14. Experiments to evaluate behavior of containment piping bellows under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall. In a severe accident they may be subjected to high pressure and temperature, and a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, are being subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen tests have been conducted. The tests showed that withstanding relatively large bellows are capable of deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  15. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs

  16. Headspace concentrations of explosive vapors in containers designed for canine testing and training: theory, experiment, and canine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotspeich, Erica; Kitts, Kelley; Goodpaster, John

    2012-07-10

    It is a common misconception that the amount of explosive is the chief contributor to the quantity of vapor that is available to trained canines. In fact, this quantity (known as odor availability) depends not only on the amount of explosive material, but also the container volume, explosive vapor pressure and temperature. In order to better understand odor availability, headspace experiments were conducted and the results were compared to theory. The vapor-phase concentrations of three liquid explosives (nitromethane, nitroethane and nitropropane) were predicted using the Ideal Gas Law for containers of various volumes that are in use for canine testing. These predictions were verified through experiments that varied the amount of sample, the container size, and the temperature. These results demonstrated that the amount of sample that is needed to saturate different sized containers is small, predictable and agrees well with theory. In general, and as expected, once the headspace of a container is saturated, any subsequent increase in sample volume will not result in the release of more vapors. The ability of canines to recognize and alert to differing amounts of nitromethane has also been studied. In particular, it was found that the response of trained canines is independent of the amount of nitromethane present, provided it is a sufficient quantity to saturate the container in which it is held. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX). Hydrogen generation and chemical augmentation of energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    The results of the first data series of experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. These experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of pure zirconium or zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water. A total of nine tests were conducted, including four with pure zirconium melt and five with Zr-ZrO{sub 2} mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite extensive, the estimated explosion energetics were found to be very small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available. (author)

  18. Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment (HTRE)-3 Container Storage Unit Resource Conservation Recovery Act closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spry, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the closure of the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The unit's location, size, history, and current status are described. The document also summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning efforts performed in 1983 and provides an estimate of,waste residues remaining in the HTRE-3 assembly. A risk evaluation was performed that demonstrates that the residue does not pose a hazard to public health or the environment. Based on the risk evaluation, it is proposed that the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit be closed in its present condition, without further decontamination or removal activities

  19. Management of empty pesticide containers – An experience from Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2014-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huici, Omar; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Jørs, Erik

    The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia. The objec......The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia...

  20. Experiences from occupational exposure limits set on aerosols containing allergenic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Søren; Hansen, Jitka S

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. ...... is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases.......Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies...... for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used...

  1. Experiments on container materials for Swiss high-level waste disposal projects. Part IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.P.

    1989-12-01

    One concept for final disposal of high-level waste in switzerland consists of a repository at a depth of 1000 to 1500 m in the crystalline bedrock of Northern Switzerland. The waste will be placed in a container which will be required to function as a high integrity barrier for at least 100 years. This report is the fourth and last in the current series dealing with the evaluation of potential materials for such containers. Four materials were identified for further evaluation in the first of these reports: cast steel, nodular cast iron, copper and Ti-Code 12. This report deals with the problem of demonstrating that cast steel containers will not fail by stress corrosion cracking and with the problem of hydrogen produced by the reduction of water. The experimental results on pre-cracked specimens revealed no susceptibility of cast steel to stress corrosion cracking under model repository conditions. No crack growth was detected on compact DCB specimens exposed in aerobic and anaerobic groundwaters at 80 and 140 o C for 16-24 months. Cast steel remains a candidate material for high-level waste containers. As expected from thermodynamic considerations no hydrogen could be detected from copper immersed in model groundwaters at 50 o C. Hydrogen is evolved from corroding steel under anaerobic conditions. Hydrogen evolution due to corrosion of iron or steel in waste repositories has to be considered in any safety analysis; the amounts produced can be significant. Evidence todate suggests that both cast steel and copper are suitable container materials. Because the corrosion behaviour of both materials is sensitive to service conditions, in particular length of the aerobic phase, groundwater chemistry and temperature, further testing should be undertaken when a specific site has been identified. (author) 9 tabs., 11 figs., 25 refs

  2. Experiments on container materials for Swiss high-level waste disposal projects. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.P.

    1984-12-01

    The present concept for final disposal of high-level waste in Switzerland consists of a repository at a depth of 1000 to 1500 m in the crystalline bedrock of northern Switzerland. The waste will be placed in a container which is required to function as a high integrity barrier for at least 1000 years. This report is the second of a set of two dealing with the evaluation of potential materials for such containers. Four materials were identified for further evaluation in the first of these reports; they were cast steel, nodular cast iron, copper and Ti-Code 12. It was concluded that some testing was needed, in particular with respect to corrosion, in order to confirm these materials as candidate container materials. The experimental programme included: 1) corrosion tests on copper under gamma radiation; 2) immersion corrosion tests on the four candidate materials including welded specimens; 3) corrosion testing of the four materials in saturated bentonite; 4) constant strain rate testing of Ti-Code 12 and copper at 80 degrees C; 5) the behaviour of copper, Ti-Code 12 and Zircaloy-2 when immersed in liquid lead; 6) corrosion potential and galvanic current measurements on several material pairs. The standard test medium was natural mineral water from the Bad Saeckingen source. This water has a total dissolved solids content of approx. 3200 mg/l, about 1600 mg/l as chloride. The oxygen level was defined as 0.1 μg/g. In certain cases this medium was modified in order to test under more severe conditions. The results of the corrosion tests confirm in general the evaluation in the first part of the report. All of the materials are suitable for high-level waste containers: cast steel, nodular cast iron and copper as single layer containers, and Ti-Code 12 as an outer corrosion resistant layer. Copper could also be used under an outer steel layer, where it could arrest local penetration

  3. Phase equilibria for mixtures containing nonionic surfactant systems: Modeling and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Hwayong

    2008-01-01

    Surfactants are important materials with numerous applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries due to inter-associating and intra-associating bond. We present a lattice fluid equation-of-state that combines the quasi-chemical nonrandom lattice fluid model with Veytsman statistics for (intra + inter) molecular association to calculate phase behavior for mixtures containing nonionic surfactants. We also measured binary (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for {2-butoxyethanol (C 4 E 1 ) + n-hexane} and {2-butoxyethanol (C 4 E 1 ) + n-heptane} systems at temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 323.15) K. A static apparatus was used in this study. The presented equation-of-state correlated well with the measured and published data for mixtures containing nonionic surfactant systems

  4. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation Containment Experiments with GOTHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiles, Lawrence E.; George, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    GOTHIC version 7.0 was used to model five tests that were conducted in the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation facility in Japan. The tests involved steam and helium injection into a preheated, spray-moderated, 1/4-scale model of a pressurized water reactor dry containment. Comparison of GOTHIC predictions to measured data for pressure, vapor temperatures, structure surface temperatures, and helium concentrations provided the opportunity to evaluate methods for modeling gas dispersion, drop heat and mass transfer, and surface heat transfer.The test facility includes three floors. The lower two floors are partitioned into a variety of rooms that simulate the lower regions of the modeled containment. On the upper floor, rooms that simulate the steam generator enclosures and the pressurizer enclosure extend into the dome, which represents about two-thirds of the total volume of the containment.The GOTHIC model was defined with 30 control volumes using a mix of lumped parameter volumes and subdivided volumes that employ a three-dimensional mesh. Each volume included several thermal conductors to model the various structures. More than 100 flow paths were used to model the hydraulic connections.Comparison of predictions to data showed that enhanced grid resolution in the vicinity of the steam-helium release point served to limit dispersion of the steam-helium plume. The data comparisons also suggested that spray effectiveness was reduced by drop impact with the containment wall and by the high drop concentration. The data comparisons further suggested that the presence of condensation, sprays, splashing, and other wetting mechanisms should be considered to obtain a reasonable estimate of the effect of liquid films on the structure surfaces

  5. Validation of the containment code Sirius: interpretation of an explosion experiment on a scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Y.; Obry, P.; Louvet, J.; Deshayes, M.; Phalip, C.

    1979-01-01

    The explicit 2-D axisymmetric Langrangian code SIRIUS, developed at the CEA/DRNR, Cadarache, deals with transient compressive flows in deformable primary tanks with more or less complex internal component geometries. This code has been subjected to a two-year intensive validation program on scale model experiments and a number of improvements have been incorporated. This paper presents a recent calculation of one of these experiments using the SIRIUS code, and the comparison with experimental results shows the encouraging possibilities of this Lagrangian code

  6. Kaliski's explosive driven fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment performed by a group in Poland on the production of DD fusion neutrons by purely explosive means is discussed. A method for multiplying shock velocities ordinarily available from high explosives by a factor of ten is described, and its application to DD fusion experiments is discussed

  7. Performance evaluation of granular activated carbon system at Pantex: Rapid small-scale column tests to simulate removal of high explosives from contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, J.L.; Speitel, G.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-08-01

    A granular activated carbon (GAC) system is now in operation at Pantex to treat groundwater from the perched aquifer that is contaminated with high explosives. The main chemicals of concern are RDX and HMX. The system consists of two GAC columns in series. Each column is charged with 10,000 pounds of Northwestern LB-830 GAC. At the design flow rate of 325 gpm, the hydraulic loading is 6.47 gpm/ft{sup 2}, and the empty bed contact time is 8.2 minutes per column. Currently, the system is operating at less than 10% of its design flow rate, although flow rate increases are expected in the relatively near future. This study had several objectives: Estimate the service life of the GAC now in use at Pantex; Screen several GACs to provide a recommendation on the best GAC for use at Pantex when the current GAC is exhausted and is replaced; Determine the extent to which natural organic matter in the Pantex groundwater fouls GAC adsorption sites, thereby decreasing the adsorption capacity for high explosives; and Determine if computer simulation models could match the experimental results, thereby providing another tool to follow system performance.

  8. Performance evaluation of granular activated carbon system at Pantex: Rapid small-scale column tests to simulate removal of high explosives from contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, J.L.; Speitel, G.E.

    1998-08-01

    A granular activated carbon (GAC) system is now in operation at Pantex to treat groundwater from the perched aquifer that is contaminated with high explosives. The main chemicals of concern are RDX and HMX. The system consists of two GAC columns in series. Each column is charged with 10,000 pounds of Northwestern LB-830 GAC. At the design flow rate of 325 gpm, the hydraulic loading is 6.47 gpm/ft 2 , and the empty bed contact time is 8.2 minutes per column. Currently, the system is operating at less than 10% of its design flow rate, although flow rate increases are expected in the relatively near future. This study had several objectives: Estimate the service life of the GAC now in use at Pantex; Screen several GACs to provide a recommendation on the best GAC for use at Pantex when the current GAC is exhausted and is replaced; Determine the extent to which natural organic matter in the Pantex groundwater fouls GAC adsorption sites, thereby decreasing the adsorption capacity for high explosives; and Determine if computer simulation models could match the experimental results, thereby providing another tool to follow system performance

  9. Practical experience with a local verification system for containment and surveillance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauppe, W.D.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1984-01-01

    With the growing number of nuclear facilities and a number of large commercial bulk handling facilities steadily coming into operation the International Atomic Energy Agency is faced with increasing requirements as to reducing its inspection efforts. One means of meeting these requirements will be to deploy facility based remote interrogation methods for its containment and surveillance instrumentation. Such a technical concept of remote interrogation was realized through the so-called LOVER system development, a local verification system for electronic safeguards seal systems. In the present investigations the application was extended to radiation monitoring by introducing an electronic interface between the electronic safeguards seal and the neutron detector electronics of a waste monitoring system. The paper discusses the safeguards motivation and background, the experimental setup of the safeguards system and the performance characteristics of this LOVER system. First conclusions can be drawn from the performance results with respect to the applicability in international safeguards. This comprises in particular the definition of design specifications for an integrated remote interrogation system for various types of containment and surveillance instruments and the specifications of safeguards applications employing such a system

  10. Applications of containment technologies in Australia for contamination remediation/control: Status and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouazza, A.; Parker, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In discussing containment technologies in Australia it is important to understand the factors which influence environmental control of wastes. Although Australia is considered to be an and country, there is only limited reliance on use of groundwater for domestic purposes and this is mainly in rural areas. In many areas, the groundwater is brackish to saline, thus limiting the use of the water. The limited use of groundwater for domestic purposes and the sparse population of Australia combine to produce an environmental regulatory framework very different to North America and Europe. Up until very recently, the approach to disposal of industrial, mining and domestic waste has been based on the principle of open-quotes dilute and disperseclose quotes. However, this attitude has changed, new regulations have been put forward imposing much greater control over the disposal of all forms of waste. This paper provides an overview of the containment technology in Australia as used in certain states with a discussion on the regulatory aspect. It presents examples of some of the innovative techniques that can be considered in the limited Australian regulatory environment

  11. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  12. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution's concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the 'Poisoned Tube Tank' because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service

  13. Identification of Jets Containing b-Hadrons with Recurrent Neural Networks at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    A novel b-jet identification algorithm is constructed with a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) at the ATLAS Experiment. This talk presents the expected performance of the RNN based b-tagging in simulated $t \\bar t$ events. The RNN based b-tagging processes properties of tracks associated to jets which are represented in sequences. In contrast to traditional impact-parameter-based b-tagging algorithms which assume the tracks of jets are independent from each other, RNN based b-tagging can exploit the spatial and kinematic correlations of tracks which are initiated from the same b-hadrons. The neural network nature of the tagging algorithm also allows the flexibility of extending input features to include more track properties than can be effectively used in traditional algorithms.

  14. Identification of Jets Containing $b$-Hadrons with Recurrent Neural Networks at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A novel $b$-jet identification algorithm is constructed with a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The RNN based $b$-tagging algorithm processes charged particle tracks associated to jets without reliance on secondary vertex finding, and can augment existing secondary-vertex based taggers. In contrast to traditional impact-parameter-based $b$-tagging algorithms which assume that tracks associated to jets are independent from each other, the RNN based $b$-tagging algorithm can exploit the spatial and kinematic correlations between tracks which are initiated from the same $b$-hadrons. This new approach also accommodates an extended set of input variables. This note presents the expected performance of the RNN based $b$-tagging algorithm in simulated $t \\bar t$ events at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

  15. Hyaluron Filler Containing Lidocaine on a CPM Basis for Lip Augmentation: Reports from Practical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tanja C; Sattler, Gerhard; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is established. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density, CPM-HAL1 (Belotero Balance Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero Intense Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. The aim of this article was to assess the handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers, CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data were documented from patients who received lip augmentation by means of beautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, distribution, fluidity, handling, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. A total of 146 patients from 21 German centers participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for more than 95% of patients. Distribution, fluidity, handling, and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in more than 91% of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93% of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6%) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 minutes (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.; Holm, J.; Ekberg, C.; Glaenneskog, H.

    2009-10-01

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  17. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  18. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with methyl iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J.; Glaenneskog, H.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    An experimental study on radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. In year 2008 the NROI project, a Nordic collaboration studying iodine chemistry in the containment was started. During 2009, oxidation of iodine, especially organic iodine, was studied within the NROI project. The chemistry of organic iodine in the gas phase is still one of the greatest remaining uncertainties concerning iodine behaviour during a severe accident. During the first year of the NROI project the oxidation of elemental iodine, I2, with ozone and UV-light was investigated. In this study organic iodide, in this case methyl iodide, was investigated in similar conditions as in the NROI-1 project. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for the ISTP project CHIP conducted by IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. Experimental results showed that the methyl iodide concentration in the facility was reduced with increasing temperature and increasing UVC intensity. Similar behaviour occurred when ozone was present in the system. Formed organic gas species during the decomposition of methyl iodide was mainly formaldehyde and methanol. Instant and extensive particle formation occurred when methyl iodide was transported through a UVC radiation field and/or when ozone was present. The size of the formed primary particles was about 10 nm and the size of secondary particles was between 50-150 nm. From the SEM-EDX analyses of the particles, the conclusion was drawn that these were some kind of iodine

  19. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.; Glaenneskog, H.; Ekberg, C.; Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A.

    2010-05-01

    An experimental study on radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. In year 2008 the NROI project, a Nordic collaboration studying iodine chemistry in the containment was started. During 2009, oxidation of iodine, especially organic iodine, was studied within the NROI project. The chemistry of organic iodine in the gas phase is still one of the greatest remaining uncertainties concerning iodine behaviour during a severe accident. During the first year of the NROI project the oxidation of elemental iodine, I2, with ozone and UV-light was investigated. In this study organic iodide, in this case methyl iodide, was investigated in similar conditions as in the NROI-1 project. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for the ISTP project CHIP conducted by IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. Experimental results showed that the methyl iodide concentration in the facility was reduced with increasing temperature and increasing UVC intensity. Similar behaviour occurred when ozone was present in the system. Formed organic gas species during the decomposition of methyl iodide was mainly formaldehyde and methanol. Instant and extensive particle formation occurred when methyl iodide was transported through a UVC radiation field and/or when ozone was present. The size of the formed primary particles was about 10 nm and the size of secondary particles was between 50-150 nm. From the SEM-EDX analyses of the particles, the conclusion was drawn that these were some kind of iodine

  20. Nuclear Geoplosics Sourcebook. Volume IV. Part II. Empirical Analysis of Nuclear and High-Explosive Cratering and Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    to over 10 feet, overlying the fluvial Kayenta sandstone. Tha upper several feet of the Kayenta formation con- sisted of a ’transitional zone of...weathered sandstone. The Kayenta sandstone is a very competent sandsto,,e forming the caprock for the cliffs and the monoliths in the nearby Colorado...National Monument. The surface alluvial soil and weathered Kayenta sandstone in the test area site normally contain 3 to 5 percent water by weight. For

  1. The PACE-1450 experiment - Crack and leakage behavior of a pre-stressed concrete containment wall considering ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, N.; Mueller, H.S.; Niklasch, C.; Michel-Ponnelle, S.; Bento, C.; Masson, B.

    2015-01-01

    As an intermediate sized experiment the PACE-1450 experiment aims to investigate the behavior of a curved specimen (length: 3.5 m, width: 1.8 m, height: 1.2 m) which is representative for a 1450 MWe nuclear power plant containment under accidental loading conditions. One focus of this experimental test campaign is the consideration of the ageing of the structure which among other effects leads to a pre-stressing loss. The crack behavior of the realistically reinforced specimen is of as much interest as it is the leakage behavior when an inner pressure occurs within the containment. The reinforcement layout of the specimen is very similar to the original geometry and consists mainly of reinforcement meshes of bars near the inner and outer surface and four pre-stressing cables in the circumferential direction. During the tests the specimen is loaded by pressure which simulates the internal accidental containment pressure of up to 6 bars (absolute pressure). The resulting ring tensile stress in the cylindrical part of the containment is externally applied by hydraulic jacks. An initial pre-stressing of the specimen of 12 MPa is realized in such a way that decreasing the pre-stressing force for the purpose of simulating the ageing of the structure is possible. The facility allows for the cracking of the pre-stressed specimen and for leakage measurements at different controlled crack widths. The specimen is equipped with embedded optical fiber strain and temperature sensors and a sound detection system to record the initiation of cracks. The paper explains the test set-up and presents results of the ongoing test series regarding the cracking and leakage behavior of the specimen

  2. Chapter 8: Exponential experiments on graphite moderated lattices fuelled by natural uranium tubes containing cylindrical graphite cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.; Hoskins, T.A.

    1963-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out using a fuel element comprising a 2.75 in. o.d./2.40 in. i.d. natural uranium tube containing a graphite core of diameter 2.0 in. Values of material buckling and migration area asymmetry for lattices at 7 in., 8 in. and 8/2 in. pitch have been obtained, and correlated with the theory of Syrett (1961) to derive an effective resonance integral for the cored element. By comparison with the resonance integral for the same fuel tube without a core, a value for the constant 'γ' of the theory of Stace (1959) is obtained. (author)

  3. Simulation of KAEVER experiments on aerosol behavior in a nuclear power plant containment at accident conditions with the ASTEC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Mavko, B.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on aerosol behaviour in saturated and non-saturated atmosphere, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility, were simulated with the severe accident computer code ASTEC CPA V1.2. The specific purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in the containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions, if the atmosphere saturation conditions are simulated adequately. Five different tests were first simulated with boundary conditions, obtained from the experiments. In all five tests, a non-saturated atmosphere was simulated, although, in four tests, the atmosphere was allegedly saturated. The simulations were repeated with modified boundary conditions, to obtain a saturated atmosphere in all tests. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations in the test vessel atmosphere for both sets of simulations are compared to experimental results. (author)

  4. FLUENT calculations of the hydrogen distribution in a containment during the OECD-NEA THAI HM-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, D.C.; Komen, E.M.J.; Houkema, M.; Siccama, N.B.; Kyttaelae, Juha; Huhtanen, Risto; Takasuo, Eveliina

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen may be released into the containment atmosphere of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident. Locally, high hydrogen concentrations may be reached that can possibly cause fast deflagration or even detonation and put the integrity of the containment at risk. Therefore, the distribution and mixing of hydrogen is an important safety issue for nuclear power plants. Computer codes can be applied to predict the hydrogen distribution in the containment within the course of a hypothetical severe accident and get an estimate of the local hydrogen concentration in the various zones of the containment. In this way the risk associated with the hydrogen safety issue can be determined, and safety related measurements and procedures could be assessed. In order to validate the existing computer codes in the context of hydrogen distribution in the containment of a nuclear power plant, experimental benchmark studies have been performed in the German Thermal-hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols and Iodine (THAI) facility in the framework of the OECD-NEA THAI project. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT the THAI HM-2 test was simulated independently by NRG and VTT. In the first phase of the HM-2 test a stratified hydrogen rich light gas layer was established in the upper part of the THAI containment. In the second phase steam was injected at a lower position inducing a rising plume that gradually dissolved the stratified hydrogen-rich layer from below. Thermo-dynamic phenomena like natural convection, mixing, condensation, heat transfer and distribution in different zones that are expected in severe accidents are involved. The calculated results by NRG and VTT (on hydrogen concentration, temperature, pressure and flow velocity) are compared to the experimental results. The most important differences between the CFD model of NRG and VTT are the computational mesh, condensation model and treatment of the solid

  5. Analysis of Weld Fabrication Flaws in High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Containers: Experiences from the US Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, Daniel; Apted, Mick

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine key issues regarding the fabrication, closure and defect detection in canisters for radioactive waste disposal in a deep geological repository. As a preliminary step, a review is made of the closure-weld design and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of the closure seal for the US high-level waste repository programme. This includes statistical analysis of the data obtained by NDE and identification of key areas of investigation where additional data are required. Information from other industrial experiences on closure and flaw detection of metal containers is also reviewed. The canister material and closure methods for the US programme and industrial activities reviewed here differ from those of SKB's KBS-3 reference design. The issues and approaches to issue resolution identified from the US programme and industrial analogues, however, can provide an initial basis for preparing for independent review of SKB's canister closure plans and encapsulation facility

  6. Influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio of Fourier transform infra-red spectra on identification of high explosive substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Krzysztof; Banas, Agnieszka M.; Heussler, Sascha P.; Breese, Mark B. H.

    2018-01-01

    In the contemporary spectroscopy there is a trend to record spectra with the highest possible spectral resolution. This is clearly justified if the spectral features in the spectrum are very narrow (for example infra-red spectra of gas samples). However there is a plethora of samples (in the liquid and especially in the solid form) where there is a natural spectral peak broadening due to collisions and proximity predominately. Additionally there is a number of portable devices (spectrometers) with inherently restricted spectral resolution, spectral range or both, which are extremely useful in some field applications (archaeology, agriculture, food industry, cultural heritage, forensic science). In this paper the investigation of the influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio on the identification of high explosive substances by applying multivariate statistical methods on the Fourier transform infra-red spectral data sets is studied. All mathematical procedures on spectral data for dimension reduction, clustering and validation were implemented within R open source environment.

  7. Measurement of porosity in a composite high explosive as a function of pressing conditions by ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with contrast variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mang, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hjelm, Rex P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Elizabeth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have used ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) with contrast variation to measure the porosity (voids and binder-filled regions) in a composite high explosive, PBX 9501, formulated with a deuterated binder. Little is known about the microstructure of pressed PBX 9501 parts and thus how it is affected by processing. Here, we explore the effect of varying the pressing intensity on the PBX 9501 microstructure. Disk-shaped samples of PBX 9501 were die-pressed with applied pressures ranging between 10,000 and 29,000 psi at 90 C. Five samples were prepared at each pressure that differed in the fraction of deuterated binder, facilitating variation of the neutron scattering length density contrast ({Delta}{rho}) and thus, the resolution of microstructural details. The sample composition was determined by calculation of the Porod Invariant as a function of {Delta}{rho} and compared with compositional estimates obtained from the bulk sample density. Structural modeling of the USANS data, at different levels of contrast, assuming both spherical and cylindrical morphologies, allowed the mean size and size distribution of voids and binder-filled regions to be determined. A decrease in the mean diameter of binder-filled regions was found with increasing pressing intensity, while the mean void diameter showed no significant change.

  8. Benchmark on hydrogen distribution in a containment based on the OECD-NEA THAI HM-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, S.; Fischer, K.; Bentaib, A.

    2009-01-01

    Within the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear power plant, hydrogen can be generated in the primary circuit and released into the containment. Considering the possibility of a deflagration, the simulation of the hydrogen distribution in the containment by computer codes is of major importance. In order to create a data base for code validation, several distribution experiments using helium and hydrogen have been performed in the German THAI (Thermal-Hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols, Iodine) facility. They started with the ISP-47 test TH13 and were followed by the HM (Hydrogen-Helium Material Scaling Tests) series. The objectives of the HM Tests are to confirm the transferability of existing helium distribution test data to hydrogen distribution problems, to understand the processes that lead to the formation and dissolution of a light cloud stratification. The test HM-2 was chosen for a code benchmark. During the first phase of test HM-2 a light gas cloud consisting of hydrogen and nitrogen was established in the upper half of the facility. In the second phase steam was injected at a lower position inducing a rising steam - nitrogen plume. The plume did not break through the cloud, because its density was higher than the density of the cloud. Therefore the cloud was gradually dissolved from its bottom. Eleven organisations performed 'blind' calculations to the HM-2 experiment. The lumped parameter (LP) codes ASTEC, COCOSYS and MELCOR and the CFD codes FLUENT, GASFLOW and GOTHIC were used. The main phenomena were natural convection, interaction between the rising plume and the light gas cloud, steam condensation on walls, fog behaviour and the heat up of the walls. The experimental data of the first phase had been published and the atmospheric stratification was simulated reasonably well. The data from the second phase stayed concealed until the simulated results were submitted. The thermal-hydraulic phenomena were predicted well by several LP- and

  9. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, M. [Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Segadães, A.M. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Andrés, A., E-mail: andresa@unican.es [Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Modelling of the environmental risk in terms of clay and by-products contents. • M-DoE and response surface plots enable quick comparison of three ceramic processes. • Basicity of the mixture increases the leaching, especially at low firing temperatures. • Liquid phase content plays a major role decreasing the leaching of Cr and Mo. • Together, M-DoE and phase diagrams enable better prediction of pollutants leaching. - Abstract: This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature.

  10. High temperature EXAFS experiments in molten actinide fluorides: The challenge of a triple containment cell for radioactive and aggressive liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessada, Catherine; Zanghi, Didier; Pauvert, Olivier; Maksoud, Louis; Gil-Martin, Ana; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Melin, Philippe; Brassamin, Séverine; Nezu, Atsushi; Matsuura, Haruaki

    2017-10-01

    An airtight double barrier cell with simple geometry has been developed for X-rays absorption measurements at high temperature in solid and molten actinide fluorides. The aim was both to improve the air tightness, to avoid any possible leakage and to maintain the high quality of the signal. The dimensions of the heating chamber were also constrained and minimized to be compatible with the limited space available usually on synchrotron beam lines and with a geometry suitable for absorption/diffraction measurements at high temperature. The design of the double barrier cell was also driven by the safety requirements in every experiment involving radioactive materials. The furnace itself was designed to ensure easy operating modes and disassembly, the aim being to consider the furnace as the ultimate containment. The cell has been tested with different molten fluorides up to more than 1000 °C, starting from non-radioactive LiF-ZrF4 mixtures in order to prove that the cell is absolutely airtight and that not any contamination of the environment occurs. Then it has been successfully applied to thorium fluoride- and uranium fluoride-alkali fluorides mixtures.

  11. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics

  12. The role of product information on consumer sensory evaluation, expectations, experiences and emotions of cricket-flour-containing buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambo, Kennedy O; Okello, Julius J; Mbeche, Robert M; Kinyuru, John N; Alemu, Mohammed H

    2018-04-01

    Studies suggest that consumer' acceptance of edible insects can be enhanced by processing and blending them with familiar food products. This is however, expected to result in changes in some sensory attributes. In this study, we investigated how consumers evaluate the appropriateness of sensory attributes of a common bakery product (buns) that was blended with cricket-flour i.e., cricket-flour-containing (CFC) buns. We also tested whether provision of information can modulate the sensory evaluations, personal involvement and emotions. The study is based on a field experiment involving 432 participants drawn from rural communities in Kenya. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 information treatment groups: i) Control group - received only general information, ii) Treatment 1 - received general information and information about the benefits (i.e., positive attributes), iii) Treatment 2 - received general information and information about the potential drawbacks (i.e., negative attributes). Participants evaluated the CFC buns before and after tasting using Just-About-Right (JAR) scale. Results indicate that providing product information affected sensory evaluation of the product's sensory attributes. They also indicate that actual tasting of the CFC buns improved the convergence of sensory evaluation of the attributes towards the ideal level. Results further show that CFC buns elicited more positive feelings with little differences in the emotional profiles between the information treatments, which suggests general interest in the buns. These results provide useful insights on how to enhance consumer acceptance of insect-based foods. We discuss the implications of the findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. International standard problem (ISP) No. 41. Containment iodine computer code exercise based on a radioiodine test facility (RTF) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    International Standard Problem (ISP) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of the tools, which were used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. The ISP No. 41 exercise, computer code exercise based on a Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment on iodine behaviour in containment under severe accident conditions, is one of such ISP exercises. The ISP No. 41 exercise was borne at the recommendation at the Fourth Iodine Chemistry Workshop held at PSI, Switzerland in June 1996: 'the performance of an International Standard Problem as the basis of an in-depth comparison of the models as well as contributing to the database for validation of iodine codes'. [Proceedings NEA/CSNI/R(96)6, Summary and Conclusions NEA/CSNI/R(96)7]. COG (CANDU Owners Group), comprising AECL and the Canadian nuclear utilities, offered to make the results of a Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) test available for such an exercise. The ISP No. 41 exercise was endorsed in turn by the FPC (PWG4's Task Group on Fission Product Phenomena in the Primary Circuit and the Containment), PWG4 (CSNI Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases), and the CSNI. The OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored forty-five ISP exercises over the last twenty-four years, thirteen of them in the area of severe accidents. The criteria for the selection of the RTF test as a basis for the ISP-41 exercise were; (1) complementary to other RTF tests available through the PHEBUS and ACE programmes, (2) simplicity for ease of modelling and (3) good quality data. A simple RTF experiment performed under controlled

  14. Batch experiments for assessing the sorption/desorption characteristics of 152Eu in systems of loose sediments and water containing humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    2001-01-01

    The 152 Eu distribution coefficients of the sorption and desorption of non-binding loose sediments of different grain sizes are investigated using a groundwater of tertiary lignite from Northern Germany which contains high concentrations of humic acids. The batch experiments were carried out with a ratio of 2.5cm 3 /g of solution volume to sediment mass, without mixing [de

  15. Investigation of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory. Analysis of samples and pressurization experiment/analysis of container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    1998-05-01

    To investigate the cause of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory of the Tokai Research Establishment on November 20, 1997, samples of uranium metal waste and scattered residues were analyzed. At the same time the container lid that had been blown off was closely inspected, and the pressurization effects of the container were tested and analyzed. It was found that 1) the uranium metal waste mainly consisted of uranium metal, carbides and oxides, whose relative amounts were dependent on the particle size, 2) the uranium metal waste hydrolyzed to produce combustible gases such as methane and hydrogen, and 3) the lid of the outer container could be blown off by an explosive rise of the inner pressure caused by combustion of inflammable gas mixture. (author)

  16. Experiences in the management of plutonium-containing solid-wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.; Hild, W.; Scheffler, K.

    1974-10-01

    Solid-plutonium-containing wastes from a fuel production plant, a reprocessing plant and several research laboratories are treated at the decontamination department of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center for disposal in the Asse salt mine. Conditioning as well as future aspects in α-waste management are the subject of this Paper. (orig.) [de

  17. The Attitudes of Blacks Toward Stories in Selected Basal Readers Which Contain Negro Characters: Teaching Black Experience Through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzler, Dolores J.

    The purposes of the study were to determine the extent to which basal readers contain stories pertaining to blacks; to find out if the racial implications stated in basal texts are those that blacks want; to locate the black heroes in basal readers and evaluate whether or not these are the preferred heroes of the population of blacks sampled in…

  18. Results of an experiment in a Zion-like geometry to investigate the effect of water on the containment basement floor on direct containment heating (DCH) in the Surtsey Test Facility: The IET-4 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.; Nichols, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    This document discusses the fourth experiment of the Integral Effects Test (IET-4) series which was conducted to investigate the effects of high pressure melt ejection on direct containment heating. Scale models (1:10) of the Zion reactor pressure vessel (RPV), cavity, instrument tunnel, and subcompartment structures were constructed in the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. ne RPV was modeled with a melt generator that consisted of a steel pressure barrier, a cast MgO crucible, and a thin steel inner liner. The melt generator/crucible had a hemispherical bottom head containing a graphite limitor plate with a 3.5-cm exit hole to simulate the ablated hole in the RPV bottom head that would be tonned by tube ejection in a severe nuclear power plant accident. The reactor cavity model contained 3.48 kg of water with a depth of 0.9 cm that corresponded to condensate levels in the Zion plant. A 43-kg initial charge of iron oxide/aluminum/chromium thermite was used to simulate corium debris on the bottom head of the RPV. Molten thermite was ejected into the scaled reactor cavity by 6.7 MPa steam. IET-4 replicated the third experiment in the IET series (IET-3), except the Surtsey vessel contained slightly more preexisting oxygen (9.6 mol.% vs. 9.0 mol.%), and water was placed on the basement floor inside the crane wall. The cavity pressure measurements showed that a small steam explosion occurred in the cavity at about the same time as the steam explosion in IET-1. The oxygen in the Surtsey vessel in IET-4 resulted in a vigorous hydrogen bum, which caused a significant increase in the peak pressure, 262 kPa compared to 98 kPa in the IET-1 test. EET-3, with similar pre-existing oxygen concentrations, also had a large peak pressure of 246 kPa

  19. Modeling bubble condenser containment with computer code COCOSYS: post-test calculations of the main steam line break experiment at ELECTROGORSK BC V-213 test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lola, I.; Gromov, G.; Gumenyuk, D.; Pustovit, V.; Sholomitsky, S.; Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.; Blinkov, V.; Osokin, G.; Melikhov, O.; Melikhov, V.; Sokoline, A.

    2005-01-01

    Containment of the WWER-440 Model 213 nuclear power plant features a Bubble Condenser, a complex passive pressure suppression system, intended to limit pressure rise in the containment during accidents. Due to lack of experimental evidence of its successful operation in the original design documentation, the performance of this system under accidents with ruptures of large high-energy pipes of the primary and secondary sides remains a known safety concern for this containment type. Therefore, a number of research and analytical studies have been conducted by the countries operating WWER-440 reactors and their Western partners in the recent years to verify Bubble Condenser operation under accident conditions. Comprehensive experimental research studies at the Electrogorsk BC V-213 test facility, commissioned in 1999 in Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (EREC), constitute essential part of these efforts. Nowadays this is the only operating large-scale facility enabling integral tests on investigation of the Bubble Condenser performance. Several large international research projects, conducted at this facility in 1999-2003, have covered a spectrum of pipe break accidents. These experiments have substantially improved understanding of the overall system performance and thermal hydraulic phenomena in the Bubble Condenser Containment, and provided valuable information for validating containment codes against experimental results. One of the recent experiments, denoted as SLB-G02, has simulated steam line break. The results of this experiment are of especial value for the engineers working in the area of computer code application for WWER-440 containment analyses, giving an opportunity to verify validity of the code predictions and identify possibilities for model improvement. This paper describes the results of the post-test calculations of the SLB-G02 experiment, conducted as a joint effort of GRS, Germany and Ukrainian technical support organizations for

  20. Accounting for variation in designing greenhouse experiments with special reference to greenhouses containing plants on conveyor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a number of unresolved issues in the design of experiments in greenhouses. They include whether statistical designs should be used and, if so, which designs should be used. Also, are there thigmomorphogenic or other effects arising from the movement of plants on conveyor belts within a greenhouse? A two-phase, single-line wheat experiment involving four tactics was conducted in a conventional greenhouse and a fully-automated phenotyping greenhouse (Smarthouse) to investigate these issues. Results and discussion Analyses of our experiment show that there was a small east–west trend in total area of the plants in the Smarthouse. Analyses of the data from three multiline experiments reveal a large north–south trend. In the single-line experiment, there was no evidence of differences between trios of lanes, nor of movement effects. Swapping plant positions during the trial was found to decrease the east–west trend, but at the cost of increased error variance. The movement of plants in a north–south direction, through a shaded area for an equal amount of time, nullified the north–south trend. An investigation of alternative experimental designs for equally-replicated experiments revealed that generally designs with smaller blocks performed best, but that (nearly) trend-free designs can be effective when blocks are larger. Conclusions To account for variation in microclimate in a greenhouse, using statistical design and analysis is better than rearranging the position of plants during the experiment. For the relocation of plants to be successful requires that plants spend an equal amount of time in each microclimate, preferably during comparable growth stages. Even then, there is no evidence that this will be any more precise than statistical design and analysis of the experiment, and the risk is that it will not be successful at all. As for statistical design and analysis, it is best to use either (i) smaller blocks, (ii) (nearly) trend

  1. Flow column experiments on the 152Eu migration in systems of loose sediments and water containing humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Wolf, M.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid transport of 152 in non-binding loose sediments of different grain sizes was investigated using a groundwater of the tertiary lignite of Northern Germany with a high humic acid concentration. The migration experiments were carried out in flow columns at natural filter flow rates and natural flow lengths [de

  2. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records and reports concerning experience with... application is in effect. 510.301 Section 510.301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... or deterioration in the drug, or any failure of one or more distributed batches of the drug to meet...

  3. Development and operational experiences of an automated remote inspection system for interior of primary containment vessel of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, N.; Chikara, S.; Fumio, T.; Katsuhiro, M.; Katsutoshi, S.; Ken-Ichiro, S.; Masaaki, F.; Masayoshi, S.

    1983-01-01

    A prototype was developed for an automated remote inspection system featuring continuous monitoring of the working status of major components inside the primary containment vessel of a boiling water reactor. This inspection system consists of four units, or vehicles, which are towed by a trolley chain along a monorail; a complex coaxial cable for data transmission and for power supply; and an operator's console. A TV camera, microphone, thermometer, hygrometer, and ionization chamber are mounted on the various units. After several months' testing under high-ambient temperature, the system was installed in the Tokai-2 power station of Japan Atomic Power Company for in situ tests

  4. Consideration of turbulent deposition in aerosol behaviour modelling with the CONTAIN code and comparison of the computations to sodium release experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, R.

    1988-09-01

    CONTAIN is a computer code to analyze physical, chemical and radiological processes inside the reactor containment in the sequence of severe reactor accident. Modelling of the aerosol behaviour is included. We have improved the code by implementing a subroutine for turbulent deposition of aerosols. In contrast to previous calculations in which this effect was neglected, the computer results are in good agreement with sodium release experiments. If a typical friction velocity of 1 m/s is chosen, the computed aerosol mass median diameters and aerosol mass concentrations agree with the experimental results within a factor of 1.5 or 2, respectively. We have also found a good agreement between the CONTAIN calculations and results from other aerosol codes. (orig.) [de

  5. On the possible role of thermal radiation in containment thermal–hydraulics experiments by the example of CFD analysis of TOSQAN T114 air–He test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A.S.; Grigoryev, S.Yu. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Tarasov, O.V. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Neglecting by heat radiation in simulation of containment tests may cause discrepancies. • To show that, heat exchange in T114 air-helium test was analyzed in different ways. • Effect of thermal radiation on local temperature was numerically obtained in air with ∼1% steam content. • Model of gas-structure heat exchange in containment should include heat radiation. - Abstract: One of the experiments of ERCOSAM–SAMARA (E–S) projects (TOSQAN T114) is examined from the viewpoint of the radiative heat transfer (RHT) contribution to the overall heat exchange. E–S projects and T114 test were focused on investigation of light gas stratification in severe accident containment atmosphere and stratification break-up after the activation of mitigation systems. The first from two phases of T114 test is considered during which helium is quasistatically injected into the upper part of the TOSQAN vessel having isothermal walls and initially filled by air. The developing free convection removes most of the heat acquired, but not all. Thus stable local deviations in calculated temperatures were obtained in simulations that were interpreted as the deficiencies of the physical heat-transfer model. The modeling of RHT was included in full CFD simulation that resulted in a better agreement in local temperatures. The results of comparative calculations performed without/with RHT modeling are described in the paper. The RHT model implemented in the used CFD code (ANSYS FLUENT) was tested on known analytical solutions. The RHT contribution in T114 test was also estimated analytically to demonstrate independently that it may be noticeable in this experiment. The same estimations may be valid for stagnant zones of severe accident containment. All that shows the need in further detailing of the role of RHT in gas-structure heat exchange: as for interpretation of some containment tests performed in pressure vessel as for containment modeling.

  6. CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in Battelle model containment. Experimental phases 2, 3 and 4. Results of comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Schall, M.; Wolf, L.

    1993-01-01

    The present final report comprises the major results of Phase II of the CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in the Battelle model containment, experimental phases 2, 3 and 4, which was organized and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities for the purpose of furthering the understanding and analysis of long-term thermal-hydraulic phenomena inside containments during and after severe core accidents. This benchmark exercise received high European attention with eight organizations from six countries participating with eight computer codes during phase 2. Altogether 18 results from computer code runs were supplied by the participants and constitute the basis for comparisons with the experimental data contained in this publication. This reflects both the high technical interest in, as well as the complexity of, this CEC exercise. Major comparison results between computations and data are reported on all important quantities relevant for containment analyses during long-term transients. These comparisons comprise pressure, steam and air content, velocities and their directions, heat transfer coefficients and saturation ratios. Agreements and disagreements are discussed for each participating code/institution, conclusions drawn and recommendations provided. The phase 2 CEC benchmark exercise provided an up-to-date state-of-the-art status review of the thermal-hydraulic capabilities of present computer codes for containment analyses. This exercise has shown that all of the participating codes can simulate the important global features of the experiment correctly, like: temperature stratification, pressure and leakage, heat transfer to structures, relative humidity, collection of sump water. Several weaknesses of individual codes were identified, and this may help to promote their development. As a general conclusion it may be said that while there is still a wide area of necessary extensions and improvements, the

  7. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O.; Nichols, R.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report

  8. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nichols, R.T. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report.

  9. Eulerian finite-difference calculations of explosions in partially water-filled overstrong cylindrical containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.L.; Herrmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations, using the two-dimensional Eulerian finite-difference code CSQ, were performed for the problem of a small spherical high-explosive charge detonated in a closed heavy-walled cylindrical container partially filled with water. Data from corresponding experiments, specifically performed to validate codes used for hypothetical core disruptive accidents of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, are available in the literature. The calculations were performed specifically to test whether Eulerian methods could handle this type of problem, to determine whether water cavitation, which plays a large role in the loadings on the roof of the containment vessel, could be described adequately by an equilibrium liquid-vapor mixed phase model, and to investigate the trade-off between accuracy and cost of the calculations by using different sizes of computational meshes. Comparison of the experimental and computational data shows that the Eulerian method can handle the problem with ease, giving good predictions of wall and floor loadings. While roof loadings are qualitatively correct, peak impulse appears to be affected by numerical resolution and is underestimated somewhat

  10. EXPERIENCE OF TREATMENT OF PATIENT WITH JUVENILE SERONEGATIVE POLYARTHRITIS WITH MEDICATION CONTAINING GLUCOSAMINE AND EXTRACTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Gudkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report on a severe course of juvenile seronegative polyarthritis is presented in this article. Successful treatment with «zinaxin» containing glucosamine and extracts of zingiber officinale, made with lipocap technology as an alternative to nonsteroidal anti9inflammatory drugs was performed is patient with developed adverse event to the medicaments (increase of plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase five times a much compared to norm, combined with quadrotherapy of duodenal ulcer. Patient had a good status, pain syndrome and morning joint stiffness were absent during treatment with «zinaxin with glucosamine» daily and dsintoxication course (2 months in conditions of withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment. activity of disease had 0–1 grade according to examination data.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, pain syndrome.

  11. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Membranes: A Comparative Study of Experiments In Silico and with Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ménorval, Marie-Amélie; Mir, Lluis M.; Fernández, M. Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been known to enhance cell membrane permeability of drugs or DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-component lipid bilayers predicted the existence of three regimes of action of DMSO: membrane loosening, pore formation and bilayer collapse. We show here that these modes of action are also reproduced in the presence of cholesterol in the bilayer, and we provide a description at the atomic detail of the DMSO-mediated process of pore formation in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. We also successfully explore the applicability of DMSO to promote plasma membrane permeability to water, calcium ions (Ca2+) and Yo-Pro-1 iodide (Yo-Pro-1) in living cell membranes. The experimental results on cells in culture can be easily explained according to the three expected regimes: in the presence of low doses of DMSO, the membrane of the cells exhibits undulations but no permeability increase can be detected, while at intermediate DMSO concentrations cells are permeabilized to water and calcium but not to larger molecules as Yo-Pro-1. These two behaviors can be associated to the MD-predicted consequences of the effects of the DMSO at low and intermediate DMSO concentrations. At larger DMSO concentrations, permeabilization is larger, as even Yo-Pro-1 can enter the cells as predicted by the DMSO-induced membrane-destructuring effects described in the MD simulations. PMID:22848583

  12. Health physics and operational experience gained from slurry transfer of wastes containing 780 curies of radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, W.C.; Land, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    During remedial action at the DOE Niagara Falls Storage Site 3.5 million kilogram (3891 ton) of uranium ore residues (code named K-65 during the Manhattan Project) were slurry transferred about one mile from a concrete water tower to an engineered waste containment facility. This operation presented a number of unusual health physics problems, mandating special handling, measurement, and exposure control methodologies. Principles among these were: (1) a specific activity of 220,000 pCi/gm; (2) open air concentrations of radon-222 of up to 60,000 pCi/1; (3) radon concentrations inside the tower of 1,700,000 pCi/1; (4) exposure rates of up to 350 mR/hr; (5) widely varying climatic conditions; and (6) working atop a 165 foot tall, 40 foot diameter, structure in these conditions. This paper will describe the transfer operation, its problems, problem solutions, and successes. Detailed attention is given to personnel and environmental monitoring, as well as contamination and exposure control methodologies. Operations concluded with the K-65 residues stored in an environmentally stable condition, less than 10 man-rem of worker exposure, and average off-site radon-222 concentrations of less than 0.3 pCi/1 above background

  13. Experience in usage of T-108 titrimetric laboratory unit for precision analysis of uranium-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhinskij, M.V.; Bronzov, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Possibilities of the T-108 device of potentiometric titration for precise determination of uranium in various uranium-containing materials are studied, the results being presented. Principle flowsheet of the device and the sequence of analytic procedure of uranium potentiometric titration are considered. U 3 O 8 , UO 2 and UF 4 were used as materials to be analyzed, state standard samples of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 -SSS 2215-81 and U 3 O 8 SSS 2396-83P- as standard samples. It is shown that relative standard deviation during titration using the T-108 device is mainly determined by the error of determination of the final titration point potention and it must not exceed 0.002 for uranium titration considered. The conclusion is made that the variant of potentiometric titration of uranium with the use of the T-108 device is not inferior in its accuracy to gravimetry and surpasses it in productivity and possibility of automation. 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Predicting ion exchange resins decontamination factors. Experiments on synthetic primary coolant containing Ni, Co and Ag and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachet, Martin; Schneider, Hélène; Jauberty, Loïc; Windt, Laurent De; Dieuleveult, Caroline de; Tevissen, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Experiments performed under chemical and flow conditions representative of pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary fluid purification by ion exchange resins (Amberlite IRN9882) are modeled with the OPTIPUR code, considering 1D reactive transport in the mixed-bed column with convective/dispersive transport between beads and electro-diffusive transport within the boundary film around the beads. The effectiveness of the purification in these dilute conditions is highly related to film mass transfer restrictions, which are accounted for by adjustment of a common mass transfer coefficient (MTC) on the experimental initial leakage or modeling of species diffusion through the bead film by the Nernst-Planck equation. A detailed analysis of the modeling against experimental data shows that the Nernst-Planck approach with no adjustable parameters performs as well as, or better, than the MTC approach, particularly to simulate the chromatographic elution of silver by nickel and the subsequent enrichment of the solution in the former metal. (author)

  15. Experiment in data tagging in information-accessing services containing energy-related data. Final report 1975--78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This report describes the results of an experiment conducted by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), on the use of 'data tags' in a machine-readable output file for incorporation into an on-line search service. 'Data tags' are codes which uniquely identify specific types of numerical data in the corresponding source documents referenced in the file. Editorial and processing procedures were established for the identification of data types; the recording, editing, verification, and correction of the data tags; and their compilation into a special version of ENERGY, a CAS computer-readable abstract text file. Possible data tagging plans are described and criteria for extended studies in data tagging and accessing are outlined

  16. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  17. [Lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid filler on a CPM® basis for lip augmentation : Experience from clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T; Sattler, G; Gauglitz, G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is an established procedure. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density CPM-HAL1 (Belotero® Balance Lidocaine) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero® Intense Lidocaine) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. Assessment of handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data from patients who received lip augmentation by means of bautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2 were documented. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, handling, fluidity, distribution, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. In total, 146 patients from 21 German centres participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for > 95 % of patients. Handling, fluidity, distribution and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in > 91 % of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93 % of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6 %) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 min (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period.

  18. A model independent search for new physics in final states containing leptons at the D0 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, Joel Michael

    2009-01-01

    The standard model is known to be the low energy limit of a more general theory. Several consequences of the standard model point to a strong probability of new physics becoming experimentally visible in high energy collisions of a few TeV, resulting in high momentum objects. The specific signatures of these collisions are topics of much debate. Rather than choosing a specific signature, this analysis broadly searches the data, preferring breadth over sensitivity. In searching for new physics, several different approaches are used. These include the comparison of data with standard model background expectation in overall number of events, comparisons of distributions of many kinematic variables, and finally comparisons on the tails of distributions that sum the momenta of the objects in an event. With 1.07 fb -1 at the D0 experiment, we find no evidence of physics beyond the standard model. Several discrepancies from the standard model were found, but none of these provide a compelling case for new physics.

  19. A model independent search for new physics in final states containing leptons at the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Joel Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The standard model is known to be the low energy limit of a more general theory. Several consequences of the standard model point to a strong probability of new physics becoming experimentally visible in high energy collisions of a few TeV, resulting in high momentum objects. The specific signatures of these collisions are topics of much debate. Rather than choosing a specific signature, this analysis broadly searches the data, preferring breadth over sensitivity. In searching for new physics, several different approaches are used. These include the comparison of data with standard model background expectation in overall number of events, comparisons of distributions of many kinematic variables, and finally comparisons on the tails of distributions that sum the momenta of the objects in an event. With 1.07 fb-1 at the D0 experiment, we find no evidence of physics beyond the standard model. Several discrepancies from the standard model were found, but none of these provide a compelling case for new physics.

  20. [Runoff and sediment yielding processes on red soil engineering accumulation containing gravels by a simulated rainfall experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian-hua; Wang, Wen-long; Guo, Ming-ming; Bai, Yun; Deng, Li-qiang; Li, Jian-ming; Li, Yao-lin

    2015-09-01

    Engineering accumulation formed in production and construction projects is characterized by unique structure and complex material composition. Characteristics of soil erosion on the engineering accumulation significantly differ from those on farmland. An artificially simulated rainfall experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of rainfall intensity on the processes of runoff and sediment yielding on the engineering accumulation of different gravel contents (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) in red soil regions. Results showed that the initial time of runoff generation decreased with increases in rainfall intensity and gravel content, the decreased amplitudes being about 48.5%-77.9% and 4.2%-34.2%, respectively. The initial time was found to be a power function of rainfall intensity. Both runoff velocity and runoff rate manifested a trend of first rising and then in a steady state with runoff duration. Rainfall intensity was found to be the main factor influencing runoff velocity and runoff rate, whereas the influence of gravel content was not significant. About 10% of gravel content was determined to be a critical value in the influence of gravel content on runoff volume. For the underlying surface of 10% gravel content, the runoff volume was least at rainfall intensity of 1.0 mm · min(-1) and maximum at rainfall intensity of greater than 1.0 mm · min(-1). The runoff volume in- creased 10%-60% with increase in rainfall intensity. Sediment concentration showed a sharp decline in first 6 min and then in a stable state in rest of time. Influence of rainfall intensity on sediment concentration decreased as gravel content increased. Gravels could reduce sediment yield significantly at rainfall intensity of greater than 1.0 mm · min(-1). Sediment yield was found to be a linear function of rainfall intensity and gravel content.

  1. Meaning, knowledge and experience in the self-contained intertextuality of Shirley Jackson’s The intoxicated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Vargas Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de entender a contribuição de Shirley Jackson para a literatura americana e mundial, é necessário entender certos aspectos da vida e da obra da escritora. O presente texto deseja apresentar esta importante escritora do século vinte a luz de sua literatura e, em sequência, comentar o que ainda está por ser considerado um dos traços mais marcantes de seu legado artístico, i.e., a intertextualidade auto-contida presente em seus textos. Esta pode apenas ser percebida por intermédio do conhecimento adquirido através da leitura do coletivo de suas obras. O objetivo do presente texto é ajudar na desmitificação da noção de superficialidade que paira sobre as obras da escritora. A intenção é auxiliar na determinação de que diversas camadas de significados latentes podem ser acessadas por meio da experiência adquirida via o conhecimento fornecido pelo ciclo que seus textos individuais formam. Para atingir esta meta, o presente empreendimento intenciona, em primeiro lugar, selecionar a apresentar aspectos relevantes da vida da escritora que serão importantes para a compreensão de sua dimensão literária. Em Segundo lugar, a ideia de interpretação através do reconhecimento intertextual será abordada e discutida, juntamente com outros aspectos relevantes e, em terceiro lugar, um exemplo da rede cíclica da obra da escritora será aludido brevemente utilizando-se o conto The Intoxicated, oriundo da coleção de 1949 chamada The Lottery and Other Stories (2005.

  2. CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in Battelle model containment long-term heat-up phase. Results for phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Schall, M.; Wolf, L.

    1991-01-01

    The major objective of the F2 experiment was to investigate the thermal-hydraulic long-term phenomena with special emphasis on natural convection phenomena in a loop-type geometry affected by variations of steam and air injections at different locations as well as dry energy supply into various compartments. The open post-test exercise is being performed in two consecutive phases, with Phase I covering the initial long-term heat-up phase. The exercise received widespread international attention with nine organizations from six European countries participating with seven different computer codes (FUMO, Jericho2, Fiploc, Wavco, Contain, Melcor, Cobra/Fathoms). These codes cover a broad spectrum of presently known European computational tools in severe accident containment analyses. The participants used either the specified mass flow or pressure control boundary conditions. Some exercised their codes for both. In total, 14 different computations were officially provided by the participants indicating strong interests and cooperative efforts by various institutions

  3. Pengaruh Tandem Booster TNT Terhadap Kecepatan Detonasi Campuran Bahan Peledak Tepung Kalium Klorat, Sulfur Dan Aluminium Sebagai Bahan Peldak High Explosive

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Tarsim

    2010-01-01

    There are a research on velocity of detonation explosives from Improvised Bomb with potassium chlorate, sulfur and aluminum with a composition of 65:20:15% (weight / weight), 70 mesh, galvanized pipes and containers with some blasting mechanism, starts with an explosion that ignite by a improvise detonator, factory detonator without a booster, factory detonator with a tandem booster TNT, and TNT booster modifications by adding a layer of Pb plate and make a cavity between the main booster ch...

  4. Code-experiment comparison on wall condensation tests in the presence of non-condensable gases-Numerical calculations for containment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Porcheron, E.; Dumay, F.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Steam condensation on walls has been investigated in the TOSQAN vessel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments on 7 different tests have been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different steam injections and wall temperatures are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulations are performed in 2D using the TONUS code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Code-experiments comparisons at many different locations show a good agreement. - Abstract: During the course of a severe Pressurized Water Reactor accident, pressurization of the containment occurs and hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed in the containment according to convection flows and wall condensation. Filmwise wall condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases is a subject of many interests and extensive studies have been performed in the past. Some empirical correlations have demonstrated their limit for extrapolation under different thermal-hydraulic conditions and at different geometries/scales. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has developed a numerical tool and an experimental facility in order to investigate free convection flows in the presence of condensation. The objective of this paper is to present numerical results obtained on different wall condensation tests in 7 m{sup 3} volume vessel (TOSQAN facility), and to compare them with the experimental ones. Over eight tests are considered here, and code-experiment comparison is performed on many different locations, giving an extensive insight of the code assessment for air-steam mixture flows involving wall condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases.

  5. FAUST/CONTAIN; FAUST/CONTAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-08-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  6. Thermodynamic properties of fluid mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures. Application to high explosives and to phase diagrams of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittion-Rossillon, Gerard

    1982-01-01

    The free energy for mixtures of about ten species which are chemically reacting is calculated. In order to have accurate results near the freezing line, excess properties are deduced from a modern statistical mechanics theory. Intermolecular potentials for like molecules are fitted to give good agreement with shock experiments in pure liquid samples, and mixture properties come naturally from the theory. The stationary Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave is calculated with a chemical equilibrium computer code and results are in good agreement with experiment for a lot of various explosives. One then study gas-gas equilibria in a binary mixture and show the extreme sensitivity of theoretical phase diagrams to the hypothesis of the model (author) [fr

  7. Non destructive testing of concrete nuclear containment plants with surface waves: Lab experiment on decimeter slabs and on the VeRCoRs mock-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Odile; Legland, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Olivier; Hénault, Jean-Marie; Garnier, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    The maintenance and evaluation of concrete nuclear containment walls is a major concern as they must, in case of an accident, ensure the confinement of the nuclear radiations and resist to the loads. A homemade multi-receiver multi-source dry contact linear probe to record ultrasonic surface waves on concrete in the frequency range [60 kHz - 200 kHz] has been used in this context. The measurement protocol includes the summation of up to 50 spatially distributed seismograms and the determination of the surface waves phase velocity dispersion curve. The probe has been tested against several concrete states under no loading (water saturation level, temperature damage). Then, the same measurements have been performed on sound and fire damaged slabs submitted to uniaxial loading (stress up to 30 % of the concrete compression resistance). It is shown that the robustness and precision of the surface waves measurement protocol make it possible to follow the stress level. In March 2017 a first experiment with this surface wave probe has been conducted on a reduced 1:3 scale nuclear containment plant (EDF VeRCoRs mock-up) under loading conditions that replicates that of decennial inspection. The surface wave phase velocity dispersion curves of each state are compared and cross-validated with other NDT results.

  8. Prebiotic Synthesis of Methionine and Other Sulfur-Containing Organic Compounds on the Primitive Earth: A Contemporary Reassessment Based on an Unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Original extracts from an unpublished 1958 experiment conducted by the late Stanley L. Miller were recently found and analyzed using modern state-of-the-art analytical methods. The extracts were produced by the action of an electric discharge on a mixture of methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Racemic methionine was farmed in significant yields, together with other sulfur-bearing organic compounds. The formation of methionine and other compounds from a model prebiotic atmosphere that contained H2S suggests that this type of synthesis is robust under reducing conditions, which may have existed either in the global primitive atmosphere or in localized volcanic environments on the early Earth. The presence of a wide array of sulfur-containing organic compounds produced by the decomposition of methionine and cysteine indicates that in addition to abiotic synthetic processes, degradation of organic compounds on the primordial Earth could have been important in diversifying the inventory of molecules of biochemical significance not readily formed from other abiotic reactions, or derived from extraterrestrial delivery.

  9. Recent progress on the HESS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, R.M.; Barnes, D.C.; Freeman, B.; Henins, I.; Jarboe, T.R.; Platts, D.

    1990-01-01

    The new objective of the Los Alamos spheromak program is to assess the use of magnetized plasmas as an energy transfer medium to accelerate material objects to hyper-velocities (approx-gt 20 km/s). In meeting this objective, the authors are committed to the subordinate goals of (1) creating high field, long-lived spheromak discharges, (2) examining the technical feasibility of employing High Explosives (HE) to compress seed spheromaks, and (3) investigate the technical requirements involved in forming spheromaks by Mechanical Helicity Injection (HMI) using HE. This paper describes the recent efforts of the CTR-5, M-4, and M-6 groups at Los Alamos in assessing the feasibility of generating magnetic helicity by mechanical means in the High Explosive Spheromak Source (HESS) experiment

  10. Kulanaokuaiki Tephra (ca, A.D. 400-1000): Newly recognized evidence for highly explosive eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, R.S.; Rose, T.R.; Swanson, D.A.; Champion, D.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    K??lauea may be one of the world's most intensively monitored volcanoes, but its eruptive history over the past several thousand years remains rather poorly known. Our study has revealed the vestiges of thin basaltic tephra deposits, overlooked by previous workers, that originally blanketed wide, near-summit areas and extended more than 17 km to the south coast of Hawai'i. These deposits, correlative with parts of tephra units at the summit and at sites farther north and northwest, show that K??lauea, commonly regarded as a gentle volcano, was the site of energetic pyroclastic eruptions and indicate the volcano is significantly more hazardous than previously realized. Seventeen new calibrated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon ages suggest these deposits, here named the Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, were emplaced ca. A.D. 400-1000, a time of no previously known pyroclastic activity at the volcano. Tephra correlations are based chiefly on a marker unit that contains unusually high values of TiO2 and K2O and on paleomagnetic signatures of associated lava flows, which show that the Kulanaokuaiki deposits are the time-stratigraphic equivalent of the upper part of a newly exhumed section of the Uw??kahuna Ash in the volcano's northwest caldera wall. This section, thought to have been permanently buried by rockfalls in 1983, is thicker and more complete than the previously accepted type Uw??kahuna at the base of the caldera wall. Collectively, these findings justify the elevation of the Uw??kahuna Ash to formation status; the newly recognized Kulanaokuaiki Tephra to the south, the chief focus of this study, is defined as a member of the Uw??kahuna Ash. The Kulanaokuaiki Tephra is the product of energetic pyroclastic falls; no surge- or pyroclastic-flow deposits were identified with certainty, despite recent interpretations that Uw??kahuna surges extended 10-20 km from K??lauea's summit. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  11. Shielding container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  12. Wellbore Completion Systems Containment Breach Solution Experiments at a Large Scale Underground Research Laboratory : Sealant placement & scale-up from Lab to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, H.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation seeks to develop sealant technology that can restore containment to completed wells that suffer CO2 gas leakages currently untreatable using conventional technologies. Experimentation is performed at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (MT-URL) located in NW Switzerland. The laboratory affords investigators an intermediate-scale test site that bridges the gap between the laboratory bench and full field-scale conditions. Project focus is the development of CO2 leakage remediation capability using sealant technology. The experimental concept includes design and installation of a field scale completion package designed to mimic well systems heating-cooling conditions that may result in the development of micro-annuli detachments between the casing-cement-formation boundaries (Figure 1). Of particular interest is to test novel sealants that can be injected in to relatively narrow micro-annuli flow-paths of less than 120 microns aperture. Per a special report on CO2 storage submitted to the IPCC[1], active injection wells, along with inactive wells that have been abandoned, are identified as one of the most probable sources of leakage pathways for CO2 escape to the surface. Origins of pressure leakage common to injection well and completions architecture often occur due to tensile cracking from temperature cycles, micro-annulus by casing contraction (differential casing to cement sheath movement) and cement sheath channel development. This discussion summarizes the experiment capability and sealant testing results. The experiment concludes with overcoring of the entire mock-completion test site to assess sealant performance in 2018. [1] IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (September 2005), section 5.7.2 Processes and pathways for release of CO2 from geological storage sites, page 244

  13. Assessing the efficacy of corn-based bait containing antimycin-a to control common carp populations using laboratory and pond experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Joshua R.; Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.

    2018-01-01

    Strategic use of oral toxicants could allow for practical and sustainable control schemes for the invasive common carp (Cyprinus carpio, or ‘carp’) if a toxicant selectively targeted carp and not native species. In this study, we incorporated antimycin-a (ANT-A), a known fish toxicant, into a corn-based bait and conducted a series of experiments to determine its toxicity, leaching rate, and species-specificity. Our results showed that ANT-A was lethal to carp at doses ≥ 4 mg/kg and that the amount of ANT-A that leached out of the bait in 72 h was not lethal to carp or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Species-specificity trials were conducted in 227 L tanks, in which carp were stocked with three native species representing families that occur sympatrically with carp in our study region: the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill. These trials showed high mortality of carp (46%) and fathead minnows (76%) but no significant mortality of perch or bluegill. Finally, a pond study, which used the same species composition except for fathead minnows, resulted in 37% morality among adult carp and no mortality among perch or bluegill. Our results suggest that corn-based bait that contains ANT-A could be used to selectively control carp in ecosystems dominated by percids or centrarchids, such as lakes across the Great Plains ecoregion of North America, where carp are especially problematic.

  14. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  16. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and sealing...... means (10) wherein the engagement means (7) is adapted, via the sealing means, to seal the opening when the pressure of the container assembly differs from the ambient pressure in such a way that the central portion (5) flexes in the axial direction which leads to a radial tightening of the engagement...... means (7) to the container, wherein the container further comprises locking means (12) that can be positioned so that the central portion is hindered from flexing in at least one direction....

  17. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  18. Shielded container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  19. FAUST/CONTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-01-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  20. Patterning high explosives at the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafday, Omkar A.; Pitchimani, Rajasekar; Weeks, Brandon L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Haaheim, Jason [NanoInk Inc., 8025 Lamon Ave., Skokie, IL 60077 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    For the first time, we have shown that spin coating and Dip pen nanolithography (DPN trademark) are simple methods of preparing energetic materials such as PETN and HMX on the nanoscale, requiring no heating of the energetic material. Nanoscale patterning has been demonstrated by the DPN method while continuous thin films were produced using the spin coating method. Results are presented for preparing continuous PETN thin films of nanometer thickness by the spin coating method and for controlling the architecture of arbitrary nanoscale patterns of PETN and HMX by the DPN method. These methods are simple for patterning energetic materials and can be extended beyond PETN and HMX, opening the door for fundamental studies at the nanoscale. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Protein A affinity chromatography of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture broths containing biopharmaceutical monoclonal antibody (mAb): Experiments and mechanistic transport, binding and equilibrium modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grom, Matic; Kozorog, Mirijam; Caserman, Simon; Pohar, Andrej; Likozar, Blaž

    2018-04-15

    Protein A-based affinity chromatography is a highly-efficient separation method to capture, purify and isolate biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAb) - an important medical product of biopharmaceutical industrial manufacturing. It is considered the most expensive step in purification downstream operations; therefore, its performance optimization offers a great cost saving in the overall production expenditure. The biochemical mixture-separating specific interaction experiments with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture harvest, containing glycosylated extracellular immunoglobulins (Ig), were made using five different state-of-the-art commercial resins. Packing breakthrough curves were recorded at an array of prolonged residence times. A mathematical simulation model was developed, applied and validated in combination with non-linear regression algorithms on bed effluent concentrations to determine the previously-unknown binding properties of stationary phase materials. Apart from the columns' differential partitioning, the whole external system was also integrated. It was confirmed that internal pore diffusion is the global rate-limiting resistance of the compound retention process. Immobilizing substrate characteristics, obtained in this engineering study, are indispensable for the scale-up of the periodic counter-current control with mechanistic load, elution and wash reduction. Furthermore, unit's volumetric flow screening measurements revealed dynamic effect correlation to eluate quality parameters, like the presence of aggregates, the host cell-related impurities at supernatant's extended feeding, and titre. Numerical sensitivity outputs demonstrated the impacts of fluidics (e.g. axial dispersion coefficient), thermodynamics (Langmuir adsorption) and mass transfer fluxes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  3. Component failure experiments of the seal casing for the multiple-row bolted connection of the containment equipment hatch of the nuclear power plant Philippsburg II; Experimente zum Versagen des Dichtkastens fuer die Materialschleusenverschraubung im Containment des KKW Philippsburg II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messemer, G.

    2008-06-15

    For the weakness analysis of the containment under internal pressure a question that arose was at what pressure the seal casing for the equipment hatch will fail. For this investigation model strips of the seal casing cross section were manufactured as tensile specimens. Variations of the seal plates welding seams were considered and tested. The type of failure and the associated deformations and resulting forces were measured for 6 specimens. (orig.)

  4. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  5. Sharps container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  6. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  7. Power of two- and three-generation QTL mapping experiments in an outbred population containing full-sib or half-sib families.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van der S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Groen, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    QTL mapping experiments involve many animals to be genotyped and performance tested. Consequently, experimental designs need to be optimized to minimize the costs of data collection and genotyping. The present study has analyzed the power and efficiency of experiments with two or three-generation

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  9. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  10. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems, Phase II. Part 3; Material Model Development and Simulation of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J.; Erlich, D.; Shockey, D.

    2009-01-01

    A team consisting of Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center, and SRI International collaborated to develop computational models and verification testing for designing and evaluating turbine engine fan blade fabric containment structures. This research was conducted under the Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and was sponsored by the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program. The research was directed toward improving the modeling of a turbine engine fabric containment structure for an engine blade-out containment demonstration test required for certification of aircraft engines. The research conducted in Phase II began a new level of capability to design and develop fan blade containment systems for turbine engines. Significant progress was made in three areas: (1) further development of the ballistic fabric model to increase confidence and robustness in the material models for the Kevlar(TradeName) and Zylon(TradeName) material models developed in Phase I, (2) the capability was improved for finite element modeling of multiple layers of fabric using multiple layers of shell elements, and (3) large-scale simulations were performed. This report concentrates on the material model development and simulations of the impact tests.

  11. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-01-01

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to γ-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It's short

  15. Fabrication and Pre-irradiation Characterization of a Minor Actinide and Rare Earth Containing Fast Reactor Fuel Experiment for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2012-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy, seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter lived fission products, thereby decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and reducing the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. This transmutation of the long lived actinides plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium can be accomplished by first separating them from spent Light Water Reactor fuel using a pyro-metalurgical process, then reprocessing them into new fuel with fresh uranium additions, and then transmuted to short lived nuclides in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. An important component of the technology is developing actinide-bearing fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium isotopes that meet the stringent requirements of reactor fuels and materials.

  16. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzcinski, Waldemar A.; Matyas, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E 0 , and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E 0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m -3 . Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities

  17. CONTAIN calculations; CONTAIN-Rechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-08-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident `medium-sized leak in the cold leg`, especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  18. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  1. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require that a dynamic capacity reduction factor be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are recommended. (orig.)

  2. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  3. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  4. Initial experience of using an iron-containing fiducial marker for radiotherapy of prostate cancer: Advantages in the visualization of markers in Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Iida, Takayoshi; Komeda, Hisao; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Seike, Kensaku; Kato, Daiki; Yokoyama, Takamasa; Hirose, Shigeki; Kawaguchi, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    Visualization of markers is critical for imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the size of the marker varies according to the imaging technique. While a large-sized marker is more useful for visualization in MRI, it results in artifacts on CT and causes substantial pain on administration. In contrast, a small-sized marker reduces the artifacts on CT but hampers MRI detection. Herein, we report a new ironcontaining marker and compare its utility with that of non-iron-containing markers. Five patients underwent CT/MRI fusion-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and the markers were placed by urologists. A Gold Anchor™ (GA; diameter, 0.28 mm; length, 10 mm) was placed using a 22G needle on the right side of the prostate. A VISICOIL™ (VIS; diameter, 0.35 mm; length, 10 mm) was placed using a 19G needle on the left side. MRI was performed using T2*-weighted imaging. Three observers evaluated and scored the visual qualities of the acquired images. The mean score of visualization was almost identical between the GA and VIS in radiography and cone-beam CT (Novalis Tx). The artifacts in planning CT were slightly larger using the GA than using the VIS. The visualization of the marker on MRI using the GA was superior to that using the VIS. In conclusion, the visualization quality of radiography, conebeam CT, and planning CT was roughly equal between the GA and VIS. However, the GA was more strongly visualized than was the VIS on MRI due to iron containing.

  5. Bellefonte primary containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyniec, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the reactor building primary containment structure at the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant involved several specialized construction techniques. This two unit plant is one of the nine nuclear units at six different sites now under construction by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The post-Tensioned, cast-in-place interior steel lined containment structure is unique within TVA. Problems during construction were identified at weekly planning meetings, and options were discussed. Close coordination between craft supervisors and on-site engineering personnel drew together ''hands-on''experience and technical background. Details of the construction techniques, problems, and solutions are presented

  6. In vitro experimental environments lacking or containing soil disparately affect competition experiments of Aspergillus flavus and co-occurring fungi in maize grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Titilayo D O; Syed Mohdhamdan, Sharifah H; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Fletcher, Mary T; Harvey, Jagger J W; Chaliha, Mridusmita; Fox, Glen P

    2016-07-01

    In vitro experimental environments are used to study interactions between microorganisms, and to predict dynamics in natural ecosystems. This study highlights that experimental in vitro environments should be selected to match closely the natural environment of interest during in vitro studies to strengthen extrapolations about aflatoxin production by Aspergillus and competing organisms. Fungal competition and aflatoxin accumulation were studied in soil, cotton wool or tube (water-only) environments, for Aspergillus flavus competition with Penicillium purpurogenum, Fusarium oxysporum or Sarocladium zeae within maize grains. Inoculated grains were incubated in each environment at two temperature regimes (25 and 30°C). Competition experiments showed interaction between the main effects of aflatoxin accumulation and the environment at 25°C, but not so at 30°C. However, competition experiments showed fungal populations were always interacting with their environments. Fungal survival differed after the 72-h incubation in different experimental environments. Whereas all fungi incubated within the soil environment survived, in the cotton wool environment none of the competitors of A. flavus survived at 30°C. With aflatoxin accumulation, F. oxysporum was the only fungus able to interdict aflatoxin production at both temperatures. This occurred only in the soil environment and fumonisins accumulated instead. Smallholder farmers in developing countries face serious mycotoxin contamination of their grains, and soil is a natural reservoir for the associated fungal propagules, and a drying and storage surface for grains on these farms. Studying fungal dynamics in the soil environment and other environments in vitro can provide insights into aflatoxin accumulation post-harvest.

  7. Proof testing of an explosion containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, E.D. [Esparza (Edward D.), San Antonio, TX (United States); Stacy, H.; Wackerle, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A steel containment vessel was fabricated and proof tested for use by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at their M-9 facility. The HY-100 steel vessel was designed to provide total containment for high explosives tests up to 22 lb (10 kg) of TNT equivalent. The vessel was fabricated from an 11.5-ft diameter cylindrical shell, 1.5 in thick, and 2:1 elliptical ends, 2 in thick. Prior to delivery and acceptance, three types of tests were required for proof testing the vessel: a hydrostatic pressure test, air leak tests, and two full design charge explosion tests. The hydrostatic pressure test provided an initial static check on the capacity of the vessel and functioning of the strain instrumentation. The pneumatic air leak tests were performed before, in between, and after the explosion tests. After three smaller preliminary charge tests, the full design charge weight explosion tests demonstrated that no yielding occurred in the vessel at its rated capacity. The blast pressures generated by the explosions and the dynamic response of the vessel were measured and recorded with 33 strain channels, 4 blast pressure channels, 2 gas pressure channels, and 3 displacement channels. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a short summary of the methodology used to predict the design blast loads, a brief description of the transducer locations and measurement systems, some of the hydrostatic test strain and stress results, examples of the explosion pressure and dynamic strain data, and some comparisons of the measured data with the design loads and stresses on the vessel.

  8. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  9. Preshot predictions for the near-source region in the non-proliferation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, D.F.; Welch, J.E.; Zerkle, J. [SAIC/Simulation Technology Operation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of one and two-dimensional, ground motion calculations made in support of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a 1KT high explosive shot fired on 22 September 1993 at the Nevada Test Site. These calculations were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency`s late-time containment program, and were completed well before the test was executed. They addressed a variety of test design, analysis and construction issues, and sought to identify any potential safety concerns. The test site model used in these calculations was based in large part on earlier work performed at SAIC and by other Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) contractors for the nearby underground nuclear test, code named MISTY ECHO. In particular, to obtain physical property and quasi-static material response data for the site, a number of core samples recovered near the MISTY ECHO working point (WP) were tested by TerraTek. We then used these data to develop a numerical response model for the site.

  10. Three-dimensional growth of human endothelial cells in an automated cell culture experiment container during the SpaceX CRS-8 ISS space mission - The SPHEROIDS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Gass, Samuel; Nebuloni, Stefano; Echegoyen, David; Riwaldt, Stefan; Baake, Christin; Bauer, Johann; Corydon, Thomas J; Egli, Marcel; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Human endothelial cells (ECs) were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the impact of microgravity on the formation of three-dimensional structures. For this project, an automatic experiment unit (EU) was designed allowing cell culture in space. In order to enable a safe cell culture, cell nourishment and fixation after a pre-programmed timeframe, the materials used for construction of the EUs were tested in regard to their biocompatibility. These tests revealed a high biocompatibility for all parts of the EUs, which were in contact with the cells or the medium used. Most importantly, we found polyether ether ketones for surrounding the incubation chamber, which kept cellular viability above 80% and allowed the cells to adhere as long as they were exposed to normal gravity. After assembling the EU the ECs were cultured therein, where they showed good cell viability at least for 14 days. In addition, the functionality of the automatic medium exchange, and fixation procedures were confirmed. Two days before launch, the ECs were cultured in the EUs, which were afterwards mounted on the SpaceX CRS-8 rocket. 5 and 12 days after launch the cells were fixed. Subsequent analyses revealed a scaffold-free formation of spheroids in space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  12. Modeling Hemispheric Detonation Experiments in 2-Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Vitello, P A; Druce, R L; Phillips, D; Lee, R; Mudge, S; Roeske, F

    2006-06-22

    Experiments have been performed with LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder) to study scaling of detonation waves using a dimensional scaling in a hemispherical divergent geometry. We model these experiments using an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) hydrodynamics code, with reactive flow models based on the thermo-chemical code, Cheetah. The thermo-chemical code Cheetah provides a pressure-dependent kinetic rate law, along with an equation of state based on exponential-6 fluid potentials for individual detonation product species, calibrated to high pressures ({approx} few Mbars) and high temperatures (20000K). The parameters for these potentials are fit to a wide variety of experimental data, including shock, compression and sound speed data. For the un-reacted high explosive equation of state we use a modified Murnaghan form. We model the detonator (including the flyer plate) and initiation system in detail. The detonator is composed of LX-16, for which we use a program burn model. Steinberg-Guinan models5 are used for the metal components of the detonator. The booster and high explosive are LX-10 and LX-17, respectively. For both the LX-10 and LX-17, we use a pressure dependent rate law, coupled with a chemical equilibrium equation of state based on Cheetah. For LX-17, the kinetic model includes carbon clustering on the nanometer size scale.

  13. Status of the CONTAIN computer code for LWR containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Murata, K.K.; Rexroth, P.E.; Clauser, M.J.; Senglaub, M.E.; Sciacca, F.W.; Trebilcock, W.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the CONTAIN code for LWR safety analysis is reviewed. Three example calculations are discussed as illustrations of the code's capabilities: (1) a demonstration of the spray model in a realistic PWR problem, and a comparison with CONTEMPT results; (2) a comparison of CONTAIN results for a major aerosol experiment against experimental results and predictions of the HAARM aerosol code; and (3) an LWR sample problem, involving a TMLB' sequence for the Zion reactor containment

  14. Status of the CONTAIN computer code for LWR containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Murata, K.K.; Rexroth, P.E.; Clauser, M.J.; Senglaub, M.E.; Sciacca, F.W.; Trebilcock, W.

    1982-01-01

    The current status of the CONTAIN code for LWR safety analysis is reviewed. Three example calculations are discussed as illustrations of the code's capabilities: (1) a demonstration of the spray model in a realistic PWR problem, and a comparison with CONTEMPT results; (2) a comparison of CONTAIN results for a major aerosol experiment against experimental results and predictions of the HAARM aerosol code; and (3) an LWR sample problem, involving a TMLB' sequence for the Zion reactor containment

  15. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  16. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, Svatopluk [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: svatopluk.zeman@upce.cz; Trzcinski, Waldemar A. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, PL-00-908 Warsaw 49 (Poland); Matyas, Robert [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E{sub 0}, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E{sub 0} values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities.

  17. Experience in exchanging pipes in NPP containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Very careful planning and scheduling of NPP retrofit projects involving replacement of piping, valves, pumps and steam generators is essential. To meet the schedule, the approved design engineering documents must be prepared in good time. A viable electronic data processing program must be adopted to track progress and feedback on-site, and care must be exercised during the last phase of the project, i.e. in preparation of the documentation packages. In addition, there must be training of a sufficient number of skilled and responsible personnel, and all necessary job positions must be manned adequately, with close attention paid to health physics

  18. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  19. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  20. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Hochlef, H.; Ben Salem, L.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  1. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  2. Container crane for sea freight containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttekes, E.; Rijsenbrij, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to a container crane for loading and unloading seaborne containers. The container crane comprises a bridge girder (7), a jib (8), at least two crabs (11, 12) which can travel along the said bridge girder and/or jib and are provided with hoist means for lifting and lowering the

  3. Continuous containment monitoring with containment pressure fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of the integrity of containments particularly but not exclusively for nuclear plants is dealt with in this invention. While this application is primarily concerned with containment monitoring in the context of the single unit design, it is expected that the concepts presented will be universally applicable to any containment design, including containments for non-nuclear applications such as biological laboratories. The nuclear industry has long been interested in a means of monitoring containment integrity on a continuous basis, that is, while the reactor is operating normally. 12 refs., 2 figs

  4. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  5. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong

    2010-01-01

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  6. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  7. Application of Fabry-Perot velocimeter to high-speed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaw, H.H.; McMillan, C.F.; Osher, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot (F-P) velocimeter is a useful instrument for measuring the velocity of objects at speeds ranging from fractions of a kilometer per second to a few tens of kilometers per second and up. Because of its immunity to electromagnetic interference and its velocity resolution, it has become the prime diagnostic tool in our electric-gun facility. Examples of its application to high speed experiments are discussed, including: electric-gun flyer studies, spallation of materials under high-speed impact, momentum-transfer studies, pressure pulse created by high-velocity impact, and detonation-wave studies in high-explosive experiments

  8. Simulating Small-Scale Experiments of In-Tunnel Airblast Using STUN and ALE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Lewis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schebler, Gregory [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McMichael, Larry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-09-12

    This report details continuing validation efforts for the Sphere and Tunnel (STUN) and ALE3D codes. STUN has been validated previously for blast propagation through tunnels using several sets of experimental data with varying charge sizes and tunnel configurations, including the MARVEL nuclear driven shock tube experiment (Glenn, 2001). The DHS-funded STUNTool version is compared to experimental data and the LLNL ALE3D hydrocode. In this particular study, we compare the performance of the STUN and ALE3D codes in modeling an in-tunnel airblast to experimental results obtained by Lunderman and Ohrt in a series of small-scale high explosive experiments (1997).

  9. Empty Container Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Karmelić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast and effective reallocation of empty containers causes high costs and often represents an obstacle affecting the efficiency of port container terminals and inland carriers.In accordance with the above issue, this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the data concerning global container capacities and the roots of container equipment imbalances, with the aim of determining the importance of empty container management and the need for empty container micro-logistic planning at the spread port area.

  10. Empty Container Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jakov Karmelić; Čedomir Dundović; Ines Kolanović

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  11. The pitfalls of container production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Bell

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes ten of the biggest “pitfalls” or challenges I have encountered in my experience growing southern pine seedlings in containers over the past 30 years. Learning from challenges is an important part of growing successful nursery operations.

  12. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Takenori.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a nuclear reactor container in which heat is removed from a container by external water injection. Heat is removed from the container by immersing the lower portion of the container into water and scattering spary water from above. Thus, the container can be cooled by the spray water falling down along the outer wall of the container to condensate and cool vapors filled in the container upon occurrence of accidents. Further, since the inside of the container can be cooled also during usual operation, it can also serve as a dry well cooler. Accordingly, heat is removed from the reactor container upon occurrence of accidents by the automatic operation of a spray device corresponding to the change of the internal temperature and the pressure in the reactor container. Further, since all of these devices are disposed out of container, maintenance is also facilitated. (I.S.)

  13. Containment performance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckner, W.; Mitchell, J.; Soffer, L.; Chow, E.; Lane, J.; Ridgely, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) program has been one of the main elements in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) integrated approach to closure of severe accident issues for US nuclear power plants. During the course of the program, results from various probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies and from severe accident research programs for the five US containment types have been examined to identify significant containment challenges and to evaluate potential improvements. The five containment types considered are: the boiling water reactor (BMR) Mark I containment, the BWR Mark II containment, the BWR Mark III containment, the pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice condenser containment, and the PWR dry containments (including both subatmospheric and large subtypes). The focus of the CPI program has been containment performance and accident mitigation, however, insights are also being obtained in the areas of accident prevention and accident management

  14. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  15. Nuclear reactor containment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the volume of a containment shell and decrease the size of a containment equipment for BWR type reactors by connecting the containment shell and a suppression pool with slanted vent tubes to thereby shorten the vent tubes. Constitution: A pressure vessel containing a reactor core is installed at the center of a building and a containment vessel for the nuclear reactor that contains the pressure vessel forms a cabin. To a building situated below the containment shell, is provided a suppression chamber in which cooling water is charged to form a suppression pool. The suppression pool is communicated with vent tubes that pass through the partition wall of the containment vessel. The vent tubes are slanted and their lower openings are immersed in coolants. Therefore, if accident is resulted and fluid at high temperature and high pressure is jetted from the pressure vessel, the jetting fluid is injected and condensated in the cooling water. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  17. The Treatment of Mixed Waste with GeoMelt In-Container Vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finucane, K.G.; Campbell, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    AMEC's GeoMelt R In-Container Vitrification (ICV) TM has been used to treat diverse types of mixed low-level radioactive waste. ICV is effective in the treatment of mixed wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other semi-volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals. The GeoMelt vitrification process destroys organic compounds and immobilizes metals and radionuclides in an extremely durable glass waste form. The process is flexible allowing for treatment of aqueous, oily, and solid mixed waste, including contaminated soil. In 2004, ICV was used to treat mixed radioactive waste sludge containing PCBs generated from a commercial cleanup project regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and to treat contaminated soil from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The Rocky Flats soil contained cadmium, PCBs, and depleted uranium. In 2005, AMEC completed a treatability demonstration of the ICV technology on Mock High Explosive from Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes results from these mixed waste treatment projects. (authors)

  18. Partiality and Container Monads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Tarmo; Veltri, Niccolò

    2017-01-01

    the relationship between containers and lifting monads. We show that the lifting monads usually employed in type theory can be specified in terms of containers. Moreover, we give a precise characterization of containers whose interpretations carry a lifting monad structure. We show that these conditions...

  19. Stowing the Right Containers on Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    ’s largest container vessels using standard mathematical programming techniques and off-the-shelf solvers. The presentation will provide basic insight into the domain, with pointers to further information that enable you to join in this promising new path of operations research and business....

  20. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-29

    high thermal stability [29]. Unlike the blue copper(II) nitrotetrazole octahedral complex reported by Huynh [30], DBX-1 is the copper(I) salt that...II) nitrotetrazole octahedral complex reported by Huynh [30], DBX-1 is the copper(I) salt that manifests as orange-red crystals and adopts the...detonation velocity; i ΔfH0 = molar enthalpy of formation; j ΔexU0 = total energy of detonation. 3.3.3. Nitryl Cyanide (NCNO2) Though a simple

  1. The ion mobility spectrometer for high explosive vapor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.J.; Stimac, R.M.; Wernlund, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Phemto-Chem /SUP R/ Model 100 Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) operates in air and measures a number of explosive vapors at levels as low as partsper-trillion in seconds. The theory and operation of this instrument is discussed. The IMS inhales the vapor sample in a current of air and generates characteristic ions which are separated by time-of -ion drift in the atmospheric pressure gas. Quantitative results, using a dilution tunnel and standard signal generator with TNT, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, cyclohexanone, methylamine, octafluoronaphthalene and hexafluorobenzene, are given. Rapid sample treatment with sample concentrations, microprocessor signal readout and chemical identification, offer a realistic opportunity of rapid explosive vapor detection at levels down to 10 -14 parts by volume in air

  2. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    environment for several decades. Much has been learned about the impact of high in situ stress and its influence on rock bursts (violent rock ...is the possibility of evasive nuclear testing in deep mine environments where the release of high stress fields by an explosion can resemble a rock ... burst or natural earthquake. This paper provides background information on previous research in and around the deep mines of South Africa and lays

  3. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  4. High Explosive Radiological Dispersion Device: Time and Distance Multiscale Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Sattinger, I.; Halevy, D.; Banaim, P.; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of explosion tests imitates different explosive RDD scenarios were conducted and aimed at increasing the preparedness for possible terrorism events, where radioactive (RA) materials disperse via an explosive charge. About 20 atmospheric dispersion tests were conducted using6-8 Ci of 99mTc which were coupled to TNT charges within the range of 0.2525 kg. Tests performed above different typical urban ground surfaces (in order to study the surface effect on the activity ground deposition pattern due to different in particles size distribution). We have used an efficient aerosolizing devices, means that most of the RA particles were initially created within the size of fine aerosols, mostly respirable. Ground activity measurements were performed both, around the dispersion point and up to few hundred meters downwind. Micrometeorology parameters (wind intensity and direction, potential temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and atmospheric stability) were collected allowing comparisons topredictions of existing atmospheric dispersion models’1. Based on the experimental results, new model parameterizations were performed. Improvements in the models’ predictions were achieved and a set of thumb rules for first responders was formulated. This paper describes the project objectives, some of the experimental setups and results obtained. Post detonation nuclear forensic considerations can be made based upon results achieved

  5. Building a secondary containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  6. Passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  7. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, V F; Shabanova, O V; Pavlov, I V; Pavlov, M V; Shabanov, A V

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM. (paper)

  8. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. F.; Shabanova, O. V.; Pavlov, I. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Shabanov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM.

  9. Group 4. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Keiser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the Containment Working Group which met at the Workshop on Radioactive, Hazardous, and/or Mixed Waste Sludge Management. The Containment Working Group (CWG) examined the problems associated with providing adequate containment of waste forms from both short- and long-term storage. By its nature, containment encompasses a wide variety of waste forms, storage conditions, container types, containment schemes, and handling activities. A containment system can be anything from a 55-gal drum to a 100-ft-long underground vault. Because of the diverse nature of containment systems, the CWG chose to focus its limited time on broad issues that are applicable to the design of any containment system, rather than attempting to address problems specific to a particular containment system or waste-form type. Four major issues were identified by the CWG. They relate to: (1) service conditions and required system performance; (2) ultimate disposition; (3) cost and schedule; and (4) acceptance criteria, including quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) concerns. All of the issues raised by the group are similar in that they all help to define containment system requirements

  10. Fibre-concrete container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the fibre-concrete container for radioactive wastes is described. The fibre container is made of fibre-concrete that contains cement, aggregate, sand, filter, flame-silica, super-plastificator, water and scattered metal fibres. The fibre-concrete container has a dice shape with outer dimension 1.7 x 1.7 x 1.7 m. It is mounted of a container body, a container cover and two caps. Total weight of container is 4,240 kg, maximum weight of loaded container do not must exceed 15,000 kg. The physical and mechanical properties of the fibre-concrete container are described in detail. The fibre-concrete container manufactured for storing of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. A fibre-concrete container utilization to store of radioactive wastes solves these problems: increase of stability of stored packages of radioactive waste; watertightness within 300 years at least; static stability of bearing space; better utilization of bearing spaces; insulation of radioactive waste in a case of seismic and geological event; increase of fire resistance; and transport of radioactive waste

  11. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-09

    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  12. Reactor container structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshimi; Fukuda, Yoshio.

    1993-01-01

    A main container of an FBR type reactor using liquid sodium as coolants is attached to a roof slug. The main container contains, as coolants, lower temperature sodium, and high temperature sodium above a reactor core and a partitioning plate. The main container has a structure comprising only longitudinal welded joints in parallel with axial direction in the vicinity of the liquid surface of high temperature sodium where a temperature gradient is steep and great thermal stresses are caused without disposing lateral welded joints in perpendicular to axial direction. Only the longitudinal welded joints having a great fatigue strength are thus disposed in the vicinity of the liquid surface of the high temperature sodium where axial thermal stresses are caused. This can improve reliability of strength at the welded portions of the main container against repeating thermal stresses caused in vicinity of the liquid surface of the main container from a view point of welding method. (I.N.)

  13. High security container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.J.-M.; Monsterleet, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This invention concerns containments, vessels or tanks for containing and protecting products or installations of various kinds, to be called by the general denomination 'containers'. Such products can be, inter alia, liquids such as natural gas, ammonia, vinyle chloride and hydrocarbons. Far from just forming simple means of storage, the containers used for this must now be capable of withstanding fire, sabotage for instance rocket fire, even impacts from aircraft, earthquakes and other aggressions of the same kind. The particular object of this invention is to create a container withstanding all these various agressions. It must also be considered that this container can not only be used for storing products or materials but also for enclosing particularly dangerous or delicate installations, such as nuclear or chemical reactors [fr

  14. Definition of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1982-01-01

    Core meltdown accidents of the types considered in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's) have been predicted to lead to pressures that will challenge the integrity of containment structures. Review of a number of PRA's indicates considerable variation in the predicted probability of containment failure as a function of pressure. Since the results of PRA's are sensitive to the prediction of the occurrence and the timing of containment failure, better understanding of realistic containment capabilities and a more consistent approach to the definition of containment failure pressures are required. Additionally, since the size and location of the failure can also significantly influence the prediction of reactor accident risk, further understanding of likely failure modes is required. The thresholds and modes of containment failure may not be independent

  15. Radiological containment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to be used as a reference text. It is meant to be used by the working personnel as a guide for using temporary radiological containments. The installing group and health physics group may vary among organizations but responsibilities and duties will not change. It covers installation and inspection containments; working and operating guidelines; operating requirement; emergency procedures; and removal of containments

  16. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  17. Containment safety margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Objective of the Containment Safety Margins program is the development and verification of methodologies which are capable of reliably predicting the ultimate load-carrying capability of light water reactor containment structures under accident and severe environments. The program was initiated in June 1980 at Sandia and this paper addresses the first phase of the program which is essentially a planning effort. Brief comments are made about the second phase, which will involve testing of containment models

  18. Multicusp plasma containment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpaecher, R.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that plasma containment by a chamber having multi-pole magnetic cusp reflecting walls in combination with electronic injection for electrostatic containment provides the means for generating magnetic field free quiescent plasmas for practical application in ion-pumps, electronic switches, and the like. 1250 ''alnico v'' magnets 1/2 '' X 1/2 '' X 1 1/2 '' provide containment in one embodiment. Electromagnets embodying toroidal funneling extend the principle to fusion apparatus

  19. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  20. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  1. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  2. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  3. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  4. Tougher containment design goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrelly, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  5. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  6. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States

    2001-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

  7. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  8. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Rika; Kawabe, Ryuhei.

    1989-01-01

    A venturi scrubber is connected to a nuclear reactor container. Gases containing radioactive aerosols in the container are introduced into the venturi scrubber in the form of a high speed stream under the pressure of the container. The radioactive aerosols are captured by inertia collision due to the velocity difference between the high speed gas stream and water droplets. In the case of the present invention, since the high pressure of the reactor container generated upon accident is utilized, compressor, etc. is no more required, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the aerosol removing device. Further, since no external power is used, the radioactive aerosols can be removed with no starting failure upon accidents. (T.M.)

  9. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  10. The CANDU 3 containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The design of the CANDU 3 nuclear power plant is being developed by AECL CANDU's Saskatchewan office. There are 24 CANDU nuclear power units operating in Canada and abroad and eight units are under construction is Romania and South Korea. The design of the CANDU 3 plant has evolved on the basis of the proven CANDU design. The experiences gained during construction, commissioning and operation of the existing CANDU plants are considered in the design. Many technological enhancements have been implemented in the design processes in all areas. The object has been to develop an improved reactor design that is suitable for the current and the future markets worldwide. Throughout the design phase of CANDU 3, emphasis has been placed in reducing the cost and construction schedule of the plant. This has been achieved by implementing design improvements and using new construction techniques. Appropriate changes and improvements to the design to suit new requirements are also adopted. In CANDU plants, the containment structure acts as an ultimate barrier against the leakage of radioactive substances during normal operations and postulated accident conditions. The concept of the structural design of the containment structure has been examined in considerable detail. This has resulted in development of a new conceptual design for the containment structure for CANDU 3. This paper deals with this new design of the containment structure

  11. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  12. Improvements in containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.

    1977-01-01

    An improved container is described for transporting radioactive materials, such as irradiated Magnox fuel elements. It has a lid fixed to the container body and at the corners of the lid has shock absorbers that project from the corners and have part-spheroidal shape. The centre of curvature of the surface of the spheroid is positioned within the lid, so that impact loads on a shock absorber tend to hold it to the container rather than dislodge it. The shock absorbers may be Al-Si alloy castings. (U.K.)

  13. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  14. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  15. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  16. Development of fog exposure chambers for field experiments under analytically controlled conditions in order to investigate the effect of hydrogen-peroxide-containing fog on spruces (Picea abies Karst. ). Entwicklung von Benebelungskammern fuer Freilandexperimente unter analytisch kontrollierten Bedingungen zur Untersuchung der Wirkung von wasserstoffperoxidhaltigem Nebel auf Fichten (Picea abies Karst. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duelme, W.

    1990-01-12

    This thesis investigated the effect of hydrogen-peroxide-containing fog on spruces (Picea abies Karst.) in a field experiment. Under the influence of hydrogen-peroxide-containing fog, primary needles show an increase in wax contents. This entails reduced water loss through cuticular transpiration and premature aging of needles. The pigment contents of the spruce needles reveal an increase in the contents of xanthophylls and chlorophyll B. Especially the increase in oxygenated carotinoids must be interpreted as an indication of advanced senescence. Regarding phenols, too, changes in the composition of individual classes of substances were established. These point to a shift in biosynthesis in favour of higher phenols. (orig./MG)

  17. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  18. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  19. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  20. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  1. Containment structure optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, S.; Walser, A.

    1979-01-01

    The major design features investigated are: dome shape, the prestress level provided to counteract accident pressure, the effect of diameter variation, and the design pressure used to size the containment. The optimum dome shape and optimum prestress level are used to investigate the effect of variations in diameter and design pressure on containment cost. The containment internal diameter is fixed at 150 feet for investigation of dome shape, prestress level and design prestress. A hemispherical dome containment with a prestress level of 1.25 P/sub a/ is recommended regardless of design pressure selected. A design pressure of 60 psi is recommended. No significant cost penalty is associated with diameter variation in the range of 145 to 155 feet

  2. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  3. Lightweight flywheel containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  4. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations avec les Pays hôtes

    2000-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

  5. Fusion impulse containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of impact fusion energy releases are not known sufficiently well to examine in detail specific containment vessel concepts or designs. Therefore it appears appropriate to formulate the impulse containment problem in general and to derive results in the form of explicit expressions from which magnitude estimates and parametric dependencies (trends) can be inferred conveniently and rapidly. In the following presentation we carry out this task using assumptions and approximations that are required to perform the analysis

  6. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  7. Sargent and Lundy containment tests revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Robert E.; Hammersley, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The pressurization experiments performed in the intermediate scale Sargent and Lundy containment test facility provide numerous insights into the dominant heat and mass transfer processes under design basis accident conditions similar to a large break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). These experiments were the first integral tests to examine the containment response to a dynamic blowdown from the Reactor Coolant System (RCS). Measurements included the blowdown rate of the simulated Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the pressure in containment as well as the containment temperatures in the top and bottom of the containment vessel. Furthermore, various experiments were performed with the blowdown location changed from the vessel bottom to the lower third of the vessel, the upper third of the vessel and near the top of the RPV to examine the influence of different types of break elevations, i.e. different characterizations of the exhausting steam-water mixture. Perhaps the most insightful set of measurements from these experiments were those that varied the cold water mass initially resident in the bottom of the simulated containment vessel. The role of this water as a function of its initial mass and the break location showed substantial influence of this water if the blowdown location provided sufficient energy to disperse this cold water into the containment building atmosphere. This is demonstrated in Figure 1 taken from Kolflat, 1960. All of these are relevant to an understanding of the dominant physical processes for this type of postulated accident condition. As such, it is important that all of these insights are retained and used in models for the containment building thermal-hydraulic response under accident conditions. Reference: Kolflat, A., 1960, 'Resulting of 1959 Nuclear Power Plant Containment Test', Sargent and Lundy Report SL-1800; Kolflat, A. and Chittenden, W. A., 1957, 'A New Approach to the Design of Containment Shells for Atomic Power Plants

  8. Component nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  9. Nuclear reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Murase, Michio.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor containing facility, a condensation means is disposed above the water level of a cooling water pool to condensate steams of the cooling water pool, and return the condensated water to the cooling water pool. Upon occurrence of a pipeline rupture accident, steams generated by after-heat of a reactor core are caused to flow into a bent tube, blown from the exit of the bent tube into a suppression pool and condensated in a suppression pool water, thereby suppressing the pressure in the reactor container. Cooling water in the cooling water pool is boiled by heat conduction due to the condensation of steams, then the steams are exhausted to the outside of the reactor container to remove the heat of the reactor container to the outside of the reactor. In addition, since cooling water is supplied to the cooling water pool quasi-permanently by gravity as a natural force, the reactor container can be cooled by the cooling water pool for a long period of time. Since the condensation means is constituted with a closed loop and interrupted from the outside, radioactive materials are never released to the outside. (N.H.)

  10. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  11. Container for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    The improvement of the construction of containers for the transport of nuclear fuels is proposed where above all, the insulating mass suggested is important as it acts as a safeguard in case of an accident. The container consists of a metal casing in which there is a pressure boiler and a gamma-shielding device, spacers between the metal casing and the shielding device as well as an insulation filling the space between them. The insulating material is a water-in-resin emulsion which is hardened or cross-linked by peroxide and which can furthermore contain up to 50 wt.% solid silicious material such as vermuculite or chopped glass fibre. The construction and variations of the insulating mass composition are described in great detail. (HR) [de

  12. Container for liquefied gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, A J

    1967-05-18

    Containers for liquefied gases are of double-wall construction with a vacuum between the 2 walls; the upper end of the neck contains a vapor chamber and is equipped with means for withdrawing gas from the container. According to this invention, the vapor chamber is connected to a damping chamber by means of a choke line which has an internal diameter of at least 1.6 mm and a length equal to at least 52 times the diameter. The damping chamber has a volume of at least 5 cu cm and is larger than the outer part of the chamber. The interior length of the damping chamber is at least twice the diameter of the choke line. (5 claims)

  13. Subatmospheric double containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, D. Jr.; Noble, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A reinforced concrete double wall nuclear containment structure with each wall including an essentially impervious membrane or liner and porous concrete filling the annulus between the two walls is described. The interior of the structure is maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and the annulus between the two walls is maintained at a subatmospheric pressure intermediate between that of the interior and the surrounding atmospheric pressure, during normal operation. In the event of an accident within the containment structure the interior pressure may exceed atmospheric pressure, but leakage from the interior to the annulus between the double walls will not result in the pressure of the annulus exceeding atmospheric pressure so that there is no net outleakage from the containment structure

  14. Advanced Containment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  15. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  16. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable is described. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  17. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste

  18. Livet er en container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2008-01-01

    Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm.......Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm....

  19. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerville, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  20. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  1. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  2. Material containment enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures are described which are useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. In a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures. 3 figures

  3. Hydrogen burn assessment with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rij, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The CONTAIN computer code was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The code is intended for calculations of containment loads during severe accidents and for prediction of the radioactive source term in the event that the containment leaks or fails. A strong point of the CONTAIN code is the continuous interaction of the thermal-hydraulics phenomena, aerosol behavior and fission product behavior. The CONTAIN code can be used for Light Water Reactors as well as Liquid Metal Reactors. In order to evaluate the CONTAIN code on its merits, comparisons between the code and experiments must be made. In this paper, CONTAIN calculations for the hydrogen burn experiments, carried out at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), are presented and compared with the experimental data. In the Large-Scale Hydrogen Combustion Facility at the NTS, 21 tests have been carried out. These tests were sponsored by the NRC and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The tests, carried out by EG and G, were performed in a spherical vessel 16 m in diameter with a design pressure of 700 kPa, substantially higher than that of most commercial nuclear containment buildings

  4. Containment heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential

  5. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  6. Confinement contains condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Roberts, C. D.; Shrock, R.

    2012-01-01

    been viewed as constant empirical mass scales that fill all space-time, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical...

  7. Containers, facilitators, innovators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    : are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...

  8. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  9. Containing contraceptive costs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    April 2015, Vol. 105, No. 4. Containing contraceptive costs. There are about 7 billion people living on our planet. In many countries resources are strained and we seek to slow down the rate of population growth. There are obviously many factors that lead to rapid population growth. Contraceptive methods are an important.

  10. CONCRETE REACTOR CONTAINMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumb, Ralph F.; Hall, William F.; Fruchtbaum, Jacob

    1963-06-15

    The results of various leak-rate tests demonstrate the practicality of concrete as primary containment for the maximum credible accident for a research reactor employing plate-type fuel and having a power in excess of one megawatt. Leak-test time was shortened substantially by measuring the relaxation time for overpressure decay, which is a function of leak rate. (auth)

  11. Reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    A cooling space having a predetermined capacity is formed between a reactor container and concrete walls. A circulation loop disposed to the outside of the concrete walls is connected to the top and the bottom of the cooling space. The circulation loop has a circulation pump and a heat exchanger, and a cooling water supply pipe is connected to the upstream of the circulation pump for introducing cooling water from the outside. Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident, cooling water is introduced from the cooling water supply pipe to the cooling space between the reactor container and the concrete walls after shut-down of the reactor operation. Then, cooling water is circulated while being cooled by the heat exchanger, to cool the reactor container by cooling water flown in the cooling space. This can cool the reactor container in a short period of time upon occurrence of the loss of coolant accident. Accordingly, a repairing operation for a ruptured portion can be conducted rapidly. (I.N.)

  12. Structural and containment response to LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Fistedis, S.H.; Baker, L. Jr.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Peak, R.D.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of current developments in analysing the response of reactor structures and containment to LMFBR accidents are presented. The current status of analysis of the structural response of LMFBR's to core disruptive accidents, including head response, potential missile generation and the effects of internal structures are presented. The results of recent experiments to help clarify the thermal response of reactor structures to molten core debris are summarized, including the use of this data to calculate the response of the secondary containment. (author)

  13. Reactor container facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi; Nagasaka, Hideo.

    1990-01-01

    A dry-well pool for spontaneously circulating stored pool water and a suppression pool for flooding a pressure vessel by feeding water, when required, to a flooding gap by means of spontaneous falling upto the flooding position, thereby flooding the pressure vessel are contained at the inside of a reactor container. Thus, when loss of coolant accidents such as caused by main pipe rupture accidents should happen, pool water in the suppression pool is supplied to the flooding gap by spontaneously falling. Further, if the flooding water uprises exceeding a predetermined level, the flooding gap is in communication with the dry-well pool at the upper and the lower portions respectively. Accordingly, flooding water at high temperature heated by the after-heat of the reactor core is returned again into the flooding gap to cool the reactor core repeatedly. (T.M.)

  14. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio; Fujii, Tadashi; Susuki, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    A wet well space above a pressure suppression pool is divided into a first wet well on the side in contact with the pressure suppression pool and a second wet well on the side not in contact with the pool. Cooling water is contained in the second wet well and it is in communication with the first wet well by pipelines. Since steams flown into the second well are condensed in the cooling water, they continuously transfer from the first wet well to the second wet well, thereby capable of eliminating the effects of incondensible gases in the first wet well. With such procedures, the effect of the incondensible gases can be eliminated even without cooling from the outside of the reactor. Heat accumulation can be increased in a container of any material, so that thermal load on cooling circuits for removing after-heat can be mitigated. (T.M.)

  15. Nuclear steam system containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved containment used for radiation shielding and pressure suppression comprising a dry well includes a pressure vessel, a plurality of concentric wall means, said plurality of concentric wall means defining at least three annular regions about said dry well. A first annular region provides the containment used for radiation shielding, a second annular region is substantially dry, a third annular region provides a wet well for relieving fluid pressure released from the pressure vessel into the dry well. Pipe connection means extend in the wet well from the dry well, a pool of liquid is disposed to partially fill said third annular region, the upper end portion of the second and third annular regions having an enclosure, and a plurality of baffle plates extending vertically downward from said enclosure in said third annular region into said pool of liquid so as to circumferentially divide the upper portion of said third annular region into a plurality of circumferential upper portions

  16. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  17. BWR steel containment corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  18. Container for centrifuging blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narra, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A container is described for use in drawing patient's blood, centrifuging the blood and then labelling the separated red cells with sup(99m)Tc. It consists of a tube with a central chamber and a lower portion provided with an aperture in which a weir is supported and extends into the central chamber. The weir has a central channel. A resilient plug seals the aperture. (author)

  19. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  20. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Cables coverd with non-halogen covering material are used as electric wire cables wired for supplying electric power to a reactor recycling pump. Silicone rubber having specified molecular formula is used for the non-halogen covering material. As a result, formation of chlorine in a nuclear reactor container can be eliminated and increase in the deposited salts to SUS pipeways, etc. can be prevented, to avoid the occurrence of stress corrosion cracks. (H.T.)

  1. Materials designed for containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehl, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    The present article points out that high-tensile fine-grained steels have been used successfully in the construction of reactor containments, spherical gasometers, and pressure vessels. It has been confirmed that their use requires safety measures concerning lay out and production. Viscosity properties of high-tensile, fine-grained steels can be improved significantly by means of electroslag remelting. The extent to which this improvement influences the heat-affected zone is being examined. (orig./RW) [de

  2. Containment structure tendon investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.F.; Murray, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into the possible causes of lower-than-predicted tendon forces which were measured during past tendon surveillances for a concrete containment. The containment is post tensioned by vertical tendons which are anchored into a rock foundation. The tendons were originally stressed in 1969, and lift-off tests were performed on six occasions subsequent to this date over a period of 11 years. The tendon forces measured in these tests were generally lower than predicted, and by 1979 the prestress level in the containment was only marginally above the design requirement. The tendons were retensioned in 1980, and by this time an investigation into the possible causes was underway. Potential causes investigated include the rock anchors and surrounding rock, elastomeric pad creep, wire stresses, thermal effects, stressing equipment and lift-off procedures, and wire stress relaxation. The investigation activities included stress relaxation testing of wires pulled from actual tendons. The stress relaxation test program included wire specimens at several different temperature and initial stress levels and the effect of a varying temperature history on the stress relaxation property of the wires. For purpose of future force predictions of the retensioned tendons, the test program included tests to determine the effect on stress relaxation due to restressing the wires after they had relaxed for 1000 hours and 10,000 hours. (orig./GL)

  3. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Tooru; Murase, Michio; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Hidaka, Masataka; Sumita, Isao; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a chamber in communication with a wet well of a pressure suppression chamber is disposed and situated to such a position that the temperature is lower than a chamber containing pool water upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident. In addition, the inner surface of the pressure suppression chamber is constituted with steel walls in contact with pool water, and an outer circumferential pool is disposed at the outer circumferential surface thereof. Further, a circulation channel is disposed, and a water intake port is disposed at a position higher than an exit to the pool water, and a water discharge port is opened in the pool water at a position lower than the exit to the pool water. With such a constitution, the allowable temperature of the pressure suppression pool water can be elevated to a saturated steam temperature corresponding to the resistant pressure of the container, so that the temperature difference between the pressure suppression pool and the outer side thereof is increased by so much, to improve thermal radiation performance. Accordingly, it can be utilized as a pressure suppression means for a plant of greater power. Further, thermal conduction efficiency from the pool water region of the pressure suppression chamber to the outer circumferential pool water is improved, or thermal radiation area is enlarged due to the circulation channel, to improve the heat radiation performance. (N.H.)

  4. Container for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Imazu, Takayuki; Ueda, Sabuo; Ueya, Katsumi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To arrange a vapor trapping member of a specific structure at the inlet part of a cylindrical gap formed by the inner peripheral surface of the circular opening of a container and the outer peripheral surface of a rotary plug thereby to prevent ingress of vapor in the upper part of the cylindrical gap for a long period of time. Constitution: A sealing material receiving tray is fitted to the container side of the inlet part of a cylindrical gap, and a partition plate is fitted to the rotary plug side. The tray is filled with a sealing material consisting of a large number of steel balls, mesh wire gages and the like, and the partition plate is placed in the tray thereby to carry out sealing of the container. Liquid metal vapor evaporating from the liquid level of the liquid metal adheres to the sealing material to fill the gap, and therefore ingress of vapor to the upper part of the cylindrical gap is prevented, and there is no possibility of causing seal cutting due to the use for a long period. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Performance of containment of Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the various requirements and activities relevant to the testing of containment system of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). All Indian PHWR containments are constructed from concrete either reinforced or prestressed or a combination of both and lined with polymeric coating based on Epoxy or Vinyl in order to achieve the leak tightness necessary from the radiological considerations following an accident. The current concept includes a complete double containment (except the base raft) extended to all penetrations and some of the pipings (those open to the containment atmosphere). The primary containment fitted with a passive pressure suppression system is enveloped in the secondary containment (confinement) where slight vacuum is maintained during normal operation as well as post accident condition. The Integrated leakage Rate Test (ILRT) conducted so far on the containment indicate that the overall leakages from the containment are lower than those necessary to meet the radiological limits following a postulated accident and interception of leakages by secondary containment as per design. The details of the, tests, repairs carried out and observations are given in this paper. The experience of ILRT also indicate improvement in leak tightness in many areas. (author)

  6. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Counts, C.A.

    1984-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is reviewing available information on containment systems design, operating experience, and related research as part of a project being conducted by the Division of Systems Integration, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The basic objective of this work is to collect and consolidate data relevant to assessing the functional performance of containment isolation systems and to use this data to the extent possible to characterize containment isolation system reliability for selected reference designs. This paper summarizes the results from initial efforts which focused on collection of data from available documents and briefly describes detailed review and analysis efforts which commenced recently. 5 references

  7. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Ames, K.R.; Gallucci, R.H.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Reliability Analysis of Containment Isolation System Project. Work was performed in five basic areas: design review, operating experience review, related research review, generic analysis and plant specific analysis. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) reports provided the major sources of containment performance information used in this study. Data extracted from LERs were assembled into a computer data base. Qualitative and quantitative information developed for containment performance under normal operating conditions and design basis accidents indicate that there is room for improvement. A rough estimate of overall containment unavailability for relatively small leaks which violate plant technical specifications is 0.3. An estimate of containment unavailability due to large leakage events is in the range of 0.001 to 0.01. These estimates are dependent on several assumptions (particularly on event duration times) which are documented in the report

  8. Adiabatic equilibrium models for direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.; Allen, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies are being extended to include a wider spectrum of reactor plants than was considered in NUREG-1150. There is a need for simple direct containment heating (DCH) models that can be used for screening studies aimed at identifying potentially significant contributors to overall risk in individual nuclear power plants. This paper presents two adiabatic equilibrium models suitable for the task. The first, a single-cell model, places a true upper bound on DCH loads. This upper bound, however, often far exceeds reasonable expectations of containment loads based on CONTAIN calculations and experiment observations. In this paper, a two cell model is developed that captures the major mitigating feature of containment compartmentalization, thus providing more reasonable estimates of the containment load

  9. Search for the Higgs boson in the tt-bar H(H→bb-bar) channel and the identification of jets containing 2 B hadrons with the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticse Torres, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, CERN announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, the last missing piece of the Standard Model (SM). The Higgs boson has been observed coupling directly to W and Z bosons and tau leptons, and indirectly to top quarks. Observing the Higgs boson production in association with a pair of top quarks (tt-bar H) would allow a direct measurement of the top quark Yukawa coupling and provides an important test of the Higgs mechanism within the SM. This thesis presents a search for the Higgs boson in the tt-bar H(H→ bb-bar) channel using proton-proton collisions at √s=13 TeV, collected with the ATLAS detector in 2015 and 2016. The Higgs boson decays to two b quarks and top quark pair decays with one lepton, the tt-bar H → (lνb)(jjb)(bb-bar) single lepton channel, are considered. This document details in particular the contributions made by the author in this search: the full reconstruction of the tt-bar H(H → bb-bar) single lepton system and the final discrimination between signal and the main background, tt-bar+jets. A new method was developed to solve the large combinatorial background by fully reconstructing the tt-bar H(H → bb-bar) final state using a multivariate technique to uniquely associate each reconstructed jets to the initial quarks. A multivariate technique was also used to discriminate between the signal and the main tt-bar+jets background further increasing the sensitivity of the search compared to the Run 1 analysis. Finally, the first result at √s=13 TeV shown. The signal strength (the ratio between the measured and predicted cross sections) is found to be 1.6 ± 1.1. No significant excess of events above the background expectation is found and an observed (expected) limit of 3.6 (2.2) is set at 95% confidence level. The tt-bar bb-bar is one of the main backgrounds for the tt-bar H(bb-bar) search. Recent studies with Monte Carlo events generators show that there is a large fraction of tt-bar bb-bar events with jets containing two b

  10. FINAL DESIGN REVIEW REPORT Subcritical Experiments Gen 2, 3-ft Confinement Vessel Weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    A Final Design Review (FDR) of the Subcritical Experiments (SCE) Gen 2, 3-ft. Confinement Vessel Weldment was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on September 14, 2017. The review was a focused review on changes only to the confinement vessel weldment (versus a system design review). The changes resulted from lessons-learned in fabricating and inspecting the current set of confinement vessels used for the SCE Program. The baseline 3-ft. confinement vessel weldment design has successfully been used (to date) for three (3) high explosive (HE) over-tests, two (2) fragment tests, and five (5) integral HE experiments. The design team applied lessons learned from fabrication and inspection of these vessel weldments to enhance fit-up, weldability, inspection, and fitness for service evaluations. The review team consisted of five (5) independent subject matter experts with engineering design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and inspection experience. The

  11. 'Who's actually gonna read this?' An evaluation of staff experiences of the value of information contained in written care plans in supporting care in three different dementia care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, C; Simpson, A

    2017-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: A written plan is designed to improve communication and co-ordinate care between mental health inpatient wards and community settings. Reports of care plan quality issues and staff and service user dissatisfaction with healthcare bureaucracy have focused on working age mental health or general hospital settings. Little is known about mental health staff perspectives on the value of written care plans in supporting dementia care. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Competing demands on staff time and resources to meet administrative standards for care plans caused a tension with their own professional priorities for supporting care. Mental health staff face difficulties using electronic records alongside other systems of information sharing. Further exploration is needed of the gap between frontline staff values and those of the local organization and managers when supporting good dementia care. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Frontline staff should be involved in designing new information systems including care plans. Care plan documentation needs to be refocused to ensure it is effective in enabling staff to communicate amongst themselves and with others to support people with dementia. Practice-based mentors could be deployed to strengthen good practice in effective information sharing. Background Reports of increased healthcare bureaucracy and concerns over care plan quality have emerged from research and surveys into staff and service user experiences. Little is known of mental health staff perspectives on the value of written care plans in supporting dementia care. Aim To investigate the experiences and views of staff in relation to care planning in dementia services in one National Health Service (NHS) provider Trust in England. Method Grounded Theory methodology was used. A purposive sample of 11 multidisciplinary staff were interviewed across three sites in one NHS Trust. Interviews were transcribed, coded

  12. Experiment Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  13. Containment condensing heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained

  14. The inner containment of an EPR trademark pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostermann, Dirk; Krumb, Christian; Wienand, Burkhard [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    On February 12, 2014 the containment pressure and subsequent leak tightness tests on the containment of the Finnish Olkiluoto 3 EPR trademark reactor building were completed successfully. The containment of an EPR trademark pressurized water reactor consists of an outer containment to protect the reactor building against external hazards (such as airplane crash) and of an inner containment that is subjected to internal overpressure and high temperature in case of internal accidents. The current paper gives an overview of the containment structure, the design criteria, the validation by analyses and experiments and the containment pressure test.

  15. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Takeo; Ochiai, Kanehiro; Niino, Tsuyoshi; Kodama, Toyokazu; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structures suitable to a container structures for nuclear power plants used in those districts where earthquakes occur frequently, in which no local stresses are caused to the fundamental base portions and the workability for the fundamental structures is improved. Constitution: Basic stabilizers are attached to a nuclear reactor container (PCV) and a basic concrete recess for receiving a basic stabilizer is disposed in basic concretes. A top stabilizer is joined and fixed to a top stabilizer receiving plate at the inside of an outer shielding wall. On the other hand, a PCV top recess for conducting the load of PCV to the top stabilizer is attached to the top of the PCV. By disposing stabilizer structures allowing miner displacements at the two points, that is, the top and the lowermost portion of the PCV, no local stress concentrations can be generated to the extension on the axial direction of components due to the inner pressure of the PCV and to the horizontal load applied to the upper portion of the PCV upon earthquakes. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Definition of containment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Public Law 96-567 Nuclear Safety Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1980, directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide an accelerated and coordinated program for developing practical generic improvements that would enhance the capability for safe, reliable and economical operation of Light Water Nuclear Reactor Power Stations. The DOE approach to defining such a program will consist of two phases, (1) definition of program requirements and (2) implementation of the program plan. This paper summarizes the results of the program definition phase for the containment integrity function. The definition phase effort was carried out by two groups of knowledgeable technical experts from the nuclear industry, one of which addressed containment integrity. Tabulated in the paper are the issues identified by the working groups and their associated priorities. Also tabulated are those high priority issues for which ongoing programs do not appear to provide sufficient information to resolve the issue. The results of this review show that existing programs to a great extent address existing issues in a manner such that the issues should be resolved by the programs

  17. Testing, verification and application of CONTAIN for severe accident analysis of LMFBR-containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhans, J.

    1991-01-01

    Severe accident analysis for LMFBR-containments has to consider various phenomena influencing the development of containment loads as pressure and temperatures as well as generation, transport, depletion and release of aerosols and radioactive materials. As most of the different phenomena are linked together their feedback has to be taken into account within the calculation of severe accident consequences. Otherwise no best-estimate results can be assured. Under the sponsorship of the German BMFT the US code CONTAIN is being developed, verified and applied in GRS for future fast breeder reactor concepts. In the first step of verification, the basic calculation models of a containment code have been proven: (i) flow calculation for different flow situations, (ii) heat transfer from and to structures, (iii) coolant evaporation, boiling and condensation, (iv) material properties. In the second step the proof of the interaction of coupled phenomena has been checked. The calculation of integrated containment experiments relating natural convection flow, structure heating and coolant condensation as well as parallel calculation of results obtained with an other code give detailed information on the applicability of CONTAIN. The actual verification status allows the following conclusion: a caucious analyst experienced in containment accident modelling using the proven parts of CONTAIN will obtain results which have the same accuracy as other well optimized and detailed lumped parameter containment codes can achieve. Further code development, additional verification and international exchange of experience and results will assure an adequate code for the application in safety analyses for LMFBRs. (orig.)

  18. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  19. Hydrotreating of triglyceride containing gasoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krar, M.; Kasza, T.; Toth, C.; Baladincz, P.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (Hungary)), Email: krarm@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    Because of the disadvantages of biodiesel, it is necessary to develop transformation methods, where excellent quality gas oil blending components are produced from triglycerides. An especially favourable opportunity could be the combination of the conversion of the triglycerides with a simultaneous upgrading of the gas oil stream. The main goal of our experiments was to investigate the feasibility of these two processes simultaneously in one catalytic system. In our experiments, sunflower oil (max. 25 %) gas oil blends were converted into products with gas oil boiling range. On the investigated catalyst under optimal process parameter combinations, product mixtures in the gas oil boiling point range with yield and excellent quality was produced successfully. The cetane number of the product mixtures were increased by 4-16 units, the CFPP values were increased by 5-7 deg C, when feedstock with 25 % sunflower oil content was used instead of feedstocks containing no sunflower oil. The reason is that the triglycerides were converted into normal paraffins, which are having high cetane number and poor cold-flow properties. It was concluded, that the blending of the sunflower oil into the gas oil did not reduce the HDS and HDA activity of the catalyst, however, its HDN activity significantly decreased. (orig.)

  20. The Game Experience Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselsteijn, W.A.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; Poels, K.

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the English version of the Game Experience Questionnaire. The development and testing of the Game Experience Questionnaire is described in project Deliverable 3.3. The Game Experience Questionnaire has a modular structure and consists of : 1. The core questionnaire 2. The

  1. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1989-01-01

    Aerosol filters considered so far for nuclear reactor containers in conventional BWR type nuclear power plants make the facility larger and involve a risk of clogging. In view of the above, in the present invention, the diameter of a flow channel of gases entering from a bent pipe to a suppression pool is made smaller thereby decreasing the diameter of gas bubbles in the supperssional pool. Since this reduces the force of surface tension, the diameter of resulted gas bubbles is made remarkably smaller as compared with the case where the gases are released from the lower end of the bent pipe. Since the absorption velocity of bubble-entrained aerosols into water is in proportion to the square of the bubble diameter, the absorption efficiency can be increased remarkably by reducing the diameter of the gas bubbles. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the efficiency of eliminating radioactivity of released gases. (K.M.)

  2. AKAVI containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-08-01

    The AKAVI event was detonated in hole U2es of the Nevada Test Site as indicated. The device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 494 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 2, about 90 m above the standing water level and 300 m above the Paleozoic formation. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver. Detonation time was 07:00 PST on December 3, 1981 and 103 minutes later a surface collapse occurred leaving a crater with mean radius of 90.5 m and maximum depth of 19.5 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the AKAVI containment was considered successful.

  3. AKAVI containment data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-08-01

    The AKAVI event was detonated in hole U2es of the Nevada Test Site as indicated. The device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 494 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 2, about 90 m above the standing water level and 300 m above the Paleozoic formation. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes ampersand Narver. Detonation time was 07:00 PST on December 3, 1981 and 103 minutes later a surface collapse occurred leaving a crater with mean radius of 90.5 m and maximum depth of 19.5 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the AKAVI containment was considered successful

  4. Plutonium waste container identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmierer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the parameters of a method for identifying plutonium waste containers. This information will form the basis for a permanent committee to develop a complete identification program for use throughout the world. Although a large portion of the information will be on handwritten notebooks and may not be as extensive as is desired, it will all be helpful. The final information will be programmed into computer language and be available to all interested parties as well as a central control committee which will have the expertise to provide each government with advice on the packaging, storage, and measurement of the waste for which it is responsible. As time progresses, this central control committee should develop permanent storage sites and establish a system of records which will last for hundreds of years

  5. Reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro; Hayagumo, Sunao; Morikawa, Matsuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To safety and simplify the structure in a reactor containment vessel. Constitution: Steam flow channels with steam jetting ports communicating to coolants are provided between a communication channel and coolants in a pressure suppression chamber. Upon loss of coolant accidents, pressure in a dry well will increase, then force downwards water in an annulus portion and further flow out the water through steam jetting ports into a suppression pool. Thus, the steam flow channel is filled with steams or airs present in the dry well, which are released through the steam jetting ports into the pressure suppression chamber. Even though water is violently vibrated owing to the upward movement of air bubbles and condensation of steam bubbles, the annular portion and the steam jetting ports are filled with steams or the like, direct dynamic loads onto the structures such as communication channels can be avoided. (J.P.N.)

  6. Container for irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.

    1978-01-01

    The transport container for irradiated or used nuclear fuel is provided with an identical heat shield against fires on the top and bottom sides. Each heat shield consists of two inner nickel plates, whose contact surfaces are polished to a mirror finish and an outer plate of stainless steel. The nickel plate on the box is spot welded to it while the second nickel plate is spot welded to the steel plate. Both together are in turn welded so as to be leaktight to the edges of the box. For extreme heat effects and based on the different (bimetal) coefficients of expansion, the steel plate with the nickel plate attached to it bulges away from the box. The second nickel plate remains at the box, so that a subpressure space is formed with the mirror nickel surfaces. The heat radiation and heat conduction to the box are greatly reduced by this. (DG) [de

  7. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  8. Stemming options and their effect on containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    In more than 17 years of studying underground nuclear explosions, LLL has developed containment procedures that include a stemming plan. Stemming plans can be divided into either layered or continuous forms. There are marked differences between standards for these forms. The materials used in the continuous plan must meet more stringent specifications; as a consequence, they are more expensive. Both plans have been successful since the Baneberry Event. Both plans must meet the following requirements: provide a plug sufficient to match the overburden density of earth; contain radioactive gases at the lowest possible depth; minimize the generation of noncondensable gases (such as CO 2 ); minimize gas flow rates during the early post-detonation stages when cavity pressure is high; and be compatible with the experiment and its diagnostics. LLL experience in developing containment procedures is reviewed, and the reasons for the adoption of LLL's continuous stemming plan are reported

  9. ITER containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakov, S.; Fauser, F.; Nelson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the results and recommendations of the Containment Structures Design Unit (CSDU) on the containment structures for ITER, made in the context of the Conceptual Design Phase. The document describes the following subsystems: (1) the primary vacuum vessel (VV), (2) the attaching locks (AL) of the invessel components, (3) the plasma passive and active stabilizers, (4) the cryostat vessel, and (5) the machine gravity supports. Although for most components reference designs were selected, for some of these alternative design options were described, because unresolved problems necessitate further research and development. Conclusions and future needs are summarized for each of the above subsystems: (1) a reference VV design was selected, while most critical VV future needs are the feasibility studies of manufacturing, assembly, and the repair/disassembly/reassembly by remote handling. Alternative, thin-wall options appear attractive and should be studied further during the Engineering Design Activities; (2) no reference design solution was selected for the AL system, as AL design requirements are extremely difficult and internally contradictory, while there is no existing tokamak precedent, but instead, five different approaches will be further researched early in the Engineering Design Phase; (3) significant progress is reported on passive loops, for which the ''twin-loops'' concept is ready to be advanced into the Engineering Design Phase, and on active coils, where a new coil positioning prevents interference with the blanket removal paths, and the current joints are located in a secondary vacuum or in the atmosphere of the reactor hall, repairable by remote handling; (4) a full metallic welded cryostat design with increased toroidal resistance was chosen, but with a design based on concrete with a thin inner metallic liner as a back-up in case detailed nuclear shielding requirements would force the cryostat to act as biological shield; (5) out

  10. Simulation-Based Optimization for Storage Allocation Problem of Outbound Containers in Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage allocation of outbound containers is a key factor of the performance of container handling system in automated container terminals. Improper storage plans of outbound containers make QC waiting inevitable; hence, the vessel handling time will be lengthened. A simulation-based optimization method is proposed in this paper for the storage allocation problem of outbound containers in automated container terminals (SAPOBA. A simulation model is built up by Timed-Colored-Petri-Net (TCPN, used to evaluate the QC waiting time of storage plans. Two optimization approaches, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Genetic Algorithm (GA, are proposed to form the complete simulation-based optimization method. Effectiveness of this method is verified by experiment, as the comparison of the two optimization approaches.

  11. Convexities move because they contain matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenholtz, Elan

    2010-09-22

    Figure-ground assignment to a contour is a fundamental stage in visual processing. The current paper introduces a novel, highly general dynamic cue to figure-ground assignment: "Convex Motion." Across six experiments, subjects showed a strong preference to assign figure and ground to a dynamically deforming contour such that the moving contour segment was convex rather than concave. Experiments 1 and 2 established the preference across two different kinds of deformational motion. Additional experiments determined that this preference was not due to fixation (Experiment 3) or attentional mechanisms (Experiment 4). Experiment 5 found a similar, but reduced bias for rigid-as opposed to deformational-motion, and Experiment 6 demonstrated that the phenomenon depends on the global motion of the effected contour. An explanation of this phenomenon is presented on the basis of typical natural deformational motion, which tends to involve convex contour projections that contain regions consisting of physical "matter," as opposed to concave contour indentations that contain empty space. These results highlight the fundamental relationship between figure and ground, perceived shape, and the inferred physical properties of an object.

  12. From containment to ... syzygy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, H.M.

    1995-04-18

    The U S. is at an historic crossroads following the end of the Cold War. The old twin themes of containment and deterrence must now give way to a newer vision of the U.S. role as we approach the 21st century. This paper follows a visioning process requiring development of alternatives based on signposts, values and frameworks. Signposts are current domestic and global environments revealing a U.S. in economic trouble with budget and trade defidts, a falling dollar and multiplying peace operations at a time when Europe and Japan are becoming economic superpowers. Although U.S. values must be protected, economic competition requires increased emphasis on realpolitik. A balanced framework of internationalism and reduced multilateralism will suit the current environment and U.S. purposes. Recognizing that the U.S. must retain leadership to protect national interests, the vision unfolds as an alignment of major powers-a syzygy of purpose-with Europe, Japan, and the U.S. in a concert of power, sharing economic, political and military burdens to ensure world stability. Thus, the new U.S. role could be primus inter pares of a Pax Consortis with common interests and goals, allowing the U.S. time to restore its economic vitality.

  13. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-15

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g{sup -1}, average value 14 Bq g{sup -1}). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g{sup -1} (average value 81 mBq g{sup -1}). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  14. Containment and release management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing the risk from potentially severe accidents by appropriate accident management strategies is receiving increased attention from the international reactor safety community. Considerable uncertainty still surrounds some of the physical phenomena likely to occur during a severe accident. The USNRC, in developing its research plan for accident management, wants to ensure that both the developers and implementers of accident management strategies are aware of the uncertainty associated with the plant operators' ability to correctly diagnose an accident, as well as the uncertainties associated with various preventive and mitigative strategies. The use of a particular accident management strategy can have both positive and negative effects on the status of a plant and these effects must be carefully weighed before a particular course of action is chosen and implemented. By using examples of severe accident scenarios, initial insights are presented here regarding the indications plant operators may have to alert them to particular accident states. Insights are also offered on the various management actions operators and plant technical staff might pursue for particular accident situations and the pros and cons associated with such actions. The examples given are taken for the most part from the containment and release phase of accident management, since this is the current focus of the effort in the accident management area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 refs

  15. Fission reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1991-01-01

    Cooling water is sent without using dynamic equipments upon loss of coolants accident in a pressure vessel by improving an arrangement of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. That is, a containing space is formed at the center of a suppression chamber for storing cooling water while being partitioned with each other, in which the pressure vessel is placed. Further, a water reservoir is formed above the pressure vessel. Then a water discharge pipe is connected to the reservoir for submerging the stored water over the pressure vessel upon occurrence of loss of coolants accident. Further, a water injection pipe is disposed between the pressure suppression chamber and the pressure vessel for injecting the cooling water in the pressure suppression chamber to the reactor core of the pressure vessel by the difference of a water head upon loss of coolants accident. With such a constitution, the pressure vessel has high earthquake proofness. Further, upon loss of coolants accident of the pressure vessel, the cooling water in the reservoir is discharged to submerge and cool the pressure vessel efficiently. Further, the reactor core of the pressure vessel can certainly be cooled by the cooling water of the pressure suppression chamber without relying on dynamic equipments. (I.S.)

  16. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioiri, Akio.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a vent tube communication port is disposed to a pressure suppression pool at a position higher than the pool water therein for communication with an upper dry well, and the upper end opening of a dry well communication pipe is disposed at a position higher than the communication port. When condensate return pipeline is ruptured in the upper dry well, water in a water source pool is injected to the pressure vessel and partially discharged out of the ruptured port and a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel to the inside of the upper dry well. The discharged water stays in the upper dry well and, when the water level reaches the height of the vent tube communication port, it flows into the pressure suppression pool. Even in a state that the entire amount of water in the water source pool is supplied, since water does not reach the upper opening port of the dry well communication pipe, water does not flow into a lower dry well. Accordingly, the motor of a control rod drives disposed in the lower dry well can be prevented from submerging. The reactor core can be cooled more reliably, to improve the reliability of the pressure suppression function. (N.H.)

  17. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. MCR Container Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-01

    MathWorks' MATLAB is widely used in academia and industry for prototyping, data analysis, data processing, etc. Many users compile their programs using the MATLAB Compiler to run on workstations/computing clusters via the free MATLAB Compiler Runtime (MCR). The MCR facilitates the execution of code calling Application Programming Interfaces (API) functions from both base MATLAB and MATLAB toolboxes. In a Linux environment, a sizable number of third-party runtime dependencies (i.e. shared libraries) are necessary. Unfortunately, to the MTLAB community's knowledge, these dependencies are not documented, leaving system administrators and/or end-users to find/install the necessary libraries either as runtime errors resulting from them missing or by inspecting the header information of Executable and Linkable Format (ELF) libraries of the MCR to determine which ones are missing from the system. To address various shortcomings, Docker Images based on Community Enterprise Operating System (CentOS) 7, a derivative of Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7, containing recent (2015-2017) MCR releases and their dependencies were created. These images, along with a provided sample Docker Compose YAML Script, can be used to create a simulated computing cluster where MATLAB Compiler created binaries can be executed using a sample Slurm Workload Manager script.

  19. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g -1 , average value 14 Bq g -1 ). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g -1 (average value 81 mBq g -1 ). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  20. AGS experiments---1987, 1988, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report contains: Experimental Areas Layout; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Experiment Long Range Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS experiments; and List of experimenters

  1. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987

  2. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters

  3. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  4. Simulation of containment phenomena during the Phebus FPT1 test with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Mavko, B.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic and aerosol phenomena which occurred in the containment vessel of the Phebus integral experimental facility during the first 30000 s of the Phebus FPT1 test were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. A single-cell input model of the vessel was developed, and boundary and initial conditions that were determined during the experiment were applied. The comparison of experimental and calculated results shows that, although the atmosphere temperature was well simulated, the calculated condensation rate was apparently too high, resulting in a lower pressure of the containment atmosphere. The aerosol deposition process was well simulated.(author)

  5. The explosion-proof container, satisfying the IAEA norms on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrunin, M.A.; Fedorenko, A.G.; Ivanov, A.G.; Abakumov, A.I.; Nizovtsev, P.N.; Loginov, P.G.; Smolyakov, A.A.; Solov'ev, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    Safety of radioactive materials (RM) transportation is under strict control of the international norms of IAEA, aimed to ensure non-proliferation of hazardous materials in the environments. At the same time the nuclear countries use much more dangerous transportations of two types of hazardous materials. Probability of emergency explosion of high explosives (HE) during transportation and storage of such constructions is not equal to zero. HE explosion can be caused by: 1)excess of mechanical effects, allowable by the norms, on an explosive 2)lightening or fire 3)terrorist attack 4)radio controlled or time controlled mechanism in case of the terrorist device. It is obvious that an accident with explosion HE element of the nuclear weapon in an usual container, which meets the IAEA norms, but is not explosion-proof, will result in its destruction, RM dispersal, and inadmissible pollution of the environments. Therefore, it is urgent need for development of the container, which is able to withstand explosion of HE, placed in it, and to confine released RM inside of it. The experimental prototype of the load-bearing shell of the explosion-proof container (EC) can be the successfully tested spherical steel - glass plastic shell, having high-strength throats and lids. Having weight of 45-50 kg it is able to withstand internal explosion with energy more than 1.4 kg of the TNT equivalent. To preserve the explosion-proofness property in the abnormal environments during transportation, the explosion-proof container should be placed in the protective supporting transport device or the transport container (TC), consisting of the external thin-walled steel shell and the damping heat-proof layer from heat-resistant foam plastic. To justify the design parameters of such container, the tests for development and revision of the numerical model parameters were carried out. With use of this model the calculations were performed to calculate loads and the container response to 1

  6. A container for containing and protecting a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a container adapted to contain and protect a radio-active substance. That container comprises a heat sensitive device for automatically (and, preferably, sealingly) enclosing and protecting the radio-active substance, should room temperature reach a predetermined level. Thus, the radio-active substance cannot escape in case of fire. Preferably, a bolt is also provided, capable of being actuated at a temperature slightly above the temperature actuating the protective device so as to maintain the radioactive substance protected. This can be applied to containers containing a radio-active substance such as polonium 210 [fr

  7. Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH{sub 3}I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH{sub 3}l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large ({approx}38 m{sup 3}) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH{sub 3}I removal rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I{sub 2} with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH{sub 3}I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss

  8. Container Materials, Fabrication And Robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-01-01

    The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

  9. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale

  10. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  11. Mobile nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Spurrier, F.R.; Jones, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    A containment vessel for use in mobile nuclear reactor installations is described. The containment vessel completely surrounds the entire primary system, and is located as close to the reactor primary system components as is possible in order to minimize weight. In addition to being designed to withstand a specified internal pressure, the containment vessel is also designed to maintain integrity as a containment vessel in case of a possible collision accident

  12. Beverage containers in municipal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enhoerning, B

    1979-01-01

    The composition of containers (cans, glass) in Sweden's wastes is given. Recycling and reclamation of these containers are discussed. The energy demand of fabricating the containers is analyzed for recycling rates of 0 and 100%. The free forces of the market cannot be depended on to direct the containers back to the manufacturer; only a well-functioning deposit system can do this. 7 figures. (DLC)

  13. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  14. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Otts, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  15. Hydrogen behavior in ice condenser containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, P.; Hongisto, O. [Power Plant Lab., Helsinki (Finland); Theofanous, T.G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A new hydrogen management strategy is being developed for the Loviisa ice condenser containment. The strategy relies on containment-wide natural circulations that develop, once the ice condenser doors are forced open, to effectively produce a well-mixed behavior, and a correspondingly slow rise in hydrogen concentration. Levels can then be kept low by a distributed catalytic recombiner system, and (perhaps) an igniter system as a backup, while the associated energy releases can be effectively dissipated in the ice bed. Verification and fine-tuning of the approach is carried out experimentally in the VICTORIA facility and by associated scaling/modelling studies. VICTORIA represents an 1/15th scale model of the Loviisa containment, hydrogen is simulated by helium, and local concentration measurements are obtained by a newly developed instrument specifically for this purpose, called SPARTA. This paper is focused on experimental results from several key experiments that provide a first delineation of key behaviors.

  16. Containment for small pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siler, W.C.; Marda, R.S.; Smith, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox Company has prepared studies under ERDA contract of small and intermediate size (313, 365 and 1200 MWt) PWR reactor plants, for industrial cogeneration or electric power generation. Studies and experience with nuclear plants in this size range indicate unfavorable economics. To offset this disadvantage, modular characteristics of an integral reactor and close-coupled vapor suppression containment have been exploited to shorten construction schedules and reduce construction costs. The resulting compact reactor/containment complex is illustrated. Economic studies to date indicate that the containment design and the innovative construction techniques developed to shorten erection schedules have been important factors in reducing estimated project costs, thus potentially making such smaller plants competetive with competing energy sources

  17. Halon 1301 protection system for nuclear containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHale, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    Halon 1301 can provide protection against any combustion hazard that hydrogen gas might present in an LWR containment following a loss-of-coolant accident. A development program was conducted, comprising analytical study, laboratory experiments and large-scale testing, to define the requirements for a Halon 1301 system and to examine certain operational problems that were hypothesized. Some results of the study are presented in this paper

  18. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  19. The WINCON programme - validation of fast reactor primary containment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidoli, J.E.A.; Kendall, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the United Kingdom safety studies for the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) include an assessment of the capability of the primary containment in providing an adequate containment for defence against the hazards resulting from a hypothetical Whole Core Accident (WCA). The assessment is based on calculational estimates using computer codes supported by measured evidence from small-scale experiments. The hydrodynamic containment code SEURBNUK-EURDYN is capable of representing a prescribed energy release, the sodium coolant and cover gas, and the main containment and safety related internal structures. Containment loadings estimated using SEURBNUK-EURDYN are used in the structural dynamic code EURDYN-03 for the prediction of the containment response. The experiments serve two purposes, they demonstrate the response of the CDFR containment to accident loadings and provide data for the validation of the codes. This paper summarises the recently completed WINfrith CONtainment (WINCON) experiments that studied the response of specific features of current CDFR design options to WCA loadings. The codes have been applied to some of the experiments and a satisfactory prediction of the global response of the model containment is obtained. This provides confidence in the use of the codes in reactor assessments. (author)

  20. Pricing Scheme of Ocean Carrier for Inbound Container Storage for Assistance of Container Supply Chain Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the pricing scheme of ocean carrier for inbound container storage so as to assist container supply chain finance. In this paper, how an ocean carrier should set price of inbound container storage to the customer while facing the contract from the container terminal operator is first analyzed. Then, two different contract systems, the free-time contract system which is widely used in practice and the free-space contract system which is newly developed recently, are considered. In the two different contract systems, inbound container storage pricing models are constructed, and accordingly optimal solution approaches for the ocean carrier are provided. For comparison purpose, some numerical experiments for the two different contract systems are conducted to investigate the effects of the container terminal operator’s decision on the system outcomes. Numerical experiments show that (1 the carrier is more flexible in the free-space contract system and can receive more profit by using the free-storage-space as a pooling storage system and (2 the free-space contract system benefits both the carrier in profit and the busy terminal in traffic control.

  1. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  2. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  3. AGS experiments - 1982, 1983, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, G.

    1983-01-01

    The report contains layouts of experimental areas, a table of beam parameters and fluxes, the experiment schedule as run, the experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, and a section of two-page summaries of each experiment

  4. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters

  5. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here

  6. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  7. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  8. International Containment Technology Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the manuscripts of the papers and posters presented at the 1997 International Containment Technology Conference and Exhibition. These manuscripts represent a valuable compilation of information and data on the environmental challenges and technology-based solutions associated with containment technologies. The purpose of the conference was to promote the advancement of containment technologies by providing a forum from which participants from related disciplines could meet to exchange ideas and information on recent developments. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  9. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  10. Container for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The container of the present invention comprises a container main body having a body portion which can contain spent fuel assemblies and a lid, and heat pipes having an evaporation portion disposed along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies to be contained and a condensation portion exposed to the outside of the container main body. Further, the heat pipe is formed spirally at the evaporation portions so as to surround the outer circumference of the spent fuel assemblies, branched into a plurality of portions at the condensation portion, each of the branched portion of the condensation portion being exposed to the outside of the container main body, and is tightly in contact with the periphery of the slit portions disposed to the container main body. Then, since released after heat is transferred to the outside of the container main body from the evaporation portion of the heat pipe along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies by way of the condensation portion of the heat pipes exposed to the outside of the container main body, the efficiency of the heat transfer is extremely improved to enhance the effect of removing heat of spent fuel assemblies. Further, cooling effect is enhanced by the spiral form of the evaporation portion and the branched condensation portion. (N.H.)

  11. Effect of some metal-containing compounds and fertilizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA, BDH Ltd, UK 39 g/l) medium, maintained on PDA medium and stored at 4°C for further use. In this experiment, the mycelia growth capability of the Trichoderma isolates against some metal-containing compounds and fertilizers, consist of MgSO4.7H2O (containing ...

  12. Proceedings of the 2. international conference on containment design and operation. Vol. 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S R

    1991-12-31

    The second international conference on containment design and operation included sessions on the following topics: plenary; commissioning and operation; regulatory and performance requirements; reliability, risk and severe accident evaluation; future containment systems; severe accident evaluation; activity transport experiments; activity transport analysis; containment design; future and filtered vent containment systems; containment response; hydrogen combustion. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors, and to Canadian experiments. The individual papers have been abstracted separately.

  13. Tritium containment in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The key environmental control systems that have been identified and are being developed are listed. A brief description of each of the following systems is given: primary process materials, permeation barriers, secondary containment, tritium waste treatment, emergency tritium cleanup, maintenance procedures, and tertiary containment

  14. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  15. Transient shielded liquid hydrogen containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.P.; Herring, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase has been limited in duration due to the thermal performance constraints of conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers available. Conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers lose hydrogen because of their relatively high heat leak and variations in usage pattern of hydrogen due to shutdowns. Local regulations also discourage venting of hydrogen. Long term storage of Liquid Hydrogen without product loss was usually accomplished using Liquid Nitrogen sacrificial shields. This paper reports on a new low heat leak container developed and patented that will extend the storage time of liquid hydrogen by five hundred percent. The principle of operation of the Transient Shields which makes the extraordinary performance of this container feasible is described in this paper. Also covered are the impact of this new container on present applications of hydrogen and the new opportunities afforded to Liquid hydrogen in the world hydrogen market

  16. Containment integrity analysis under accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge; Zhao Ruichang; Liu Zhitao

    2010-01-01

    Containment integrity analyses for current nuclear power plants (NPPs) mainly focus on the internal pressure caused by design basis accidents (DBAs). In addition to the analyses of containment pressure response caused by DBAs, the behavior of containment during severe accidents (SAs) are also evaluated for AP1000 NPP. Since the conservatism remains in the assumptions,boundary conditions and codes, margin of the results of containment integrity analyses may be overestimated. Along with the improvements of the knowledge to the phenomena and process of relevant accidents, the margin overrated can be appropriately reduced by using the best estimate codes combined with the uncertainty methods, which could be beneficial to the containment design and construction of large passive plants (LPP) in China. (authors)

  17. Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed an Authenticated Secure Container System (ASCS) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Agency standard weights and safeguards samples can be stored in the ASCS to provide continuity of knowledge. The ASCS consists of an optically clear cover, a base containing the Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) transmitter, and the AIMS receiver unit for data collection. The ASCS will provide the Inspector with information concerning the status of the system, during a surveillance period, such as state of health, tampering attempts, and movement of the container system. The secure container is located inside a Glove Box with the receiver located remotely from the Glove Box. AIMS technology uses rf transmission from the secure container to the receiver to provide a record of state of health and tampering. The data is stored in the receiver for analysis by the Inspector during a future inspection visit. 2 refs

  18. Demonstration of an Emergency Containment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, T.M.; Rogers, M.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A system called an Emergency Containment System (ECS) to be used for tertiary containment of tritium was reported at the 13th Air Cleaning Conference. This system was part of the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory then under construction at Mound Facility. A series of experiments has recently been conducted to evaluate the performance of an ECS in capturing tritium accidentally released into an operating laboratory. The ECS is an automatically actuated laboratory air detritiation system utilizing a catalytic oxidation reactor and presaturated oxide adsorption/exchange columns. In the event of an accidental release of tritium into the laboratory, the ECS is automatically activated, and quick-acting pneumatic dampers divert the laboratory air supply and exhaust through the ECS until room concentrations are returned to safe operating levels. The results of the experiments have shown that a tertiary containment of tritium is feasible. In the event of a catastrophic accident, the ECS is capable of preventing the release of a large quantity of tritium to the environment

  19. Deflagration in stainless steel storage containers containing plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1996-02-01

    Detonation of hydrogen and oxygen in stainless steel storage containers produces maximum pressures of 68.5 psia and 426.7 psia. The cylinders contain 3,000 g of PuO 2 with 0.05 wt% and 0.5 wt% water respectively. The hydrogen and oxygen are produced by the alpha decomposition of the water. Work was performed for the Savannah River Site

  20. Integrated severe accident containment analysis with the CONTAIN computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Williams, D.C.; Rexroth, P.E.; Tills, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    Analysis of physical and radiological conditions iunside the containment building during a severe (core-melt) nuclear reactor accident requires quantitative evaluation of numerous highly disparate yet coupled phenomenologies. These include two-phase thermodynamics and thermal-hydraulics, aerosol physics, fission product phenomena, core-concrete interactions, the formation and combustion of flammable gases, and performance of engineered safety features. In the past, this complexity has meant that a complete containment analysis would require application of suites of separate computer codes each of which would treat only a narrower subset of these phenomena, e.g., a thermal-hydraulics code, an aerosol code, a core-concrete interaction code, etc. In this paper, we describe the development and some recent applications of the CONTAIN code, which offers an integrated treatment of the dominant containment phenomena and the interactions among them. We describe the results of a series of containment phenomenology studies, based upon realistic accident sequence analyses in actual plants. These calculations highlight various phenomenological effects that have potentially important implications for source term and/or containment loading issues, and which are difficult or impossible to treat using a less integrated code suite

  1. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  2. Passive heat removal from containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a heat removal system for removing heat from a containment of a nuclear reactor. It comprises: a sealed suppression chamber in the containment; means for venting steam from the nuclear reactor into the suppression chamber upon occurrence of an event requiring dissipation of heat from the nuclear reactor. The suppression chamber containing a quantity of water; the suppression chamber having a gas-containing space above the water; a heat exchanger disposed within the gas-containing space of the suppression chamber; the heat exchanger including an enclosed structure for holding a heat-exchange fluid; means for metering a supply of heat-exchange fluid to the heat exchanger to maintain a predetermined level thereof in the enclosed structure. The heat-exchange fluid boiling in the heat exchanger in consequence of heat transfer thereto from steam present in the suppression chamber; means for separating a heat-exchange fluid vapor in the heat exchanger from the heat-exchange fluid; and means for discharging the vapor immediately following its separation from heat-exchange fluid directly from the heat exchanger to a location exterior of the containment, whereby heat is discharged from the suppression chamber, and the containment is maintained at a temperature and pressure below its design value

  3. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  4. Emergency reactor container cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns an emergency cooling facility for a nuclear reactor container having a pressure suppression chamber, in which water in the suppression chamber is effectively used for cooling the reactor container. That is, the lower portion of a water pool in the pressure suppression chamber and the inside of the reactor container are connected by a pipeline. The lower end of the pipeline and a pressurized incombustible gas tank disposed to the outside of the reactor container are connected by a pipeline by way of valves. Then, when the temperature of the lower end of the pressure vessel exceeds a predetermined value, the valves are opened. If the valves are opened, the incombustible gas flows into the lower end of the pipeline connecting the lower portion of the water pool in the pressure suppression chamber and the inside of the reactor container. Since the inside of the pipeline is a two phase flow comprising a mixture of a gas phase and a liquid phase, the average density is decreased. Therefore, the water level of the two phase flow is risen by the level difference between the inside and the outside of the pipeline and, finally, the two phase mixture is released into the reactor container. As a result, the reactor container can be cooled by water in the suppression chamber by a static means without requiring pumps. (I.S.)

  5. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  6. Transport containers for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroszlai, P.; Ferroni, F.

    1984-01-01

    A cylindrical container for the transportation of radioactive reactor elements includes a top end, a bottom end and a pair of removable outwardly curved shock absorbers, each including a double-shelled construction having an internal shell with a convex intrados configuration and an external shell with a convex extrados configuration, the shock absorbers being filled with a low density energy-absorbing material and mounted at the top end and the bottom end of the container, respectively, and each of the shock absorbers having a toroidal configuration, and deformable tubes disposed within the shock absorbers and extending in the axial direction of the container

  7. Containment leakage rate testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the status of several documents under revision or development that provide requirements and guidance for testing nuclear power plant containment systems for leakage rates. These documents include the general revision to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J; the regulatory guide affiliated with the revision to Appendix J; the national standard that the regulatory guide endorses, ANSI/ANS-56.8, 'Containment System Leakage Rate Testing Requirements'; and the draft industry Licensing Topical Report, 'Standardized Program for Primary Containment Integrity Testing'. The actual or potential relationships between these documents are also explored

  8. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetters, F.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  9. Steganographic embedding in containers-images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishova, A. V.; Omelchenko, T. A.; Makedonskij, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Steganography is one of the approaches to ensuring the protection of information transmitted over the network. But a steganographic method should vary depending on a used container. According to statistics, the most widely used containers are images and the most common image format is JPEG. Authors propose a method of data embedding into a frequency area of images in format JPEG 2000. It is proposed to use the method of Benham-Memon- Yeo-Yeung, in which instead of discrete cosine transform, discrete wavelet transform is used. Two requirements for images are formulated. Structure similarity is chosen to obtain quality assessment of data embedding. Experiments confirm that requirements satisfaction allows achieving high quality assessment of data embedding.

  10. Hydrogen distribution studies relevant to CANDU containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Chan, C.K.; Jones, S.C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Following a loss of coolant accident with coincident loss of emergency core cooling, hydrogen may be produced in a CANDU reactor from the in-core Zircaloy-steam reaction, and released into containment. To meet the requirements for predicting containment hydrogen distribution, and to support measures for mitigation, a computer code GOTHIC is used. Simulations of gas mixing were performed using simple well defined experiments in a small-scale compartment, helium being substituted for hydrogen. At the time of the conference, results indicated that GOTHIC could quantitatively predict the stratified gas distribution resulting from buoyant gas injection near the bottom of an unobstructed compartment. When gas was injected near the top, GOTHIC underpredicted maximum gas concentration at the top, and overpredicted mixing. These errors arise from the finite-volume approximation. 2 refs., 11 figs

  11. Radionuclide containment in soil by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Francis, C.W.; Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclide transport from a contaminant source to groundwater and surface water is a common problem faced by most US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Containment of the radionuclide plume, including strontium-90 and uranium, is possible using phosphate treatment as a chemical stabilizer. Such a chemical process occurs in soils under natural environmental conditions. Therefore, the concept of phosphate amendment for radiostrontium and uranium immobilization is already a proven principle. In this presentation, results of bench-scale experiments and the concept of a field-scale demonstration are discussed. The phosphate treatment is possible at the source or near the advancing contaminant plume. Cleanup is still the ideal concept; however, containment through stabilization is a more practical and costeffective concept that should be examined by DOE Environmental Restoration programs

  12. COMPLEXES CONTAINING HYDRAZINE AND BENZYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Treatment of 2 in refluxing acetone in the presence of the ... Microanalyses were carried out at the Center for Nanotechnology, Department of. Chemistry ... product as mixtures of colourless prisms and needles containing methanol and water of.

  13. Packet D: Fuel containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevskij, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The tasks of the project 'D' are: increase of nuclear safety by fuel containing mass (FCM) characterisation, and development of a preliminary plan for FCM management which should be accomplished by FCM extraction

  14. TMI-2 containment decontamination plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, F.

    1980-01-01

    Because of other priorities such as reentry, purging, and recovery, containment decontamination is only in the preliminary planning stages. This paper summarizes the study with emphasis on the remote decontamination techniques

  15. Lightweight engine containment. [Kevlar shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. T.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar fabric styles and weaves were studied, as well as methods of application for advanced gas turbine engines. The Kevlar material was subjected to high speed impacts by simple projectiles fired from a rifle, as well as more complex shapes such as fan blades released from gas turbine rotors in a spin pit. Just contained data was developed for a variety of weave and/or application techniques, and a comparative containment weight efficiency was established for Kevlar containment applications. The data generated during these tests is being incorporated into an analytical design system so that blade containment trade-off studies between Kevlar and metal case engine structures can be made. Laboratory tests and engine environment tests were performed to determine the survivability of Kevlar in a gas turbine environment.

  16. Alternative pathways to antimatter containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejcek, J.M.; Browder, M.K.; Fry, J.L.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Antimatter containment is a gateway technology for future advancements in many areas. Immediate applications in propulsion, medicine, and instrumentation have already been envisioned and many others are yet to be considered. Key to this technological advance is identifying one or more pathways to achieve safe reliable containment of antimatter in sufficient quantities to be useful on an engineering and industrial scale. The goal of this paper is to review current approaches and discuss possible alternative pathways to antimatter containment. Specifically, this paper will address the possibility of designing a solid-state containment system that will safely hold antimatter in quantities dense enough to be of any engineering utility. A discussion of the current research, the needed engineering requirements, and a survey of current research is presented

  17. Shipping container for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    A container for nuclear materials is described wherein a specially and uniquely constructed pressure vessel and gamma shield assembly for holding the nuclear materials is provided in a housing, and wherein a positioning means extends between the housing and the assembly for spacing the same, insulation in the housing essentially filling the space between the assembly and housing, the insulation comprising beads, globules or the like of water encapsulated in plastic and which, in one important embodiment, contains neutron absorbing matter

  18. Transport containers for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibby, D.

    1978-01-01

    A transport container for transporting irradiated nuclear fuel is described comprising a steel flask with detachable cover and having external heat exchange fins. The flask contains a solid annular shield comprised of discrete bodies of Pb or Fe bonded together by a solid matrix, for attenuating gamma rays and neutron emission. This may comprise lead shot bonded together by concrete or polyethylene, or alternatively iron shot bonded by concrete. (UK)

  19. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  20. A Container Horizontal Positioning Method with Image Sensors for Cranes in Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Yonghua

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Automation is a trend for large container terminals nowadays, and container positioning techniques are key factor in the automating process. Vision based positioning techniques are inexpensive and rather accurate in nature, while the effect with insufficient illumination is left in question. This paper proposed a vision-based procedure with image sensors to determine the position of one container in the horizontal plane. The points found by the edge detection operator are clustered, and only the peak points in the parameter space of the Hough transformation is selected, in order that the effect of noises could be much decreased. The effectiveness of our procedure is verified in experiments, in which the efficiency of the procedure is also investigated.

  1. Nuclear fuel element and container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, W.T.; King, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is based on the discovery that a substantial reduction in metal embrittlement or stress corrosion cracking from fuel pellet-cladding interaction can be achieved by the use of a copper layer or liner in proximity to the nuclear fuel, and an intermediate zirconium oxide barrier layer between the copper layer and the zirconium cladding substrate. The intermediate zirconia layer is a good copper diffusion barrier; also, if the zirconium cladding surface is modified prior to oxidation, copper can be deposited by electroless plating. A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises a central core of fuel material and an elongated container using the system outlined above. The method for making the container is again described. It comprises roughening or etching the surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container, oxidizing the resulting container, activating the oxidized surface to allow for the metallic coating of such surfaces by electroless deposition and further coating the activated-oxidized surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container with copper, iron or nickel or an alloy thereof. (U.K.)

  2. Aging of steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-02-01

    Aging of the containment pressure boundary in light water reactor plants is being addressed to understand the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion efficacy of inspection and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of concrete containments. and to make recommendations on use of risk models in regulatory decisions. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of containment related degradation experience is presented. Current and emerging nondestructive examination techniques and a degradation assessment methodology for characterizing and quantifying the amount of damage present are described. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures using time dependent structural reliability analysis methods are summarized. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process. Results of this research provide a means for establishing current and estimating future structural capacity margins of containments, and to address the significance of incidences of reported containment degradation

  3. Hydrogen transport in the containment; Wasserstofftransport im Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royl, P.; Mueller, C.; Travis, J.R.; Wilson, T.

    1995-08-01

    For the description of transport phenomena in water vapor/hydrogen mixtures released in nuclear meltdown accidents, an integrated analytical model is being developed for LWR containments. Thermal and mechanical loads due to recombination and combustion are to be calculable. The 3-dimensional GASFLOW code was taken over from LANL in exchange for HDR experimental results and Battelle BMC program results. (orig.)

  4. Containing method for spent fuel and spent fuel containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Hanada, Yoshine.

    1996-01-01

    Upon containing spent fuels, a metal vessel main body and a support spacer having fuel containing holes are provided. The support spacer is disposed in the inside of the metal vessel main body, and spent fuel assemblies are loaded in the fuel containing holes. Then, a lid is welded at the opening of the metal vessel main body to provide a sealing state. In this state, heat released from the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the wall of the metal vessel main body via the support spacer. Since the support spacer has a greater heat conductivity than gases, heat of the spent fuel assemblies tends to be released to the outside, thereby capable of removing heat of the spent fuel assemblies effectively. In addition, since the surfaces of the spent fuel assemblies are in contact with the inner surface of the fuel containing holes of the support spacer, impact-resistance and earthquake-resistance are ensured, and radiation from the spent fuel assemblies is decayed by passing through the layer of the support spacer. (T.M.)

  5. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  6. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  7. Selenium-containing indolyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaril, Angela M; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chuang, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    materials, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, within the artery wall. Here we investigated the potential of selenium-containing indoles to afford protection against these oxidants, by determining rate constants (k) for their reaction, and quantifying the extent of damage on isolated ECM proteins......Tyr on HCAEC-ECM were also reduced. These data demonstrate that the novel selenium-containing compounds show high reactivity with oxidants and may modulate oxidative and nitrosative damage at sites of inflammation, contributing to a reduction in tissue dysfunction and atherogenesis....

  8. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  9. Methane from waste containing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-24

    Waste solids containing paper are biologically treated in a system by: fermentation with lactobacilli, separation of the solids, ion exchange of the supernatant from the separation, anaerobic digestion of the ion-exchanged liquor, separation of a liquor from the fermentation, and digestion of the liquor. Thus, a municipal waste containing paper and water was inoculated with Aspergillus niger and lactobacilli for 2 days; the mixture was anaerobically treated and centrifuged; the clear liquor was ion exchanged; and the solid waste was filter pressed. The filter cake was treated with Trichoderma nigricaus and filtered. The filtrate and the ion-exchanged liquor were digested for CH/sub 4/ production.

  10. Dry containment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A cask for the dry containment of radioactive fuel elements is described. The cask has a cover which contains valved drain and purge passageways. These passageways are sealed by after purge cover seals which are clamped over them and to the outer surface of the cover. The cover seals are tested by providing them with a pair of concentric ring seal elements squeezed between the cover seal and the outer surface of the cover and by forcing a gas under pressure into the annular region between the seal element

  11. Containing Terrorism: A Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Zahedzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic interplay between counterterror measures and terror activity is complex. Herein, we propose a dynamic model to depict this interaction. The model generates stylized prognoses: (i under conditions of inefficient counterterror measures, terror groups enjoy longer period of activity but only if recruitment into terror groups remains low; high recruitment shortens the period of terror activity (ii highly efficient counterterror measures effectively contain terror activity, but only if recruitment remains low. Thus, highly efficient counterterror measures can effectively contain terrorism if recruitment remains restrained. We conclude that the trajectory of the dynamics between counterterror measures and terror activity is heavily altered by recruitment.

  12. Investigations on passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Neitzel, H.J.; Erbacher, F.J.; Hofmann, F.

    1997-01-01

    The composite containment design for advanced LWRs that has been examined under the PASCO project is a promising design concept for purely passive decay heat removal after a severe accident. The passive cooling processes applied are natural convection and radiative heat transfer. Heat transfer through the latter process removes at an emission coefficient of 0.9 about 50% of the total heat removed via the steel containment, and thus is an essential factor. The heat transferring surfaces must have a high emission coefficient. The sump cooling concept examined under the SUCO project achieves a steady, natural convection-driven flow from the heat source to the heat sink. (orig./CB) [de

  13. A calculation technique to improve continuous monitoring of containment integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The containment envelope of nuclear plants is a passive and extremely effective safety feature. World experience indicates, however, that inadvertent breaches of envelope integrity can go undetected for substantial time periods. Consequently, continuous monitoring of integrity is being closely examined by many containment designers and operators. The most promising approach is to use sensors and systems that automatically measure changes in the mass of air in containment, time integrate any known air mass flow rates across containment boundaries, and perform a mass balance to obtain the air mass leaked. As fluctuations in such measurements are typically too large to enable leakage to be calculated to the desired precision, filtering and statistical techniques must be used to filter out random and time-dependent fluctuations. Current approaches cannot easily deal with nonrandom or systematic fluctuations in the measurements, including pressure changes within the containment. As a result, sampling periods must be kept short, or data measured during periods of varying containment pressure must be discarded. The technique described allows for much longer sampling periods under conditions of fluctuating containment pressure and eliminates the invalidation of data when the containment pressure fluctuation is nonrandom. It should therefore yield a much more precise value for the containment leakage characteristic. It also promises to be able to distinguish the presence of systematic errors unrelated to systematic pressure changes and to establish whether the containment leakage characteristic is laminar or turbulent

  14. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  15. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The container comprises a cask and a cover made of concrete reinforced with metal fibers and closed with a seal poured in a dovetailed annular space provided between the cask and the cover. The seal is made with the material used for the cask [fr

  16. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tightness, shock resistance and corrosion resistance of containers for storage of radioactive wastes it obtained by complete fabrication with concrete reinforced with metal fibers. This material is used for molding the cask, the cover and the joint connecting both parts. Dovetail grooves are provided on the cask and the cover for the closure [fr

  17. Container for shipping dangerous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  18. The cobalt-60 container scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jigang, A.; Liye, Z.; Yisi, L.; Haifeng, W.; Zhifang, W.; Liqiang, W.; Yuanshi, Z.; Xincheng, X.; Furong, L.; Baozeng, G.; Chunfa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) has successfully designed and constructed a container (cargo) scanner, which uses cobalt-60 of 100-300 Ci as radiation source. The following performances of the Cobalt-60 container scanner have been achieved at INET: a) IQI (Image Quality Indicator) - 2.5% behind 100 mm of steel; b) CI (Contrast Indicator) - 0.7% behind 100 mm of steel; c) SP (Steel Penetration) - 240 mm of steel; d) Maximum Dose per Scanning - 0.02mGy; e) Throughput - twenty 40-foot containers per hour. These performances are equal or similar to those of the accelerator scanners. Besides these nice enough inspection properties, the Cobalt-60 scanner possesses many other special features which are better than accelerator scanners: a) cheap price - it will be only or two tenths of the accelerator scanner's; b) low radiation intensity - the radiation protection problem is much easier to solve and a lot of money can be saved on the radiation shielding building; c) much smaller area for installation and operation; d) simple operation and convenient maintenance; e) high reliability and stability. The Cobalt-60 container (or cargo) scanner is satisfied for boundary customs, seaports, airports and railway stations etc. Because of the nice special features said above, it is more suitable to be applied widely. Its high properties and low price will make it have much better application prospects

  19. Cooling device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Miyuki.

    1996-01-01

    In a cooling device for a reactor container, a low pressure vessel is connected to an incondensible gas vent tube by way of an opening/closing valve. Upon occurrence of a loss of coolant accident, among steams and incondensible gases contained in the reactor container, steams are cooled and condensed in a heat exchanger. The incondensible gases are at first discharged from the heat exchanger to a suppression pool by way of the incondensible gas vent tube, but subsequently, they are stagnated in the incondensible gas vent tube to hinder heat exchanging and steam cooling and condensing effects in the heat exchanger thereby raising temperature and pressure in the reactor. However, if the opening/closing valve is opened when the incondensible gases are stagnated in the incondensible gas vent tube, since the incondensible gases stagnated in the heat exchanger are sucked and discharged to the low pressure vessel, the performance of the heat exchanger is maintained satisfactorily thereby enabling to suppress elevation of temperature and pressure in the reactor container. (N.H.)

  20. Overpressurization performance of containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.; Bleackley, M.; Harrop, L.P.; Hargreaves, J.; Jowett, J.; Phillips, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The containment building of a PWR is the outermost engineered barrier between the reactor and the environment. The most important element of such a containment system is the pressure boundary structure and its associated seals and penetrations. This containment structure is designed deterministically to withstand a number of loads and load combinations of which the dominant one is generally the internal pressure due to the double-ended guillotine break in one of the primary circuit loops. Typically, the design basis large LOCA produces a peak pressure increase in the region of 0.3 MPa in some 10 seconds and with a duration of up to a few tens of seconds. The assessment of overpressure performance of the containment structure is a key component of the PWR safety case, and is usually carried out by estimating a static factor of safety to some failure limit state. These estimates can be made using simple force-balance calculations or complicated finite element calculations, and both approaches have merit. In this paper we examine these approaches and discuss their value in estimating failure pressures and failure modes for a variety of internal pressurization transients. This discussion covers both general design and risk considerations and is illustrated by numerical examples taken from previous and on-going analysis