WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-energy xe ions

  1. The interactions of high-energy, highly charged Xe ions with buckyballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S. [and others

    1994-12-31

    Ionization and fragmentation have been measured for C{sub 60} molecules bombarded by highly charged (up to 35+) xenon ions with energies ranging up to 625 MeV. The observed mass distribution of positively charged fragments is explained in terms of a theoretical model indicating that the total interaction cross section contains roughly equal contributions from (a) excitation of the giant plasmon resonance, and (b) large-energy-transfer processes that lead to multiple fragmentation of the molecule. Preliminary results of measurements on VUV photons emitted in these interactions are also presented.

  2. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  3. State selective capture by highly charged Xe ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, V. G.; Knoop, S.; Morgenstern, R.; Hoekstra, R.; McCullough, RW; Currell, FJ; Greenwood, J; Gribakin, G; Scott, MP

    2007-01-01

    Single-electron capture in collisions of highly charged ions Xe18+ and Xe24+ with Na atoms is investigated by measuring the momenta of the Na recoil ions. The Q-value spectrum in Xe18+ + Na collisions shows capture into lower n states compared with Classical over-barrier model (CBM) calculations.

  4. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  5. High-energy ion implantation for ULSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Komori, S.; Kuroi, T.; Akasaka, Y. (LSI R and D Lab., Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Itami (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The ''well engineering'' of a retrograde twin well formed by high-energy ion implantation for 0.5 {mu}m CMOS is demonstrated to be quite useful in improving many device characteristics, such as leakage current reduction, soft-error immunity, low latchup susceptibility, smaller device isolation dimensions, etc. In forming a heavily doped buried layer by high-energy ion implantation, a drastic reduction in leakage current has been found. This would be caused by gettering of impurities or microdefects by secondary defects which are induced either by implantation of dopant itself (''self-gettering'') or by an additional implantation of oxygen, carbon or fluorine (''proximity gettering''). (orig.).

  6. Surface spectroscopy using high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, B.L.; Cocke, C.L.; Gray, T.J.; Justiniano, E.; Peercy, P.S.

    1983-04-01

    Surface atoms ionized by high energy heavy ions have been detected by time-of-flight and quadrupole mass spectroscopic techniques. The experimental arrangements are described and potential applications are suggested. Both techniques are demonstrated to produce significant improvements in the detection of atomic hydrogen, with the TOF method producing a nine order of magnitude increase in the sensitivity of atomic hydrogen compared to standard nuclear analysis methods.

  7. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  8. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Pablos, J L de [Departamento de Fusion y Particulas Elementales, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F [Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Williart, A [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-11-28

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV.

  10. Xe-bearing hydrocarbon ions: Observation of Xe.acetylene+rad and Xe.benzene+rad radical cations and calculations of their ground state structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhong-hua; Attah, Isaac K.; Platt, Sean P.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Kertesz, Miklos; El-Shall, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    This work reports evidence for novel types of Xe-bearing hydrocarbon radical cations. The Xe.acetylene+rad radical cation adduct is observed at nearly room temperature using the mass-selected drift cell technique. The irreversible addition of the Xe atom and the lack of back dissociation to HCCH+rad + Xe is consistent with the calculated binding energy of 0.85 eV to be contrasted with the metastable nature of the neutral Xe.acetylene adduct. The observed Xe.benzene+rad radical cation appears to be a weakly bound complex stabilized mainly by ion-induced dipole interaction consistent with a calculated binding energy in the range of 0.14-0.17 eV.

  11. Prototype of a high-power, high-energy industrial XeCl laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V. M.; Demin, A. I.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the results of fabrication and experimental study of a high-power excimer XeCl laser for industrial applications. Compactness of the laser is achieved by the employment of a laser chamber based on a ceramic tube made of Al2O3. High laser output energy (1.5 - 2.5 J pulse-1) is obtained using a wide-aperture (up to 55 × 30 mm) volume discharge with pre-ionisation by a creeping discharge. The pre-ionisation is realised through a semitransparent electrode by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of uniform plasma sheet on a surface of a plane sapphire plate. The operating lifetime of the gas mixture amounts to ~57 × 106 pulses at a stabilised average laser power of 450 W. The results obtained demonstrate real prospects for developing a new class of excimer XeCl lasers with an average power of ~1 kW.

  12. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  13. Molecular dynamics study on low-energy sputtering of carbon material by Xe ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, T.; Hyakutake, T.

    2013-05-01

    The low-energy sputtering of carbon material under Xe ion bombardment is studied through the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. For the normal incidence of Xe, the MD result of sputtering yield almost agrees with the experimental result by Williams et al. (AIAA-2004-3788). However, the experimental result shows a less incident angle dependence than the MD result because the experiment performed on a rough surface. It is found that the sputtered particles have memory of the projectile because the sputtered particles by the low-energy projectile undergo only a few collisions before the ejection. Low density of an amorphous carbon surface brings the decrease of the sputtering yield and the increase of high-energy sputtered atoms.

  14. High energy ion beam analysis at ARRONAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumeir, C.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France); GIP ARRONAX, Saint-Herblain (France); Guertin, A.; Metivier, V.; Michel, N.; Ragreb, D.; Servagent, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: ARRONAX, acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes' is a high energy cyclotron. It is characterized by the acceleration of several types of particle beams: 68 MeV alpha, 15-35 MeV deuterons and 30-68 MeV protons. A platform was implemented on ARRONAX to perform non-destructive materials analysis with X and gamma rays emission (PIXE-PIGE). A proper selection of the projectile type and beam energy allows to analyze heavy and light elements in thin and thick samples. Our research activities are oriented along three axes: 1) Measurements of K X-ray production cross section for various elements to complement the databases at high energy. A first experiment has been conducted to measure these cross sections for copper and gold with protons energy between 34 and 68 MeV. 2) Study of the detection sensitivity which depends on the nuclear background and the Bremsstrahlung radiations. A dedicated shielding has been developed and detection limits below tens of μg/g/μC have been assessed using different referenced samples from IAEA. 3) Determination of concentration profile as function of the depth in a thick target. Using layered samples, we have showed for a target consisting of three different layers, the possibility to determine the sequence and thickness of each layer by using X and gamma rays measured respectively during and after irradiation. During this talk, I will present the characteristics and the capabilities of our platform. In the near future we intend to install the PIGE technique and use it with 15 MeV deuterons to analyze lightweight elements. (author)

  15. Zirconium oxidation under high energy heavy ion irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bérerd, N; Moncoffre, N; Jaffrezic, H; Balanzat, E; democrite-00023380, ccsd

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the study of zirconium oxidation under irradiation with high energetic Xe ions. The irradiations were performed on the IRRSUD beam line at GANIL (Caen). The oxygen partial pressure was fixed at 10$^{-3}$ Pa and two temperature conditions were used, either 480$\\circ$C reached by Joule effect heating or 280$\\circ$C due to Xe energy deposition. Zirconia was fully characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Grazing Angle X-ray Diffraction. Apparent diffusion coefficients of oxygen in ZrO2 were determined from these experiments by using a model which takes into account a surface exchange between oxygen gas and the ZrO2 surface. These results are compared with thermal oxidation data.

  16. High energy heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, S L; Guo, H Y; Tu, C Q; Wang, Y L; Doke, T; Kato, T; Ozaki, K; Kyan, A; Piao, Y; Murakami, T

    1999-01-01

    Bubble detectors which are commonly used as neutron detectors have been demonstrated through this study to be good detectors for registration of high energy heavy ion tracks. Large size bubble detectors made in China Institute of Atomic Energy were irradiated to heavy ions Ar and C up to 650 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u, respectively. Very clear features of stringy tracks of high energy heavy ions and their fragmentations are manifested and distinguishable. A single track created by a specific high energy heavy ion is composed of a line of bubbles, which is visible by naked eyes and retained for months without reduction in size. The creation of heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors is governed by a threshold whose essence is approximately a critical value of energy loss rate (dE/dX) sub c similar to that of etch track detectors. Ranges of heavy ions in bubble detectors are apparent and predictable by existing formulas. Identification of high energy heavy ions and the applications to heavy ion physics, cosmic rays, exot...

  17. Experimental study of point-defect creation in high-energy heavy-ion tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A.; Balanzat, E.; Dural, J.

    1990-03-01

    Thin platelets of LiF crystals have been bombarded on the side with Ne (40 MeV/amu), Ar (60 MeV/amu), Kr (42 MeV/amu), and Xe (27 MeV/amu) ions at room temperature in the dose range from 108 to 1013 ions cm-2. Taking into account the large penetration depths of these high-energy ions (~=1.4, 1.8, 0.6, and 0.2 mm for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, respectively), it was possible to measure the depth distribution profiles of primary point defects (F centers) and aggregated defects (F2 centers) using a microspectrophotometric technique. These defects are localized in tracks surrounding the ion trajectories in which the energy is deposited by the δ rays emitted. Concerning the creation of primary defects, it has been shown that each individual track is saturated with F centers (~=4×1018 F centers/cm3). From the evolution of the F center depth profiles as a function of the ion doses, using a model of saturated tracks, it has been possible to determine the radii of the tracks all along the ion trajectories. These radii, which are of the order of 7.5, 8, 14, and 32 nm at the entrance in the crystals for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, respectively, increase continuously up to the values of 12, 16, 20, and 44 nm during the slowing down of the ions up to the end of the trajectories. In the wide range of energy deposition into electronic processes studied (from 0.2 to 20 MeV μm-1), a continuous behavior of the primary-defect creation is observed. This seems to indicate that the same excitonic mechanism is responsible of the primary-Frenkel-pair creation in the volume of the track irradiated by the secondary electrons and other mechanisms such as Coulomb explosion or melting, which could take place in the tracks above a certain dissipated-energy threshold, must be ruled out. Finally, the specificity of damaging with ions compared with other irradiation modes (electrons or electromagnetic radiation) is mainly observed with aggregated defects. Due to the high energy density dissipated in the tracks

  18. Ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, Frank [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR is studied in the present report. Positive ions are trapped in the negative potential well of the antiproton beam. The ions are produced by the interaction between the antiproton beam and the residual gas. The adverse effects of ion trapping like tune shifts, tune spreads and coherent instabilities are reviewed. The ion production rate by ionization of the residual gas molecules is estimated. The negative potential well and the corresponding electric fields of the antiproton beam are evaluated in order to study the transverse and longitudinal motion of the ions and the accumulation in trapping pockets. The removal of ions can be achieved using clearing electrodes and under certain conditions resonant transverse beam shaking. Diagnostic tools and measurements of trapped ion effects are sketched. (orig.)

  19. Correlations and fluctuations in high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dai-Mei; WANG Ya-Ping; WEI Li-Hua; CAI Xu

    2008-01-01

    An overview of research status of soft physics in high energy heavy-ion collision experiments and recent experimental results are presented.The experimental status on fluctuations and correlations has been reviewed and the outlook for research status of soft physics in LHC/ALICE has been introduced in this paper.

  20. TARGET EXCITATION IN BARE ION XE/AR COLLISIONS STUDIED BY ELECTRON TARGET ION COINCIDENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENIJS, G; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R

    We present electron spectra resulting from collisions of bare ions N-15(7+) and C-13(6+) on Ar and the charge state distribution of target ions resulting from C-13(6+)-Xe collisions. From both type of experiments we find evidence that electron capture accompanied by target excitation is an important

  1. Heavy-ion irradiation of pyrochlore oxides: Comparison between low and high energy regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattonnay, G.; Moll, S.; Thomé, L.; Legros, C.; Herbst-Ghysel, M.; Garrido, F.; Costantini, J.-M.; Trautmann, C.

    2008-06-01

    Pyrochlore pellets with Gd2(Ti2-xZrx)O7 stoichiometry were irradiated with heavy ions at energies ranging from a few MeV to a few GeV in order to compare the effects of nuclear collisions and electronic excitations. The damage created by irradiation was characterized as a function of the ion fluence by X-ray diffraction. The structural modifications induced by irradiation were shown to depend on both the sample composition and the type of irradiation. At low energy (4 MeV Au ions), the susceptibility to radiation-induced amorphization exhibits a systematic decrease with increasing Zr content. At high energy (1.5 GeV Xe or 2.6 GeV U ions), similar structural changes are observed at much lower fluences. The lattice parameter increases for low energy irradiation, particularly in the case of amorphizable pyrochlores (Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2TiZrO7), whereas it decreases for high energy irradiation.

  2. Radial Distribution of Electron Spectra from High-Energy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.

    1998-01-01

    The average track model describes the response of physical and biological systems using radial dose distribution as the key physical descriptor. We report on an extension of this model to describe the average distribution of electron spectra as a function of radial distance from an ion. We present calculations of these spectra for ions of identical linear energy transfer (LET), but dissimilar charge and velocity to evaluate the differences in electron spectra from these ions. To illustrate the usefulness of the radial electron spectra for describing effects that are not described by electron dose, we consider the evaluation of the indirect events in microdosimetric distributions for ions. We show that folding our average electron spectra model with experimentally determined frequency distributions for photons or electrons provides a good representation of radial event spectra from high-energy ions in 0.5-2 micrometer sites.

  3. Microscopic descriptions of high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    The essentials of the equation-of-motion (EOM) approach are given and some of its significant and interesting results are described. A framework for the theoretical description of high-energy heavy-ion (HE-HI) collisions is presented; specifically included are a critical assessment of various approaches--EOM calculations, Boltzmann equations/cascade calculations, and hydrodynamics--their relationships and their respective domains of applicability, if any, to HE-HI collisions. 11 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  4. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  5. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  6. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experimentsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K+ beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  7. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  8. Ba-ion extraction from a high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, T; Sabourov, A; Varentsov, V L; Gratta, G; Sinclair, D

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is being developed to extract Ba ions from a high-pressure Xe gas environment. It aims to transport Ba ions from 10 bar Xe to vacuum conditions. The setup utilizes a converging-diverging nozzle in combination with a radio-frequency (RF) funnel to move Ba ions into vacuum through the pressure drop of several orders of magnitude. This technique is intended to be used in a future multi-ton detector investigating double-beta decay in $^{136}$Xe. Efficient extraction and detection of Ba ions, the decay product of Xe, would allow for a background-free measurement of the $^{136}$Xe double-beta decay.

  9. Effect of inelastic and elastic energy losses of Xe ions on the evolution of hydrogen blisters in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, V. F.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Sokhatskii, A. S.; Zaluzhnyi, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of irradiation by heavy ions on the formation of blisters on the silicon surface preliminarily ion-doped with hydrogen. An attempt is made at differentiating inelastic and elastic processes of interaction between ions and Si atoms using bombardment of the sample with high-energy charged particles through a bent absorbing filter by varying the radiation doses and the energy of bombarding Xe ions. It is found that irrespective of specific ionization energy losses of heavy ions, the blister formation is completely suppressed in the zone of the inelastic interaction during postradiation annealing. Conversely, stimulated development of hydrogen porosity takes place at the same time in the zone of elastic interaction, which is manifested in the form of blisters and flaking.

  10. Kinetic energy distribution of multiply charged ions in Coulomb explosion of Xe clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Jortner, Joshua

    2011-02-21

    We report on the calculations of kinetic energy distribution (KED) functions of multiply charged, high-energy ions in Coulomb explosion (CE) of an assembly of elemental Xe(n) clusters (average size (n) = 200-2171) driven by ultra-intense, near-infrared, Gaussian laser fields (peak intensities 10(15) - 4 × 10(16) W cm(-2), pulse lengths 65-230 fs). In this cluster size and pulse parameter domain, outer ionization is incomplete∕vertical, incomplete∕nonvertical, or complete∕nonvertical, with CE occurring in the presence of nanoplasma electrons. The KEDs were obtained from double averaging of single-trajectory molecular dynamics simulation ion kinetic energies. The KEDs were doubly averaged over a log-normal cluster size distribution and over the laser intensity distribution of a spatial Gaussian beam, which constitutes either a two-dimensional (2D) or a three-dimensional (3D) profile, with the 3D profile (when the cluster beam radius is larger than the Rayleigh length) usually being experimentally realized. The general features of the doubly averaged KEDs manifest the smearing out of the structure corresponding to the distribution of ion charges, a marked increase of the KEDs at very low energies due to the contribution from the persistent nanoplasma, a distortion of the KEDs and of the average energies toward lower energy values, and the appearance of long low-intensity high-energy tails caused by the admixture of contributions from large clusters by size averaging. The doubly averaged simulation results account reasonably well (within 30%) for the experimental data for the cluster-size dependence of the CE energetics and for its dependence on the laser pulse parameters, as well as for the anisotropy in the angular distribution of the energies of the Xe(q+) ions. Possible applications of this computational study include a control of the ion kinetic energies by the choice of the laser intensity profile (2D∕3D) in the laser-cluster interaction volume.

  11. Observation of hyperfine mixing in measurements of a magnetic octupole decay in isotopically pure nickel-like 129Xe and 132Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V

    2006-12-21

    We present measurements of high statistical significance of the rate of the magnetic octupole (M3) decay in nickel-like ions of isotopically pure {sup 129}Xe and {sup 132}Xe. On {sup 132}Xe, an isotope with zero nuclear spin and therefore without hyperfine structure, the lifetime of the metastable level was established as (15.06 {+-} 0.24) ms. On {sup 129}Xe, an additional fast (2.7 {+-} 0.1 ms) decay component was established that represents hyperfine mixing with a level that decays by electric quadrupole (E2) radiation.

  12. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  13. Two models with rescattering for high energy heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, H.; Hansen, Ole; Humanic, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    The effects of hadronic rescattering in high energy relativistic Au+Au collisions are studied using two very different models to describe the early stages of the collision. One model is based on a hadronic thermal picture and the other on a superposition of parton-parton collisions. Operationally, the output hadrons from each of these models are used as input to a hadronic rescattering calculation. The results of the rescattering calculations from each model are then compared with rapidity and transverse momentum distributions from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider BRAHMS experiment. In spite of the different points of view of the two models of the initial stage, after rescattering, the observed differences between the models are mostly “washed out” and both models give observables that agree roughly with each other and with experimental data.

  14. Ion mobilities in Xe/Ne and other rare-gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, D; Phelps, A V; de Urquijo, J; Basurto, E; Pitchford, L C

    2003-10-01

    The ion mobility or drift velocity data important for modeling glow discharges in rare gas mixtures are not generally available, nor are the ion-neutral scattering cross sections needed to calculate these data. In this paper we propose a set of cross sections for Xe+ and Ne+ collisions with Xe and Ne atoms. Ion mobilities at 300 K calculated using this cross section set in a Monte Carlo simulation are reported for reduced field strengths, E/N, up to 1500 x 10(-21) V m(2), in pure gases and in Xe/Ne mixtures containing 5% and 20% Xe/Ne, which are mixtures of interest for plasma display panels (PDPs). The calculated Xe+ mobilities depend strongly on the mixture composition, but the Ne+ mobility varies only slightly with increasing Xe in the mixture over the range studied here. The mobilities in pure gases compare well with available experimental values, and mobilities in gas mixtures at low E/N compare well with our recent measurements which will be published separately. Results from these calculations of ion mobilities are used to evaluate the predictions of Blanc's law and of the mixture rule proposed by Mason and Hahn [Phys. Rev. A 5, 438 (1972)] for determining the ion mobilities in mixtures from a knowledge of the mobilities in each of the pure gases. The mixture rule of Mason and Hahn is accurate to better than 10% at high field strengths over a wide range of conditions of interest for modeling PDPs. We conclude that a good estimate of ion mobilities at high E/N in Xe/Ne and other binary rare gas mixtures can be obtained using this mixture rule combined with known values of mobilities in parent gases and with the Langevin form for mobility of rare gas ions ion in other gases. This conclusion is supported by results in Ar/Ne mixtures which are also presented here.

  15. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  16. Effects of Photon Absorption in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Joshua; Somanathan, Sidharth; Fries, Ranier

    2014-09-01

    Photons are an important probe of the hot and dense nuclear matter created in high-energy collisions of nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since the mean free path of photons is larger than the size of the fireball of nuclear matter, final state interactions of photons are usually neglected. In light of recent tension between theoretical calculations and data from RHIC and LHC, we study the effect of reabsorption of photons on elliptic flow v2 and on the nuclear modification factor RAA. We consider photons emitted in primary hard collisions and thermal photons from quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas. We use the jet-quenching code PPM to simulate the propagation of those photons in a fireball of quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas created by collisions of heavy nuclei. For the absorption cross-sections we consider three different approaches: (a) Compton and pair production processes calculated by us in a static approximation, (b) the photon damping rates calculated by Thoma (1995), and (c) absorption rates derived from a recent photon calculation by van Hees et al.

  17. High energy ion hit technique to local area using microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu; Sakai, Takuro; Hirao, Toshio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Single energetic ion hit technique has been developed as an application of ion microbeam technique, in order to study the effect of local damage or injury to materials and living organisms. The overall performance is basically defined by those of separate techniques: microbeam formation, microbeam positioning, single ion detection, detection signal processing, hit timing control, and hit verification. Recent progress on the developments of these techniques at JAERI-TIARA facility are reviewed. (author)

  18. Probing high energy levels of lanthanide ions - experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijzel, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of lanthanide ions. High-resolution emission and excitation spectra were recorded to investigate the VUV energy levels of lanthanide ions in fluoride and phosphate host lattices. A parameterized model for the calculation of the energy-level

  19. Proceedings of the 8th high energy heavy ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.W. (ed.); Wozniak, G.J. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This was the eighth in a series of conferences jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Science Division of LBL and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in West Germany. Sixty papers on current research at both relativistic and intermediate energies are included in this report. Topics covered consisted of: Equation of State of Nuclear Matter, Pion and High Energy Gamma Emission, Theory of Multifragmentation, Intermediate Energies, Fragmentation, Atomic Physics, Nuclear Structure, Electromagnetic Processes, and New Facilities planned for SIS-ESR. The latest design parameters of the Bevalac Upgrade Proposal were reviewed for the user community. Also, the design of a new electronic 4..pi.. detector, a time projection chamber which would be placed at the HISS facility, was presented.

  20. LET effects of high energy ion beam irradiation on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shu; Kanzaki, Kenichi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Masaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    Thin films of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) were irradiated with 2-20 MeV H{sup +} and He{sup +} ion beams. The beams caused heterogeneous reactions of crosslinking and main chain scission in the films. The relative efficiency of the crosslinking was drastically changed in comparison with that of main chain scission. The anomalous change in the molecular weight distribution was analyzed with increasing irradiation fluence, and the ion beam induced reaction radius; track radius was determined for the radiation sources by the function of molecular weight dispersion. Obtained values were 59{+-}15 A and 14{+-}6 A for 2 MeV He{sup +} and 20 MeV H{sup +} ion beams respectively. (author)

  1. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  2. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  3. High Energy Lithium-Ion VES Cells And Batteries Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castric, A.-F.; Lawson, S.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    b Saft's Space VES range of lithium-ion cells have been designed specifically to meet the satellites on-board power need, while meeting the legitimate high levels of requirements for space products. The purpose of the paper is to develop how the VES batteries designs have progressively evolved in order to accommodate the needs, requirements and constraints evolutions. The following topics will be presented: - Description of the main design features of the VES Li- ion batteries. - How the optimised battery configuration is selected against the required EOL power need or other constraints. - Presentation of the batteries performances (electrical, mechanical, thermal, interface, weight, ...). - Measures implemented in order to maintain these performances, and to guarantee the best product quality as per space standards.

  4. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    was used instead. This code makes the assumption that the background ion and electron behaviour can be approximated with a fluid model whilst...electron behaviour occurring from this aperture was also published in High Power Laser Science and Engineering [4]. A significant breakthrough was also...acceleration to transparency. This was published in Physics of Plasmas [12]. Through one- dimensional modelling of the interaction, it was also

  5. Collision geometry and particle production in high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-Ping; ZHOU Dai-Mei; HUANG Rui-Dian; CAI Xu

    2008-01-01

    An overview of research status of soft physics in high energy heavy-ion collision experiments and recent experimental results are presented.This paper includes four parts:1)Theoretical predictions of quarkgluon plasma and introduction for high energy heavy ion collision experiments.2)Experimental status on collision geometry.3)Experimental status on particle production.4)Conclusion and outlook for research status of soft physics in LHC/ALICE.

  6. Topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, L.G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Porcelli, F. [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Berk, H.L. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1994-07-01

    An analysis of nonstandard guiding centre orbits is presented, which is relevant to MeV ions in a Tokamak. The orbit equation has been simplified from the start, allowing to present an analytic classification of the possible orbits. The topological transitions of the orbits during collisional slowing down are described. In particular, the characteristic equations reveal the existence of a single fixed point in the relevant phase plane, and the presence of a bifurcation curve corresponding to the locus of the pinch orbits. A significant particle inward pinch has been discovered. (authors). 7 figs.

  7. Particle orbit simulation for high energy heavy ion implanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takashi; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Osvath, E.

    1995-10-01

    We have studied an Interdigital-H type Quadrupole (IHQ) linac structure for application to heavy ion implanter. It is possible to vary the output energy by changing the voltage between gaps only. Operating frequency of this IHQ linac is 30 MHz and the synchronous phase is -30deg{r_brace} with the exception of -90deg{r_brace} at the first gap that works as a bunching section. The calculated results show that the output energy can be varied from 0.48 MeV (30 keV/u) to 1.6 MeV (100 keV/u) for {sup 16}O{sup +}. (author).

  8. Ultraviolet/visible Spectroscopy Studies of PET Irradiated with High Energy Heavy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate(PET)films were irradiated at room temperature with ions of 35 MeV/u~(40)Ar,25 MeV/u~(84)Kr,15.1 MeV/u~(136)Xe and 11.4 MeV/u~(238)U to fluences ranging from 9×10~9 to 5.5×10~(120 ions/cm~2.The radiation-induced chemical changes were investigated by ultraviolet/visible(UV/Vis)spectroscopy.It is found that the semi-transparency films become gradually opaque to the visible light and the absorption edge

  9. Valence-shell photoionization of Ag-like Xe$^{7+}$ ions : experiment and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, A; Esteves-Macaluso, D; Habibi, M; Aguilar, A; Kilcoyn, A L D; Phaneuf, R A; Ballance, C P; McLaughlin, B M

    2014-01-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical results for the photoionization of Ag-like xenon ions, Xe$^{7+}$, in the photon energy range 95 to 145~eV. The measurements were carried out at the Advanced Light Source at an energy resolution of $\\Delta$E = 65 meV with additional measurements made at $\\Delta$E = 28 meV and 39 meV. Small resonance features below the ground-state ionization threshold, at about 106 eV, are due to the presence of metastable Xe$^{7+} (4d^{10} 4f~^2{\\rm F}^{\\circ}_{5/2,7/2})$ ions in the ion beam. On the basis of the accompanying theoretical calculations using the Dirac Atomic R-matrix Codes (DARC), an admixture of only a few percent of metastable ions in the parent ion beam is inferred, with almost 100\\% of the parent ions in the $(4d^{10}5s ~^2{\\rm S_{1/2}})$ ground level. The cross-section is dominated by a very strong resonance associated with $4d \\rightarrow 5f$ excitation and subsequent autoionization. This prominent feature in the measured spectrum is the $4d^95s5f ~^2{\\rm P}^{\\cir...

  10. Evolutions of Molecular Oxygen Formation and Sodium Migration in Xe Ion Irradiated Borosilicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Duofei F.; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Jiandong; Du, Xing; Yuan, Wei; Nan, Shuai; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-07-23

    The modifications of a commercial borosilicate glass induced by Xe ion irradiation have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. A decrease in the average Si–O–Si angle, an increase in the population of three-membered rings and an increase of the glass polymerization are evidenced. The molecular oxygen appears in the irradiated glasses after the irradiation fluence reaches approximately 1015 ions/cm2. The O2 concentration decreaseswith the depth of irradiated glass at the ion fluence of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2. A sodiumdepleted layer at the surface and a depleted zone at around the penetration depth of 5 MeV Xe ions are observed. The thickness of the sodium depleted layer increases with the irradiation fluence. Moreover, comparing with previous results after electron and Ar ion irradiation, it can be concluded that the nuclear energy deposition can partially inhibit the formation of molecular oxygen and increase the threshold value of electron energy deposition for the molecular oxygen formation.

  11. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  12. Photon and dilepton production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Takao Sakaguchi

    2015-05-01

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, obtained particularly at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  13. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Markert, Christina [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  14. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Markert, Christina [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  15. Modified Thomson spectrometer design for high energy, multi-species ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynne, D.; Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Doria, D.; Ahmed, H.; Hanton, F. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Cerchez, M.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf (Germany); Fernandez, J. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gray, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Green, J. S.; Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Najmudin, Z.; Streeter, M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ruiz, J. A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” 00161 Rome (Italy); Zepf, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Helmholtz Institut Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    A modification to the standard Thomson parabola spectrometer is discussed, which is designed to measure high energy (tens of MeV/nucleon), broad bandwidth spectra of multi-species ions accelerated by intense laser plasma interactions. It is proposed to implement a pair of extended, trapezoidal shaped electric plates, which will not only resolve ion traces at high energies, but will also retain the lower energy part of the spectrum. While a longer (along the axis of the undeflected ion beam direction) electric plate design provides effective charge state separation at the high energy end of the spectrum, the proposed new trapezoidal shape will enable the low energy ions to reach the detector, which would have been clipped or blocked by simply extending the rectangular plates to enhance the electrostatic deflection.

  16. Acceleration of dust grains by means of the high energy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorashadizadeh, S.M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzinezhad, F. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A.R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-08

    The acceleration of charged dust grains by a high energy ion beam is investigated by obtaining the dispersion relation. The Cherenkov and cyclotron acceleration mechanisms of dust grains are compared with each other. The role of dusty plasma parameters and the magnetic field strength in the acceleration process are discussed. In addition, the stimulated waves by an ion beam in a fully magnetized dust–ion plasma are studied. It is shown that these waves are unstable at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field. It is also indicated that the growth rates increase by either increasing the ion and dust densities or decreasing the magnetic field strength. Finally, the results of our research show that the high energy ion beam can accelerate charged dust grains.

  17. An apparatus to manipulate and identify individual Ba ions from bulk liquid Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelker, K; Kravitz, S; Montero Díez, M; Gratta, G; Fairbank, W; Albert, J B; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; DeVoe, R; Delaquis, S; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fabris, L; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Hall, C; Heffner, M; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jiang, X S; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Leonard, F; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Ouellet, C; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Retiere, F; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tosi, D; Vuilleumier, J-L; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y-R; Zhao, Y B

    2014-09-01

    We describe a system to transport and identify barium ions produced in liquid xenon, as part of R&D towards the second phase of a double beta decay experiment, nEXO. The goal is to identify the Ba ion resulting from an extremely rare nuclear decay of the isotope (136)Xe, hence providing a confirmation of the occurrence of the decay. This is achieved through Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS). In the test setup described here, Ba ions can be produced in liquid xenon or vacuum and collected on a clean substrate. This substrate is then removed to an analysis chamber under vacuum, where laser-induced thermal desorption and RIS are used with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for positive identification of the barium decay product.

  18. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  19. Theoretical nuclear database for high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical methods for estimating high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) particle absorption and fragmentation cross-sections are described and compared with available experimental data. Differences between theory and experiment range from several percent for absorption cross-sections up to about 25%-50% for fragmentation cross-sections.

  20. Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge stat...

  1. STM study of ion tracks created in GaAs by GeV Xe ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, A. E-mail: hida@exp.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Iwase, A.; Mera, Y.; Kambara, T.; Maeda, K

    2003-08-01

    Defect structures in p-type GaAs bulk crystals irradiated with 3.54 GeV Xe{sup 31+} ions were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). STM images of the cleavage (1 1 0) surfaces revealed the fine structure of a single ion track that consists of a long straight linear defect of {approx}5 nm in diameter sheathed with a thin fringe in bright contrast. Unexpectedly, the surrounding region was observed to be irregular in contrast to atomically resolved images in non-irradiated regions. The local density of states measured by STS indicates that the tracks are amorphous whereas the sheath and the surrounding sites retain crystalline structures. Some of the defect contrasts can be explained as due to the shift of the Fermi level and the variation of the LDOS in the energy bands. Though the tracks and the surrounding regions were unaffected by STM observations and STS measurements under mild imaging conditions (tunneling current < 1 nA), we found that the contrasts of the tracks are 'erased' when we scan the tracks with the STM tip at tunneling current greater than 2 nA. These facts strongly suggest that the defects introduced by GeV Xe ion irradiation are recovered by atomic motion enhanced by injection of tunneling current.

  2. Non-linear interaction between high energy ions and MHD-modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Tommy

    2001-12-01

    When heating a fusion plasma with ICRE or NBI a non-Maxwellian distribution function with high energy ions is created. Ions which are in resonance with a MHD mode will interact with the electric field from the mode and in some circumstances energy will flow from the particles to the mode or opposite. A quasi-linear model for the interaction between high energy ions and a MHD mode has been developed. To solve the time evolution of the MHD mode a module has been implemented into the Monte Carlo code FIDO, which is used for calculating a 3-dimensional distribution function. The model has been tested for an internal kink mode during fishbone oscillations.

  3. Damage correlations in semiconductor devices exposed to gamma and high energy swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, N.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana

    2015-05-01

    NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs are irradiated by different high energy swift heavy ions and 60Co gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad to 100 Mrad. The damage created by different heavy ions and 60Co gamma radiation in NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs have been correlated and studied in the same dose range. The recoveries in the electrical characteristics of different swift heavy ions and 60Co gamma irradiated devices have been studied after annihilation.

  4. Escape of high-energy oxygen ions through magnetopause reconnection under northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasahara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During a storm recovery phase on 15 May 2005, the Geotail spacecraft repeatedly observed high-energy (>180 keV oxygen ions in the dayside magnetosheath near the equatorial plane. We focused on the time period from 11:20 UT to 13:00 UT, when Geotail observed the oxygen ions and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was constantly northward. The magnetic reconnection occurrence northward and duskward of Geotail is indicated by the Walén analysis and convective flows in the magnetopause boundary layer. Anisotropic pitch angle distributions of ions suggest that high-energy oxygen ions escaped from the northward of Geotail along the reconnected magnetic field lines. From the low-energy particle precipitation in the polar cap observed by DMSP, which is consistent with magnetic reconnection occurring between the magnetosheath field lines and the magnetospheric closed field lines, we conclude that these oxygen ions are of ring current origin. Our results thus suggest a new escape route of oxygen ions during northward IMF. In the present event, this escape mechanism is more dominant than the leakage via the finite Larmor radius effect across the dayside equatorial magnetopause.

  5. Structural effects in UO2 thin films irradiated with fission-energy Xe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, A. J.; Lebedev, V. A.; Martin, P. G.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Lampronti, G. I.; Springell, R.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Scott, T. B.; Monnet, I.; Grygiel, C.; Farnan, I.

    2016-12-01

    Uranium dioxide thin films have been successfully grown on LSAT (Al10La3O51Sr14Ta7) substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering. Irradiation by 92 MeV 129Xe23+ ions to simulate fission damage that occurs within nuclear fuels caused microstructural and crystallographic changes. Initially flat and continuous thin films were produced by magnetron sputtering with a root mean square roughness of 0.35 nm determined by AFM. After irradiation, this roughness increased to 60-70 nm, with the films developing discrete microstructural features: small grains (∼3 μm), along with larger circular (up to 40 μm) and linear formations with non-uniform composition according to the SEM, AFM and EDX results. The irradiation caused significant restructuring of the UO2 films that was manifested in significant film-substrate mixing, observed through EDX analysis. Diffusion of Al from the substrate into the film in unirradiated samples was also observed.

  6. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, Kin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The 129Xe-induced reactions on natCu, 89Y, 165Ho, and 197Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  7. Can dissipation prevent explosive decomposition in high-energy heavy ion collisions?

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E S; Fraga, Eduardo S.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the role of dissipation in the explosive spinodal decomposition scenario of hadron production during the chiral transition after a high-energy heavy ion collision. We use a Langevin description inspired by microscopic nonequilibrium field theory results to perform real-time lattice simulations of the behavior of the chiral fields. We show that the effect of dissipation can be dramatic. Analytic results for the short-time dynamics are also presented.

  8. Vibrational Distribution of Hydrogen Molecular Ions in High-Energy Ionization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-Hao; HE Chun-Long; CHEN Chao; LI Jia-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ A theoretical time-dependent wave-packet dynamics method is applied to calculate the distribution of vibrational states of hydrogen molecular ions produced in high-energy ionization processes of hydrogen molecules. The isotope effect is elucidated in agreement with the available experimental measurements. Our proposed method should be readily applied in other atomic and molecular processes considering great advances in electronic computation science and technology.

  9. Feasibility Study on Cardiac Arrhythmia Ablation Using High-Energy Heavy Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, H. Immo; Graeff, Christian; Simoniello, Palma; Constantinescu, Anna; Takami, Mitsuru; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Richter, Daniel; Eichhorn, Anna; Prall, Matthias; Kaderka, Robert; Fiedler, Fine; Helmbrecht, Stephan; Fournier, Claudia; Erbeldinger, Nadine; Rahm, Ann-Kathrin; Rivinius, Rasmus; Thomas, Dierk; Katus, Hugo A.; Johnson, Susan B.; Parker, Kay D.; Debus, Jürgen; Asirvatham, Samuel J.; Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco; Packer, Douglas L.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy ion beams are successfully used in cancer therapy and precisely deliver high doses of ionizing radiation to small deep-seated target volumes. A similar noninvasive treatment modality for cardiac arrhythmias was tested here. This study used high-energy carbon ions for ablation of cardiac tissue in pigs. Doses of 25, 40, and 55 Gy were applied in forced-breath-hold to the atrioventricular junction, left atrial pulmonary vein junction, and freewall left ventricle of intact animals. Procedural success was tracked by (1.) in-beam positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging; (2.) intracardiac voltage mapping with visible lesion on ultrasound; (3.) lesion outcomes in pathohistolgy. High doses (40–55 Gy) caused slowing and interruption of cardiac impulse propagation. Target fibrosis was the main mediator of the ablation effect. In irradiated tissue, apoptosis was present after 3, but not 6 months. Our study shows feasibility to use high-energy ion beams for creation of cardiac lesions that chronically interrupt cardiac conduction.

  10. Neutron measurements around a beam dump bombarded by high energy protons and lead ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2001-02-01

    Measurements of the spectral fluence and the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons produced by 250 GeV/ c protons and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon lead ions were performed at CERN around a thick beam dump. The experimental results obtained with protons were compared with calculations performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. As the available Monte Carlo codes do not transport particles with mass larger than one atomic mass unit, it is shown that for high energy heavy ions, estimates can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number.

  11. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular responses from HZE particles. Thus, low-energy heavy ions provide a valuable probe for studies of homologous recombination repair in radiation responses.

  12. Precipitation of the Carbides $M_{23}C_{6}$ under the Irradiation by High Energy Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A; Semina, V K; Kochanski, T

    2000-01-01

    Carbide M_{23}C_{6} precipitation process in chromium-nickel steels 12H18N9ô and 00H17N14í2 irradiated with high energy heavy Ar^{+6} ions at 625^{o}ó has been studied. It was found that ion irradiation accelerates carbide M_{23}C_{6} precipitation in comparison to thermal annealing. It was shown that composition of carbides formed by irradiation in 00H17N14í2 steel formed under irradiation differs from composition of carbides precipitated during thermal ageing.

  13. 90° Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Mitaroff, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: 208Pb 82+ lead ions at 40 GeV/ c per nucleon and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/ c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90° with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that—for such high energy heavy ion beams—a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0.84.

  14. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event upsets and latch up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S B Umesh; S R Kulkarni; R Sandhya; G R Joshi; R Damle; M Ravindra

    2005-08-01

    Several very large scale integrated (VLSI) devices which are not available in radiation hardened version are still required to be used in spacecraft systems. Thus these components need to be tested for highenergy heavy ion irradiation to find out their tolerance and suitability in specific space applications. This paper describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) and single event latch up (SEL). The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon (Si), and silver (Ag), for studying single event effects (SEE) is briefly described. The heavy ion testing of a few VLSI devices is performed in the general purpose scattering chamber of the Pelletron facility, available at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The test results with respect to SEU and SEL are discussed.

  15. Radiolysis and sputtering of carbon dioxide ice induced by swift Ti, Ni, and Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejía, C. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bender, M.; Severin, D. [Materials Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, C. [Materials Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, Ph. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Bordalo, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Observatório Nacional-MCTI, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domaracka, A.; Lv, X.Y. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); and others

    2015-12-15

    Solid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is found in several bodies of the solar system, the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects, where it is exposed to cosmic and stellar wind radiation. Here, the chemical and physical modifications induced by heavy ion irradiation of pure solid CO{sub 2} at low temperature (T = 15–30 K) are analyzed. The experiments were performed with Ti (550 MeV) and Xe (630 MeV) ions at the UNILAC of GSI/Darmstadt and with Ni ions (46 and 52 MeV) at IRRSUD of GANIL/Caen. The evolution of the thin CO{sub 2} ice films (deposited on a CsI window) was monitored by mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR). The dissociation rate of CO{sub 2}, determined from the fluence dependence of the IR absorption peak intensity, is found to be proportional to the electronic stopping power S{sub e}. We also confirm that the sputtering yield shows a quadric increase with electronic stopping power. Furthermore, the production rates of daughter molecules such as CO, CO{sub 3} and O{sub 3} were found to be linear in S{sub e}.

  16. Characterization the microstructure and defects of matrix graphite irradiated with Xe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. X.; Lin, J.; Li, J. J.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Zeng, G. L.; Liu, J. D.; Gu, B. C.; Liu, B.

    2017-09-01

    The matrix graphite of pebble fuel elements was irradiated with 1 MeV Xe ions at room temperature to fluences of 5.8 × 1014 ions/cm2 and 2.9 × 1015 ions/cm2, respectively. The microstructure and defects of matrix graphite samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and slow positron beam techniques. The SEM result reveals that hundred-nanometer sized pores appear at the surface after irradiation and the density of pore increases with fluence. Raman results show that D peak (1350 cm-1) and G peak (1580 cm-1) are broadened after irradiation. In addition, the G peak position shifts from 1580 cm-1 to 1560 cm-1 with the linewidth increases from 21 cm-1 to 132 cm-1, corresponding to the increase in bond-angle disorder as the matrix graphite transforms from microcrystalline to amorphous carbon(a-C). The slow positron beam study shows that the defects-trapped positron S parameter increases with fluence, suggesting that the vacancy-type defects concentration or size of open volume defects increases. The analysis of Raman and slow positron beam consistently conclude that the reason for the phase transition after irradiation is the increase in irradiation-induced vacancy defects accompanied by the overlap of disordered regions.

  17. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10(-3) s(-1) and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10(-2) s(-1).

  18. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10-3 s-1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10-2 s-1.

  19. Recoil implantation of boron into silicon by high energy silicon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, L.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, X. M.; Rusakova, I.; Mount, G.; Zhang, L. H.; Liu, J. R.; Chu, Wei-Kan

    2001-07-01

    A recoil implantation technique for shallow junction formation was investigated. After e-gun deposition of a B layer onto Si, 10, 50, or 500 keV Si ion beams were used to introduce surface deposited B atoms into Si by knock-on. It has been shown that recoil implantation with high energy incident ions like 500 keV produces a shallower B profile than lower energy implantation such as 10 keV and 50 keV. This is due to the fact that recoil probability at a given angle is a strong function of the energy of the primary projectile. Boron diffusion was showed to be suppressed in high energy recoil implantation and such suppression became more obvious at higher Si doses. It was suggested that vacancy rich region due to defect imbalance plays the role to suppress B diffusion. Sub-100 nm junction can be formed by this technique with the advantage of high throughput of high energy implanters.

  20. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)

  1. Identification of vacancy type defects in low and high energy nitrogen ion implanted InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhakumar, K [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Chennai - 600025 (India); Rao, G Venugopal [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102 (India); Amarendra, G [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102 (India); Abhaya, S [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102 (India); Sastry, V Sankara [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102 (India); Nair, K G M [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102 (India); Ravichandran, V [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Chennai - 600025 (India)

    2005-12-21

    Depth resolved positron annihilation measurements were carried out on 85 keV and 1 MeV nitrogen ion implanted InP samples. The defect sensitive S-parameter and R-parameter values for the low energy implantations confirm the presence of monovacancies up to a dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} and coexistence of monovacancies and divacancies for 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} dose sample. Corroborative glancing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements on the highest dose sample revealed that the sample is amorphized. For high energy implantation, it is found that vacancy-defects are present right from the near-surface region and these defects are identified to be monovancancies, based on the observed S- and R-parameters. A comparison of the results for the low and high energy implantations is made.

  2. Final Report - Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jagat [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) technology’s potential to enable a commercially viable high energy density is the key to a lower $/Wh, thereby a low cost battery. The design of a LIB with high energy, high power, safety and long life is a challenge that requires cell design from the ground up and synergy between all components. 3M Company (3M), the Recipient, led by its Principal Investigator, Jagat Singh, pursued this challenging task of a LIB by ‘teaming’ key commercial businesses [General Motors (GM), Umicore and Iontensity] and labs [Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL)]. The technology from each team member was complimentary and a close working relationship spanning the value chain drove productivity.The completion of this project is a significant step towards more energy efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles, making America less dependent on imported oil.

  3. High-Energy Ion Acceleration Mechanisms in a Dense Plasma Focus Z-Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, D. P.; Link, A.; Schmidt, A.; Welch, D.

    2016-10-01

    The compression of a Z-pinch plasma, specifically in a dense plasma focus (DPF), is known to accelerate high-energy electrons, ions and, if using fusion-reactant ions (e.g. D, T), neutrons. The acceleration of particles is known to coincide with the peak constriction of the pinch, however, the exact physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration remains an area of debate and uncertainty. Recent work has suggested that this acceleration is linked to the growth of an m =0 (sausage) instability that evacuates a region of low-density, highly-magnetized plasma and creates a strong (>MV/cm) electric field. Using the fully kinetic particle-in-cell code LSP in 2D-3V, we simulate the compression of a 2 MA, 35 kV DPF plasma and investigate in detail the formation of the electric field. The electric field is found to be predominantly in the axial direction and driven via charge-separation effects related to the resistivity of the kinetic plasma. The strong electric and magnetic fields are shown to induce non-Maxwellian distributions in both the ions and electrons and lead to the acceleration of high-energy tails. We compare the results in the kinetic simulations to assumptions of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Comparison of UV and high-energy ion irradiation of methanol:ammonia ice

    CERN Document Server

    Caro, G M Munoz; Boduch, P; Rothard, H; Domaracka, A; Jimenez-Escobar, A

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to compare the effects induced in ices of astrophysical relevance by high-energy ions, simulating cosmic rays, and by vacuum ultraviolet (UV) photons. This comparison relies on in situ infrared spectroscopy of irradiated CH3OH:NH3 ice. Swift heavy ions were provided by the GANIL accelerator. The source of UV was a microwave-stimulated hydrogen flow discharge lamp. The deposited energy doses were similar for ion beams and UV photons to allow a direct comparison. A variety of organic species was detected during irradiation and later during ice warm-up. These products are common to ion and UV irradiation for doses up to a few tens of eV per molecule. Only the relative abundance of the CO product, after ice irradiation, was clearly higher in the ion irradiation experiments. For some ice mixture compositions, the irradiation products formed depend only weakly on the type of irradiation, swift heavy ions, or UV photons. This simplifies the chemical modeling of energetic ice processing ...

  5. Chemical modifications of polymer films induced by high energy heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Sun, Youmei; Liu, Changlong; Liu, Jie; Jin, Yunfan

    2002-06-01

    Polymer films including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated at room temperature with ions of 35 MeV/u 40Ar, 25 MeV/u 84Kr, 15.1 MeV/u 136Xe and 11.4 MeV/u 238U to fluences ranging from 9×10 9 to 5.5×10 12 ions/cm 2. The radiation-induced chemical changes of the materials were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopies. It is found that the absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range induced by all irradiations follows a linear relationship with fluence. The radiation-induced absorbance normalized to one particle increases slowly with increasing of electronic energy loss below about 8 keV/nm followed by a sharp increase up to about 15 keV/nm above which saturation is reached. FTIR measurements reveal that the materials suffer serious degradation through bond breaking. The absorbance of the typical infrared bands decays exponentially with increase of ion fluence and the bond-disruption cross-section shows a sigmoid variation with electronic energy loss. In PET loss of crystallinity is attributed to the configuration transformation of the ethylene glycol residue from trans into the gauche. Alkyne end groups are induced in all the materials above certain electronic energy loss threshold, which is found to be about 0.8 keV/nm for PS and 0.4 keV/nm for PC. The production cross-section of alkyne end group increases with increasing of electronic energy loss and shows saturation at high electronic energy loss values. It is concluded that not only the physical processes but also the chemical processes of the energy deposition determine the modification of polymer.

  6. Chemical modifications of polymer films induced by high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhiyong E-mail: zyzhu@impcas.ac.cn; Sun Youmei; Liu Changlong; Liu Jie; Jin Yunfan

    2002-06-01

    Polymer films including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated at room temperature with ions of 35 MeV/u {sup 40}Ar, 25 MeV/u {sup 84}Kr, 15.1 MeV/u {sup 136}Xe and 11.4 MeV/u {sup 238}U to fluences ranging from 9x10{sup 9} to 5.5x10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The radiation-induced chemical changes of the materials were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopies. It is found that the absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range induced by all irradiations follows a linear relationship with fluence. The radiation-induced absorbance normalized to one particle increases slowly with increasing of electronic energy loss below about 8 keV/nm followed by a sharp increase up to about 15 keV/nm above which saturation is reached. FTIR measurements reveal that the materials suffer serious degradation through bond breaking. The absorbance of the typical infrared bands decays exponentially with increase of ion fluence and the bond-disruption cross-section shows a sigmoid variation with electronic energy loss. In PET loss of crystallinity is attributed to the configuration transformation of the ethylene glycol residue from trans into the gauche. Alkyne end groups are induced in all the materials above certain electronic energy loss threshold, which is found to be about 0.8 keV/nm for PS and 0.4 keV/nm for PC. The production cross-section of alkyne end group increases with increasing of electronic energy loss and shows saturation at high electronic energy loss values. It is concluded that not only the physical processes but also the chemical processes of the energy deposition determine the modification of polymer.

  7. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J. [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H.; Morita, Y.; Ohshima, T.

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  8. Development of the negative ion source at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Akira [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    On formation of direct high frequency chopped negative hydrogen ion beam from surface forming type negative hydrogen ion source, incident acceleration due to proton synchrotron was tried for a forming experiment and its application. By overlapping a high frequency pulse onto a bias DC voltage of convertor electrode, control of formation of negative hydrogen ion with high speed RF pulse of 2 MHz could be realized. And, incidence into 12 GeV proton accelerator to catch RF particles with waiting bucket system due to booster synchrotron, was effective for control of longitudinal emittance in the booster synchrotron. As a result, controls of the beam width and shape emitted from the booster synchrotron were possible. On application of high speed chopped negative hydrogen ion beam to accelerator, improvement of beam capture efficiency to the accelerated RF bucket, control of longitudinal emittance of accelerated beam, beam measurement at incidence into the accelerator and so forth were conducted. In this paper, results of the high speed chopped beam formation experiment using surface plasma forming type negative ion source and application of high speed beam chopping method synchronized with high frequency pulse at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics are described. (G.K.)

  9. Teflon impregnated anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles irradiated by 80 keV Xe{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanam, Rizwin; Paul, Nibedita; Kumar, P.; Kanjilal, D.; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: •Nanoscale TiO{sub 2} exhibited swelling led particle growth due to low energy ion impact. •Formation of Xe crystals is likely to induce swelling behavior in titania. •Nanoripples are witnessed on the surface of nanoparticles. •Manifested band edge and oxygen vacancy related optical emissions have been revealed. -- Abstract: We report the effect of 80 keV Xe{sup +} ion irradiation on the morphological and optical responses of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles spread over commercially available polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon). These nanoparticles were synthesized via a convenient, sol–gel approach with titanium isopropoxide as the main precursor. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies we found that, the nanoparticles crystallize in anatase phase and with a preferential orientation of crystallites along (1 0 1) plane. Upon irradiation at a fluence of 1.25 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, the nanoparticle dimension was found to increase from a value of ∼9 nm to ∼20–30 nm. Essentially, particle growth is predicted as a consequence of swelling behavior accompanied by the formation of Xe van der Waal crystals in isolated regions of nano-titania. Evidence of nanoripples was also witnessed on the surface of the irradiated nano-titania. The morphological evolution was assessed both by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies (AFM and TEM) independently. From the UV–Vis optical absorption studies, the estimated optical band gap was found to drop with increasing fluence, while refractive index exhibited a remarkable improvement. Photoluminescence (PL) studies have revealed that, the band edge emission and those due to the self trapped excitons (STE) and other oxygen vacancy related ones were manifested considerably as a result of Xe ion irradiation.

  10. Ions in the Enceladus plume: Cassini/CAPS ion measurements at high energy resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F.; Coates, A. J.; Hill, T. W.; Jones, G. H.; Tokar, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    During several Cassini encounters with Saturn's satellite, Enceladus, the spacecraft crossed through the plume of water vapor and dust south of the satellite with a spacecraft orientation which allowed the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) to observe ions and nanograin dust particles associated with the plume. During three of these encounters, E7 (November 2, 2009), E17 (March XX, 2012) and E18 (April YY, 2012), the trajectories were very similar and parallel to the equatorial plane (i.e. little north-south velocity, so that the spacecraft moved perpendicular to the rotation axis of Enceladus.) Previous analysis, using data from the CAPS ion mass spectrometer (IMS) and electron spectrometer (ELS), identified cold ions at rest with respect to Enceladus [1], negative water group and water cluster ions [2], and both positively and negatively charged dust particles in the 0.5 to 2 nm (1000 to 20,000 AMU) size range [3,4]. We present observations from the third CAPS sensor, the ion beam spectrometer (IBS). Although this sensor lacks the angular resolution of the other CAPS sensors, it has an energy resolution of 1.4%, roughly an order of magnitude greater than the ELS and IMS sensors. The IBS data allows us to estimate the temperature and flow speed of the low energy ions in the plume, and characterize the structure of the plume ionosphere. We find that the plume is highly structured, down to the 2-s (17 km along track) limit of the instrument's sampling. Distinct regions of cold, dense ions, resembling a collisional ionosphere, are intermixed with a broad background of warmer, non-thermal ions, possibly resulting from charge exchange between magnetospheric ions and plume neutrals. Despite the sensor's lack of intrinsic angular resolution, the ion flux and energy spectra are consistent with a drift velocity away from Saturn and in the direction of the upstream flow. References: [1] Tokar et al., 2009, Cassini detection of Enceladus' cold water-group plume ionosphere

  11. Study of the effects of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Agulló-Rueda, F.; Gordillo, N.; Maira, A.; Moreno-Cerrada, D.; Ramos, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Boron-doped diamond is a material with a great technological and industrial interest because of its exceptional chemical, physical and structural properties. At modest boron concentrations, insulating diamond becomes a p-type semiconductor and at higher concentrations a superconducting metal at low temperature. The most conventional preparation method used so far, has been the homogeneous incorporation of boron doping during the diamond synthesis carried out either with high-pressure sintering of crystals or by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of films. With these methods, high boron concentration can be included without distorting significantly the diamond crystalline lattice. However, it is complicated to manufacture boron-doped microstructures. A promising alternative to produce such microstructures could be the implantation of focused high-energy boron ions, although boron fluences are limited by the damage produced in diamond. In this work, the effect of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in single crystals of diamond is studied under different irradiation fluences and conditions. Micro-Raman spectra of the sample were measured before and after annealing at 1000 °C as a function of irradiation fluence, for both superficial and buried boron implantation, to assess the changes in the diamond lattice by the creation of vacancies and defects and their degree of recovery after annealing.

  12. Experimental heavy ion physics at high energies. Progress report, September 1992--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the research activities of the experimental high energy heavy ion physics group at Vanderbilt University carried out under Grant No. DE-FG05092ER40712 with the Department of Energy during the period Oct 1, 1992 to Nov 30, 1993. This research encompasses four areas of related inquiry in relativistic and high energy nuclear reactions. The preparation of the PHENIX experiment which has been approved as one of the two major experiments at RHIC to start in 1998. The RD10/RD45 Muon Identifier experiment which will provide essential input for the design of the Muon Endcap arm detector sub-system in PHENIX. The E855 Soft Photon Experiment at the AGS designed to clarify the status of a possible quark-gluon-plasma signature with presently available heavy-ion collisions. The construction CsI Ball detector project at Texas A&M which is designed as part of a comprehensive detector system which will probe the nuclear equation of state in the 50 MeV/nucleon domain.

  13. Injection to the pick-up ion regime from high energies and induced ion power laws

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, H -J; Verscharen, D

    2008-01-01

    Though pick-up ions (PUIs) are a well known phenomenon in the inner heliosphere, their phase-space distribution nevertheless is a theoretically unsettled problem. Especially the question of how pick-up ions form their suprathermal tails, extending to far above their injection energies, still now is unsatistactorily answered. Though Fermi-2 velocity diffusion theories have revealed that such tails are populated, they nevertheless show that resulting population densities are much less than seen in observations showing power-laws with a velocity index of ``-5''. We first investigate here, whether or not observationally suggested power-laws can be the result of a quasi-equilibrium state between suprathermal ions and magnetohydrodynamic turbulences in energy exchange with eachother. We demonstrate that such an equilibrium cannot be established. We furthermore show that Fermi-2 type energy diffusion in the outer heliosphere is too inefficient to determine the shape of the distribution function there. As we can show...

  14. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-11-04

    Measurements of 2s{sub l/2}-2p{sub 3/2} electric dipole and 2p{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U{sup 82+} through U{sup 89+} have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer {minus}39.21 {plus_minus} 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} transition energy of lithiumlike U{sup 89+}. A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell.

  15. Radiation damage induced in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal sequentially irradiated with reactor neutrons and 90 MeV Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirour, H. [Faculty of Physics, USTHB, BP. 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Izerrouken, M., E-mail: izerrouken@yahoo.com [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria, BP. 43, Sebbala, Draria, Algiers (Algeria); Sari, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Berine, BP. 108, Ain-Oussara, Djelfa (Algeria)

    2016-06-15

    The present investigation reports the effect of 90 MeV Xe ion irradiation on neutron irradiated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals. Three irradiation experiments were performed, with neutrons only, 90 MeV Xe ions only and with neutrons followed by 90 MeV Xe ions. Neutron and 90 MeV Xe ion irradiations were performed at NUR research reactor, Algiers, Algeria and at GANIL accelerator, Caen, France respectively. After irradiation, the radiation damage was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), optical absorption measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Raman technique revealed that the concentration of the defects formed in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples subsequently irradiated with neutrons and 90 MeV Xe ions is lower than that formed in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples which were irradiated only with neutrons. This reveals the occurrence of ionization-induced recovery of the neutron damage. Furthermore, as revealed by XRD analysis, a new peak is appeared at about 2θ = 38.03° after irradiation at high fluence (>3 × 10{sup 13} Xe/cm{sup 2}). It can be assigned to the formation of new lattice plane.

  16. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in high energy heavy ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, Anton

    2014-10-20

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research are becoming more and more significant with the increase of beam intensity due to upgrades. Moreover a new accelerator is being constructed on the basis of GSI within the project of facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). Beam intensities will be increased by factor of 100 and energies by factor of 10. Radiation fields in the vicinity of beam lines will increase more than 2 orders of magnitude and so will the effects on semiconductor devices. It is necessary to carry out a study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices considering specific properties of radiation typical for high energy heavy ion accelerators. Radiation effects on electronics in accelerator environment may be divided into two categories: short-term temporary effects and long-term permanent degradation. Both may become critical for proper operation of some electronic devices. This study is focused on radiation damage to CCD cameras in radiation environment of heavy ion accelerator. Series of experiments with irradiation of devices under test (DUTs) by secondary particles produced during ion beam losses were done for this study. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to simulate the experiment conditions and conditions expected in future accelerator. Corresponding comparisons and conclusions were done. Another device typical for accelerator facilities - industrial Ethernet switch was tested in similar conditions during this study. Series of direct irradiations of CCD and MOS transistors with heavy ion beams were done as well. Typical energies of the primary ion beams were 0.5-1 GeV/u. Ion species: from Na to U. Intensities of the beam up to 10{sup 9} ions/spill with spill length of 200-300 ns. Criteria of reliability and lifetime of DUTs in specific radiation conditions were formulated, basing on experimental results of the study. Predictions of electronic device reliability and lifetime were

  17. Peculiarities of latent track etching in SiO2/Si structures irradiated with Ar, Kr and Xe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'zhanova, A.; Dauletbekova, A.; Komarov, F.; Vlasukova, L.; Yuvchenko, V.; Akilbekov, A.; Zdorovets, M.

    2016-05-01

    The process of latent track etching in SiO2/Si structures irradiated with 40Ar (38 MeV), 84Kr (59 MeV) and 132Xe (133 and 200 MeV) ions has been investigated. The experimental results of SiO2 etching in a hydrofluoric acid solution have been compared with the results of computer simulation based on the thermal spike model. It has been confirmed that the formation of a molten region along the swift ion trajectory with minimum radius of 3 nm can serve as a theoretical criterion for the reproducible latent track etching tracks in SiO2.

  18. Evaluation of risk from space radiation with high-energy heavy ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F.; Kim, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    The most challenging radiation in space consists of fully ionized atomic elements with high energy for which only the few lowest energy ions can be stopped in shielding materials. The health risk from exposure to these ions and their secondary radiations generated in shield materials is poorly understood since there are few human data and a systematic study in relevant animal model systems has not been made. The accuracy of risk prediction is described as the major limiting factor in the management of space radiation risk. The expected impact of systematic studies is examined using the limited available biological data and models. Given the limitations of current predictions, models must be developed that are able to incorporate the required fundamental scientific data into accurate risk estimates. The important radiation components that can be provided for laboratory testing are identified. The use of ground-based accelerator beams to simulate space radiation is explained and quantitative scientific constraints on such facilities are derived. Three facilities, one each in the United States, in Germany and in Japan, currently have the partial capability to satisfy these constraints. A facility has been proposed using the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster Synchrotron in the United States; in conjuction with other on-site accelerators, it will be able to provide the full range of heavy ion beams and energies required.

  19. Nuclear fragmentation of high-energy heavy-ion beams in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, D; Schall, I; Geissel, H; Irnich, H; Kraft, G; Magel, A; Mohar, M F; Munzenberg, G; Nickel, F; Scheidenberger, C; Schwab, W; Sihver, L

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the physical-technical program of the heavy-ion therapy project at GSI we have investigated the nuclear fragmentation of high-energy ion beams delivered by the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS, using water as a tissue-equivalent target. For a direct comparison of fragmentation properties, beams of 10B, 12C, 14N, and 16O were produced simultaneously as secondary beams from a primary 18O beam and separated in flight by magnetic beam analysis. The Z-distributions of beam fragments produced in the water target were measured via energy loss in a large ionisation chamber and a scintillator telescope. From these data we obtained both total and partial charge-changing cross sections. In addition we have performed Bragg measurements using two parallel-plate ionization chambers and a water target of variable length. The detailed shape of the measured Bragg curves and the measured cross sections are in good agreement with model calculations based on semi-empirical formulae.

  20. Numerical simulations of generation of high-energy ion beams driven by a petawatt femtosecond laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domański Jarosław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents results of a Particle-in-Cell simulation of ion beam acceleration via the interaction of a petawatt 25 fs laser pulse of high intensity (up to ~1021 W/cm2 with thin hydrocarbon (CH and erbium hydride (ErH3 targets of equal areal mass density (of 0.6 g/m2. A special attention is paid to the effect that the laser pulse polarization and the material composition of the target have on the maximum ion energies and the number of high energy (>10 MeV protons. It is shown that both the mean and the maximum ion energies are higher for the linear polarization than for the circular one. A comparison of the maximum proton energies and the total number of protons generated from the CH and ErH3 targets using a linearly polarized beam is presented. For the ErH3 targets the maximum proton energies are higher and they reach 50 MeV for the laser pulse intensity of 1021 W/cm2. The number of protons with energies higher than 10 MeV is an order of magnitude higher for the ErH3 targets than that for the CH targets.

  1. Laser-accelerated high-energy ions: state of-the-art and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghesi, M [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fuchs, J [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Willi, O [Institut fuer Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    The acceleration of high-energy ion beams (up to several tens of MeV per nucleon) following the interaction of short (t < 1ps) and intense (I{lambda}{sup 2}> 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2} {mu}m{sup -2}) laser pulses with solid targets has been one of the most important results of recent laser-plasma research. The acceleration is driven by relativistic electrons, which acquire energy directly from the laser pulse and set up extremely large ({approx}TV/m) space charge fields at the target interfaces. In view of a number of advantageous properties, laser-driven ion beams can be employed in a number of innovative applications in the scientific, technological and medical areas. Among these, their possible use in hadrontherapy, with potential reduction of facility costs, has been proposed recently. This paper will briefly review the current state-of-the-art in laser-driven proton/ion source development, and will discuss the progress needed in order to implement some of the above applications. Recent results relating to the optimization of beam energy, spectrum and collimation will be presented.

  2. Absolute cross sections for photoionization of Xe$^{q+}$ ions (1 $\\le$ q $\\le$ 5) at the 3d ionization threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Schippers, S; Buhr, T; Borovik, A; Hellhund, J; Holste, K; Huber, K; Schäfer, H -J; Schury, D; Klumpp, S; Mertens, K; Martins, M; Flesch, R; Ulrich, G; Rühl, E; Jahnke, T; Lower, J; Metz, D; Schmidt, L P H; Schöffler, M; Williams, J B; Glaser, L; Scholz, F; Seltmann, J; Viefhaus, J; Dorn, A; Wolf, A; Ullrich, J; Müller, A

    2014-01-01

    The photon-ion merged-beams technique has been employed at the new Photon-Ion spectrometer at PETRA III (PIPE) for measuring multiple photoionization of Xe$^{q+}$ (q=1-5) ions. Total ionization cross sections have been obtained on an absolute scale for the dominant ionization reactions of the type h\

  3. Jet quenching and γ-jet correlation in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Medium modification of γ-tagged jets in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is investigated within a linearized Boltzmann transport model which includes both elastic parton scattering and induced gluon emission. In Pb + Pb collisions at √(s)=2.76 TeV, a γ-tagged jet is seen to lose 15% of its energy at 0–10% central collisions. Simulations also point to a sizable azimuthal angle broadening of γ-tagged jets at the tail of a distribution which should be measurable when experimental errors are significantly reduced. An enhancement at large z{sub jet}=p{sub L}/E{sub jet} in jet fragmentation function at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be attributed to the dominance of leading particles in the reconstructed jet. A γ-tagged jet fragmentation function is shown to be more sensitive to jet quenching, therefore a better probe of the jet transport parameter.

  4. A new relativistic hydrodynamics code for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazuhisa; Akamatsu, Yukinao; Nonaka, Chiho

    2016-10-01

    We construct a new Godunov type relativistic hydrodynamics code in Milne coordinates, using a Riemann solver based on the two-shock approximation which is stable under the existence of large shock waves. We check the correctness of the numerical algorithm by comparing numerical calculations and analytical solutions in various problems, such as shock tubes, expansion of matter into the vacuum, the Landau-Khalatnikov solution, and propagation of fluctuations around Bjorken flow and Gubser flow. We investigate the energy and momentum conservation property of our code in a test problem of longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion with an initial condition for high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We also discuss numerical viscosity in the test problems of expansion of matter into the vacuum and conservation properties. Furthermore, we discuss how the numerical stability is affected by the source terms of relativistic numerical hydrodynamics in Milne coordinates.

  5. A new relativistic hydrodynamics code for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kazuhisa [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Akamatsu, Yukinao [Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Osaka University, Department of Physics, Toyonaka (Japan); Stony Brook University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Nonaka, Chiho [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    We construct a new Godunov type relativistic hydrodynamics code in Milne coordinates, using a Riemann solver based on the two-shock approximation which is stable under the existence of large shock waves. We check the correctness of the numerical algorithm by comparing numerical calculations and analytical solutions in various problems, such as shock tubes, expansion of matter into the vacuum, the Landau-Khalatnikov solution, and propagation of fluctuations around Bjorken flow and Gubser flow. We investigate the energy and momentum conservation property of our code in a test problem of longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion with an initial condition for high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We also discuss numerical viscosity in the test problems of expansion of matter into the vacuum and conservation properties. Furthermore, we discuss how the numerical stability is affected by the source terms of relativistic numerical hydrodynamics in Milne coordinates. (orig.)

  6. A new relativistic hydrodynamics code for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Kazuhisa; Nonaka, Chiho

    2016-01-01

    We construct a new Godunov type relativistic hydrodynamics code in Milne coordinates, using a Riemann solver based on the two-shock approximation which is stable under existence of large shock waves. We check the correctness of the numerical algorithm by comparing numerical calculations and analytical solutions in various problems, such as shock tubes, expansion of matter into the vacuum, Landau-Khalatnikov solution, propagation of fluctuations around Bjorken flow and Gubser flow. We investigate the energy and momentum conservation property of our code in a test problem of longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion with an initial condition for high-energy heavy-ion collisions.We also discuss numerical viscosity in the test problems of expansion of matter into the vacuum and conservation properties. Furthermore, we discuss how the numerical stability is affected by the source terms of relativistic numerical hydrodynamics in Milne coordinates.

  7. Enabling High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries through Li{sub 2}O Activation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Cui, Yanjie; Chen, Zonghai; Belharouak, Ilias; Yahia, Hamdi B.; Wu, Huiming; Assary, Rajeev; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Lithium oxide (Li2O) is activated in the presence of a layered composite cathode material (HEM) significantly increasing the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. The degree of activation depends on the current rate, electrolyte salt, and anode type. In full-cell tests, the Li2O was used as a lithium source to counter the first-cycle irreversibility of high-capacity composite alloy anodes. When Li2O is mixed with HEM to serve as a cathode, the electrochemical performance was improved in a full cell having an SiO-SnCoC composite as an anode. The mechanism behind the Li2O activation could also explain the first charge plateau and the abnormal high capacity associated with these high energy cathode materials.

  8. Fluctuations of the initial color fields in high energy heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In the Color Glass Condensate approach to the description of high energy heavy ion collisions, one needs to superimpose small random Gaussian distributed fluctuations to the classical background field, in order to resum the leading secular terms that result from the Weibel instability, that would otherwise lead to pathological results beyond leading order. In practical numerical simulations, one needs to know this spectrum of fluctuations at a proper time $\\tau \\ll Q_s^{-1}$ shortly after the collision, in the Fock-Schwinger gauge $\\ma{A}^\\tau=0$. In this paper, we derive these fluctuations from first principles, by solving the Yang-Mills equations linearized around the classical background, with plane wave initial conditions in the remote past. We perform the intermediate steps in light-cone gauge, and we convert the results to the Fock-Schwinger gauge at the end. We obtain simple and explicit formulas for the fluctuation modes.

  9. Canted-Cosine-Theta Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for High Energy Physics and Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Lucas Nathan

    Advances in superconducting magnet technology have historically enabled the construction of new, higher energy hadron colliders. Looking forward to the needs of a potential future collider, a significant increase in magnet field and performance is required. Such a task requires an open mind to the investigation of new design concepts for high field magnets. Part I of this thesis will present an investigation of the Canted-Cosine-Theta (CCT) design for high field Nb3Sn magnets. New analytic and finite element methods for analysis of CCT magnets will be given, along with a discussion on optimization of the design for high field. The design, fabrication, and successful test of the 2.5 T NbTi dipole CCT1 will be presented as a proof-of-principle step towards a high field Nb3Sn magnet. Finally, the design and initial steps in the fabrication of the 16 T Nb3Sn dipole CCT2 will be described. Part II of this thesis will investigate the CCT concept extended to a curved magnet for use in an ion beam therapy gantry. The introduction of superconducting technology in this field shows promise to reduce the weight and cost of gantries, as well as open the door to new beam optics solutions with high energy acceptance. An analytic approach developed for modeling curved CCT magnets will be presented, followed by a design study of a superconducting magnet for a proton therapy gantry. Finally, a new magnet concept called the "Alternating Gradient CCT" (AG-CCT) will be introduced. This concept will be shown to be a practical magnet solution for achieving the alternating quadrupole fields desired for an achromatic gantry, allowing for the consideration of treatment with minimal field changes in the superconducting magnets. The primary motivation of this thesis is to share new developments for Canted-Cosine-Theta superconducting magnets, with the hope this design will improve technology for high energy physics and ion beam cancer therapy.

  10. Phase Transformations in Austenitic 0Cr18Ni10Ti Steel Irradiated with High-Energy Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A; Semina, V K

    2000-01-01

    Radiation-induced segregation and phase transformations in 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel irradiated with high-energy heavy Ar^{+6} ions at 625^o up to 1 dpa (from 0.01 to 1 dpa) have been studied. It was found that ion irradiation accelerates carbide precipitation and EDX-analysis showed irradiation-induced segregation near grain boundaries.

  11. Fluence correction factor for graphite calorimetry in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A.; Thomas, R.; Homer, M.; Bouchard, H.; Rossomme, S.; Renaud, J.; Kanai, T.; Royle, G.; Palmans, H.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and adapt a formalism to determine absorbed dose to water from graphite calorimetry measurements in carbon-ion beams. Fluence correction factors, {{k}\\text{fl}} , needed when using a graphite calorimeter to derive dose to water, were determined in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed in a 290 MeV/n carbon-ion beam with a field size of 11  ×  11 cm2, without modulation. In order to sample the beam, a plane-parallel Roos ionization chamber was chosen for its small collecting volume in comparison with the field size. Experimental information on fluence corrections was obtained from depth-dose measurements in water. This procedure was repeated with graphite plates in front of the water phantom. Fluence corrections were also obtained with Monte Carlo simulations through the implementation of three methods based on (i) the fluence distributions differential in energy, (ii) a ratio of calculated doses in water and graphite at equivalent depths and (iii) simulations of the experimental setup. The {{k}\\text{fl}} term increased in depth from 1.00 at the entrance toward 1.02 at a depth near the Bragg peak, and the average difference between experimental and numerical simulations was about 0.13%. Compared to proton beams, there was no reduction of the {{k}\\text{fl}} due to alpha particles because the secondary particle spectrum is dominated by projectile fragmentation. By developing a practical dose conversion technique, this work contributes to improving the determination of absolute dose to water from graphite calorimetry in carbon-ion beams.

  12. Nonplanar ion-acoustic solitons collision in Xe+-F-- SF6- and Ar+-F-- SF6- plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, S. A.; Carbonaro, P.

    2016-04-01

    The solitons collision in nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) plasmas consisting of positive ions, two different negative ions, and isothermal electrons is studied. For this purpose, the Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method is used to obtain two-coupled nonplanar Korteweg-de Vries (nKdV) equations. Also, the nonplanar phase shifts are calculated. The physical parameters of two plasma experiments; namely Xe+-F-- SF6- and Ar+-F-- SF6- are used to examine the properties of the localized pulses and their phase shifts after collision. It is found that the present model gives rise to the propagation of positive and negative pulses. The effects of the total negative ions concentration, the density ratio of the second-negative ions, the temperature ratio, and the geometrical effects on the behavior of solitons collisions and their phase shifts are investigated. Furthermore, it is found that the phase shifts in the case of the Ar+-F-- SF6- plasma are much larger than those of the Xe+-F-- SF6- plasma. Also, for fixed plasma parameters, the solitons collision received the largest phase shift in spherical geometry, followed by the cylindrical and planar geometries.

  13. High energy oxygen ion induced modifications in lead based perovskite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jali, V.M. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga - 585 106 (India)]. E-mail: vmjali@rediffmail.com; Angadi, Basavaraj [Thin Films Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Venkateswarlu, P. [Solar Panels Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore - 560 017 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Materials Science Division, Inter University Accelerator Center, New-Delhi - 110 067 (India); Krupanidhi, S.B. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012 (India)

    2007-07-15

    The lead based ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3} (PZT), (Pb{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10})TiO{sub 3} (PLT10) and (Pb{sub 0.80}La{sub 0.20})TiO{sub 3} (PLT20) thin films, prepared by pulsed laser ablation technique, were studied for their response to the 70 MeV oxygen ion irradiation. The dielectric analysis, capacitance-voltage (C-V) and DC leakage current measurements were performed before and after the irradiation to high-energy oxygen ions. The irradiation produced considerable changes in the dielectric, C-V, leakage characteristics and induced some amount of amorphization. The PZT films showed partial recrystallization after a thermal annealing at 400 deg. C for 10 min. The phase transition temperature [T {sub c}] of PLT20 increased from 115 deg. C to 120 deg. C. The DC conductivity measurements showed a shift in the onset of non-linear conduction region. The current density decreased by two orders of magnitude after irradiation. After annealing the irradiated films at a temperature of 400 deg. C for 10 min, the films partially regained the dielectric and electrical properties. The results are discussed in terms of the irradiation-induced amorphization, the pinning of the ferroelectric domains by trapped charges and the thermal annealing of the defects generated during the irradiation.

  14. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, William [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    + ions in gaseous xenon. Through this project, we are substantially closer to demonstrating “barium tagging”, i.e., detection of single daughter 136Ba atoms from 136Xe double beta decay. Milestones achieved include obtaining spectra of small numbers of Ba atoms and cryoprobe advances toward trapping single 136Ba atoms in solid xenon and probe extraction for detection. One of the other benefits to society is the training of six Ph.D. students in a variety of state-of-the-art technologies, half under primary support of this grant and half with partial support, with four finishing their Ph.D. degrees and two well on their way.

  15. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, William [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    + ions in gaseous xenon. Through this project, we are substantially closer to demonstrating “barium tagging”, i.e., detection of single daughter 136Ba atoms from 136Xe double beta decay. Milestones achieved include obtaining spectra of small numbers of Ba atoms and cryoprobe advances toward trapping single 136Ba atoms in solid xenon and probe extraction for detection. One of the other benefits to society is the training of six Ph.D. students in a variety of state-of-the-art technologies, half under primary support of this grant and half with partial support, with four finishing their Ph.D. degrees and two well on their way.

  16. Hardening of ODS ferritic steels under irradiation with high-energy heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z. N.; Zhang, C. H.; Yang, Y. T.; Song, Y.; Kimura, A.; Jang, J.

    2017-09-01

    Influence of the nanoscale oxide particles on mechanical properties and irradiation resistance of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels is of critical importance for the use of the material in fuel cladding or blanket components in advanced nuclear reactors. In the present work, impact of structures of oxide dispersoids on the irradiation hardening of ODS ferritic steels was studied. Specimens of three high-Cr ODS ferritic steels containing oxide dispersoids with different number density and average size were irradiated with high-energy Ni ions at about -50 °C. The energy of the incident Ni ions was varied from 12.73 MeV to 357.86 MeV by using an energy degrader at the terminal so that a plateau of atomic displacement damage (∼0.8 dpa) was produced from the near surface to a depth of 24 μm in the specimens. A nanoindentor (in constant stiffness mode with a diamond Berkovich indenter) and a Vickers micro-hardness tester were used to measure the hardeness of the specimens. The Nix-Gao model taking account of the indentation size effect (ISE) was used to fit the hardness data. It is observed that the soft substrate effect (SSE) can be diminished substantially in the irradiated specimens due to the thick damaged regions produced by the Ni ions. A linear correlation between the nano-hardeness and the micro-hardness was found. It is observed that a higher number density of oxide dispersoids with a smaller average diameter corresponds to an increased resistance to irradiation hardening, which can be ascribed to the increased sink strength of oxides/matrix interfaces to point defects. The rate equation approach and the conventional hardening model were used to analyze the influence of defect clusters on irradiation hardening in ODS ferritic steels. The numerical estimates show that the hardening caused by the interstitial type dislocation loops follows a similar trend with the experiment data.

  17. Determination of electronic stopping powers of 0.05-1 MeV/u 131Xe ions in C-, Ni- and Au-absorbers with calorimetric low temperature detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Kettunen, H.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Laitinen, M.; Müller, K.; Rossi, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Virtanen, A.

    2017-01-01

    A new experimental system for precise determination of electronic stopping powers of heavy ions has been set up at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä. The new setup, combining an established B-ToF system and an array of calorimetric low temperature detectors (CLTDs), has been used for the determination of electronic stopping powers of 0.05-1 MeV/u 131Xe ions in carbon, nickel and gold. Thereby advantage of the improved linearity and energy resolution of CLTDs as compared to the previously used ionization detector was taken to reduce energy calibration errors and to increase sensitivity for the energy loss determination, in particular at very low energies. The total uncertainties of 3-4% for C- and Ni-targets, and 5-7% for Au-targets, respectively, are dominated by the target properties, i.e. thickness determination and inhomogeneities. The results are compared to data from literature and to predictions of different theoretical computer codes. In the high energy part of the examined energy range the results are in good agreement with previously published data, while new stopping power data for very heavy ions in different Z2-materials have been obtained at lower energies. Moreover, unexpectedly strong channeling effects for the transmission of the 131Xe ions in thin, partly polycrystalline nickel and gold target foils have been observed and investigated.

  18. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-04-28

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  19. Dipole oscillator strength distributions with improved high-energy behavior: Dipole sum rules and dispersion coefficients for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2010-02-01

    The construction of the dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) from theoretical and experimental photoabsorption cross sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule and molar refractivity data is a well-established technique that has been successfully applied to more than 50 species. Such DOSDs are insufficiently accurate at large photon energies. A novel iterative procedure is developed that rectifies this deficiency by using the high-energy asymptotic behavior of the dipole oscillator strength density as an additional constraint. Pilot applications are made for the neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms. The resulting DOSDs improve the agreement of the predicted S2 and S1 sum rules with ab initio calculations while preserving the accuracy of the remainder of the moments. Our DOSDs exploit new and more accurate experimental data. Improved estimates of dipole properties for these four atoms and of dipole-dipole C6 and triple-dipole C9 dispersion coefficients for the interactions among them are reported.

  20. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-02

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 高能重离子在聚合物中的辐照效应研究%Radiation effects in polymers induced by high energy heavy ion beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhiyong; LIU Qi; SUN Youmei; JIN Yunfan

    2005-01-01

    degradation under γ-irradiation can be cross-linked by irradiation with high energy heavy ions. In some cases new molecular structures were induced by high energy heavy ions with sufficiently high LET values. In recent years we have irradiated polyethylterephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC) and polyimide (PI) with high energy Ar, Kr, Xe and U ion beams.Chemical and physical changes of the materials induced by the high energy heavy ion beams were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet and visible transmission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements, from which damage cross-sections of various functional groups were determined[1]. An energy loss threshold for damage of phenyl ring in PET has been derived and difference in amorphization of PET under high and low LET irradiations was observed. It is found that alkyne end groups can be induced in all the materials above a certain electronic energy loss threshold, which is found to be about 0.8 keV/nm for PS and 0.4 keV/nm for PC. The production cross-section of alkyne end group increases with increasing electronic energy loss and shows saturation at high electronic energy loss values.

  2. Relics of Minijets amid Anisotropic Flows in High-energy Heavy-ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Longgang; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-01-01

    Two dimensional low-$p_T$ dihadron correlations in azimuthal angle $\\phi$ and pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$ in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are investigated within both the HIJING Monte Carlo model and an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model. Without final-state interaction and collective expansion, dihadron correlations from HIJING simulations have a typical structure from minijets that contains a near-side two-dimensional peak and an away-side ridge along the $\\eta$-direction. In contrast, event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic simulations with fluctuating initial conditions from the HIJING+AMPT model produce a strong dihadron correlation that has an away-side as well as a near-side ridge. Relics of intrinsic dihadron correlation from minijets in the initial conditions still remain as superimposed on the two ridges. By varying initial conditions from HIJING+AMPT, we study effects of minijets, non-vanishing initial flow and longitudinal fluctuation on the final state dihadron correlations. With a la...

  3. A Benchmarking Study of High Energy Carbon Ion Induced Neutron Using Several Monte Carlo Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Oh, J. H.; Jung, N. S.; Lee, H. S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Y. S.; Kwon, D. Y.; Kim, Y. M. [Catholic Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Oranj, L. Mokhtari [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the benchmarking study was done for the representative particle interaction of the heavy ion accelerator, especially carbon-induced reaction. The secondary neutron is an important particle in the shielding analysis to define the source term and penetration ability of radiation fields. The performance of each Monte Carlo codes were verified for selected codes: MCNPX 2.7, PHITS 2.64 and FLUKA 2011.2b.6. For this benchmarking study, the experimental data of Kurosawa et al. in the SINBAD database of NEA was applied. The calculated results of the differential neutron yield produced from several materials irradiated by high energy carbon beam reproduced the experimental data well in small uncertainty. But the MCNPX results showed large discrepancy with experimental data, especially at the forward angle. The calculated results were lower a little than the experimental and it was clear in the cases of lower incident carbon energy, thinner target and forward angle. As expected, the influence of different model was found clearly at forward direction. In the shielding analysis, these characteristics of each Monte Carlo codes should be considered and utilized to determine the safety margin of a shield thickness.

  4. Fractal characteristics of fracture morphology of steels irradiated with high-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Yongqiang; Liu, Juan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Chonghong, E-mail: c.h.zhang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jiachao [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Yang, Yitao; Zhang, Liqing; Song, Yin [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Fractal dimensions of fracture surfaces of steels before and after irradiation were calculated. • Fractal dimension can effectively describe change of fracture surfaces induced by irradiation. • Correlation of change of fractal dimension with embrittlement of irradiated steels is discussed. - Abstract: A fractal analysis of fracture surfaces of steels (a ferritic/martensitic steel and an oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic steel) before and after the irradiation with high-energy ions is presented. Fracture surfaces were acquired from a tensile test and a small-ball punch test (SP). Digital images of the fracture surfaces obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) by using the pixel covering method. Boundary of binary image and fractal dimension were determined with a MATLAB program. The results indicate that fractal dimension can be an effective parameter to describe the characteristics of fracture surfaces before and after irradiation. The rougher the fracture surface, the larger the fractal dimension. Correlation of the change of fractal dimension with the embrittlement of the irradiated steels is discussed.

  5. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  6. Vortical fluid and $\\Lambda$ spin correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Long-Gang; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Fermions become polarized in a vortical fluid due to spin-vorticity coupling. The spin polarization density is proportional to the local fluid vorticity at the next-to-leading order of a gradient expansion in a quantum kinetic theory. Spin correlations of two $\\Lambda$-hyperons can therefore reveal the vortical structure of the dense matter in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ a (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic model with event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions from A MultiPhase Transport (AMPT) model to calculate the vorticity distributions and $\\Lambda$ spin correlations. The azimuthal correlation of the transverse spin is shown to have a cosine form plus an offset due to a circular structure of the transverse vorticity around the beam direction and global spin polarization. The longitudinal spin correlation shows a structure of vortex-pairing in the transverse plane due to the convective flow of hot spots in the radial direction. The dependence on colliding energy, rapidity, centrality and sensi...

  7. Formation of Amino Acid Precursors by Bombardment of Interstellar Ice Analogs with High Energy Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Mita, Hajime; Yoshida, Satoshi; Shibata, Hiromi; Enomoto, Shingo; Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kotaro; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Kebukawa, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies. It has been recognized that carbonaceous chondrites contain pristine amino acids [1]. There are several scenarios of the formation of such extraterrestrial amino acids or their precursors. Greenberg proposed a scenario that complex organic compounds were formed in interstellar ices in dense clouds, which were brought into solar system small bodies when the solar system was formed [2]. The ice mantles of interstellar dust particles (ISDs) in dense clouds are composed of H2O, CO, CH3OH, CH4, CO2, NH3, etc. In order to verify the scenario, a number of laboratory experiments have been conducted where interstellar ice analogs were irradiated with high-energy particles [3,4] or UV [5,6], and formation of complex organic compounds including amino acid precursors were detected in the products. Though ion-molecular reactions in gaseous phase and surface reactions on the ice mantles have been studied intensively, much less works on cosmic rays-induced reaction have been reported. In order to study possible formation of complex molecules in interstellar ices, frozen mixtures of water, methanol and ammonia with various mixing ratios were irradiated with high-energy heavy ions such as carbon ions (290 MeV/u) and neon ions (400 MeV/u) from HIMAC, NIRS, Japan. For comparison, gaseous mixtures of water, ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and/or methane were irradiated with protons (2.5 MeV) from a Tandem accelerator, Tokyo Tech, Japan. Amino acids in the products were determined by cation exchange HPLC after acid hydrolysis. Products, both before and after acid hydrolysis, were also characterized by FT-IR and other techniques. Amino acids were detected in the hydrolyzed products after mixture of CH3OH, NH3 and H2O with various mixing ratios were irradiated with heavy ions, including when their mixing ratio was set close to the reported value of the interstellar ices (10:1:37). In the HIMAC

  8. Irradiation response of ODS ferritic steels to high-energy Ne ions at HIRFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.H., E-mail: c.h.zhang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Yang, Y.T.; Song, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Chen, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Zhang, L.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Jang, J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Two kinds of ODS high-Cr ferritic steels (commercial MA956 and an Al-free 16Cr–0.1Ti ODS ferritic steel) and one conventional ferritic/martensitic steel (T122) were irradiated at about 440 °C with high-energy {sup 20}Ne-ions in HIRFL. Successively increasing doses from 350 to 900 appm of Ne concentration, corresponding to atomic displacement levels from 0.7 to 1.8 dpa, were approached. A nearly uniform distribution of Ne concentration and atomic displacement damage was produced through the thickness of 60 μm of the specimens by using an energy degrader. Mechanical properties of the specimens were tested with the small-ball punch technique. The test at room temperature shows a less significant ductility loss in the ODS ferritic steel MA956 than in the T122 irradiated to the same dose of 350 appm Ne/0.7 dpa. The test at 500 °C shows that the Al-free 16Cr–0.1Ti ODS ferritic steel does not exhibit observable loss of ductility even to the highest dose level (900 appm Ne/1.8 dpa). An investigation with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that voids with a diameter up to 70 nm were formed at grain boundaries in the conventional ferritic/martensitic steel T122 while only smaller bubbles were formed at the oxides/substrate interfaces in the ODS ferritic steel MA956. Mechanisms underlying the difference of irradiation response of the steels are discussed.

  9. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyunchang, E-mail: hcjin@ibs.re.kr; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  10. High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEI Corporation proposes to develop a mixed metal oxide nanocomposite cathode that is designed for delivering high energy density with good rate performance at low...

  11. Designing and Thermal Analysis of Safe Lithium Ion Cathode Materials for High Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enyuan

    Safety is one of the most critical issues facing lithium-ion battery application in vehicles. Addressing this issue requires the integration of several aspects, especially the material chemistry and the battery thermal management. First, thermal stability investigation was carried out on an attractive high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. New findings on the thermal-stability and thermal-decomposition-pathways related to the oxygen-release are discovered for the high-voltage spinel Li xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) with ordered (o-) and disordered (d-) structures at fully delithiated (charged) state using a combination of in situ time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Both fully charged o--LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 and d-LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 start oxygen-releasing structural changes at temperatures below 300 °C, which is in sharp contrast to the good thermal stability of the 4V-spinel LixMn2O4 with no oxygen being released up to 375 °C. This is mainly caused by the presence of Ni4+ in LNMO, which undergoes dramatic reduction during the thermal decomposition. In addition, charged o-LNMO shows better thermal stability than the d-LNMO counterpart, due to the Ni/Mn ordering and smaller amount of the rock-salt impurity phase in o-LNMO. Newly identified two thermal-decomposition-pathways from the initial LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 spinel to the final NiMn2O4-type spinel structure with and without the intermediate phases (NiMnO3 and alpha-Mn 2O3) are found to play key roles in thermal stability and oxygen release of LNMO during thermal decomposition. In addressing the safety issue associated with LNMO, Fe is selected to partially substitute Ni and Mn simultaneously utilizing the electrochemical activity and structure-stabilizing high spin Fe3+. The synthesized LiNi1/3Mn4/3Fe1/3O4 showed superior thermal stability and satisfactory electrochemical performance. At charged state, it is able to withstand the temperature as

  12. Soft errors in 10-nm-scale magnetic tunnel junctions exposed to high-energy heavy-ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Makino, Takahiro; Onoda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shoji; Sato, Hideo; Inocencio Enobio, Eli Christopher; Endoh, Tetsuo; Ohno, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    The influences of various types of high-energy heavy-ion radiation on 10-nm-scale CoFeB-MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicular easy axis have been investigated. In addition to possible latent damage, which has already been pointed out in previous studies, high-energy heavy-ion bombardments demonstrated that the magnetic tunnel junctions may exhibit clear flips between their high- and low-resistance states designed for a digital bit 1 or 0. It was also demonstrated that flipped magnetic tunnel junctions still may provide proper memory functions such as read, write, and hold capabilities. These two findings proved that high-energy heavy ions can produce recoverable bit flips in magnetic tunnel junctions, i.e., soft errors. Data analyses suggested that the resistance flips stem from magnetization reversals of the ferromagnetic layers and that each of them is caused by a single strike of heavy ions. It was concurrently found that an ion strike does not always result in a flip, suggesting a stochastic process behind the flip. Experimental data also showed that the flip phenomenon is dependent on the device and heavy-ion characteristics. Among them, the diameter of the device and the linear energy transfer of the heavy ions were revealed as the key parameters. From their dependences, the physical mechanism behind the flip was discussed. It is likely that a 10-nm-scale ferromagnetic disk loses its magnetization due to a local temperature increase induced by a single strike of heavy ions; this demagnetization is followed by a cooling period associated with a possible stochastic recovery process. On the basis of this hypothesis, a simple analytical model was developed, and it was found that the model accounts for the results reasonably well. This model also predicted that magnetic tunnel junctions provide sufficiently high soft-error reliability for use in space, highlighting their advantage over their counterpart conventional semiconductor memories.

  13. High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Donghai [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Manthiram, Arumugam [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Chao-Yang [EC Power LLC, State College, PA (United States); Liu, Gao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-15

    cell fabrication and test, full pouch cells with high capacity of 2.2 Ah and 1.2 Ah have been fabricated and delivered. The cells show great uniformity and good cycling performance. The prelithiation method effectively compensate the loss in the first cycle. The cell with high energy density and long-cycle life has been achieved.

  14. Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled SiO-SnxCoyCz Anode for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Song, Xiangyun; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Gao

    2016-06-01

    A SiOSnCoC composite anode is assembled using a conductive polymer binder for the application in next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries. A specific capacity of 700 mAh/g is achieved at a 1C (900 mA/g) rate. A high active material loading anode with an areal capacity of 3.5 mAh/cm(2) is demonstrated by mixing SiOSnCoC with graphite. To compensate for the lithium loss in the first cycle, stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) is used for prelithiation; when paired with a commercial cathode, a stable full cell cycling performance with a 86% first cycle efficiency is realized. By achieving these important metrics toward a practical application, this conductive polymer binder/SiOSnCoC anode system presents great promise to enable the next generation of high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Kinetic effect of high energy ions on the temperature profile in the boundary plasma region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezumi, N., E-mail: ezumi@nagano-nct.ac.jp [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Hayashi, Y.; Todoroki, K. [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Importance of ion dynamics in the boundary region has been discussed with experimental results of ion temperature (T{sub i}) measurements in linear plasma devices and its analytical model. Radial profiles of T{sub i} have been measured by using an ion sensitive probe in the linear devices CTP-HC and NAGDIS-II. The experiments indicate that T{sub i} is growing radially. Analytical ion-mean-energy profiles based on the ion Larmor motion are qualitatively consistent with the experimental T{sub i} profiles. These results clarify that the higher energy ions exist in the outside region of plasma flux tube.

  16. Ductile extension of a lenticular bubble under high-energy ion bombardment with relation to blistering and flaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, K.; Higashida, Y.

    1981-09-01

    A theory is given which is based on a model of the ductile extension of a crack in a material and is capable of explaining the whole process of surface exfoliation phenomena under high-energy ion bombardment, including both blistering and flaking, on the same ground, starting from a very small nucleus of a lenticular bubbble. Further, the distinction between blistering and flaking is clarified, and the relation of the exfoliation phenomeon with local swelling due to bubble formation is presented.

  17. Advanced Cathode for Ultra-High Energy Li-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are currently under development for Extravehicular Activity Suits, Altair Lunar Landers, and Lunar Mobility Systems. However,...

  18. Probing Multi-Strange Dibaryon with Proton-Omega Correlation in High-energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Kenji; Etminan, Faisal; Hatsuda, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Two-particle intensity correlation between the proton ($p$) and the Omega-baryon ($\\Omega$) in high-energy heavy ion collisions is studied to unravel the possible spin-2 $p\\Omega$ dibaryon recently suggested by lattice QCD simulations. The ratio of correlation functions between small and large collision systems, $C_{\\rm SL}(Q)$, is proposed to be a new measure to extract the strong $p\\Omega$ interaction without much contamination from the Coulomb attraction. Relevance of this quantity to the experimental observables in heavy-ion collisions is also discussed.

  19. Mapping of light elements with the ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.

    2000-03-01

    7.62 MeV He was used to study the distribution of a wide range of elements in mineral sands. At this energy both He induced X-ray emission and a high energy resonance in oxygen can be applied simultaneously. The two techniques were used to study the distribution of elements ranging from sulfur to zirconium as well as oxygen.

  20. 90 deg.Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Foglio-Para, A; Mitaroff, W A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb sup 8 sup 2 sup + lead ions at 40 GeV/c per nucleon and 158 GeV/c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90 deg.with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that--for such high energy heavy ion beams--a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0...

  1. Defect Structures in 4H-SiC Irradiated with Highly-energetic 20Ne4+ and 120Xe26+ Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangChonghong; SunYoumei; T.Shibayama; LiuJie; WangZhiguang; SongYin; DuanJinglai; ZhaoZhiming; YaoCunfeng; WangYing; HouMingdong; JinYunfan

    2003-01-01

    The study of damage evolution in silicon carbide bombarded with energetic helium ions is important for the use of this material in future fusion reactors. Heavier inert gas atoms like Ne and Xe have similar behavior of diffusion and clustering with helium, and the comparison of damage accumulation behavior between energetic helium and heavier inert gas ions can reveal important aspects of underlying mechanisms. As an extension of our

  2. HEDgeHOB High-energy density matter generated by heavy ion beams at the future facility for antiprotons and ion research

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Wouchuk, G; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E; Hoffmann, D H H; Schmidt, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the theoretical work that has been carried out during the past few years to assess the capabilities of intense heavy ion beams to induce states of High-Energy Density (HED) in matter. This work has shown that two different experimental schemes can be used to study HED physics employing intense ion beams. These schemes have been named HIHEX [Heavy Ion Heating and EXpansion] and LAPLAS [LAboratory PLAnetary Sciences], respectively. The first scheme involves isochoric and uniform heating and subsequent isentropic expansion of matter while the latter deals with low entropy compression of matter using multiple shock reflection technique. This work has been done within the framework of the HEDgeHOB [High Energy Density Matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams] collaboration that has been formed to organize and facilitate construction of experimental facilities and later to perform experimental work in the field of HED matter at the future accelerator facility, FAIR [Facility for Antipr...

  3. Influence of high energy ion irradiation on fullerene derivative (PCBM) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Trupti, E-mail: tsphy91@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Singhal, Rahul; Vishnoi, Ritu [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Lakshmi, G.B.V.S. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Post Box No. 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Biswas, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Spin casted PCBM thin films (∼100 nm) are irradiated with 55 MeV Si{sup 4+} ion beam. • The decrease in band gap is observed after irradiation. • The surface properties is also dependent on incident ion fluences. • Polymerization reactions induced by energetic ions leads to modifications. - Abstract: The modifications produced by 55 MeV Si{sup 4+} swift heavy ion irradiation on the phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) thin films (thickness ∼ 100 nm) has been enlightened. The PCBM thin films were irradiated at 1 × 10{sup 10}, 1 × 10{sup 11} and 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} fluences. After ion irradiation, the decreased optical band gap and FTIR band intensities were observed. The Raman spectroscopy reveals the damage produced by energetic ions. The morphological variation were investigated by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements and observed to be influenced by incident ion fluences. After 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence, the overlapping of ion tracks starts and produced overlapping effects.

  4. Determination of the excitation energy and angular momentum of the quasi-projectiles produced in the heavy ion collisions Xe + Sn; Determination de l'energie d'excitation et du moment angulaire des quasi-projectiles produits dans les collisions d'ions lourds Xe + Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genouin-Duhamel, Emmanuel [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 Caen (France)

    1999-04-08

    This work is a contribution to the study of properties of hot nuclei formed in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. It is shown that most of the reaction cross section is associated with binary dissipative collisions, accompanied by the production of particles from a region between the two reaction partners. This study is focussed on excitation energy and angular momentum of projectile-like fragment (PLF) in {sup 129}Xe + {sup nat}Sn reactions from 25 to 50 MeV per nucleon. Several methods are used to characterize hot nuclei (velocity, charge, mass and excitation energy). All these methods are compared between them and indicate that high energies are deposited in the nuclei during collision (it may exceed the nucleus binding energy). The angular momentum transferred into intrinsic spin to PLF in the peripheral collisions has been deduced from angular distributions and kinetic energies of the emitted light charged particles (atomic number smaller ar equal to 2). Both methods agree qualitatively. The spin values decrease with the violence of the collision. These values correspond to values averaged over the whole deexcitation chain of nuclei. The predictions of transport models reproduce qualitatively the most peripheral collisions and suggest that high spins are transferred to PLF (from 30 to 50 {Dirac_h}). Larger angular momentum values are observed at the lowest incident energy. The time hierarchy in the evaporation process and the role of mid-rapidity emission are also discussed.

  5. Nonlinear ion dynamics in Hall thruster plasma source by ion transit-time instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youbong; Choe, Wonho; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Park, Jae Sun; Kim, Holak; Seon, Jongho; Garrigues, L.

    2017-03-01

    High-energy tail formation in an ion energy distribution function (IEDF) is explained in a Hall thruster plasma with the stationary crossed electric and magnetic fields whose discharge current is oscillated at the ion transit-time scale with a frequency of 360 kHz. Among ions in different charge states, singly charged Xe ions (Xe+) have an IEDF that is significantly broadened and shifted toward the high-energy side, which contributes to tail formation in the entire IEDF. Analytical and numerical investigations confirm that the IEDF tail is due to nonlinear ion dynamics in the ion transit-time oscillation.

  6. Homologous recombination contributes to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by high-energy iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Faria; Seidler, Sara B.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2010-06-29

    To test the contribution of homologous recombinational repair (HRR) in repairing DNA damaged sites induced by high-energy iron ions, we used: (1) HRR-deficient rodent cells carrying a deletion in the RAD51D gene and (2) syngeneic human cells impaired for HRR by RAD51D or RAD51 knockdown using RNA interference. We show that in response to iron ions, HRR contributes to cell survival in rodent cells, and that HRR-deficiency abrogates RAD51 foci formation. Complementation of the HRR defect by human RAD51D rescues both enhanced cytotoxicity and RAD51 foci formation. For human cells irradiated with iron ions, cell survival is decreased, and, in p53 mutant cells, the levels of mutagenesis are increased when HRR is impaired. Human cells synchronized in S phase exhibit more pronounced resistance to iron ions as compared with cells in G1 phase, and this increase in radioresistance is diminished by RAD51 knockdown. These results implicate a role for RAD51-mediated DNA repair (i.e. HRR) in removing a fraction of clustered lesions induced by charged particle irradiation. Our results are the first to directly show the requirement for an intact HRR pathway in human cells in ensuring DNA repair and cell survival in response to high-energy high LET radiation.

  7. The measurements of light high-energy ions in NINA-2 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, A.; Cyamukungu, M.; Cabrera, J.; Leleux, P.; Gregoire, Gh.; Benck, S.; Mikhailov, V.; Bakaldin, A.; Galper, A.; Koldashov, S.; Voronov, S.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M. P.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.; Ricci, M.

    2007-01-01

    The flux of energetic light ions at low altitude is both an important input and output for self-consistent calculations of albedo particles resulting from the interaction of trapped and cosmic ray particles, with the upper atmosphere. In addition, data on the flux of light ions are needed to evaluat

  8. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Belomestnykh, Sergei; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael M; Calaga, Rama; Chang, Xiangyun; Fedotov, Alexei; Gassner, David; Hammons, Lee; Hahn, Harald; Hao, Yue; He, Ping; Jackson, William; Jain, Animesh; Johnson, Elliott C; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jrg; Luo, Yun; Mahler, George; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Minty, Michiko; Parker, Brett; Pikin, Alexander; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Rao, Triveni; Roser, Thomas; Skaritka, John; Sheehy, Brian; Tepikian, Steven; Than, Yatming; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsentalovich, Evgeni; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Wang, Gang; Webb, Stephen; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Wencan; Zelenski, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. A new ERL accelerator, which provide 5-30 GeV electron beam, will ensure 10^33 to 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 level luminosity.

  9. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Heavy Ion Beam at FAIR: The HEDgeHOB Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Piriz, A. R.; Deutsch, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-03-01

    International project, Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), has entered in its construction phase at Darmstadt. It is expected that the new powerful heavy ion synchrotron, SIS100 will deliver a strongly bunched intense beam of energetic uranium ions that will provide the scientists with an efficient and novel tool to research High Energy Density (HED) Physics in the laboratory. Over the past 15 years, substantial theoretical work has been done to design numerous experiments that can be done at this facility in this field. This work has resulted in an extensive scientific proposal named HEDgeHOB, that includes experiment proposals addressing various aspects of HED matter, for example, planetary physics, equation of state, hydrodynamic instabilities and others. In this paper we present a summary of this work.

  10. The Ridge Associated with the Near-side Jet in High Energy-Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2009-01-01

    The ridge particles associated with a near-side jet are identified as medium partons kicked by the jet near the surface. They carry direct information on the parton momentum distribution at the moment of jet-parton collisions and the magnitude of the longitudinal momentum kick. The extracted early parton momentum distribution has a rapidity plateau structure with a thermal-like transverse momentum distribution. Such a rapidity plateau structure may arise from particle production in flux tubes, as color charges and anti-color charges separate at high energies.

  11. Controlled high-energy ion acceleration with intense chirped standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenroth, Felix; Gonoskov, Arkady; Marklund, Mattias

    2016-10-01

    We present the latest results of the recently proposed ion acceleration mechanism ``chirped standing wave acceleration''. This mechanism is based on locking the electrons of a thin plasma layer to the moving nodes of a standing wave formed by a chirped laser pulse reflected from a mirror behind the thin layer. The resulting longitudinal charge separation field between the displaced electrons and the residual ions then accelerates the latter. Since the plasma layer is stabilized by the standing wave, the formation of plasma instabilities is suppressed. Furthermore, the experimentally accessible laser chirp provides a versatile tool for manipulating the resulting ion beam in terms of maximum particle energy, particle number and spectral distribution. Through this scheme, proton beams, with energy spectra peaked around 100 MeV, were shown to be feasible for pulse energies at the level of 10 J. Wallenberg Foundation within the Grant ''Plasma based compact ion sources'' (PLIONA).

  12. Novel Anodes for Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TIAX proposes to develop as a novel negative electrode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. This material will fill the gap between the...

  13. High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries do not fully meet the energy density, power density and safety requirements specified by NASA for future exploration missions....

  14. Effects of gamma-ray and high energy carbon ion irradiation on swimming velocity of Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, T.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, H.; Fuma, S.; Häder, D.-P.

    The effects of gamma-ray and high energy carbon ion irradiation on the swimming velocity of the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis strain Z were studied, focusing on a dose-effect relationship. Cells were exposed to 60Co gamma-rays at 6 doses of 10, 15, 20, 40, 100 and 200 Gy for water, and also to 290 MeV/amu carbon ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at 7 doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Gy for water). The swimming velocity was measured by a biomonitoring system, called ECOTOX. The swimming velocities of Euglena gracilis cells were significantly decreased by >40 Gy gamma-rays and >5 Gy carbon ions, respectively. The 50% effective doses for inhibition, 34±4 Gy (gamma-rays) and 13±1 Gy (290 MeV/amu carbon ions), were estimated from the best fit to data of the logistic model. The relative biological effectiveness (2.6±0.4) was calculated by the ratio of 50% effective doses. The inhibition of the swimming velocity of the cells irradiated with gamma-rays was still present after 3 days, while recovery of the swimming velocity was shown in the cells exposed to 290 MeV/amu carbon ions. It is suggested that ionizing radiation inhibits ATP production and/or increases frictional drag on beating of the flagellum, thus decreasing swimming velocity.

  15. Scintillation screen materials for beam profile measurements of high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Renuka

    2016-06-22

    For the application as a transverse ion beam diagnostics device, various scintillation screen materials were analysed. The properties of the materials such as light output, image reproduction and radiation stability were investigated with the ion beams extracted from heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18. The ion species (C, Ne, Ar, Ta and U) were chosen to cover the large range of elements in the periodic table. The ions were accelerated to the kinetic energies of 200 MeV/u and 300 MeV/u extracted with 300 ms pulse duration and applied to the screens. The particle intensity of the ion beam was varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 9} particles per pulse. The screens were irradiated with typically 40 beam pulses and the scintillation light was captured using a CCD camera followed by characterization of the beam spot. The radiation hardness of the screens was estimated with high intensity Uranium ion irradiation. In the study, a linear light output for 5 orders of magnitude of particle intensities was observed from sensitive scintillators and ceramic screens such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The highest light output was recorded by CsI:Tl and the lowest one by Herasil. At higher beam intensity saturation of light output was noticed from Y and Mg doped ZrO{sub 2} screens. The light output from the screen depends not only on the particle intensity but also on the ion species used for irradiation. The light yield (i.e. the light intensity normalised to the energy deposition in the material by the ion) is calculated from the experimental data for each ion beam setting. It is shown that the light yield for light ions is about a factor 2 larger than the one of heavy ions. The image widths recorded exhibit a dependence on the screens material and differences up to 50 % were registered. On radiation stability analysis with high particle intensity of Uranium ions of about 6 x 10{sup 8} ppp, a stable performance in light output and image reproduction was documented from Al

  16. The measurements of light high-energy ions in NINA-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leonov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The flux of energetic light ions at low altitude is both an important input and output for self-consistent calculations of albedo particles resulting from the interaction of trapped and cosmic ray particles, with the upper atmosphere. In addition, data on the flux of light ions are needed to evaluate radiation damages on space-borne instruments and on space mission crews. In spite of that, sources of data on the flux of energetic ions at LEO are roughly limited to the AP-8 model, CREME/CREME96 codes and the SAMPEX, NOAA/TIROS satellites. The existing and operational European SAC-C/ICARE and PROBA-1/SREM instruments could also be potential sources for proton data at LEO. Although AP-8 and SAMPEX/PSB97 may be publicly accessed through the SPENVIS, they exhibit an order of magnitude difference in low altitude proton fluxes and they do not contain helium fluxes. Therefore, improved light ion radiation models are still needed.

    In this paper we present a procedure to identify and measure the energy of ions that are not stopped in the NINA-2 instrument. Moreover, problems related to particles that cross the instrument in the opposite direction are addressed and shown to be a possible cause of particle misidentification. Measuring fluxes of low abundance elements like energetic helium ions requires a good characterisation of all possible sources of backgrounds in the detector. Hints to determine the several contributions to the background are presented herein and may be applied to extract an order of magnitude of energetic ions fluxes from existing data sets, while waiting for dedicated high performance instruments.

  17. SAXS investigation of latent track structure in HDPE irradiated with high energy Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Yang; Huang, Can [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Mingwang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute of Electronic Engineering, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Liu, Qi; Wang, Yuzhu; Liu, Yi; Tian, Feng; Lin, Jun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhuzhiyong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Semi-crystalline high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were irradiated with 1.157 GeV {sup 56}Fe ion beams to fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 11} to 6 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The radiation induced changes in nano/microstructure were investigated with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The scattering contributions from HDPE matrix and ion tracks are successfully separated and analyzed through tilted SAXS measurements with respect to the X-ray beam direction. Lorentz correction, one-dimensional correlation function calculation, fractal nature analysis of the isotropic scattering pattern reveal that HDPE long period polymeric structures are damaged and new materials, possibly clusters of carbon-rich materials, are formed inside the ion tracks. Least square curve fitting of the scattering contribution from the ion track reveals that the track is composed of a core of about 5.3 nm in radius, characterized by a significant density deficit compared to the virgin HDPE, surrounded by a shell of about 4.3 nm in thickness with less density reduction.

  18. Difference of soft error rates in SOI SRAM induced by various high energy ion species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo, Satoshi, E-mail: abo@cqst.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Quantum Science and Technology Under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Masuda, Naoyuki; Wakaya, Fujio; Lohner, Tivadar [Center for Quantum Science and Technology Under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Onoda, Shinobu; Makino, Takahiro; Hirao, Toshio; Ohshima, Takeshi [Semiconductor Analysis and Radiation Effects Group, Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Oda, Hidekazu [Advanced Device Technology Department, Production and Technology Unit, Devices and Analysis Technology Division, Renesas Electronics Corporation, 751, Horiguchi, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Takai, Mikio [Center for Quantum Science and Technology Under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Soft error rates in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) with a technology node of 90 nm have been investigated by beryllium and carbon ion probes. The soft error rates induced by beryllium and carbon probes started to increase with probe energies of 5.0 and 8.5 MeV, in which probes slightly penetrated the over-layer, and were saturated with energies at and above 7.0 and 9.0 MeV, in which the generated charge in the SOI body was more than the critical charge. The soft error rates in the SOI SRAMs by various ion probes were also compared with the generated charge in the SOI body. The soft error rates induced by hydrogen and helium ion probes were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those by beryllium, carbon and oxygen ion probes. The soft error rates depend not only on the generated charge in the SOI body but also on the incident ion species.

  19. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  20. High-energy ion treatments of amorphous As40Se60 thin films for optical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Chauhan; Arvind Tripathi; Krishna Kant Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of 100 MeV Ag swift-heavy ion (SHI) irradiation with five different fluences (3×1010, 1×1011, 3×1011, 1×1012, and 3×1012 ions/cm2) was used to design optical and structural properties of amorphous (a-) As40Se60 chalcogenide thin films. Swanepoel method was applied on transmission measurements to determine the changes in optical bandgap, Tauc parameter and linear optical parameters, i.e., linear optical absorption, extinction coefficient and linear refractive index. Dispersion of...

  1. High-energy ion treatments of amorphous As40Se60 thin films for optical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Rashmi; Tripathi, Arvind; Srivastava, Krishna Kant

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of 100 MeV Ag swift-heavy ion (SHI) irradiation with five different fluences (3×1010, 1×1011, 3×1011, 1×1012, and 3×1012 ions/cm2) was used to design optical and structural properties of amorphous (a-) As40Se60 chalcogenide thin films. Swanepoel method was applied on transmission measurements to determine the changes in optical bandgap, Tauc parameter and linear optical parameters, i.e., linear optical absorption, extinction coefficient and linear refractive index. Dispersion of...

  2. Effects of low and high energy ion bombardment on ETFE polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, R. A.; De Almeida, A.; Abidzina, V.; Parada, M. A.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.

    2007-04-01

    The polymer ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) is used as anti-adherent coatings for food packages and radiation dosimeters. In this work, we compare the damage induced in ETFE bombarded with 100 keV Si ions with that induced by 1 MeV proton bombardment. The damage depends on the type, energy and intensity of the irradiation. Irradiated films were analyzed with optical absorption photospectrometry, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the structural changes caused by ion irradiation. Computer simulations were performed to evaluate the radiation damage.

  3. High-Energy Ions Emitted from Ar Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong; LEI An-Le; NI Guo-Quan; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the energy spectra of Ar ions emitted from Ar clusters irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses. The Ar clusters were produced in the adiabatic expansion of Ar gas into vacuum at high backing pressures. The laser peak intensity was about 2×106 W/cm2 with a pulse duration of 45 fs. The maximum and the average energies of Ar ions are 0.2 MeV and 15kev at a backing pressure of 2. S MPa, respectively. They are almost independent of the backing pressures in the range of 0.6 to 4.5 MPa.

  4. Kinetic Modeling of Next-Generation High-Energy, High-Intensity Laser-Ion Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yin, Lin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stark, David James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    One of the long-standing problems in the community is the question of how we can model “next-generation” laser-ion acceleration in a computationally tractable way. A new particle tracking capability in the LANL VPIC kinetic plasma modeling code has enabled us to solve this long-standing problem

  5. New method to detect rotation in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Csernai, Laszlo; Svelle, Sindre; Wang, Du-Juan

    2014-01-01

    With increasing beam energies the angular momentum of the fireball in peripheral heavy-ion collisions increases, and the proposed differential Hanbury Brown and Twiss analysis is able to estimate this angular momentum quantitatively. The method detects specific space-time correlation patterns, which are connected to rotation.

  6. Evolution of the surface structures of solids under irradiation with high energy heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Didyk, A Y; Cheblukov, Y N; Dmitriev, S N; Hofmann, A; Semina, V K; Suvorov, A L

    2002-01-01

    The results on the study of surface structure of solids, like metals, metal alloys, amorphous metal alloys and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) under irradiation with heavy sup 8 sup 6 Kr ions (ion energy is 245 MeV, irradiation fluences are 10 sup 1 sup 3 , 10 sup 1 sup 4 , 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2) and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi (ion energy is 705 MeV, irradiation fluences are 10 sup 1 sup 2 , 10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 2) are presented. The sputtering coefficients for metals (Ni, W, Au), stainless steel Cr18Ni10, amorphous alloy Ni sub 5 sub 8 Nb sub 4 sub 2 and HOPG are measured. It is shown that the sputtering coefficients of annealed polycrystals (Ni, Au) and single crystals (W, HOPG) are not large at low defect concentration in materials. At this stage, the sputtering of grain boundaries predominantly takes place. The sputtering yields become to increase significantly with the growth of damage concentration at ion fluences of the order of 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2. Analogous results were o...

  7. Eliminating pre-lithiation step for making high energy density hybrid Li-ion capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng S.

    2017-03-01

    Pre-lithiation is an indispensable step for making hybrid lithium-ion capacitors (LICs), its high cost and process complexity have greatly hindered the commercialization of LICs. Aiming to eliminate the pre-lithiation step, we propose an in-situ lithiation concept by introducing a Li+ ion source material into the positive electrode to enable the lithiation to be completed in the formation cycle. In this paper we start with the fundamental principle of LICs to discuss the requirements for Li+ ion source materials and demonstrate this concept by employing Li-rich Li2CuO2 as the Li+ ion source material, natural graphite and activated carbon (AC) as the negative and positive electrode materials. It is shown that the LICs made such behave as a pure capacitor with ability to deliver the same level of specific capacity and specific capacitance, i.e., 56 mAh g-1 and 143 F g-1 vs. the mass of AC in the voltage range between 2.8 V and 4.2 V, as those obtained from the counterpart Li/AC half-cell. The present concept is also applicable to other LICs with the negative electrode required to be pre-lithiated.

  8. Distortion of the per-pixel signal in the Timepix detector observed in high energy carbon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B.; Soukup, P.; Granja, C.; Jakubek, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Jäkel, O.; Martišíková, M.

    2014-09-01

    Within the application of the pixelated semiconductor Timepix detector for ion beam therapy purposes, distortion and non-linearity in the spectrometric pixel response to high energy carbon ions were observed. In this contribution, these effects are studied in detail. A distinct correlation between the arrival time of a particle during the exposure time and the respective detector signal was found. The hypothesis to explain these findings by oscillations in the pixel electronics leading to a second rise of the preamplifier output above threshold is discussed. Depending on the particle arrival time, the distortions can result in an artificially increased counter value and consequently an enlarged detector signal in energy mode. The effect appears when the signal per-pixel is above approximately 1 MeV, therefore becomig especially significant for measurements with heavy ions. The results presented in this publication are part of: B. Hartmann, A Novel Approach to Ion Spectroscopy of Therapeutic Ion Beams Using a Pixelated Semiconductor Detector, Ph.D. thesis, University of Heidelberg, Germany (2013).

  9. High-energy ion treatments of amorphous As40Se60 thin films for optical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Chauhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of 100 MeV Ag swift-heavy ion (SHI irradiation with five different fluences (3×1010, 1×1011, 3×1011, 1×1012, and 3×1012 ions/cm2 was used to design optical and structural properties of amorphous (a- As40Se60 chalcogenide thin films. Swanepoel method was applied on transmission measurements to determine the changes in optical bandgap, Tauc parameter and linear optical parameters, i.e., linear optical absorption, extinction coefficient and linear refractive index. Dispersion of the material was determined by Wemple–DiDomenico relation. Changes in nonlinear optical parameters of third-order optical susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined using semi-empirical relations. Changes in surface morphology of the films were investigated using SEM observation, which indicated that fluence 3×1012 ions/cm2 was upper threshold limit for these films for ion treatment. It is observed that optical bandgap reduces from 1.76 eV to 1.64 eV, and nonlinear refractive index increases from 1.31×10−10 [esu] to 1.74×10−10 [esu]. Linear refractive index initially increases from 2.80 to 3.52 (for fluence 3×1010 ions/cm2 and then keeps decreasing. The observed changes in optical properties upon irradiation were explained in terms of structural rearrangements by Raman measurement. The study was compiled with the previous literature to propose SHI as an effective optical engineering technique to achieve desired changes according to the need of optical/photonic applications.

  10. High-energy ion treatments of amorphous As40Se60 thin films for optical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashmi Chauhan; Arvind Tripathi; Krishna Kant Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of 100 MeV Ag swift-heavy ion (SHI) irradiation with five different fluences (3 ? 1010, 1 ? 1011, 3 ? 1011, 1 ? 1012, and 3 ? 1012 ions/cm2) was used to design optical and structural properties of amorphous (a-) As40Se60 chalcogenide thin films. Swanepoel method was applied on transmission measurements to determine the changes in optical bandgap, Tauc parameter and linear optical parameters, i.e., linear optical absorption, extinction coefficient and linear refractive index. Dispersion of the material was determined by Wemple-DiDomenico relation. Changes in nonlinear optical parameters of third-order optical susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined using semi-empirical relations. Changes in surface morphology of the films were investigated using SEM observation, which indicated that fluence 3 ? 1012 ions/cm2 was upper threshold limit for these films for ion treatment. It is observed that optical bandgap reduces from 1.76 eV to 1.64 eV, and nonlinear refractive index increases from 1.31 ? 10 ? 10 [esu] to 1.74 ? 10 ? 10 [esu]. Linear refractive index initially increases from 2.80 to 3.52 (for fluence 3 ? 1010 ions/cm2) and then keeps decreasing. The observed changes in optical properties upon irradiation were explained in terms of structural rearrangements by Raman measurement. The study was compiled with the previous literature to propose SHI as an effective optical engineering technique to achieve desired changes according to the need of optical/photonic applications.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Complex Targets for High-Energy- Density Experiments with Ion Beams and other Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniges, Alice; Liu, Wangyi; Lidia, Steven; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Eder, David; Fisher, Aaron; Masters, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    We explore the simulation challenges and requirements for experiments planned on facilities such as the NDCX-II ion accelerator at LBNL, currently undergoing commissioning. Hydrodynamic modeling of NDCX-II experiments include certain lower temperature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally present in extreme high-energy laser facility experiments, where targets are completely vaporized in an extremely short period of time. Target designs proposed for NDCX-II range from metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets) to metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets). These high-energy-density experiments allow for the study of fracture as well as the process of bubble and droplet formation. We incorporate these physics effects into a code called ALE-AMR that uses a combination of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics and Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Inclusion of certain effects becomes tricky as we must deal with non-orthogonal meshes of various levels of refinement in three dimensions. A surface tension model used for droplet dynamics is implemented in ALE-AMR using curvature calculated from volume fractions. Thick foam target experiments provide information on how ion beam induced shock waves couple into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Although NDCX-II is not fully commissioned, experiments are being conducted that explore material defect production and dynamics.

  12. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  13. Dynamic behaviour of interphases and its implication on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangda; Dolocan, Andrei; Oh, Pilgun; Celio, Hugo; Park, Suhyeon; Cho, Jaephil; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Undesired electrode–electrolyte interactions prevent the use of many high-energy-density cathode materials in practical lithium-ion batteries. Efforts to address their limited service life have predominantly focused on the active electrode materials and electrolytes. Here an advanced three-dimensional chemical and imaging analysis on a model material, the nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide, reveals the dynamic behaviour of cathode interphases driven by conductive carbon additives (carbon black) in a common nonaqueous electrolyte. Region-of-interest sensitive secondary-ion mass spectrometry shows that a cathode-electrolyte interphase, initially formed on carbon black with no electrochemical bias applied, readily passivates the cathode particles through mutual exchange of surface species. By tuning the interphase thickness, we demonstrate its robustness in suppressing the deterioration of the electrode/electrolyte interface during high-voltage cell operation. Our results provide insights on the formation and evolution of cathode interphases, facilitating development of in situ surface protection on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-based batteries. PMID:28443608

  14. The interactions of high-energy, highly-charged ions with fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In 1985, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley discovered a new form of carbon, the fullerene, C{sub 60}, which consists of 60 carbon atoms in a closed cage resembling a soccer ball. In 1990, Kritschmer et al. were able to make macroscopic quantities of fullerenes. This has generated intense activity to study the properties of fullerenes. One area of research involves collisions between fullerenes and atoms, ions or electrons. In this paper we describe experiments involving interactions between fullerenes and highly charged ions in which the center-of-mass energies exceed those used in other work by several orders of magnitude. The high values of projectile velocity and charge state result in excitation and decay processes differing significantly from those seen in studies 3 at lower energies. Our results are discussed in terms of theoretical models analogous to those used in nuclear physics and this provides an interesting demonstration of the unity of physics.

  15. Collisionless shocks driven by 800 nm laser pulses generate high-energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.; Shen, B. F., E-mail: bfshen@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Wang, W. P.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Liang, X. Y.; Leng, Y. X.; Li, R. X., E-mail: ruxinli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Xu, Z. Z. [State Key Laboratory of High Filed Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yan, X. Q.; Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-01-15

    We present experimental studies on ion acceleration from diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils irradiated by 800 nm, linearly polarized laser pulses with peak intensity of 1.7 × 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2} to 3.5 × 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2} at oblique incidence. Diamond-like carbon foils are heated by the prepulse of a high-contrast laser pulse and expand to form plasmas of near-critical density caused by thermal effect before the arrival of the main pulse. It is demonstrated that carbon ions are accelerated by a collisionless shock wave in slightly overdense plasma excited by forward-moving hot electrons generated by the main pulse.

  16. Measurement of neutron production cross sections by high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hisaki; Kurosawa, T.; Iwase, H.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Nakao, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uwamino, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The double-differential cross section (DDX) of neutron production from thin C, Al, Cu, and Pb targets bombarded by 135 MeV/nucleon He, C, and Ne ions and by 95 MeV/nucleon Ar ion were measured using the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The neutron energy spectra were obtained by using the time-of-flight method. The NE213 liquid scintillator was used for neutron detector (E counter), and the {delta}E counter of the NE102A plastic scintillator was used to discriminate charged particles from noncharged particles, neutrons and photons. The experimental spectra were compared with the calculation using the HIC and the QMD codes. (author)

  17. Toward high-energy laser-driven ion beams: Nanostructured double-layer targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, M.; Sgattoni, A.; Prencipe, I.; Fedeli, L.; Dellasega, D.; Cialfi, L.; Choi, Il Woo; Kim, I. Jong; Janulewicz, K. A.; Lee, Hwang Woon; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-06-01

    The development of novel target concepts is crucial to make laser-driven acceleration of ion beams suitable for applications. We tested double-layer targets formed of an ultralow density nanostructured carbon layer (˜7 mg/cm 3 , 8 - 12 μ m -thick) deposited on a μ m -thick solid Al foil. A systematic increase in the total number of the accelerated ions (protons and C6 + ) as well as enhancement of both their maximum and average energies was observed with respect to bare solid foil targets. Maximum proton energies up to 30 MeV were recorded. Dedicated three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations were in remarkable agreement with the experimental results, giving clear indication of the role played by the target nanostructures in the interaction process.

  18. Monolithic Integration of a DFB Superlattice Laser Using High Energy Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-13

    Considerations Relative to DFB/DBR Laser Fabrication .... 46 4.0 Materials Evaluation of Multi-Quantum Well/Superlattice Samples Fabricated by Molecular Beam...important to consider the disordering that can occur during annealing and its effects on device performance. 3.7 CONSIDERATIONS RELATIVE TO DFB/DBR LASER ... FABRICATION The structure examined in ts work is to be incorporated in a distributed feedback type laser. The resolution of the selective ion beam

  19. Scalable synthesis of silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite for high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Ma, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyung; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-09-01

    Existing anode technologies are approaching their limits, and silicon is recognized as a potential alternative due to its high specific capacity and abundance. However, to date the commercial use of silicon has not satisfied electrode calendering with limited binder content comparable to commercial graphite anodes for high energy density. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a next-generation hybrid anode using silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon. This architecture allows compatibility between silicon and natural graphite and addresses the issues of severe side reactions caused by structural failure of crumbled graphite dust and uncombined residue of silicon particles by conventional mechanical milling. This structure shows a high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (92%) and a rapid increase of the Coulombic efficiency to 99.5% after only 6 cycles with a capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles, with an industrial electrode density of >1.6 g cm-3, areal capacity loading of >3.3 mAh cm-2, and <4 wt% binding materials in a slurry. As a result, a full cell using LiCoO2 has demonstrated a higher energy density (1,043 Wh l-1) than with standard commercial graphite electrodes.

  20. Production of Forward Rapidity Photons in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Jalilian-Marian, J

    2005-01-01

    We consider production of prompt photons in high energy gold-gold and deuteron-gold collisions in the forward rapidity region of RHIC ($y \\sim 3.8$). In this kinematics, the projectile partons typically have large $x_{bj}$ while the target partons are mostly at very small $x_{bj}$ so that the primary partonic collisions involve valence quarks from the projectile and gluons from the target. We take the target nucleus to be a Color Glass Condensate while the projectile deuteron or nucleus is treated as a dilute system of partons. We show that the photon production cross section can be written as a convolution of a quark-nucleus scattering cross section, involving a quark anti-quark dipole, with the Leading Order quark-photon fragmentation function. We consider different models of the quark anti-quark dipole and show that measurement of photons in the forward rapidity region at RHIC can distinguish between different parameterizations of the dipole cross section as well as help clarify the role of parton coalesce...

  1. Chemical and mechanical instabilities in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervino, G.; Lavagno, A.; Pigato, D.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the possible thermodynamic instability in a warm and dense nuclear medium where a phase transition from nucleonic matter to resonance-dominated Δ-matter can take place. Such a phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the isospin concentration) in asymmetric nuclear matter. Similarly to the liquid-gas phase transition, the nucleonic and the Δ-matter phase have a different isospin density in the mixed phase. In the liquid-gas phase transition, the process of producing a larger neutron excess in the gas phase is referred to as isospin fractionation. A similar effects can occur in the nucleon-Δ matter phase transition due essentially to a Δ- excess in the Δ-matter phase in asymmetric nuclear matter. In this context, we study the hadronic equation of state by means of an effective quantum relativistic mean field model with the inclusion of the full octet of baryons, the Δ-isobar degrees of freedom, and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector mesons. Finally, we will investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where phases with different values of antibaryon-baryon ratios and strangeness content may coexist. Such a physical regime could be in principle investigated in the future high-energy compressed nuclear matter experiments where will make it possible to create compressed baryonic matter with a high net baryon density.

  2. Effects of high energy Au-ion irradiation on the microstructure of diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shih-Show [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei 251, Taiwan (China); Department of Information Technology and Mobile Communication, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Tamsui, New-Taipei 251, Taiwan (China); Chen, Huang-Chin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei 251, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, I-Nan; Chang, Ching-Lin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei 251, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chi-Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Guo Jinghua [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-03-21

    The effects of 2.245 GeV Au-ion irradiation and subsequent annealing processes on the evolution of microstructure of diamond films with microcrystalline (MCD) or ultra-nanocrystalline (UNCD) granular structure were investigated, using near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy loss spectroscopy in transmission electron microscopy. For MCD films, the Au-ion irradiation disintegrated some of the diamond grains, resulting in the formation of nano-sized carbon clusters embedded in a matrix of amorphous carbon (a-C). The annealing process recrystallized the diamond grains and converted the a-C into nano-sized graphite particulates and, at the same time, induced the formation of nano-sized i-carbon clusters, the bcc structured carbon with a{sub 0} = 0.432 nm. In contrast, for UNCD films, the Au-ion irradiation transformed the grain boundary phase into nano-sized graphite, but insignificantly altered the crystallinity of the grains of the UNCD films. The annealing process recrystallized the materials. In some of the regions, the residual a-C phases were transformed into nano-sized graphites, whereas in other regions i-carbon nanoclusters were formed. The difference in irradiation-induced microstructural transformation behavior between the MCD and the UNCD films is ascribed to the different granular structures of the two types of films.

  3. Measurements of Ion Stopping around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas (HEDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R.; Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R.; Hernandez, R.; Grabowski, P.; Yu Glebov, V.

    2016-10-01

    Ion stopping around the Bragg peak and its dependence on plasma conditions was recently measured for the first time in HEDP. The data support most stopping-power models for ion velocities (vi) larger than the average velocity of the thermal electrons (vth), but there are some differences at vi vth, which could not be validated. The work described here makes significant advances over the first experimental effort by quantitatively assessing the characteristics of the ion stopping around the Bragg peak while at the same time more accurately characterizing the plasma conditions. This effort represents the most sensitive test of plasma-stopping-power models around the Bragg peak to date, which is an important first step in our efforts of getting a fundamental understanding of DT-alpha stopping in HEDP, a prerequisite for understanding ignition margins in various implosion designs. The work was performed under NLUF and supported by DOE, LLNL and LLE. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF) and LLNL.

  4. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yanyi; Liu Dawei; Zhang Qifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Yu Danmei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Cao Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.ed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO{sub 4} electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  5. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanyi; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Qifeng; Yu, Danmei; Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO4/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO4 electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  6. A new high-energy cathode for a Na-ion battery with ultrahigh stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Uk; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kwon, Hyung-Soon; Kim, Byoungkook; Kim, Jongsoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Inkyung; Yoo, Han-Ill; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-18

    Large-scale electric energy storage is a key enabler for the use of renewable energy. Recently, the room-temperature Na-ion battery has been rehighlighted as an alternative low-cost technology for this application. However, significant challenges such as energy density and long-term stability must be addressed. Herein, we introduce a novel cathode material, Na1.5VPO4.8F0.7, for Na-ion batteries. This new material provides an energy density of ~600 Wh kg(-1), the highest value among cathodes, originating from both the multielectron redox reaction (1.2 e(-) per formula unit) and the high potential (~3.8 V vs Na(+)/Na) of the tailored vanadium redox couple (V(3.8+)/V(5+)). Furthermore, an outstanding cycle life (~95% capacity retention for 100 cycles and ~84% for extended 500 cycles) could be achieved, which we attribute to the small volume change (2.9%) upon cycling, the smallest volume change among known Na intercalation cathodes. The open crystal framework with two-dimensional Na diffusional pathways leads to low activation barriers for Na diffusion, enabling excellent rate capability. We believe that this new material can bring the low-cost room-temperature Na-ion battery a step closer to a sustainable large-scale energy storage system.

  7. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  8. Sheet resistance of alumina ceramic after high energy implantation of tantalum ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savkin, Konstantin P., E-mail: savkinkp@mail2000.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Bugaev, Alexey S., E-mail: bugaev@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, Alexey G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Oks, Efim M., E-mail: oks@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shandrikov, Maxim V., E-mail: shandrikov@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yushkov, Georgy Yu., E-mail: gyushkov@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tyunkov, Andrey V., E-mail: tyunkov@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Savruk, Elena V., E-mail: savruk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Tantalum ions with the average energy about 145 keV were implanted in the surfaces of flat polycrystalline alumina samples. • The sheet resistance of implanted ceramic reduced after implantation with increasing of the implanted dose. • Normalized surface conductivity of treated alumina ceramic reduced only on 1% during 200 days after finishing the implantation process. • Creation of weak conducting layer on the surface of the ceramic insulator electric field strength of the flashover increases more than 25%. - Abstract: The results of investigation of the sheet resistance of alumina ceramic as a function of the fluence of implanted metal ions are presented. Tantalum ions with the average energy about 145 keV were used in experiments. Estimation of the sheet resistance was performed from analysis of volt–ampere characteristics by measuring the leakage current at a voltage between 100 V and several kilovolts, which was applied at a small area of the implanted surface. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis was used to determine composition of elements in the surface of the implanted ceramics. As a practical application of research results, it was shown that, after the creation of a weak conducting layer on the surface of the ceramic insulator, the electric field strength of the flashover increases by more than 25%.

  9. Modification of magnetic anisotropy in metallic glasses using high-energy ion beam irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Amrute; U R Mhatre; S K Sinha; D C Kothari; R Nagarajan; D Kanjilal

    2002-05-01

    Heavy ion irradiation in the electronic stopping power region induces macroscopic dimensional change in metallic glasses and introduces magnetic anisotropy in some magnetic materials. The present work is on the irradiation study of ferromagnetic metallic glasses, where both dimensional change and modification of magnetic anisotropy are expected. Magnetic anisotropy was measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy of virgin and irradiated Fe40Ni40B20 and Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 metallic glass ribbons. 90 MeV 127I beam was used for the irradiations. Irradiation doses were 5 × 1013 and 7.5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The relative intensity ratios 23 of the second and third lines of the Mössbauer spectra were measured to determine the magnetic anisotropy. The virgin samples of both the materials display in-plane magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the spins are oriented parallel to the ribbon plane. Irradiation is found to cause reduction in magnetic anisotropy. Near-complete randomization of magnetic moments is observed at high irradiation doses. Correlation is found between the residual stresses introduced by ion irradiation and the change in magnetic anisotropy.

  10. Development of a compact electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source for high-energy carbon-ion therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A; Sakamoto, Y; Sato, S; Sato, Y; Ogawa, H; Yamada, S; Ogawa, H; Yoshida, Y; Drentje, AG

    2005-01-01

    Ion sources for medical facilities should have characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power consumption, good stability, and long operation time without problems (one year or longer). For this, a 10 GHz compact electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source with all-permanent magnets (Kei2

  11. Influence of substrate pre-treatments by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on the behavior of TiN coatings deposited by plasma reactive sputtering on 100Cr6 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, S., E-mail: sandra.vales@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Brito, P., E-mail: ppbrito@gmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Av. Dom José Gaspar 500, 30535-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pineda, F.A.G., E-mail: pipe8219@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Ochoa, E.A., E-mail: abigail_ochoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Droppa, R., E-mail: roosevelt.droppa@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Garcia, J., E-mail: jose.garcia@sandvik.com [Sandvik Coromant R& D, Lerkrogsvägen 19, SE-12680, Stockholm (Sweden); Morales, M., E-mail: monieriz@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Alvarez, F., E-mail: alvarez@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the influence of pre-treating a 100Cr6 steel surface by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding at low temperature (380 °C) on the roughness, wear resistance and residual stresses of thin TiN coatings deposited by reactive IBAD was investigated. The Xe{sup +} ion bombardment was carried out using a 1.0 keV kinetic energy by a broad ion beam assistance deposition (IBAD, Kaufman cell). The results showed that in the studied experimental conditions the ion bombardment intensifies nitrogen diffusion by creating lattice imperfections, stress, and increasing roughness. In case of the combined pre-treatment with Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and subsequent plasma nitriding, the samples evolved relatively high average roughness and the wear volume increased in comparison to the substrates exposed to only nitriding or ion bombardment. - Highlights: • Effect of Xe ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on TiN coatings was investigated. • Xe ion bombardment with 1.0 KeV increases nitrogen retention in plasma nitriding. • 1.0 KeV ion impact energy causes sputtering, thus increasing surface roughness. • TiN coating wear is minimum after plasma nitriding due to lowest roughness.

  12. Surface and structure modification induced by high energy and highly charged uranium ion irradiation in monocrystal spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yitao, E-mail: yangyt@impcas.ac.cn [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Chonghong; Song, Yin; Gou, Jie; Zhang, Liqing [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Meng, Yancheng; Zhang, Hengqing [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Yizhun [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Due to its high temperature properties and relatively good behavior under irradiation, magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) is considered as a possible material to be used as inert matrix for the minor actinides burning. In this case, irradiation damage is an unavoidable problem. In this study, high energy and highly charged uranium ions (290 MeV U{sup 32+}) were used to irradiate monocrystal spinel to the fluence of 1.0 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} to study the modification of surface and structure. Highly charged ions carry large potential energy, when they interact with a surface, the release of potential energy results in the modification of surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed the occurrence of etching on surface after uranium ion irradiation. The etching depth reached 540 nm. The surprising efficiency of etching is considered to be induced by the deposition of potential energy with high density. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the (4 4 0) diffraction peak obviously broadened after irradiation, which indicated that the distortion of lattice has occurred. After multi-peak Gaussian fitting, four Gaussian peaks were separated, which implied that a structure with different damage layers could be formed after irradiation.

  13. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-06-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  14. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  15. Calibration of Threshold Values of Bubble Detections by High Energy Heavy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILi; T.Doke; J.Kikuchi; T.Murakami; GUOShi-lun

    2001-01-01

    Calibration of five types of bubble detectors made in China Institute of Atomic Energy has been carried out by heavy ion beams of 150 MeV/u 4He, 490 MeV/u 28Si and 500 MeV/u 56Fe from the HIMAC accelerator in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. Their threshold values are respectively 8.4 (T-15 type), 1 536±232 (T-34 type), 1 628±4 (T-12 type), 2 335±332

  16. Silicon as anode for high-energy lithium ion batteries: From molten ingot to nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Dominic; Hovington, Pierre; Kim, Chisu; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Bélanger, Daniel; Zaghib, Karim

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that a new mechanical attrition process can be used to prepare nanosilicon powder from metallurgical grade silicon lumps. Composite Li-ion anode made from this nanometer-size powder was found to have a high reversible capacity of 2400 mAh g-1 and an improved cycling stability compared to micrometer-sized powder. It is proposed that improved battery cycling performance is ascribed to the nanoscale silicon particles which supresses the volume expansion owing to its superplasticity.

  17. Position and size of the electron beam in the high-energy electron beam ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Utter, S B; López-Urrutia, J R C; Widmann, K

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade, many spectroscopic studies have been performed using the electron beam ion trap. Often these measurements rely on the electron beam as an effective slit, yet until now, no systematic study of the position and size of the electron beam under various operating conditions has been made. Here, we present a thorough study of the electron beam's position and size (and thus the electron density) as affected by various operating parameters, and give optimal parameter ranges for operating the device as a spectroscopic source. It is shown that the diameter is constant as the energy is varied, which is important for accurate cross-section measurements.

  18. Jet Quenching in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions by QCD Synchrotron-like Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shuryak, E V

    2003-01-01

    We consider synchrotron-like radiation in QCD by generalizing Schwinger's treatment of quantum synchrotron radiation in QED to the case of a constant chromomagnetic field. We suggest a novel mechanism for {\\em jet quenching} in heavy ion collisions, whereby high-$p_t$ partons get depleted through strong (classical) color fields. The latters are encountered in the color glass condensate or in the form of expanding shells of exploding sphalerons. Unlike bremsstrahlung radiation through multiple soft rescattering, synchrotron radiation converts a jet into a wide shower of soft gluons. We estimate the energy loss through this mechanism and suggest that it contributes significantly to the unexpectedly strong jet quenching observed at RHIC.

  19. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide temperature range (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high temperature stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating temperature electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high temperature extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.

  20. Ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Berkner, K.H.; Stearns, J.W.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Kelbch, S.; Ullrich, J.; Hagmann, S.; Richard, P.; Stockli, M.P.; Graham, W.G.

    1986-11-01

    Electron capture and loss by fast highly charged ions in a gas target, and ionization of the target by passage of the fast projectile beam, are fundamental processes in atomic physics. These processes, along with excitation, can be experimentally studied separately (''singles'') or together (''coincidence''). This paper is a review of recent results on singles measurements for electron capture and loss and for target ionization, for velocities which are generally high relative to the active electron, including recent ionization measurements for a nearly relativistic projectile. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline nickel thin films due to high-energy heavy-ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekhara, S. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 87185-1056 and Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 78712-1063 (United States); Ferreira, P. J. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 78712-1063 (United States); Hattar, K. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM, 87185-1056 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    This initial feasibility study demonstrates that recent advancements in precession electron diffraction microscopy can be applied to nanostructured metals exposed to high displacement damage from a Tandem accelerator. In this study, high purity, nanocrystalline, free-standing nickel thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition were irradiated with approximately 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} of 35 MeV Ni{sup 6+} ions resulting in an approximately uniform damage profile to approximately 16 dpa. Pristine and ionirradiated regions of the nanocrystalline Ni films were characterized by conventional transmission electron microscopy and precession electron diffraction microscopy. Precession electron diffraction microscopy provided additional insight into the texture, phase, and grain boundary distribution resulting from the displacement damage that could not be obtained from traditional electron microscopy techniques. For the nanocrystalline nickel film studied, this included the growth in number and percentage of a metastable hexagonal closed packed phase grains and the formation of large <001> textured face centered cubic grains. The application of precession electron diffraction microscopy to characterize other nanocrystalline metals, which are being considered for radiation tolerant applications, will permit a comparison of materials that goes beyond the dominant length scale to consider the effects of local phase, texture, and grain boundary or interface information.

  2. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  3. Study on target spallation reaction cross sections induced by high energy neutrons and heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center

    1996-03-01

    The target spallation reaction cross sections of neutrons and heavy ions which have not been observed are determined in this paper. The object of this work is to make clear the differences between the spallation reaction cross section of neutron and that of proton by comparing the obtained value of neutron with the known value of proton. To this end, the quasi monochromatic neutron field of 20{approx}50 MeV was developed in 4 cyclotrons, INS, CYRIC, TIARA and RIKEN. The nuclear spallation reaction cross sections of C, Al and Bi were measured in the above field and the distribution of nuclear spallation reaction products in Cu determined by C ion beam of HIMAC. {sup 12}C(n,2n){sup 11}C reaction cross section shows the maximum value of about 20 mb at near 40{approx}50 MeV and then the value gradually decreased to 10 mb. The cross sections of {sup 209}Bi(n,Xn) are shown. The distribution of {sup 61}Cu is lower at the entrance and higher in the depth. (S.Y.)

  4. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline nickel thin films due to high-energy heavy-ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhara, S.; Ferreira, P. J.; Hattar, K.

    2013-04-01

    This initial feasibility study demonstrates that recent advancements in precession electron diffraction microscopy can be applied to nanostructured metals exposed to high displacement damage from a Tandem accelerator. In this study, high purity, nanocrystalline, free-standing nickel thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition were irradiated with approximately 3 × 1014 ions/cm2 of 35 MeV Ni6+ ions resulting in an approximately uniform damage profile to approximately 16 dpa. Pristine and ionirradiated regions of the nanocrystalline Ni films were characterized by conventional transmission electron microscopy and precession electron diffraction microscopy. Precession electron diffraction microscopy provided additional insight into the texture, phase, and grain boundary distribution resulting from the displacement damage that could not be obtained from traditional electron microscopy techniques. For the nanocrystalline nickel film studied, this included the growth in number and percentage of a metastable hexagonal closed packed phase grains and the formation of large textured face centered cubic grains. The application of precession electron diffraction microscopy to characterize other nanocrystalline metals, which are being considered for radiation tolerant applications, will permit a comparison of materials that goes beyond the dominant length scale to consider the effects of local phase, texture, and grain boundary or interface information.

  5. Li-rich layer-structured cathode materials for high energy Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu; Lee, Kim Seng; Lu, Li

    2014-08-01

    Li-rich layer-structured xLi2MnO3 ṡ (1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, etc.) materials have attracted much attention due to their extraordinarily high reversible capacity as the cathode material in Li-ion batteries. To better understand the nature of this type of materials, this paper reviews history of development of the Li-rich cathode materials, and provides in-depth study on complicated crystal structures and reaction mechanisms during electrochemical charge/discharge cycling. Despite the fabulous capability at low rate, several drawbacks still gap this type of high-capacity cathode materials from practical applications, for instance the large irreversible capacity loss at first cycle, poor rate capability, severe voltage decay and capacity fade during electrochemical charge/discharge cycling. This review will also address mechanisms for these inferior properties and propose various possible solutions to solve above issues for future utilization of these cathode materials in commercial Li-ion batteries.

  6. Experimental analysis of general ion recombination in a liquid-filled ionization chamber in high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunah; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital (L5-113), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Davis, Stephen [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital (L5-112), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To study experimentally the general ion recombination effect in a liquid-filled ionization chamber (LIC) in high-energy photon beams. Methods: The general ion recombination effect on the response of a micro liquid ion chamber (microLion) was investigated with a 6 MV photon beam in normal and SRS modes produced from a Varian{sup Registered-Sign} Novalis Tx{sup TM} linear accelerator. Dose rates of the linear accelerator were set to 100, 400, and 1000 MU/min, which correspond to pulse repetition frequencies of 60, 240, and 600 Hz, respectively. Polarization voltages applied to the microLion were +800 and +400 V. The relative collection efficiency of the microLion response as a function of dose per pulse was experimentally measured with changing polarization voltage and pulse repetition frequencies and was compared with the theoretically calculated value. Results: For the 60 Hz pulse repetition frequency, the experimental relative collection efficiency was not different from the theoretical one for a pulsed beam more than 0.3% for both polarization voltages. For a pulsed radiation beam with a higher pulse repetition frequency, the experimental relative collection efficiency converged to the theoretically calculated efficiency for continuous beams. This result indicates that the response of the microLion tends toward the response to a continuous beam with increasing pulse repetition frequency of a pulsed beam because of low ion mobility in the liquid. Conclusions: This work suggests an empirical method to correct for differences in general ion recombination of a LIC between different radiation fields. More work is needed to quantitatively explain the LIC general ion recombination behavior in pulsed beams generated from linear accelerators.

  7. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, M.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many μm in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  8. Collective flows in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at AGS and SPS energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ohnishi; M Isse; N Otuka; P K Sahu; Y Nara

    2006-04-01

    Proton collective flows in heavy-ion collisions from AGS ((2–11) A GeV) to SPS ((40, 158) A GeV) energies are investigated in a nonequilibrium transport model with nuclear mean-field (MF). Sideward , directed 1, and elliptic 2 flows are systematically studied with different assumptions on the nuclear equation of state (EoS). We find that momentum dependence in the nuclear MF is important for understanding the proton collective flows at AGS and SPS energies. Calculated results with momentum-dependent MF qualitatively reproduce the experimental data of proton sideward, directed, and elliptic flows in an incident energy range of (2–158) A GeV.

  9. Measurement of neutron production cross sections by high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Kurosawa, T.; Iwase, H.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uwamino, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The double-differential cross section (DDX) of neutron production from thin C, Al, Cu, Pb targets bombarded by 135 MeV/nucleon C ion were measured using the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The neutron energy spectra were obtained by using the time-of-flight method coupled with the {delta}E-E counter telescope system. The {delta}E counter of the NE102A plastic scintillator was used to discriminate charged particles from noncharged particles, neutrons and photons. The {delta} counter of the NE213 liquid scintillator was used to measure the neutron energy spectra. The experimental spectra were compared with the calculation using the HIC and the QMD codes. (author)

  10. A viscous blast-wave model for high energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amaresh; Koch, Volker

    2016-07-01

    Employing a viscosity-based survival scale for initial geometrical perturbations formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, we model the radial flow velocity at freeze-out. Subsequently, we use the Cooper-Frye freeze-out prescription, with viscous corrections to the distribution function, to extract the transverse momentum dependence of particle yields and flow harmonics. We fit the model parameters for central collisions, by fitting the spectra of identified particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and estimate them for other centralities using simple hydrodynamic relations. We use the results of Monte Carlo Glauber model for initial eccentricities. We demonstrate that this improved viscous blast-wave model leads to good agreement with transverse momentum distribution of elliptic and triangular flow for all centralities and estimate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s ≃ 0.24 at the LHC.

  11. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead-acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  12. Attenuation curves in concrete of neutrons from 100 to 400 MeV per nucleon He, C, Ne, Ar, Fe and Xe ions on various targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Nakamura, T.; Silari, M.; Zajacova, Z.

    2004-04-01

    Data on transmission of neutrons in concrete generated by heavy ions of intermediate energies (of typically up to 1 GeV per nucleon) are of interest for shielding design of accelerators for use in both the research and in the medical field. The energy distributions of neutrons produced by ions of different species (from He to Xe) striking various targets at energies from 100 to 800 MeV per nucleon were recently measured by Kurosawa et al. in the angular range 0-90°. These spectra were used as input data for Monte Carlo simulations to determine source terms and attenuation lengths in ordinary concrete. The present paper presents calculations for 100 MeV/u helium ions on a Cu target, 100 MeV/u carbon ions on C, Al, Cu and Pb, 100 MeV/u neon ions on Cu and Pb, 400 MeV/u carbon ions on C, Al, Cu and Pb, 400 MeV/u neon ions on Cu, 400 MeV/u Ar ions on Cu, 400 MeV/u Fe ions on Cu and 400 MeV/u Xe ions on Cu. The results include the contributions of all secondaries. Some of the resulting attenuation curves are best fitted by a double-exponential function rather than the usual single-exponential. The effect of various approximations introduced in the simulations is discussed. A comparison is made with shielding data for protons scaled with the ion mass number. A comparison is also made with a simple analytical model in use at GANIL.

  13. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai

    2017-02-09

    A newly designed dense SiOx@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite with a high conductivity of 3.5 S cm−1 and tap density of 1.13 g cm−3 was prepared, in which the CNTs were stripped by physical energy crushing and then coated on SiOx nanoparticles. The composite exhibits high capacities of 835 and 687 mAh g−1 at current densities of 100 and 200 mA g−1, which can be finely persevered over 100 cycles. Benefiting from this promising anode, two new full cells of SiOx@CNTs/LiMn2O4 and SiOx@CNTs/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high energy densities of 2273 and 2747 Wh kganode−1 (i. e. 413 and 500 Wh kgcathode−1), respectively, were successfully assembled and can cycle more than 400 cycles. Even with further cycling at the elevated temperature of 45 °C, the cells can still deliver relatively high capacities of 568 and 465 mAh ganode−1, respectively, over 100 cycles. Such desired high-energy lithium-ion batteries with working voltages over 4.0 V can be widely developed for diverse applications (e. g. in handheld devices, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  14. SiO x-graphite as negative for high energy Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfi, A.; Charest, P.; Dontigny, M.; Trottier, J.; Lagacé, M.; Hovington, P.; Vijh, A.; Zaghib, K.

    Negative electrodes containing SiO x were investigated as alternative negative electrodes to carbon for Li-ion batteries. The results obtained on the effect of binders and carbon additives on the electrochemical performance (i.e., reversible capacity, coulombic efficiency, charge-discharge rate capability) of the SiO x-graphite electrode and SiO x electrode are presented. SEM analysis that utilizes facilities for in situ and ex situ studies were applied to better understand the performance and cycle life of the SiO x-based electrodes. The SEM analysis clearly showed that the SiO x particles expand and contract during charge-discharge cycling, and that some of the particles undergo mechanical degradation during this process. The SiO x-graphite electrode with polyimide binder exhibited a stable capacity of 600 mAh g -1 during high-rate charge-discharge from C/4 to 1 C. These results suggest that the use of a flexible binder like polyimide and reasonably small SiO x particles (nano-particles) facilitates improved cycle life and higher rate capability.

  15. Toward the AdS/CFT gravity dual for High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, S; Lin, Shu; Shuryak, Edward

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence we discuss the gravity dual of a heavy-ion-like collision in a strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM gauge theory. We suggest a setting in which two colliding walls are made of non-dynamical heavy quarks and antiquarks, which allows to treat the process in classical string approximation. Some string have ends on two outgoing walls, and thus are being ``stretched'' along the collision axes. We discuss motion in these strings in a considerable detail, concluding that they rapidly become ``rectangular'' in $\\tau-y$ coordinates, with a free-falling rapidity-independent central part. Assuming that multiple stretching strings create a 3d stretching membrane, we discuss motion of such membrane as well. We then argue that a complete solution can be approximated by two different vacuum solutions of Einstein eqns, with matter membrane separating them. We identify one of this solution with Janik-Peschanski stretching black hole solution, and show that all objects approach its (re...

  16. (1 + 1) dimensional hydrodynamics for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarov, L. M.; Mishustin, I. N.; Merdeev, A. V.; Stöcker, H.

    2007-10-01

    A (1 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamical model in the light-cone coordinates is used to describe central heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic bombarding energies. Deviations from Bjorken scaling are taken into account by choosing finite-size profiles for the initial energy density. The sensitivity of fluid-dynamical evolution to the equation of state and the parameters of initial state are investigated. Experimental constraints on the total energy of produced particles are used to reduce the number of model parameters. Spectra of secondary particles are calculated under the assumption that the transition from the hydrodynamical stage to the collisionless expansion of matter occurs at a certain freeze-out temperature. An important role of resonances in the formation of observed hadronic spectra is demonstrated. The calculated rapidity distributions of pions, kaons, and antiprotons in central Au + Au collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration. Parameters of the initial state are reconstructed for different choices of the equation of state. The best fit of these data is obtained for a soft equation of state and Gaussian-like initial profiles of the energy density, intermediate between the Landau and Bjorken limits.

  17. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wefel, J.P.

    1992-01-23

    This program was established for the purpose of studying projectile fragmentation; (1) as a function of energy, focusing first on the intermediate energy region, < 1 GeV/nucleon, where there have been few previous measurements and no systematic studies, and (2) as a function of projectile mass, starting with light beams and proceeding to species as heavy as nickel (and possibly beyond). The intermediate energy region is important as the transition between the lower energy data, where the interaction appears to be dominated by collective effects and the decay of excited nuclei, and the highest energy results, where nucleon-nucleon interactions are fundamental, limiting fragmentation'' applies, and the nucleus may well break-up before any de-excitation. The mass dependence of projectile fragmentation is largely unknown since most detailed work has involved light ion beams. Nuclear structure effects, for example, may well be quite prominent for heavier beams. Furthermore, the nuclear excitation functions for the production of different fragment isotopes have immediate application to the astrophysical interpretation of existing isotopic datasets obtained from balloon and satellite measurements of galactic cosmic rays.

  18. A new oxyfluorinated titanium phosphate anode for a high-energy lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhaohui; Sun, Chunwen; Lyu, Yingchun; Wang, Yuesheng; Kim, Youngsik; Chen, Liquan

    2015-01-21

    Na3[Ti2P2O10F] was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. It has an open framework structure consisting of TiFO5 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra. The feasibility of Na3[Ti2P2O10F] as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries was first studied. Na3[Ti2P2O10F] exhibits a reversible capacity of more than 200 mAh g(-1) at a discharge/charge current rate of 20 mA g(-1) (∼0.1 C) and 105 mA g(-1) at a discharge/charge current rate of 400 mA g(-1) (∼2 C) with a lower intercalation voltage. The result of in situ X-ray diffraction test shows the structural evolution during the first discharge/charge cycle. The structure of Na3[Ti2P2O10F] was kept during discharge/charge with a slight change of the lattice parameters, which indicates a lithium solid solution behavior.

  19. Capillary suspensions as beneficial formulation concept for high energy density Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Gallasch, Tobias; Schroeder, Melanie; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a novel formulation concept to prepare high capacity graphite electrodes for lithium ion batteries. The concept is based on the capillary suspension phenomenon: graphite and conductive agent are dispersed in an aqueous binder solution and the organic solvent octanol is added as immiscible, secondary fluid providing the formation of a sample-spanning network resulting in unique stability and coating properties. No additional processing steps compared to conventional slurry preparation are required. The resulting ultra-thick electrodes comprise mass loadings of about 16.5 mg cm-2, uniform layer thickness, and superior edge contours. The adjustment of mechanical energy input ensures uniform distribution of the conductive agent and sufficient electronic conductivity of the final dry composite electrode. The resulting pore structure is due to the stable network provided by the secondary fluid which evaporates residue-free during drying. Constant current-constant potential (CC-CP) cycling clearly indicates that the corresponding microstructure significantly improves the kinetics of reversible Li+ (de-) intercalation. A double layer electrode combining a conventionally prepared layer coated directly onto the Cu current collector with an upper layer stabilized with octanol was prepared applying wet-on-wet coating. CC-CP cycling data confirms that staged porosity within the electrode cross section results in superior electrochemical performance.

  20. Origins of Large Voltage Hysteresis in High-Energy-Density Metal Fluoride Lithium-Ion Battery Conversion Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Jacobs, Ryan; Gao, Peng; Gan, Liyang; Wang, Feng; Morgan, Dane; Jin, Song

    2016-03-02

    Metal fluorides and oxides can store multiple lithium ions through conversion chemistry to enable high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, their practical applications have been hindered by an unusually large voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge voltage profiles and the consequent low-energy efficiency (hysteresis are rarely studied and poorly understood. Here we employ in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory calculations, and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique to first correlate the voltage profile of iron fluoride (FeF3), a representative conversion electrode material, with evolution and spatial distribution of intermediate phases in the electrode. The results reveal that, contrary to conventional belief, the phase evolution in the electrode is symmetrical during discharge and charge. However, the spatial evolution of the electrochemically active phases, which is controlled by reaction kinetics, is different. We further propose that the voltage hysteresis in the FeF3 electrode is kinetic in nature. It is the result of ohmic voltage drop, reaction overpotential, and different spatial distributions of electrochemically active phases (i.e., compositional inhomogeneity). Therefore, the large hysteresis can be expected to be mitigated by rational design and optimization of material microstructure and electrode architecture to improve the energy efficiency of lithium-ion batteries based on conversion chemistry.

  1. High energy density sodium-ion capacitors through co-intercalation mechanism in diglyme-based electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengxian; Han, Xiaoqi; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Lixue; Cao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Changshui; Cui, Gunglei

    2015-11-01

    A novel sodium-ion capacitor (NIC) was assembled using graphitic mesocarbon microbead anode and activated carbon cathode in diglyme-based electrolyte. Charge/discharge tests indicate that sodium ions can reversibly co-intercalated with diglyme solvent into graphite anode and show good rate performance. The energy densities of the NICs are as high as 93.5 and 86.5 Wh kg-1 at 573 and 2832 W kg-1 (equal to 4 C and 50 C) in the voltage window at 1-4 V, respectively. By optimizing the voltage ranges, the capacity retention of the NIC at 20 C is 98.3% even after 3000 cycles. Such superior electrochemical performance should be attributed to the reversible intercalated/deintercalated reaction of sodium ions and the formation of ternary graphite intercalation compounds in diglyme-based electrolyte. The present work pioneers new realms of hybrid energy storage system with high energy density, high power density and long cycle life.

  2. Nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide for high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Oh, Pilgun; Liu, Xien; Lee, Min-Joon; Cho, Woongrae; Chae, Sujong; Kim, Youngsik; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-04-07

    High energy-density lithium-ion batteries are in demand for portable electronic devices and electrical vehicles. Since the energy density of the batteries relies heavily on the cathode material used, major research efforts have been made to develop alternative cathode materials with a higher degree of lithium utilization and specific energy density. In particular, layered, Ni-rich, lithium transition-metal oxides can deliver higher capacity at lower cost than the conventional LiCoO2 . However, for these Ni-rich compounds there are still several problems associated with their cycle life, thermal stability, and safety. Herein the performance enhancement of Ni-rich cathode materials through structure tuning or interface engineering is summarized. The underlying mechanisms and remaining challenges will also be discussed.

  3. Effect of high-energy heavy ion irradiation on the crystallization kinetics of Co-based metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rohit Jain; Deepika Bhandari; N S Saxena; S K Sharma; A Tripathi

    2001-02-01

    Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) is employed to study the crystallization kinetics of irradiated (at three different fluences with high-energy heavy ion; Ni11+ of 150 MeV) specimens of two Co-based metallic glasses. It is found that the crystallization process in both the glasses is completed in two phases. The DSC data have been analysed in terms of kinetic parameters viz. activation energy (), Avrami exponent (), dimensionality of growth (), using two different theoretical models. The results obtained have been compared with that of virgin samples. The lower activation energy in case of second crystallization occurring at higher temperature indicates the easier nucleation of second phase. The abnormally high value of Avrami exponent in Co–Ni glass indicates very high nucleation rate during first crystallization.

  4. Can pions created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions produce a Centauro-type effect?

    CERN Document Server

    Martinis, M; Martinis, M; Mikuta-Martinis, V

    1994-01-01

    We study a Centauro-type phenomenon in high-energy heavy-ion collisions by assuming that pions are produced semiclassically both directly and in pairs through the isovector channel. The leading-particle effect and the factorization property of the scattering amplitude in the impact-parameter space are used to define the classical pion field. By analyzing the joint probability function P_{II_{3}}(n_{0},n_{ \\_}) for producing n_{0} neutral and n_{-} negative pions from a definite isospin state II_{3} of the incoming leading-particle system we show that only direct production of pions without isovector pairs favors Centauro-type behavior. The presence of isovector pairs seems to destroy the effect. Our conclusion is supported through the calculation of two pion correlation parameters, f_{2}^{0-} and f_{2}^{00}, and the average number of neutral pions ( \\langle n_{0} \\rangle_{n_{ \\_}}) as a function of negative pions (n_{ \\_}) produced.

  5. 200 keV Xe+ ions irradiation effects on Zr-Ti binary films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weipeng; Chai, Maosheng; Feng, Wei; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2015-05-01

    200 keV Xenon irradiation experiments were performed on magnetron sputtered Zr-Ti films under different doses up to 9 * 1015 ions/cm2. XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, HRTEM, nano-indentation and white light interferometer characterizations were applied to study the structural and mechanical properties modification introduced by the bombardment. Upon Xenon irradiation, structure of film matrix kept stable while the crystallinity of the top surface degraded significantly. Meanwhile, properties of irradiated films such as hardness, modulus and sheet resistance evolved with the same tendency, i.e. increased firstly and decrease with further increasing the irradiation dose. By selective area irradiation, competition between the surface sputtering and swelling was revealed, by which surface defects evolution was highlighted. The micro-defects evolution during Xenon irradiation was believed to be responsible for the macro-properties' modification.

  6. 200 keV Xe{sup +} ions irradiation effects on Zr–Ti binary films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weipeng; Chai, Maosheng [Key laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Wei [Division of CEFR Project, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Li, Zhengcao [Key laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Zhengjun, E-mail: zjzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-01

    200 keV Xenon irradiation experiments were performed on magnetron sputtered Zr–Ti films under different doses up to 9 * 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, HRTEM, nano-indentation and white light interferometer characterizations were applied to study the structural and mechanical properties modification introduced by the bombardment. Upon Xenon irradiation, structure of film matrix kept stable while the crystallinity of the top surface degraded significantly. Meanwhile, properties of irradiated films such as hardness, modulus and sheet resistance evolved with the same tendency, i.e. increased firstly and decrease with further increasing the irradiation dose. By selective area irradiation, competition between the surface sputtering and swelling was revealed, by which surface defects evolution was highlighted. The micro-defects evolution during Xenon irradiation was believed to be responsible for the macro-properties’ modification.

  7. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Webb, S.; et al

    2011-08-09

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. The replacement cost of the RHIC facility is about two billion US dollars, and the eRHIC will fully take advantage and utilize this investment. We plan adding a polarized 5-30 GeV electron beam to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a top energy of 325 GeV, to heavy fully-striped ions with energies up to 130 GeV/u. Brookhaven's innovative design, is based on one of the RHIC's hadron rings and a multi-pass energy-recovery linac (ERL). Using the ERL as the electron accelerator assures high luminosity in the 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} range, and for the natural staging of eRHIC, with the ERL located inside the RHIC tunnel. The eRHIC will provide electron-hadron collisions in up to three interaction regions. We detail the eRHIC's performance in Section 2. Since first paper on eRHIC paper in 2000, its design underwent several iterations. Initially, the main eRHIC option (the so-called ring-ring, RR, design) was based on an electron ring, with the linac-ring (LR) option as a backup. In 2004, we published the detailed 'eRHIC 0th Order Design Report' including a cost-estimate for the RR design. After detailed studies, we found that an LR eRHIC has about a 10-fold higher luminosity than the RR. Since 2007, the LR, with its natural staging strategy and full transparency for polarized electrons, became the main choice for eRHIC. In 2009, we completed technical studies of the design and dynamics for MeRHIC with 3-pass 4 GeV ERL. We learned much from this evaluation, completed a bottom-up cost estimate for this $350M machine, but then shelved the design. In the same year, we turned again to considering the cost-effective, all-in-tunnel six-pass ERL for our

  8. Theoretical and experimental characterization of novel water-equivalent plastics in clinical high-energy carbon-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A.; Wellock, N.; Thomas, R.; Homer, M.; Bouchard, H.; Kanai, T.; MacDougall, N.; Royle, G.; Palmans, H.

    2016-11-01

    Water-equivalent plastics are frequently used in dosimetry for experimental simplicity. This work evaluates the water-equivalence of novel water-equivalent plastics specifically designed for light-ion beams, as well as commercially available plastics in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. A plastic- to-water conversion factor {{H}\\text{pl,w}} was established to derive absorbed dose to water in a water phantom from ionization chamber readings performed in a plastic phantom. Three trial plastic materials with varying atomic compositions were produced and experimentally characterized in a high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed with a Roos ionization chamber, using a broad un-modulated beam of 11  ×  11 cm2, to measure the plastic-to-water conversion factor for the novel materials. The experimental results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Commercially available plastics were also simulated for comparison with the plastics tested experimentally, with particular attention to the influence of nuclear interaction cross sections. The measured H\\text{pl,w}\\exp correction increased gradually from 0% at the surface to 0.7% at a depth near the Bragg peak for one of the plastics prepared in this work, while for the other two plastics a maximum correction of 0.8%-1.3% was found. Average differences between experimental and numerical simulations were 0.2%. Monte Carlo results showed that for polyethylene, polystyrene, Rando phantom soft tissue and A-150, the correction increased from 0% to 2.5%-4.0% with depth, while for PMMA it increased to 2%. Water-equivalent plastics such as, Plastic Water, RMI-457, Gammex 457-CTG, WT1 and Virtual Water, gave similar results where maximum corrections were of the order of 2%. Considering the results from Monte Carlo simulations, one of the novel plastics was found to be superior in comparison with the plastic materials currently used in dosimetry, demonstrating that it is feasible to tailor plastic

  9. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S. [University of Kashmir, Srinagar (India); Bhaduri, P.P. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Jahan, H. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Senger, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Adak, R.; Samanta, S. [Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Prakash, A. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Dey, K. [Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Lebedev, A. [Institute für Kernphysik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Kryshen, E. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: sub@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Bhattacharjee, B. [Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Ghosh, S.K.; Raha, S. [Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Farooq, M. [University of Kashmir, Srinagar (India); Singh, B. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2015-03-01

    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6–45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

  10. Radiosensitivity to high energy iron ions is influenced by heterozygosity for Atm, Rad9 and Brca1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Smilenov, L. B.; Lieberman, H. B.; Ludwig, T.; Hall, E. J.

    2010-09-01

    Loss of function of DNA repair genes has been implicated in the development of many types of cancer. In the last several years, heterozygosity leading to haploinsufficiency for proteins involved in DNA repair was shown to play a role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis after DNA damage is induced, for example by ionizing radiation. Since the effect of heterozygosity for one gene is relatively small, we hypothesize that predisposition to cancer could be a result of the additive effect of heterozygosity for two or more genes critical to pathways that control DNA damage signaling, repair or apoptosis. We investigated the role of heterozygosity for Atm, Rad9 and Brca1 on cell oncogenic transformation and cell survival induced by 1 GeV/ n56Fe ions. Our results show that cells heterozygous for both Atm and Rad9 or Atm and Brca1 have high survival rates and are more sensitive to transformation by high energy iron ions when compared with wild-type controls or cells haploinsufficient for only one of these proteins. Since mutations or polymorphisms for similar genes exist in a small percentage of the human population, we have identified a radiosensitive sub-population. This finding has several implications. First, the existence of a radiosensitive sub-population may distort the shape of the dose-response relationship. Second, it would not be ethical to put exceptionally radiosensitive individuals into a setting where they may potentially be exposed to substantial doses of radiation.

  11. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, J., E-mail: julianna.szabo@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Palfalvi, J.K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  12. RADIOSENSITIVITY TO HIGH ENERGY IRON IONS IS INFLUENCED BY HETEROZYGOSITY for ATM, RAD9 and BRCA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Smilenov, L. B.; Lieberman, H. B.; Ludwig, T.; Hall, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of function of DNA repair genes has been implicated in the development of many types of cancer. In the last several years, heterozygosity leading to haploinsufficiency for proteins involved in DNA repair was shown to play a role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis after DNA damage is induced, for example by ionizing radiation. Since the effect of heterozygosity for one gene is relatively small, we hypothesize that predisposition to cancer could be a result of the additive effect of heterozygosity for two or more genes critical to pathways that control DNA damage signaling, repair or apoptosis. We investigated the role of heterozygosity for Atm, Rad9 and Brca1 on cell oncogenic transformation and cell survival induced by 1GeV/n 56Fe ions. Our results show that cells heterozygous for both Atm and Rad9 or Atm and Brca1 have high survival rates and are more sensitive to transformation by high energy Iron ions when compared with wild-type controls or cells haploinsufficient for only one of these proteins. Since mutations or polymorphisms for similar genes exist in a small percentage of the human population, we have identified a radiosensitive sub-population. This finding has several implications. First, the existence of a radiosensitive sub-population may distort the shape of the dose-response relationship. Second, it would not be ethical to put exceptionally radiosensitive individuals into a setting where they may potentially be exposed to substantial doses of radiation. PMID:24431481

  13. In-Situ Formed Hierarchical Metal-Organic Flexible Cathode for High-Energy Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Fang, Chun; Zeng, Rui; Liu, Yaojun; Zhang, Wang; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Qingju; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-09-10

    Metal-organic compounds are a family of electrode materials with structural diversity and excellent thermal stability for rechargeable batteries. Here, we fabricate a hierarchical nanocomposite with metal-organic cuprous tetracyanoquino- dimethane (CuTCNQ) in three-dimensional (3D) conductive carbon nanofibers (CNFs) network by in-situ growth, and evaluate it as flexible cathode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). CuTCNQ in such flexible composite electrode is able to exhibit a superhigh capacity of 252 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and highly reversible stability for 1200 cycles within the voltage range of 2.5 - 4.1 V (vs. Na+/Na). A high specific energy of 762 Wh kg-1 is obtained with high average potential of 3.2 V (vs. Na+/Na). The in-situ formed electroactive metal-organic composites with tailored nanoarchitecture provide a promising alternative choice for high-performance cathode materials in sodium-ion batteries with high energy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Irradiation of Fe-Mn Supersaturated Solid Solution with Ions of Various Atomic Masses (Ar+, Xe+) and Analysis of the Role of Nanosized Dynamic Effects in the Activation Processes of Long-Range Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Makhin'ko, F. F.; Semionkin, V. A.; Shalomov, K. V.

    2017-05-01

    A multiple increase in the atom mobility in metastable supersaturated (quenched from 850 °C) Fe-8.16 at % Mn solid solution is detected at temperatures less than 250°C under irradiation with 5-keV Ar+ and Xe+ ions of different masses. The irradiation-induced atom redistribution in the entire volume of foils 30 μm thick at a projected Ar+ and Xe+ ion ranges as much as 20-30 nm only is found and studied by the transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. Long-range effects at low irradiation doses and anomalously low temperatures are attributed to “radiation shaking” of metastable media with post-cascade solitary waves in contrast to thermally stimulated radiation-enhanced processes in the narrow nanoscale near-surface layers of the alloy. It has been shown that heavier Xe+ ions at higher irradiation doses have a stronger impact on the solid solution than Ar+ ions.

  15. The Collectivity in Csr 129Xe+129Xe Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Wu, Kejun; Liu, Feng

    The Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) - Cooler Storage Ring (CSR), which can gather few hundreds MeV/nucleon for heavy ion beam energy in the external-target experiments, could make a significant contribution in studying the property of dense matter. By using a Relativistic Transport Model(ART1.0), we study the collectivity of identified hadrons in 129Xe+129Xe collisions in CSR energy regions. Our investigation indicates that the anisotropic flow reaches its extremum around 500 MeV/nucleon of beam energy. The system size and EOS dependence on anisotropic flow show that directed flow is very sensitive to the equation of state.

  16. Investigations of percutaneous uptake of ultrafine TiO{sub 2} particles at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, F. E-mail: fmenzel@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Reinert, T.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T

    2004-06-01

    Micronised TiO{sub 2} particles with a diameter of about 15 nm are used in sunscreens as physical UV filter. Due to the small particle size it may be supposed that TiO{sub 2} particles can pass through the uppermost horny skin layer (stratum corneum) via intercellular channels and penetrate into deeper vital skin layers. Accumulations of TiO{sub 2} particles in the skin can decrease the threshold for allergies of the immune system or cause allergic reactions directly. Spatially resolved ion beam analysis (PIXE, RBS, STIM and secondary electron imaging) was carried out on freeze-dried cross-sections of biopsies of pig skin, on which four different formulations containing TiO{sub 2} particles were applied. The investigations were carried out at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION in Leipzig with a 2.25 MeV proton beam, which was focused to a diameter of 1 {mu}m. The analysis concentrated on the penetration depth and on pathways of the TiO{sub 2} particles into the skin. In these measurements a penetration of TiO{sub 2} particles through the s. corneum into the underlying stratum granulosum via intercellular space was found. Hair follicles do not seem to be important penetration pathways because no TiO{sub 2} was detected inside. The TiO{sub 2} particle concentration in the stratum spinosum was below the minimum detection limit of about 1 particle/{mu}m{sup 2}. These findings show the importance of coating the TiO{sub 2} particles in order to prevent damage of RNA and DNA of skin cells by photocatalytic reactions of the penetrated particles caused by absorption of UV light.

  17. Ion beam driven high energy density physics studies at FAIR at darmstadt: the HEDgeHOB collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A.; Spiller, P. [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Shutov, A.; Zharkov, A.P. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Piriz, A.R.; Rodriguez Prietoc, G. [LPGP, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Deutsch, C. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain); Stoehlker, T. [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Helmholz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    High Energy Density (HED) physics spans over numerous areas of basic and applied physics, for example, astrophysics, planetary physics, geophysics, inertial fusion and many others. Due to this reason, it has been a subject of very active research over the past many decades. Static as well as dynamic methods have been applied to generate samples of HED matter in the laboratory. The most commonly used tool in the static techniques is the diamond anvil cell while the dynamic methods involve shock compression of matter. During the past fifteen years, great progress has been made on the development of bunched intense particle beams that have emerged as an additional new tool for studying HED physics. In this paper we present two experiment designs that have been worked out for HED physics studies at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. This facility has entered into construction phase and will provide one of the largest and most powerful particle accelerators in the world. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Lectures on the Near-Side Ridge, Landau Hydrodynamics, and Heavy Quarkonia in High Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong C.-Y.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We give an introduction to three different topics that are of current interest in heavy-ion collisions. Particles associated with the near-side jet are found to exhibit a Δφ-Δη correlation in the form of a ridge in the Δη direction but a peak at Δφ ~ 0. The experimental data support the description that the ridge particles are medium partons kicked by the jet. The measurement of the characteristics of the ridge provides a unique tool to probe the nature of the (jet parton-(medium parton collision and the momentum distribution of dense matter formed in the early stage of the heavy-ion collision. We find that the magnitude of the longitudinal momentum kick along the jet direction acquired by a medium parton in collision with the jet is about 1 GeV, and the early parton momentum distribution is in the form of a rapidity plateau with a thermal-type transverse momentum distribution. In the second lecture, we re-examine the validity of Landau hydrodynamics which provides a reasonable description of the space-time dynamics of the hot matter produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that the rapidity distribution of produced particles should be more appropriately modified from Landau’s result. Past successes of the Gaussian distribution in explaining experimental rapidity data can be understood, not because it is an approximation of the original Landau distribution, but because it is in fact a close representation of the modified distribution. In the final lecture, we give an introduction to the development of the potential model for quarkonia, using thermodynamical quantities obtained in lattice gauge calculations. We find that the potential model is consistent with the lattice gauge spectral function analysis, if the color-singlet heavy quark-antiquark potential is a linear combination of the color-singlet free energy F1 and internal energy U1 , with coefficients that depend on the equation of state. We find that the e

  19. Studies of equation of state properties of high-energy density matter using intense heavy ion beams at the future FAIR facility: The HEDgeHOB collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: n.tahir@gsi.de; Spiller, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Udrea, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Cortazar, O.D. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Deutsch, C. [LPGP, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Fortov, V.E. [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, V. [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lomonosov, I.V. [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Ni, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Piriz, A.R. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Shutov, A. [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Temporal, M. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Varentsov, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    This paper shows with the help of numerical simulations the capabilities of intense heavy ion beams to induce states of high-energy density (HED) in matter. Two different experimental schemes are considered, namely, HIHEX (heavy ion heating and expansion) and LAPLAS (laboratory planetary sciences). The first scheme considers isochoric heating and subsequent isentropic expansion of matter while the latter deals with low entropy compression of matter using multiple shock reflection technique. This work has been done within the framework of the HEDgeHOB (high-energy density matter generated by heavy ion beams) collaboration that has been formed to organize and facilitate construction of experimental facilities and later to perform experimental work in the field of HED matter at the future FAIR (facility for antiprotons and ion research) facility.

  20. Studies of equation of state properties of high-energy density matter using intense heavy ion beams at the future FAIR facility: The HEDgeHOB collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Spiller, P.; Udrea, S.; Cortazar, O. D.; Deutsch, C.; Fortov, V. E.; Gryaznov, V.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Ni, P.; Piriz, A. R.; Shutov, A.; Temporal, M.; Varentsov, D.

    2006-04-01

    This paper shows with the help of numerical simulations the capabilities of intense heavy ion beams to induce states of high-energy density (HED) in matter. Two different experimental schemes are considered, namely, HIHEX (heavy ion heating and expansion) and LAPLAS (laboratory planetary sciences). The first scheme considers isochoric heating and subsequent isentropic expansion of matter while the latter deals with low entropy compression of matter using multiple shock reflection technique. This work has been done within the framework of the HEDgeHOB (high-energy density matter generated by heavy ion beams) collaboration that has been formed to organize and facilitate construction of experimental facilities and later to perform experimental work in the field of HED matter at the future FAIR (facility for antiprotons and ion research) facility.

  1. Gated pinhole camera imaging of the high-energy ions emitted by a discharge produced Sn plasma for extreme ultraviolet generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielissen, K.; Sidelnikov, Y.; Glushkov, D.; Soer, W.A.; Banine V.Y.; Van der Mullen, J.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and nature of the high-energy ions emitted by a dischargeproduced plasma source are studied using gated pinhole camera imaging. Time-of-flight analysis in combination with Faraday cup measurements enables characterization of the high-velocity component of theionic debris. The use of an

  2. Influence of the ionization-energy losses of high-energy bismuth ions on the development of helium blisters in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutov, V. F., E-mail: reutov@jinr.ru; Dmitriev, S. N.; Sohatsky, A. S. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Zaluzhnyi, A. G. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhi” (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Understanding the behavior of helium in solids under conditions of intense ionizing radiation is of particular interest in solving many problems of nuclear, fusion, and space materials science and also in microelectronics. The observed effect of suppressing the formation of helium blisters on the surface of helium ion-doped silicon as a result of irradiation with high-energy bismuth ions is reported in this publication. It is suggested that a possible decrease in the concentration of helium atoms in silicon is due to their radiationinduced desorption from the area of doping in terms of the high-impact ionization of bismuth ions.

  3. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, Stephen H; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C Stefan; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2015-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF$_2$ from Xe 3d$_{5/2}$, Xe 3d$_{3/2}$, and F 1s subshells in the 660--740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d - $\\epsilon$f continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF$_2$ cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods. Several charge states and fragment ions are produced from the atom and molecule due to alternative decay pathways from the inner-shell holes. Total and partial ion yields vary in response to the shape resonances and LUMO resonances. Previous calculations and measurements of atomic Xe 3d core-hole decay channels and our calculated results for XeF$_...

  4. The Regularities of the Induction and Reparation of DNA Double Strand Breaks in Human Lymphocytes after Irradiation by Carbon Ions with High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Boreyko, A V

    2005-01-01

    The regularities of the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes after irradiation by different doses of accelerated carbon ions (480 MeV/nucleon, LET = 10.6 keV/$\\mu $m) and $\\gamma $-rays $^{60}$?? by using of comet assay were investigated. It was shown that dependence of DSB formation increases linearly with growing of the dose of carbon ions and $\\gamma $-rays. The biological effectiveness of carbon ions with high energy was similar to $\\gamma $-rays. The kinetics of DSB reparation in human lymphocytes after irradiation by both carbon ions and $\\gamma $-rays was studied. It is revealed that the reparation proceeds effectively with heavy ion and $\\gamma $-ray irradiation.

  5. Atomic data for neutron-capture elements III. Charge transfer rate coefficients for low-charge ions of Ge, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, and Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C

    2011-01-01

    We present total and final-state resolved charge transfer (CT) rate coefficients for low-charge Ge, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, and Xe ions reacting with neutral hydrogen over the temperature range 10^2--10^6 K. Each of these elements has been detected in ionized astrophysical nebulae, particularly planetary nebulae. CT rate coefficients are a key ingredient for the ionization equilibrium solutions needed to determine total elemental abundances from those of the observed ions. A multi-channel Landau Zener approach was used to compute rate coefficients for projectile ions with charges q=2-5, and for singly-charged ions the Demkov approximation was utilized. Our results for five-times ionized species are lower limits, due to the incompleteness of level energies in the NIST database. In addition, we computed rate coefficients for charge transfer ionization reactions between the neutral species of the above six elements and ionized hydrogen. The resulting total and state-resolved CT rate coefficients are tabulated and availa...

  6. The structure of molten CuCl: Reverse Monte Carlo modeling with high-energy X-ray diffraction data and molecular dynamics of a polarizable ion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Olga; Trullàs, Joaquim; Tahara, Shuta; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The results of the structural properties of molten copper chloride are reported from high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements, reverse Monte Carlo modeling method, and molecular dynamics simulations using a polarizable ion model. The simulated X-ray structure factor reproduces all trends observed experimentally, in particular the shoulder at around 1 Å-1 related to intermediate range ordering, as well as the partial copper-copper correlations from the reverse Monte Carlo modeling, which cannot be reproduced by using a simple rigid ion model. It is shown that the shoulder comes from intermediate range copper-copper correlations caused by the polarized chlorides.

  7. Kinetic freeze-out from an anisotropic fluid in high-energy heavy-ion collisions: particle spectra, Hanbury Brown-Twiss radii, and anisotropic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghini, Nicolas; Feld, Steffen; Lang, Christian [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Postfach 100131, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Dissipative relativistic fluid-dynamical descriptions of the extended fireball formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are quite successful; yet they require a prescription for converting the fluid into particles. We present arguments in favour of using a locally anisotropic momentum distribution for the particles emitted from the fluid, so as to smooth out discontinuities introduced by the usual conversion prescriptions. Building on this ansatz, we investigate the effect of the asymmetry on several observables of heavy-ion physics. (orig.)

  8. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  9. On the super freak waves in multicomponent plasmas having two-negative ions: Xe + - F - - SF 6 - and Ar + - F- - SF 6 - plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, S. A.; Ali, S.; Maroof, R.; Wazwaz, A. M.; El-Labany, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    Rational solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is considered to investigate the properties of the ion-acoustic freak (rogue) waves in multicomponent plasmas, whose constituents are electrons, warm positive ions, and two distinct groups of warm negative ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic basic equations are reduced to an extended Korteweg-de Vries (EKdV) or Gardner equation. This equation is transformed into a NLSE for investigating the weakly nonlinear wavepackets. The conditions of modulational instability and rogue waves formation are defined. It is found that sign of the coefficients of the Gardner equation determines the stability/instability of the propagating pulses within the critical wave number values. Under certain values of plasma parameters, the Gardner equation reduces to a modified KdV equation. So, a new stability/instability region will be pinpointed. The rogue waves characteristics and their dependence on the plasma parameters of Xe+-F--SF6- and Ar+-F- -SF6- plasma experiments are highlighted.

  10. Modern applications of high energy ion beams: From "single-event burnout" to human eye cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, H.; Mahnke, H.-E.

    1996-12-01

    Energetic ion beams, originally the domain of nuclear physics, become increasingly important tools in many other fields of research and development. The choice of ion species and ion energy allows an enormously wide variation of the penetration depth and of the amount of the electronic stopping power. These features are utilized to modify or damage materials and living tissues in a specific way. Materials modification with energetic ion beams is one of the central aims of research and development at the ion beam laboratory, ISL-Berlin, a center for ion-beam applications at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin. In particular, energetic protons will be used for eye cancer treatment. Selected topics such as the "single-event burnout" of high power diodes and the eye cancer therapy setup will be presented in detail.

  11. Evaluation of TIAX High Energy CAM-7/Graphite Lithium-Ion Batteries at High and Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    List 13 iv List of Figures Fig. 1 Calculated specific energy (left) and energy density (right) of fixed volume 18650 cell designs with 5 mA·h...temperature (25 °C) differential capacity of 18650 cells with standard-loading electrodes. Cycles 1–100 every 10 cycles shown...cycles 1–20) and low temperature (–20 °C, cycles 21–23) rate cycling of high energy 18650 cells

  12. High energy ion irradiation effects on polymer materials. LET dependence of G value of scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudoh, H.; Sasuga, T.; Seguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Linear energy transfer (LET) dependence on the probability of main chain scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was investigated. The probability was obtained from decreases in molecular weight measured by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and LET was evaluated by TRIM code. The scission probability as a function of LET was almost constant in the low LET, and decreased in the high LET ion irradiation. The mechanism was interpreted from the model of spur-overlapping along an ion`s path. (author)

  13. Lattice damage and compositional changes in Xe ion irradiated InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32-1.0) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Jiang, Weilin; Dissanayake, Amila; Peng, Jinxin; Ai, Wensi; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Tieshan; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam

    2016-06-01

    Lattice disorder and compositional changes in InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32, 0.47, 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0) films on GaN/Al2O3 substrates, induced by room-temperature irradiation of 5 MeV Xe ions, have been investigated using both Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under ion-channeling conditions and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show that for a fluence of 3 × 1013 cm-2, the relative level of lattice disorder in InxGa1-xN increases monotonically from 59% to 90% with increasing indium concentration x from 0.32 to 0.7; a further increase in x up to 1.0 leads to little increase in the disorder level. In contrast to Ga-rich InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32 and 0.47), significant volume swelling of up to ˜25% accompanied with oxidation in In-rich InxGa1-xN (x = 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0) is observed. In addition, irradiation-induced atomic mixing occurs at the interface of In-rich InxGa1-xN and GaN. The results from this study indicate an extreme susceptibility of the high In-content InxGa1-xN to heavy-ion irradiation, and suggest that cautions must be exercised in applying ion-implantation techniques to these materials at room temperature. Further studies of the irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures are warranted.

  14. Lattice damage and compositional changes in Xe ion irradiated InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32-1.0) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Limin; Jiang, Weilin; Dissanayake, Amila C.; Peng, Jinxin; Ai, Wensi; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Tieshan; Shutthanandan, V.

    2016-06-27

    Lattice disorder and compositional changes in InxGa1-xN (x=0.32, 0.47, 0.7, 0.8 and 1.0) films on GaN/Al2O3 substrates, induced by room-temperature irradiation of 5 MeV Xe ions, have been investigated using both Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under ion-channeling conditions and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show that for a fluence of 3E13 cm-2, the relative level of lattice disorder in InxGa1-xN increases monotonically from 59% to 90% with increasing indium concentration x from 0.32 to 0.7; a further increase in x up to 1.0 leads to little increase in the disorder level. In contrast to Ga-rich InxGa1-xN (x=0.32 and 0.47), significant volume swelling of up to ~25% accompanied with oxidation in In-rich InxGa1-xN (x=0.7, 0.8 and 1.0) is observed. In addition, irradiation-induced atomic mixing occurs at the interface of In-rich InxGa1-xN and GaN. The results from this study indicate an extreme susceptibility of the high In-content InxGa1-xN to heavy-ion irradiation, and suggest that cautions must be exercised in applying ion-implantation techniques to these materials at room temperature. Further studies of the irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures are warranted.

  15. The effect of fission-energy Xe ion irradiation on the structural integrity and dissolution of the CeO2 matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, A. J.; Le Solliec, S.; Lampronti, G. I.; Day, J.; Petrov, P. K.; Farnan, I.

    2017-02-01

    This work considers the effect of fission fragment damage on the structural integrity and dissolution of the CeO2 matrix in water, as a simulant for the UO2 matrix of spent nuclear fuel. For this purpose, thin films of CeO2 on Si substrates were produced and irradiated by 92 MeV 129Xe23+ ions to a fluence of 4.8 × 1015 ions/cm2 to simulate fission damage that occurs within nuclear fuels along with bulk CeO2 samples. The irradiated and unirradiated samples were characterised and a static batch dissolution experiment was conducted to study the effect of the induced irradiation damage on dissolution of the CeO2 matrix. Complex restructuring took place in the irradiated films and the irradiated samples showed an increase in the amount of dissolved cerium, as compared to the corresponding unirradiated samples. Secondary phases were also observed on the surface of the irradiated CeO2 films after the dissolution experiment.

  16. Effect of high energy electrons on H⁻ production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, M; Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Shibata, T; Mattei, S; Fujita, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H(-) production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H(-) extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  17. 129Xe20+入射Au表面X射线产额与离子动能的相关性%The relativity of X-ray yield with kinetic energies by the interaction of 129Xe20+ ions with solid Au surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀宗; 徐戈; 李锦玉; 肖国青; 张小安; 梁昌慧; 赵永涛; 程锐; 周贤明; 王兴; 雷瑜; 孙渊博

    2011-01-01

    报道了在兰州重离子加速器国家实验室320kV高电荷态离子综合研究平台上,用2.4~6.0 MeV动能的高电荷态离子129 Xe20+轰击Au表面,探测X射线谱的实验结果.当离子动能较大时,相互作用不仅激发出了Au的M-X射线,还激发出了Xe的L-X射线,且X射线产额随入射离子动能的增加总体呈增加趋势.对碰撞导致X射线产生的微观机制进行了初步分析.%The experimental results of the X-ray spectrum by the interaction of I29Xe20+ ions of 2. 4~6. OMeV kinetic energies with solid Au surface has been detected, to do the experiment with the 320 kV research platform for highly charged ions of the national laboratory of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou. The experimental results showed that, as ion's kinetic energies are larger the incident ions not only excited Au M X-ray but also excited Xe L X-ray. The X-ray yield show increasing trend with the ion's kinetic energies. The micro-mechanism of X-ray excitation by the collision has been preliminary analyzed.

  18. Residual stress in nano-structured stainless steel (AISI 316L) prompted by Xe+ ion bombardment at different impinging angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucatti, S.; Droppa, R.; Figueroa, C. A.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Alvarez, F.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of low energy (316L steel) is reported. The results take into account the influence of the ion incident angle maintaining constant all other bombarding parameters (i.e., ion energy and current density, temperature, and doses). The bombarded surface topography shows that ions prompt the formation of nanometric regular patterns on the surface crystalline grains and stressing the structure. The paper focalizes on the study of the surface residual stress state stemming from the ion bombardment studied by means of the "sin2 ψ" and "Universal Plot" methods. The analysis shows the absence of shear stress in the affected material region and the presence of compressive in-plane residual biaxial stress (˜200 MPa) expanding up to ˜1 μm depth for all the studied samples. Samples under oblique bombardment present higher compressive stress values in the direction of the projected ion beam on the bombarded surface. The absolute value of the biaxial surface stress difference (σ11-σ22) increases on ion impinging angles, a phenomenon associated with the momentum transfer by the ions. The highest stress level was measured for ion impinging angles of 45° ( σ 11 = -380 ± 10 MPa and σ 22 = -320 ± 10 MPa). The different stresses obtained in the studied samples do not affect significantly the formation of characteristic surface patterns.

  19. Imaging atomic-scale effects of high-energy ion irradiation on superconductivity and vortex pinning in Fe(Se,Te).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massee, Freek; Sprau, Peter Oliver; Wang, Yong-Lei; Davis, J C Séamus; Ghigo, Gianluca; Gu, Genda D; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2015-05-01

    Maximizing the sustainable supercurrent density, J C, is crucial to high-current applications of superconductivity. To achieve this, preventing dissipative motion of quantized vortices is key. Irradiation of superconductors with high-energy heavy ions can be used to create nanoscale defects that act as deep pinning potentials for vortices. This approach holds unique promise for high-current applications of iron-based superconductors because J C amplification persists to much higher radiation doses than in cuprate superconductors without significantly altering the superconducting critical temperature. However, for these compounds, virtually nothing is known about the atomic-scale interplay of the crystal damage from the high-energy ions, the superconducting order parameter, and the vortex pinning processes. We visualize the atomic-scale effects of irradiating FeSe x Te1-x with 249-MeV Au ions and find two distinct effects: compact nanometer-sized regions of crystal disruption or "columnar defects," plus a higher density of single atomic site "point" defects probably from secondary scattering. We directly show that the superconducting order is virtually annihilated within the former and suppressed by the latter. Simultaneous atomically resolved images of the columnar crystal defects, the superconductivity, and the vortex configurations then reveal how a mixed pinning landscape is created, with the strongest vortex pinning occurring at metallic core columnar defects and secondary pinning at clusters of point-like defects, followed by collective pinning at higher fields.

  20. The effect of magnetic field strength on the time evolution of high energy bremsstrahlung radiation created by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jones, P.; Peura, P.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Suominen, P. [Prizztech Ltd/Magnet Technology Centre, Tiedepuisto 4, FI-28600 Pori (Finland); Koivisto, H.; Arje, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2009-03-11

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is one of the most used ion source types for high charge state heavy ion production. In ECR plasma the electrons are heated by radio frequency microwaves in order to provide ionization of neutral gases. As a consequence, ECR heating also generates very high electron energies (up to MeV region) which can produce a vast amount of bremsstrahlung radiation causing problems with radiation shielding and heating superconducting cryostat of an ECR ion source. To gain information about the time evolution of the electron energies in ECR plasma radial bremsstrahlung measurements were performed. JYFL 14 GHz ECR ion source was operated in pulsed mode and time evolution measurements were done with different axial magnetic field strengths with oxygen and argon plasmas. Bremsstrahlung data were analyzed with a time interval of 2 ms yielding information at unprecedented detail about the time evolution of high energy bremsstrahlung radiation from an ECR ion source. It was observed, for example, that reaching the steady state phase of the plasma bremsstrahlung requires several hundred milliseconds and the steady state time can be different with different gases.

  1. Two-stage acceleration of interstellar ions due to the interaction of high-energy lepton plasma flow

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yun-Qian; Lu, Quan-Ming; Li, Yu-Tong; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We present the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results of the interaction of a high-energy lepton plasma flow with background electron-proton plasma and focus on the acceleration processes of the protons. It is found that the acceleration follows a two-stage processes. In the first stage, protons are accelerated transversely (perpendicular to the lepton flow) by the turbulent magnetic field "islands" generated via the strong Weibel-type instabilities. The accelerated protons shows a perfect inverse-power energy spectrum. As the interaction continues, a shockwave structure forms and the protons in front of the shockwave are reflected at twice of the shock speed, resulting in a quasi-monoenergetic peak located near 200MeV under the simulation parameters.

  2. High energy (MeV) ion fluence dependent nano scale free volume defects studies of PMMA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Paramjit [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110078 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110078 (India); Cyriac, Jincemon; Rahul, M.T. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Nambissan, P.M.G. [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Prasad, Rajendra [Vivekananda College of Technology and Management, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A systematic study on the dependence of the free volume at nanoscale in carbon ions irradiated polymethylmethacrylate polymer samples was carried out by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS). An investigation about the evolution of cross-linking in the polymeric chains after ion irradiation was carried out from the calculated values of hole radius, free volume and fractional free volume using Tao-Eldrup Model. The role of rise in temperature on the growth of free volume was observed at higher fluences. The results were supported by variations in the S parameter of DBS study. The structural analyses were carried out using XRD to investigate for the modification in the structural nature, degree of crystallinity and average crystallite size of the polymer after ion irradiation. Additional information on the modifications of optical and chemical properties was extracted by means of UV–visible and FTIR spectroscopy respectively.

  3. Anode microstructures from high-energy and high-power lithium-ion cylindrical cells obtained by X-ray nano-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Moses; Joos, Jochen; Weber, André; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Graphite negative electrodes from a high-power and a high-energy cylindrical lithium-ion cell are reconstructed using X-ray nano-tomography. Large volumes and high resolution are required for an in-depth comparison of the design aspects for high-power and high-energy anode. Hence, quite big volumes of 2.37·106 μm3 and 1.27·106 μm3 have to be analyzed to cover the entire thickness of both anode layers. High resolutions of 273 nm and 233 nm voxel size are chosen for assessing volume specific graphite surface area, among other parameters, precisely. A hysteresis segmentation method is adapted for segmentation, featuring a symmetrical growing of both graphite and pore phase. Surface areas are calculated using the marching cube algorithm, particle sizes are calculated based on the Euclidean distance transform (EDT) and tortuosity values are calculated by solving the transport equation using a finite volume scheme in MATLAB. Analysis of these parameters leads to the assumption, that the electrolyte transport is limited by the pore structure of the high-energy graphite anode.

  4. Lithium and sodium ion capacitors with high energy and power densities based on carbons from recycled olive pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuria, Jon; Redondo, Edurne; Arnaiz, Maria; Mysyk, Roman; Rojo, Teófilo; Goikolea, Eider

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitors (LIC and NIC) entirely based on electrodes designed from recycled olive pit bio-waste derived carbon materials. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. On the other hand, the same hard carbon was chemically activated with KOH to obtain a high specific surface area activated carbon that was further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. Both electrodes were custom-made to be assembled in a hybrid cell to either build a LIC or NIC in the corresponding Li- and Na-based electrolytes. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5 M Et4NBF4/acetonitrile electrolyte was also built. Both LIC and NIC systems demonstrate remarkable energy and power density enhancement over its EDLC counterpart while showing good cycle life. This breakthrough offers the possibility to easily fabricate versatile hybrid ion capacitors, covering a wide variety of applications where different requirements are demanded.

  5. Peapod-like Li3 VO4 /N-Doped Carbon Nanowires with Pseudocapacitive Properties as Advanced Materials for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Lv, Haifeng; Chen, Shuangqiang; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Wu, Xiaojun; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors are new energy storage devices combining the complementary features of both electric double-layer capacitors and lithium ion batteries. A key limitation to this technology is the kinetic imbalance between the Faradaic insertion electrode and capacitive electrode. Here, we demonstrate that the Li3 VO4 with low Li-ion insertion voltage and fast kinetics can be favorably used for lithium ion capacitors. N-doped carbon-encapsulated Li3 VO4 nanowires are synthesized through a morphology-inheritance route, displaying a low insertion voltage between 0.2 and 1.0 V, a high reversible capacity of ≈400 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) , excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. Benefiting from the small nanoparticles, low energy diffusion barrier and highly localized charge-transfer, the Li3 VO4 /N-doped carbon nanowires exhibit a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium ion capacitor device based on these Li3 VO4 /N-doped carbon nanowires delivers a high energy density of 136.4 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 532 W kg(-1) , revealing the potential for application in high-performance and long life energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis of LiFePO4@carbon nanotube core-shell nanowires with a high-energy efficient method for superior lithium ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiling; Ma, Zhipeng; Shao, Guangjie; Kong, Lingxue; Gao, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    A high-energy efficient method is developed for the synthesis of LiFePO4@CNT core-shell nanowire structures. The method consists of two steps: liquid deposition approach to prepare FePO4@CNT core-shell nanowires and solvothermal lithiation to obtain the LiFePO4@CNT core-shell nanowires at a low temperature. The solution phase method can be easily scaled up for commercial application. The performance of the materials produced by this method is evaluated in Li ion batteries. The one-dimensional LiFePO4@CNT nanowires offer a stable and efficient backbone for electron transport. The LiFePO4@CNT core-shell nanowires exhibit a high capacity of 132.8 mAh g-1 at a rate of 0.2C, as well as high rate capability (64.4 mAh g-1 at 20C) for Li ion storage.

  7. Nuclear interactions in high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Technical progress report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-01-11

    The overall objective is to study the mechanisms and the energy dependence of heavy ion fragmentation by studying the reactions of heavy ion projectiles (e.g. {sup 4}He, {sup 16}O, {sup 20}Ne, {sup 28}Si, {sup 56}Fe) in a variety of targets (H, He, C, Si, Cu, Pb) and at a number of beam energies exceeding 0.1 GeV/nucleon. The results have application to questions in high-energy nuclear astrophysics. Most of the discussion is on low-energy {sup 16}O,{sup 28}Si data analysis. The description includes analysis procedures and techniques, detector calibrations, data selections and normalizations. Cross section results for the analysis are also presented. 83 figs., 6 tabs., 73 refs.

  8. Nuclear interactions in high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State Univ. , Baton Rouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-01-11

    The overall objective is to study the mechanisms and the energy dependence of heavy ion fragmentation by studying the reactions of heavy ion projectiles (e.g. [sup 4]He, [sup 16]O, [sup 20]Ne, [sup 28]Si, [sup 56]Fe) in a variety of targets (H, He, C, Si, Cu, Pb) and at a number of beam energies exceeding 0.1 GeV/nucleon. The results have application to questions in high-energy nuclear astrophysics. Most of the discussion is on low-energy [sup 16]O,[sup 28]Si data analysis. The description includes analysis procedures and techniques, detector calibrations, data selections and normalizations. Cross section results for the analysis are also presented. 83 figs., 6 tabs., 73 refs.

  9. Toward practical application of functional conductive polymer binder for a high-energy lithium-ion battery design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Zhihui; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Meng; Shi, Feifei; Song, Xiangyun; Zheng, Ziyan; Zhou, Xin; Fu, Yanbao; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Zhi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zaghib, Karim; Liu, Gao

    2014-11-12

    Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this report, only 2% (by weight) functional conductive polymer binder without any conductive additives was successfully used with a micron-size silicon monoxide (SiO) anode material, demonstrating stable and high gravimetric capacity (>1000 mAh/g) for ∼500 cycles and more than 90% capacity retention. Prelithiation of this anode using stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) improves the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of a SiO/NMC full cell from ∼48% to ∼90%. The combination enables good capacity retention of more than 80% after 100 cycles at C/3 in a lithium-ion full cell.

  10. Comparison of models of high energy heavy ion collision. [0. 1 to 2. 0 GeV/nuo, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1977-10-01

    Some of the main theoretical developments on heavy ion collisions at energies (0.1 to 2.0) GeV/nuc are reviewed. The fireball, firestreak, hydrodynamic (1-fluid, 2-fluids), ''row on row'', hard sphere and intranuclear cascades, and classical equations of motion models are discussed in detail. Results are compared to each other and to measured Ne + U ..-->.. p + X reactions.

  11. 3D strain engineered self-rolled thin-film architecture for high-energy density lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbey, Griffin; Gong, Chen; Yu, Cynthia; Blythe, Clayton; Leite, Marina

    Recently, multiple 3D geometries have been implemented into energy storage devices (e . g . nanowire anodes and arrays of interdigitated rods) in order to better accommodate the large volume expansion experienced by the anode during lithiation and to increase the structure energy density. However, most approached structures are difficult to scale up. Here we show how self-rolled thin-films can maintain a high energy density and can potentially accommodate the volume expansion suffered by the anode. The self-rolled tubes are fabricated by physical deposition of the active layers, creating a stress gradient between thin-film stack due to differences in coefficient of thermal expansion. Upon a sacrificial layer removal, the thin-film rolls to relieve this built-in stress. We predict the final dimension of self-rolled battery tubes using known elastic properties of materials commonly used as the active layers of the device. We will discuss an appropriate figure-of-merit that defines how the winding process can ultimately affect the volumetric capacity of 3D self-rolled batteries.

  12. Formation of oxidizing species via irradiation of perchlorates using high-energy electrons and D 2 + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Parker B.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo

    2016-10-01

    The perchlorate ion (ClO4-) has garnered particular interest in recent years following the discovery of perchlorate salts in the Martian regolith at levels of 0.4-0.6 wt% by the Phoenix lander in 2006 and Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover in 2013. Due to their oxidizing properties, perchlorates are suspected to play a contributing role to the surprising lack of organics on the Martian surface. In this study, magnesium perchlorate hexahydrate (Mg(ClO4)2●6H2O) samples were irradiated with monoenergetic beams of 5 keV electrons and D2+ ions separately, sequentially, and simultaneously to simulate the effects of galactic cosmic ray exposure of perchlorates. The irradiation experiments were carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions at 50 K, after which the samples were slowly heated to 300 K (0.5 K min-1) while desorbing products were monitored by quadrupole mass spectrometry. In all cases, molecular oxygen (O2) was detected upon the onset of irradiation and again during the warmup phase. In the case of simultaneous irradiation, deuterated water (D2O) and deuterium peroxide (D2O2) were also detected as the sample was heated whereas in the D2+ experiment small amounts of D2O2 was found exclusively. When samples were irradiated sequentially, the production of D2O2 was dependent upon the sample being irradiated with D2+ ions prior to electrons. These experiments show that perchlorates are capable of producing multiple oxidizing agents (O2, D2O2) which may also account for the lack of organics on the Martian surface.

  13. Aqueous magnesium ion battery based on carbon-coated FeVO4 as anode and Mg-OMS-1 as cathode with high energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Cang, Ruibai; Yan, Jun; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-09-21

    The porous FeVO4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and further modified by coating carbon to obtain the FeVO4/C with hierarchical pore structure, which are used as anodic electrodes in aqueous rechargeable magnesium ion battery. And the FeVO4/C material can not only improve the electrical conductivity by coating a carbon layer but also increase the specific surface area by hierarchical pore structure, which is more beneficial for magnesium ion insertion/deinsertion. Therefore, the aqueous rechargeable magnesium ion full battery is successfully constructed by FeVO4/C as anode, Mg-OMS-1 as cathode and in 1.0 mol L-1 MgSO4 as electrolyte. The discharge capacity of Mg-OMS-1 // FeVO4/C aqueous battery can be obtained 58.9 mAh g-1 at the current density of 100 mA g-1 by calculating the total mass of two electrodes and the capacity retention rate of this device is 97.7% after 100 cycles with the nearly 100% coulombic efficiency, which indicates that the system owns a good electrochemical reversibility. More than that, this system can achieve a high energy density of 70.4 Wh kg-1, which provides a powerful evidence to make the aqueous magnesium ion battery possible. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Measurements of Coulomb Cross Section for Production of Direct Electron-pairs by High Energy Ions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    QED predicts copious direct electron pair production by ultrarelativistic heavy nuclei in a high Z medium such as nuclear emulsion. First order QED calculations (combined screening and non-screening) for this process show that 1000@+32 electron pairs above 100~keV energy) should be emitted for a total |1|6O track length of 10.9~m in nuclear emulsion at 200~GeV/AMU. Emulsion exposures with oxygen (and other nuclei if available) at 60 and 200~GeV/AMU will be used to calibrate the energy dependent cross section @s~@j~(1n~E)|2|-|3, whose exponent depends on atomic screening. The oxygen tracks in the developed emulsions will be scanned with a microscope, and the number of direct electron pairs will be counted for individual tracks. The exposed stacks will contain sufficient emulsion (and CR39 plastic to check for possible interactions) that adequate path length will be available for exposures to @$>$~10|4~ions at each energy and ion species. \\\\ \\\\ If the absolute value of this cross section is confirmed as large a...

  15. Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries for Stationary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48% exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48% showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes.

  16. Hydrodynamic modeling of a pure-glue initial scenario in high-energy hadron and heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Vovchenko, V; Niemi, H; Karpenko, Iu A; Gorenstein, M I; Satarov, L M; Mishustin, I N; Kämpfer, B; Stoecker, H

    2016-01-01

    Partonic matter produced in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is assumed to be composed mainly of gluons, and quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. The comparable hydrodynamic simulations of heavy-ion collisions for (2+1)-flavor and Yang-Mills equations of state performed by using three different hydrodynamic codes are presented. Assuming slow chemical equilibration of quarks, the spectra and elliptic flows of thermal dileptons and photons are calculated for central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV. It is shown that a suppression of quarks at early times leads to a significant reduction of the yield of the thermal dileptons, but only to a rather modest suppression of the $p_T$-distribution of direct photons. It is demonstrated that an enhancement of photon and dilepton elliptic flows might serve as a promising signature of the pure-glue initial state. Calculations based on Bjorken hydrodynamics suggest that collisions of small s...

  17. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. Annual report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multiple-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-ion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization.

  18. Insights into the Effects of Zinc Doping on Structural Phase Transition of P2-Type Sodium Nickel Manganese Oxide Cathodes for High-Energy Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuehang; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zhong, Guiming; Gong, Zhengliang; McDonald, Matthew J; Zheng, Shiyao; Fu, Riqiang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Yang, Yong

    2016-08-31

    P2-type sodium nickel manganese oxide-based cathode materials with higher energy densities are prime candidates for applications in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. A systematic study combining in situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), ex situ X-ray absorption fine spectroscopy (XAFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) techniques was carried out to gain a deep insight into the structural evolution of P2-Na0.66Ni0.33-xZnxMn0.67O2 (x = 0, 0.07) during cycling. In situ HEXRD and ex situ TEM measurements indicate that an irreversible phase transition occurs upon sodium insertion-extraction of Na0.66Ni0.33Mn0.67O2. Zinc doping of this system results in a high structural reversibility. XAFS measurements indicate that both materials are almost completely dependent on the Ni(4+)/Ni(3+)/Ni(2+) redox couple to provide charge/discharge capacity. SS-NMR measurements indicate that both reversible and irreversible migration of transition metal ions into the sodium layer occurs in the material at the fully charged state. The irreversible migration of transition metal ions triggers a structural distortion, leading to the observed capacity and voltage fading. Our results allow a new understanding of the importance of improving the stability of transition metal layers.

  19. Bendable and thin sulfide solid electrolyte film: a new electrolyte opportunity for free-standing and stackable high-energy all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young Jin; Cho, Sung-Ju; Oh, Dae Yang; Lim, Jun-Muk; Kim, Sung Youb; Song, Jun Ho; Lee, Young-Gi; Lee, Sang-Young; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2015-05-13

    Bulk-type all-solid-state lithium batteries (ASLBs) are considered a promising candidate to outperform the conventional lithium-ion batteries. Unfortunately, the current technology level of ASLBs is in a stage of infancy in terms of cell-based (not electrode-material-based) energy densities and scalable fabrication. Here, we report on the first ever bendable and thin sulfide solid electrolyte films reinforced with a mechanically compliant poly(paraphenylene terephthalamide) nonwoven (NW) scaffold, which enables the fabrication of free-standing and stackable ASLBs with high energy density and high rate capabilities. The ASLB, using a thin (∼70 μm) NW-reinforced SE film, exhibits a 3-fold increase of the cell-energy-density compared to that of a conventional cell without the NW scaffold.

  20. Lattice damage and waveguide properties of medium- and high-energy C3+ ions-irradiated LaAlO3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mei; Wang, Tie-Jun; Song, Hong-Lian; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yong; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Huai-Jin; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate irradiation effects of LaAlO3 crystals, planar waveguides were fabricated via the medium- and high-energy C3+ ions irradiation. The characterizations of waveguides showed that irradiation at different conditions induced diverse variations of the number of guiding modes, refractive index profiles and lattice damage. Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectra in combination with X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectra was used to probe the lattice damage distributions in the near surface of irradiated areas, where the electronic energy loss is predominant. The annealing process with the restoring of the lattice damage to some extent was investigated at temperatures ranging from 533 to 773 K. Meanwhile, as a crucial element of integrated optics and optoelectronics, the light propagation properties of optical waveguide were also investigated. These enable a feasible application of LaAlO3 in integrated optical system.

  1. Formation of surface nanostructures on rutile (TiO2): comparative study of low-energy cluster ion and high-energy monoatomic ion impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popok, V. N.; Jensen, J.; Vučković, S.; Mackova, A.; Trautmann, C.

    2009-10-01

    The formation of nanostructures on rutile (TiO2) surfaces formed after the implantation of kiloelectronvolt-energy Ar_n^+ cluster ions and megaelectronvolt- to gigaelectronvolt-energy multiply charged heavy ions (Iq+, Taq+ and Uq+) is studied. Despite the differences in stopping and energy transfer mechanisms between the kiloelectronvolt-energy cluster ions and megaelectronvolt-energy monoatomic ions, their impacts lead to a similar type of surface damage, namely craters. For the cluster ion implantation the craters are caused by the multiple-collision effect (dominated by nuclear stopping) and the high density of energy and momentum transferred to the target, while for the case of megaelectronvolt multiply charged ions the craters are probably formed due to the Coulomb explosion and fast energy transfer caused by the electronic stopping. At ion energies in the gigaelectronvolt range, nanosize protrusions, so-called hillocks, are observed on the surface. It is suggested that electronic stopping leads to the formation of continuous tracks and the transferred energy is high enough to melt the material along the whole projectile path. Elastic rebound of the tension between the molten and solid state phases leads to liquid flow, expansion and quenching of the melt, thus forming the hillocks. Atomic force microscopy measurements carried out under different environmental conditions (temperature and atmosphere) suggest that the damaged material at the nanosize impact spots has very different water affinity properties (higher hydrophilicity or water adsorption) compared with the non-irradiated rutile surface.

  2. Countering the Segregation of Transition-Metal Ions in LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 Cathode for Ultralong Life and High-Energy Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Fang, Shaohua; Tamiya, Yu; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    High-voltage layered lithium transition-metal oxides are very promising cathodes for high-energy Li-ion batteries. However, these materials often suffer from a fast degradation of cycling stability due to structural evolutions. It seriously impedes the large-scale application of layered lithium transition-metal oxides. In this work, an ultralong life LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 microspherical cathode is prepared by constructing an Mn-rich surface. Its capacity retention ratio at 700 mA g(-1) is as large as 92.9% after 600 cycles. The energy dispersive X-ray maps of electrodes after numerous cycles demonstrate that the ultralong life of the as-prepared cathode is attributed to the mitigation of TM-ions segregation. Additionally, it is discovered that layered lithium transition-metal oxide cathodes with an Mn-rich surface can mitigate the segregation of TM ions and the corrosion of active materials. This study provides a new strategy to counter the segregation of TM ions in layered lithium transition-metal oxides and will help to the design and development of high-energy cathodes with ultralong life.

  3. Comparison of the effects of high energy carbon heavy ion irradiation and Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. on biosynthesis butyric acid efficiency in Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Shu-Yang; Lu, Xi-Hong; Liang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of butyric acid. In this work, using high-energy carbon heavy ion irradiated C. tyrobutyricum, then butyric acid fermentation using glucose or alkali and acid pretreatments of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. as a carbon source was carried out. Initially, the modes at pH 5.7-6.5 and 37°C were compared using a model medium containing glucose as a carbon source. When the 72gL(-1) glucose concentration was found to be the highest yield, the maximum butyric acid production from glucose increased significantly, from 24gL(-1) for the wild type strains to 37gL(-1) for the strain irradiated at 126AMeV and a dose of 35Gy and a 10(7)ions/pulse. By feeding 100gL(-1) acid pretreatments of E. ulmoides Oliv. into the fermentations, butyrate yields (5.8gL(-1)) and butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio (4.32) were achieved.

  4. The distribution of InCl sub x compounds in model polymeric LEDs A combined low and high-energy ion beam analysis study

    CERN Document Server

    Reijme, M A; Simons, D P L; Schok, M; Ijzendoorn, L J V; Brongersma, H H; De Voigt, M J A

    2002-01-01

    A combination of low- and high-energy ion beam analysis techniques was used to determine the distribution of indium chloride compounds in model polymeric light-emitting diodes (p-LEDs). Parts of polymeric LEDs (polydialkoxyphenylenevinylene (OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrates) were exposed to a HCl/Ar flow to simulate the processes occurring during conversion of precursor PPVs and acid treatment of polymers. Samples with variable exposure times as well as pristine samples were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The RBS measurements show that after HCl exposure indium is distributed throughout the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. LEIS and XPS measurements indicate that the indium and chlorine are present at the outermost surface of the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. PIXE measurements in combination with the RBS data demonstrate that th...

  5. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  6. Insights into the Effects of Zinc Doping on Structural Phase Transition of P2-Type Sodium Nickel Manganese Oxide Cathodes for High-Energy Sodium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xuehang; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zhong, Guiming; Gong, Zhengliang; McDonald, Matthew J.; Zheng, Shiyao; Fu, Riqiang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Yang, Yong

    2016-08-31

    P2-type sodium nickel manganese oxide-based cathode materials with higher energy densities are prime candidates for applications in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. A systematic study combining in situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), ex situ Xray absorption fine spectroscopy (XAFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) techniques was carried out to gain a deep insight into the structural evolution of P2-Na0.66Ni0.33-xZnxMn0.67O2 (x = 0, 0.07) during cycling. In situ HEXRD and ex situ TEM measurements indicate that an irreversible phase transition occurs upon sodium insertion-extraction of Na0.66Ni0.33Mn0.67O2. Zinc doping of this system results in a high structural reversibility. XAFS measurements indicate that both materials are almost completely dependent on the Ni4+/Ni3+/ Ni2+ redox couple to provide charge/discharge capacity. SS-NMR measurements indicate that both reversible and irreversible migration of transition metal ions into the sodium layer occurs in the material at the fully charged state. The irreversible migration of transition metal ions triggers a structural distortion, leading to the observed capacity and voltage fading. Our results allow a new understanding of the importance of improving the stability of transition metal layers.

  7. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  8. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  9. High-energy lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors composed of hierarchical urchin-like WO3/C anodes and MOF-derived polyhedral hollow carbon cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Cai, Qifa; Li, Qingwei; Gao, Biao; Zhang, Xuming; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-22

    A lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitor (Li-HSC) comprising a Li-ion battery type anode and an electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) type cathode has attracted much interest because it accomplishes a large energy density without compromising the power density. In this work, hierarchical carbon coated WO3 (WO3/C) with a unique mesoporous structure and metal-organic framework derived nitrogen-doped carbon hollow polyhedra (MOF-NC) are prepared and adopted as the anode and the cathode for Li-HSCs. The hierarchical mesoporous WO3/C microspheres assembled by radially oriented WO3/C nanorods along the (001) plane enable effective Li(+) insertion, thus exhibit high capacity, excellent rate performance and a long cycling life due to their high Li(+) conductivity, electronic conductivity and structural robustness. The WO3/C structure shows a reversible specific capacity of 508 mA h g(-1) at a 0.1 C rate (1 C = 696 mA h g(-1)) after 160 discharging-charging cycles with excellent rate capability. The MOF-NC achieved the specific capacity of 269.9 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.2 A g(-1). At a high current density of 6 A g(-1), 92.4% of the initial capacity could be retained after 2000 discharging-charging cycles, suggesting excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC comprising a WO3/C anode and a MOF-NC cathode boasts a large energy density of 159.97 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 173.6 W kg(-1) and 88.3% of the capacity is retained at a current density of 5 A g(-1) after 3000 charging-discharging cycles, which are better than those previously reported for Li-HSCs. The high energy and power densities of the Li-HSCs of WO3/C//MOF-NC render large potential in energy storage.

  10. Nano-sized Mo- and Nb-doped TiO2 as anode materials for high energy and high power hybrid Li-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Dustin; Roberts, Alexander J.; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2017-05-01

    Nano-sized Mo-doped titania (Mo0.1Ti0.9O2) and Nb-doped titania (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2) were directly synthesized via a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process. Materials characterization was conducted using physical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurements and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors were made with either a Mo-doped or Nb-doped TiO2 negative electrode material and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrode. Cells were evaluated using electrochemical testing (cyclic voltammetry, constant charge discharge cycling). The hybrid Li-ion capacitors showed good energy densities at moderate power densities. When cycled in the potential window 0.5-3.0 V, the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor showed the highest energy densities of 51 Wh kg-1 at a power of 180 W kg-1 with energy densities rapidly declining with increasing applied specific current. In comparison, the Nb0.25Ti0.75O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor maintained its energy density of 45 Wh kg-1 at 180 W kg-1 better, showing 36 Wh g-1 at 3200 W kg-1, which is a very promising mix of high energy and power densities. Reducing the voltage window to the range 1.0-3.0 V led to an increase in power density, with the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor giving energy densities of 12 Wh kg-1 and 2.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 6700 W kg-1 and 14 000 W kg-1, respectively.

  11. High-energy tail of the linear momentum distribution in the ground state of hydrogen atoms or hydrogen-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oks, E. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States)

    2001-06-14

    A long-standing dispute concerning the high-energy tail of the linear momentum distribution (HTMD) in the ground state of hydrogen atoms/hydrogen-like ions (GSHA) has been unresolved up to now. A possible resolution of the above dispute might be connected to the problem of the role of singular solutions of quantal equations, which is a fundamental problem in its own right. The paradigm is that, even allowing for finite nuclear sizes, singular solutions of the Dirac equation for the Coulomb problem should be rejected for nuclear charges Z<1/{alpha}{approx}137. In this paper we break this paradigm. First, we derive a general condition for matching a regular interior solution with a singular exterior solution of the Dirac equation for arbitrary interior and exterior potentials. Then we find explicit forms of several classes of potentials that allow such a match. Finally, we show that, as an outcome, the HTMD for the GSHA acquires terms falling off much slower than the 1/p{sup 6}-law prescribed by the previously adopted quantal result. Our results open up a unique way to test intimate details of the nuclear structure by performing atomic (rather than nuclear) experiments and calculations. (author)

  12. A polyaniline-coated mechanochemically synthesized tin oxide/graphene nanocomposite for high-power and high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Zhao, Bote; Ran, Ran; Shao, Zongping

    2015-09-01

    Although intensive efforts have been made during the past decades, development of an anode material with high specific capacity and stable cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using a cost-effective preparation method still remains challenging. Herein, we report a polyaniline (PANI)-coated mechanochemically synthesized SnO2/graphene (SG) nanocomposite via in situ polymerization. PANI-coated nanocomposites are successfully prepared with different raw material mass ratios (aniline:SG, 0.15:1, 0.2:1, 0.25:1). The nanocomposite with initial aniline:SG mass ratio of 0.2:1 (20%PANI-SG) contains an optimal structure housing genuine PANI nanofibers as conductive bridges and a relatively high surface area of 158.5 m2 g-1; furthermore, it exhibits a stable cycling performance over 100 cycles at high current density (1000 mA g-1) with a specific capacity of more than twice that of the starting SG electrode at the 100th cycle. Additionally, this material achieved an outstanding cycling rate with current densities changing stepwise from 100 to 3000 mA g-1 and back, and exhibited a specific capacity of 467 mA h g-1 even at 2000 mA g-1. In terms of the electrochemical stability, rate capability and cost-effective preparation process, the PANI-SG nanocomposite is a viable anode material for next-generation high-power and high-energy LIBs.

  13. Effect of medium recoil and $p_T$ broadening on single inclusive jet suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhang, Han-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Jet energy loss and single inclusive jet suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are studied within a pQCD parton model that includes both elastic and radiative interactions between jet shower and medium partons as they propagate through the quark-gluon plasma. The collisional energy loss of jets with a given cone-size is found to be relatively small comparing with the radiative energy loss. However the effect of transverse momentum broadening due to elastic scattering is significant in the calculation of radiative energy loss within the higher-twist formalism. The nuclear modification factors for single inclusive jets with different cone-sizes are calculated and compared to experimental data as measured by ALICE and ATLAS experiments in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV. Results on jet suppression in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV are also presented.

  14. High energy density of Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C cathode material with high rate cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zong-Lin; Deng, Jian-Qiu; Pan, Jin; Luo, Wen-Bin; Yao, Qing-Rong; Wang, Zhong-Min; Zhou, Huai-Ying; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2017-07-01

    A serials of micro-sized Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C composite has been synthesized by sol-gel method, comprised of numerous primary nanocrystals. This structure can efficiently facilitate lithium-ion transport in secondary aggregated individual particles due to the short diffusion distance among primary nanocrystals, along with a high tap density. With the increasing of Na doping content, the structure evolution occurs in Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3 from a single-phase structure to a two-phase structure. The appearance of rhombohedral phase can provide a larger free volume of the interstitial space, fastening ionic movement to offer an excellent high rate capability. Furthermore, Na doping can stabilize the rhombohedral structure of the V2(PO4)3 framework, leading to the remarkable cycling stability. Among all the composites, Li2.6Na0.4V2(PO4)3/C presents the best electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 478.8 Wh kg-1, delivering high initial discharge capacities of 121.6, 113.8 and 109.7 mAh g-1 at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V, respectively. It also exhibit an excellent high rate cycling performance, with capacity retention of 85.9 %, 81.7 % and 76.5 % after 1000 cycles at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V.

  15. Improvement of high T{sub c} superconductor by near-optimum pinning centers created by high Z, high-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy, E-mail: Weinstein@uh.edu [Texas Center for Superconductivity, Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. 1, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Mayes, Billy [Texas Center for Superconductivity, Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. 1, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Damage tracks left by high Z, high-energy ions in high temperature superconductor (HTS) can serve the need to pin in place the magnetic field quanta. Such pinning centers (PCs) can serve to dramatically increase the critical current density, J{sub c}. Specific energy loss, S{sub e}, which is effective in the YBCO superconductor (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) lies in the range 0.7 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To S{sub e} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 3.5 keV/A. At 77 K, a sharp peak in J{sub c} occurs at S{sub e} {approx} 2.1 keV/A, for fluences of 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, where record in-field J{sub c} is achieved in large-grain YBCO. For example, J{sub c} = 340 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, applied field of 1 T. At closely similar conditions record in-field J{sub c} is achieved in thick coated conductor, e.g., J{sub c} = 543 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, 1 T. When corrected to the optimum S{sub e}, this J{sub c} increases to 770 kA/cm{sup 2}. These near-optimum PCs have very small diameter of damage (d{sub d} {approx} 6.6 nm) close to the value, predicted theoretically. However, they are very discontinuous, whereas theory predicts that continuous columnar PCs are the best to obtain high J{sub c}. We find that the advantages of discontinuous PCs at S{sub e} = 2.1 keV/A, are (a) a factor of 12 less damage to the HTS (resulting in improved percolation and T{sub c}) and (b) entanglement of fluxoids (even for parallel PCs). This results in five times higher J{sub c} than can be achieved with continuous columnar PCs. In large-grain HTS, these pinning centers increase J{sub c} by a factor of 17, indicating that the dominant reduction of J{sub c} in large-grain HTS is due not to weak links, voids, non-optimum oxygenation, etc., but to a dearth of pinning centers.

  16. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join

  17. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Sections of H, He, N, O, Ar, Xe, Au, Pb Atoms and Their Ions in the Electron Energy Range from the Threshold up to 200 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Povyshev, V M; Shevelko, V P; Shirkov, G D; Vasina, E G; Vatulin, V V

    2001-01-01

    Single electron-impact ionization cross sections of H, He, N, O, Ar, Xe, Au, Pb atoms and their positive ions (i.e. all ionization stages) are presented in the electron energy range from the threshold up to 200 keV. The data-set for the cross sections has been created on the basis of available experimental data and calculations performed by the computer code ATOM. Consistent data for the ionization cross sections have been fitted by seven parameters using the LSM method. The accuracy of the calculated data presented is within a factor of 2 that in many cases is sufficient to solve the plasma kinetics problems. Contributions from excitation-autoionization and resonant-ionization processes as well as ionization of atoms and ions are not considered here. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the well-known Lotz formulae for ionization of neutral atoms and positive ions. The material is illustrated by figures and includes tables of ionization cross sections, binding energies and fitting para...

  18. High energy astrophysical neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Athar, H.

    2002-01-01

    High energy neutrinos with energy typically greater than tens of thousands of GeV may originate from several astrophysical sources. The sources may include, for instance, our galaxy, the active centers of nearby galaxies, as well as possibly the distant sites of gamma ray bursts. I briefly review some aspects of production and propagation as well as prospects for observations of these high energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  19. Experimental simulation of radiation damage of polymers in space applications by cosmic-ray-type high energy heavy ions and the resulting changes in optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, U. H.; Ensinger, W.

    2015-12-01

    Devices operating in space, e.g. in satellites, are being hit by cosmic rays. These include so-called HZE-ions, with High mass (Z) and energy (E). These highly energetic heavy ions penetrate deeply into the materials and deposit a large amount of energy, typically several keV per nm range. Serious damage is created. In space vehicles, polymers are used which are degraded under ion bombardment. HZE ion irradiation can experimentally be simulated in large scale accelerators. In the present study, the radiation damage of aliphatic vinyl- and fluoro-polymers by heavy ions with energies in the GeV range is described. The ions cause bond scission and create volatile small molecular species, leading to considerable mass loss of the polymers. Since hydrogen, oxygen and fluorine-containing molecules are created and these elements are depleted, the remaining material is carbon-richer than the original polymers and contains conjugated CC double bonds. This process is investigated by measuring the optical band gap with UV-Vis absorption spectrometry as a function of ion fluence. The results show how the optical band gaps shift from the UV into the Vis region upon ion irradiation for the different polymers.

  20. Experimental simulation of radiation damage of polymers in space applications by cosmic-ray-type high energy heavy ions and the resulting changes in optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, U.H.; Ensinger, W., E-mail: ensinger@ca.tu-darmstadt.de

    2015-12-15

    Devices operating in space, e.g. in satellites, are being hit by cosmic rays. These include so-called HZE-ions, with High mass (Z) and energy (E). These highly energetic heavy ions penetrate deeply into the materials and deposit a large amount of energy, typically several keV per nm range. Serious damage is created. In space vehicles, polymers are used which are degraded under ion bombardment. HZE ion irradiation can experimentally be simulated in large scale accelerators. In the present study, the radiation damage of aliphatic vinyl- and fluoro-polymers by heavy ions with energies in the GeV range is described. The ions cause bond scission and create volatile small molecular species, leading to considerable mass loss of the polymers. Since hydrogen, oxygen and fluorine-containing molecules are created and these elements are depleted, the remaining material is carbon-richer than the original polymers and contains conjugated CC double bonds. This process is investigated by measuring the optical band gap with UV–Vis absorption spectrometry as a function of ion fluence. The results show how the optical band gaps shift from the UV into the Vis region upon ion irradiation for the different polymers.

  1. Large modification in insulator-metal transition of VO{sub 2} films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) by high energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhan, Nurul Hanis; Okimura, Kunio, E-mail: okifn@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, Hiratsuka 259-1292 (Japan); Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Shin-ichi [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2016-02-07

    High energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering enabled significant modification of insulator-metal transition (IMT) properties of VO{sub 2} films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001). Even at a high biasing voltage with mean ion energy of around 325 eV induced by the rf substrate biasing power of 40 W, VO{sub 2} film revealed low IMT temperature (T{sub IMT}) at 309 K (36 °C) together with nearly two orders magnitude of resistance change. Raman measurements from −193 °C evidenced that the monoclinic VO{sub 2} lattice begins to transform to rutile-tetragonal lattice near room temperature. Raman spectra showed the in-plane compressive stress in biased VO{sub 2} films, which results in shortening of V–V distance along a-axis of monoclinic structure, a{sub M}-axis (c{sub R}-axis) and thus lowering the T{sub IMT}. In respect to that matter, significant effects in shortening the in-plane axis were observed through transmission electron microscopy observations. V2p{sub 3/2} spectra from XPS measurements suggested that high energy ion irradiation also induced oxygen vacancies and resulted for an early transition onset and rather broader transition properties. Earlier band gap closing against the temperature in VO{sub 2} film with higher biasing power was also probed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Present results with significant modification of IMT behavior of films deposited at high-energy ion irradiation with T{sub IMT} near the room temperature could be a newly and effective approach to both exploring mechanisms of IMT and further applications of this material, due to the fixed deposition conditions and rather thicker VO{sub 2} films.

  2. Mass and Double-Beta-Decay Q Value of Xe136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Matthew; Wingfield, Elizabeth; McDaniel, Joseph; Myers, Edmund G.

    2007-02-01

    The atomic mass of Xe136 has been measured by comparing cyclotron frequencies of single ions in a Penning trap. The result, with 1 standard deviation uncertainty, is M(Xe136)=135.907 214 484 (11) u. Combined with previous results for the mass of Ba136 [Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault, Nucl. Phys. A 729, 337 (2003)NUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003], this gives a Q value (M[Xe136]-M[Ba136])c2=2457.83(37)keV, sufficiently precise for ongoing searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Xe136.

  3. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  4. Preparation of Sn-Si-C Composite as Li-ion Battery Anode Material by High Energy Ball Milling and Its Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-hong; LIU Yuan; QIUXin-ping

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemically active Sn-Si-C composite was synthesized by high energy ball milling (HEBM) in Ar atmosphere.The so-obtained composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Lithium insertion/extraction characteristics of the composites were examined by constant current charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry methods.The results show that there is no new alloy generated by HEBM.The composite synthesized by two-step HEBM resulted in initial lithium insertion specific capacity as high as 1224 mA.h/g and higher reversible lithium extraction specific capacity of 855 mA.h/g.

  5. Xe anions in stable Mg-Xe compounds: the mechanism of missing Xe in earth atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Mao-sheng

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of noble gas elements is important for both fundamental chemistry and geological science. The discovery of the oxidation of Xe extended the doctrinal boundary of chemistry that a complete shell is inert to reaction. The oxidations of Xe by various geological substances have been researched in order to explain the missing Xe in earth atmosphere. Among many proposals, the chemistry mechanisms are straightforward as they identify chemical processes that can capture Xe in earth interior. However, all the mechanisms based on current noble gas chemistry face the same difficulty: the earth lower mantle and core are rich in metals and therefore their chemical environment is reductive. On the other hand, up till now, the opposite chemical inclination, the reductive propensity, i.e. gaining electrons and forming anions, has not been proposed and examined for noble gas elements. In this work, we demonstrate, using first principles calculations and an efficient structure prediction method, that Xe and Kr c...

  6. High-Energy Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Experimentalists in particle physics have long regarded computers as essential components of their apparatus. Theorists are now finding that significant advances in some areas can be accomplished only in partnership with a machine. Needs of experimentalists, interests of theorists, and specialized computers for high-energy experiments are…

  7. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  8. Hyperpolarized 131Xe NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupic, Karl F.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 131Xe with up to 2.2% spin polarization (i.e., 5000-fold signal enhancement at 9.4 T) was obtained after separation from the rubidium vapor of the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process. The SEOP was applied for several minutes in a stopped-flow mode, and the fast, quadrupolar-driven T1 relaxation of this spin I = 3/2 noble gas isotope required a rapid subsequent rubidium removal and swift transfer into the high magnetic field region for NMR detection. Because of the xenon density dependent 131Xe quadrupolar relaxation in the gas phase, the SEOP polarization build-up exhibits an even more pronounced dependence on xenon partial pressure than that observed in 129Xe SEOP. 131Xe is the only stable noble gas isotope with a positive gyromagnetic ratio and shows therefore a different relative phase between hp signal and thermal signal compared to all other noble gases. The gas phase 131Xe NMR spectrum displays a surface and magnetic field dependent quadrupolar splitting that was found to have additional gas pressure and gas composition dependence. The splitting was reduced by the presence of water vapor that presumably influences xenon-surface interactions. The hp 131Xe spectrum shows differential line broadening, suggesting the presence of strong adsorption sites. Beyond hp 131Xe NMR spectroscopy studies, a general equation for the high temperature, thermal spin polarization, P, for spin I⩾1/2 nuclei is presented.

  9. Study of high energy (MeV) N{sup 6+} ion and gamma radiation induced modifications in low density polyethylene (LDPE) polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Ramandeep Kaur [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, Paramjit [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110078 (India); Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110078 (India); Department of Physics, Aggarwal College, Ballabgarh 121004 Faridabad (India); Singh, Surinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110078 (India)

    2013-04-15

    The optical and structural response of low density polyethylene (LDPE) under the influence of 80 MeV N{sup 6+} ion at various fluences (5 × 10{sup 11} to 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) and gamma rays at doses 100 and 1000 kGy were studied using UV–Vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical absorption spectra of N{sup 6+} ion irradiated LDPE showed a shift in the absorption edge towards higher wavelength side, which indicated a significant decrease in the direct and indirect band gaps of the films. The optical data showed decrease in the calculated band gap with increasing gamma dose. The diffraction pattern of pristine sample showed the semi crystalline nature of the polymer. The decrease in peak intensity and hence increase in amorphous nature was observed in N{sup 6+} ion irradiated samples. The opposite behavior is seen in case of gamma ray exposed samples at 100 kGy dose. The crystallite size (L) decreased but the other factors like interchain separation (R), interplanar distance (d), micro strain (ε), dislocation density (δ) and distortion parameters (g) increased for N{sup 6+} ion irradiated samples.

  10. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel......-Manganese-Cobalt (NMC) based Li-ion battery cell was performed under different operating conditions: state-of-charge (SOC) levels, charge/discharge current rates and operating temperatures. Moreover, by carrying out accelerated cycle ageing tests on a total of nine NMC-based Li-ion battery cells, the effect of ageing...

  11. Development of a long-pulse (30-s), high-energy (120-keV) ion source for neutral-beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Multimegawatt neutral beams of hydrogen or deuterium atoms are needed for fusion machine applications such as MFTB-B, TFTR-U, DIII-U, and FED (INTOR or ETR). For these applications, a duoPIGatron ion source is being developed to produce high-brightness deuterium beams at a beam energy of approx. 120 keV for pulse lengths up to 30 s. A long-pulse plasma generator with active water cooling has been operated at an arc level of 1200 A with 30-s pulse durations. The plasma density and uniformity are sufficient for supplying a 60-A beam of hydrogen ions to a 13- by 43-cm accelerator. A 10- by 25-cm tetrode accelerator has been operated to form 120-keV hydrogen ion beams. Using the two-dimensional (2-D) ion extraction code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a 13- by 43-cm tetrode accelerator has been designed and is being fabricated. The aperture shapes of accelerator grids are optimized for 120-keV beam energy.

  12. A Metal-Organic Compound as Cathode Material with Superhigh Capacity Achieved by Reversible Cationic and Anionic Redox Chemistry for High-Energy Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chun; Huang, Ying; Yuan, Lixia; Liu, Yaojun; Chen, Weilun; Huang, Yangyang; Chen, Kongyao; Han, Jiantao; Liu, Qingju; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-06-06

    Although sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as alternatives to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the electrochemical performances, in particular the energy density, are much lower than LIBs. A metal-organic compound, cuprous 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (CuTCNQ), is presented as a new kind of cathode material for SIBs. It consists of both cationic (Cu(II) ↔Cu(I) ) and anionic (TCNQ(0) ↔TCNQ(-) ↔ TCNQ(2-) ) reversible redox reactions, delivering a discharge capacity as high as 255 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 20 mA g(-1) . The synergistic effect of both redox-active metal cations and organic anions brings an electrochemical transfer of multiple electrons. The transformation of cupric ions to cuprous ions occurs at near 3.80 V vs. Na(+) /Na, while the full reduction of TCNQ(0) to TCNQ(-) happens at 3.00-3.30 V. The remarkably high voltage is attributed to the strong inductive effect of the four cyano groups. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  14. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  15. Studies on NaXe Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chemical shift of 23Na in excimer NaXe was measured by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by ab initio calculations. The bond length, dissociation energy, dipole of NaXe and Mulliken charges at Na and Xe in NaXe were calculated, respectively. The spectra of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of NaXe were also measured.

  16. Investigating correlated few-electron dynamics and QED contributions by means of dielectronic recombination into highly-charged Fe, Kr, Xe, Ba, W, and Hg ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Z.; Maeckel, V.; Martinez Gonzalez, A.J.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Jentschura, U.D.; Keitel, C.H.; Postavaru, O.; Tawara, H.; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Artemyev, A.N.; Tupitsyn, I.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); St. Petersburg State University, Oulianovskaya 1, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    The photorecombination of highly charged He- to B-like ions has been explored in the atomic number range Z=26 to 80 with the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap. The energies of state-selected dielectronic recombination (DR) resonances were determined over the KLL region. At the present level of experimental accuracy, it becomes possible to make a detailed comparison to vario us theoretical approaches and methods, all of which include relativistic and quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects. Theoretical resonance energies for KLL DR are calculated by various means. The comparison of theoretical values with the experimental energies shows a good overall agreement. Few discrepancies are found in specific recombination resonances for initially Li- and Be-like heavy ions.

  17. 129Xe NMR studies of biochar made from biobased materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is created by pyrolysis of biobased materials under controlled oxidative environments. The product is charcoal-like and can be used as filtration medium, sequestrant for metallic ions, soil conditioner, and other applications. In our work we have found 129Xe NMR to be an excellent technique...

  18. Imaging Thomson scattering measurements of radiatively heated Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, B; Meinecke, J; Kuschel, S; Ross, J S; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Tynan, G R

    2012-05-01

    Uniform density and temperature Xe plasmas have been produced over >4 mm scale-lengths using x-rays generated in a cylindrical Pb cavity. The cavity is 750 {micro}m in depth and diameter, and is heated by a 300 J, 2 ns square, 1054 nm laser pulse focused to a spot size of 200 {micro}m at the cavity entrance. The plasma is characterized by simultaneous imaging Thomson scattering measurements from both the electron and ion scattering features. The electron feature measurement determines the spatial electron density and temperature profile, and using these parameters as constraints in the ion feature analysis allows an accurate determination of the charge state of the Xe ions. The Thomson scattering probe beam is 40 J, 200 ps, and 527 nm, and is focused to a 100 {micro}m spot size at the entrance of the Pb cavity. Each system has a spatial resolution of 25 {micro}m, a temporal resolution of 200 ps (as determined by the probe duration), and a spectral resolution of 2 nm for the electron feature system and 0.025 nm for the ion feature system. The experiment is performed in a Xe filled target chamber at a neutral pressure of 3-10 Torr, and the x-rays produced in the Pb ionize and heat the Xe to a charge state of 20 {+-} 4 at up to 200 eV electron temperatures.

  19. On pseudorapidity distribution and speed of sound in high energy heavy ion collisions based on a new revised Landau hydrodynamic model

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new revised Landau hydrodynamic model to study systematically the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in heavy ion collisions over an energy range from a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon pair. The interacting system is divided into three sources namely the central, target, and projectile sources respectively. The large central source is described by the Landau hydrodynamic model and further revised by the contributions of the small target/projectile sources. In the calculation, to avoid the errors caused by an unapt conversion or non-division, the rapidity and pseudorapidity distributions are obtained respectively. The modeling results are in agreement with the available experimental data at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), large hadron collider (LHC), and other energies for different centralities. The value of square speed of sound parameter in different collisions has been extracted by us from the widths of rapidity distributions. Our results show that, in heavy io...

  20. Freestanding rGO-SWNT-STN Composite Film as an Anode for Li Ion Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseup Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Freestanding Si-Ti-Ni alloy particles/reduced graphene oxide/single wall carbon nanotube composites have been prepared as an anode for lithium ion batteries via a simple filtration method. This composite electrode showed a 9% increase in reversible capacity, a two-fold higher cycle retention at 50 cycles and a two-fold higher rate capability at 2 C compared to pristine Si-Ti-Ni (STN alloy electrodes. These improvements were attributed to the suppression of the pulverization of the STN active material by the excellent mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide-single wall carbon nanotube networks and the enhanced kinetics associated with both electron and Li ion transport.

  1. Freestanding rGO-SWNT-STN Composite Film as an Anode for Li Ion Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taeseup; Choi, Junghyun; Paik, Ungyu

    2015-12-18

    Freestanding Si-Ti-Ni alloy particles/reduced graphene oxide/single wall carbon nanotube composites have been prepared as an anode for lithium ion batteries via a simple filtration method. This composite electrode showed a 9% increase in reversible capacity, a two-fold higher cycle retention at 50 cycles and a two-fold higher rate capability at 2 C compared to pristine Si-Ti-Ni (STN) alloy electrodes. These improvements were attributed to the suppression of the pulverization of the STN active material by the excellent mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide-single wall carbon nanotube networks and the enhanced kinetics associated with both electron and Li ion transport.

  2. Electron-emission processes in highly charged Ar and Xe ions impinging on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite at energies just above the kinetic threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-01-01

    At keV energies, many electronic processes contribute to the emission of secondary electrons in the interaction of highly charged ions on surfaces. To unravel contributions resulting from isolated hollow atoms in front of the surface or embedded in the electron gas of the target, heavy highly charge

  3. Electron-emission processes in highly charged Ar and Xe ions impinging on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite at energies just above the kinetic threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-01-01

    At keV energies, many electronic processes contribute to the emission of secondary electrons in the interaction of highly charged ions on surfaces. To unravel contributions resulting from isolated hollow atoms in front of the surface or embedded in the electron gas of the target, heavy highly

  4. The origin of the background radioactive isotope Xe-127 in the sample of Xe enriched in Xe-124

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Tekueva, D A; Yakimenko, S P

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigation of Xe-127 radioactive isotope production in the xenon sample enriched in Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128 are presented. The isotope is supposed to be the source of the background events in the low-background experiment on search for 2K-capture of Xe-124. In this work we consider two channels of Xe-127 production: the neutron knock-out from Xe-128 nucleus by cosmogenic muons and the neutron capture by Xe-126 nucleus. For the first channel the upper limit of the cross section of Xe-127 production was found to be sigma >= 0.007 barn at 95\\% C.L. For the second channel the value obtained for the cross section was found to be equal to sigma =(2.74+-0.4) barn, which coincides well, within the statistical error, with reference value.

  5. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  6. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  7. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  8. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  9. Towards high-energy and durable lithium-ion batteries via atomic layer deposition: elegantly atomic-scale material design and surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangbo

    2015-01-16

    Targeted at fueling future transportation and sustaining smart grids, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are undergoing intensive investigation for improved durability and energy density. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling uniform and conformal nanofilms, has recently made possible many new advances for superior LIBs. The progress was summarized by Liu and Sun in their latest review [1], offering many insightful views, covering the design of nanostructured battery components (i.e., electrodes and solid electrolytes), and nanoscale modification of electrode/electrolyte interfaces. This work well informs peers of interesting research conducted and it will also further help boost the applications of ALD in next-generation LIBs and other advanced battery technologies.

  10. Reactive magnetron sputtering of highly (001)-textured WS2-x films: Influence of Ne+, Ar+ and Xe+ ion bombardment on the film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmer, K.; Seeger, S.; Sieber, I.; Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Strub, E.; Mientus, R.

    2006-02-01

    Tungsten disulfide WS2 is a layer-type semi-conductor with an energy band gap and an absorption coefficient making it suitable as an absorber for thin film solar cells. In the article [1] WS2-x films were pre-pared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic tungsten target in Ar-H2S atmospheres.The cover figure shows in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns for films deposited at different substrate potentials, i.e. for deposition conditions with ion assistance at different ion energies. These spectra and the corresponding SEM photographs of the film morphology show the strong influence of the ion energy on the film growth. The crystallographic struc-ture of WS2-x is shown between the two SEM pictures.The first author, Klaus Ellmer, is working at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Dept. of Solar Energy Research. His research fields are thin film deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering for solar cells, plasma characterization, in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and electronic transport in transpar-ent conductive oxides.

  11. Characterization of defects in n-type 4H-SiC after high-energy N ion implantation by RBS-channeling and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummari, Venkata C.; Reinert, Tilo; Jiang, Weilin; McDaniel, Floyd D.; Rout, Bibhudutta

    2014-08-01

    Implantation with 1 MeV N ions was performed at room temperature in n-type 4H-SiC (0 0 0 1) at four implantation fluences (or doses in dpa (displacements per atom) at the damage peak) of 1.5 × 1013 (0.0034), 7.8 × 1013 (0.018), 1.5 × 1014 (0.034), and 7.8 × 1014 (0.178) ions/cm2, respectively. The evolution of disorder was studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode (RBS-C), Raman spectroscopy, and optical transmission. The disorder in the Si sub-lattice was found to be less than 10% for the dpa of 0.0034 and 0.0178 and increased to 40% and 60% for the dpa of 0.034 and 0.178 respectively. The normalized Raman intensity In, shows disorder of 41%, 69%, 77% and 100% for the dpa of 0.0034, 0.0178, 0.034 and 0.178, respectively. In this paper, the characterization of the defects produced due to the nitrogen implantation in 4H-SiC are presented and the results are discussed.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-01

    Monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li3V2(PO4)3 particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g-1 for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Deuterium retention in W and W-Re alloy irradiated with high energy Fe and W ions: Effects of irradiation temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hatano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutron irradiation to W induces defects acting as traps against hydrogen isotopes and transmutation elements such as Re and Os. To investigate synergetic effects on radiation-induced defects and Re, deuterium (D retention in W and W–5% Re samples were examined after irradiation with 6.4MeV Fe ions at 523–1273K followed by exposure to D2 gas at 673K. The value of D retention in W–5% Re was lower than that in W by orders of magnitude after the irradiation at high temperatures (≥1073K, while no significant effects of Re addition was observed after irradiation at 523K. Irradiation with 20MeV W ions at room temperature followed by exposure to D plasma at 443–743K also resulted in small difference in D retention between W and W–5% Re samples. The results of positron lifetime measurements showed that the reduced D retention by Re observed after high temperature irradiation was due to suppression of formation of vacancy-type defects (monovacancies and vacancy clusters by Re.

  14. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  15. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  16. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Technical progress report, 1 April 1991--31 March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wefel, J.P.

    1992-01-23

    This program was established for the purpose of studying projectile fragmentation; (1) as a function of energy, focusing first on the intermediate energy region, < 1 GeV/nucleon, where there have been few previous measurements and no systematic studies, and (2) as a function of projectile mass, starting with light beams and proceeding to species as heavy as nickel (and possibly beyond). The intermediate energy region is important as the transition between the lower energy data, where the interaction appears to be dominated by collective effects and the decay of excited nuclei, and the highest energy results, where nucleon-nucleon interactions are fundamental, ``limiting fragmentation`` applies, and the nucleus may well break-up before any de-excitation. The mass dependence of projectile fragmentation is largely unknown since most detailed work has involved light ion beams. Nuclear structure effects, for example, may well be quite prominent for heavier beams. Furthermore, the nuclear excitation functions for the production of different fragment isotopes have immediate application to the astrophysical interpretation of existing isotopic datasets obtained from balloon and satellite measurements of galactic cosmic rays.

  17. Li-rich Li-Si alloy as a lithium-containing negative electrode material towards high energy lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell.

  18. Self-Rearrangement of Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded in Micro-Carbon Sphere Framework for High-Energy and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min-Gi; Du, Hoang Long; Islam, Mobinul; Lee, Jung Kyoo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Jung, Hun-Gi

    2017-09-13

    Despite its highest theoretical capacity, the practical applications of the silicon anode are still limited by severe capacity fading, which is due to pulverization of the Si particles through volume change during charge and discharge. In this study, silicon nanoparticles are embedded in micron-sized porous carbon spheres (Si-MCS) via a facile hydrothermal process in order to provide a stiff carbon framework that functions as a cage to hold the pulverized silicon pieces. The carbon framework subsequently allows these silicon pieces to rearrange themselves in restricted domains within the sphere. Unlike current carbon coating methods, the Si-MCS electrode is immune to delamination. Hence, it demonstrates unprecedented excellent cyclability (capacity retention: 93.5% after 500 cycles at 0.8 A g(-1)), high rate capability (with a specific capacity of 880 mAh g(-1) at the high discharge current density of 40 A g(-1)), and high volumetric capacity (814.8 mAh cm(-3)) on account of increased tap density. The lithium-ion battery using the new Si-MCS anode and commercial LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode shows a high specific energy density above 300 Wh kg(-1), which is considerably higher than that of commercial graphite anodes.

  19. Understanding the interfacial phenomena of a 4.7 V and 55 °C Li-ion battery with Li-rich layered oxide cathode and grap2hite anode and its correlation to high-energy cycling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hieu Quang; Hwang, Eui-Hyung; Kwon, Young-Gil; Song, Seung-Wan

    2016-08-01

    Research progress of high-energy performance and interfacial phenomena of Li1.13Mn0.463Ni0.203Co0.203O2 cathode and graphite anode in a 55 °C full-cell under an aggressive charge cut-off voltage to 4.7 V (4.75 V vs. Li/Li+) is reported. Although anodic instability of conventional electrolyte is the critical issue on high-voltage and high-temperature cell operation, interfacial phenomena and the solution to performance improvement have not been reported. Surface spectroscopic evidence revealed that structural degradation of both cathode and anode materials, instability of surface film at cathode, and metal-dissolution from cathode and -deposition at anode, and a rise of interfacial resistance with high-voltage cycling in 55 °C conventional electrolyte are resolved by the formation of a stable surface film with organic/inorganic mixtures at cathode and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at anode using blended additives of fluorinated linear carbonate and vinylene carbonate. As a result, significantly improved cycling stability of 77% capacity retention delivering 227-174 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles is obtained, corresponding to 819-609 Wh per kg of cathode active material. Interfacial stabilization approach would pave the way of controlling the performance and safety, and widening the practical application of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials and high-voltage electrolyte materials in various high-energy density Li-ion batteries.

  20. Secondary particle simulation analysis of high-energy56Fe ion inject various shielding material%高能56Fe离子入射屏蔽材料的次级粒子模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荀明珠; 何承发; 陆妩; 郭旗; 孙静; 刘默寒; 曾骏哲; 王信

    2016-01-01

    Background: The heavy ion in the galaxy cosmos rays with extremely high energy can be fatal to the astronaut and electronic device in the spacecraft. Purpose:This study aims to analyze the secondary particles produced by high energy heavy ion inject shielding materials of spacecraft.Methods:Based on the Monte-Carlo method simulation software Geant4, 1-GeV·u−156Fe ion incident four kinds of shielding material aluminum, aluminum carbon, polyethylene and water with 1.35-g·cm−2 mass thickness have been studied. The energy deposition in the absorber and deep-dose distribution produced by the transmitted primary particles and secondary electrons, secondary neutrons, secondary protons and secondary gamma have been analyzed. All produced secondary heavy particles and energies from four kinds of shielding materials after injected high-energy 1-GeV·u−156Fe ion have been investigated, and the shielding performance was analyzed and compared.Results:Polyethylene material absorbs the most energy, thus preserve best shielding performance whilst majority of secondary particles and energies are produced. The energy of secondary heavy ion is quadruple of that produced by aluminum material.Conclusion: Among all the secondary particles, secondary protons and secondary heavy ions with atom number between 22 and 26 make the maximal contributions.%空间辐射环境下的高能重离子入射屏蔽材料会产生大量次级粒子,为研究屏蔽材料产生的次级粒子对太空舱内辐射环境的影响,本文使用基于蒙特卡罗方法的Geant4软件模拟空间高能56Fe离子入射铝、碳、聚乙烯、水4种屏蔽材料,分析透射屏蔽体的初级粒子及由屏蔽材料产生的次级电子、次级中子、次级质子和次级γ的能谱以及水吸收体中的能量沉积和深度剂量分布。分析产生的次级重粒子类型和能量,比较4种屏蔽材料对高能Fe离子的屏蔽性能。结果表明,聚乙烯材料对高能重离子的

  1. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  2. Setup and commissioning of a cryogenic system for the production of targets to be used in experiments with high energy lasers and heavy ion beams; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme einer Kryoanlage zur Targeterzeugung fuer Experimente mit Hochenergielasern und Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jurij Alexander

    2010-02-10

    Part of this work was the development of a cryogenic system to produce solid state targets out of nitrogen and rare gases but also hydrogen and deuterium. For target optimization a portable cryogenic test and development chamber has been set up, which can be used offline at different experimental places. Cryogenic targets with different geometries have been produced. Targets with a high aspect ratio having a thickness of only a few micrometers and transverse sizes of millimeters are of special interest for the envisioned investigations. Such targets permit the generation of laser plasmas with a high degree of homogeneity, thus enabling the measurement of the ion energy loss under well defined conditions. Nevertheless, high aspect ratio targets are technologically demanding. Thus, in view of energy loss experiments a simpler geometry has also been considered. Therefore, cryogenic nitrogen targets with cm sizes have been produced and irradiated by the nhelix high energy laser system. The free electron density of the generated plasma has been measured in the range up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The measured electron temperature was about 200 eV. The experimental results have been compared to computer simulations and analyzed. It turned out that simulation and experiment are in good agreement, but the free electron density was too low and inhomogeneous for reliable energy loss experiments. Therefore, further deuterium targets with a high aspect ratio but varying geometries have been produced. These targets have been probed by the UNILAC ion beam and it has been shown that the ion beam can penetrate through them. The targets have also been simultaneously irradiated by the high energy laser systems nhelix and Phelix. The free electron density inside the deuterium plasma has been measured and compared with computer simulations. As in the case of nitrogen plasmas a good agreement has been observed. A new measurement technique has been developed to characterize the target

  3. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  4. Electronic spectra of ArXe molecules in the region of Xe* (6s', 6p, 5d), 77 000-80 200 cm{sup -1}, using resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodorkovskii, M A; Murashov, S V [Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Artamonova, T O; Beliaeva, A A; Rakcheeva, L P [Russian scientific center Applied Chemistry, 197198, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pastor, A A; Serdobintsev, P Yu; Timofeev, N A; Shevkunov, I A; Dement' ev, I A [Saint-Petersburg State University, 198904, Petrodvorets (Russian Federation); Nordgren, J, E-mail: mkhodorkovskii@rscac.spb.r [Department of Physics, Fysiska Institutionen, Uppsala Universitet, Box 530, SE-751 21, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-14

    The excited electronic states of ArXe molecules in the region 77 000-80 200 cm{sup -1} were studied using the (2+1) and (3+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization methods. The use of different methods of multi-photon excitation and Ar{sup +} ion registration allowed us to obtain some new data. Molecular constants were obtained for previously unknown excited states of molecules with the following dissociation limits: ArXe* {yields} Ar{sup 1}S{sub 0}+Xe*6rcy[5/2]{sub 3} with {Omega} = 2, 3 symmetry; Ar{sup 1}S{sub 0}+Xe*6p[3/2]{sub 2} with {Omega} = 1, 2 symmetry; Xe{sup 0}S{sub 1} {yields} Xe*6s'[1/2]{sup 0}{sub 1} with {Omega} = 0{sup +} symmetry.

  5. Spectral and Atomic Physics Analysis of Xenon L-Shell Emission From High Energy Laser Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Daniel; Kemp, G. E.; Widmann, K.; Benjamin, R. D.; May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Liedahl, D.; Moore, A. S.; Blue, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of the L-shell (n =2) radiation in mid to high-Z ions is useful for probing plasma conditions in the multi-keV temperature range. Xenon in particular with its L-shell radiation centered around 4.5 keV is copiously produced from plasmas with electron temperatures in the 5-10 keV range. We report on a series of time-resolved L-shell Xe spectra measured with the NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) in high-energy long-pulse (>10 ns) laser produced plasmas at the National Ignition Facility. The resolving power of the NXS is sufficiently high (E/ ∂E >100) in the 4-5 keV spectral band that the emission from different charge states is observed. An analysis of the time resolved L-shell spectrum of Xe is presented along with spectral modeling by detailed radiation transport and atomic physics from the SCRAM code and comparison with predictions from HYDRA a radiation-hydrodynamics code with inline atomic-physics from CRETIN. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Vickers hardness measurement of ion implanted MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y. (TRCRE, JAERI, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-12 (Japan)); Rueck, D.M. (Materialforschung, UNILAC, GSI, D-6100, Darmstadt (Germany)); Vogt, D. (Materialforschung, UNILAC, GSI, D-6100, Darmstadt (Germany)); Leible, K. (Materialforschung, UNILAC, GSI, D-6100, Darmstadt (Germany)); Khubeis, I. (University of Jordan, P.O. Box 13097, Amman (Jordan)); Meyer, O. (INFP, KfK, D-7500, Karlsruhe 1 (Germany))

    1994-06-01

    The Vickers hardness was measured for single crystals of MgO(100) implanted with 130 keV or 1.8 MeV Ar[sup +] ions and with 400 keV Xe[sup 2+] ions by means of the indentation technique with an applied load of 0.4-30 mN. Implantation with 130 keV Ar[sup +] and 400 keV Xe[sup 2+] gave similar results in hardening of MgO surface layers. In addition, the dose dependence of the measured hardness curve showed that a softening mechanism takes place at high doses. High energy implantation (1.8 MeV Ar[sup +]) made a hardened surface layer on MgO. This hardened layer also became softer at high doses. ((orig.))

  7. A High Energy Nuclear Database Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D A; Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interace. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from the Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for intertial confinement fusion and target a...

  8. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, D A B R

    2005-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and ...

  9. High power continuous wave atomic Xe laser with radio frequency excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitruk, P. P.; Morley, R. J.; Baker, H. J.; Hall, D. R.

    1995-09-01

    Radio frequency discharges in Ar/He/Xe gas mixtures have been studied in the range 5-150 MHz, and the importance of the ion sheaths in Xe laser excitation has been recognized. The discharge data have been used to improve the cw Xe laser performance, and efficiencies up to 0.8% observed. Area scaling in the slab geometry has been studied for α discharge excitation at 49 MHz, and multimode cw laser power up to 5.5 W has been observed. High quality beams have been produced at 4.9 W using a hybrid waveguide/unstable resonator.

  10. Development of refining technology of Xe recovered from reprocessing plant off gas for commercial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiku, Yasushi [Air Water Inc., Osaka (Japan); Okimoto, Katsunori; Shoji, Hisashi; Hayashi, Sin-ichiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai Reprocessing Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The present study is aiming to develop refining system of recovered Xe at Krypton Recovery Facility (KRF) by pressure swing adsorption with purge system for commercial use, such as to lighting and ion engine. Refined Xe with low radioactive Kr was prepared through three series of adsorption column packing synthetic Ca-X zeolite. And the computer simulation by molecular mechanics was practiced to obtain purification mechanism for Xe/Kr mixed gas. The simulation was fitted with the practical adsorption test. So the effects of pressure and cation were studied about adsorption. (author)

  11. Crystal Deflectors for High Energy Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W

    2013-01-01

    The motion of charged particles entering a crystal at small angles with respect to a crystalline plane is strongly influenced by the average electric field of the ordered nuclei. For sufficiently small angles the particles can be captured in channeling states, thus performing quasi-harmonic oscillations in the potential well between the crystal planes. Channeled particles in a bent crystal are deflected along the bent planes of the crystal. This provides a powerful method to steer and control particle trajectories that has been investigated and occasionally exploited for some decades already.

  12. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  13. (129) Xe and (131) Xe nuclear magnetic dipole moments from gas phase NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makulski, Włodzimierz

    2015-04-01

    (3) He, (129) Xe and (131) Xe NMR measurements of resonance frequencies in the magnetic field B0=11.7586 T in different gas phase mixtures have been reported. Precise radiofrequency values were extrapolated to the zero gas pressure limit. These results combined with new quantum chemical values of helium and xenon nuclear magnetic shielding constants were used to determine new accurate nuclear magnetic moments of (129) Xe and (131) Xe in terms of that of the (3) He nucleus. They are as follows: μ((129) Xe) = -0.7779607(158)μN and μ((131) Xe) = +0.6918451(70)μN . By this means, the new 'helium method' for estimations of nuclear dipole moments was successfully tested. Gas phase NMR spectra demonstrate the weak intermolecular interactions observed on the (3) He and (129) Xe and (131) Xe shielding in the gaseous mixtures with Xe, CO2 and SF6 .

  14. Theoretical and numerical study of the expansion of a laser-produced plasma: high energy ion acceleration; Etude theorique et numerique de l'expansion d'un plasma cree par laser: acceleration d'ions a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grismayer, T

    2006-12-15

    This work is a theoretical and numerical study on the high energy ion acceleration in laser created plasma expansion. The ion beams produced on the rear side of an irradiated foil reveal some characteristics (low divergence, wide spectra) which distinguish them from the ones coming from the front side. The discovery of these beams has renewed speculation for applications such as proton-therapy or proton radiography. The ion acceleration is performed via a self-consistent electrostatic field due to the charge separation between ions and hot electrons. In the first part of this dissertation, we present the fluid theoretical model and the hybrid code which simulates the plasma expansion. The numerical simulation of a recent experience on the dynamic of the electric field by proton radiography validates the theoretical model. The second part deals with the influence of an initial ion density gradient on the acceleration efficiency. We establish a model which relates the plasma dynamic and more precisely the wave breaking of the ion flow. The numerical results which predict a strong decrease of the ion maximum energy for large gradient length are in agreement with the experimental data. The Boltzmann equilibrium for the electron assumed in the first part has been thrown back into doubt in the third part. We adopt a kinetic description for the electron. The new version of the code can measure the Boltzmann law deviation which does not strongly modify the maximum energy that can reach the ions. (author)

  15. Flare physics at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    High-energy processes, involving a rich variety of accelerated particle phenomena, lie at the core of the solar flare problem. The most direct manifestation of these processes are high-energy radiations, gamma rays, hard X-rays and neutrons, as well as the accelerated particles themselves, which can be detected in interplanetary space. In the study of astrophysics from the moon, the understanding of these processes should have great importance. The inner solar system environment is strongly influenced by activity on the sun; the physics of solar flares is of great intrinsic interest; and much high-energy astrophysics can be learned from investigations of flare physics at high energies.

  16. Atomic mixing of metallic bilayers Ni/Ti irradiated with high energy heavy ions; Etude du melange ionique de bicouches metalliques Ni/Ti irradiees avec des ions lourds de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguay, R.

    1994-09-26

    We have studied the ionic mixing of Nl(105 angstrom) bilayers irradiated, at 80 and 300 K. with GeV heavy ions. In this energy range, the energy transfer from the incident ions to the target occurs mainly through electronic excitations. We have shown that this energy transfer induces a strong ionic mixing at the Nl/Ti interface. The thickness of the mixed interlayer increases with the fluence. At low fluences (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}), the Nl/Ti interface is rough ; at higher fluences (10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a homogeneous mixed interlayer appears ; and at even higher fluences (some 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a preferential diffusion of Ni into Ti is clearly seen. The characterization techniques used are: (1) electrical resistivity measurements which allow to follow in situ the damage kinetic. (II) neutron and X-ray reflectometry. (III) elaboration of transverse cuts on which was performed energy loss spectroscopy. (II) and (III) allow the determination of the concentration profiles of the different species present in the sample. (IV) transmission electron microscopy on the transverse cuts which gives a direct image of the different layers. (author). 11 refs., 103 figs., 23 tabs., 2 appends.

  17. Solid state synthesis of layered sodium manganese oxide for sodium-ion battery by in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianyuan; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Li, Yan; Ren, Yang; Sun, Chengjun; Heald, Steve M.; Jorne, Jacob; Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-02-01

    In situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) and in situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out to understand the solid state synthesis of NaxMnO2, with particular interest on the synthesis of P2 type Na2/3MnO2. It was found that there were multi intermediate phases formed before NaMnO2 appeared at about 600 °C. And the final product after cooling process is a combination of O‧3 NaMnO2 with P2 Na2/3MnO2. A P2 type Na2/3MnO2 was synthesized at reduced temperature (600 °C). The influence of Na2CO3 impurity on the electrochemical performance of P2 Na2/3MnO2 was thoroughly investigated in our work. It was found that the content of Na2CO3 can be reduced by optimizing Na2CO3/MnCO3 ratio during the solid state reaction or other post treatment such as washing with water. We expected our results could provide a good guide for future development of high performance cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

  18. 5s correlation confinement resonances in Xe-endo-fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmatov, V K

    2011-01-01

    Spectacular trends in the modification of the Xe 5s photoionization via interchannel coupling with confinement resonances emerging in the Xe 4d giant resonance upon photoionization of the Xe@C60, Xe@C240 and Xe@C60@C240 endo-fullerenes are theoretically unraveled and interpreted.

  19. Adsorption of Xe in zeolite MCM-22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption of xenon in zeolite MCM-22, a zeo lite containing two separate pore systems, has been investigated in detail by variable temperature (VT) 129Xe NMR spectroscopy. NMR results suggest that Xe atoms are preferentially adsorbed in the supercages of the zeolite at low Xe pressure (less than a few atmosphere), while Xe atoms can penetrate into the two-dimensional sinusoidal channels at high Xe pressure. Exchange of xenon at the different adsorption sites in the same supercage, i.e. xenon atoms in the two pockets and those in the central part of the supercage, was confirmed at 145 K by two-dimensional (2D) 129Xe NMR exchange spectroscopy. The time scale for the exchange is about several milliseconds.

  20. Probing confinement resonances by photoionizing Xe inside a C60+ molecular cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaneuf, R. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aryal, N. B.; Baral, K. K.; Thomas, C. M.; Esteves-Macaluso, D. A.; Lomsadze, R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Ballance, C. P.; Manson, S. T.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Hellhund, J.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.

    2014-05-01

    Double photoionization accompanied by loss of n C atoms (n = 0 , 2 , 4 , 6) was investigated by merging beams of Xe@C60+ ions and synchrotron radiation and measuring the yields of product ions. The giant 4 d dipole resonance of the caged Xe atom has a prominent signature in the cross section for these product channels, which together account for 6 . 2 +/- 1 . 4 of the total Xe 4 d oscillator strength of 10. Compared to that for a free Xe atom, the oscillator strength is redistributed in photon energy due to multipath interference of outgoing Xe 4 d photoelectron waves that may be transmitted or reflected by the spherical C60+ molecular cage, yielding so-called confinement resonances. The data are compared with an earlier measurement and with theoretical predictions for this single-molecule photoelectron interferometer system. Relativistic R-matrix calculations for the Xe atom in a spherical potential shell representing the fullerene cage show the sensitivity of the interference pattern to the molecular geometry.

  1. Improving the efficiency of a fluorescent Xe dielectric barrier light source using short pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleznai, Sz; Mihajlik, G.; Maros, I.; Balázs, L.; Richter, P.

    2008-06-01

    Operation of a Xe dielectric barrier discharge lamp producing 147-172 nm VUV radiation is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Xe gas pressure varies between 100 and 300 mbar, and the glass body of the lamp is coated with LAP (green) phosphor to convert radiation into the visible part of the spectrum. Simulation results predict improved discharge efficiencies reaching 67% when excited by a fast rise-time, short pulse (~200 ns) driving waveform. In this case most power deposited into the plasma efficiently produces Xe_2^\\ast excimers, while other energy dissipation processes (ion heating, e-Xe elastic collision) are kept at a low rate. Simulation and experimental results are compared in terms of discharge efficacy and show good agreement. A lamp efficacy value as high as 80 lm W-1 is demonstrated experimentally.

  2. Liquid Xe scintillation calorimetry and Xe optical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Baldini, A; Cei, F; Doke, T; Grassi, M; Haruyama, T; Mihara, S; Mori, T; Nicolò, D; Nishiguchi, H; Ootani, W; Ozone, K; Papa, A; Pazzi, R; Sawada, R; Sergiampietri, F; Signorelli, G; Suzuki, S; Terasawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The optical properties of LXe in the vacuum ultra violet (VUV), determining the performance of a scintillation calorimeter, are discussed in detail. The available data, measured in a wider spectral region from visible to UV light, and in a large range of Xe densities, from gas to liquid, are examined. It is shown that this information can be used for deriving the LXe optical properties in the VUV. A comparison is made with the few direct measurements in LXe for VUV light resulting from the LXe excitation by ionizing particles. A useful relation is obtained which connects the Rayleigh scattering length to the refractive index in LXe.

  3. 124Xe(n,γ125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhike Megha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  5. Dynamic moments of inertia in Xe, Cs and Ba nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Samman, H.; Barci, V.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Hildingsson, L.; Jerrestam, D.; Klamra, W.; Kossakowski, R.; Lindblad, T.; Gono, Y.; Bengtsson, T.; Leander, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The ..gamma..-rays following the reactions induced by /sup 12/C ions on /sup 115/In, /sup 112/,/sup 117/,/sup 122/Sn and /sup 123/Sb targets have been investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional arrangement. The collective moment of inertia I(/sup 2/) /sub band/ of /sup 118/,/sup 122/Xe, /sup 123/Cs and /sup 128/,/sup 130/Ba have been extracted from the energy-correlation spectra. The behaviour of these nuclei and the observed differences are interpreted in terms of high-spin collective properties. Data are also presented on the effective moment of inertia I(/sup 2/)/sub eff/ of /sup 118/Xe and /sup 130/Ba measured by sum-spectrometer techniques. 13 references.

  6. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  7. The AAVSO High Energy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2004-06-01

    The AAVSO is expanding its International Gamma-Ray Burst Network to incorporate other high energy objects such as blazars and magnetic cataclysmic variables (polars). The new AAVSO High Energy Network will be collaborating with the Global Telescope Network (GTN) to observe bright blazars in support of the upcoming GLAST mission. We also will be observing polars in support of the XMM mission. This new network will involve both visual and CCD obsrvers and is expected to last for many years.

  8. Ultra High Energy Nuclei Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ultra high energy nuclei propagation in astrophysical backgrounds. We present a new analytical computation scheme based on the hypothesis of continuos energy losses in a kinetic formulation of the particles propagation. This scheme enables the computation of the fluxes of ultra high energy nuclei as well as the fluxes of secondaries (nuclei and nucleons) produced by the process of photo-disintegration suffered by nuclei.

  9. Xe distribution in amorphous SiO{sub 2} as a function of implantation and thermal annealing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naas, A., E-mail: abdelkrim_naas@yahoo.fr [Conditions Extrêmes et Matériaux: Haute Température et Irradiation (CEMHT) CNRS, 3A rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans (France); Materials Science and Informatics Laboratory, University of Djelfa, 17000 (Algeria); Ntsoenzok, E.; De Sousa-Meneses, D.; Hakim, B. [Conditions Extrêmes et Matériaux: Haute Température et Irradiation (CEMHT) CNRS, 3A rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans (France); Beya-Wakata, A. [Département Physique, Université de Yaoundé 1 (Cameroon)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We studied the distribution of implanted Xe in amorphous SiO{sub 2}. • Various energies and fluencies as well as thermal annealing were considered. • RBS and TEM characterizations were undertaken. • We demonstrated that Xe can be located at vacancy peak or at ion projected range. • When a dense layer of bubbles is formed, Xe is shifted to stable bubbles region. - Abstract: We studied the distribution of implanted Xe in amorphous SiO{sub 2}. Our results clearly showed that Xe profile is energy and fluence dependent. By varying ion energy from 50 to 300 keV, we found that its thermal out-diffusion is very conventional for the first two energies and unexpected for the highest energy. In that last case Xe main peak increases with thermal annealing. Instead of out-diffusing, Xe seems to be driven toward the main peak. The effect of ion fluence is similar to energy one with a conventional out-diffusion for lower fluences (5 × 10{sup 15} and 1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) while higher fluences (3.5 × 10{sup 16} and 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) display an increase of the main peak with annealing. Such a behavior can be linked to the formation (or not) of a high density of stable bubbles.

  10. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David E; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle Howard; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  11. High-energy astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Semikoz, A

    2010-01-01

    In these three lectures I discuss the present status of high-energy astroparticle physics including Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), high-energy gamma rays, and neutrinos. The first lecture is devoted to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. After a brief introduction to UHECR I discuss the acceleration of charged particles to highest energies in the astrophysical objects, their propagation in the intergalactic space, recent observational results by the Auger and HiRes experiments, anisotropies of UHECR arrival directions, and secondary gamma rays produced by UHECR. In the second lecture I review recent results on TeV gamma rays. After a short introduction to detection techniques, I discuss recent exciting results of the H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and Milagro experiments on the point-like and diffuse sources of TeV gamma rays. A special section is devoted to the detection of extragalactic magnetic fields with TeV gammaray measurements. Finally, in the third lecture I discuss Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) neutrinos. I review t...

  12. A miniature silicon diode matrix detector for in vivo measurement of 133Xe disappearance following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard Bendtsen, Katja Maria; Svendsen, J H; Rasmussen, H B

    1992-01-01

    A variety of biological processes can be studied from the washout of compounds labelled with a gamma emitter. Conventional systems for measurement of gamma radiation can detect count rates at both the low and high energy range of the indicator in question, 133Xe. However, silicon (Si) photodiodes...

  13. Oxidizing behavior of some platinum metal fluorides. [Xe complexes with Pt, Pd fluorides; Chlorine-2 oxidation by transition metal hexafluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, L.

    1978-10-01

    The previously known compounds Xe/sub 2/F/sub 3//sup +/PtF/sub 6//sup -/, XeF/sup +/PtF/sub 6//sup -/ and XeF/sub 2/.2PtF/sub 4/(XePt/sub 2/F/sub 10/) were prepared by the interaction of XeF/sub 2/ with PtF/sub 4/. The new compounds XeF/sub 2/.PdF/sub 4/ and XeF/sub 2/.2PdF/sub 4/(XePd/sub 2/F/sub 10/) were produced by interaction of XeF/sub 2/ with either PdF/sub 4/ or Pd/sub 2/F/sub 6/. A weight loss-versus-time curve indicated the presence of 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1 XeF/sub 2//PdF/sub 4/ complexes. The thermal decomposition of XeFPtF/sub 6/ or XePd/sub 2/F/sub 10/ yields highly pure XeF/sub 4/. Thus the interaction of XeF/sub 2/ with platinum fluorides (PtF/sub 4/ or PtF/sub 5/) or palladium fluorides (Pd/sub 2/F/sub 6/ or PdF/sub 4/) provides for the conversion of XeF/sub 2/ to XeF/sub 4/. The compound XePd/sub 2/F/sub 10/ is a close structural relative of XePt/sub 2/F/sub 10/, and spectroscopic evidence suggests that both are salts of XeF/sup +/ and a polymeric (M/sub 2/F/sub 9/)/sub x//sup x-/ ion. A Xe:PtF/sub 6/ material of approximately 1:1 stoichiometry has been prepared and compared with XePdF/sub 6/(XeF/sub 2/.PdF/sub 4/). The interaction of chlorine with the third-series transition metal hexafluorides has been investigated. Gravimetric and tensimetric evidence indicate that the initial product of the Cl/sub 2/ plus IrF/sub 6/ reaction is a solid of composition Cl/sub 2/IrF/sub 6/. Vibrational spectroscopic and other evidence indicates that this solid yields a sequence of products, of which Cl/sub 3//sup +/IrF/sub 6//sup -/, Cl/sub 3//sup +/Ir/sub 2/F/sub 11//sup -/ and Ir/sub 4/F/sub 20/ have been identified, the last being the ultimate solid product of the room temperature decomposition of the adduct. A new chlorine fluoride generated in the room temperature decomposition of Cl/sub 2/IrF/sub 6/ has been tentatively formulated as Cl/sub 3/F from infrared evidence.

  14. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  15. Interruption of electronically excited Xe dimer formation by the photoassociation of Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p(6) (1)S0) thermal collision pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, T C; Wagner, C J; Eden, J G

    2016-06-28

    The diatomic collisional intermediate responsible for the formation of an electronically excited molecule by teratomic recombination has been observed in both the spectral and temporal domains by laser spectroscopy. We report experiments demonstrating thermal Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p(6) (1)S0) atomic collision pairs to be the immediate precursor to the formation of Xe2 (∗)(a(3)Σu (+),A(1)Σu (+)) by the three body process: Xe(∗)(6s) + 2XeXe2 (∗) + Xe, where the asterisk denotes an excited electronic state. Photoassociating Xe(6s)-Xe atomic pairs by free ⟵ free transitions of the collision complex interrupts the production of the electronically excited Xe dimer, thereby suppressing Xe2 spontaneous emission in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ ∼ 172 nm, A(1)Σu (+)→X(1)Σg (+)). Intercepting Xe(6s)-Xe pairs before the complex is stabilized by the arrival of the third atom in the teratomic collision process selectively depletes the pair population in a specific Franck-Condon region determined by the probe laser wavelength (λ). Measurements of the variation of VUV emission suppression with λ provide a spectral signature of the [Xe(6s[3/2]2) - Xe((1)S0)](∗) complex and map the probe laser wavelength onto the thermal energy (ϵ″) of the incoming collision pairs.

  16. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-03-31

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  17. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; Barthelmy, Scott; Palmer, David; Mitchell, John; Esposito, Joseph; Sreekumar, P.; Hua, Xin-Min; Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Chan, Kai-Wing; Soong, Yang; Barrett, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  18. Experimental evidence of Xe incorporation in Schottky defects in UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bès, René, E-mail: rene.bes@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, Ligne de Lumière MARS, L' Ormes des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, BP48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Martin, Philippe, E-mail: philippe-m.martin@cea.fr; Vathonne, Emerson; Delorme, Rémy; Sabathier, Catherine; Freyss, Michel; Bertolus, Marjorie [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Glatzel, Pieter [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-03-16

    We report here the direct experimental observation of the preferential xenon incorporation site in uranium dioxide and analyse how its incorporation evolves with the annealing temperature. We show that High Energy Resolution Fluorescence Detection X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure in combination with first-principles calculations enable a precise determination of the Xe incorporation site. Our finding provides important insight for the understanding and modeling of noble gases behavior in nuclear oxide fuel.

  19. Parameter analysis for a nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope based on 133Cs–129Xe/131Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Zhou, Min; Xu, Xin-Ye

    2017-02-01

    We theoretically investigate several parameters for the nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope based on 133Cs–129Xe/131Xe. For a cell containing a mixture of 133Cs at saturated pressure, we investigate the optimal quenching gas (N2) pressure and the corresponding pump laser intensity to achieve 30% 133Cs polarization at the center of the cell when the static magnetic field B 0 is 5 {{μ }}{{T}} with different 129Xe/131Xe pressure. The effective field produced by spin-exchange polarized 129Xe or 131Xe sensed by 133Cs can also be discussed in different 129Xe/131Xe pressure conditions. Furthermore, the relationship between the detected signal and the probe laser frequency is researched. We obtain the optimum probe laser detuning from the D2 (6{}2{{S}}1/2\\to 6{}2{{P}}3/2) resonance with different 129Xe/131Xe pressure owing to the pressure broadening. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA123401), the National Key Basic Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFA0302103 and 2012CB821302), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 11134003), and Shanghai Excellent Academic Leaders Program of China (Grant No. 12XD1402400).

  20. Stochastic cooling of a high energy collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Lee, R.C.; Mernick, K.

    2011-09-04

    Gold beams in RHIC revolve more than a billion times over the course of a data acquisition session or store. During operations with these heavy ions the event rates in the detectors decay as the beams diffuse. A primary cause for this beam diffusion is small angle Coloumb scattering of the particles within the bunches. This intra-beam scattering (IBS) is particularly problematic at high energy because the negative mass effect removes the possibility of even approximate thermal equilibrium. Stochastic cooling can combat IBS. A theory of bunched beam cooling was developed in the early eighties and stochastic cooling systems for the SPS and the Tevatron were explored. Cooling for heavy ions in RHIC was also considered.

  1. A Molecular Imaging Approach to Mercury Sensing Based on Hyperpolarized (129)Xe Molecular Clamp Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianni; Zeng, Qingbin; Jiang, Weiping; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Qing; Zhang, Xu; Bouchard, Louis-S; Liu, Maili; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-14

    Mercury pollution, in the form of mercury ions (Hg(2+)), is a major health and environmental hazard. Commonly used sensors are invasive and limited to point measurements. Fluorescence-based sensors do not provide depth resolution needed to image spatial distributions. Herein we report a novel sensor capable of yielding spatial distributions by MRI using hyperpolarized (129)Xe. A molecular clamp probe was developed consisting of dipyrrolylquinoxaline (DPQ) derivatives and twocryptophane-A cages. The DPQ derivatives act as cation receptors whereas cryptophane-A acts as a suitable host molecule for xenon. When the DPQ moiety interacts with mercury ions, the molecular clamp closes on the ion. Due to overlap of the electron clouds of the two cryptophane-A cages, the shielding effect on the encapsulated Xe becomes important. This leads to an upfield change of the chemical shift of the encapsulated Xe. This sensor exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity toward the mercury ion. This mercury-activated hyperpolarized (129)Xe-based chemosensor is a new concept method for monitoring Hg(2+) ion distributions by MRI.

  2. Mexican High Energy Physics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Olivo, J. C.; Napsuciale, M.; Pérez-Angón, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The Mexican High Energy Physics Network is one of CONACYT's thematic research networks, created with the aim of increasing the communication and cooperation of the scientific and technology communities of Mexico in strategic areas. In this report we review the evolution, challenges, achievements and opportunities faced by the network.

  3. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  4. Interruption of electronically excited Xe dimer formation by the photoassociation of Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p6 1S0) thermal collision pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, T. C.; Wagner, C. J.; Eden, J. G.

    2016-06-01

    The diatomic collisional intermediate responsible for the formation of an electronically excited molecule by teratomic recombination has been observed in both the spectral and temporal domains by laser spectroscopy. We report experiments demonstrating thermal Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p6 1S0) atomic collision pairs to be the immediate precursor to the formation of Xe 2∗ ( a 3 Σu + , A 1 Σu +) by the three body process: Xe∗(6s) + 2XeXe 2∗ + Xe, where the asterisk denotes an excited electronic state. Photoassociating Xe(6s)-Xe atomic pairs by free ⟵ free transitions of the collision complex interrupts the production of the electronically excited Xe dimer, thereby suppressing Xe2 spontaneous emission in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ ˜ 172 nm, A 1 Σu + → X 1 Σg +). Intercepting Xe(6s)-Xe pairs before the complex is stabilized by the arrival of the third atom in the teratomic collision process selectively depletes the pair population in a specific Franck-Condon region determined by the probe laser wavelength (λ). Measurements of the variation of VUV emission suppression with λ provide a spectral signature of the [Xe(6s[3/2]2) - Xe(1S0)]∗ complex and map the probe laser wavelength onto the thermal energy (ɛ″) of the incoming collision pairs.

  5. High-energy excited states in {sup 98}Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Norbert; Blazhev, Andrey; Jolie, Jan [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Boutachkov, Plamen; Gorska, Magda; Grawe, Hubert; Pietri, Stephane [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Brock, Tim; Nara Singh, B.S.; Wadsworth, Robert [Department of Physics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Liu, Zhong [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Studies of isomerism in the proton-rich N {approx_equal}Z nuclei around {sup 100}Sn give important insights into the role of proton-neutron pairing and also serve as testing grounds for nuclear models. In summer 2008, an experiment on {sup 96,97,98}Cd was performed using the FRS fragment separator and the RISING germanium array at GSI. These exotic nuclei of interest were produced using fragmentation of a 850 MeV/u {sup 124}Xe beam on a 4 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 9}Be target and finally implanted into an active stopper consisting of 9 double-sided silicon strip detectors. In {sup 98}Cd, a new high-energy isomeric transition was identified. Preliminary results on {sup 98}Cd are presented and their implications for the high-excitation level scheme are discussed.

  6. A high energy physics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  7. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  8. High-energy atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

    2010-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known...

  9. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  10. The response functions of the HEPC/LEPC detector system measured at the Xe L edge region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Olesen, C.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Danish Space Research Institute will provide a set of two low energy proportional counters (LEPC) and two high energy proportional counters (HEPC) for the Russian SPECTRUM-X-Gamma mission. The detectors are based upon the technology of the microstrip gas chamber (MSGC). HEPC and LEPC use a Xe....../CH4 mixture as the counter gas. The response function as well as the pulse height-energy relation for a Xe/CH4 filled MSGC were investigated with monochromatized synchrotron radiation of the BESSY double crystal monochromator. The detector response functions were recorded at similar to 100 selected...

  11. Luminescence from low-energy He/sup +//Xe charge-transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.G.; Hughes, B.M.; Fee, D.C.; Tiernan, T.O.

    1977-04-01

    Optical emissions produced by collision of 100-eV He/sup +/ ions with Xe atoms have been studied over the spectral range from 40 to 900 nm. All of the major lines in the emission spectrum can be assigned to transitions in Xe II resulting from charge-transfer reactions. Emission cross sections for the major lines in the vacuum-ultraviolet and visible spectral regions are reported and the importance of cascading is assessed. The kinetic energy dependence is discussed for several of these lines.

  12. Polarized beams in high energy circular accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1979-05-01

    In recent years, high energy physicists have become increasingly interested in the possible spin effects at high energies. To study those spin effects, it is desirable to have beams with high energy, high intensity and high polarization. In this talk, we briefly review the present status and the prospects for the near future of high energy polarized beams. 30 refs.

  13. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  14. Simulation of High Energy Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Mashtakov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Under the scope of a CERN summer student project, a Geant4 physical model has been developed and committed to the Geant4 repository to allow precise simulation of high-energy muons and hadrons transport inside a material. Resulted angular distributions produced by this model have small deviations from those that were obtained by the Geant4 model used by default. High-energetic muons energy losses inside the CMS tracker have also been estimated and may vary from 0.05% up to 2.5%.

  15. High-energy neutrino astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The chargeless, weakly interacting neutrinos are ideal astronomical messengers as they travel through space without scattering, absorption or deflection. But this weak interaction also makes them notoriously di cult to detect, leading to neutrino observatories requiring large-scale detectors. A few years ago, the IceCube experiment discovered neutrinos originating beyond the Sun with energies bracketed by those of the highest energy gamma rays and cosmic rays. I discuss how these high-energy neutrinos can be detected and what they can tell us about the origins of cosmic rays and about dark matter.

  16. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  17. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghen, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e{sup +} e{sup -} interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given.

  18. Electron capture and deprotonation processes observed in collisions between Xe8+ and multiply protonated cytochrome-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.; Ortega, C.; Chen, L.; Bredy, R.; Vernier, A.; Dugourd, P.; Antoine, R.; Bernard, J.; Reitsma, G.; Gonzalez Magana, Olmo; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Schlathölter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Electron-transfer processes in interaction between highly charged ions and multiply protonated proteins have been studied. Collisions between Xe8+ at 96 keV and protonated cytochrome-C at selected charge state (q from 15+ to 19+) result inmass spectra composed mainly of intact molecular ions. From t

  19. Duke University high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  20. Quasi-elastic nuclear scattering at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-elastic scattering of two nuclei is considered in the high-energy optical model. Energy loss and momentum transfer spectra for projectile ions are evaluated in terms of an inelastic multiple-scattering series corresponding to multiple knockout of target nucleons. The leading-order correction to the coherent projectile approximation is evaluated. Calculations are compared with experiments.

  1. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Mukhi; Probir Roy

    2009-07-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics back-ground, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the Standard Model, and proposals – including the radical paradigm of String Theory – have been made to go beyond the Standard Model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors.

  2. High Energy Gas Fracturing Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, R.

    2001-02-27

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

  3. Measurements on the gas desorption yield of the oxygen-free copper irradiated with low-energy Xe10+ and O+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z. Q.; Li, P.; Yang, J. C.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xie, W. J.; Zheng, W. H.; Liu, X. J.; Chang, J. J.; Luo, C.; Meng, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, Y. M.; Yin, Y.; Chai, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Heavy ion beam lost on the accelerator vacuum wall will release quantity of gas molecules and make the vacuum system deteriorate seriously. This phenomenon is called dynamic vacuum effect, observed at CERN, GSI and BNL, leading to the decrease of beam lifetime when increasing beam intensity. Heavy ion-induced gas desorption, which results in dynamic vacuum effect, becomes one of the most important problems for future accelerators proposed to operate with intermediate charge state beams. In order to investigate the mechanism of this effect and find the solution method for the IMP future project High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF), which is designed to extract 1 × 1011 uranium particles with intermediate charge state per cycle, two dedicated experiment setups have been installed at the beam line of the CSR and the 320 kV HV platform respectively. Recently, experiment was performed at the 320 kV HV platform to study effective gas desorption with oxygen-free copper target irradiated with continuous Xe10+ beam and O+ beam in low energy regime. Gas desorption yield in this energy regime was calculated and the link between gas desorption and electronic energy loss in Cu target was proved. These results will be used to support simulations about dynamic vacuum effect and optimizations about efficiency of collimators to be installed in the HIAF main synchrotron BRing, and will also provide guidance for future gas desorption measurements in high energy regime.

  4. Experimental verification of a zero-dimensional model of the kinetics of XeCl* discharges by Xe*-, Cl*-, Ne*-, and H*-density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabedissen, A. (Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany)); Loffhagen, D. (Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany)); Boetticher, W. (Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany)); Hammer, T. (Siemens AG, Corp. Research and Development, Plasma and Switching Technology, Erlangen (Germany))

    1994-06-01

    Absorption spectroscopic measurements of effective particle number densities of excited Xe, Ne, Cl, and H performed on a small scale discharge with well-defined current and voltage pulses are compared with the results of model calculations over a wide range of discharge parameters. The reaction kinetic pathways determining the ionization and dissociative attachment rates have been verified by the good agreement obtained during the quasi-steady-state phase of the discharge for Xe and H. To reproduce the rise times of the excited Xe particle number densities during the ignition phase, the electron collision excitation cross sections of ground state Xe published by Puech and Mizzi had to be enhanced by about 25%. From the Ne measurements it is concluded that the electron collision excitation cross sections of ground state Ne published by Puech and Mizzi may be too large near the theshold. Measurements of excited Cl particle number densities re unsuitable to check the attachment kinetics of HCl, because these densities are mainly determined by reactions not involving the formation of Cl[sup -] ions. (orig.)

  5. Experimental verification of a zero-dimensional model of the kinetics of XeCl* discharges by Xe*-, Cl*-, Ne*-, and H*-density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedissen, A.; Loffhagen, D.; Hammer, Th.; Bötticher, W.

    1994-06-01

    Absorption spectroscopic measurements of effective particle number densities of excited Xe, Ne, Cl, and H performed on a small scale discharge with well-defined current and voltage pulses are compared with the results of model calculations over a wide range of discharge parameters. The reaction kinetic pathways determining the ionization and dissociative attachment rates have been verified by the good agreement obtained during the quasi-steady-state phase of the discharge for Xe and H. To reproduce the rise times of the excited Xe particle number densities during the ignition phase, the electron collision excitation cross sections of ground state Xe published by Puech and Mizzi [1] had to be enhanced by about 25%. From the Ne measurements it is concluded that the electron collision excitation cross sections of ground state Ne published by Puech and Mizzi [1] may be too large near the threshold. Measurements of excited Cl particle number densities are unsuitable to check the attachment kinetics of HCl, because these densities are mainly determined by reactions not involving the formation of Cl- ions.

  6. Fabricating high-energy quantum dots in ultra-thin LiFePO4 nanosheets using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule-ATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; Bi, Z.Y.; He, W.

    2014-01-01

    By using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule—adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—we fabricated highenergy quantum dots (HEQDs) with a feature size of less than 10 nm and used them in high-power lithium-ion batteries. We introduced high-energy phosphate bonds into the crystal structure of LiFePO4...

  7. Synthesis and stability of xenon oxides Xe2O5 and Xe3O2 under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Agnès; Worth, Nicholas; Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.; Pascarelli, Sakura; Mathon, Olivier; Mezouar, Mohamed; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    The noble gases are the most inert group of the periodic table, but their reactivity increases with pressure. Diamond-anvil-cell experiments and ab initio modelling have been used to investigate a possible direct reaction between xenon and oxygen at high pressures. We have now synthesized two oxides below 100 GPa (Xe2O5 under oxygen-rich conditions, and Xe3O2 under oxygen-poor conditions), which shows that xenon is more reactive under pressure than predicted previously. Xe2O5 was observed using X-ray diffraction methods, its structure identified through ab initio random structure searching and confirmed using X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies. The experiments confirm the recent prediction of Xe3O2 as a stable xenon oxide under high pressure. Xenon atoms adopt mixed oxidation states of 0 and +4 in Xe3O2 and +4 and +6 in Xe2O5. Xe3O2 and Xe2O5 form extended networks that incorporate oxygen-sharing XeO4 squares, and Xe2O5 additionally incorporates oxygen-sharing XeO5 pyramids. Other xenon oxides (XeO2, XeO3) are expected to form at higher pressures.

  8. Two-Neutron Alignment in 127Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Sharma, H. P.; Tiwary, S. S.; Majumder, C.; Prajapati, P. K.; Rai, S.; Popli, P.; Singh, M.; Bhattacharjee, S. S.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, A.; Palit, R.

    2017-08-01

    High spin states in 127Xe have been investigated via 9Be induced fusion-evaporation reaction at 48 MeV. Spin and parity of excited states up to ˜ {47/2} have been confirmed from angular correlation and linear polarization results. Rotational alignment of the second pair of h 11/2 neutrons has been observed at ω ˜ 0.44 MeV; beyond that, the band is associated with ν[ h 11/2]3 configuration. The alignment phenomena has been discussed in comparison with the neighboring 125,129Xe.

  9. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan...... care should be taken when choosing the concentration of XE991 to use for experiments on native potassium channels or animal studies in order to be able to conclude on selective KCNQ channel-mediated effects....

  10. Photoionisation study of Xe.CF4 and Kr.CF4 van-der-Waals molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V A; Garcia, G A; Kevorkyants, R; Nahon, L

    2016-05-14

    We report on photoionization studies of Xe.CF4 and Kr.CF4 van-der-Waals complexes produced in a supersonic expansion and detected using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The ionization potential of CF4 is larger than those of the Xe and Kr atoms and the ground state of the Rg.CF4 (+) ion correlates with Rg(+) ((2)P3/2) + CF4. The onset of the Rg.CF4 (+) signals was found to be only ∼0.2 eV below the Rg ionization potential. In agreement with experiment, complementary ab initio calculations show that vertical transitions originating from the potential minimum of the ground state of Rg.CF4 terminate at a part of the potential energy surfaces of Rg.CF4 (+), which are approximately 0.05 eV below the Rg(+) ((2)P3/2) + CF4 dissociation limit. In contrast to the neutral complexes, which are most stable in the face geometry, for the Rg.CF4 (+) ions, the calculations show that the minimum of the potential energy surface is in the vertex geometry. Experiments which have been performed only with Xe.CF4 revealed no Xe.CF4 (+) signal above the first ionization threshold of Xe, suggesting that the Rg.CF4 (+) ions are not stable above the first dissociation limit.

  11. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  12. Probing QCD at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Voutilainen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    We review recent experimental work on probing QCD at high $p_{T}$ at the Tevatron and at the LHC. The Tevatron has just finished a long and illustrious career at the forefront of high energy physics, while the LHC now has its physics program in full swing and is producing results at a quick rate in a new energy regime. Many of the LHC measurements extend well into the TeV range, with potential sensitivity to new physics. The experimental systematics at the LHC are also becoming competitive with the Tevatron, making precision measurements of QCD possible. Measurements of inclusive jet, dijet and isolated prompt photon production can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions, as well as to measure the strong coupling constant. More exclusive topologies are used to constrain aspects of parton shower modeling, initial and final state radiation. Interest in boosted heavy resonances has resulted in novel studies of jet mass and subjet structure that also test pertu...

  13. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  14. High Energy Computed Tomographic Inspection of Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 815 Technical Report AREIS-TR-16006 HIGH ENERGY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC INSPECTION OF MUNITIONS...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) November 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGH ENERGY COMPUTED...otherwise be accomplished by other nondestructive testing methods. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiography High energy Computed tomography (CT

  15. Final Report on Institutional Computing Project s15_hilaserion, “Kinetic Modeling of Next-Generation High-Energy, High-Intensity Laser-Ion Accelerators as an Enabling Capability”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yin, Lin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stark, David James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    This proposal sought of order 1M core-hours of Institutional Computing time intended to enable computing by a new LANL Postdoc (David Stark) working under LDRD ER project 20160472ER (PI: Lin Yin) on laser-ion acceleration. The project was “off-cycle,” initiating in June of 2016 with a postdoc hire.

  16. Study of Ion Dynamics by Electron Transfer Dissociation: Alkali Metals as Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    High energy collision processes for singly charged positive ions using an alkali metal target are confirmed, as a charge inversion mass spectrometry, to occur by electron transfers in successive collisions and the dissociation processes involve the formation of energy-selected neutral species from near-resonant neutralization with alkali metal targets. A doubly charged thermometer molecule was made to collide with alkali metal targets to give singly and doubly charged positive ions. The internal energy resulting from the electron transfer with the alkali metal target was very narrow and centered at a particular energy. This narrow internal energy distribution can be attributed to electron transfer by Landau–Zener potential crossing between the precursor ion and an alkali metal atom, and the coulombic repulsion between singly charged ions in the exit channel. A large cross section of more than 10−14 cm2 was estimated for high-energy electron transfer dissociation (HE-ETD). Doubly protonated phosphorylated peptides obtained by electrospray ionization were collided with Xe and Cs targets to give singly and doubly charged positive ions. Whereas doubly charged fragment ions resulting from CAD were dominant in the case of the Xe target, singly charged fragment ions resulting from ETD were dominant with the Cs target. HE-ETD using the Cs target provided all of the z-type ions by N–Cα bond cleavage without the loss of the phosphate groups. The results demonstrate that HE-ETD with an alkali metal target allowed the position of phosphorylation and the amino acid sequence of peptides with post translational modifications (PTM) to be determined. PMID:28966899

  17. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D; and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative...

  18. Nanobeam production with the multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Ji, Q.; Leung, K. N.; Zahir, N.

    2000-02-01

    A 1.8-cm-diam multicusp ion source to be used for focused ion beam applications has been tested for Xe, He, Ne, Ar, and Kr ions. The extractable ion and electron currents were measured. The extractable ion current is similar for all these ion species except for Ne+, but the extractable electron current behaves quite differently. The multicusp ion source will be used with a combined extractor-collimator electrode system that can provide a few hundred nA of Xe+ or Kr+ ions. Ion optics computation indicates that these beams can be further focused with an electrostatic column to a beam spot size of ˜100 nm.

  19. The first interdisciplinary experiments at the IMP high energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Guo, Na; Liu, Wenjing; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Lina; Li, Qiang [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Li, Huiyun [Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-04-01

    The high energy beam of tens to hundred MeV/u ions possesses mm-to-cm penetration depth in materials and can be easily extracted into air without significant energy loss and beam scattering. Combination of high energy ions and microbeam technology facilitates the microprobe application to many practical studies in large scale samples. The IMP heavy ion microbeam facility has recently been integrated with microscopic positioning and targeting irradiation system. This paper introduced the first interdisciplinary experiments performed at the IMP microbeam facility using the beam of 80.5 MeV/u carbon ions. Bystander effect induction via medium transferring was not found in the micro-irradiation study using HeLa cells. The mouse irradiation experiment demonstrated that carbon irradiation of 10 Gy dose to its tuberomammillary nucleus did not impair the sleep nerve system. The fault injection attack on RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) decryption proved that the commercial field-programmable gate array chip is vulnerable in single event effect to low linear-energy-transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of RSA private key. This work demonstrates the potential of high energy microbeam in its application to biology, biomedical, radiation hardness, and information security studies.

  20. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  1. RgBF2(+) complexes (Rg = Ar, Kr, and Xe): the cations with large stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi; Chen, Guang-Hui; Li, Dan; Wu, Di; Huang, Xiao-Chun; Li, Zhi-Ru; Liu, Wen-Guang

    2011-04-21

    Rare gas containing cations with general formula [Rg, B, 2F](+) have been investigated theoretically by second-order Mo̸ller-Plesset perturbation, coupled cluster, and complete active space self-consistent field levels of theory with correlation-consistent basis sets. Totally two types of minima, i.e., boron centered C(2) (v) symmetried RgBF(2) (+) (Rg = Ar, Kr, and Xe) which can be viewed as loss of F(-) from FRgBF(2) and linear FRgBF(+) (Rg = Kr and Xe) are obtained at the CCSD(T)∕aug-cc-pVTZ∕SDD and CASSCF(10,8)∕aug-cc-pVTZ∕SDD levels, respectively. It is shown that the RgBF(2) (+) are global minima followed by FRgBF(+) at 170.9 and 142.2 kcal∕mol on the singlet potential-energy surfaces of [Rg, B, 2F](+) (Rg = Kr and Xe) at the CASPT2(10,8) ∕aug-cc-pVTZ∕SDD∕∕CASSCF(10,8)∕aug-cc-pVTZ∕SDD, respectively. The interconversion barrier heights between RgBF(2) (+) and FRgBF(+) (Rg = Kr and Xe) are at least 39 kcal∕mol. In addition, no dissociation transition state associated with RgBF(2) (+) and FRgBF(+) can be found. This suggests that RgBF(2) (+) (Rg = Ar, Kr, and Xe) can exist as both thermodynamically and kinetically stable species, while linear FRgBF(+) (Rg = Kr and Xe) can exist as metastable species compared with the lowest dissociation limit energies just like isoelectronic linear FRgBO and FRgBN(-). From natural bond orbital and atoms-in-molecules calculations, it is found that the positive charge is mainly located on Rg and boron atoms for both types of minima, the Rg-B bonds of ArBF(2) (+), KrBF(2) (+), and XeBF(2) (+) are mostly electrostatic, thus can be viewed as ion-induced dipole interaction; while that of linear FKrBF(+) and FXeBF(+) are covalent in nature. The previous experimental observation of ArBF(2) (+) by Pepi et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B. 110, 4492 (2006)] should correspond to C(2) (v) minimum. The presently predicted spectroscopies of KrBF(2) (+), XeBF(2) (+), FKrBF(+), and FXeBF(+) should be helpful for their experimental

  2. Predictions for squeezed back-to-back correlations of φ φ and K^+K^- in high-energy heavy-ion collisions by event-by-event hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2016-08-01

    We calculate the squeezed back-to-back correlation (BBC) functions of φ φ and K^+K^- for heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies, using (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics with fluctuating initial conditions. The BBC functions averaged over event-by-event calculations for many events for the hydrodynamic sources are smoothed as a function of the particle momentum. For heavy-ion collisions of Au + Au at √{s_{NN}}=200 GeV, the BBC functions are larger than those for collisions of Pb + Pb at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV. The BBC of φ φ may possibly be observed in peripheral collisions at the RHIC and LHC energies. It is large for the smaller sources of Cu + Cu collisions at √{s_{NN}}=200 GeV.

  3. A new, high energy Sn-C/Li[Li(0.2)Ni(0.4)/3Co(0.4)/3Mn(1.6/3)]O2 lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Wang, Jun; Bresser, Dominic; Li, Jie; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2014-08-13

    In this paper we report a new, high performance lithium-ion battery comprising a nanostructured Sn-C anode and Li[Li0.2Ni0.4/3Co0.4/3Mn1.6/3]O2 (lithium-rich) cathode. This battery shows highly promising long-term cycling stability for up to 500 cycles, excellent rate capability, and a practical energy density, which is expected to be as high as 220 Wh kg(-1) at the packaged cell level. Considering the overall performance of this new chemistry basically related to the optimized structure, morphology, and composition of the utilized active materials as demonstrated by XRD, TEM, and SEM, respectively, the system studied herein is proposed as a suitable candidate for application in the lithium-ion battery field.

  4. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2014-07-22

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  5. High Energy Emissions from Young Stellar Objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. C. Das; Ashok Ambastha

    2012-03-01

    X-ray emissions from Young Stellar Objects (YSO) are detected by many X-ray missions that are providing important information about their properties. However, their emission processes are not fully understood. In this research note, we propose a model for the generation of emissions from a YSO on the basis of a simple interaction between the YSO and its surrounding circumstellar accretion disc containing neutral gas and charged dust. It is assumed that the YSO has a weak dipole type magnetic field and its field lines are threaded into the circumstellar disc. Considering the motion of ions and charged dust particles in the presence of neutral gas, we show that the sheared dust-neutral gas velocities can lead to a current along the direction of ambient magnetic field. Magnitude of this current can become large and is capable of generating an electric field along the magnetic field lines. It is shown how the particles can gain energy up to MeV range and above, which can produce high-energy radiations from the YSO.

  6. High Energy Telescope With Neutron Detection Capabilities (HETn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Böhm, E.; Böttcher, s.; Connell, J. J.; Dröge, W.; Hassler, D. M.; Heber, B.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Steigies, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    The High-Energy Telescope with neutron detection capabilities (HETn) for the Solar Orbiter will measure and resolve energetic charged particles, in particular electrons, proton, and heavy ions up to Fe including selected isotopes up to energies equivalen to the penetration depth of 100 MeV protons. The full active anti-coincidence encloses detectors sensitive to 1-30 MeV neutrons and 0.5-5 MeV X-/gamma-rays. The sensor consists of the angle-detecting inclined sensors (ADIS) solid-state detector detector telescope utilizing a shared calorimeter for total energy and X-/gamma-ray measurement. A separate plastic detector provides sensitivity to neutrons via the recoil process. HETn will open a new window on solar eruptive events with its neutron detection capability and allows determination of high-energy close to the Sun. Timing and spectral information on neutral particles (neutrons and X-/gamma rays ), on relativistic electrons and high-energy heavy ions will provide new insights into the processes which accelerate particles to high energies at the sun and into transport processes between the source and the spacecraft in the near-Sun environment.

  7. Observation of the intermediate states in the (Xe-Cl 2)*→ XeCl* (B,C) + Cl reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivineau, M.; Le Calvé, J.; Castex, M. C.; Jouvet, C.

    1986-10-01

    The Xe-Cl 2 van der Waals complex formed in a supersonic expansion is excited in a two-photon process. The XeCl(B,C) reaction spectra (excitation of the complex and detection of the XeCl (B→X) and (C→A) fluorescence) are obtained in the region 290-310 nm. In addition to a diffuse band also obtained in the C action spectrum, the B action spectrum presents a vibronic structure similar to the Xe-Cl (B←X) absorption band. Xe-Cl 2 ( 1Π u) resonantly enhanced two-photon process with two chromophores is proposed to account for the results.

  8. Study of collisions of {sup 136}Xe + {sup 198}Pt for the KEK isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.X., E-mail: yutaka.watanabe@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S.C.; Miyatake, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Clement, E.; France, G. de; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; Schmitt, C. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Pollarolo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro dell’INFN, Via Romea 4, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Montanari, D. [Università di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio, 2-35122 Padova (Italy); Choi, S.H.; Kim, Y.H.; Song, J.S. [Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Niikura, M.; Suzuki, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (IPN), IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • {sup 136}Xe + {sup 198}Pt shows a comparable contribution of proton pick-up and stripping. • Proton stripping channels in {sup 136}Xe + {sup 198}Pt show enhanced cross sections. • Mass distributions of proton stripping channels in {sup 136}Xe + {sup 198}Pt shift to heavy side. -- Abstract: Multinucleon transfer reactions between two heavy ions are an important tool for production and investigation of exotic neutron-rich nuclei, which are difficult to access by other methods. The {sup 136}Xe + {sup 198}Pt system is a candidate to efficiently produce neutron-rich nuclei around the neutron magic number N=126 for the KEK isotope separation project. In order to confirm this, measurements of the production cross sections with the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++ and de-excitation gamma rays from target-like fragments using the high efficiency germanium array EXOGAM at GANIL are reported. The measured isotopic distributions of the projectile-like fragments are compared with GRAZING calculations. The proton stripping channels show rough agreements between measurements and calculations. For the proton pick-up channels, the measured distributions are shifted toward the heavier masses and show enhanced cross sections in transfers of two or more protons.

  9. Theory of high-energy messengers

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the distant high-energy universe comes from photons, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), high-energy neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The theory of high-energy messengers reviewed here focuses on the extragalactic background light at all wavelengths, cosmic rays and magnetic fields in intergalactic space, and neutrinos of extragalactic origin. Comparisons are drawn between the intensities of photons and UHECRs in intergalactic space, and the high-energy neutrinos recently detected with IceCube at about the Waxman-Bahcall flux. Source candidates for UHECRs and high-energy neutrinos are reviewed, focusing on star-forming and radio-loud active galaxies. HAWC and Advanced LIGO are just underway, with much anticipation.

  10. Theory of high-energy messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of the distant high-energy universe comes from photons, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), high-energy neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The theory of high-energy messengers reviewed here focuses on the extragalactic background light at all wavelengths, cosmic rays and magnetic fields in intergalactic space, and neutrinos of extragalactic origin. Comparisons are drawn between the intensities of photons and UHECRs in intergalactic space, and the high-energy neutrinos recently detected with IceCube at about the Waxman-Bahcall flux. Source candidates for UHECRs and high-energy neutrinos are reviewed, focusing on star-forming and radio-loud active galaxies. HAWC and Advanced LIGO are just underway, with much anticipation.

  11. Abundances of s-process elements in planetary nebulae: Br, Kr & Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Pellegrini, E; Cavagnolo, K; Baldwin, J A; Sharpee, B; Phillips, M; Liu, X W

    2006-01-01

    We identify emission lines of post-iron peak elements in very high signal-to-noise spectra of a sample of planetary nebulae. Analysis of lines from ions of Kr and Xe reveals enhancements in most of the PNe, in agreement with the theories of s-process in AGB star. Surprisingly, we did not detect lines from Br even though s-process calculations indicate that it should be produced with Kr at detectable levels.

  12. High Energy Sources Observed with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Mas-Hesse, J M; Kuulkers, E

    2008-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Optical Monitoring Camera, OMC, has detected many high energy sources. We have obtained V-band fluxes and light curves for their counterparts. In the cases of previously unknown counterparts, we have searched for characteristic variations in optical sources around the high-energy target position. Results about the Galactic Bulge Monitoring, INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray sources (IGR), and other high energy sources are presented.

  13. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  14. Fast Electronics in High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, Clyde

    1958-08-08

    A brief review of fast electronics is given, leading up to the present state of the art. Cherenkov counters in high-energy physics are discussed, including an example of a velocity-selecting Cherenkov counter. An electronic device to aid in aligning external beams from high-energy accelerators is described. A scintillation-counter matrix to identify bubble chamber tracks is discussed. Some remarks on the future development of electronics in high-energy physics experiments are included.

  15. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. Development of Sesquioxide Ceramic for High Energy Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 28 Mar 13 – 27 Mar 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Sesquioxide Ceramic for High Energy Lasers ...the findings include, the relationship between the appropriate evaluation process for the performance of materials and laser oscillation performance...homogeneity was lowered by adding laser active ions into the above host materials. 4) Optical heterogeneity was caused by the inhomogeneous

  17. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  18. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  19. High-Energy Astrophysics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics is the study of objects and phenomena in space with energy densities much greater than that found in normal stars and galaxies. These include black holes, neutron stars, cosmic rays, hypernovae and gamma-ray bursts. A history and an overview of high-energy astrophysics will be presented, including a description of the objects that are observed. Observing techniques, space-borne missions in high-energy astrophysics and some recent discoveries will also be described. Several entirely new types of astronomy are being employed in high-energy astrophysics. These will be briefly described, along with some NASA missions currently under development.

  20. Ultra High Energy Density Cathodes with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    34Enhanced Capacity and Rate Capability of Carbon Nanotube Based Anodes with Titanium Contacts for Lithium Ion Batteries," ACS Nano, vol. 4, pp. 6121- 6131...2010/10/26 2010. [2] S. L. Chou, et al., "Silicon/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Paper as a Flexible Anode Material for Lithium Ion...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2013-0170 TR-2013-0170 ULTRA HIGH ENERGY DENSITY CATHODES WITH CARBON NANOTUBES Brian J. Landi, et al. Rochester

  1. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, T.; /General Atomics, San Diego; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  2. 高能氩离子在聚苯乙烯中的电子能损效应研究%Electronic Energy Loss Effects in Polystyrene Irradiated with High Energy Argon Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱智勇; 金运范; 刘昌龙; 孙友梅; 王衍斌; 侯明东; 陈晓曦; 王志光; 张崇宏; 刘杰; 李保权

    2001-01-01

    用1.4GeV氩离子对多层堆叠的厚约53μm的聚苯乙烯薄膜在室温和真空条件下进行了辐照;对辐照后的样品进行了从红外到紫外的光吸收测量. 测量结果显示,材料经高能氩离子辐照后发生化学降解,降解过程强烈依赖于电子能损;在能量沉积密度很高的径迹芯中,分子主链和苯环均遭到破坏;在电子能损高于0.77keV/nm时有炔基产生.%Stacked polystyrene films of about 53μm in thickness were irradiated with 1.4GeV argon ions at room temperature and in vacuum. The radiation induced chemical changes of each film were studied by the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) spectroscopies. It is found that the material is seriously degraded after irradiation and the chemical modifications depend strongly on electronic energy loss. Significant degradation of the material occurs above about 0.77keV/nm at the dose of 5.5×1012 ions/cm2, corresponding to an energy deposition of 6.4MGy. The main chains of PS as well as the phenyl ring are destroyed in the track core simultaneously. Damage cross sections of about 29nm2 are found for phenyl ring and the -CH2- group. Alkynes are produced above an energy loss of 0.77keV/nm.

  3. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield with high-pressure gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA for improved neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Y.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H. S.; Miller, T.; Nygren, D. R.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Renner, J.

    2016-03-01

    The gaseous Xenon(Xe) time projection chamber (TPC) is an attractive detector technique for neutrinoless double beta decay and WIMP dark matter searches. While it is less dense compared to Liquid Xe detectors, it has intrinsic advantages in tracking capability and better energy resolution. The performance of gaseous Xe can be further improved by molecular additives such as trimethylamine(TMA), which is expected to (1) cool down the ionization electrons, (2) convert Xe excitation energy to TMA ionizations through Penning transfer, and (3) produce scintillation and electroluminescence light in a more easily detectable wavelength (300 nm). In order to test the feasibility of the performance improvements with TMA, we made the first direct measurement of Penning and fluorescence transfer efficiency with gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA. While we observed a Penning transfer efficiency up to ~35%, we found strong suppression of primary scintillation light with TMA. We also found that the primary scintillation light with Xe and TMA mixture can be well characterized by ~3% fluorescence transfer from Xe to TMA, with further suppression due to TMA self-quenching. No evidence of the scintillation light produced by recombination of TMA ions was found. This strong suppression of scintillation light makes dark matter searches quite challenging, while the possibility of improved neutrinoless double beta decay searches remains open. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  4. An outlook of heavy ion driven plasma research at IMP-Lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongtao; Xiao, Guoqing; Xu, Hushan; Zhao, Hongwei; Xia, Jiawen; Jin, Genming; Ma, Xinwen; Liu, Yong; Yang, Zhihu; Zhang, Pengming; Wang, Yuyu; Li, Deihui; Zhao, Huanyu; Zhan, Wenlong; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhao, Di; Li, Fuli; Chen, Ximeng

    2009-01-01

    Since the successful completion of the cooling storage ring (CSR) project in China at the end of 2007, high qualitative heavy ion beams with energy ranging from keV to GeV/u have been available at the Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou (HIRFL). More than 10 9 1 GeV/u C 6+ particles or 10 8 235 MeV/u Xe particles can be stored in the CSR main-ring and extracted within hundred nano-seconds during the test running, the beam parameters will be improved in the coming years so that high energy density (HED) conditions could be achieved and investigated there. Recent scientific results from the experiments relevant to plasma research on HIRFL are summarized. Dense plasma research with intense heavy ion beams of CSR is proposed here.

  5. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...

  6. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...

  7. MOF-derived crumpled-sheet-assembled perforated carbon cuboids as highly effective cathode active materials for ultra-high energy density Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhik; Upadhyay, Kush Kumar; Puthusseri, Dhanya; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-03-01

    Lithium ion hybrid capacitors (Li-HECs) have attracted significant attention for use in next generation advanced energy storage technologies to satisfy the demand of both high power density as well as energy density. Herein we demonstrate the use of very high surface area 3D carbon cuboids synthesized from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a cathode material with Li4Ti5O12 as the anode for high performance Li-HECs. The energy density of the cell is ~65 W h kg-1 which is significantly higher than that achievable with commercially available activated carbon (~36 W h kg-1) and a symmetric supercapacitor based on the same MOF-derived carbon (MOF-DC ~20 W h kg-1). The MOF-DC/Li4Ti5O12 Li-HEC assembly also shows good cyclic performance with ~82% of the initial value (~25 W h kg-1) retained after 10 000 galvanostatic cycles under high rate cyclic conditions. This result clearly indicates that MOF-DC is a very promising candidate for future P-HEVs in a Li-HEC configuration.Lithium ion hybrid capacitors (Li-HECs) have attracted significant attention for use in next generation advanced energy storage technologies to satisfy the demand of both high power density as well as energy density. Herein we demonstrate the use of very high surface area 3D carbon cuboids synthesized from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a cathode material with Li4Ti5O12 as the anode for high performance Li-HECs. The energy density of the cell is ~65 W h kg-1 which is significantly higher than that achievable with commercially available activated carbon (~36 W h kg-1) and a symmetric supercapacitor based on the same MOF-derived carbon (MOF-DC ~20 W h kg-1). The MOF-DC/Li4Ti5O12 Li-HEC assembly also shows good cyclic performance with ~82% of the initial value (~25 W h kg-1) retained after 10 000 galvanostatic cycles under high rate cyclic conditions. This result clearly indicates that MOF-DC is a very promising candidate for future P-HEVs in a Li-HEC configuration. Electronic supplementary information

  8. Direct Observation of Xe and Kr Adsorption in a Xe-Selective Microporous Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianyin; Plonka, Anna M; Banerjee, Debasis; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T; Ghose, Sanjit; Thallapally, Praveen K; Parise, John B

    2015-06-10

    The cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid-state adsorbents, but no experimental insights into the nature of the Xe-network interaction are available to date. Here we report a new microporous MOF (designated SBMOF-2) that is selective toward Xe over Kr under ambient conditions, with a Xe/Kr selectivity of about 10 and a Xe capacity of 27.07 wt % at 298 K. Single-crystal diffraction results show that the Xe selectivity may be attributed to the specific geometry of the pores, forming cages built with phenyl rings and enriched with polar -OH groups, both of which serve as strong adsorption sites for polarizable Xe gas. The Xe/Kr separation in SBMOF-2 was investigated with experimental and computational breakthrough methods. These experiments showed that Kr broke through the column first, followed by Xe, which confirmed that SBMOF-2 has a real practical potential for separating Xe from Kr. Calculations showed that the capacity and adsorption selectivity of SBMOF-2 are comparable to those of the best-performing unmodified MOFs such as NiMOF-74 or Co formate.

  9. MOF-derived crumpled-sheet-assembled perforated carbon cuboids as highly effective cathode active materials for ultra-high energy density Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HECs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhik; Upadhyay, Kush Kumar; Puthusseri, Dhanya; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-04-21

    Lithium ion hybrid capacitors (Li-HECs) have attracted significant attention for use in next generation advanced energy storage technologies to satisfy the demand of both high power density as well as energy density. Herein we demonstrate the use of very high surface area 3D carbon cuboids synthesized from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a cathode material with Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ as the anode for high performance Li-HECs. The energy density of the cell is ∼65 W h kg(-1) which is significantly higher than that achievable with commercially available activated carbon (∼36 W h kg(-1)) and a symmetric supercapacitor based on the same MOF-derived carbon (MOF-DC ∼20 W h kg(-1)). The MOF-DC/Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ Li-HEC assembly also shows good cyclic performance with ∼82% of the initial value (∼25 W h kg(-1)) retained after 10,000 galvanostatic cycles under high rate cyclic conditions. This result clearly indicates that MOF-DC is a very promising candidate for future P-HEVs in a Li-HEC configuration.

  10. Synergistic effect of 3D electrode architecture and fluorine doping of Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2 for high energy density lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Ghosh, Sourav; Ghosal, Partha; Martha, Surendra K.

    2017-07-01

    Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2 (LMR NMC) is synthesized by solution combustion method followed by LiF coating onto LMR NMC by solid state synthesis. The electrochemical performance of the pristine LMR NMC and corresponding F-doped samples as cathodes for Lithium ion Batteries (LIBs) are investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The fluorine doped cathodes deliver high capacity of ∼300 mAh g-1 at C/10 rate (10-20% greater than the pristine LMR NMC cathodes), have high discharge voltage plateau (>0.25 V) and low charge voltage plateau (0.2-0.4 V) compared to pristine LMR NMC cathodes. Beside, irreversible capacity, voltage fade, capacity loss are significantly reduced in-relation to the pristine LMR NMC electrodes. LiF coating onto LMR NMC, partially replaces Msbnd O bonds of the material by Msbnd F bonds, thus increasing the interfacial and structural stability. Besides, the manuscript describes possible replacement of aluminium current collector with 3D carbon fiber current collector which delivers high capacity of >200 mAh g-1 at 1C rate, good capacity retentions for over 200 cycles. The study opens a possibility for LMR NMC cathode material which has almost double the capacity of currently used cathodes, can be a possible substitute cathode for LIBs used in electric vehicles.

  11. NMR of laser-polarized 129Xe in blood foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Peled, S.; Nascimben, L.; Oteiza, E.; Walsworth, R. L.; Jolesz, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    Laser-polarized 129Xe dissolved in a foam preparation of fresh human blood was investigated. The NMR signal of 129Xe dissolved in blood was enhanced by creating a foam in which the dissolved 129Xe exchanged with a large reservoir of gaseous laser-polarized 129Xe. The dissolved 129Xe T1 in this system was found to be significantly shorter in oxygenated blood than in deoxygenated blood. The T1 of 129Xe dissolved in oxygenated blood foam was found to be approximately 21 (+/-5) s, and in deoxygenated blood foam to be greater than 40 s. To understand the oxygenation trend, T1 measurements were also made on plasma and hemoglobin foam preparations. The measurement technique using a foam gas-liquid exchange interface may also be useful for studying foam coarsening and other liquid physical properties.

  12. XENON IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK (PPD-Xe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J., E-mail: kattathu.mathew@srs.gov [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind, in planetary atmospheres, and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the time of incorporation into the interior of Mars through times of regolith implantations to the present.

  13. 高容量型锂离子电池的制备及其电化学性能研究%Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of High Energy Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锋涛; 李斌

    2015-01-01

    锰酸锂(LiMn2O4)圆柱形电池具有良好的循环性能、热稳定性、较高的容量以及相对低廉的价格,近年来成为电池研究的热点。采用刮刀涂布法制成电池,电池测试仪对电池的容量、寿命、电化学性能进行表征,电池的容量达到1520mAh,稳定倍率可以达到1C,寿命达到400次以上,针刺测试表明其安全性能良好。%Lithium manganate battery (LiMn2O4), as a new type of column Li-ion battery, is with good cycling performance, thermal stability, high discharge capacity and low price. Therefore, many researchers focus on the research of this type Lithium battery in recent years. The batteries were made by blade-coating method. The capacity, life, electrochemical performance of battery were characterized by battery tester. The capacity of battery is 1520 mAh and the power shows that battery can reach 1C or above. After 400 cycles, this column battery can deliver a reversible discharge capacity of 1087 mAh. Cutting through battery with needle showes good safty performance.

  14. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  15. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  16. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.

  17. High energy physics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  18. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsesmelis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC), this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  19. Overview of recent experimental works on high energy neutron shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T; Yashima, H; Yonai, S

    2004-01-01

    Several experiments on high energy neutron shielding have recently been performed using medium to high energy accelerators of energies above 20 MeV. Below 100 MeV, the benchmark experiments have been done using 25 and 35 MeV p-Li quasi-monoenergetic neutrons at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Japan, 43 and 68 MeV p-Li quasi-monoenergetic neutrons at the Azimuthally Varying Field (AVF) cyclotron facility, TIARA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Above 100 MeV, the neutron shielding experiments have been done using 800 MeV protons at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton laboratory (RAL), England, 400 MeV/nucleon carbon ions at the heavy ion medical accelerator facility, HIMAC of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan, 500 MeV protons at the spallation neutron source facility, KEK spallation neutron source facility (KENS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Japan, 500 MeV protons at the accelerator facility, TRIUMF, Canada, 1.6 to 24 G...

  20. Fabricating high-energy quantum dots in ultra-thin LiFePO4 nanosheets using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule-ATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; Bi, Z.Y.; He, W.

    2014-01-01

    By using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule—adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—we fabricated highenergy quantum dots (HEQDs) with a feature size of less than 10 nm and used them in high-power lithium-ion batteries. We introduced high-energy phosphate bonds into the crystal structure of LiFePO4...... coating network structures. This work is instructive for fabrication and design of new types of electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices with extraordinary properties and functions....

  1. 高能12C6+离子辐照诱发小肠急性损伤研究%Acute injury of the small intestine induced by high energy 12C 6+ ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓飞; 张红

    2011-01-01

    The whole bodies of Kunming mice were immobilized and irradiated with the plateau region of C + ions. The mice were killed by cervical dislocation at various times following the radiation. The jejunum was dissected and fixed in Bouin's fixative prior to paraffin-embedding. Tissue was routinely processed and cut into 5 /xm sections for hematoxylin and eosin staining to examine the pathological changes. The yields of apoptosis and the distribution of apoptotic cells and dividing cells in crypts were also surveyed. At 15.5 h following 4 Gy radiation the villus began to fall off, the lowest level of the density of Villus was reached at 25.5 h and returned to the normal level at 3.5 d. Inflammatory cell infiltration in lamina propria and musclar layer was observed from 5.5 ~ 6 d. Increase in the number of folliculi lymphaticus was also observed following the irradiation. The loss of mucosal epithelial integrity, inflammatory response and villus loss were dose-dependent at 3.5 d. Crypts fission was observed at 5 ~ 6 d. A structure very similar to villousa denoma was observed in the small intestine and the colon. The maximum yield of apoptosis was observed at 5.5 h and apoptotic cells were most frequently observed at the cell position 10 from the base of the crypt but the highest frequency of dividing cells was observed at cell position 16.%将昆明鼠固定全身接受单能12C 6+离子束辐照,于照后不同时间颈椎脱臼法处死小鼠,剖取空肠组织,Bouin固定液固定,石蜡切片切为5 μm,HE染色后观察病理变化并统计隐窝部位辐照诱导的细胞凋亡率以及凋亡细胞和增殖细胞在隐窝中的分布.辐照后15.5 h绒毛开始脱落,绒毛密度于25.5 h降至最低,3.5天恢复至正常密度.于照后5.5 ~6天固有层和肌肉层有炎症细胞浸润,同时固有层淋巴小结增多.小肠黏膜完整性丧失程度与辐照剂量相关.照后5~6天出现隐窝分裂现象.小肠及结肠组织出现类似于绒毛腺瘤

  2. Resonance-Enhanced Photon Excitation Spectroscopy of the Even-Parity Autoionizing Rydberg States of Xe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-yan Li; Ting-ting Wang; Jun-feng Zhen; Qun Zhang; Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Xenon atoms were produced in their metastable states 5p56s[3/2]2 and 5p56s'[1/2]0 in a pulsed DC discharge in a beam, and subsequently excited to the even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states 5p5np' [3/2] 1 ,[1/2]1, t, and 5p5 nf'[5/2]3 using single photon excitation. The excitation spectra of the even-parity autoionizing resonance series from the metastable 129Xe were obtained by recording the autoionized Xe+ with time-of-flight ion detection in the photon energy range of 28000-42000 cm-1. A wealth of autoionizing resonances were newly observed, from which more precise and systematic spectroscopic data of the level energies and quantum defects were derived.

  3. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery St., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic and Institute of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  4. HP-Xe to go: Storage and Transportation of Hyperpolarized 129-Xe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repetto, M.; Zimmer, S.; Almendinger, F.; Blümler, P.; Doll, M.; Grasdijk, J.O.; Heil, W.; Jungmann, K.; Karpuk, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Offenhaeusser, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-129Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxat

  5. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  6. 1570 nm High Energy Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of...

  7. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community.

  8. Organisation of high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluyver, J C

    1981-01-01

    Tabulates details of major accelerator laboratories in western Europe, USA, and USSR, and describes the various organisations concerned with high-energy physics. The Dutch organisation uses the NIKHEF laboratory in Amsterdam and cooperates with CERN. (0 refs).

  9. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  10. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  11. Collapsing Bubble in Metal for High Energy Density Physics Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S F; Barnard, J J; Leung, P T; Yu, S S

    2011-04-13

    This paper presents a new idea to produce matter in the high energy density physics (HEDP) regime in the laboratory using an intense ion beam. A gas bubble created inside a solid metal may collapse by driving it with an intense ion beam. The melted metal will compress the gas bubble and supply extra energy to it. Simulations show that the spherical implosion ratio can be about 5 and at the stagnation point, the maximum density, temperature and pressure inside the gas bubble can go up to nearly 2 times solid density, 10 eV and a few megabar (Mbar) respectively. The proposed experiment is the first to permit access into the Mbar regime with existing or near-term ion facilities, and opens up possibilities for new physics gained through careful comparisons of simulations with measurements of quantities like stagnation radius, peak temperature and peak pressure at the metal wall.

  12. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  13. High-energy tail distributions and resonant wave particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    High-energy tail distributions (k distributions) are used as an alternative to a bi-Lorentzian distribution to study the influence of energetic protons on the right- and left-hand cyclotron modes in a hot two-temperature plasma. Although the parameters are chosen to be in a range appropriate to solar wind or magnetospheric configurations, the results apply not only to specific space plasmas. The presence of energetic particles significantly alters the behavior of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes, leading to a wide range of unstable frequencies and increased growth rates. From the strongly enhanced growth rates it can be concluded that high-energy tail distributions should not show major temperature anisotropies, which is consistent with observations.

  14. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  15. On high energy tails in inelastic gases

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiotte, R.; Brenig, L.; Salazar, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation of high energy tails in a one-dimensional kinetic model for granular gases, the so-called Inelastic Maxwell Model. We introduce a time- discretized version of the stochastic process, and show that continuous time implies larger fluctuations of the particles energies. This is due to a statistical relation between the number of inelastic collisions undergone by a particle and its average energy. This feature is responsible for the high energy tails in the model, as shown ...

  16. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  17. Future of high energy physics some aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prokofiev, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises 26 carefully edited articles with well-referenced and up-to-date material written by many of the leading experts. These articles originated from presentations and dialogues at the second HKUST Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics are organized into three aspects, Theory, Accelerator, and Experiment, focusing on in-depth analyses and technical aspects that are essential for the developments and expectations for the future high energy physics.

  18. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Hladik, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[SAP AG, Berlin (Germany); Ostapchenko, S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees

    1999-11-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author) 19 refs.

  19. Liquid-Xe detector for contraband detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartsky, D., E-mail: david.vartsky@weizmann.ac.il [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Israelashvili, I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Nuclear Research Center of Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 9001 (Israel); Cortesi, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing 48823, MI (United States); Arazi, L.; Coimbra, A.E.; Moleri, L.; Erdal, E.; Bar, D.; Rappaport, M.; Shchemelinin, S. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Caspi, E.N. [Nuclear Research Center of Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 9001 (Israel); Aviv, O. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Breskin, A. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-07-11

    We describe progress made with a liquid-Xe (LXe) detector coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier (GPM), for combined imaging and spectroscopy of fast neutrons and gamma-rays in the MeV range. The purpose of this detector is to enable the detection of hidden explosives and fissile materials in cargo and containers. The expected position resolution is about 2 m and 3.5 mm for fast neutrons and gamma-rays, respectively. Experimental results obtained using an {sup 241}Am source yielded energy and time resolutions of 11% and 1.2 ns RMS, respectively. Initial results obtained with the position-sensitive GPM are presented.

  20. Negative correlation of 129I/127I and 129Xe/132Xe: product of closed system evolution or evidence of a mixed component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Whitby, J. A.; Turner, G.

    2001-10-01

    Anti-correlation of initial iodine ratios with trapped 129Xe/132Xe ratios has been interpreted as resulting from 129I decay to 129Xe in a closed system. However, many of the 129Xe/132Xe ratios that contribute to the anti-correlations are lower than 1.04, the value characteristic of major solar system reservoirs; 129I decay cannot lead to a decrease in this ratio. We offer an alternative explanation for the anti-correlations, based on trapped iodine and xenon components similar to those observed in Nakhla, that does not require the existence of components with 129Xe/132Xe lower than solar.

  1. Cation location in microporous zeolite, SSZ-13, probed with xenon adsorption measurement and 129Xe NMR spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na Ra; Kim, Su Hyun; Shin, Hye Sun; Jang, Ik Jun; Cho, Sung June

    2013-06-01

    The location of metal ion, Ag2+, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Y3+ in the SSZ-13 has been investigated with xenon adsorption measurement and 129Xe NMR spectrum. It was referred that the location of the metal ion varies depending on the corresponding charge. The ion-exchanged Ag ion was located in the alpha-cage to interact directly with xenon. Others multivalent cation contributed little with xenon because these were present near the six membered rings where xenon cannot access.

  2. A miniature silicon diode matrix detector for in vivo measurement of 133Xe disappearance following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, K; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Rasmussen, H B

    1992-01-01

    have the capability of measuring the lowest energies (25-40 keV) of gamma and x-ray emitters with sufficient efficiency when applied on the skin surface and close to the indicator depot. The purpose of the present study was firstly to evaluate a portable Si photodiode matrix detector system, composed......A variety of biological processes can be studied from the washout of compounds labelled with a gamma emitter. Conventional systems for measurement of gamma radiation can detect count rates at both the low and high energy range of the indicator in question, 133Xe. However, silicon (Si) photodiodes...... of 16 photodiodes, for in vivo measurement of disappearance rate constants of 133Xe following injection into subcutaneous (SC) or skeletal muscle (SM) tissues as compared with a stationary sodium iodide single crystal detector. Secondly, from these results, to evaluate the contribution from intra...

  3. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  4. Shell Model Estimate of Electric Dipole Moments for Xe Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruya, Eri; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji

    The nuclear Schiff moments of Xe isotopes which induce electric dipole moments of neutral Xe atoms is theoretically estimated. Parity and time-reversal violating two-body nuclear interactions are assumed. The nuclear wave functions are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model. Influences of core excitations on the Schiff moments in addition to the over-shell excitations are discussed.

  5. Electric dipole moment of ^{129}Xe atom

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Yashpal; Das, B P

    2013-01-01

    The parity (P) and time-reversal (T) odd coupling constant associated with the tensor-pseudotensor (T-PT) electron-nucleus interaction and the nuclear Schiff moment (NSM) have been determined by combining the result of the measurement of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of ^{129}Xe atom and calculations based on the relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) theory. Calculations using various relativistic many-body methods have been performed at different levels of approximation. The accuracies of these calculations are estimated by comparing the results of the calculated dipole polarizability of the ground state of the above atom with the most precise available experimental data. The non-linear terms that arise in the RCC theory at the singles and doubles approximation (CCSD method) were found to be crucial for achieving high accuracy in the calculations. Our results for the ^{129}Xe EDM due to the odd T-PT interaction and the NSM are, respectively, d_A=0.501 x 10^{-20} C_T |e|cm and d_A=0.336 x 10^{-17} S/(|e| fm^...

  6. Quantitative analysis of total reflection X-ray fluorescence from finely layered structures using XeRay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zhiliang [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Kerr, Daniel [Program in the Biophysical Sciences, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Hwang, Hyeondo Luke [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Henderson, J. Michael [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Suwatthee, Tiffany [The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Slaw, Benjamin R. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Cao, Kathleen D. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lin, Binhua [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Bu, Wei [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lee, Ka Yee C. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA

    2017-03-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a widely applicable experimental technique for studying chemical element distributions across finely layered structures at extremely high sensitivity. To promote and facilitate scientific discovery using TXRF, we developed a MATLAB-based software package with a graphical user interface, named XeRay, for quick, accurate, and intuitive data analysis. XeRay lets the user model any layered system, each layer with its independent chemical composition and thickness, and enables fine-tuned data fitting. The accuracy of XeRay has been tested in the analysis of TXRF data from both air/liquid interface and liquid/liquid interfacial studies and has been compared to literature results. In an air/liquid interface study, Ca2+ sequestration was measured at a Langmuir monolayer of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid (SOPA) on a buffer solution of 1 mM CaCl2 at pH 7.5. Data analysis with XeRay reveals that each 1 nm2 of interfacial area contains 2.38 ± 0.06 Ca2+ ions, which corresponds to a 1:1 ratio between SOPA headgroups and Ca2+ ions, consistent with several earlier reports. For the liquid/liquid interface study of Sr2+ enrichment at the dodecane/surfactant/water interface, analysis using XeRay gives a surface enrichment of Sr2+ at 68+6-568-5+6 Å2 per ion, consistent with the result published for the same dataset.

  7. Xe and Kr analyses of silicate inclusions from iron meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, D. D.; Huneke, J. C.; Burnett, D. S.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted of the amounts and isotopic composition of Xe and Kr in silicate inclusions of several iron meteorites. It is shown that the Xe and Kr contents are comparable to chondritic values. The isotopic compositions show trapped gas of both chondritic and atmospheric composition. Large spallation effects occur in some of the meteorites; the spallation spectra in some instances differ from those reported for stone meteorites. In several meteorites, very large neutron capture effects on Br and I occur. All samples have pronounced Xe129 excesses which apparently indicate differences in the formation times from chondrites of less than about 100 million years; however, the presence of trapped Xe132 in silicates which were enclosed in molten Fe-Ni and cooled slowly proves that they were not entirely outgassed, so that some of the Xe129 excess may also be trapped.

  8. Simulations of Xe and U diffusion in UO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vyas, Shyam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael R. [Idaho National Laboratory; Casillas, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Millett, Paul [Idaho National Laboratory

    2012-09-10

    Diffusion of xenon (Xe) and uranium (U) in UO{sub 2} is controlled by vacancy mechanisms and under irradiation the formation of mobile vacancy clusters is important. Based on the vacancy and cluster diffusion mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we derive continuum thermodynamic and diffusion models for Xe and U in UO{sub 2}. In order to capture the effects of irradiation, vacancies (Va) are explicitly coupled to the Xe and U dynamics. Segregation of defects to grain boundaries in UO{sub 2} is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with models of the interaction between Xe atoms and vacancies with grain boundaries, which were derived from atomistic calculations. The diffusion and segregation models were implemented in the MOOSE-Bison-Marmot (MBM) finite element (FEM) framework and the Xe/U redistribution was simulated for a few simple microstructures.

  9. Systematic Optimization of Battery Materials: Key Parameter Optimization for the Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Energy, and High Stability LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Shen, Yun; Yang, Yao; Shen, Luxi; Levin, Barnaby D A; Yu, Yingchao; Muller, David A; Abruña, Héctor D

    2017-10-06

    Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (x > 0.5) (NMC) materials have attracted a great deal of interest as promising cathode candidates for Li-ion batteries due to their low cost and high energy density. However, several issues, including sensitivity to moisture, difficulty in reproducibly preparing well-controlled morphology particles and, poor cyclability, have hindered their large scale deployment; especially for electric vehicle (EV) applications. In this work, we have developed a uniform, highly stable, high-energy density, Ni-rich LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathode material by systematically optimizing synthesis parameters, including pH, stirring rate, and calcination temperature. The particles exhibit a spherical morphology and uniform size distribution, with a well-defined structure and homogeneous transition-metal distribution, owing to the well-controlled synthesis parameters. The material exhibited superior electrochemical properties, when compared to a commercial sample, with an initial discharge capacity of 205 mAh/g at 0.1 C. It also exhibited a remarkable rate capability with discharge capacities of 157 mAh/g and 137 mAh/g at 10 and 20 C, respectively, as well as high tolerance to air and moisture. In order to demonstrate incorporation into a commercial scale EV, a large-scale 4.7 Ah LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Al-full pouch cell with a high cathode loading of 21.6 mg/cm(2), paired with a graphite anode, was fabricated. It exhibited exceptional cyclability with a capacity retention of 96% after 500 cycles at room temperature. This material, which was obtained by a fully optimized scalable synthesis, delivered combined performance metrics that are among the best for NMC materials reported to date.

  10. Introduction to High-Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Stephan; Bruggen, Marcus

    2003-04-01

    High-energy astrophysics covers cosmic phenomena that occur under the most extreme physical conditions. It explores the most violent events in the Universe: the explosion of stars, matter falling into black holes, and gamma-ray bursts - the most luminous explosions since the Big Bang. Driven by a wealth of new observations, the last decade has seen a large leap forward in our understanding of these phenomena. Exploring modern topics of high-energy astrophysics, such as supernovae, neutron stars, compact binary systems, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei, this textbook is ideal for undergraduate students in high-energy astrophysics. It is a self-supporting, timely overview of this exciting field of research. Assuming a familiarity with basic physics, it introduces all other concepts, such as gas dynamics or radiation processes, in an instructive way. An extended appendix gives an overview of some of the most important high-energy astrophysics instruments, and each chapter ends with exercises.• New, up-to-date, introductory textbook providing a broad overview of high-energy phenomena and the many advances in our knowledge gained over the last decade • Written especially for undergraduate teaching use, it introduces the necessary physics and includes many exercises • This book fills a valuable niche at the advanced undergraduate level, providing professors with a new modern introduction to the subject

  11. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kai [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dai, Wei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Nu [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhuang, Pengfei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  12. High-spin structures in 132Xe and 133Xe and evidence for isomers along the N =79 isotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, A.; Siciliano, M.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.; Hadyńska-Klek, K.; Wheldon, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Teruya, E.; Yoshinaga, N.; Arnswald, K.; Bazzacco, D.; Blazhev, A.; Bracco, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Chapman, R.; Cline, D.; Corradi, L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Cromaz, M.; de Angelis, G.; Eberth, J.; Fallon, P.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Fransen, C.; Freeman, S. J.; Fu, B.; Gadea, A.; Gelletly, W.; Giaz, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Hayes, A. B.; Hess, H.; Hetzenegger, R.; Hirsch, R.; Hua, H.; John, P. R.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Karayonchev, V.; Kaya, L.; Korten, W.; Lee, I. Y.; Leoni, S.; Liang, X.; Lunardi, S.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatović, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Napoli, D.; Pearson, C. J.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pollarolo, G.; Pullia, A.; Queiser, M.; Recchia, F.; Regan, P. H.; Régis, J.-M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Şahin, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Sletten, G.; Smith, J. F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stezowski, O.; Szilner, S.; Szpak, B.; Teng, R.; Ur, C.; Warner, D. D.; Wolf, K.; Wu, C. Y.; Zell, K. O.

    2017-08-01

    The transitional nuclei 132Xe and 133Xe are investigated after multinucleon-transfer (MNT) and fusion-evaporation reactions. Both nuclei are populated (i) in 136Xe+208Pb MNT reactions employing the high-resolution Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) coupled to the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA, (ii) in the 136Xe+198Pt MNT reaction employing the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer in combination with the gas-detector array CHICO, and (iii) as an evaporation residue after a 130Te(α ,x n )134 -x nXe fusion-evaporation reaction employing the HORUS γ -ray array at the University of Cologne. The high-spin level schemes are considerably extended above the Jπ=(7-) and (10+) isomers in 132Xe and above the 11 /2- isomer in 133Xe. The results are compared to the high-spin systematics of the Z =54 as well as the N =78 and N =79 chains. Furthermore, evidence is found for a long-lived (T1 /2≫1 μ s ) isomer in 133Xe which closes a gap along the N =79 isotones. Shell-model calculations employing the SN100PN and PQM130 effective interactions reproduce the experimental findings and provide guidance to the interpretation of the observed high-spin features.

  13. The natural Xe gas transfer test for the {sup 123}I production system using the enriched Xe-124 gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyun Woo; Chun, Kwon Soo; Oh, Se Young; Choi, Jun Yong; You, Jae Jun; Bang, Sang Kwon; Kim, Byung Il [Korea Institute of Radiologicaland Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    If there is a sufficient amount of Xe gas during the loading process, we can make a ready state to run the beam irradiation. Then the Xe gas in the target chamber goes though a nuclear reaction, which, through the breakdown and half-life, results in the iodine absorption in the target. The remaining Xe gas is unloaded back to the storage vessel. After the unloading process, Iodine absorbed in the target chamber is retrieved through WPM(Wash Process Manifold). Once the retrieval is done, the remained moisture in the target chamber and system including valves and tubing was vaporized by the heaters and the rotary pumps; preparation for the next production is made. In the {sup 123}I nuclide production system, loading the Xe gas to the target is equally as important as retrieving the {sup 123}I. In addition, unloading the Xe gas is also important in order to make the most use of the expensive Xe gas. Through the experiment we were able to conclude that the amount of Xe gas after the loading and unloading process was almost quantitative, and we were able to expect a lot of {sup 123}I production through the sufficient amount of Xe gas, up to 546 kPa, in the loading process.

  14. Dileptons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ralf Rapp

    2003-04-01

    The current status of our understanding of dilepton production in ultra-relativistic heavyion collisions is discussed with special emphasis on signals from the (approach towards) chirally restored and deconfined phases. In particular, recent results of the CERN-SPS low-energy runs are compared to model predictions and interpreted. Prospects for RHIC experiments are given.

  15. Kelvin-Helmholz instability in high energy heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Csernai, L P; Anderlik, Cs

    2011-01-01

    The dynamical development of collective flow is studied in a 3+1D fluid dynamical model, with globally symmetric, peripheral initial conditions, which take into account the shear flow caused by the forward motion on the projectile side and the backward motion on the target side. While at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 A TeV semi-peripheral Pb+Pb collisions the earlier predicted rotation effect is visible, at more peripheral collisions, with high resolution and low numerical viscosity the initial development of a Kelvin-Helmholz instability is observed, which alters the flow pattern considerably. This effect provides a precision tool for studying the low viscosity of Quark-gluon Plasma.

  16. Introduction to high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    1994-01-01

    Written primarily for researchers and graduate students who are new in this emerging field, this book develops the necessary tools so that readers can follow the latest advances in this subject. Readers are first guided to examine the basic informations on nucleon-nucleon collisions and the use of the nucleus as an arena to study the interaction of one nucleon with another. A good survey of the relation between nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions provides the proper comparison to study phenomena involving the more exotic quark-gluon plasma. Properties of the quark-gluon plasma and s

  17. Antideuteron production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, J.L.; Kumar, B.S.; Bennett, M.J.; Coe, S.D.; Diebold, G.E.; Pope, J.K. (A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States)); Jahns, A.; Sorge, H. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, 60054 Frankfurt am Main 11, (Germany))

    1994-10-31

    Experiment E858 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron has recently reported the detection of two antideuterons produced in 14.6[ital A] GeV/[ital c] Si+Au collisions. The data were interpreted as implying antideuteron production rates about an order of magnitude below expectations. We use an extended RQMD model to demonstrate that the antideuteron yields are readily explained in a dynamical scenario that includes collective expansion and strong antinucleon absorption.

  18. Cosmic absorption of ultra high energy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, R.; Vereshchagin, G. V.; Xue, S.-S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the limits on propagation of ultra high energy particles in the Universe, set up by their interactions with cosmic background of photons and neutrinos. By taking into account cosmic evolution of these backgrounds and considering appropriate interactions we derive the mean free path for ultra high energy photons, protons and neutrinos. For photons the relevant processes are the Breit-Wheeler process as well as the double pair production process. For protons the relevant reactions are the photopion production and the Bethe-Heitler process. We discuss the interplay between the energy loss length and mean free path for the Bethe-Heitler process. Neutrino opacity is determined by its scattering off the cosmic background neutrino. We compute for the first time the high energy neutrino horizon as a function of its energy.

  19. High Energy Processes in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, W

    2006-01-01

    Young pulsars produce relativistic winds which interact with matter ejected during the supernova explosion and the surrounding interstellar gas. Particles are accelerated to very high energies somewhere in the pulsar winds or at the shocks produced in collisions of the winds with the surrounding medium. As a result of interactions of relativistic leptons with the magnetic field and low energy radiation (of synchrotron origin, thermal, or microwave background), the non-thermal radiation is produced with the lowest possible energies up to $\\sim$100 TeV. The high energy (TeV) gamma-ray emission has been originally observed from the Crab Nebula and recently from several other objects. Recent observations by the HESS Cherenkov telescopes allow to study for the first time morphology of the sources of high energy emission, showing unexpected spectral features. They might be also interpreted as due to acceleration of hadrons. However, theory of particle acceleration in the PWNe and models for production of radiation ...

  20. Future high energy colliders symposium. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, Z. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Institute for Theoretical Physics]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A `Future High Energy Colliders` Symposium was held October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara. This was one of the 3 symposia hosted by the ITP and supported by its sponsor, the National Science Foundation, as part of a 5 month program on `New Ideas for Particle Accelerators`. The long term program and symposia were organized and coordinated by Dr. Zohreh Parsa of Brookhaven National Laboratory/ITP. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the future direction of high energy physics by bringing together leaders from the theoretical, experimental and accelerator physics communities. Their talks provided personal perspectives on the physics objectives and the technology demands of future high energy colliders. Collectively, they formed a vision for where the field should be heading and how it might best reach its objectives.